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Sample records for radiopharmaceutical 99m tc-hynic-lys3-bn

  1. Technetium-99m nitrido radiopharmaceuticals with unprecedented biological properties

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    Adriano Duatti

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical methods for the production of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals containing a terminal TcºN triple bond have been established more than a decade ago. From that time, the chemistry of nitrido Tc-99m complexes has provided a highly efficient tool for the design and preparation of novel classes of diagnostic agents, and a number of potentially useful radiopharmaceuticals have been discovered. In particular, nitrido technetium-99m tracers have been developed for heart perfusion imaging. In this short review, the chemical and biological properties of the neutral myocardial perfusion tracer bis(N-ethoxy, N-ethyl-dithiocarbamato nitrido Tc-99m (TcN-NOEt will be summarized along with the preparation and preliminary biological evaluation of the first class of monocationic nitrido technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals exhibiting improved biodistribution properties closer to those expected for an ideal perfusion imaging agent.Os métodos químicos para produção de radiofármacos marcados com tecnécio-99m contendo a ligação tripla terminal TcºN foram estabelecidos há mais de uma década. Desde esta época, a química dos complexos nitridos marcados com 99mTc tem sido uma ferramenta altamente eficiente para o desenho e preparo de novas classes de agentes para diagnóstico e, foi descoberto um número de radiofarmacos potencialmente úteis. Nesta pequena revisão, as propriedades biológicas e químicas do traçador para perfusão miocárdica neutra, o bis(N-etoxi, N-etil-ditiocarbamato nitrido 99mTc (TcN-NOEt, serão resumidas junto com o preparo e avaliação biológica preliminar da primeira classe de radiofármacos nitrido monocatiônico marcado com tecnécio-99m que exibe melhores propriedades em relação à biodistribuição, mais próximas daquelas esperadas para um agente perfusor ideal para imagens.

  2. The radiopharmaceuticals labelled with technetium-99m and the radiopharmacy; Les radiopharmaceutiques marques au technetium-99m et la radiopharmacie

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    Bodenant, V

    1998-10-01

    In less than fifty years, the place of nuclear medicine is become primordial. Among all the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine, the technetium-99m is the most used because of its physico-chemical properties and its great availability with the molybdenum-99m - technetium-99m generator. Since 1992, the radiopharmaceuticals, the packages, the generators are included in the pharmaceutic monopole. They are now under the reliability of the radio-pharmacist. This thesis has for object to introduce these different radiopharmaceuticals labelled with technetium-99m and to show the primordial place of the radio-pharmacist in a service of nuclear medicine. (N.C.)

  3. Stabilization of Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals by chemical additives (NOTE

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    NADEZDA VUKICEVIC

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability and applicability of the preparation of the three, for nuclear medicine very important, 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals from the inactive (technetium-cold kit solutions were tested. Each examined commercial kit was dissolved in saline (0.9 % NaCl. The conditions of the storage of the inactive kit solutions till labeling were examined. The main problem is the stablity of the reductant stannous ions which is very difficult to predict. To stabilize and ensure a good quality of the labeled radiopharmaceuticals, ascorbic or gentisic acid were added. It was found that the best results were obtained by keeping the samples frozen at –20 ?C. Both stabilizers can be used but for an effective protection much lower concentrations of ascorbic acid are needed. Its concentrations of 12–60 mg/ml of the kit, stabilized dimercaptosuccinate (DMS and pyrophosphate (PyP for about 7–8 days. The solution of 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonate (DPD was found to be stable even without the stabilizer. This could be attributed probably to the chemical nature of this complex. However, in routine praxis the applied procedure demands great care and personel very experienced in radiopharmacy.

  4. 99M-Technetium labeled tin colloid radiopharmaceuticals

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    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1976-07-06

    An improved 99m-technetium labeled tin(II) colloid, size-stabilized for reticuloendothelial organ imaging without the use of macromolecular stabilizers and a packaged tin base reagent and an improved method for making it are disclosed.

  5. Recent achievements in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical direct production by medical cyclotrons.

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    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Pasquali, Micol; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-09-01

    99mTc is the most commonly used radionuclide in the field of diagnostic imaging, a noninvasive method intended to diagnose a disease, assess the disease state and monitor the effects of treatments. Annually, the use of 99mTc, covers about 85% of nuclear medicine applications. This isotope releases gamma rays at about the same wavelength as conventional X-ray diagnostic equipment, and owing to its short half-life (t½ = 6 h) is ideal for diagnostic nuclear imaging. A patient can be injected with a small amount of 99mTc and within 24 h almost 94% of the injected radionuclide would have decayed and left the body, limiting the patient's radiation exposure. 99mTc is usually supplied to hospitals through a 99Mo/99mTc radionuclide generator system where it is produced from the β decay of the parent nuclide 99Mo (t½ = 66 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors via neutron fission. Recently, the interruption of the global supply chain of reactor-produced 99Mo, has forced the scientific community to investigate alternative production routes for 99mTc. One solution was to consider cyclotron-based methods as potential replacement of reactor-based technology and the nuclear reaction 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc emerged as the most worthwhile approach. This review reports some achievements about 99mTc produced by medical cyclotrons. In particular, the available technologies for target design, the most efficient extraction and separation procedure developed for the purification of 99mTc from the irradiated targets, the preparation of high purity 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals and the first clinical studies carried out with cyclotron produced 99mTc are described.

  6. Mathematical Simulation of Transport Kinetics of Tumor-Imaging Radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-MIBI

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    O. N. Shevtsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed model describes in a quality way the process of tumor-imaging radiopharmaceutical Tc99m-MIBI distribution with taking into account radiopharmaceutical accumulation, elimination, and radioactive decay. The dependencies of concentration versus the time are analyzed. The model can be easily tested by the concentration data of the radioactive pharmaceuticals in the blood measured at early time point and late time point of the scanning, and the obtained data can be used for determination of the washout rate coefficient which is one of the existing oncology diagnostics methods.

  7. Experimental Study of a Radiopharmaceutical Agent Based on Modified Fatty Acid Labeled with Technetium-99m.

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    Sazonova, S I; Il'yushenkova, Yu N; Lishmanov, Yu B; Tsibul'nikov, S V; Skuridin, V S; Nesterov, E A; Varlamova, N V; Il'ina, E A; Filimonov, V D; Belyanin, M V; Stepanova, E V; Minin, S M

    2017-04-01

    Using rat model of coronary occlusion, we studied pharmacokinetics and the efficiency of a new radiopharmaceutical agent (99m)Tc-PDA-DTPA intended for diagnostics of changes in myocardial metabolism and its analogue (123)I-PMPDA. (99m)Tc-PDA-DTPA was eliminated mostly by the kidneys and maximal concentration in the heart was attained within 60 min after intravenous injection; no accumulation in the area of myocardial infarction was observed. The studied substance was inferior to its analogue 123I-PMPDA by the quality of scintigraphic visualization of the heart.

  8. Technetium-99m based small molecule radiopharmaceuticals and radiotracers targeting inflammation and infection.

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    Kniess, Torsten; Laube, Markus; Wüst, Frank; Pietzsch, Jens

    2017-10-31

    In nuclear medicine, the detection of inflamed and infected lesions is of growing interest. Extensive efforts have been made to develop radiopharmaceuticals specific for inflammation or for discriminating sterile inflammation from infection. (99m)Tc is the worldwide most widely used radioisotope for SPECT imaging. The scope of this review article is to give an overview on the development of (99m)Tc-labelled small molecule radiotracers targeting inflammatory lesions and infections, ranging from their radiopharmacological evaluation to examples of their clinical applications. A systematic overview of (99m)Tc-citrate, (99m)Tc-antibiotics and antifungal agents as well as (99m)Tc-labelled antimicrobial peptides is provided. Additionally, the class of (99m)Tc-labelled cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors is discussed, since cyclooxygenases are known to play a key role in inflammatory diseases and also in malignant neoplastic diseases. In a short perspective, newer developments in the field of inflammation imaging covering (99m)Tc-labelled bacteriophages and chemotactic peptides are highlighted.

  9. Technetium-99m complex of N-(2-pyridylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid as a new renal radiopharmaceutical

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    Karube, Yoshiharu; Iwamoto, Koji; Takata, Jiro [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1999-04-01

    A tetradentate chelating agent constituting of an iminodiacetic acid group and a nitrogen atom of pyridine, N-(2-pyridylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (PMIDA), was coordinated with {sup 99m}Tc and evaluated as a renal functional agent. The complex of PMIDA with {sup 99m}Tc was prepared by using a stannous chloride solution as a reducing agent. The chelating efficiency was analyzed by thin layer chromatography and electrophoresis. Chelation with {sup 99m}Tc resulted in a single radiochemical product. Biological studies were performed in mice and rats. {sup 99m}Tc-PMIDA was removed from the circulation solely by the kidneys. Clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-PMIDA from the blood and the kidneys was as rapid as that of {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The rate of blood clearance was unaffected by the administration of probenecid (a test for tubular secretion by the weak-acid mechanism), so that the glomerular filtration rate could be estimated by measuring its clearance from the blood. The results in animals with myohemoglobinuric acute renal failure suggested that {sup 99m}Tc-PMIDA might be a useful renal function radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  10. Evaluation of alternative rapid thin layer chromatography systems for quality control of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals.

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    Mang'era, Kennedy; Wong, Derek; Douglas, David; Franz, Kellie; Biru, Taddese

    2014-04-01

    Whatman 3MM™ and Tec-Control™ systems were evaluated as ITLC-SG alternatives for 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals. They compare well in accuracy and reproducibility, and are faster and more convenient than ITLC-SG. Tec-Control™ radiochemical purity values for 99mTc-sestamibi were more conservative than ITLC-SG. Full solvent migration was not reproduced for 99mTc-tetrofosmin in Tec-Control™, and for this Whatman 3MM™ is preferred. Developing times were 10-15 min, 7-9 min and ~1min for ITLC-SG, Whatman 3MM™ and Tec-Control™, respectively. Overall, Tec-Control™ strips are preferred due to speed and ease of use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

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    Zeltchan, R., E-mail: r.zelchan@yandex.ru; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il’ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with {sup 99m}Tc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with {sup 99m}Tc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  12. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

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    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  13. Experimental study of radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose for tumor diagnosis

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    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. Radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B 1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 minutes. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D- glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3±0.15MBq and 1.07±0.6MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio- D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  14. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [99mTc(MIBI6]+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Faria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [99mTc(MIBI6]+ as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol:chloroform (25:75, Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75, and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol:chloroform (10:90 were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [99mTc(MIBI6]+ since impurities such as 99mTc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH, 99mTcO4 - and [99mTc(cysteine2]- complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines.

  15. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [99mTc(MIBI)6]+

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    Faria, D P; Buchpiguel, C A; Marques, F L N

    2015-03-03

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [99mTc(MIBI)6]+ as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol:chloroform (25:75), Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75), and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol:chloroform (10:90) were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [99mTc(MIBI)6]+ since impurities such as 99mTc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH), 99mTcO4 - and [99mTc(cysteine)2]- complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines.

  16. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆].

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    Faria, D P; Buchpiguel, C A; Marques, F L N

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆]⁺ as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol:chloroform (25:75), Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75), and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol:chloroform (10:90) were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆]⁺ since impurities such as (99m)Tc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH), (99m)TcO(4)(-) and [(99m)Tc(cysteine)₂]⁻ complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines.

  17. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [{sup 99m}Tc(MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +}

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    Faria, D.P.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Marques, F.L.N., E-mail: danielefaria1@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2015-10-15

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [{sup 99m}Tc(MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol: chloroform (25:75), Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75), and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol: chloroform (10:90) were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [{sup 99m}Tc(MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} since impurities such as {sup 99m}Tc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH), {sup 99m}TcO4{sup -} and [{sup 99m}Tc(cysteine){sub 2}]{sup -} complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines. (author)

  18. Biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical technetium-99m-sodium phytate in rats after splenectomy

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    Pereira, Kercia Regina Santos Gomes; Acucena, Maria Kadja Meneses Torres; Villarim Neto, Arthur; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Araujo Filho, Irami; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia]. E-mail: aldo@ufrnet.br

    2008-12-15

    Drugs and surgery can interfere with the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals and data about the effect of splenectomy on the metabolism of phytate-Tc-99m are scarce. This study aimed at evaluating the interference of splenectomy on phytate-Tc-99m biodistribution and liver function in rats. The SP group rats (n=6) underwent splenectomy. In group C (control) the animals were not operated on. After 15 days, all rats were injected with 0.1 mL of Tc-99m-phytate via orbital plexus (0.66 MBq). After 30 minutes, liver samples were harvested, weighed and the percentage of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) was determined by a Wizard Perkin-Elme gamma counter. The ATI%/g in splenectomized rats (0.99{+-}0.02) was significantly higher than in controls (0.4{+-}0.02), (p=0.034). ALT, AST and HDL were significantly lower in SP rats (p= 0.001) and leucocytosis was observed in SP rats. In conclusion, splenectomy in rats changed the hepatic biodistribution of Tc-99m-phytate and liver enzymatic activity. (author)

  19. Radiochemical quality control of 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. Some daily practice guideliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, E K; Feitsma, R I

    1977-06-30

    Recognizing the fact that each nuclear medicine facility should be able to perform simple radiochemical quality tests on currently used radiopharmaceuticals, this study was undertaken to evaluate a number of radiochromatographic methods. No single ideal method exists to assess the radiochemical composition of 99mTc-labeled antimony sulphur colloid, sulphur colloid, iron ascorbate, citrate, human serum albumin, EHDP, macroaggregates, and microspheres. It is advisable to include thin layer chromatography with both NaCl and methylethylethylketone for the determination of free pertechnetate in each day's program. More detailed radiochemical analysis can be performed by combining these methods with paper chromatography, paper electrophoresis, and gel filtration. It seems reasonable to regard a constant radiochromatographic pattern as a measure for constant radiochemical quality. The four chromatographic tests lead to consistent results regarding the percentage of free pertechnetate in the radiopharmaceutical preparations. Quantitative analysis shows that the radiochemical purity for each radiopharmaceutical is unique for the chromatographic method used and needs to be defined when stated.

  20. Biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical technetium-99m-sodium phytate in rats after splenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kércia Regina Santos Gomes Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Drugs and surgery can interfere with the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals and data about the effect of splenectomy on the metabolism of phytate-Tc-99m are scarce. This study aimed at evaluating the interference of splenectomy on phytate-Tc-99m biodistribution and liver function in rats. The SP group rats (n=6 underwent splenectomy. In group C (control the animals were not operated on. After 15 days, all rats were injected with 0.1mL of Tc-99m-phytate via orbital plexus (0.66MBq. After 30 minutes, liver samples were harvested, weighed and the percentage of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g was determined by a Wizard Perkin-Elme gama counter. The ATI%/g in splenectomized rats (0.99±0.02 was significantly higher than in controls (0.4±0.02, (p=0.034. ALT, AST and HDL were significantly lower in SP rats (p= 0.001 and leukocytosis was observed in SP rats. In conclusion, splenectomy in rats changed the hepatic biodistribution of Tc-99m-phytate and liver enzimatic activity.O radiofármaco fitato-Tc-99m é usado no diagnóstico através de exames de imagem, na dependência de sua biodistribuição. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar efeito da esplenectomia na biodistribuição do fitato-Tc-99m e função hepática em ratos Wistar. Sob anestesia e técnica asséptica, os animais do grupo SP (n=6 foram esplenectomizados. Grupo C(controle; n=6 não operado. Após 15 dias, injeção de 0,1ml de fitato-Tc-99m via plexo orbital (0,66MBq. Após 30 minutos, retiradas biópsias hepáticas para determinação do percentual de radioatividade/grama (% ATI/g, usando-se contador gama WizardPerkin-Elmer®. Realizada dosagem de ALT, AST e HDL, e leucometria. Estatística pelo teste t, significância 0,05. O %ATI/g nos ratos esplenectomizados foi 0,99 ± 0,2 e nos controles 0,40 ± 0,2 (p=0,034. ALT, AST e HDL tiveram dosagens significativamente menores nos esplenectomizados (p=0,01, com leucocitose, comparando com controles. Em conclusão, em ratos a esplenectomia

  1. Quality control on radiochemical purity in Technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals labelling: three years of experience on 2280 procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Claudio; Luciniani, Giovanni; Strinchini, Aldo; Tagliabue, Luca; Del Sole, Angelo

    2017-04-28

    the purpose of this study was to offer an example of evaluations of the ISO9001 certified internal quality assurance (QA) system of 99mTc-radiopharmaceutical preparations and quality control in vivo use, using industrial kits and generators in order to identify possible sources of errors in the procedures labeling and quality control procedures. The study was performed at a single institution over a period of three years (July 1st, 2011 - July 1st, 2014), and included a total of 2280 radiopharmaceutical preparations prepared by four different technologists. All the radiopharmaceutical preparations and quality controls were performed according to each SPC provided by the manufacturer. The radiopharmaceutical preparations were the following (trade names are reported in brackets): 99mTc-albumin colloid [Nanocoll] (n=349), 99mTc-oxidronate [Technescan®hdp] (n=701), 99mTc-exametazime [Ceretec] (n=169), 99mTc-sestamibi [Cardiolite] (n=92), 99mTc-albumin aggregated [Technescan®lyomaa] (n=140), 99mTc-tetrofosmin [Myoview]) (n=567), 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentacetic acid [Technescan®dtpa] (n=254), and 99mTc-dimercapto succinic acid [Renocis®] (n=8). Data were analyzed to determine the number and type of radiopharmaceutical labelling failure and to derive the sources of these failures to define corrective actions and optimize the quality assurance program. A total of 2280 procedures were performed and recorded. Following the quality control procedure six out of the 2280 preparations (0.26%) were non-conforming for clinical use with the RCP limits indicated in the SPC. Five of these were due to gross technical errors in measurements and manual procedures and were immediately repeated, returning within the limits of acceptability. The sixth failure was due to short incubation time, though compliant with the manufacturer's instructions. We concluded that the quality of the final product depends on a controlled production system based on the implementation of specific

  2. Determination of radiochemical yield of {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceutical preparations using gamma counter and linear radiochromatography scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Patricia de A.; Moura, Rebeca G.; Shiki, Andressa M.; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N., E-mail: patyosborne@yahoo.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radiochemical purity (RCP) evaluation is a prerequisite for radiopharmaceuticals before the administration in patients. RCP is defined as the proportion of the total radioactivity in the product that is present in the specified chemical form. The most widely used techniques for RCP determination in radiopharmaceutical preparations are thin layer chromatography (TLC-Al), instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) and paper chromatography (PC). These techniques combined with radioactivity detection are one of the most important tools in the RCP of the radiopharmaceutical compounds. Several methods are used for the determination of the spatial distribution of radioactivity on the strips. The aim of this study was to compare two methods for radioactivity measurement in the determination of RCP in {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals using gamma counter and linear radiochromatography scanner. Lyophilized radiopharmaceuticals were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. The analysis was carried out using TLC-Al and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-Cellulose) sheets, ITLC-SG and 3MM Whatman PC. The radioactivity distribution was determined by counting each strip during 1 minute in a radiochromatography TLC scanner. For comparison, the strips were cut into small pieces and each one was separately measured in a gamma-counter during 0.20 minutes in 70-210 KeV {sup 99m}Tc window. USP 36 and FDA specify that not less than 90% of the total radioactivity must be in the spot corresponding to {sup 99m}Tc labeled compound. In conclusion, the procedure for RCP determination of ALBUMINA-TEC, DEX500-TEC, ECD-TEC, MACRO-TEC and MIBI-TEC can be faster using radiochromatography. (author)

  3. Evaluation of different counting methods for use in radiochemical purity testing procedures for 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Claudio; Bestetti, Alberto; Milani, Franco; Cornalba, Gian Paolo; Tagliabue, Luca; Di Benedetto, Domenica; Rognoni, Ilaria; Luigi Tarolo, Gian; Paroni, Rita

    2008-04-01

    The efficiency and accuracy of different methods for quality control of radiopharmaceutical preparations for diagnostic purpose were studied. The radiochemical purity of (99m)Tc Tetrafosmin, (99m)Tc Exametazime, (99m)Tc Sestamibi and (99m)Tc Oxidronate was evaluated by different thin layer chromatography systems, followed by cutting of the strips into two or three sections and by the measurement of radioactivity distribution by dose calibrator or gamma counter. In addition, to confirm the accuracy of these routine procedures, the strips were cut into a number of micro-sections (14-25) and each of them evaluated by the gamma counter. The three tested procedures gave similar results and revealed a good and comparable accuracy. The radioactivity measurement with the dose calibrator remains the most practicable because of the rapidity of execution.

  4. Preparation and stability of the {sup 99m} Tc-HNE{sub 2} radiopharmaceutical; Preparacion y estabilidad del radiofarmaco {sup 99m} TC-HNE{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada T, J

    2002-07-01

    A radiopharmaceutical is all substance containing a radioactive atom inside of its structure and what because of its pharmaceutical form, quantity and quality of radiation can be administered in the human beings with diagnostic or therapeutic aims. With the purpose to developing effective radiopharmaceuticals it is necessary to pick carefully the appropriate radionuclide in combination with the In vivo localization and the pharmacon kinetic properties of the carrier molecule. The peptides are designed by the nature to stimulate, regulate or inhibit numerous life functions, they act mainly as information transmitters and activity coordinators of several tissues in the body; it has been found that such substances are present in cells and in the body fluids in quantities extremely small, therefore the peptides have been considered as ideal agents for therapeutic applications. Elastase of human neutrophylls is a 29 kDa protease which is produced in high levels inside the neutrophyll and it is released as response for an inflammatory stimulus in infection/inflammation places. Once it liberated is quickly inhibited by the anti elastase {alpha} tripsine (HNE-2) peptide. Therefore, the neutrophylls elastase is considered as a target to obtain In vivo images of inflammatory/infectious processes by the intravenous application of {sup 99m} Tc-HNE-2. The objective of this work was to develop a labelling method with {sup 99m} Tc for the inhibitor peptide of the human neutrophyll elastase (HNE-2). Likewise, for evaluating its In vivo and In vitro stabilities. The methodology which was followed as first step to conjugate the (HNE-2) peptide with the bi chelating agents HYNIC and DTPA capable to chelate the {sup 99m} Tc metal. Therefore the attachment reactions to the peptide were realized starting from the NHS and HYNIC and the DTPA anhydride in buffer of 0.1 M, pH= 9.0/DMF (10:1) bicarbonates with a molar relation peptide/bi chelating agent 1:5. For the purification of the

  5. Preliminary studies of Technetium-99m-labeled antimyosin monoclonal antibody: development of radiopharmaceutical for cardiac evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Guilherme Luiz de Castro; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Muramoto, Emiko; Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: glcarval@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    In the acute myocardium infarction, the myocytes cell membrane loses its integrity, allowing the influx of extracellular macromolecules such as circulating antibody into the damaged cell. Specific antibodies to cardiac myosin can therefore bind to the acutely necrotic myocyte, allowing the noninvasive localization and dimension of myocardial infarction. Because of its favorable physical characteristics, low cost, and ready availability, technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) is the radionuclide of choice for scintigraphy. The purpose of this work was to study the labeling of the antimyosin monoclonal antibody with ({sup 99m}Tc for development of a radiopharmaceutical with high sensitivity and specificity used in the diagnostic of the myocardial infarction. The intact monoclonal antibody (IgG{sub 1}) was reduced by treatment with dithiothreitol (DTT) with the consequent generation of free thiol groups (- SH), responsible for the labeling of the antibody with ({sup 99m}Tc. The radiochemical yield was determined using Sephadex G-25 column (PD-10). The percentage of ({sup 99m}Tc-antibody was 90,06% and after purification procedure the radiochemical yield was > 98%. The biodistribution studies showed low uptake in the stomach and thyroid at different times (1, 4 e 24 hours) representing a small amount of unbounded ({sup 99m}Tc and a good stability of the purified ({sup 99m}Tc-antibody. The uptake in the normal heart was relatively low as expected. Based on these results, we concluded that the direct labeling procedure applied to the antimyosin monoclonal antibody allowed the easy preparation of the radiopharmaceutical with good stability to be used in the noninvasive diagnostic of the myocardial infarction. (author)

  6. Radiolabeling of Ceftriaxone with 99mTc as a Targeting Radiopharmaceutical for Staphylococcus Aureus Detection in Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Fazli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bacterial infection is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Nuclear medicine has an important role in helping the diagnosis of deep-seated infections by developing more specific radiopharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to evaluate 99mTc-labeling ceftriaxone as a new radiopharmaceutical for Staphylococcus aureus infection imaging in nuclear medicine. Materials and Methods Radiolabeling of ceftriaxone was carried out by adding 370 MBq of 99mTc to 10 mg of ceftriaxone in the presence of 50 µg of SnCl2.2H2O at pH=5. The radiochemical purity and stability tests at room temperature and human blood serum were evaluated with ITLC. Intramuscular infection was induced by injection of Staphylococcus aureus into the left thigh muscle of the mice. The biodistribution of 99mTc-ceftriaxone was studied in normal and infected mice at various times post-injection. Results Radiochemical purity of the product was 94.5±5.4% with a good stability at room temperature and human serum, 80.6% and 71.2% after 24 h, respectively. The biodistribution studies showed the localization of 99mTc-ceftriaxone at the site of infection with high sensitivity without any significant accumulation in vital organs. Conclusion Due to the ease of 99mTc-ceftriaxone conjugation method, high labeling efficiency, and high uptake in the infected muscle, it may provide a promising candidate as a targeting radiopharmaceutical for imaging infectious foci due to Staphylococcus aureus in nuclear medicine.

  7. Preparation of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m} Tc-HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-BN; Preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 99m} Tc-HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde S, E. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In accordance with their design, the radiopharmaceuticals can be divided in three generations. The radiopharmaceuticals of third generation are used in nuclear medicine to obtain images of specific molecular targets, and they are only in their capacity to detect in vivo such specific biochemical places as receivers and enzymes. The receivers of regulator peptides are over expressed in numerous carcinogenic cells. Those receivers have been used as molecular targets of radiolabelled peptides to locate cancerous tumors. The small peptide bombesin (BN, 14 amino acids) it was isolated of the frog skin and it belongs to a wide neuropeptides group with many biological functions. The equivalent human is the liberator peptide of the gastrin (GRP, 27 amino acids) and his receivers (r-GRP) that are on expressed in the membranes of the tumor cells. The receiving subtype 2 of bombesin (receiving GRP) it is on expressed in several human tumors including breast, prostate, lung cells and pancreatic cancer. Some radiopharmaceuticals similar of BN has been developed that were prepared to be used in nuclear medicine for the detection of wicked tumors and to evidence prostate cancers, breast and of lymphatic nodules. A technique was developed to allow the conjugation of HYNIC-[Lys3]-BN that allowed to obtain this product with a high purity. The identity was determined by HPLC chromatography. It was necessary the validation of the method and the HPLC system, to assure that the results were reliable. Linearity, specificity, accuracy and precision parameters were analyzed, that are those required by the Mexican pharmacopoeia for chromatographic methods. With this conjugated a formulation for lyophilized kits were analyzed, with the purpose of obtaining a radiochemical purity, after the labelled one with {sup 99m}Tc, bigger to 95%; the components used in the nucleus-equipment should favor the conjugation of the {sup 99m}Tc by means of a ligands exchange between the tricine and the

  8. In Vitro Evaluation of Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals for Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Ertay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal motility and functional motility disorders causing either delayed or accelerated gastric emptying (GE may result in similar symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Hence, it is important to evaluate patients for both rapid and delayed GE in the same test. The gold standard technique to measure GE is scintigraphy by radiolabeled test meals. The aim of this study was to test alternative Tc-99m agents to label eggs as the solid meal and compare to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC for gastric emptying studies. Methods: In search of alternative agents for gastric emptying studies, we mixed and fried eggs with four different particulate compounds (Tc-99m labeled SC, tin colloid, nanocolloid and MAA, as well as with free pertechnetate and Tc-99m DTPA. We then measured the stability of these compounds in simulated gastric juice. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that in addition to Tc-99m sulfur colloid;Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m nanocolloid and Tc-99m tin colloid also appear to make stable complexes with eggs in acidic environment. Conclusion: Therefore, these agents may be used for gastric emptying studies which could be more practical in routine conditions.

  9. Thymidine kinase enzyme selective imaging radiopharmaceutical. {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-Ganciclovir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedik, B.; Teksoez, S.; Ichedef, C.; Kilcar, A.Y.; Medine, E.I.; Ucar, E. [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to radiolabel Ganciclovir, known as having selective antiviral properties against thymidine kinase, with technetium tricarbonylcore ({sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}{sup +}) and to investigate the biological behavior of this complex in vitro and in vivo. Commercially provided Ganciclovir (GCV) was radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}{sup +}. Initially, optimum radiolabeling conditions were determined by analyzing factors such as temperature, pH and time. Quality control of the radiolabeled compound was performed. The radiolabeling yield was found to be 97%. The {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-GCV complex also displayed good in vitro stability during the 24 h period. In vitro cell uptake studies showed that the {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-GCV complex is highly uptaken in A-549, PC-3, HeLa cell lines according to the control group {sup 99m}Tc(I)-tricarbonyl core. The knowledge gained from in vivo and in vitro studies of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-GCV could contribute to the development of a new HSV1-tk gene imaging agent. (orig.)

  10. Effect of iron deficiency anemia on the biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmanovici, Gabriela P. [Radioisotopes Laboratory, Physics Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 - 1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Salgueiro, Maria J. [Radioisotopes Laboratory, Physics Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 - 1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Janjetic, Mariana A. [Physics Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 - 1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leonardi, Natalia M. [Radioisotopes Laboratory, Physics Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 - 1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Boccio, Jose R. [Physics Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 - 1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zubillaga, Marcela B. [Radioisotopes Laboratory, Physics Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 - 1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: mzubi@ffyb.uba.ar

    2006-05-15

    The distribution of colloids and labeled cells in organs is influenced by their intrinsic properties and by the state of the investigated subject. Iron deficiency remains an unsolved nutritional problem all over the world; one of its severe consequences is anemia. Because iron metabolism principally takes place in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, skeletal muscle and blood, we studied the effect of iron deficiency anemia on the biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc phytate, {sup 99m}Tc gelatin colloid and {sup 99m}Tc RBC (red blood cells labeled with {sup 99m}Tc). Our results show that iron deficiency anemia modifies the pattern of biodistribution of the two colloids assayed. However, this behavior is different for both of them. This work contributes to studies that kinetically and statistically establish that iron deficiency anemia induces a significant inversion in the spleen-liver activity relationship when centellographic studies are performed with colloids such as {sup 99m}Tc phytate.

  11. Preparation, chromatographic evaluation and biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-procainamide as a radiopharmaceutical for heart imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motaleb, M.A.; Ibrahim, I.T.; Abo Rizq, R.S. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Labeled Compound Dept.; Elzanfaly, E.S. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Analytical Dept.

    2017-06-01

    Procainamide (4-amino-N-[2-(diethylamino) ethyl] benzamide) is a sodium channel blocker, which acts as an effective antiarrhythmic agent used in the treatment of a variety of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to prepare {sup 99m}Tc-procainamide complex, apply different chromatographic techniques for the assay of radiolabeling yield and study its biodistribution as a novel radiopharmaceutical for heart imaging. {sup 99m}Tc-procainamide was obtained with a maximum labeling yield of 95.76±0.20% via direct labeling method under optimum conditions of 200 μg of procainamide, 300 μL of buffer (carbonate) at pH 11, 30 μg SnCl{sub 2} . 2H{sub 2}O at room temperature (25 C) for 15 min. In terms of in vitro stability, the complex was stable for 3 h. Chromatographic evaluation using paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, gel chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography showed reliable results for measuring the radiochemical yield. Biodistribution study of {sup 99m}Tc-procainamide showed ratios of heart/lung and heart/liver (6.38±1.50, 2.06±0.31, respectively at 30 min post injection) which was comparable to that of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi (7.4±2.00, 0.97±0.10, respectively at 60 min, P<0.05).

  12. Focal accumulation of a radiopharmaceutical in the liver on technetium-99m gated blood pool and Apcitide scintigraphy leading to the diagnosis of superior vena cava obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Paul M; Bridwell, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    Focal increased enhancement or radiopharmaceutical uptake in the liver has been associated with superior vena cava syndrome. This report describes the finding in a patient imaged with a relatively new agent, Tc-99m Apcitide. The collateral pathways responsible for the liver "hot spot" are reviewed, as is the role of Tc-99m Apcitide in deep venous thrombosis imaging.

  13. Limulus amebocyte lysate testing: adapting it for determination of bacterial endotoxin in 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals at a hospital radiopharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Arpit; Joshi, Sangeeta; Arjun, Chanda; Kulkarni, Savita; Rajan, Ramakrishna

    2014-12-01

    A bacterial endotoxin test (BET) is required to detect or quantify bacterial endotoxin that may be present in radiopharmaceutical preparations. The test uses Limulus amebocyte lysate, which, in the presence of bacterial endotoxin and divalent calcium ions, causes the formation of a coagulin gel. (99m)Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals have chelating ligands such as diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylene dicysteine (EC), L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD), N-[2,4,6-trimethyl-3 bromoacetanilid] iminodiacetic acid (mebrofenin), dimercapto succinic acid-III (DMSA-III), dimercapto succinic acid-V (DMSA-V), and several others, which form a coordination complex with Na-(99m)Tc-O4 in the presence of reducing agents. During BET by the gel-clot method, the free sulfhydryl (-SH) and carboxyl (-COOH) in some of the chelating agents in the final (99m)Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals decrease the free divalent calcium ion concentration, which in turn inhibits coagulin gel formation. This study was designed using the premise that addition of calcium chloride solution to the reaction mixture would nullify this effect. We present here the data obtained from BET assay analysis of (99m)Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals and the cold kits from which they are made (EC, ECD, methoxyisobutylisonitrile, DTPA, mebrofenin, methylene diphosphonic acid [MDP], DMSA-III, and DMSA-V) using 2 different dilutions, maximum valid dilution (MVD) and half maximum valid dilution (MVD/2), with and without the addition of calcium chloride at a final concentration of 300 μM. It was observed that at MVD and MVD/2 all of the (99m)Tc-labeled kits exhibited interference in coagulin gel formation with the exception of (99m)Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile, (99m)Tc-MDP, (99m)Tc-mebrofenin, and (99m)Tc-ECD. However, only the cold kits of methoxyisobutylisonitrile and MDP did not show inhibition. An addition of calcium chloride solution nullified this interference at both MVD and MVD/2 in all of the (99m

  14. Imaging study of using radiopharmaceuticals labeled with cyclotron-produced 99mTc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X; Tanguay, J; Vuckovic, M; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2016-12-07

    Cyclotron-produced 99mTc (CPTc) has been recognized as an attractive and practical substitution of reactor/generator based 99mTc. However, the small amount of 92-98Mo in the irradiation of enriched 100Mo could lead to the production of other radioactive technetium isotopes (Tc-impurities) which cannot be chemically separated. Thus, these impurities could contribute to patient dose and affect image quality. The potential radiation dose caused by these Tc-impurities produced using different targets, irradiation conditions, and corresponding to different injection times have been investigated, leading us to create dose-based limits of these parameters for producing clinically acceptable CPTc. However, image quality has been not considered. The aim of the present work is to provide a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of image quality for CPTc. The impact of Tc-impurities in CPTc on image resolution, background noise, and contrast is investigated by performing both Monte-Carlo simulations and phantom experiments. Various targets, irradiation, and acquisition conditions are employed for investigating the image-based limits of CPTc production parameters. Additionally, the relationship between patient dose and image quality of CPTc samples is studied. Only those samples which meet both dose- and image-based limits should be accepted in future clinical studies.

  15. Residual activities of 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals in routine nuclear medicine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, Petros Z; Papachristou, Maria; Persakis, Evangelos; Kouvelis, Konstantinos; Datseris, Ioannis E

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we present a series of common Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals administrations performed in a busy nuclear medicine department within a 1-year timeframe in routine practice. The main objective is to identify the true activity administered to the patient and whether that is in compliance with the EANM guidelines, where applicable, and/or with the department's protocols. As a secondary objective, we aimed to assess whether the volume of the injected dose correlates to the percentage of residual activity measured after injection for each studied radiotracer. A number of commonly used Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals including Tc-pertechnetate, Tc-methylenediphosphonic acid, Tc-hydroxymethylenediphosphonic acid, Tc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanedicarboxylic acid, Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine, Tc-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (sestamibi), Tc-1,2-bis[bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino]ethane (tetrofosmin) and Tc-HYNIC-Tyr-octreotide (Tektrotyd) were assessed. All data were collected prospectively within a 1-year period under routine medical practice and included (a) injected activity, (b) residual activity, (c) percentage of residual activity (residual activity/injected activity×100), (d) effective activity (injected activity minus the residual activity), (e) injected volume, (f) time of injection and (g) type of procedure. In the 1837 collected measurements, the average percentage of residual activity was 13% (95% confidence interval: 12.75-13.39%). The mean effective activities were within the recommended range by the EANM guidelines, where applicable, or did not exceed the recommended doses from the department's protocols. In cases where actual injected activity was lower than the minimum suggested by the department's protocols, the imaging quality was not compromised. There was a negative correlation and thus an inverse relationship between the percentage of residual activity and administered volume for Tc-pertechnetate, Teceos

  16. Deficiencies in product labelling instructions and quality control directions for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buroni, Federica E; Lodola, Lorenzo; Persico, Marco G; Aprile, Carlo

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to identify deficiencies in product labelling instructions for reconstitution and in the quality control directions detailed in the technical leaflets (TLs) or summary product characteristic (SPC) sheets of commonly used technetium labelling cold kits. The reconstitution and quality control directions in 25 TLs/SPCs were evaluated to identify deficiencies, incompleteness, restrictions, errors, impracticability, and vagueness. In addition, their congruence with the statements given in the relative European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur. VII ed.) monography and diagnostic reference levels of Directive 97/43/EURATOM was evaluated. Deficiencies in information were scored and classified into five categories: 1, absent or incomplete; 2, restrictive; 3, inconsistent or wrong; 4, impractical; and 5, vague. In the 25 documents analyzed a total of 141 deficiencies were found (corresponding to 40.2% of the total scores assigned), and more frequently they pertained to quality control procedures (70.9%), followed by those related to quantitative composition (14.9%), preparation (8.5%), and particle size (5.7%). Nearly 80% of these deficiencies were classified as type 1 - that is, absent or incomplete information. The indications in TLs and SPCs should provide useful information for maintaining the quality and purity of the radiopharmaceutical preparation and ensure the safety level and effectiveness required by law. However, the instructions are often suboptimal or even erroneous, and consequently there are countless failures or difficulties, which represent an impediment to good laboratory practice. We believe that a 'smart' review of radiopharmaceutical documentation would be beneficial in order to align these indications to the real needs of the operators involved in routine in-house nuclear medicine practice.

  17. Alguns aspectos sobre geradores e radiofármacos de tecnécio-99m e seus controles de qualidade Technetium-99m generators and radiopharmaceuticals and quality control tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luiz Navarro Marques

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiofármacos marcados com tecnécio-99m são os principais agentes para diagnósticos utilizados nas clínicas de medicina nuclear, em função de uma série de características físicas do radionuclídeo e pela praticidade dos radiofármacos serem preparados no local de uso, por meio de uma reação de complexação entre um agente complexante (fármaco e o tecnécio-99m. Entretanto, durante esta reação podem ser geradas algumas impurezas que proporcionam a formação de produtos com baixa qualidade ou com características diferentes das desejadas. No presente trabalho serão apresentados alguns dos fatores que podem interferir na qualidade dos radiofármacos e os controles que podem ser utilizados para garantir sua qualidade.Technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals are currently the main diagnostic agents used in nuclear medicine. Radiopharmaceuticals are prepared locally through a reaction between a complexant agent (pharmaceutical and technetium-99m. These reactions may generate impurities resulting into the production of radiopharmaceuticals with substandard quality or with different characteristics from those considered ideal. In this article we discuss some of the factors that may interfere with the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and the quality control tests that can be used to ensure the quality of the agents.

  18. Drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals: effect on the labeling of red blood cells with technetium-99m and on the bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Gomes

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The evidence that natural and synthetic drugs can affect radiolabeling or bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals in setting of nuclear medicine clinic is already known. However, this drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals (DIR is not completely understood. Several authors have described the effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m (99mTc and on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. When the DIR is known, if desirable or undesirable, the natural consequence is a correct diagnosis. However, when it is unknown, it is undesirable and the consequences are the possibility of misdiagnosis and/or the repetition of the examination with an increase of radiation dose to the patient. The possible explanation to the appearance of DIR are (a radiopharmaceutical modification, (b alteration of the labeling efficiency of the radiopharmaceutical, (c modification of the target, (d modification of no target and/or the (e alteration of the binding of the radiopharmaceutical on the blood proteins. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc might be explained by (i a direct inhibition (chelating action of the stannous and pertechnetate ions, (ii damage induced in the plasma membrane, (iii competition of the cited ions for the same binding sites, (iv possible generation of reactive oxygen species that could oxidize the stannous ion and/or (v direct oxidation of the stannous ion. In conclusion, the development of biological models to study the DIR is highly relevant.A evidência de que drogas naturais ou sintéticas podem afetar a radiomarcação ou a biodisponibilidade de radiofármacos nos procedimentos de medicina nuclear já é bem conhecida. Entretanto, essa interação de droga com radiofármacos (IDR não está completamente compreendida. Vários autores têm descrito o efeito de drogas na marcação de elementos sanguíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTce na biodistribuição de radiofármacos. Quando a

  19. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [99mTc(MIBI)6]+

    OpenAIRE

    Faria,D.P.; Buchpiguel,C.A.; Marques, F.L.N.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcoh...

  20. Evaluation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Toxicity Induced by the Radiopharmaceutical 99mTechnetium-Methylenediphosphonic Acid and by Stannous Chloride in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Caldeira-de-Araujo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Radiopharmaceuticals are employed in patient diagnostics and disease treatments. Concerning the diagnosis aspect, technetium-99m (99mTc is utilized to label radiopharmaceuticals for single photon computed emission tomography (SPECT due to its physical and chemical characteristics. 99mTc fixation on pharmaceuticals depends on a reducing agent, stannous chloride (SnCl2 being the most widely-utilized. The genotoxic, clastogenic and anegenic properties of the 99mTc-MDP(methylene diphosphonate used for bone SPECT and SnCl2 were evaluated in Wistar rat blood cells using the Comet assay and micronucleus test. The experimental approach was to endovenously administer NaCl 0.9% (negative control, cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg b.w. (positive control, SnCl2 500 μg/mL or 99mTc-MDP to animals and blood samples taken immediately before the injection, 3, and 24 h after (in the Comet assay and 36 h after, for micronucleus test. The data showed that both SnCl2 and 99mTc-MDP-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA strand breaks in rat total blood cells, suggesting genotoxic potential. The 99mTc-MDP was not able to induce a significant DNA strand breaks increase in in vivo assays. Taken together, the data presented here points to the formation of a complex between SnCl2 in the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-MDP, responsible for the decrease in cell damage, compared to both isolated chemical agents. These findings are important for the practice of nuclear medicine.

  1. A comparative analysis of pharmacokinetics properties of diagnostic bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals on the basis of phosphonic acids and technetium-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishchenko, V. K.; Petriev, V. M.; Smoryzanova, O. A.; Zavestovskaya, I. N.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to comparative research of pharmacokinetics properties of four bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals (RPP) on the basis of bi- tetra- and penta-phosphonic acids. Biodistribution studies were performed in intact rats after intravenous injections of 99mTc-hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid (99mTc-HEDP), 99mTc-oxabiphor (99mTc-OXB), 99mTc-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid (99mTc-EDTMP) or 99mTc-diethylenetriaminopentakis(methylphosphonic acid) (99mTc-PPA). In the structure of the HEDP contains two phosphonic groups, OENTMP and EDTMP - four phosphonic groups, PPA - five phosphonic groups. Radiochemical yield of labeled 99mTc HEDP, OENTMP, EDTMP, PPA is not less than 95%, the radiochemical impurities does not exceed 5%. The investigated compounds have high stability in vivo and selective accumulation in osseous tissue. The highest concentrations of labeled compounds is reached in 3-24 hours after their intravenous injections. The investigated compounds are rapidly excreted from blood and soft organs and tissues mainly through the urinary routes. So present study has showed that these RPP have properties, which making them promising candidates as a diagnostic pharmaceuticals of bone metastases.

  2. Development and validation of methodology for technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); Desenvolvimento e validacao de metodologia para radiofarmacos de tecnecio-99m empregando cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia (CLAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Erika Vieira de

    2009-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are compounds, with no pharmacological action, which have a radioisotope in their composition and are used in Nuclear Medicine for diagnosis and therapy of several diseases. In this work, the development and validation of an analytical method for {sup 99}mTc-HSA, {sup 99}mTc-EC, {sup 99}mTc-ECD and {sup 99}mTc-Sestamibi radiopharmaceuticals and for some raw materials were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analyses were performed in a Shimadzu HPLC equipment, LC-20AT Prominence model. Some impurities were identified by the addition of a reference standard substance. Validation of the method was carried out according to the criteria defined in RE n. 899/2003 of the National Sanitary Agency (ANVISA). The results for robustness of the method showed that it is necessary to control flow rate conditions, sample volume, pH of the mobile phase and temperature of the oven. The analytical curves were linear in the concentration ranges, with linear correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) above 0.9995. The results for precision, accuracy and recovery showed values in the range of 0.07-4.78%, 95.38-106.50% and 94.40-100.95%, respectively. The detection limits and quantification limits varied from 0.27 to 5.77 {mu}g mL{sup -1} and 0.90 to 19.23 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, respectively. The values for HAS, EC, ECD and MIBI in the lyophilized reagents were 8.95; 0.485; 0.986 and 0.974 mg L-1, respectively. The mean radiochemical purity for {sup 99}mTc-HSA, {sup 99}mTc-EC, {sup 99}mTc-ECD and {sup 99}mTc-Sestamibi was (97.28 {+-} 0.09)%, (98.96 {+-} 0.03)%, (98.96 {+-} 0.03)% and (98.07 {+-} 0.01)%, respectively. All the parameters recommended by ANVISA were evaluated and the results are below the established limits. (author)

  3. Harvard--MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, September 1, 1977--April 30, 1978. [/sup 99m/Tc, positron-emitting radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.

    1978-05-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: chemistry studies designed to achieve a more complete understanding of the fundamental chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future radiopharmaceuticals incorporating the radionuclide /sup 99m/Tc; the development of new radiopharmaceuticals intended to improve image quality and lower radiation doses by the use of short-lived radionuclides and disease-specific agents; the development of short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides which offer advantages in transverse section imaging of regional physiological processes; and studies of the toxic effects of particulate radiation.

  4. Pharmacokinetics evaluation of Technetium{sup 99m} Ethylene-di-cysteine diethyl ester radiopharmaceutical; Avaliacao farmacocinetica do radiofarmaco etilenodicisteina dietil este'-{sup 99m} Tc (ECD-{sup 99m} Tc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de; Carvalho, Olga G. de; Muramoto, Emiko; Almeida, Maria A.T.M. de; Mesquita, Carlos H. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    The biological distribution studies of {sup 99m} Tc-ECD in mice were performed in this work. Using ANACOMP computer program, a composed by seven compatiments was adjusted, characterized by a fast blood clearance, an undirectional renal depuration and intestinal elimination, determined by intense hepato biliary transit. Plasma, bile and urinary samples were analysed by HPLC, showing the in vivo metabolism of the compound. (author)

  5. 99mTc Nanocoll: a radiopharmaceutical for sentinel node localisation in breast cancer - In vitro and in vivo results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, G.M.M.; Gommans, E.; van der Zant, F.M.; Teule, G.J.J.; van der Schors, T.G.; de Waard, J.W.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated labelling efficiency and radiochemical purity of 99mTc colloid albumin to identify an optimal labelling protocol for sentinel node detection. Results indicate that a 72 h eluate is not recommended for high specific labelling of 99mTc colloid albumin. Ex vivo, significantly

  6. Development of nano radiopharmaceutical based on Bevacizumab labelled with Technetium-99m for early diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor; Desenvolvimento de nanorradiofarmaco a base de Bevacizumabe marcado com tecnecio-99m para diagnostico precoce do tumor estromal gastrointestinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Thais Ligiero

    2015-06-01

    The development of new radiopharmaceuticals is an essential activity to improve nuclear medicine, and essential for the early and effective diagnosis of oncological diseases. Among the various possibilities current research in the world, the radiopharmaceuticals to chemotherapeutic base may be the most effective in detecting tumors, particularly Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST), the Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma and neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors. However, difficulties in directing, as well as adhesion of the radiopharmaceutical in the desired location, are currently the main problems in the early detection and treatment of some of these tumors. Advances in the field of nanotechnology, particularly in recent years, indicate significant contribution to overcoming these obstacles, particularly in the implementation of molecular barriers as well as the functionalization of the nanoparticles, thereby improving targeting by the use of surface nucleotides, and the increased adhesion, which facilitates the release of the drug and therefore increases the chances of early diagnosis and more effective treatment. This study aimed to the production, characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity, as well as in vivo biodistribution test Bevacizumab nanoparticles labeled with Technetium-99m radionuclide for detection of type GIST tumors. Bevacizumab was encapsulated in the form of nanoparticles by the emulsification method using double poly-acetic acid and polyvinyl alcohol polymers (PLA / PVA) at a concentration of 2% of the monoclonal antibody. The characterization of the nanoparticles was performed by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cytotoxicity assessment was performed by XTT assay with various cell lines of solid tumor cells. The labeling with technetium-99m was done by the direct method, and its yield determined by paper chromatography using paper Whatmam 1 as the stationary phase and acetone as mobile phase. In the biodistribution study

  7. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled annexin V fragments: a potential SPECT radiopharmaceutical for imaging cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Archana [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Kothari, Kanchan [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)]. E-mail: kanchan@scientist.com; Toth, Geza [Biological Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Szemenyei, Erzsebet [Biological Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Sarma, Hal Dhar [Radiation Biology and Health Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Koernyei, Jozsef [Institute of Isotopes Co. Ltd., H1121, Budapest (Hungary); Venkatesh, Meera [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-07-15

    Introduction: Annexin V is a protein that binds to phosphatidylserine exposed on dying cells. The phosphatidylserine-specific sequence is attributed to a chain on the N-terminal of annexin consisting of 13 amino acid sequence. Radiolabeled annexin V is used for imaging apoptosis. Methods: With an aim to synthesize a probe that can detect cell death akin to annexin V but smaller in size, annexin-13 fragments were derivatized to contain cysteine, cysteine-cysteine and histidine in their sequence at N terminal and were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc via nitrido and carbonyl precursors. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled annexin-13 derivatives were characterized by HPLC and studied for their stability. In vitro and in vivo studies were carried out in apoptotic HL-60 cells and fibrosarcoma tumor-bearing Swiss mice, respectively. Results: The {sup 99m}Tc complexes were formed in high yields and were found to be stable. HPLC pattern of {sup 99m}Tc nitrido complex of cysteine-cysteine-annexine 13 (CC-Anx13) and {sup 99m}Tc carbonyl complex of histdine-annexin 13 (H-Anx13) revealed the formation of single species. In vitro cell uptake studies with {sup 99m}Tc nitrido complex of cysteine-cysteine-annexin 13 fragment showed 6.5% uptake in apoptotic HL-60 cells. The uptake was found to be specific on testing with apoptotic HL-60 cells. Biodistribution studies of {sup 99m}Tc nitrido complex with CC-Anx13 in fibrosarcoma tumor-bearing Swiss mice revealed optimum tumor uptake of 0.52 (0.17) %ID/g at 1 h pi. Conclusion: {sup 99m}Tc(N)-CC-anx13 showed specific uptake in apoptotic tumor cells and warrants further evaluation.

  8. PEGylated N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate as a new reagent for the high-yield preparation of nitrido Tc-99m and Re-188 radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Massi, Alessandro; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micol; Duatti, Adriano

    2010-11-01

    A novel nitrido nitrogen atom donor for the preparation of (99m)Tc and (188)Re radiopharmaceuticals containing a metal-nitrogen multiple bond is presented. HO(2)C-PEG(600)-DTCZ was obtained by conjugation of N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate [H(2)N-N(CH(3))-C(S)SCH(3), HDTCZ] with polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG(600)). Asymmetrical heterocomplexes of the type [M(N)(PNP)(B)](0/+) (M=(99m)Tc, (188)Re; PNP=diphosphine ligands, B=DBODC, DEDC, NSH, H(2)OS, CysNAc, HDTCZ) and symmetrical nitride compounds of the type [M(N)(L)(2)] (L=DEDC, DPDC) have been prepared in high yield by using the newly designed nitride nitrogen atom donor HO(2)C-PEG(600)-DTCZ. A two-step procedure was applied for preparing the above symmetrical and asymmetrical complexes. The first step involved the preliminary formation of a mixture of nitride Tc-99m or Re-188 precursors, which contained the [M≡N](2+) core, through reduction of generator-eluted (99m)Tc-pertechnetate or (188)Re-perrhenate with thin (II) chloride in the presence of HO(2)C-PEG(600)-DTCZ. In the second step, the intermediate mixture was converted either in the final mixed asymmetrical complex by the simultaneous addition of diphosphine ligand and the suitable bidentate ligand B, or in the final symmetrical complex by the only addition of the bidentate ligand L. It was also demonstrated that the novel water-soluble nitride nitrogen atom donor HO(2)C-PEG(600)-DTCZ did not show coordinating properties toward the M≡N ((99m)Tc, (188)Re) core. Biodistribution studies in rats of the hitherto unreported [(99m)Tc(N)(PNP(3))DTCZ](+) and [(99m)Tc(N)(PNP(5))DTCZ](+) complexes showed that they selectively localize in the myocardium of rats with a favourable heart-to-lung and heart-to-liver uptake ratios. In particular, the heart-to-lung and heart-to-liver uptake ratios dramatically increased in the interval between 60 and 120 min postinjection. Hence, the combination of the favourable chemical and biological properties of HO(2)C-PEG(600)-DTCZ

  9. Rhenium-188 and technetium-99m nitridobis(N-ethoxy-N-ethyldithiocarbamate) leucocyte labelling radiopharmaceuticals: [{sup 188}ReN(NOET){sub 2}] and [{sup 99m}TcN(NOET){sub 2}], NOET Et(EtO)NCS{sub 2}: Their in vitro localization and chemical behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaimay, Florian; Dazord, Leontine; Roucoux, Alain; Noiret, Nicolas; Patin, Henri; Moisan, Annick

    1997-11-01

    In this study, we have investigated the preparation of rhenium-188 nitridobis(N-ethoxy-N-ethyldithiocarbamate) [{sup 188}ReN(NOET){sub 2}] (NOET Et(EtO)NCS{sub 2}), analogous to the known technetium-99m radiopharmaceutical. The new {sup 188}Re complex was synthesized in good yield with a satisfactory radiochemical purity, using a kit method. The subcellular localization of both radiopharmaceuticals in granulocytes was observed by microautoradiography. The uptake was independent of the radionuclide and predominantly nuclear. Furthermore, HPLC was used to characterize the {sup 99m}Tc complex before and after blood cell labelling and revealed that the intact radiopharmaceutical was involved.

  10. Synthesis, labeling with {sup 99m}Tc and biokinetics of brains scintigraphy diaminodithiol perfusion radiopharmaceuticals; Sintese, marcacao com {sup 99m}Tc e biocinetica de radiofarmacos perfusorios diaminoditiolicos para cintilografias cerebrais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Marcos Moises

    1999-07-01

    The recent tomography status using radiopharmaceuticals have been contributing greatly with the 'age of certainty' in the diagnosis examination of syndromes, pathologies and clinical signs, because they can evidence some phenomena occurring in a molecular manner. The purpose of this work have had the development of new diaminodithiol (DADT) perfusion radiopharmaceuticals to be used in brain diagnosis using S.P.E.T. (Single Photon Emission Tomography). Initially, the rational planning had been performed with the new DADT molecular structures as radiopharmaceutical candidates. Using of Q.S.A.R. (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) techniques, the molecular descriptors such as partition coefficient and effective polarizability, have been studied in order to increase the blood brain barrier transport and the brain uptake respectively. Applying the Q.S.P.R. (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship) concepts to perform drug latentiation, based on bio-labile functional groups, the congener DADT derivative has been transformed into a pro-drug that works as a DADT moiety carrier, allowing the increasing of brain radiopharmaceutical uptake. Later on, synthetic routes and chemical purifications have been developed allowing the creation of the proposed chemical structure. Each new DADT derivative has been synthesized and analyzed in terms of elemental analysis, infrared and NMR spectra, in order to confirm its proposed chemical structure. Then, the new derivative has been labeled with {sup 99m}Tc, radiochemically purified, intravenously injected in Swiss mice, allowing its biodistribution to evidence its brain transport and uptake. The rational planning studies have been re-evaluated after each biodistribution had been performed, to see what kind of molecular descriptor was responsible for causing a stronger optimization in the brain perfusion characteristics and then, new DADT derivatives have been prepared. Three new DADT derivatives have been

  11. Radiation dose measurements and effective dose calculations around the patients administered radiopharmaceuticals of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejiri, Kazutaka; Minami, Kazuyuki; Orito, Takeo [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). Health Science; Suzuki, Kasuo; Kikukawa, Kaoru; Naito, Aiko; Shimura, Masami; Toyama, Hiroshi; Koga, Sukehiko

    1999-05-01

    In order to estimate the effective dose (E) of a person who may come into close contact to the {sup 99m}Tc-GSA patients. Radiation dose rates around 21 adult patients (male: 14, female: 7) were measured with three ionization surveymeters (Aloka, ICS-301) at distances of 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m from the patients. Measurements were carried out at 0.75, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 h after the administrations of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA. Surveymeters were set up to the first cervical vertebrae (Level I), xiphoid process (Level II) and anterior superior iliac spine (Level III) of the patients with their standing erect. The maximum dose equivalent (H{sub 1cm}) rate of 64.98 {mu}Svh{sup -1} per 185 MBq was recorded in the level II. Effective half life of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA was 5.8 h. Total E around the patients were calculated by the initial H{sub 1cm} rates and the effective half life. Total E were 285, 62, 23 and 13 {mu}Sv per 185 MBq at distances of 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m, respectively. E for the first 24 h was corresponding to 94.3% of the total E. (author)

  12. Radiation dose measurements and effective dose calculations around the patients administered radiopharmaceuticals of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejiri, Kazutaka; Minami, Kazuyuki; Orito, Takeo [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Health Sciences; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kikukawa, Kaoru; Naito, Aiko; Shimura, Masami; Toyama, Hiroshi; Koga, Sukehiko

    1999-05-01

    In order to estimate the effective dose (E) of a person who may come into close contact to the {sup 99m}Tc-GSA patients. Radiation dose rates around 21 adult patients (male: 14, female: 7) were measured with three ionization surveymeters (Aloka, ICS-301) at distances of 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m from the patients. Measurements were carried out at 0.75, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 h after the administrations of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA. Surveymeters were set up to the first cervical vertebrae (Level I), xiphoid process (Level II) and anterior superior iliac spine (Level III) of the patients with their standing erect. The maximum dose equivalent (H{sup 1cm}) rate of 64.98 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} per 185 MBq was recorded in the Level II. Effective half life of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA was 5.8 h. Total E around the patients were calculated by the initial H{sup 1cm} rates and the effective half life. Total E were 285, 62, 23 and 13 {mu}Sv per 185 MBq at distances of 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m, respectively. E for the first 24 h was corresponding to 94.3% of the total E. (author)

  13. Radiation dose measurements and effective dose calculations around the patients administered radiopharmaceuticals of [sup 99m]Tc-GSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejiri, Kazutaka; Minami, Kazuyuki; Orito, Takeo (Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). Health Science); Suzuki, Kasuo; Kikukawa, Kaoru; Naito, Aiko; Shimura, Masami; Toyama, Hiroshi; Koga, Sukehiko

    1999-05-01

    In order to estimate the effective dose (E) of a person who may come into close contact to the [sup 99m]Tc-GSA patients. Radiation dose rates around 21 adult patients (male: 14, female: 7) were measured with three ionization surveymeters (Aloka, ICS-301) at distances of 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m from the patients. Measurements were carried out at 0.75, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 h after the administrations of [sup 99m]Tc-GSA. Surveymeters were set up to the first cervical vertebrae (Level I), xiphoid process (Level II) and anterior superior iliac spine (Level III) of the patients with their standing erect. The maximum dose equivalent (H[sub 1cm]) rate of 64.98 [mu]Svh[sup -1] per 185 MBq was recorded in the level II. Effective half life of [sup 99m]Tc-GSA was 5.8 h. Total E around the patients were calculated by the initial H[sub 1cm] rates and the effective half life. Total E were 285, 62, 23 and 13 [mu]Sv per 185 MBq at distances of 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m, respectively. E for the first 24 h was corresponding to 94.3% of the total E. (author)

  14. Technetium-99m-Labeled Sulfadiazine: a Targeting Radiopharmaceutical for Scintigraphic Imaging of Infectious Foci Due To Escherichia coli in Mouse and Rabbit Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muhammad Tauqeer; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Rasheed, Rashid; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Usman, Muhammad; Hussain, Zaib

    2017-03-11

    Bacterial infection is one of the vital reasons of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. It appears silently without bothering the geological borders and imposes a grave threat to humanity. Nuclear medicine technique has an important role in helping early diagnosis of deep-seated infections. The aim of this study was to develop a new radiopharmaceutical (99m)Tc-labeling sulfadiazine as an infection imaging agent. Radiolabeling of sulfadiazine with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) was carried out using stannous tartrate as a reducing agent in the presence of gentistic acid at pH = 5. The quality control tests revealed ~98% labeling efficiency. Paper chromatographic (PC) and instant thin-layer chromatographic (ITLC) techniques were used to analyze radiochemical yield. Biodistribution and infection specificity of the radiotracer were performed with Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection-induced rats. Scintigraphy and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) study was performed in E. coli-infected rabbits. Scintigraphy indicated E. coli infection targeting potential of (99m)Tc-SDZ, while biodistribution study showed minimal uptake of (99m)Tc-SDZ in non-targeted tissues. The uptake in the kidneys was found 2.56 ± 0.06, 2.09 ± 0.10, and 1.68 ± 0.09% at 30 min, 1 h, and 4 h, respectively. The infected muscle (target) to non-infected muscle (non-target) ratio (T/NT) was found 4.49 ± 0.04, 6.78 ± 0.07, and 5.59 ± 0.08 at 30 min, 1 h, and 4 h, respectively.

  15. Studies of technetium-99m nitridobisdithiocarboxylate leucocyte specific radiopharmaceutical: [{sup 99m}TcN(DTCX){sub 2}], DTCX=CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 8}CS{sub 2}. the cellular and subcellular distribution in human blood cells, and chemical behaviour. synthesis of the analogous rhenium-188 radiopharmaceutical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaimay, Florian; Roucoux, Alain E-mail: Alain.Roucoux@ensc-rennes.fr; Dazord, Leontine; Noiret, Nicolas; Moisan, Annick; Patin, Henri

    1999-02-01

    The distribution of the radiopharmaceutical ([{sup 99m}TcN(DTCX){sub 2}], DTCX=CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 8}CS{sub 2}) in the leucocyte population determinated by a density separation with double gradient Polymorphprep{sup TM} was studied. Microautoradiographic analysis showed a subcellular distribution of the radiomarker in human blood cells. This technique confirmed the observed lymphocyte selectivity (69%) and revealed that the uptake was predominantly cytoplasmic around the nucleus. A labeling mechanism by passive endocytosis could be proposed involving a required lipophilicity of the radiopharmaceutical for lymphocyte targeting. Finally, we describe the new synthesis with an efficient yield and radiochemical purity of the analogous radiopharmaceutical [{sup 188}ReN(DTCX){sub 2}].

  16. Detection of active alveolar bone destruction in human periodontal disease by analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake after a single injection of 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffcoat, M.K.; Williams, R.C.; Holman, B.L.; English, R.; Goldhaber, P.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, following a single injection of 99m-Tc-MDP, measurement of bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake can detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in beagle dogs, as determined by radiographs taken at the time of, and several months after, the nuclear medicine procedure. The efficacy of this diagnostic test, however, had not been assessed in human periodontal disease. The ability of a single boneseeking radiopharmaceutical uptake examination to detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in human patients was assessed by comparing a single uptake measurement to the rate of bone loss determined from serial radiographs taken over a 6-month period. Uptake was expressed as a ratio of the cpm from the alveolar bone divided by the cpm from the non-tooth supporting bone of the nuchal crest. High uptake ratios were associated with ''active'' loss and low uptake ratios were associated with little if any change in alveolar bone height (p<0.001). The nuclear medicine examination was an accurate detector of periodontal disease activity in nearly 80% of the individual teeth studied. These data indicate that high bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake ratios may be pathognomonic of active bone loss in human periodontal disease.

  17. PEGylated N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate as a new reagent for the high-yield preparation of nitrido Tc-99m and Re-188 radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschi, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.boschi@unife.i [Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Massi, Alessandro [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micol; Duatti, Adriano [Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    A novel nitrido nitrogen atom donor for the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re radiopharmaceuticals containing a metal-nitrogen multiple bond is presented. HO{sub 2}C-PEG{sub 600}-DTCZ was obtained by conjugation of N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate [H{sub 2}N-N(CH{sub 3})-C({identical_to}S)SCH{sub 3}, HDTCZ] with polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG{sub 600}). Asymmetrical heterocomplexes of the type [M(N)(PNP)(B)]{sup 0/+} (M={sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re; PNP=diphosphine ligands, B=DBODC, DEDC, NSH, H{sub 2}OS, CysNAc, HDTCZ) and symmetrical nitride compounds of the type [M(N)(L){sub 2}] (L=DEDC, DPDC) have been prepared in high yield by using the newly designed nitride nitrogen atom donor HO{sub 2}C-PEG{sub 600}-DTCZ. A two-step procedure was applied for preparing the above symmetrical and asymmetrical complexes. The first step involved the preliminary formation of a mixture of nitride Tc-99m or Re-188 precursors, which contained the [M{identical_to}N]{sup 2+} core, through reduction of generator-eluted {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate or {sup 188}Re-perrhenate with thin (II) chloride in the presence of HO{sub 2}C-PEG{sub 600}-DTCZ. In the second step, the intermediate mixture was converted either in the final mixed asymmetrical complex by the simultaneous addition of diphosphine ligand and the suitable bidentate ligand B, or in the final symmetrical complex by the only addition of the bidentate ligand L. It was also demonstrated that the novel water-soluble nitride nitrogen atom donor HO{sub 2}C-PEG{sub 600}-DTCZ did not show coordinating properties toward the M{identical_to}N ({sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re) core. Biodistribution studies in rats of the hitherto unreported [{sup 99m}Tc(N)(PNP{sub 3})DTCZ]{sup +} and [{sup 99m}Tc(N)(PNP{sub 5})DTCZ]{sup +} complexes showed that they selectively localize in the myocardium of rats with a favourable heart-to-lung and heart-to-liver uptake ratios. In particular, the heart-to-lung and heart-to-liver uptake ratios dramatically

  18. A rapid kinetic chromogenic method for quantification of bacterial endotoxins in lyophilized reagents for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Campos, Domingos G.; Silva, Laercio; Fernandes, Adriana V.; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Constancia P.G.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A rapid quantitative kinetic chromogenic test in an automated Portable Test System (PTS) has been developed for determination of bacterial endotoxins in water, in-process and end-products using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL). The aim of this work was to validate the method for lyophilized reagents for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals with no interfering factors. Experiments were performed in three consecutive batches of the lyophilized reagents Methylenediphosphonic Acid (MDP) and Pyrophosphate (PYRO) produced at IPEN-CNEN/ SP using the PTS from Endosafe, Inc.{sup TM}, Charleston, SC. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated to establish the extent of dilution to avoid interfering test conditions (MVD=500). Better results were obtained above 1:20 dilution factor for MDP and 1:100 for PYRO. The parameters of coefficient correlation (R) -0.980, RPPC between 50 - 200% and coefficient variation (CV) of the samples less than 25% were satisfied and the endotoxin concentration was lower than the lowest concentration of the standard curve (0.05 EU mL{sup -1}), therefore less than the established limit in pharmacopoeias. The PTS is a rapid, simple and accurate technique using the quantitative kinetic chromogenic method for bacterial endotoxin determination. For this reason, it is very practical in the radiopharmaceutical area and it trends to be the method of choice for the pyrogen test. For MDP and PYRO, the validation was successfully performed. (author)

  19. The first experience of using 99mTc-Al2O3-based radiopharmaceutical for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinilkin, I. G.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernyshova, A. L.; Kolomiets, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using 99mTc-Al2O3-based radiopharmaceutical, a novel molecular imaging agent for sentinel lymph node detection in patients with invasive cervical cancer. The study included 23 cervical cancer patients (T1aNxMx-T2bNxMx) treated at the Tomsk Cancer Research Institute. In the 18 hours before surgery, 80 MBq of the 99mTc-Al2O3 in peritumoral injected, followed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the pelvis and intraoperative SLN identification. Twenty-seven SLNs were detected by SPECT, and 34 SLNs were identified by intraoperative gamma probe. The total number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 3 (the mean number of SLNs was 1.4 per patient). The most common site for SLN detection was the external iliac region (57.2%), followed by the internal iliac (14%), obturator (14%), presacral and retrosacral regions (14%), and the parametrial region (1%). Sensitivity in detecting SLNs was 100% for intraoperative SLN identification and 79% for SPECT image.

  20. Technetium-99m radiochemistry for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia

    2017-09-01

    Technetium-99m ((99m) Tc) is a widely used radionuclide, and the development of (99m) Tc imaging agents continues to be in demand. This overview discusses basic principles of (99m) Tc radiopharmaceutical preparation and design and focuses on the (99m) Tc radiochemistry relevant to its pharmaceutical applications. The (99m) Tc complexes are described based on the most typical examples in each category, keeping up with the state-of-the-art in the field. In addition, the main current strategies to develop targeted (99m) Tc radiopharmaceuticals are summarized. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Optimization of the production process of a lyophilized formulation for radiopharmaceutical obtaining {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}; Optimizacion del proceso de fabricacion de una formulacion liofilizada para la obtencion del radiofarmaco {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez R, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this work was optimized the production process of a lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}, the union specifies to the integrin s α{sub v}β{sub 3} was demonstrated to be used in the nuclear medicine cabinets in the obtaining of scan images for the opportune detection of breast cancer. The good lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} was established like: HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} - 25 μg; Stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) 20 μg; Ethylenediamine diacetic acid (EDDA) 10 mg; N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl glycin (Tricine) 20 mg; Mannitol 50 mg. The results of radiochemical purity of the sterile formulation and free of bacterial endotoxins for the three validation lots prepared under protocols of good manufacturing practices were 97.62 ± 1.48%, 96.54 ± 1.89%, and 97.66 ± 0.57%, for what the production procedure complies the predefined specifications. The radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 prepared from the lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation showed to be stable during a period 24 hours, for what can be used in the centers of molecular nuclear medicine. Images in vivo were obtained of the integrin s over-expression α{sub v}β{sub 3} from the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 obtained of the lyophilized and optimized pharmaceutical formulation. The lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation (HYNIC-RGD-Sn) showed stability during 12 months, due to this factor, is requested before the COFEPRIS the radiopharmaceutical expiration for this same period (accession number 123300401A0155). (Author)

  2. Preparation of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m} Tc-HYNIC-cyclo-Lys-D-Phe-RGD for In vivo image of integrines; Preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 99m} Tc-HYNIC-ciclo-Lys-D-Phe-RGD para imagen In vivo de integrinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez H, E. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The diagnostic of some pathological processes by means of images constitutes one of the used methods in the determination of the origin, condition and/or evolution of one illness. The use of contrast agents in conjunction with other techniques help to the obtaining and visualization of complex systems, among these we can find to those radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine to visualize diverse organs and corporal systems. At the moment it is sought to develop a radiopharmaceutical of third generation that can be used for image In vivo of integrines with the purpose of detecting angio genesis processes, that which would allow to diagnose in way it specifies a wide range of primary tumors and their metastasis. Presently work it developed the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-cycle-Lys-D-Phe-RGD, likewise the good conditions were determined for the formation of this complex. The HYNIC was employee as chelating agent, using as co ligands EDDA and Tricine for to complete the sphere of coordination of the {sup 99m}Tc. The conjugated HYNIC-RGD was synthesized, purified, characterized and radiolabelled In situ with {sup 99m}Tc using High pressure liquid chromatography as analysis method in Reverse Phase (RP-HPLC). By this way it was developed the lyophilized formulation for its instantaneous labelled to which were carried out quality control tests. The one conjugated was obtained free of impurities, showing stability at same as their complex formed with {sup 99m}Tc. The analysis method was validated turning out to be necessary, exact, lineal and specific for the quantification of the analyte of interest. The lyophilized formulation showed a radiochemical purity bigger than 95%, besides being sterile and free of pyrogens. The biodistribution tests in athymic mice with induced tumors showed that the radiopharmaceutical was united mainly to the tumor and that this it was excreted mainly for renal via. (Author)

  3. In vivo and in vitro study of the 9{sup 9mT}c-DMSA radiopharmaceutical connection to blood elements; Estudo in vivo e in vitro da ligacao do radiofarmaco 99mTc-DMSA aos elementos sanquineos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Rosimeire de S. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]|[Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gomes, Maria L.; Mattos, Deise M.M.; Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Dire, Glaucio F.; Lima, Elaine A.; Lima-Filho, Guilherme L.; Aleixo, Luiz Claudio [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]|[Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica] E-mail: rosfreitas@hotmail.com

    2002-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are widely used in nuclear medicine. The comprehension of their uptake mechanism in target organs, as well as their clearance may depend on the elucidation of their biochemical characteristics, for instance, their binding to blood elements. The reported precipitating studies of blood with radiopharmaceuticals have shown that the results can not be easily compared. Then, we decide evaluate of the binding proteins on the blood elements using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to determine the radioactivity of the dimercaptosuccinic acid with technetium-99m (99mTc-DMSA) present in precipitating plasma (P) and blood cells (BC). Depending on the TCA concentration we have determined different values in the insoluble fractions of the plasma when the in vivo and in vitro evaluations were carried out. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the quality of the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-MIBI and its influence on image quality in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy; Avaliacao da qualidade do radiofarmaco {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI e sua influencia na qualidade da imagem em cintilografia de perfusao do miocardio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Poliane Angelo de Lucena

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the quality of the {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI radiopharmaceutical from different manufacturers, used in three nuclear medicine services (NMS) in Recife-PE, through labeling procedure of each service. It was observed their biodistribution by quantifying the activity present in the organs of interest (heart / liver), the influence and interference in image quality and in myocardial scintigraphy diagnosis exam. In these NMS (A, B and C) were done quality controls in the eluates of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators (radionuclidic, chemical and radiochemical purity and pH) and of the {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI radiopharmaceutical (radiochemical purity and pH) used in myocardial scintigraphy exam. In the case of radiochemical purity (RCP), was used the thin layer chromatography technique; after the chromatographic ran on, the plates were analyzed both in the dose calibrator, and in scintillation camera of each NMS. The radiopharmaceutical biodistribution was evaluated through the activities present in the heart and liver images in 60 patients, using the technique of combined images counting. Five nuclear physicians analyzed 24 images through myocardial perfusion visual interpretation during stress, it was verified the agreement degree among them. The results of the quality control showed that all eluate samples were in agreement with the manufacturers in relation to radionuclidic purity and pH. In relation to chemical purity, 10% of the services samples B and C showed Al{sup +3} values above 10 ppm. In the RCP, it was observed that using the scintillation camera, only 22% of the samples would be discarded, while with dose calibrator would be 78%, indicating that the scintillation camera is more sensitive in chromatographic pale analysis. For the labeled radiopharmaceutical, the services B and C presented respectively one and three samples with RCP percentage below 90%. However, C service presented the lowest medium to liver/heart proportions, showing that this factor

  5. Active and passive vectorization of technetium{sup 99m} and {sup 188}rhenium radiopharmaceuticals for medical imaging and radiotherapy; Vectorisations active et passive de radiopharmaceutiques du technetium-99m et du rhenium-188 pour l'imagerie medicale et la therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepareur, N

    2003-11-15

    Research for new molecules for nuclear medicine is a field in constant development. Over the past few years, development of new radiopharmaceuticals for radiotherapy has renewed interest for rhenium chemistry. Indeed, its two isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, owing to their ideal properties and their similitude with {sup 99m}Tc, which is widely used as a radiotracer for diagnostic imaging, seem very promising for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. In the first part of this manuscript, the synthesis of rhenium and technetium-99 complexes, [M(RPhCS3)2(RPhCS2)] (M = Re, Tc), is described. The preparation of technetium{sup 99m} based radiopharmaceuticals, analogues to the pondered complexes, is also described. The stability/reactivity of these complexes has been studied by exchange reactions with potential ligands, specially dithiocarbamates, and also by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The reactivity of the complexes towards dithiocarbamates leads to the possibility to bind biomolecules to the metallic core, via the dithiocarbamate moiety. This method represents a potential alternative to current ones using the so-called bifunctional approach. In the second part of this manuscript, a new kit formulation for the {sup 188}Re labeling of lipiodol is described, using a complex analogous to those described in the previous part. The labeled oil is a potential cure for hepatocellular carcinoma. The in vitro and in vivo stability of this {sup 188}Re-SSS lipiodol and of its analogue {sup 99m}Tc-SSS lipiodol has been studied, and also their in vivo behavior in healthy pigs. This study has shown the quasi-exclusive hepatic fixation of the radiopharmaceutical, and has proven its good stability. Its selectivity for tumors remains to be shown before trying it on humans. (author)

  6. Biodistribution dosimetric study of radiopharmaceutical {sup 99mT}c Ixolaris in mice for melanoma diagnosis by molecular image and translational model for human beings; Estudo dosimetrico da biodistribuicao do radiofarmaco Ixolaris-{sup 99m}Tc em camundongos para diagnostico de melanoma atraves de imagem molecular e modelo translacional para humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, Sarah Canuto Silva

    2015-07-01

    The labeling of Ixolaris with {sup 99m}Tc was developed by Barboza et.al. (2013) aiming its use primarily in glioblastoma and after in melanoma diagnosis, a less common but very aggressive cancer and with high mortality rate. Preliminary tests on animals have proven its effectiveness of labeling but a dosimetric study to human clinical trials should be performed. This study aimed to: (1) determine the biokinetic model for the radiotracer {sup 99m}Tc-Ixolaris in mice by imaging dosimetry method; and (2) estimate the absorbed and effective dose resulting from the use of a new radiopharmaceutical for melanoma and metastases diagnosis in human beings, since a dosimetric study of new radiopharmaceuticals in animals is necessary to test them subsequently in humans and apply for registration in ANVISA. According to SPECT images, was found a latency period of 15 to 21 days for the development of lung metastasis in mice. Three C57BL6 mice, one control animal, and two animals with induced cell line B16-F10 murine melanoma were tested. The {sup 99m}Tc-Ixolaris radiopharmaceutical was administered intravenously in a caudal vein, and SPECT images were acquired 0.5 h, 1.5 h, 2.5 h, 3.5 h and 24 h post-administration for analysis and biodistribution quantification. The biokinetic model was determined and thus, obtained cumulative activity in order to estimate the absorbed dose in each organ. The mass and metabolic differences between mice and humans were considered and used to extrapolate the data acquired at different scales. Based on dose factors provided by the software MIRDOSE and Olinda (S factor), absorbed doses in irradiated target organs were calculated for the source organs, and finally the effective dose was estimated. The results indicate that for diagnostic exams conducted in human melanoma patients by administering approximately 25.7 MBq the estimated effective dose was 4.3 mSv. Comparing with effective doses obtained in other diagnostic techniques with {sup 99m

  7. Obtaining a metastasis model in vivo for the evaluation of the radiopharmaceuticals sensitivity labeled with {sup 99m}Tc; Obtencion de un modelo de metastasis in vivo para la evaluacion de la sensibilidad de radiofarmacos marcados con {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez A, V. M.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear medicine currently has a wide range of techniques that support the diagnosis of various diseases, including cancer that prevails as the most important. In the present research work was proposed to develop a model that would study the process known as metastasis, because this process is vital because most of the deaths in patients with some form of cancer are caused by metastasis. The objective was to obtain an in vivo model of metastasis induced with AR42J cells for studying the radiopharmaceuticals sensitivity labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. To achieve the objective proposed a study model in which it could make a real time evaluation of some radiopharmaceuticals with reported efficiency was development, in order to determine their sensitivity in similar conditions to the metastasis process. This required a mouse model that was used to observe a similar process to metastasis, inducing cells of the AR42J cell line, since these cells have good proliferation and have molecular targets for a minimum of 3 standardized radiopharmaceuticals. Was elected radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc, because of its low emission of radiation into the tissues, besides having a half life of 6 hours and provides a good visualization of anatomical structures. On the other hand the stable expression of green fluorescent protein in tumor cells appears to be a suitable tool for the detection of cancer development in early stages and the formation of in vivo micro metastases, so two fluorescence tests were performed and other by electrophoresis. The results showed that both study models can be carried out without increasing complexity and meeting the expectations expected for which they were designed. (Author)

  8. Mixed tridentate π -donor and monodentate π -acceptor ligands as chelating systems for rhenium-188 and technetium-99m nitrido radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micol; Pasqualini, Roberto; Guerrini, Remo; Duatti, Adriano

    2013-09-01

    A new molecular metallic fragment for labeling biologically active molecules with 99mTc and 188Re is described. This system is composed of a combination of tridentate π-donor and monodentate π-acceptor ligands bound to a [M Ξ N]2+ group (M = (99m)Tc, 188Re) in a pseudo square-pyramidal geometry. A simple structural model of the new metallic fragment was obtained by reacting the ligand 2, 2'-iminodiethanethiol [H2NS2 = NH(CH2CH2SH)2] and monodentate tertiary phosphines with the [M Ξ N]2+ group (M = (99m)Tc, (188)Re). In the resulting complexes (dubbed3+1complexes), the tridentate ligand binds the [M Ξ N]2+ core through the two deprotonated, negatively charged, thiol sulfur atoms and the neutral, protonated, amine nitrogen atom. The residual fourth position of the five-coordinated arrangement is occupied by a phosphine ligand. The chemical identity of these model (99m)Tc and (188)Re compounds was established by comparison with the chromatographic properties of the corresponding complexes obtained at the macroscopic level with the long-lived (99)Tc and natural Re isotopes. The investigation was further extended to comprise a series of ligands formed by simple combinations of two basic amino acids or pseudo-amino acids to yield potential tridentate chelating systems having [S, N, S] and [N, N, S] as sets of π-donor atoms. Labeling yields and in vitro stability were investigated using different ancillary ligands. Results showed that SNS-type ligands afforded the highest labeling yields and the most robust 3+1 nitrido complexes with both (99m)Tc and (188)Re. Thus, the new chelating system can be conveniently employed for labeling peptides and other biomolecules with the [M Ξ N]2+ group.

  9. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, May 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineman, W.R.; Deutsch, E.A.

    1981-12-01

    The objectives of this year's research were to develop a method for rapidly determining TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in /sup 99/Mo//sup 99m/Tc generator eluates, to improve the ability to chromatographically determine individual Tc-HEDP complexes in radiopharmaceuticals, and to investigate the effects of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ concentration and electrochemical reduction on the types and relative amounts of Tc-HEDP complexes present in a radiopharmaceutical formulation. A rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the quantitative determination of pertechnetate (TcO/sub 4//sup -/) was developed. This HPLC-based analysis may be of considerable utility in assessing the history and function of /sup 99/MO/sup 99m/Tc generators as well as in the routine analysis of reduced technetium radiopharmaceuticals for the presence of undesired TcO/sub 4//sup -/. Encouraging results were obtained on a dimethyl amine column using aqueous (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as the mobile phase. The preparation of Tc(NaBH/sub 4/) HEDP radiopharmaceutical analogues using varying concentrations of total TcO/sub 4//sup -/ shows a dramatic effect in the number and distribution of Tc-HEDP complexes over a TcO/sub 4//sup -/ concentration range of 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -8/M. These results suggest that total TcO/sub 4//sup -/ concentration is an important parameter to be considered in the preparation of a specific Tc-HEDP complex to improve skeletal imaging. The preparation of Tc(electrode) HEDP radiopharmaceutical analogues by using electrochemical reduction was explored. The resulting solutions contain Tc-HEDP complexes that are tentatively identified as being the same complexes formed by NaBH/sub 4/ reduction, although the relative concentrations of these complexes are quite different with the two modes of reduction. Thus, electrochemical reduction shows promise as a viable route to the preparation of specific Tc-HEDP complexes for improved skeletal imaging.

  10. First experiences with a new radiopharmaceutical for sentinel lymph node detection in malignant melanoma. {sup 99m}Tc colloidal rhenium sulphide; Erst Erfahrungen mit einem neuen Radiopharmakon fuer die Waechterlymphknoten-Detektion beim malignen Melanom: {sup 99m}Tc markiertes kolloidales Rheniumsulfid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.; Schmid, R.A.; Hahn, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kunte, C.; Konz, B. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2004-02-01

    Aim of this study was to localize the sentinel lymph node by lymphoscintigraphy using technetium-99m colloidal rhenium sulphide (Nanocis {sup trademark}), a new commercially available radiopharmaceutical. Due to the manufactures' instructions it is licensed for lymphoscintigraphy. Patients, methods: 35 consecutive patients with histologically proved malignant melanoma, but without clinical evidence of metastases, were preoperatively examined by injecting 20-40 MBq Nanocis {sup trademark} with (mean particle size: 100 nm; range: 50-200 nm) intradermally around the lesion. Additionally blue dye was injected intraoperatively. A hand-held gamma probe guided sentinel node biopsy. Results: During surgery, the preoperatively scintigraphically detected sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 34/35 (97%) patients. The number of sentinel nodes per patient ranged from one to four (mean: n=1.8). Histologically, metastatic involvement of the sentinel lymph node was found in 12/35 (34%) patients; the sentinel lymph node positive-rate (14/63 SLN) was 22%. Thus, it is comparable to the findings of SLN-mapping using other technetium-99m-labeled nanocolloides. Conclusion: {sup 99m}Tc-bound colloidal rhenium sulphide is also suitable for sentinel node mapping. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie war es, den Waechterlymphknoten (SLN) mittels Lymphszintigraphie unter Einsatz von Technetium-99m markiertem kolloidalem Rheniumsulfid (Nanocis {sup trademark}), einem neuen, kommerziell erhaeltlichen Radiopharmakon fuer lymphszintigraphische Untersuchungen zu lokalisieren. Patienten, Methoden: 35 konsekutive Patienten mit histologisch gesichertem malignen Melanom, jedoch ohne klinische Hinweise auf (Fern-)Metastasierung, wurden praeoperativ nach intradermaler, peritumoraler Injektion von 20-40 MBq Nanocis {sup trademark} (durchschnittliche Partikelgroesse: 100 nm; Streubreite: 50-200 nm) untersucht. Zusaetzlich erfolgte intraoperativ eine Blaufaerbung. Die intraoperative SLN

  11. Evaluation of the internalization kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat(49-57)Lys{sup 3}-Bn with diagnostic purposes, using comet assay; Evaluacion de la cinetica de internalizacion del radiofarmaco {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-TAT(49-57)Lys{sup 3}-BN con fines diagnosticos, empleando ensayo cometa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna G, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    Gastrin-rea leasing peptide receptors (GRP-r) are over expressed in breast and prostate cancer cells. Bombesin (Bn) binds specifically and strongly to GRP-r and this is the base for to label the Bn with radionuclides by gamma rays. Tat (49-57) is a peptide that across the cell membrane easily so that, when it is conjugated to different proteins, it can works as a Trojan horse, facilitating the drug internalization to the cells. The radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat(49-57)-Lys{sup 3}-Bn was prepared for diagnosis and therapy at early stage of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the role of Tat in the internalization kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals measured by DNA damage induced by means of comet assay. Human lymphocytes were treated with the following protocols: a) Tat-Bn, b) {sup 99m}Tc-Bn, or c) {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat(49-57)-Lys{sup 3}-Bn, also an untreated group was conformed. The internalization was evaluated at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min after exposure with three repetitions each one, and for radiopharmaceuticals with 2.9, 6.6, 9.0 and 14.8 MBq activities. DNA damage was scored in 100 cells per time and treatment, as tail length and tail moment. A Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis with p{<=} 0.05 was applied for comparison between treatments. The results showed that the damage caused by {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat(49-57)-Lys{sup 3}-Bn is significantly higher than that caused by {sup 99m}Tc-Bn and Tat-Bn, showing that Tat favors the internalization of the radiopharmaceutical. (Author)

  12. Determination of the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment used in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents for {sup 99m}Tc labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado; Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki; Matsuda, Margareth Mie Nakamura, E-mail: luciana.porto@anvisa.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2016-01-15

    Cleaning validation, a requirement of the current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) for Drugs, consists of documented evidence that cleaning procedures are capable of removing residues to predetermined acceptance levels. This report describes a strategy for the selection of the worst case product for the production of lyophilized reagents (LRs) for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/Sao Paulo). The strategy is based on the calculation of a 'worst case index' that incorporates information about drug solubility, cleaning difficulty, and occupancy rate in the production line. It allowed a reduction in the required number of validations considering the possible manufacturing flow of a given product and the subsequent flow, thus facilitating the process by reducing operation time and cost. The products identified as 'worst case' were LRs PUL-TEC and MIBI-TEC. (author). (author)

  13. Study of 99mTc Pertechnetate Radiopharmaceuticals in Relation to Thyroid Hormone for Toxic and non-Toxic Diffuse Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Viantri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities of the thyroid gland in the form of enlargement of the thyroid gland are called a goiter. Goiter is divided into two types, namely toxic and non-toxic diffuse goiter. Diagnosis could be done with thyroid scan (in vivo and test for thyroid hormone value (in vitro. Thyroid scan is applied by giving injection of 99mTc Pertechnetate as much as 2 - 5 mCi intravenally in the arm and then thyroid gland and salivary glands imaging were conducted in the fifth minute, tenth minute and fifteenth minute using gamma camera. Thyroid hormones test in blood is done with radioimmunoassay method. The same pattern showed the accumulation polad of the radioactive number from quotation of salivary glands. The accumulation percentage activity of 99mTc Pertechnetate in thyroid gland for the case of toxic diffuse goiter is larger than the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter. The results of this study indicate that the predictors for the case of toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by high thyroid uptake which the the value of T3 hormone 3.3 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 165 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 0.2 μIU/ml. While the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by low thyroid uptake which the value of T3 hormone 1.2 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 90 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 1.8 μIU/ml

  14. Synthesis and evaluation in vitro in cancer cells AR42J of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-Tyr{sup 3}-Octreotide-dendrimer similar of somatostatin; Sintesis y evaluacion in vitro en celulas de cancer AR42J del radiofarmaco {sup 99m}Tc-Tyr{sup 3}-Octreotido-dendrimero analogo de la somatostatina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orocio R, E.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this project was preparing a multimeric system through the conjugation of several molecules of the peptide Tyr{sup 3}-Octreotide to a dendrimer molecule based on Poly-amidoamine (PAMAM), as well as radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc and evaluating its behavior like new radiopharmaceutical similar of somatostatin. The dendrimer PAMAM generation 3.5 that possesses terminal groups of sodium carboxylate, was functionalized to peptide Tyr{sup 3}-Octreotide through a reaction of peptide coupling with HATU (hexafluorophosphate (V) of 1-oxide-3-(bis(dimethylamino)methylene)-3H-[1,2,3]triazole[4,5-b]pyridine) as activating agent of carboxylate groups using the Size Exclusion Chromatography (Sec) as purification method. The product was characterized by Ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry, Mid-infrared and Far-infrared, Elemental analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Thermogravimetry and Differential scanning calorimetry. The radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc was carried out using a direct method that involves the reduction of the anion TcO{sub 4}{sup -} with stannous chloride, so that the dendrimer is capable of coordinating to the technetium forming a chelate compound. The radiochemical purity of the radiolabeled compound was determined by thin layer chromatography using a sodium chloride solution to 20% (m/v) as mobile phase and was verified by molecular exclusion chromatography. The radiolabeled compound was possible to obtain it with a radiochemical purity superior to 90%. Also, the specific and not specific union was evaluated of the synthesized compound in mouse pancreas cancer cells AR42J, positive to somatostatin receptors, showing specific recognition for this receptors type with high cellular internalization. The biodistribution studies were carried out in BALB/c mice at different post injection times and in nude mice with induced tumors AR42J. The results showed that the {sup 99m}Tc-PAMAM-Tyr{sup 3}-Octreotide is

  15. The first experience of using {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based radiopharmaceutical for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinilkin, I. G.; Chernov, V. I.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernyshova, A. L. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lyapunov, A. Yu., E-mail: Lyapunov1720.90@mail.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kolomiets, L. A. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, Moskovsky Trakt 2, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based radiopharmaceutical, a novel molecular imaging agent for sentinel lymph node detection in patients with invasive cervical cancer. The study included 23 cervical cancer patients (T1aNxMx-T2bNxMx) treated at the Tomsk Cancer Research Institute. In the 18 hours before surgery, 80 MBq of the {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in peritumoral injected, followed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the pelvis and intraoperative SLN identification. Twenty-seven SLNs were detected by SPECT, and 34 SLNs were identified by intraoperative gamma probe. The total number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 3 (the mean number of SLNs was 1.4 per patient). The most common site for SLN detection was the external iliac region (57.2%), followed by the internal iliac (14%), obturator (14%), presacral and retrosacral regions (14%), and the parametrial region (1%). Sensitivity in detecting SLNs was 100% for intraoperative SLN identification and 79% for SPECT image.

  16. Discordant results in Tc-99m tetrofosmin and Tc-99m sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphies

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Domingues, Fernanda C.; Costa, Michele Santi; Brandão, Cynthia; Oliveira, Marco A.C. de; Vieira, José G.H.

    2007-01-01

    Parathyroid scintigraphies have been used to detect pathological parathyroid glands either before as well as after the parathyroid resection surgery in patients with hyperparathyroidism. One of the most utilized techniques to perform the studies is the double-phase images with Tc-99m sestamibi, which has been shown to be very accurate in the localization of enlarged parathyroid glands. Similar to Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m tetrofosmin is a radiopharmaceutical initially developed to perform myoc...

  17. Technetium-99m in production and use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučina Jurij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several types of generators have been developed for the production of 99mTc. Due to its excellent performances, the chromatographic type, based on the fission-produced 99Mo sorbed in alumina, is predominant. Technetium-99m is obtained in the form of sodium pertechnetate-99mTc. However, due to the known disadvantages of the production of (n, f99Mo, attempts are made to avoid uranium fission. The technologies based on (n, g99Mo (sublimation, extraction, gel are, with the exception of the gel generator, of limited importance. Certain nuclear reactions in cyclotrons can produce 99Mo (or directly 99mTc but the obtained results are still not satisfying. Technetium-99m is used in the form of radiopharmaceuticals which are prepared by addition of 99mTc-eluate to the inactive components comprised in the 'cold' kits. The chromatographic (n, f99Mo/99mTc generator and several 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals have been developed and are regularly produced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Laboratory for Radioisotopes.

  18. Revision: quality control of {sup 99m}Tc; Revisao: controle da qualidade do {sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, S.M.; Kabad, M.C. [Universidade Estacio de Sa (UESA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Teixeira, G.J.; Sousa, C H.S., E-mail: sanny.alves@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The radiopharmaceutical most commonly used in nuclear medicine is technetium-99m. Radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc are the main agents for diagnosis, being used in the vast majority of procedures due to radionuclide characteristics. During its preparation impurities can be generated that make products with different qualities of the desired. In this paper were presented some of the factors that can interfere with radiopharmaceuticals and the tests used for quality assurance, certifying that the product is fit for purpose. It is up to nuclear medicine centers deploy a program to raise the quality of exams and increase patient safety. (author)

  19. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of 99mTc-Ethylene-l-dicysteine (99mTc-EC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surma, M J; Wiewiórka, J; Szadkowska, A; Liniecki, J

    1999-01-01

    Ethylenedicysteine-99mTc (99mTc-EC) has been more and more commonly applied in dynamic studies as well as for clearance determinations. However, it was necessary to investigate in detail the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the radiopharmaceutical which may be important for its applicability in assessment of renal function. Kidney images obtained from renoscintigraphy are characterised by excellent quality without visualisation of the organs adjacent to kidneys (liver, spleen). Renoscintigraphic curves demonstrate typical shapes with TMAX and T1/2 values not differing from the corresponding values obtained for other radiopharmaceuticals (99mTc-MAG3, 131I-OIH). In plasma, 99mTc-EC binds with proteins to a considerably lesser degree (c. 1/3) than 131I-OIH (c. 2/3), or 99mTc-MAG3 (> 9/10). No binding of 99mTc-EC with erythrocytes has been demonstrated, whereas 131I-OIH attaches to or penetrates the red blood cells (10-12%). 99mTc-EC is quickly excreted from the organism: 40 min after i.v. injection up to 70% of the administered radiopharmaceutical is found in urine, and at 1 and 1.5 h after the administration 80% and 95%, respectively. The distribution of 99mTc-EC in the organism can be described in a fully satisfactory way by means of an open two-compartment model, which allows this model to be used for clearance determinations. Comparison of the values of renal plasma clearance without collection of urine with the values determined by means of measurement of activity excreted with urine and mean blood concentration over a finite time interval leads to the conclusion that extrarenal plasma clearance of this compound (via the liver?) is negligible and amounts to c. 17 ml/min (5-6% of the total). The obtained correlation between clearance values for 99mTc-EC and 131I-OIH supports the contention that extrarenal excretion rate of 99mTc-EC (through the liver and bile ducts) is lower than the corresponding rates of either 131I-OIH or 99mTc-MAG3. A very close correlation

  20. Study of the viability of technetium-{sup 99m} labeling of whole antimyosin antibody and its fragment: development of radiopharmaceutical for cardiac survey; Estudo da viabilidade da marcacao com tecnecio-99m do anticorpo antimiosina integro e seu fragmento: desenvolvimento de radiofarmaco para avaliacao cardiaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Guilherme Luiz de Castro

    2007-07-01

    In the acute myocardium infarction, the myocytes cell membrane loses its integrity, allowing the influx of extracellular macromolecules such as circulating antibody into the damaged cell. The use of the specific antibodies against cardiac myosin labeled with {sup 99m}Tc allows to determine the localization and extension of myocardial infarction. The purpose of this work was to study the viability of labeling of the antimyosin monoclonal antibody and its fragment F(ab')2 with {sup 99m}Tc. Because of the high cost of antimyosin antibody, others antibodies were used to optimize the methodology and the best condition was used for antimyosin antibody. The intact antibody was cleaved by pepsin to produce F(ab'){sub 2} fragment. The F(ab'){sub 2} and the intact antibody were reduced by treatment with Dithiothreitol (DTT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and labeled with {sup 99m}Tc by direct method. Different concentrations of reductant, mixing conditions and incubation times were studied. In the standard condition, incubation at molar ratio 1:1000 (antibody:reducing agent) at room temperature for 30 minutes with continuous rotation (850 rpm), 13.28 - SH groups were formed per molecule. It was studied the influence of p H, of the concentration of stannous chloride (Sn{sup 2+}) and incubation time in the labeling condition. The better radiochemical yield (90.06 +- 1.53%) was obtained using 2.5 {mu}g of Sn{sup 2+} in p H 4.5 for 60 minutes. The labeling of the fragment F(ab'){sub 2} did not present satisfactory results because of the low yield of the digestion. After purification by PD-10, the biodistribution study was performed and showed that the intact antimyosin antibody labeled with {sup 99m}Tc presented fast kinetic compatible with the biodistribution of an intact antibody labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. Scintigraphy image of the animal with myocardial infarction was obtained and compared with the image of a normal animal. The studies allow to conclude that

  1. Discordant results in Tc-99m tetrofosmin and Tc-99m sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphies; Resultados discordantes em cintilografias das paratireoides realizadas com tetrofosmin-99mTc e com sestamibi-99mTc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Domingues, Fernanda C.; Santi Costa, Michele; Brandao, Cynthia; Oliveira, Marco A.C. de; Vieira, Jose G.H. [Fleury - Centro de Medicina Diagnostica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: paulo.duarte@fleury.com.br

    2007-10-15

    Parathyroid scintigraphies have been used to detect pathological parathyroid glands either before as well as after the parathyroid resection surgery in patients with hyperparathyroidism. One of the most utilized techniques to perform the studies is the double-phase images with Tc-99m sestamibi, which has been shown to be very accurate in the localization of enlarged parathyroid glands. Similar to Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m tetrofosmin is a radiopharmaceutical initially developed to perform myocardial perfusion study that has been used to perform parathyroid scintigraphies. Although most of the papers suggest that the overall sensitivities of both radiopharmaceuticals are similar, there are some papers questioning the accuracy of Tc-99m tetrofosmin to detect abnormal parathyroid glands. In the present article, we report a case with discordant results by both methods. (author)

  2. Miniaturized Radiochemical Purity Testing for (99m)Tc-HMPAO, (99m)Tc-HMDP, and (99m)Tc-Tetrofosmin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, Ana de la; Zanca, Roberta; Boni, Roberto; Cataldi, Angela G; Sollini, Martina; Lazzeri, Elena; Mariani, Giuliano; Erba, Paola A

    2017-09-01

    Quick methods are functional in clinical practice to ensure the fastest availability of radiopharmaceuticals. For this purpose, we investigated the radiochemical purity of the widely used (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate, (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime, and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin by reducing time as compared with the manufacturer's method. Methods: We applied a miniaturized chromatographic method with a reduced strip development from 18 cm to 9 cm for all 3 radiopharmaceuticals. The specific support medium and solvent system of the manufacturer's methods was kept unchanged for (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin, whereas for (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime the instant thin-layer chromatography (ITLC) polysilicic gel (silicic acid [SA]) was replaced with a monosilicic gel (silicic gel [SG]) in the chromatographic system that uses methyl ethyl ketone as solvent. The method was applied and compared with the routine ITLC insert method in a total of 30 batches for each radiopharmaceutical. The precision of repeated tests was determined by comparison with the results of 10 replications on the same batch. Small volumes of concentrated (99m)TcO4(-), and (99m)Tc-albumin nanocolloid were used to produce potential radiochemical impurities. Correlation between the quick methods and the insert methods was analyzed using a nonparametric 2-tailed test and a 2 × 2 contingency table with the associated Fisher exact test to evaluate sensitivity and specificity. A receiver-operating-characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the best cutoff. Results: The percentage radiochemical purity of the quick methods agreed with the standard chromatography procedures. We found that (99m)TcO4 and colloidal impurities are not the only common radiochemical impurities with (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin, and shortening of the ITLC strip with respect to the manufacturer's method will worsen system resolution and may produce inaccuracy. Conclusion: The

  3. Technetium-99m generator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Collins, E.D.

    1998-06-30

    A {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating {sup 99m}Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of {sup 99m}Tc includes the general steps of: (a) providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; (b) eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute {sup 99m}Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted {sup 99m}Tc on the ion-exchange column; and (c) eluting the concentrated {sup 99m}Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent. 1 fig.

  4. Technetium-99m-dimethylglyoxime ([sup 99m]Tc-DMG) as renal imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonaylo, V.N. (Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas); Stahl, Adriana; Pomilio, A.B.; Vitale, A.A. (Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales); Canellas, C.O. (Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-06-01

    Dimethylglyoxime (DMG) labelled with [sup 99m]Tc is presented as a renal imaging agent. The behaviour of this complex was analysed at different pH by means of UV spectral data and using DMG-calcium chloride as a reference complex. Biokinetic data were evaluated in two biological models, Sprague-Dawley rats and Didelphis albiventris argentine opossum. Biodistribution in rats demonstrated fast and specific renal excretion. Time-activity values over both kidneys could be quantified for this complex. Renographic studies led to mean time-to maximum values on twelve assays of 2.0 [+-] 0.1 min and a mean relative function of 53.0 [+-] 2.3 and 47.0 [+-] 3.2 for right and left kidneys, respectively. [sup 99m]Tc-DMG showed specificity for the renal excretion pathway and therefore seems to be a very useful radiopharmaceutical for renal function studies. (Author).

  5. Experimental study of 99mTc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, V. I.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p imported analogue and its practical application will facilitate intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes.

  6. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3) and Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa); Evaluacion de la dosis absorbida en los rinones debido al Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (MAG3) y Tc{sup 99m} (DMSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez A, M.; Murillo C, F.; Castillo D, C.; Rocha J, J.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Sanchez S, P. [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Trujillo (Peru); Idrogo C, J.; Marquez P, F., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Av. Angamos 2520, Lima (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    The absorbed dose in the kidneys of adult patients has been assessed using the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3) or Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa).The absorbed dose was calculated using the formalism MIRD and the Cristy-Eckerman representation for the kidneys. The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3), are given by 0.00466 mGy.MBq{sup -1} / 0.00339 mGy.MBq{sup -1}. Approximately 21.2% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder (content) and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3). The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa) is 0.17881 mGy.MBq{sup -1}. Here, 1.7% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder, spleen, liver and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa). (Author)

  7. Assessment of the best N(3-) donors in preparation of [M(N)(PNP)]-based (M=(99m)Tc-; (188)Re) target-specific radiopharmaceuticals: Comparison among succinic dihydrazide (SDH), N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate (HDTCZ) and PEGylated N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate (HO2C-PEG600-DTCZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Davide; Jentschel, Christian; Thieme, Stefan; Salvarese, Nicola; Morellato, Nicolò; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Ruzza, Paolo; Bergmann, Ralf; Pietzsch, Hans-Jurgen; Bolzati, Cristina

    2014-08-01

    Succinic dihydrazide (SDH), N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate (HDTCZ) and PEGylated N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate (HO2C-PEG600-DTCZ) are nitrido nitrogen atom donors employed for the preparation of nitride [M(N)]-complexes (M=(99m)Tc and (188)Re). This study aims to compare the capability and the efficiency of these three N(3-) group donors, in the preparation of [M(N)PNP]-based target-specific compounds (M=(99m)Tc, (188)Re; PNP=aminodiphosphine). For this purpose, three different kit formulations (SDH kit; HO2C-PEG600-DTCZ kit; HDTCZ kit) were assembled and used in the preparation of [M(N)(cys~)(PNP3)](0/+) complexes (cys~=cysteine derivate ligands). For each formulation, the radiochemical yield (RCY) of the [M(N)(~cys)(PNP3)] compounds, was determined by HPLC. The deviation of the percentage of RCY, due to changes in concentration of the N(3-) donors and of the exchanging ligand, was determined. For (99m)Tc, data clearly show that HDTCZ is the most efficient donor of N(3-); however, SDH is the most suitable nitrido nitrogen atom donor for the preparation of [(99m)Tc(N)(PNP)]-based target-specific agents with high specific activity. When HO2C-PEG600-DTCZ or HDTCZ are used in N(3-) donation, high amounts of the exchanging ligand (10(-4)M) were required for the formation of the final complex in acceptable yield. The possibility to use microgram amounts of HDTCZ also in [(188)Re(N)] preparation (0.050mg) reduces its ability to compete in ligand exchange reactions, minimizing the quantity of chelators required to obtain the final complex in high yield. This finding can be exploit for increasing the radiolabeling efficiency in [(188)Re(N)]-radiopharmaceutical preparations compared to the previously reported HDTCZ-based procedure, notwithstanding a purification process could be necessary to improve the specific activity of the complexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Asialoglycoprotein receptor targeted imaging using Tc-99m galactosylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. M.; Jeong, H. J.; Kim, B. C.; Kim, C. K [Wonkang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) is expressed on liver hepatocytes. Chitosan conjugates of galactose have shown to be specifically taken up by liver parenchymal cells via ASGP-R. In this study, Tc-99m hydrazino nicotinamide (HYNIC)-galactosylated chitosan (HYNIC-GC) was synthesized and evaluated as a targeted agent for the imaging of hepatocytes. GC was obtained after coupling of lactobionic acid as the galactose moiety and coupled with HYNIC. HYNIC-GC was radiolabeled with Tc-99m using stannous chloride and tricine as reducing agent and coligand respectively. Hepatic uptake property of Tc-99m HYNIC-GC was studied in female Balb/C mouse. Tc-99m HYNIC--GC and Tc-99m HYNIC-Chitosan as a control were intravenously injected into mice. Receptor binding was identified by coinjection with 50 mM and 80mM free galactose respectively. Biodistribution was determined at three different time points. The level of galactose substitution was 7.6%. Labeling efficiency was >90% both in vitro and serum up to 24 h. Tc-99m HYNIC-GC injected via tail vein of mice showed high selectivity of liver. On the other hands, Tc-99m HC without galactose group showed low uptake (Fig. 1A, 1B). Hepatic uptake of Tc-99m HYNIC-GC was dramatically blocked by 50 mM and 80 mM free galactose coinjection (Fig. 1C, 1D). The liver accumulated about 14 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g) up to 120 min after injection. Tc-99m HYNIC-GC showed specific and rapid targeting to liver. It is a promising specific radiopharmaceutical with potential applications in the imaging of liver parenchymal cells.

  9. Comparative biological evaluation between {sup 99m}Tc tricarbonyl and {sup 99m}Tc-Sn(II) levosalbutamol as a β{sub 2}-adrenoceptor agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanad, Mahmoud H. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Labeled Compounds Dept.; Borai, Emad H. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Analytical Chemistry Dept.

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the comparison between {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl and {sup 99m}Tc-Sn (II) levosalbutamol as a β{sub 2}-adrenoceptors radiopharmaceutical and evaluation of their different biological characteristics using experimental animals. Levosalbutamol was labeled firstly with {sup 99m}Tc in the presence of SnCl{sub 2} . 2H{sub 2}O as a reducing agent under the optimum conditions: pH 8, 50 μg SnCl{sub 2} . 2H{sub 2}O, room temperature, 40 μg levosalbutamol and 30 min reaction time to give a maximum radiochemical yield of 98 ± 0.1%. The obtained {sup 99m}Tc-levosalbutamol was stable for a time up to 8 h. Secondly, {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl ([{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sup +}) levosalbutamol was prepare under 30 min heating at 100 C. Labeling yield and stability were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (labeling yield >99% and stability for 8 h). Biodistribution investigation showed that, the maximum uptake ratio of the {sup 99m}Tc-levosalbutamol ({sup 99m}Tc-Lev) between lung and heart was 2.34 ± 0.62 % of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 30 min post-injection. But in case of {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl levosalbutamol ({sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl Lev) the maximum uptake ratio was 3.6 ± 0.11 of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 30 min post-injection. This indicates that {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl levosalbutamol was more selective for lung β{sub 2}-adrenoceptors than {sup 99m}Tc-levosalbutamol. These results introduce {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl levosalbutamol as a novel potential radiopharmaceutical for lung imaging.

  10. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  11. Validation of an alternative radiochemical purity method for [99mTc]pentetate ([99mTc]DTPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borré, María Candela; Tesán, Fiorella C; Leonardi, Natalia M; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Salgueiro, M Jimena

    2013-12-01

    [(99m)Tc]pentetate ([(99m)Tc]DTPA) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical renography agent. The aim of this work was to validate an alternative method for assessing [(99m)Tc]DTPA radiochemical purity (RCP), according to the ICH Q2(R1) guidance: "Validation of Analytical Procedures". The proposed method is composed of two chromatographic systems. System A is a miniaturized system of thin layer chromatography (TLC) silica gel impregnated aluminum strips as stationary phase (SP) and distilled water as mobile phase (MP). System B consists of Whatman 1 paper strips as SP and methyl ethyl ketone as MP. Results indicate that the proposed RCP method has been validated, as it is specific, precise, accurate, linear and robust. Therefore, it can be used as an alternative method for RCP quality control purposes and as stability indicator as well. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and biodistrubition modeling of 99mTc-DTPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Bricha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, the team modeled the biodistribution and the efficiency of two 99m-technetium diethylene triamine penta acetate (99mTc-DTPA based radiopharmaceuticals.Methods: The first radiopharmaceutical (DTPA-CNESTEN is developed at the laboratories of the radiopharmaceutical production unit of the National Center for Nuclear Energy, Sciences and Technologies (CNESTEN-Morocco, and the second one is the commercial DTPA (DTPA-ref. Freeze-dried kits were successfully radiolabeled (radiochemical purity >95% with the 99m Tc. Then drugs were injected to male BALB/c mice. In each 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 1 h and 2 h time points after injections we evaluate tissue’s distributions characteristics. At the end, an automatic modeling of the data were recorded from thyroid, blood and urinary excretion kinetics and biodistribution in mice using both DTPA kits. The study aimed to extract the parameters of the function used to fit the recorded data. Results and Conclusion: the team concluded that the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA can be modeled using a combination of two exponential parts. Moreover, the resultant plots showed that there is strong correlation between the formula found in literature and the one derived on the basis of the fit of data sets in this study. In addition, it was found that the biodistribution behaviors of the developed kit and the commercial one were very close. The obtained results suggest that the developed DTPA has practically the same kinetics as the commercial one.

  13. Scintigraphic findings on {sup 99m}Tc-MDP, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO images in Gaucher`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, G. [Nuclear Medicine Service, DIMI, University of Genoa (Italy); Molea, N. [Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); La Civita, L. [Rheumatology Unit, University of Pisa (Italy); Porciello, G. [Rheumatology Unit, University of Pisa (Italy); Lazzeri, E. [Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Ferri, C. [Rheumatology Unit, University of Pisa (Italy)

    1996-04-01

    We report here on the use of the lipophilic cationic complex technetium-99m sestamibi ({sup 99m}Tc-MIBI), employed as an indicator of increased cellular density and metabolic activity, to evaluate Gaucher cell infiltrates in the bone marrow; {sup 99m}Tc-hexametazime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) was also employed, as a pure indicator of lipidic infiltration in the bone marrow. A 67-year-old patient with known type 1 Gaucher`s disease presented with a painful left hip and knee and difficulty in gait subsequent to traumatic fracture of the left femoral neck that had required implant of a fixation screw-plaque. Bone scan with {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate revealed reduced uptake at the distal metaphyseal-epiphyseal femoral region. In addition, whole-body maps and spot-view acquisitions of the thighs and legs were recorded at both 30 min and 2.5 h after the injection of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI: the scintigraphic pattern clearly showed increased uptake at several sites involved by Gaucher deposits in the bone marrow (both knees, with variable intensity in different areas), matching the bone changes detected by conventional x-ray. The target to non-target ratios slowly decreased with time, from an average value of 2.25 in the early scan to an average value of 2 in the delayed scan. The lipid-soluble agent {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO exhibited a superimposable scintigraphic pattern of accumulation at the involved sites, though with lower target to non-target ratios (1.27-1.48). The results obtained in this patient suggest a potential role of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in the scintigraphic evaluation of Gaucher`s lipid deposits in the bone marrow. If the results are confirmed in other patients, this radiopharmaceutical would offer clear advantages over {sup 133}Xe because of its wider availability and greater practicality (i.v. administration of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI versus inhalation of {sup 133}Xe, and use of a single gamma camera instead of two as with {sup 133}Xe). (orig.). With 3 figs.

  14. The Study of 99mTc-Aluminum Oxide Using for Sentinel Lymph Nodes Detection in Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, A. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.; Dergilev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research of the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes in the experiment. Measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. Average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node - at 1 hour after administration the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower - 1,8% (p imported analogue and its practical application will facilitate intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes.

  15. Organometallic Radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Roger

    Although molecular imaging agents have to be synthesized ultimately from aqueous solutions, organometallic complexes are becoming more and more important as flexible yet kinetically stable building blocks for radiopharmaceutical drug discovery. The diversity of ligands, targets, and targeting molecules related to these complexes is an essential base for finding novel, noninvasive imaging agents to diagnose and eventually treat widespread diseases such as cancer. This review article covers the most important findings toward these objectives accomplished during the past 3-4 years. The two major available organometallic building blocks will be discussed in the beginning together with constraints for market introduction as imposed by science and industry. Since targeting radiopharmaceuticals are a major focus of current research in molecular imaging, attempts toward so-called technetium essential radiopharmaceuticals will be briefly touched in the beginning followed by the main discussion about the labeling of targeting molecules such as folic acid, nucleosides, vitamins, carbohydrates, and fatty acids. At the end, some new strategies for drug discovery will be introduced together with results from organometallic chemistry in water. The majority of the new results have been achieved with the [99mTc(OH2)3(CO)3]+ complex which will, though not exclusively, be a focus of this review.

  16. Osteomyelitis diagnosis by {sup 99m}Tc radiolabeled aptamers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, S.R.; Ferreira, I.M.; Andrade, A.S.R., E-mail: sararoberta7@hotmail.com, E-mail: imendesf@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: antero@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barros, A.L.B.; Cardoso, V.N.; Diniz, O.F., E-mail: brancodebarros@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: valbertcardoso@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: simoneodilia@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas

    2015-07-01

    Osteomyelitis, which is characterized by progressive inflammatory destruction and new opposition of bone, is still a difficult infection to treat. The clinical diagnosis in late stages is achieved easily, but an early diagnosis is more challenging. Staphylococcus aureus is a common agent found in osteomyelitis and bone prostheses infection. Diagnosis by scintigraphy has advantages because it is a non-invasive procedure and is able to perform an early diagnosis even before anatomic changes. Thus, nuclear medicine could contribute to an accurate diagnosis since specific radiopharmaceuticals were developed. In this study, aptamers selected to Staphylococcus aureus were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and used for bacteria identification in an osteomyelitis experimental model. The aptamers selected to S. aureus were directly labelled with {sup 99m}Tc and were evaluated by biodistribution studies. Wistar rats with intraosseous infection in the right paw were used. A random aptamer labelled with {sup 99m}Tc was as control. Six animals were used in each group. The aptamers labeled with {sup 99m}Tc were able to identify the infection foci caused by S. aureus displaying a target/non-target ratio of 2,23 ± 0,20, after 3 h. The control group presented a target/non-target ratio 1,08 ± 0.23. The results indicated that the radiolabeled aptamers were able to identify specifically the infection foci and they should be further explored for infection diagnosis by scintigraphy. (author)

  17. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with 99mTc in alcoholic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Sazonova, S. I.; Zelchan, R. V.; Villa, N. E.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with 99mTc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  18. Dosimetry of 99mTc (DTPA, DMSA and MAG3) used in renal function studies of newborns and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Marcial Vásquez; Caballero, Víctor Murillo; Rengifo, Kelman Marín

    2017-07-28

    The dose to kidneys of newborns and 1-year old children was calculated using the MIRD methodology. In order to perform renal studies radiopharmaceutical like 99mTc-DTPA, 99m Tc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA are used. Here, besides the anatomic and structure information of kidneys another data are provided in benefit of patient, however during the radioisotope decay emitted radiations delivers, totally or partially, their energy. Therefore is important to estimate the internal radiation dose of the organs. The largest dose to kidneys comes from the self-dose and it is due to the charged particles emitted during 99mTc decay. From the three radiopharmaceutical here used the largest dose to kidneys is due to 99mTc-DMSA, and the smaller dose is due to 99mTc-MAG3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiopharmaceuticals in Acute Porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Nanno; Mamedova, Ilahä; Jansman, Frank G A

    2016-10-01

    The acute porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Carriers of the acute porphyria gene are prone to potentially fatal acute attacks, which can be precipitated by drug exposure. It is therefore important to know whether a drug is safe for carriers of the acute porphyria gene. In this study, radiopharmaceuticals were assessed on their porphyrogenicity (ie, the potential of a drug to induce an attack). The assessment was conducted by classifying the drugs according to the Thunell model. From 41 radiopharmaceuticals assessed, I-131 norcholesterol, Tc-99m mebrofenin, Tc-99m phytate, Tc-99m sestamibi, and Tl-201 chloride were classified as possibly porphyrogenic. I-131 norcholesterol, Tc-99m mebrofenin, Tc-99m phytate, Tc-99m sestamibi, and Tl-201 chloride should not be prescribed for patients experiencing acute porphyria unless an urgent indication is present and no safer alternative is available. In such cases, potential users should seek advice from a porphyria expert. Preventive measures may also be required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic comparison of radiolabeled bleomycin and bleomycin-glucuronide labeled with 99mTc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçan, Feray; Avcıbaşı, Ugur; Unak, Perihan; Müftüler, Fazilet Zümrüt Biber; Içhedef, Cigdem A; Demiroğlu, Hasan; Gümüşer, Fikriye G

    2011-10-01

    The metabolic comparison of bleomycin (BLM) and bleomycin-glucuronide (BLMG) radiolabeled with (99m)Tc ((99m)Tc-BLM and (99m)Tc-BLMG, respectively) has been investigated in this study. Quality control procedures were carried out using thin-layer radiochromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. To compare the metabolic behavior of BLM and its glucuronide conjugate radiolabeled with (99m)Tc, scintigraphic, and biodistributional techniques were applied using male New Zealand rabbits and Albino Wistar rats. The results obtained have shown that these compounds were successfully radiolabeled with a labeling yield of about 100%. Maximum uptakes of (99m)Tc-BLM and (99m)Tc-BLMG metabolized as N-glucuronide were observed within 2 hours in the liver, the bladder, and the spinal cord for (99m)Tc-BLM and the lung, the liver, the kidney, the large intestine, and the spinal cord for (99m)Tc-BLMG, respectively. Scintigraphy and biodistributional studies performed on the experimental animals have shown that radiopharmaceutical potentials of these compounds are completely different. At the same time, uptake of the (99m)Tc-BLMG was found to be better than that of (99m)Tc-BLM.

  1. Experimental study of {sup 99m}Tc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, V. I., E-mail: Chernov@oncology.tomsk.ru; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lyapunov, A. Yu., E-mail: Lyapunov1720.90@mail.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52–77 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 16.7–24.5 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of {sup 99}mTc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the lymph node was significantly higher than {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose

  2. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz; Cristiano Ferrari Siqueira; David Lee Nelson; Josep Martin-Comin; Valbert Nascimento Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of 99mTc-ceftizoxime (99mTc-CFT), with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli) in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/mL). After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate solution (Na99mTcO4-) with an...

  3. Optical imaging of Tc-99m-based tracers: in vitro and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Lo Meo, Sergio; Calandrino, Riccardo; Sbarbati, Andrea; Boschi, Federico

    2011-11-01

    It has been recently shown that optical imaging (OI) methods can be used to image the in vivo biodistribution of several radiopharmaceuticals labeled with beta or alpha emitters. In this work particular attention has been focused on investigating the weaker optical signal induced by an almost pure gamma emitter like Tc-99m. Visible light emission measurements of a water solution containing Tc-99m were performed using a small animal OI system. A sequence of images was acquired for 24 h in order to study the decay of the luminescence signal. The difference between the luminescence decay half life and well-known Tc-99m half life was equal to 1%. in vivo imaging was performed by injecting one control nude mice with Tc-99m-MDP. Optical images obtained with equipment designed for bioluminescence imaging showed that a visible light emission was distinguishable and correctly localized in the bladder region where a higher concentration of Tc-99m-MDP was expected. The bladder to background ratio was always greater than 1. We conclude that the experimental data presented in this paper show that it is possible to detect in vivo luminescence optical photons induced by Tc-99m. This is important especially considering the large number of Tc-99m-based radiopharmaceutical currently available.

  4. Study of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA biodistribution in experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Thais O.M. de; Silva, Natanael G. da; Colturato, Maria T.; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Araújo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: thais.castrom@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2017-11-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, succimer ({sup 99m}Tc), is a radiopharmaceutical commonly used in nuclear medicine for renal function evaluation by imaging. In order to achieve adequate labeling of the product with good radiochemical yield and standardized biological distribution, the interval of 185 - 3700 MBq should be kept in a maximum volume of 3 mL for product labeling. Moreover, one should avoid exposing the reconstituted solution to oxygen and using the product after four hours post labeling. The aim of the study was to quantify and evaluate the influence of different DMSA complexes on biological distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in experimental animals, taking in account variations in the labeling parameters. Radiochemical purity was determined by paper and thin layer chromatography using both acetone/Whatman 3MM, 0.9% NaCl/TLC-SG and n-propanol/ H{sub 2}O/acetic acid (4:3:1 V/V/V)/TLC-SG systems respectively for quantification of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} - and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2} plus some {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA complexes. The labeling activity did not significantly affect the extent of the main complex generation. The presence of oxygen and the concentration of {sup 99}Tc did not markedly change the percentage of the radiochemical impurities in the preparation. Radiochemical purity tests of the DMSA-{sup 99m}Tc based on IPEN-CNEN DMSA-TEC reagent and on another producer's reagent showed similar results. Although the routine method used by IPEN-CNEN to determine the radiochemical yield of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA was not able to discriminate among {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA complexes, the renal uptake and the kidney to liver plus spleen uptake ratio in rats met the official compendia criteria for the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  5. Rapid miniaturized chromatography for Tc-99m IDA agents: comparison with gel chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A M; Majewski, W; Spies, S M

    1982-01-01

    Miniaturized chromatography systems for determining free pertechnetate and hydrolyzed reduced 99mTc levels in commercial 99mTc-labeled iminodiacetate (IDA) hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated and the results compared with gel chromatography column scanning (GCS). Commercial IDA agents were evaluated including 2,6-dimethyl IDA, p-isopropyl IDA, p-butyl IDA, and 2,6-diisopropyl IDA. Of all the chromatography systems evaluated, only Gelman ITLC-SA with 20% NaCl and Gelman ITLC-SG with distilled water correlated with GCS in evaluating free pertechnetate and hydrolyzed reduced 99mTc levels for all IDA radiopharmaceuticals. The miniaturized chromatography procedure, as outlined, is rapid, taking less than 4 min, and can easily be incorporated into the daily quality control program in any nuclear medicine facility.

  6. Comparative study of radiopharmaceuticals as radiodiagnostic agent of cardiac damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil V, M.C.; Mena T, P. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones de los Isotopos y Radiaciones); Gallego H, R.; Mendoza A, J. (Chile Univ., Santiago. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Veterinarias y Forestales)

    1984-04-01

    Cardiac uptake studies with six radiopharmaceuticals have been performed at different time intervals, after to induce cardiac damage in rats as biological model. Phosphorous radiopharmaceuticals sup((99m) Tc-MDP and sup(113m) In-EDTMP) and /sup 197/Hg-MPG possessed the higher cardiac uptake compared with sup(99m) Tc-GH and sup(99m) Tc-DMSA.

  7. Optimizing images of acute deep-vein thrombosis using technetium-99m-apcitide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, R F; Streek, P V; Weiland, F L

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the nuclear medicine technologist to a new radiopharmaceutical, 99mTc-apcitide, for imaging acute venous thrombosis. After reading this paper, the technologist should be able to: (a) describe patient preparation for imaging with 99mTc-apcitide; (b) state the amount of 99mTc-apcitide that is administered to patients for imaging acute venous thrombosis; (c) explain patient positioning for optimal image acquisition; and (d) discuss gamma camera acquisition parameters and their importance in obtaining high-quality images. Clinical cases illustrate both the whole-body distribution and diagnostic value of 99mTc-apcitide in detecting acute deep-vein thrombosis.

  8. Labelling, biodistribution and compartmental analysis of N-acetylcysteine labelled with Tc-99m. Comparative investigation with with {sup 99m} Tc-MIBI in an in vivo tumoral model; Estudo de marcacao, biodistribuicao e analise compartimental da N-acetil cisteina marcada com Tc-99m. Investigacao comparativa com MIBI-{sup 99m}Tc em modelo tumoral in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faintuch, Bluma Linkowski

    1997-07-01

    Labelling and biodistribution studies were done with two different ligands, respectively Methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), employing Tc-99m as a tracer. The main objective was to assess the pharmacokinetic properties of the second substance, aiming at its possible application in cancer diagnosis. To this purpose an in vivo investigation was done using healthy and tumor-bearing rats with experimental cancer. Images of tumor-bearing rats registered in a scintillation camera indicated that with {sup 99m} Tc-MIBI none of the two selected times was adequate for visualization of the cancer mass. In contrast, {sup 99m} Tc-NAC permitted clear identification of the humor, four hours after injection. The results have demonstrated that {sup 99m} Tc-NAC is a radiopharmaceutical with affinity for cancer tissue and promising for further investigation concerning imaging diagnosis of tumors. (author)

  9. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of 99mTc-ceftizoxime (99mTc-CFT, with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/mL. After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate solution (Na99mTcO4- with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the 99mTc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli, the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of 99mTc-CFT (37 MBq was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for 99mTc-CFT were 27.16 ± 0.23 and 27.17 ± 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 ± 0.33 and 29.43 ± 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of 99mTc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 ± 0.31, 2.10 ± 0.42 and 2.01 ± 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic (99mTc-CFT by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with 99m technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the investigation of infectious processes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi preparar um kit de Tc

  10. Direct 99m Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by 99m Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Jou; Yen, Chao-Liang; Lo, Su-Tang; Chen, Kuo-Ting; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2008-03-01

    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [99m Tc(CO)3(OH2)3]+ ion in saline, a significant yield of 99m Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which 99m Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical 99m Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, alpha-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [99m Tc(CO)3(OH2)3]+. Retention of bioactivity of the 99m Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  11. Lead (Pb) column for concentration of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhari, T.H.; Khan, I.U. [Government College Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry; Mushtaq, A. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Isotope Production Division

    2007-07-01

    Because of the high content of inactive molybdenum in neutron irradiated MoO{sub 3}, large columns containing alumina or gel are needed to produce chromatographic {sup 99}Mo{yields}{sup 99m}Tc generator. This results in large elution volumes containing relatively high {sup 99}Mo breakthrough and low concentrations of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. The decrease in specific volume of {sup 99m}Tc places a limitation on reconstitution of some kits for {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals applied in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Hence concentration technique is mandatory for effective utilization of (n,{gamma}) produced {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators at the start of its life whereas in case of fission {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator the technique may be quite useful at the end of first week of its life. We report post elution concentration of {sup 99m}Tc using in house prepared Pb column. The high bolus volumes (10-60 ml saline) can conveniently be concentrated in {proportional_to} 1 ml of saline. (orig.)

  12. Abnormal gastrointestinal accumulation of radiotracer by gastric bleeding during {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kyung A.; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    We present a case in which a patient with acute hemorrhagic gastritis demonstrated abnormal gastrointestinal accumulation of radiotracer during {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) skeletal scintigraphy. A hemorrhagic gastritis was subsequently demonstrated by endoscopy. The mechanism for the intestinal localization of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in this patients is not clear, but we guess that the extravasated blood containing the radiopharmaceutical cannot recirculate and stays at the bleeding site, so we can see the intestinal activity.

  13. Functionalization of hydroxy compounds with nitrilotriacetic acid for technetium-99m chelation: excretory properties of the radiolabelled chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, M; Banerjee, S

    1991-01-01

    Substituted monoanilides of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) have gained much popularity in recent years as an important class of ligands for technetium-99m (99mTc) radiopharmaceutical preparations used in liver imaging and function studies. We were interested in investigating the properties of the corresponding ester analogues of this important class of ligands and for this study cyclohexanol was selected as a hydroxy component, which on condensation with nitrilotriacetic acid in the presence of acetic anhydride, furnished the monoester, N-cyclohexyloxycarbonylmethyl iminodiacetic acid 4 and the corresponding diester 5. Phenol on similar condensation produced mainly the diester, N,N-di(phenyloxycarbonylmethyl) aminoacetic acid 2, with traces of the corresponding monoester 7. A reinvestigation of the well known condensation reaction of aniline with nitrilotriacetic acid revealed that in addition to the reported monoanilide, N-phenylcarbamoylmethyl imino diacetic acid 3, the corresponding dianilide 6 was also produced in appreciable amount. The ester ligands 2, 4, 5 after 99mTc chelation exhibited good in vitro and in vivo stabilities. The biodistribution characteristics of these radiolabelled esters and amides were very similar showing thereby that esterification with NTA could be an effective method for converting alcohols to 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals without generating any unusual properties because of the ester linkage. Residual radiopharmaceutical concentration after i.v. administration of these amide and ester 99mTc chelates at 30 min in blood, urine, liver, kidney and intestine were correlated with their lipophilicities and during this correlation it was observed that in addition to lipophilicity the anionic strength of these chelates is also an important determinant in governing their biodistribution. The ester ligand 4 after 99mTc chelation showed ultrafast hepatobiliary kinetics and was therefore compared in a rabbit model with a standard hepatobiliary

  14. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with {sup 99m}Tc in alcoholic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S., E-mail: rogov@tpu.ru; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Villa, N. E. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Sazonova, S. I. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Cardiology, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with {sup 99m}Tc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  15. Gamma-ray impurities of {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 177}Lu and {sup 99m}Tc determined by means of a HPGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinas, Marina F.; Almeida, Jamille da Silveira; Moreira, Denise Simões; Semmler, Renato; Dias, Mauro da Silva, E-mail: koskinas@ipen.br, E-mail: jamillealmeida@gmail.com, E-mail: denise.moreira@ipen.br, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.br, E-mail: msdias@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This work aims to present the radioactive impurities gamma rays emitters detected in some radiopharmaceuticals widely applied to diagnosis and therapy purposes, supplied to nuclear medicine services in Brazil by the Radiopharmaceutical Center(CR) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN, in São Paulo. The analysis was undertaken by means of an HPGe gamma spectrometer. The radiopharmaceuticals analyzed were: {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 177}Lu and {sup 99m}Tc. (author)

  16. Technetium-99m-labeled stealth pH-sensitive liposomes: a new strategy to identify infection in experimental model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Vildete Aparecida Sousa; Oliveira, Monica Cristina de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos; Mota, Luciene das Gracas; Freire, Luis Paulo; Ferreira, Raphael Ligorio Benedito; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas]. E-mail: cardosov@farmacia.ufmg.br

    2007-09-15

    The diagnosis of inflammatory and infectious processes is an important goal in medicine. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for identification of inflammation and infection foci has received considerable attention. The aim of this work was to evaluate the uptake and the imaging potential of stealth pH-sensitive liposomes radiolabelled with {sup 99m}Technetium ({sup 99m}Tc) to identify infection sites in mice. The liposomes containing glutathione were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-Hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) complex. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled stealth pH-sensitive liposomes ({sup 99m}Tc-SpHL) were injected in mice bearing infection in the right thigh muscle induced by Staphylococcus aureus. Biodistribution studies and scintigraphic imaging were performed at different times after injection of radiopharmaceutical. The {sup 99}'mTc-SpHL was significantly uptaken by abscess when compared to the respective control. The abscess was visualized as early as 0.5 hours after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-SpHL becoming more prominent with the time. These results indicate that {sup 99}'mTc-SpHL is a promising radiopharmaceutical for visualizing infection foci in patients. (author)

  17. Application of (99m)Technetium-HYNIC(tricine/TPPTS)-Aca-Bombesin(7-14) SPECT/CT in prostate cancer patients A first-in-man study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananias, Hildo J. K.; Yu, Zilin; Hoving, Hilde D.; Rosati, Stefano; Dierckx, Ruth A.; Wang, Fan; Yan, Yongjun; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Pruim, Jan; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Helfrich, Wijnand; Elsinga, Philip H.; de Jong, Igle J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The peptide bombesin (BBN) and its derivatives exhibit high binding affinity for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), which is highly expressed in prostate cancer. We used the BBN-based radiopharmaceutical (99m)Technetium-HYNIC(tricine/TPPTS)-Aca-Bombesin(7-14) (Tc-99m-HABBN) to

  18. Comparative {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin uptake in human soft tissue sarcoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.; Chehne, F.; Sinzinger, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Vienna (Austria); Kalinowska, W.; Zielinski, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-12-01

    The uptake characteristics of technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI), {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin in human soft tissue sarcoma cell lines were investigated and compared. After 10-120 min of incubation at 37 C, 32 C and 22 C with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin, the kinetics of cellular uptake of these tracers in human soft tissue sarcoma cells SW 684 (fibrosarcoma), SW 872 (liposarcoma), SW 982 (synovial sarcoma) and SW 1353 (chondrosarcoma) was assessed. The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin was temperature dependent. The kinetics of uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin was similar between fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma cells, as well as between synovial sarcoma and chondrosarcoma cells. {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin showed similar uptake kinetics in all cell lines. The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin was, however, significantly higher in liposarcoma than in the other cells. The data indicate that the cellular uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin is dependent on cellular metabolic activity. (orig.)

  19. Hypoxia-induced redox alterations and their correlation with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and {sup 99m}Tc-HL-91 uptake in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrantes, Ana Margarida [Biophysics/Biomathematics Institute, IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Centre of Investigation on Environment Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail: mabrantes@ibili.uc.pt; Silva Serra, Maria Elisa [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3000-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, Ana Cristina [Biochemistry Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Centre of Investigation on Environment Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Rio, Joana; Oliveiros, Barbara; Laranjo, Mafalda [Biophysics/Biomathematics Institute, IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Rocha-Gonsalves, Antonio Manuel [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3000-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Centre of Investigation on Environment Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Sarmento-Ribeiro, Ana Bela [Biochemistry Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Centre of Investigation on Environment Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Filomena Botelho, Maria [Biophysics/Biomathematics Institute, IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Centre of Investigation on Environment Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2010-02-15

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the Western world and is an example of a solid tumour in which hypoxia is a common feature and develops because of the inability of the vascular system to supply adequate amounts of oxygen to growing tumours. Hypoxia effects on tumour cell biology can be detected and characterized using different methods. The use of imaging with {gamma}-emitting radionuclides to detect hypoxic tissue was first suggested by Chapman in 1979 [N Engl J Med 301 (1979) 1429-1432]. {sup 99m}Tc-4,9-diaza-3,3,10,10-tetramethyldodecan-2,11-dione dioxime, also known as {sup 99m}Tc-HL-91, has been among the most studied hypoxia markers. The objective of this study was to correlate the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-HL-91 and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in colon cancer cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and to compare this information with some parameters such as oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction of the cells analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results show that the in vitro {sup 99m}Tc-HL-91 uptake is higher in hypoxic conditions, which is confirmed by the decreased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI. Flow cytometry results demonstrate that hypoxic conditions used are not enough to induce cellular death, but are responsible for the alterations in the intracellular redox environment, namely, increase of ROS production, proteic pimonidazol-derived adduct formation and alteration in the mitochondrial membrane permeability. Therefore, these results confirm that {sup 99m}Tc-HL-91 is a radiopharmaceutical with favourable characteristics for detecting hypoxia.

  20. Asialoglycoprotein-receptor-targeted hepatocyte imaging using {sup 99m}Tc galactosylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Mi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hwan-Jeong [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jayjeong@chonbuk.ac.kr; Kim, Se-Lim [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Myung-Hee [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Nah, Jae-Woon [Division of Applied Materials Engineering, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Bom, Hee-Seung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Kyu [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chong-Su [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    This study investigated the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc hydrazinonicotinamide-galactosylated chitosan (HGC) in hepatocyte imaging. HGC was obtained by coupling the galactose moiety of both lactobionic acid and succinimidyl 6-hydrazinonicotinate hydrochloride (succinimidyl HYNIC). The coupled product was then radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc using stannous chloride and tricine as reducing agent and coligand, respectively. Labeling efficiency was >90% both in room temperature and in serum up to 24 h after injection. The hepatic uptake properties of {sup 99m}Tc HGC were studied in Balb/C mice. {sup 99m}Tc HGC and {sup 99m}Tc hydrazinonicotinamide chitosan (HC) were intravenously injected into mice, with receptor binding identified by coinjection with 9 and 14 mg of free galactose. Images were acquired with a {gamma}-camera. After injection via the tail vein of the mice, {sup 99m}Tc HGC showed high selectivity for the liver, while {sup 99m}Tc HC without a galactose group showed low liver uptake. In addition, the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc HGC was blocked by coinjection of free galactose. Tissue distribution was determined at three different times (10, 60 and 120 min). The liver accumulated 13.16{+-}2.72%, 16.11{+-}5.70% and 16.55{+-}2.28% of the injected dose per gram at 10, 60 and 120 min after injection, respectively. {sup 99m}Tc HGC showed specific and rapid targeting of hepatocytes. It is a promising receptor-specific radiopharmaceutical with potential applications in liver imaging for the evaluation of hepatocytic function.

  1. Comparison of technetium-99m sulfur colloid and technetium-99m albumin colloid labeled solid meals for gastric emptying studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefer, R; Douesnard, J M; Beauchamp, G; Guimond, J

    1987-08-01

    A Tc-99m albumin colloid (Tc-AC) kit has been introduced as an alternative to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) for liver-spleen imaging. Since there is no need for boiling, the use of Tc-AC reduces preparation time and manipulation. Tc-SC is one of the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals for the labeling of solid-phase markers in gastric emptying studies. In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the labeling efficiency and stability in hydrochloric acid and in human gastric juice of intracellularly labeled chicken liver and scrambled eggs labeled with Tc-SC and Tc-AC. Gastric emptying studies also were performed on 20 healthy volunteers with both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled egg sandwiches. There was no significant difference between Tc-SC and Tc-AC in the labeling efficiency of chicken liver (98% +/- 1% for Tc-SC, 96% +/- 2% for Tc-AC) and scrambled eggs (92% +/- 2% for Tc-SC, 91% +/- 3% for Tc-AC). However, both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled eggs showed a lower stability than chicken liver, particularly in human gastric juice. Gastric emptying curves from both meals in 20 normal subjects were also similar, with a mean half-emptying time of 85 +/- 13 minutes and 87 +/- 16 minutes for the meals containing Tc-SC and Tc-AC respectively. Tc-AC is a reliable alternative to Tc-SC as a radiotracer for solid-phase gastric emptying studies.

  2. Synthesis and characterisation of technetium-99m labelled ciprofloxacin (Infecton)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Choong, K.K.L.; Olma, T.R.; Mieczkowski, S. [Westmead and the New Childrens Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicineand Ultrasound and Centre for infectious Diseases and Microbiology laboratory Services

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Infecton is Tc-99m labelled Ciprofloxacin, which is a synthetic carboxyquinolone derivative with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It is a new class of radiopharmaceutical designed for imaging live bacterial infection. Conventional imaging agents such as Tc-99m or In-111 labelled leucocytes are either time-consuming or hazardous due to blood handling. These can be obviated by the use of Infecton which we synthesised by modifying the procedure described by Britton and co-workers (Lancet 1996;..347: 233-235). Bioassay and animal studies have been performed with a view to its use in infection imaging in patients. The first task was to prepare pure ciprofloxacin from its commercially available lactate salt. This was achieved by isoelectric precipitation at pH 8.6 by adding sodium hydroxide to the formulation. The resultant precipitate was washed with 200 mL of water for injection and filtered through a cintered-glass filtering unit. The precipitate was free of lactate and sodium as analysed by Biochem analyser. The UV spectrophotometric analysis showed an absorption peak at 276.3 nm which is close to the theoretical value of 277 nm, thus confirming the purity of the compound. Infecton was synthesised by adding 2 mg of pure ciprofloxacin, 0.4 mg of formimidine sulfinic acid ( non-stannous reducing agent) and 1.0 GBq Tc-99m pertechnetate in a final volume of 1.0 mL saline into a sterile N{sub 2}-filled Amersham vial and boiling the mixture at 100 deg C for 10 min. The purity of the product was 40-45%. It was passed through a DEAE Sephadex A-25 column and eluted with phosphate buffered saline (0.01M, pH 6.9) with a purity of >96%. The preparation was characterised by bioassay (n=3) by adding Infecton to four different broths of bacterial strains viz Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA with resultant binding of 50.4, 45.6, 48.5 and 50.3% respectively. The binding was less than 1.0% when either ciprofloxacin or

  3. (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in evaluation of active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hua; Jiang, Xu-Feng; Wang, Shu; Chen, Hao-Yan; Sun, Jiao; Li, Pei-Yong; Ning, Guang; Zhao, Yong-Ju

    2007-06-01

    A promising radiopharmaceutical (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-Octreotide) can be applied for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with the potential to replace Indium-111 labeled somatostatin analogus. Here we evaluate whether orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy can be used as a Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) activity parameter to predict the retrobulbar irradiation response. Orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy was performed on 14 consecutive patients demonstrating moderated to severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. The patients were treated with retrobulbar irradiation following the octreoscan and the response to this therapy was assessed at 3 months after the start of treatment. The orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC uptake was calculated to assess the effects of treatment. Among the 14 GO patients, eight (57.1%) responded to retrobulbar radiotherapy; six (42.9%) showed no change. We compared the eight responders and six non-responders in terms of orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC uptake, using the orbital/occipital ratio. On the 4-h (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy, responders had a higher orbital/occipital uptake ratio than the no-responders (P = 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the orbital/occipital ratio and the clinical activity score (CAS) (P = 0.034). The Receiving-Operator-Characteristic curve showed the best threshold for discriminating active and inactive disease was 1.40 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 83.3%). In the responders group, all these eight patients had positive scintigraphy. While there were five patients who had negative scintigraphy in the non-responders group. Orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy can be a useful method for the estimation of disease activity and prediction the response to subsequent radiotherapy in GO patient. And the patients with positive octreoscan were more likely to respond to irradiation.

  4. Comparison of chromatography systems for radiochemical purity determination of lyophilized reagents labeled with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Elisiane G.; Almeida, Erika V.; Ramos, Marcelo P.S.; Alves, Edson V.; Benedetti, Stella; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N., E-mail: elisianegodoy@terra.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A variety of lyophilized reagents (LR) labeled with {sup 99m}Tc has been developed for determining organ function or assessing disease status by imaging methods. Usually, the quality of the radiopharmaceutical preparations is evaluated by paper chromatography (PC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), instant thin layer chromatography silica gel (ITLC-SG), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on reverse-phase columns and capillary electrophoresis (CE). PC and TLC have been applied due to the low cost and short time in the determination of pertechnetate ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}-) and technetium dioxide ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 2}). The present study reports the comparison between PC and TLC chromatographic methods for determination of the radiochemical purity of LR labeled with {sup 99m}Tc from IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil). PC was performed with Whatman 3MM/1MM paper chromatography strips and TLC with ITLC-SG sheets or reversed phase (RP). RP was used only for ECD. Although the radioactivity profile of the separation of the species on both stationary phases was satisfactory, the difference in results for % {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}- and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2} was up to 4.2 % using PC for ECD and PYP. ITLC supports gave better resolution than conventional PC supports for these products. In ECD analysis, the comparison was performed between RP and ITLC-SG stationary phases for determination of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}-, {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2} and other impurities. It was observed that the sheet length as described in the United States Pharmacopoeia was not sufficient for a good separation of the product and the impurities. The results showed that there were not significant differences between PC and TLC chromatographic stationary phases are going to be accomplished. (author)

  5. Comparative analysis of 99mTc-depreotide and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC thorax scintigrams acquired for the purpose of differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachcińska, Anna; Mikołajczak, Renata; Kozak, Józef; Rzeszutek, Katarzyna; Kuśmierek, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at comparison of diagnostic efficacy of 2 radiopharmaceuticals: 99mTc-depreotide (Neospect, Amersham) and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide (Tektrotyd, Polatom), in differentiation between malignant and benign etiology of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs), radionuclide studies with 2 radiotracers were performed in 18 patients. For both radiopharmaceuticals the same acquisition and processing protocols were applied. Studies were acquired with SPECT technique, after administration of 740 MBq of activity. Scintigrams were assessed visually, as: positive (+), equivocal (+/-) and negative (-). Additionally, uptake intensity of both radiotracers in nodules was assessed semiquantitatively, using a tumour-to-background ratio. Verification of scintigraphic results was based in 14 cases upon a pathological examination of tumour samples (histopathology) and in the remaining 4 - on clinical observation and bacteriological studies. Normal scintigrams obtained with both radiopharmaceuticals differed significantly. 99mTc-depreotide was markedly accumulated in spine, sternum, ribs and lungs (mean lung/heart ratio = 2.2). This accumulation was not observed on 99mTc- -EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigrams (mean lung/heart ratio = 0.7). In 6 patients a malignant etiology--lung cancer--was revealed (5--adenocarcinoma, 1--squamous cell) and the other 12 cases turned out to be benign (4 hamartomas, 3 tuberculomas, a tuberculous infiltrate, an alien body with inflammatory reaction, a hyperplasia of lymphatic tissue and 2 cases of unknown etiology, from which one had a stable size and the other resolved during a 6 month observation period). In all 6 cases of lung cancer positive results were obtained with both tracers. Moreover, in 2 patients metastases in mediastinum could be observed on scintigrams obtained with both radiopharmaceuticals. From among 12 cases of benign etiology 6 99mTc-depreotide scintigrams were true negative, 1--equivocal and 5--false positive, whereas 6 99m

  6. Effect of Radioactivity of Technetium-99m on the Autosterilization Process of non-sterile Tetrofosmin Kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastuti Widyastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceutical is commonly used in nuclear medicines as a diagnostic agent, by mixing the sterile kit with Tc-99m. Manufacturing of kits requires an aseptic facility which need to be well designed and maintained according to cGMP, since mostly kits can not be terminally sterilized. Radiopharmaceuticals as pharmaceuticals containing radionuclide is assumed to have an autosterilization property, but correlation between radioactivity and capability of killing microorganisms has to be studied so far. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of radioactivity on the autosterilization process of radiopharmaceuticals. The study was carried out by adding Tc-99m of various radioactivity into non-sterile tetrofosmin kits, then the samples were tested for sterility. Sterile tetrofosmin kit and non-sterile kit with no Tc-99m added will be used as a negative control and positive control respectively. The sterility was tested using standard direct inoculation method, by inoculating samples in culture media for both bacteria and fungi and observing qualitatively within 14 days. The results showed that the samples with radioactivity of 1, 3 and 5 mCi changed the clarity of the media to turbid, conformed with the performance of positive controls but samples with radioactivity of 10 mCi and 20 mCi did not change the clarity of the media, conformed with the performance of negative control, indicating neither growth of bacteria nor fungi. It is concluded that Tc-99m behaves as an autosterilizing agent at certain radioactivity. Therefore the preparation of Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical can be considered as terminal sterilization rather than aseptic preparation.

  7. Bioavailability of {sup 99m}Tc-paclitaxel-glucuronide ({sup 99m}Tc-PAC-G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Demir, I.; Uenack, P.; Ichedef, C.; Yurt Kilcar, A. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2011-07-01

    An antitumor agent paclitaxel (PAC) has been proved to be efficient in the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. Glucuronic acid-derived paclitaxel compound (paclitaxel-glucuronide (PAC-G)) was enzymatically synthesized using microsome preparate separated from rat livers. The biodistribution mechanism of PAC-G in healthy female Albino Wistar rats has been investigated. The expected structure is confirmed according to LC/MS results, and the possible attachment is to C2-hydroxyl group. PAC-G was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and the radiochemical yield of radiolabeled compound ({sup 99m}Tc-PAC-G) was 98.0 {+-} 02.74% (n=9). The range of the breast/blood and breast/muscle ratios is approximately between 3 and 35 in 240 min. All these experimental studies indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-PAC-G may potentially be used in breast tissue as an imaging agent. (orig.)

  8. The presence of sodium nitrate in generator eluate decreases the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-sestamibi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métayé, Thierry; Rosenberg, Thierry; Guilhot, Joëlle; Bouin-Pineau, Marie-Hélène; Perdrisot, Rémy

    2012-09-01

    A high radiochemical purity (RCP) is recommended for radiopharmaceutical compounds used in the clinical practice of nuclear medicine. However, some preparations of (99m)Tc-sestamibi contain excess impurities (>6%). To understand the origin of these impurities, we investigated the effect of sodium nitrate on the RCP of sestamibi preparations by testing eluates from 3 commercially available (99m)Tc generators. The sestamibi kits (Stamicis) were reconstituted with (99m)Tc eluate from nitrate-containing wet-column (NCWC), nitrate-free wet-column (NFWC), and nitrate-free dry-column (NFDC) generators. Sodium nitrate was 0.05 mg/mL in eluates from the NCWC generators. The RCP was determined using aluminum oxide sheets as the stationary phase and absolute ethanol as the mobile phase. Succimer, tetrofosmin, oxidronate, exametazine, albumin nanocolloid, and soluble albumin were also tested for their RCP values with eluates from the 3 different (99m)Tc generators. The RCP assessment of (99m)Tc-sestamibi was performed on 127 Stamicis preparations. Significantly lower RCP values were found for Stamicis kits prepared with the NCWC generator than for Stamicis prepared with the NFWC (P nitrate in NFWC generator eluates significantly decreased the RCP of the Stamicis preparation. In the absence of nitrate in (99m)Tc eluate, no difference was observed between the RCP values of Stamicis kits prepared with the NFWC and NFDC generators. The (99m)Tc impurities generated by nitrates did not modify the quality of myocardial imaging (normal heart-to-lung ratio, 2.2), probably because these impurities are not in the heart field of view. No other tested (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceutical interfered with nitrates. We recommend using nitrate-free generator eluates in (99m)Tc-sestamibi preparations to improve the product quality and prevent unnecessary exposure of the patient to radiation.

  9. Evaluation of Tc-99m (V DMSA Binding to Human Plasma Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Fang Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As a critical step toward elucidating the mechanism of localization of Tc-99m (V dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, we investigated its binding and transport in blood in comparison with Ga-67 citrate. The studies were performed in vitro by incubating Tc-99m (V DMSA with blood (one sample at 4°C and another at 37°C to assess its binding to plasma proteins using ulrrafilrration, dialysis, electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography and affinity chromatography A parallel experiment for determining the blood binding of Ga-67 citrate was performed using the same procedures. Using ulrrafilrration, dialysis, electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography, labeled plasma samples showed that protein binding for Tc-99m (V DMSA was 45-54% at 37°C and 73-80% at 4°C. The figures for Ga-67 citrate were 43-53% at 37°C and 75-81% at 4°C. Electrophoresis showed that Tc-99m (V DMSA was mostly bound to plasma albumin (36.05 + 2.48% at 37°C and 60.04 + 1.87% at 4°C, and that the proportion of Ga-67 radioactivity associated with β-globulin was 34.23 + 1.37% at 37°C and 55.71 + 3.69% at 4°C. In affinity chromatography experiments, Tc-99m (V DMSA did not bind to transferrin, unlike Ga-67 citrate. This study demonstrates that, at the radiopharmaceutical tracer level, most Tc-99m (V DMSA in blood is protein-bound, primarily to albumin, but not to transferrin. In contrast, Ga-67 citrate was bound primarily to transferrin. The knowledge that albumin is the main transport protein of Tc-99m (V DMSA may contribute to a better understanding of its biodistribution and pharmacokinetics.

  10. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-Pheophorbide-a use in infection imaging: A rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocakoglu, Kasim [Advanced Technologies Research and Application Center, Mersin University, TR 33343 Yenisehir, Mersin (Turkey); Bayrak, Elif; Onursal, Mehmet [Department of Nuclear Applications, Institute of Nuclear Science, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Yilmaz, Osman [Department of Animal Research Center, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Yurt Lambrecht, Fatma, E-mail: fatma.yurt.lambrecht@ege.edu.tr [Department of Nuclear Applications, Institute of Nuclear Science, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Holzwarth, Alfred R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bioanorganische Chemie, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    This study aims to prepare {sup 99m}Technetium Pheophorbide-a ({sup 99m}Tc-PH-A) complex and evaluate its efficiency as an infection imaging agent. First, PH-A was obtained from Spirulina maxima algae, and the product compound was confirmed using {sup 1}H NMR and MS (ESI) methods. The PH-A was then labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using the tin chloride method and its biological efficacy as a potential radiotracer for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection was evaluated in bacterially infected and sterile inflamed rats. The radiochemical stability of the {sup 99m}Tc-PH-A in human serum was determined by thin-layer radiochromatography (TLRC). The radiochemical purity was 87{+-}3.2% and remained constant at more than 80{+-}0.1% even in serum for 120 min after radiolabeling. These experiments indicated that the ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-PH-A uptake in bacterially infected muscle, as compared to normal muscle, [target/non-target (T/NT)=5.6 at 1 h] was over four times higher than that in sterile inflamed muscle (T/NT=1.29 at 1 h). Disappearance of activity from the kidney and liver indicated that the urinary and hepatobiliary systems were the normal routes of excretion of the complex. {sup 99m}Technetium Pheophorbide prepared with high yield is able to localize well in the bacterially infected muscle of the rats and {sup 99m}Tc-PH-A may be developed as a radiopharmaceutical agent to distinguish infection from inflammation by nuclear imaging.

  11. Synthesis and comparison of 99mTc-enrofloxacin and 99mTc-ciprofloxacin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siaens, R.H.; Rennen, H.J.J.M.; Boerman, O.C.; Dierckx, R.A.; Slegers, G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of (99m)Tc-ciprofloxacin as a tracer for infection and inflammation has been examined and discussed in the literature extensively. Its alleged ability to discriminate between sterile inflammation and bacterial versus nonbacterial infections has led to an intense debate. Other labeled

  12. Evaluation of ethinylestradiol effect on labelling red blood cells with Tc-99m; Avaliacao do efeito do etinilestradiol sobre a marcacao de hemacias com tecnecio-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, A.C.S.; Oliveira, J.F.; Santos, J.S.; Oliveira, M.B.N.; Gutfilen, B.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    1999-11-01

    Significant alterations on the radiopharmaceutical distribution in humans are caused by drug interactions. The labeling red blood cells with technetium-99m is a daily routine procedure in nuclear medicine. Here, we investigated if the ethinylestradiol, an oral contraceptive, could alter the labeling of RBC with Tc-99m. Samples of blood with acid citrate dextrose were incubated with ethynilestradiol. Then, different concentrations of Sn C L{sub 2} were added and, after that, Tc-99m was added. Samples were centrifuged and plasma (P) and cells (C) were separated. the results showed that the drug studied decreased the uptake of radioactivity (%ATI) in the C to the reducing agent in the concentration of 1.2 (from 92.3 to 78.0) and increased in 12.0 (18.8 to 36.0) and in 24.0 (22.8 to 32.0){mu}/ml of Sn C L{sub 2}. The obtained results can be explained by the fact that this drug could alter the membrane permeability to the transport of stannous and/or pertechnetate ions. (author) 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Technetium-99m Sestamibi Scintigraphy Pattern in Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complications of end stage renal disease (ESRD). We aimed in this investigation to explore the role of Technetium-99m sestamibi (99mTc MIBI) scintigraphy in the pre-operative assessment of refractory hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: Dual-phase 99mTc MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy was ...

  14. Molybdenum target specifications for cyclotron production of 99mTc based on patient dose estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X; Tanguay, J; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2016-01-21

    In response to the recognized fragility of reactor-produced (99)Mo supply, direct production of (99m)Tc via (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction using medical cyclotrons has been investigated. However, due to the existence of other Molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in the target, in parallel with (99m)Tc, other technetium (Tc) radioactive isotopes (impurities) will be produced. They will be incorporated into the labeled radiopharmaceuticals and result in increased patient dose. The isotopic composition of the target and beam energy are main factors that determine production of impurities, thus also dose increases. Therefore, they both must be considered when selecting targets for clinical (99m)Tc production. Although for any given Mo target, the patient dose can be predicted based on complicated calculations of production yields for each Tc radioisotope, it would be very difficult to reverse these calculations to specify target composition based on dosimetry considerations. In this article, a relationship between patient dosimetry and Mo target composition is studied. A simple and easy algorithm for dose estimation, based solely on the knowledge of target composition and beam energy, is described. Using this algorithm, the patient dose increase due to every Mo isotope that could be present in the target is estimated. Most importantly, a technique to determine Mo target composition thresholds that would meet any given dosimetry requirement is proposed.

  15. Preparation, biodistribution, and scintigraphic evaluation of (99m)Tc-clindamycin: an infection imaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina, Saira; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Roohi, Samina; Haque, Asma; Qasim, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial infection is found to be the cause of death throughout the world. Nuclear medicine imaging with the help of radiopharmaceuticals has great potential for treating infections. In the present work, clindamycin, a lincosamide antibiotic, was labeled with technetium-99 m (~380 MBq). Clindamycin has been proven to be efficient for treating serious infections caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. Quality control, characterization, biodistribution, and scintigraphy of radiolabeled clindamycin were done, and labeling efficiency was determined by ascending paper chromatography. More than 95 % labeling efficiency with technetium-99 m ((99m)Tc) was achieved at pH 6-7 while using 2.5-3 μg SnCl2 · H2O as a reducing agent and 100 μg of ligand at room temperature. The characterization of the compound was performed by using electrophoresis, HPLC and shake flask assay. Electrophoresis indicates the neutral behavior of (99m)Tc-clindamycin. HPLC analysis confirms the single specie of the labeled compound, while shake flask assay confirms high lipophilicity. The biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-clindamycin were performed Sprague Dawley rats bearing bacterial infection. Scintigraphy and biodistribution studies showed a high uptake of (99m)Tc-clindamycin in the liver, heart, lung, and stomach as well as at S. aureus-infected sites in rabbits.

  16. Mismatched uptake of Tc-99m-ECD and Tc-99m-HMPAO in subacute cerebral infarction: Tc-99m-ECD for viability and Tc-99m-HMPAO for flow restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. S.; Hyun, I. Y.; Kim, S. K. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    Tc-99m-HMPAO reflects tissue perfusion but Tc-99m-ECD uptake is affected by tissue viability in addition to tissue perfusion which the varied state of cellular retention of Tc-99m-ECD reflects. Luxuriously perfused area on Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT implies that this cortex was already reperfused either spontaneously or after thrombolysis and that accompanied paralysis of vascular reactivity in those zones warms progressive deterioration. We tried to find out if we can use sequential Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT to reveal cortical perfusion and severity and range of risky areas of cerbral cortex despite reperfusion in sub-acute infarction. In 13 patients (M ; F =7 : 6, mean age 57 (range: 26-84)) with cortical (n=12) and basal ganglia infarction (1), we performed sequential Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT at the same position. At first, 555 MBq of Tc-99m-ECD was injected and imaged and then 1110 MBq of Tc-99m-HMPAO was injected again and imaged with the patients in situ, and the first image (Tc-99m-ECD) and the subtracted image (2nd- 1st : Tc-99m-HMPAO) were compared slice by slice. Study was done from 3 days to 31 days (16{+-}9) after ictus. Tc-99m-ECD uptake was always less than or equal to Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake at the lesion in all cases. Luxury perfusion was prominent in four patients. Mismatched uptake was found in 10 patients. Severity of mismatch showed diverse spectrum and was ranged from total middle cerebral artery territory (1 case) to peripheral thin zones around infarction (2 cases). The other 7 showed intermediate amount of tissues with mismatch , i.e., Tc-99m-ECD defects where Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake is in part increased, normal or decreased. Upon discharge, patients having more uptake with Tc-99m-ECD predicted improvement. Patients having mismatched uptake went dichotomous way. In conclusion, Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO sequential SPECT is feasible and reveal both tissue perfusion (Tc-99m-HMPAO ) and discrepant Tc-99m-ECD uptake probably reflecting viability in acute

  17. Understanding the in vivo uptake kinetics of a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding agent (99m)Tc-Duramycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, Said; Li, Zhixin; Capacete, Joseph; Liu, Yu; Fang, Wei; Shu, Laura G; Zhao, Ming

    2012-08-01

    (99m)Tc-Duramycin is a peptide-based molecular probe that binds specifically to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The goal was to characterize the kinetics of molecular interactions between (99m)Tc-Duramycin and the target tissue. High level of accessible PE is induced in cardiac tissues by myocardial ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion (120 min) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Target binding and biodistribution of (99m)Tc-duramycin were captured using SPECT/CT. To quantify the binding kinetics, the presence of radioactivity in ischemic versus normal cardiac tissues was measured by gamma counting at 3, 10, 20, 60 and 180 min after injection. A partially inactivated form of (99m)Tc-Duramycin was analyzed in the same fashion. A compartment model was developed to quantify the uptake kinetics of (99m)Tc-Duramycin in normal and ischemic myocardial tissue. (99m)Tc-duramycin binds avidly to the damaged tissue with a high target-to-background radio. Compartment modeling shows that accessibility of binding sites in myocardial tissue to (99m)Tc-Duramycin is not a limiting factor and the rate constant of target binding in the target tissue is at 2.2 ml/nmol/min/g. The number of available binding sites for (99m)Tc-Duramycin in ischemic myocardium was estimated at 0.14 nmol/g. Covalent modification of D15 resulted in a 9-fold reduction in binding affinity. (99m)Tc-Duramycin accumulates avidly in target tissues in a PE-dependent fashion. Model results reflect an efficient uptake mechanism, consistent with the low molecular weight of the radiopharmaceutical and the relatively high density of available binding sites. These data help better define the imaging utilities of (99m)Tc-Duramycin as a novel PE-binding agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo determination of the {sup 99m}Tc-MDP incorporated activity in bone tissue; Determinacao in vivo da atividade incorporada de {sup 99m} Tc-MDP no tecido osseo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Joseane Fonseca; Braga, Francisco J.H.N. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Dantas, Bernardo M.; Bertelli, Luiz [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ghilardi Netto, Thomaz [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias da Imagem e Fisica Medica

    1998-07-01

    For determining in vivo {sup 99m}Tc-MDP incorporated activity in bone tissue using a scintillation chamber as a image detection and acquisition system it is necessary the system calibration using an anthropomorphic physical simulator. The development of a tibia and fibula simulator in order to estimate bone tissue activity is presented. This procedure can be used either for workers monitoring or for the metabolic behavior of this radiopharmaceutical.

  19. Technetium-99m-labeled stealth pH-sensitive liposomes: a new strategy to identify infection in experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildete Aparecida Sousa Carmo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of inflammatory and infectious processes is an important goal in medicine. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for identification of inflammation and infection foci has received considerable attention. The aim of this work was to evaluate the uptake and the imaging potential of stealth pH-sensitive liposomes radiolabelled with 99mTechnetium (99mTc to identify infection sites in mice. The liposomes containing glutathione were labeled with 99mTc-Hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO complex. The 99mTc-labeled stealth pH-sensitive liposomes (99mTc-SpHL were injected in mice bearing infection in the right thigh muscle induced by Staphylococcus aureus. Biodistribution studies and scintigraphic imaging were performed at different times after injection of radiopharmaceutical. The 99mTc-SpHL was significantly uptaken by abscess when compared to the respective control. The abscess was visualized as early as 0.5 hours after injection of 99mTc-SpHL becoming more prominent with the time. These results indicate that 99mTc-SpHL is a promising radiopharmaceutical for visualizing infection foci in patients.O diagnóstico de processos inflamatórios e infecciosos é um objetivo importante em medicina. O uso de radiofármacos para identificação de focos de inflamação e infecção tem recebido considerável atenção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a captação e o potencial de imagem de lipossomas pH-sensíveis furtivos radiomarcados com 99mTecnécio (99mTc para identificar sítios de infecção em camundongos. Os lipossomas contendo glutationa foram marcados com o complexo 99mTc-hexametilpropilenoamina oxima (HMPAO. Os lipossomas pH-sensíveis furtivos marcados com 99mTc (99mTc-LpHS foram injetados em camundongos com infecção induzida por Staphylococcus aureus no músculo da coxa direita. Estudos de biodistribuição e imagem cintilográfica foram realizados em diferentes tempos após injeção do radiofármaco. Os 99mTc-LpHS foram

  20. Radiolabeling of Herceptin with 99mTc as a Her2 tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Heydari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that is used in treating breast cancer. We labeled this monoclonal antibody with Technetium-99m and performed in vitro and in vivo quality control tests as a first step in the production of a new radiopharmaceutical. Methods: Trastuzumab was labeled with Technetium-99m using Succinimidyl Hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC as chelator. Radiochemical Purity and stability in buffer and serum were determined. Immunoreactivity and toxicity of the complex were tested on SKBR3, MCF7 and A431 breast cancer cell lines. Biodistribution study was performed in normal mice at 4 and 24 h post injection.Results: The radiochemical purity of the complex was 95±1.4%. The stabilities in phosphate buffer and in human blood serum at 24 h post preparation were 85±3.5% and 74±1.2%, respectively. The immunoreactivity of the complex was 86±1.4%. The binding of labeled antibody to the surface of SKBR3, MCF7 and A431 cells were increased by increasing Her2 concentration on the cells surface.Conclusions: The findings showed that the new radiopharmaceutical can be a promising candidate as Her2 antigen scanning for human breast cancer.

  1. Radiolabeling, quality control and radiochemical purity assessment of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B.; Mengatti, Jair [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Somatostatine receptors are widely expressed by several tumors, especially of the neuroendocrine origin. In vivo images of these tumors using radiolabeled somatostatine analogues became a useful clinical tool in oncology. The aim of this work was the radiolabeling of the somatostatine analogue HYNIC-TOC with 99mTc as well as the evaluation of the radiochemical stability and quality control of labeled complex. 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC was produced by labeling conditions using 20 {mu}g of peptide, 20 mg of tricine and 10 mg of EDDA as coligands, 1110 MBq of 99mTc (99Mo-99mTc IPEN-TEC generator) and 15 {mu}g of SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O. The reaction proceeds for 10 minutes at boiling water bath. Radiochemical purity of labeled preparation was evaluated by different chromatographic systems: ITLC-SG in methanol:ammonium acetate (1:1); TLC-SG in sodium citrate buffer 0.1 N pH 5.0 and methylethylketone, and HPLC employing column C-18, 5 {mu}m, 4.6 mm x 250 mm, UV (220 nm), radioactivity detectors, 1 mL/minute flow of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid solution 0.1 %. Labeled compound has been found radiochemically stable for 5 hours and radiochemical purity was higher than 90 %. The thin layer chromatographic systems enabled the separation of radiochemical species presented in the labeled mixture as well as HPLC system. The labeling procedure studied resulted in high radiochemical yield and easy preparation. Future works include the preparation of a lyophilized reagent to make feasible the preparation of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC at nuclear medicine services in order to study the clinical potential of the radiopharmaceutical in diagnostic and staging of neuroendocrine tumors. (author)

  2. [sup 99m]Tc-Citrate versus [sup 67]Ga-citrate for the scintigraphic visualization of inflammatory lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercan, M.T.; Aras, T.; Unlenen, E.; Unsal, I.S.; Hascelik, Z. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey)); Unlu, M. (Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1993-10-01

    Citric acid was labeled with [sup 99m]Tc with an efficiency of > 99%. The biodistribution of [sup 99m]Tc-citrate was studied in mice with turpentine-induced abscesses in comparison to [sup 67]Ga-citrate. The max. abscess/muscle concentration ratios were 4.61 [+-] 1.92 (3 h) for [sup 99m]Tc-citrate and 4.76 [+-] 2.04 (4 h) for [sup 67]Ga-citrate. Arthritis was induced in 10 rabbits by intra-articular injection of ovalbumin Scintigrams obtained 4 days later and at 3 h post-injection of [sup 99m]Tc-citrate showed increased activity involving the synovium. The max. arthritic/contralateral knee ratio was 3.19 [+-] 1.29 (3 h) and 6.47 [+-] 3.71 (24 h) for [sup 99m]Tc- and [sup 67]Ga-citrate, respectively. The blood clearance curve of [sup 99m]Tc-citrate in rabbits was biexponential with a fast and a slow component, compared to mono-exponential clearance of [sup 67]Ga-citrate. In 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis whole-body scintigrams and spot images of involved joints indicated localization of the tracer in inflamed tissues. The mean target-to-soft tissue ratios were 3.04 [+-] 0.81 and 4.95 [+-] 2.56 for [sup 99m]Tc-citrate and [sup 99m]Tc-MDP, respectively. Renal clearance of radioactivity was evident from the scintigrams. Our results demonstrated that [sup 99m]Tc-citrate is effective as a radiopharmaceutical for the visualization of inflammatory lesions and may be preferred to [sup 67]Ga-citrate due to the ideal physical characteristics of the radionuclide, easy preparation, low cost, early accumulation and the preference for the renal route of excretion. (Author).

  3. Pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m} Tc-thalidomide in BALB/c mice: comparison of endovenous and intraperitoneal administration; Farmacocinetica da talidomida marcada com tecnecio-99m em camundongos BALB/C: comparacao entre via endovenosa e intraperitoneal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Motta, Ana Paula R.; Cardoso, Rejane C.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    1999-11-01

    Thalidomide is a teratogenic agent that is being used in the treatment of lung tuberculosis infection, HIV-1, lupus eritomatosus and host graft disease. This is due to its efficient immunosuppressive action. We have chosen the technetium-99 m, for the labeling of thalidomide for to test the possibility of the thalidomide as a radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, we are studying the behaviour of this labeled drug through the biodistribution in mice (intraperitoneal and endovenous via). The percentage of radioactivity per gram was determined for each organ. So much the inoculation by intraperitoneal as endovenous via showed that kidney had the largest uptake of {sup 99m} Tc-thalidomide in each period of time tested. In the control animal, free {sup 99m} Tc was found in the stomach. (author) 13 refs., 8 tabs.; e-mail: bernardo at uerj.br

  4. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of Ubiquicidin 29-41-{sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ivette Z.; Okazaki, Kayo; Dias, Luis Alberto Pereira; Higa, Olga Z.; Silva, Fabiana M. da; Vieira, Daniel P., E-mail: dpvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Passos, Priscila; Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M., E-mail: fabiana@biosintesis.com.br [Laboratorio Biosintesis Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The work carried out cytotoxicity tests using a radiopharmaceutical compound produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP to certify its safety through in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Since 2009, the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA) requires that such tests have to be carried out following good laboratory practices (GLP) and in according to the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) guidelines in order to certify its safety for medical use. Those guidelines comprises series of technical recommendations performed to assure quality of experiments. The study chose Ubiquicidin 29-41, an antimicrobial peptide used to discriminate bacterial infection foci from inflammatory sites. Amounts of UBI{sub 29-41} were conjugated or not to {sup 99m}Tc and diluted to equivalent concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000% of the maximum dose (or activity) administered in adults. Possible cytotoxic effects were evaluated in comparison to untreated controls as well as positive and negative damage controls. Both full (radioactive) radiopharmaceuticals, as their precursors (only molecules without conjugation to isotopes) showed no significant cytotoxic effect (cytotoxicity ≤ 10%). The study was conducted for the first time in the country comprising preclinical testing of this radiopharmaceutical in accordance with internationally accepted quality parameters, ensuring the safety of its use and enabling inclusion in the pharmaceutical regulatory agenda. (author)

  5. Required time delay from 99mTc-HMPAO injection to SPECT data acquisition: healthy subjects and patients with rCBF pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Gerda; de Nijs, Robin; Hogh-Rasmussen, Esben

    2008-01-01

    Procedure Guidelines for Brain Perfusion SPET using (99m)Tc-labeled Radiopharmaceuticals recommend a time delay of 90 min between injection of (99m)Tc-HMPAO and data acquisition. This time delay is difficult to comply within the daily routine and present a problem, particularly with the elderly or demented...... patients. This study investigates in patients with perfusion deficits and in healthy subjects if the quality of the SPECT image is affected by lowering the time delay between (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection and data acquisition to 30 or 60 min....

  6. Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy in amiodarone-induced acute lung toxicity: comparison with Tc-99m DTPA inhalation scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Gamze Kapa; Ozdogan, O; Guneri, S; Tamc, B; Durak, H

    2006-11-01

    This case demonstrates the use of Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy in amiodarone (AD)-induced lung toxicity. The aim of this presentation is also to discuss different scintigraphic modalities in the diagnosis and follow up in AD-induced lung toxicity. A 77-year-old man, with a suspicious AD-induced acute lung toxicity, underwent Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy and Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy. Rapid alveolar clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was found during AD therapy and increased lung uptake of Tc-99m HMPAO was also demonstrated. These findings supported the diagnosis AD lung toxicity. After cessation of therapy, Tc-99m DTPA alveolar clearance was decreased. Although there was some decrease in L/H and L/B ratios of Tc-99m HMPAO after 3 weeks of stopping therapy, Tc-99m HMPAO uptake in the lungs was still continued. This finding may be the result of ongoing pulmonary inflammation as a result of the long half-life of AD. Compared with Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy, Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy may have a role in the diagnosis of AD lung toxicity. Nevertheless, there is a need for longitudinal studies investigating patients under AD therapy using follow-up Tc-9m HMPAO scintigraphy.

  7. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus infection by aptamers directly radiolabeled with technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sara Roberta; Rodrigues Corrêa, Cristiane; Branco de Barros, André Luís; Serakides, Rogéria; Fernandes, Simone Odília; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that have high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets which are emerging as a new class of molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. In this study, aptamers selected to Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated for bacterial infection identification. Anti S. aureus aptamers were labeled with (99m)Tc by the direct method. The radiolabel yield and complex stability were assessed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three groups of Swiss mice containing 6 animals each were used. The first group was infected intramuscularly in the right thigh with S. aureus. The second group was infected in the same way with C. albicans and the third group was injected with zymosan to induce aseptic inflammation. After 24 h, radiolabeled aptamers (22.2 MBq) were injected by the tail vein. The mice were euthanized 4 h post injection and tissue sample activities measured in a gamma counter. The (99m)Tc labeled aptamers were stable in saline, plasma and cystein excess. Radiolabeled aptamers showed increased uptake in the kidneys for all groups indicating a main renal excretion, which is consistent with the hydrophilic nature and small size of aptamers. The radiopharmaceutical showed rapid blood clearance indicated by a reduced dose (% ID/g) in the blood. The biodistribution showed that aptamers were able to identify the infection foci caused by S. aureus displaying a target/non-target ratio of 4.0±0.5. This ratio for mice infected with C. albicans was 2.0±0.4 while for mice with aseptic inflammation was 1.2±0.2. Histology confirmed the presence of infection in groups 1 and 2, and inflammation in group 3. The biodistibution study demonstrated a statistically higher uptake in the S. aureus foci relative to inflammation and C. albicans infected areas. These results highlight the potential of aptamers labeled directly with (99m)Tc for bacterial infection diagnosis by scintigraphy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Click chemistry for [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}] labeling of Lys{sup 3}-bombesin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro-Flores, G., E-mail: ferro_flores@yahoo.com.m [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Rivero, I.A. [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico); Santos-Cuevas, C.L. [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Sarmiento, J.I. [Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico); Arteaga de Murphy, C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (Mexico); Ocampo-Garcia, B.E. [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Garcia-Becerra, R.; Ordaz-Rosado, D. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC labeled Lys{sup 3}-bombesin has shown specific binding to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRP-r) over-expressed in cancer cells. Click chemistry offers an innovative functionalization strategy for biomolecules such as bombesin. The aim of this research was to apply a click chemistry approach for [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}] labeling of Lys{sup 3}-bombesin and to compare the in vitro MCF7 breast cancer cell uptake and biodistribution profile in mice with that of {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin. The results suggest a higher lipophilicity for {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-triazole-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin which explains its higher in vivo hepatobiliary elimination. Pancreas-to-blood ratio for {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-triazole-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin was 4.46 at 3 h and both bombesin radiopharmaceuticals showed specific recognition for GRP receptors in MCF7 cancer cells. Click chemistry is a reliable approach for [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}] labeling of Lys{sup 3}-bombesin.

  9. Mechanism of renal concentration of technetium-99m glucoheptonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1985-11-01

    Seventy female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the mechanism of tubular localization and the effects of commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance on renal uptake and urinary excretion of technetium-99m glucoheptonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)GHA). The in-vivo protein binding and protein-free plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA also were quantitated. Kidney uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA averaged 11% of the injected dose in control animals. This varied slightly among groups but was significantly reduced by probenecid blockade and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) competition to 4 and 2, respectively. Technetium-99m DMSA was not affected in its renal accumulation by these maneuvers. The total plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA was lower than iodine-125( SVI)iothalamate but the clearance of the protein free supernate was higher, raising a possibility of some tubular secretion. Hepatic uptake was minimal in all groups averaging less than 1% injected dose. These data demonstrate that renal accumulation of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA is blocked by probenecid and PAH suggesting that it is actively concentrated in the proximal tubule by enzyme systems similar to those involved in PAH and hippuran transport. It appears that (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA uptake measures a different aspect of kidney function than (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA.

  10. New synthesis route of active substance d,l-HMPAO for preparation Technetium Tc99m Exametazime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijarowska-Kruszyna, Justyna; Karczmarczyk, Urszula; Jaroń, Antoni Włodzimierz; Laszuk, Ewa; Radzik, Marcin; Garnuszek, Piotr; Mikołajczak, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Technetium Tc99m Exametazime (99mTc-HMPAO) is currently used as a radiopharmaceutical for determining regional cerebral blood flow and for the labelling of autologous leucocytes for infection and inflammation imaging. The HMPAO ligand exists in two diastereomeric forms: d,l and meso. Usually, the substance is obtained in low chemical yield in a time consuming procedure. Furthermore, the final product still contains some amounts of the meso-form. The aim of this study was to develop the efficient, reliable and fast method for isolation of the d,l-HMPAO, which would provide the ligand with high purity and free from the meso-diastereomer. The mixture of the meso- and d,l-HMPAO was synthesized in two-steps by condensation of propanediamine with keto-oxime and the reduction of the obtained bisimine. The d- and l-enantiomers were separated individually directly from this mixture by repeated crystallizations from ethanol as their tartrate salts and pooled together in equal proportions. That substance was characterized for its identity and isomeric purity using IR, HPLC and GC methods. The meso-free d,l-HMPAO was used for the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical freeze-dried kit for technetium-99m radiolabelling. Quality assessment of obtained 99mTc-d,l-HMPAO complex was performed according to the current Ph.Eur. monograph 1925 and USP monograph - Technetium Tc99m Exametazime Injection. To verify its biological activity, the kit-prepared 99mTc-d,l-HMPAO has been used for the white blood cell (WBC) labelling. According to the proposed synthesis route the d,l-HMPAO was obtained with around 18-20% yield in the total time of 10 days. The ligand identity was confirmed and the HPLC analysis revealed more than 99% chemical purity. The undesired meso-form was not detected. Freeze dried kit formulation for 99mTc-labelling of d,l-HMPAO has been established and four batches of kits were manufactured. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-d,l-HMPAO complex was high (> 95% of lipophilic

  11. Targeting osteomyelitis with complete [99mTc]besilesomab and fragmented [99mTc]sulesomab antibodies: kinetic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Stefan; Reize, Patrik; Kemke, Bendix; Kampen, Wim U; Luster, Markus; Höffken, Helmut

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the targeting of "pure" osteomyelitis (i.e., without surrounding soft tissue infection) by directly 99mTc-labelled complete immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal antibody (MAb) ([99mTc]besilesomab) and by directly 99mTc-labelled fragment antigen-binding (FAb) MAb ([99mTc]sulesomab) in relation to their kinetic fate. A total of 73 patients with "pure" osteomyelitis were examined with [99mTc]besilesomab, (Scintimun®, IBA/CIS bio international, Saclay, France; N.=38) and [99mTc]sulesomab (LeukoScan®, Immunomedics Inc., Morris Plains, NJ, USA; N.=35). Kinetic data were deduced from whole-body and single-photon emission computed tomographic scans, performed 10 minutes to 24 hour p.i. (region-of-interest technique [ROI]). In targeting "pure" osteomyelitis, sensitivities at 1-4 hours were found to be higher for [99mTc]sulesomab (44% and 80% for [99mTc]besilesomab and [99mTc]sulesomab, respectively) but at significantly lower target/background (T/B) ratios than with [99mTc]besilesomab (1.8±0.3 versus 1.4±0.5 for [99mTc]besilesomab and [99mTc]sulesomab respectively; Posteomyelitis uptake over 24 hours, whereas with [99mTc]sulesomab, the maximal uptake occurred mostly within 1-4 hours, with subsequent clearance being slower for antigen-bound activity than for nonspecific background. Hence, diagnosis was possible mostly after 4h with [99mTc]sulesomab but often not before 24 hours with [99mTc]besilesomab, the later increasing significantly (Posteomyelitis targeting at earlier p.i. times does not rely on an increased antibody uptake but on a more rapid clearance of nonspecific background activity due to faster metabolism and excretion. Intact [99mTc]besilesomab show a slow, continuous uptake, leading to higher T/B at later p.i. times, often beyond the imaging possibilities of 99mTc.

  12. The application of technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labeled white blood cells for the diagnosis of right dorsal ulcerative colitis in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, L M; Trumble, T N; Steyn, P F; Savage, C J; Dickinson, C E; Traub-Dargatz, J L

    2000-01-01

    The application of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled white blood cells to support the diagnosis of right dorsal ulcerative colitis was studied in two horses with a history and clinical signs consistent with phenylbutazone toxicity. These images were compared to a reference horse unaffected by right dorsal ulcerative colitis. Blood was collected aseptically in heparinized syringes from the patients for in vitro white blood cell (WBC) radiolabeling. The buffy coat was separated out and radiolabeled with 99mTc-HMPAO. The radiolabeled blood was re-injected i.v. and four images of the right and left side of the patient's abdomen were acquired at 4 hours and 20 hours post-injection. Results of the nuclear study revealed no abnormal findings in the abdomen at the four-hour post-injection images in any horse. Images obtained 20 hours post-injection revealed a linear uptake of radiolabeled WBCs in the right cranioventral abdomen in the region of the right dorsal colon in both horses with right dorsal ulcerative colitis. The reference horse had no radiopharmaceutical uptake in this region. This nuclear imaging study was a rapid, non-invasive method to identify right dorsal colon inflammation. These findings not only supported the diagnosis of right dorsal ulcerative colitis, but also facilitated appropriate medical management of each horse.

  13. Direct {sup 99m}Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.-J.; Yen, C.-L.; Lo, S.-T.; Chen, K.-T. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lo, J.-M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jmlo@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-03-15

    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +} ion in saline, a significant yield of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical {sup 99m}Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, {alpha}-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +}. Retention of bioactivity of the {sup 99m}Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  14. Tc{sup 99m}-sestamibi dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: janine.toledo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduaco em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2015-07-01

    This paper addressed myocardial perfusion imaging providing a spatial dosimetric investigation of the {sup 99m}Tc-radiopharmaceutical dose distribution at the myocardium. Radiological data manipulation was performed in order to create a computational voxel model of the heart. A set of images obtained by thoracic angiotomography and abdominal aorta was set up providing anatomic and functional information for heart modeling in SISCODES code. A homogeneous distribution of {sup 99m}Tc was assumed into the cardiac muscle. Simulations of the transport of particles through the voxel and the interaction with the heart tissues were performed on the MCNP - Monte Carlo Code. The spatial dose distribution in the heart model is displayed as well as the dose versus volume histogram of the heart muscle. The present computational tools can generate spatial doses distribution in myocardial perfusion imaging. Specially, the dosimetry performed elucidates imparted dose distribution in the myocardial muscle per unit of injected {sup 99m} Tc activity, which can contribute to future deterministic effect investigations. (author)

  15. Cancer Targeting Potential of 99mTc-Finasteride in Experimental Model of Prostate Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Gowsia; Passi, Neelima D; Dhawan, Devinder Kumar; Chadha, Vijayta Dani

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to radiolabel finasteride, a novel 5α-reductase inhibitor, to evaluate its cancer targeting potential in experimental model of prostate carcinogenesis. Finasteride was effectively radiolabeled with 99mTc and showed >90% labeling efficiency. The radiopharmaceutical was found to be stable up to 6 hours in rat serum at 37°C. The blood kinetics of the 99mTc-finasteride followed a biphasic release pattern, whereby fast-release phase was observed at 15 seconds and a slow-release phase was observed after 30 minutes of administration. The plasma protein binding of the radio complex observed was 83.89%. For biodistribution studies, the rats were divided into two groups. Group I served as normal controls, while group II was subjected to carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and hormone testosterone propionate (T) for induction of prostate carcinogenesis, which was confirmed histopathologically. The biodistribution studies on control and carcinogen-treated rats revealed a significant percent-specific uptake in prostate, which was found to be increased significantly as a function of time. The most significant finding of the study was an increase in the percent-specific uptake in prostate of carcinogen-treated animals when compared to the percent-specific uptake in prostate of normal rats after 2 and 4 hours postinjection. The study concludes that 99mTc-finasteride possesses selectively toward prostate cancer tissue and can be explored further for its role in detection of prostate cancer.

  16. Design of (99m) Tc-DTPA-CLP and preliminary evaluation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıparmak, Burcu; Lambrecht, Fatma Y; Er, Ozge

    2014-03-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are localized in (malignant) tumor tissues by different mechanisms. One of these mechanisms, gelatinase enzyme activity, is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients and potential targets for tumor imaging. There are some gelatinases to be associated with metastatic potential for tumor imaging to possibly predict metastases. In this study, a cyclic decapeptide conjugate, DTPA-CLP (DTPA-Cys-Leu-Pro-Gly-His-Trp-Gly-Phe-Pro-Ser-Cys), was selected as a peptide conjugate because of its selective inhibitory activity toward gelatinases. Peptide-conjugated DTPA-CLP was labeled with (99m) Tc with a radiolabeling efficiency of 97.0 ± 2.8%. After determining optimization conditions for radiolabeling, a biodistribution study of radiolabeled peptide in albino Wistar rats was performed. According to biodistribution data, (99m) Tc-DTPA-CLP showed high uptake in the lung, liver, uterus, and spleen. These results show that (99m) Tc-DTPA-CLP may be used for the imaging of gelatinase activity in metastatic tumors. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Scintigraphic imaging with {sup 99m}Tc- exorphin C in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertay, T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Dokuz Eyluel University, Inciralti (Turkey)]. E-mail: turkan.ertay@deu.edu.tr; Uenak, P. [Department of Nuclear Applications, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ege University, Bornova (Turkey); Tasci, C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Dokuz Eyluel University, Inciralti (Turkey); Zihnioglu, F. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Durak, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Dokuz Eyluel University, Inciralti (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Exorphin C is a peptide with five amino acids [(Tyr-Pro-Ile-Ser-Leu) Trifluoroacetate salt] (Sigma) that has an affinity to opioid receptor-expressing tissues and tumors. Exorphin-C was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using glucoheptonate (GH) as bifunctional chelating agent. Then, we investigated its radiopharmaceutical potential as opioid receptor-expressing tissue on rabbits. Quality controls were performed by ITLC, paper electrophoresis and HPLC. Labeling efficiency was higher than 98%. The compound was stable for at least 5 h at room temperature. Scintigraphic imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-GH-exorphin C ({sup 99m}Tc-GE) was performed on male Albino rabbits. Static images were obtained from anterior projection using a Camstar XR/T gamma camera at several time intervals. Although a significant amount of activity was seen in the brain, less activity was seen on receptor saturation studies at 30 min. Slight hepatobiliary excretion was seen, though the main excretion route was renal. After saturating, the receptor hepatobiliary excretion was not seen; the only excretion route was renal.

  18. Technetium-99m-Labeled Autologous Serum Albumin: A Personal-Exclusive Source of Serum Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Feng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA is an important radiopharmaceutical required in nuclear medicine studies. However, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection remains a major safety concern. Autopreparation of serum component acquired from patient provides a “personal-exclusive” source for radiolabeling. This paper is to evaluate the practicality of on-site elusion and subsequent radiolabeling efficacy for serum albumin. Results showed that the autologous elute contained more albumin fraction than serum without extraction procedure. Good radiochemical purity and stability were demonstrated after radiolabeling. Biodistribution study showed that labeled albumin accumulated immediately in the lung, liver, and kidney. It was cleared steadily and excreted in the urine. The biologic half-life was defined, and all samples passed the pyrogenicity and sterility tests. In conclusion, autoalbumin could be extracted and radiolabeled properly in a nuclear medicine setting. Moreover, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection associated with nonautologous, multisource 99mTc-HSA agents can be reduced.

  19. Evaluation of Pakgen {sup 99m}Tc generators loaded with indigenous fission {sup 99}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, A.; Pervez, S.; Hussain, S.; Mirza, J.A.; Asif, M.; Siddique, M.U.; Khalid, U.; Khan, B.; Khalid, M. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Isotope Production Div.; Khan, M.M.

    2012-07-01

    Fission produced {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators, called Pakgen, have been manufactured at the PINSTECH generator production facility since 2000 for nuclear medicine applications in Pakistan. These generators were loaded with fission {sup 99}Mo imported from NTP South Africa. Recently production of fission {sup 99}Mo has begun in the Molybdenum-99 Production Facility at PINSTECH. Prior to use in the clinic, eight sets of generators were produced, 23 GBq and 74 GBq at time of calibration, and they were subjected to various quality control procedures recommended in the pharmacopoeia to assess their performance. The elution profile, volume, activity, pH, radionuclidic, chemical, radiochemical and biological purity, and expiry time of the eluates were examined. Labeling efficiency tests were also carried out with a number of the more widely used in vivo radiopharmaceutical kits like DTPA, MDP and MIBI. Performance of {sup 99m}Tc generators loaded with locally produced and imported fission {sup 99}Mo was comparable, and the users of Pakgen generators were fully satisfied. The effect of a wet vs. a dry column on {sup 99m}Tc yields of generators loaded with low and high activity was also studied for the first time. (orig.)

  20. Synthesis and Optimization of the Labeling Procedure of Tc-99m-Hynic-Interleukin-2 for In vivo Imaging of Activated T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Alessandria, Calogero; di Gialleonardo, Valentina; Chianelli, Marco; Mather, Stephen J.; de Vries, Erik F. J.; Scopinaro, Francesco; Dierck, Rudi A.; Signore, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    We have previously described the labeling of interleukin-2 (IL2) with I-123 and Tc-99m-N3S. Both radiopharmaceuticals were successfully applied in humans to image several inflammatory lesions and autoimmune diseases characterized by tissue infiltrating lymphocytes expressing the IL2 receptor (CD25).

  1. The use of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R.; Slonimskaya, E.; Doroshenko, A.; Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n = 34) were injected with radioactive 99mTc-Al2O3, and Group II patients (n = 30) received 99mTc-labeled phytate colloid. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. 18 hours after 99mTc-Al2O3 injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7-11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17-31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II SLNs were detected in 27 patients. 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5-2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4-7% by gamma probe. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc-Al2O3 demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. The sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-Al2O3 were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  2. Union of {sup 99m} Tc-HYNIC-TOC at the somatostatin receptors in cells of pancreas cancer; Union del {sup 99m} Tc-HYNIC-TOC a los receptores de somatostatina en celulas de cancer de pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez C, J. [Facultad de Medicina, UAEM, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ramirez I, M.T. [INCMNSZ, Vasco de Quiroga Num. 15, Tlalpan, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ferro F, G.; Pedraza L, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The radiation toxic effects have been used in therapy however much 50 years. The absorbed radiation dose can be determined at cellular level using cancerous cell cultures. If the deposited In vitro radiation dose coming from similar activities of several therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals it can compare it will be possible to choose the therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that it offers better dosimetric characteristics for the patient. The objective of this original investigation was to determine the union percentage of the octreotide {sup 99m}Tc-HYNlC-TOC to the somatostatin receivers in cells of cancer pancreas as well as the internalization, externalization and cellular viability. It was used the octapeptide, (octreotide, TOC) labelled with {sup 99m}Tc by means of the HYNIC chelating agent (6-hydrazine pyridine-3-carboxylic acid) and 3 cellular lines of murine pancreas cancer (AR42J), of cancer of human pancreas (CAPAN) and of one negative cellular line for somatostatin receivers (WRL-68). The {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC was compared against two negative proofs for somatostatin receivers: the peptide {sup 99m}Tc-UBI and the {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}. The cellular lines were conserved in the synthetic media Dulbecco-Eagle. After 2, 4 and 24 h of exhibition to the radiation, the cells are picked up and its are determined the viability by count in a Neubauer camera using tripan blue. In the same times it was calculated the union percentage of the radiopharmaceutical to the cells and the internalization (union to the cytoplasm) and the externalization (union to membrane receivers). With those figures it was calculated the absorbed radiation dose at cellular level. Results: At 4 hours the union percentage of the {sup 99m}Tc-HYNlC-TOC to the AR42-J cells was 6.83 times greater than for the WRL-68 control cells of human papilloma, (without receivers of the somatostatin) and for the CAPAN them 4 times greater than for the same cells used as negative control, for the case of the {sup 99m

  3. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled-1-thio-{beta}-D-glucose as a new tool to temporomandibular joint inflammatory disorders diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Brasileiro, Claudia, E-mail: cbbrasileiro@gmail.co [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear-PCA, Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-Avenida Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, CEP: 31270-100 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fonseca Pacheco, Cinthia Mara da, E-mail: cinthia@newtonpaiva.b [Faculdade de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Centro Universitario Newton Paiva-Avenida Silva Lobo, 1730, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martins Queiroz-Junior, Celso, E-mail: cmqj@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Clinica, Patologia e Cirurgia Odontologica, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-Avenida Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Flavia de Lima, Carla, E-mail: carla.flavia@terra.com.b [Nucleo de Diagnostico Cardiovascular (ECOGRAF)-Rua dos Otoni, 881, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Batista da Silva, Juliana, E-mail: silvajb@cdtn.b [Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN)-Avenida Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Passos Ribeiro de Campos, Tarcisio, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmb.b [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear-PCA, Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-Avenida Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, CEP: 31270-100 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate early detection of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammatory changes based on 1-thio-{beta}-D-glucose radiolabeled with technetium-99m. Method: The method applied a TMJ inflammation model in rats followed by radiopharmaceutical synthesis, intravenous administration of {sup 99m}Tc-1-TG and kinetic scintigraphy imaging. Results: Results show a significant difference of {sup 99m}Tc-1-TG uptake between inflamed TMJ and the control joint. The biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-1-TG by images showed the kidneys' excretion. Conclusion: As conclusion, {sup 99m}Tc-1-TG is a helpful tool in TMJ inflammatory process detection.

  4. Diagnosis of bone infection by complementary role of technetium-99m MDP and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime-leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Abdullah; El-Saban, Khaled; Al-Sakhri, Hijji

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Valuate complementary role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan and 99mTechnetium hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone infection. Patients and Methods: Ninety one sites suspected to have bone infection were divided in to two groups: Group I 49 sites with current endo-prothesis; and group II 42 sites with no prosthesis. All patients were subjected to serial images of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte (99mTc-white blood cells (WBCs)), triple phase bone scan (99mTc-MDP) and plain X-ray, in addition to clinical and bacteriological assessment, together with follow-up. Results: The overall sensitivity (Sn) was found to be 34.9%, 95.4%, and 86% for plain X-ray, 99mTc-MDP, and 99mTc-WBCs respectively. Concerning specificity (Sp) was found to be 47.9%, 45.8%, and 91.7% respectively for the three imaging modalities. 99mTc-WBCs showed better Sn, Sp, and accuracy in group I (95%, 93.1% and 93.9%, respectively) compared to 40%, 41.4%, and 40.8% for plain X-ray and 90%, 62%, and 73.5% respectively for 99mTc-MDP. On the other hand, 99mTc-MDP proved to have best Sn 100% versus 78.3% and 30.4% for 99mTc-WBCs and plain X-ray respectively. Yet, Sp and accuracy was found to best for 99mTc-WBCs (89.5% and 83.3% respectively) compared to 57.9% and 42.9% for plain X-ray and 21.1% and 64.3% for 99mTc-MDP. Conclusion: Combined imaging with 99mTc-WBCs and 99mTc-MDP proved to be effective in early detection of bone infection in the presence or absence of prosthesis. PMID:23919069

  5. Utility of the dimercapto succinic acid pentavalent ({sup 99m} Tc- DMSA V) in the diagnostic of secondary bone leisure at metastasis of diverse primary tumours. Preliminary study; Utilidad del acido dimercapto succinico pentavalente ({sup 99m} Tc-DMSA V) en el diagnostico de lesiones oseas secundarias a metastasis de diversos tumores primarios. Estudio preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega L, N. [Hospital de Especialidades ' Dr. Antonio Fraga Mouret' Centro Medico Nacional ' La Raza' , IMSS Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pichardo R, P.A. [Medico Nuclear adscrito al servicio de Medicina Nuclear del Hospital de Oncologia, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Marquez H, A. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, IMSS, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The more used method in the diagnosis of secondary bone lesions to become cancerous it is by means of having derived of phosphates like it is the {sup 99m}Tc- MDP. The reason of acquiring searching with the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc- DMSA V is with the purpose to find other bone lesions that are not visualized with the gammagraphy with diphosphonate and therefore to increase the specificity of the study. (Author)

  6. Measurement of lymphatic function with technetium-99m-labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, W. [Dept. of Imaging, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)]|[Dept. of Radiology, Ealing Hospital, Southall (United Kingdom); Glass, D.M.; Bradley, D.; Peters, A.M. [Dept. of Imaging, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    A reliable method for measuring lymph flow in physiological units would be valuable, especially in conditions in which it is uncertain whether lymph flow is increased or decreased. The requirements of a radiopharmaceutical for such measurement include stable radionuclide labelling and rapid access to lymphatic vessels following tissue injection but no access to blood vessels. A soluble macromolecule is likely to come closest to meeting these requirements. Technetium-99m- labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) was therefore investigated firstly in comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) in patients undergoing routine lymphoscintigraphy and secondly with respect to injection site in a group of volunteers with post-mastectomy oedema (PMO). Subcutaneous injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HIG into the web space of a distal extremity gave images in which lymphatic vessels were more clearly defined compared with images obtained after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HSA. Lymph nodes were also more clearly defined, suggesting specific retention of HIG, possibly through Fc-mediated binding. Peripheral blood sampling showed a delayed arrival in blood of radioactivity after {sup 99m}Tc-HIG compared with {sup 99m}Tc-HSA, although ultimately, the blood recovery of {sup 99m}Tc-HIG was significantly higher (P <0.05) than that of {sup 99m}Tc-HSA. Clearance rates of radioactivity from the injection site were not sinificantly different, however, between the two agents. In patients with PMO, web space injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HIG gave excellent images of normal lymphatic vessels, of lymph nodes and of abnormal lymph drainage such as dermal backflow in swollen arms. In contrast, neither lymphatic vessels nor lymph nodes were visualised after injection into the skin of the dorsum of the distal forearm. Although there was no difference in clearance rates from the injection sites between normal and swollen arms with either agent in PMO, clearance was significantly faster

  7. Comparison of a new Tc-99m renal function agent, Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine, with I-131 OIH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Kasina, S.; Johnson, D.L.; Taylor, A.

    1985-05-01

    The search for a Tc-99m replacement for I-131 hippurate (OIH) has led to the synthesis of (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/, a N/sub 3/S derivative with a single stereochemical form, amenable to it formulation. Mouse biodistribution studies in control and probenecid treated animals indicated that renal excretion of Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ was superior to OIH in both groups of animals. Protein binding studies, constant infusion clearance studies and extraction efficiencies were performed in rats to determine the potential of this agent for evaluation of renal function. In rat plasma TC-99m MAG/sub 3/ was 78% protein bound while OIH was 34% bound. The constant infusion clearance values for Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ and OIH were 2.70 and 2.11 ml/min/ 100 gm body weight respectively. Clearance values were determined in the presence of IV administered competitive inhibitors, probenecid and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). Extraction efficiency studies were performed in rats by arterio-venous differences for Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ and OIH. Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ was found to have an extraction efficiency of 84.8% while 69.4% was found for OIH. In summary, TC-99m MAG/sub 3/ is cleared more rapidly than OIH in normal rodents with high specificity. Its clearance, in the presence of tubular transport inhibitors, was similar to OIH when corrected for GFR.

  8. The effect of glucantime on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Cecilia Maria Carvalho Xavier [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Microbiologia e Parasitologia]. E-mail: cechol@ufrnet.br; Leite, Rodrigo Carvalho Holanda [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Curso Medico; Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem; Souza, Grace Maria Lima [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The labeling of red blood cells (C) with {sup 99m}Tc is employed in clinical nuclear medicine for a variety of diagnostic procedures. Drugs can alter this labeling method and modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. In this paper, the influence of glucan time on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was reported. Methods: Blood was withdrawn from rats and incubated with glucan time. Stannous chloride and {sup 99m}Tc were added. After centrifugation, plasma (P) and (C) were isolated. Samples of P and C were precipitated with TCA 5%, centrifuged and insoluble (IF) and soluble fractions (SF) separated. The percentages of total activity injected (%ATI) in C, IF-P and IF-C were calculated (p<0.05). Results: The %ATI on C decreased from control to following concentrations of glucan time (6.25%;12.5%;25%;50%;100%), respectively: 94.06{+-}1.29 (control) to 77.15{+-}2.79; to 76.68 {+-}1.88; to 75.15{+-}2.79; to 72.64{+-}4.40 and to 63.05{+-}3.84. On IF-C the %ATI decreased from control to all the concentrations of glucan time (3.125%;6.25%;12.5%;25%;50%; 100%), respectively: 93.34{+-}1.18 (control) to 78.81{+-}2.76; to 74.76{+-}4.82; to 74.02{+-}5.32; to 64.35{+-}4.82; to 62.81{+-}1.97 and to 54.55{+-}3.58. Conclusions: This effect was probably due to products present in this drug that may complex with ions (Sn{sup +2} and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) or have a direct or indirect effect on intracellular stannous ion concentration. (author)

  9. Optimized localization of bacterial infections with technetium-99m labelled human immunoglobulin after protein charge selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welling, M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands)); Feitsma, H.I.J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands)); Calame, W. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands)); Ensing, G.J. (Mallinckrodt Medical, Petten (Netherlands)); Goedemans, W. (Mallinckrodt Medical, Petten (Netherlands)); Pauwels, E.K.J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1994-10-01

    To improve the scintigraphic detection of bacterial infections a protein charge-purified fraction of polyclonal human immunoglobulin was applied as a radiopharmaceutical. This purification was achieved by attaching the immunoglobulin to an anion-exchanger column and by obtaining the column-bound fraction with buffer. The binding to bacteria in vitro and the target to non-target ratios of an experimental thigh infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice were evaluated to compare the purified and the unpurified immunoglobulin. The percentage of binding to all gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria used in this study was significantly (P<0.03) higher for the purified than for the unpurified immunoglobulin. For the in vivo study, mice were infected in the thigh muscle with Staph. aureus or K. pneumoniae. After 18 h 0.1 mg of technetium-99m labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin or [sup 99m]Tc-labelled protein charge-purified polyclonal human immunoglobulin was administered intravenously. At all time intervals the target (infected thighs) to non-target (non-infected thighs) ratios for both infections were significantly higher (P<0.03) for protein charge-purified polyclonal immunoglobulin than for unpurified polyclonal human immunoglobulin. Already within 1 h the infected tissues could be detected by the purified immunoglobulin. It is concluded that [sup 99m]Tc-labelled protein charge-purified immunoglobulin localizes both a gram-positive and a gram-negative thigh infection more intensely and faster than [sup 99m]Tc-labelled unpurified immunoglobulin. (orig.)

  10. {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi. Clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Maastricht Univ. Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Biersack, Hans-Juergen (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Bonn (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2012-07-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi is a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracer that was introduced into clinical routine for myocardial perfusion imaging more than two decades ago. Although today the main application of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT remains the imaging of myocardial perfusion, it is also an accepted and well-proven imaging technique for a variety of oncologic and non-oncologic applications, including brain, breast, and thyroid cancer and thyroid and parathyroid adenoma. Its efficacy in a range of indications ensures that {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT will remain widely used despite the rapid diffusion of 18F-FDG PET. {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi - Clinical Applications provides a detailed and informative overview of almost all the oncologic and non-oncologic applications of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT, including several relatively rare indications. Different disease-related protocols for {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT are presented, and for each disease a comprehensive summary of the relevant pathology and epidemiology is provided. Throughout, there is a strong emphasis on the practical aspects of use of this popular tracer, including instructions for the preparation of several commercially available tracer kits. Clinical practitioners will find this book to be an invaluable guide to the application and benefits of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT in both the inpatient and the outpatient setting. (orig.)

  11. Development of a formulation lyophilized for the obtention of a antimicrobial peptide Ubiquicidine labelled with {sup 99m} Tc; Desarrollo de una formulacion liofilizada para la obtencion del peptido antimicrobiano Ubiquicidina marcado con Tc-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares R, P.; Hernandez B, C.A.; Contreras N, G.; Garcia P, M.L.; Pantoja H, I.E. [UAEM, Toluca (Mexico); Ferro F, G. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: patodish@hotmail.com

    2004-07-01

    The {sup 99m} Tc-UBI 29-41 are a labelled fragment of the antimicrobial human peptide Ubiquicidine proposed as a new radiopharmaceutical able to differentiate an infectious process of an inflammatory one through the gamma graphic image. It has been demonstrated that the {sup 99m} Tc-UBI 29-41 unite to bacteria in vitro and that accumulates in infection sites in human with minimum captivation in inflammation sites. In this work the development of a pharmaceutical lyophilized formulation is presented for the instantaneous marked one of the UBI 29-41 with {sup 99m} Tc. The selection of the components of the formulation settled down by means of the employment of an experimental design of 3 factors with mixed levels, evaluating the effect of the diluent type, concentration of tinny chloride and the reaction volume. The obtained formulations showed to be stable until for 6 months, being obtained complexes of the radiolabelled peptide with radiochemical purity > 95 % in sterile form and apirogen. The developed pharmaceutical form, will facilitate the routinary use of this new radiopharmaceutical in the diverse hospital departments of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  12. Influence of antiseptic on the impurities in the preparation of dimercaptosuccinic labelled with {sup 99m}Tc; Influence des antiseptiques sur la presence d'impuretes dans la preparation de l'acide dimercaptosuccinique marque au 99mTc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaye, T.; Rosenberg, T.; Perdrisot, R. [CHU de Poitiers, Service de medecine nucleaire et biophysique, 86 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: antiseptic solutions are used to disinfect the rubber stoppers on the bottles of radiopharmaceutical. Small amounts of these solutions can pass into the bottle when the cap is pricked to inject the {sup 99m}Tc. After finding in a patient a suboptimal labelling using biseptin, we studied the effect of various antiseptics on the presence of impurities in the preparation of the dimercaptosuccinic acid labelled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-D.M.S.A.). Conclusions: We recommend using 70% isopropanol or modified alcohol Cooper instead of biseptin to disinfect the D.M.S.A. bottles caps. (N.C.)

  13. Production of medical 99 m Tc isotope via photonuclear reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, M.; Nakai, K.; Takahashi, N.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Fan, G. T.; Takemoto, A.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishimura, M.

    2017-01-01

    99 m Tc with a 6 hour half-life is one of the most important medical isotopes used for the Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) inspection in hospitals of US, Canada, Europe and Japan. 99 m Tc isotopes are extracted by the milking method from parent 99Mo isotopes with a 66 hour half-life. The supply of 99Mo isotopes now encounters a serious crisis. Hospitals may not suitably receive 99Mo medical isotopes in near future, due to difficulties in production by research nuclear reactors. Many countries are now looking for alternative ways to generate 99Mo isotopes other than those with research reactors. We discuss a sustained availability of 99 m Tc isotopes via the nat Mo(γ, n) photonuclear reaction, and discuss to solve technical problems for extracting pure 99 m Tc isotopes from other output materials of photonuclear reactions.

  14. Protective effects of hesperidin against genotoxicity induced by {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in human cultured lymphocyte cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: sjhosseinim@yahoo.com; Ahmadi, Amirhossein [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beiki, Davood [Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi, Emran [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudzadeh, Aziz [Laboratory of Cytogenetics, Novin Radiation Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Introduction: Radiopharmaceuticals have been widely used as nuclear tracers for myocardial perfusion imaging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effects of hesperidin as a flavonoid which protects against the genotoxic effects of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in human cultured lymphocytes. Methods: Whole blood samples from human volunteers were incubated with hesperidin at doses of 10, 50 and 100 {mu}mol. After 1 h of incubation, the lymphocytes were incubated with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (200 {mu}Ci/2 ml) for 3 h. The lymphocyte cultures were then mitogenically stimulated to allow for evaluation of the number of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. Results: Incubation of lymphocytes with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI at this high dose induces additional genotoxicity and shown by increases in micronuclei frequency in human lymphocytes. Hesperidin at these doses significantly reduced the micronuclei frequency in cultured lymphocytes. The maximum protective effect and greatest decrease in micronuclei frequency occurred when cultures were incubated with a 100-{mu}mol dose of 65% hesperidin. Conclusion: This study has important implications for patients undergoing nuclear medicine procedures. The results indicate a protective role for hesperidin against the genetic damage and side effects induced by radiopharmaceutical administration.

  15. The effect on radiochemical purity of modifications to the method of preparation and dilution of 99mTc-sestamibi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maggie; Dustan, Kate; Rotureau, Laure

    2006-05-01

    99mTc-sestamibi is a useful radiopharmaceutical for myocardial perfusion imaging, parathyroid imaging and breast tumour imaging. However, the preparation is time consuming and the limit of 3 ml on the volume of liquid that can be added to the Cardiolite kit vial means that it is often difficult to draw up small doses for patient studies. To modify the method of preparation of 99mTc-sestamibi in order to reduce the preparation time and to give a preparation which is more convenient for withdrawing patient doses. A modified kit was prepared by reconstituting a Cardiolite kit vial with 3 ml Sodium Chloride Injection (0.9%) BP, sub-dividing it into two separate nitrogen-filled vials before adding sodium pertechnetate and boiling for radiolabelling. 99mTc-sestamibi was also prepared according to the manufacturer's recommended method and diluted with sodium chloride injection after preparation. Radiochemical purity was assessed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. 99mTc-sestamibi prepared according to the manufacturer's recommended method had high radiochemical purity (96.9%+/-1.1%) and retained >90% radiochemical purity over 8 h following dilution. However, 99mTc-sestamibi prepared by the modified method gave variable and inconsistent results. The modified method of preparation was not robust enough to give reproducibly high radiochemical purity. However, dilution of 99mTc-sestamibi prepared according to the manufacturer's recommended method was satisfactory. This study highlights problems with the analysis of 99mTc-sestamibi and the limitations of modifying the method of preparation.

  16. Monoclonal anti-elastin antibody labelled with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcia B.N. de; Silva, Claudia R. da; Araujo, Adriano C. de; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia; Porto, Luis Cristovao M.S.; Gutfilen, Bianca [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Souza, J.E.Q. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica; Frier, Malcolm [University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics

    1999-11-01

    Technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc) is widely employed in nuclear medicine due to its desirable physical, chemical and biological properties. Moreover, it is easily available and normally is inexpensive. A reducing agent is necessary to label cells and molecules with {sup 99m} Tc and stannous chloride (Sn C L{sub 2}) is usually employed. Elastin is the functional protein component of the elastic fiber and it is related with some diseases such as arteriosclerosis, pulmonary emphysema and others. The present study refers to the preparation of the {sup 99m} Tc labeled monoclonal anti-elastin antibody. The monoclonal antibody was incubated with an excess of 2-iminothiolane. The free thiol groups created, were capable of binding with the reduced technetium. Labeling was an exchange reaction with {sup 99m} Tc-glucoheptonate. The labeled preparation was left at 4 deg C for one hour. Then, it was passed through a Sephadex G50 column. Various fractions were collected and counted. A peak corresponding to the radiolabeled antibody was obtained. Stability studies of the labelled anti-elastin were performed at 0,3 6, 24 hours, at both 4 deg C or room temperature. The biodistribution pattern of the {sup 99m} Tc-anti-elastin was studied in healthy male Swiss mice. The immunoreactivity was also determined. An useful labeled-anti-elastin was obtained to future immunoscintigraphic investigations. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Scintigraphic evaluation of chronic osteomyelitis with technetium 99 m labeled polyclonal immunoglobulin; Avaliacao de atividade inflamatoria na osteomielite cronica. Contribuicao da cintilografia com anticorpos policlonais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, M.T.; Hironaka, F.; Lima, A.L.L.M.; Yamaga, L.Y.I.; Hamada, E.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.A.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Medicina Nuclear

    2000-06-01

    Active chronic osteomyelitis or complicating osteomyelitis are difficult to be diagnosed by radiological imaging modalities, such as plain radiograph and CT. They frequently cause increased bone remodeling, leading to nonspecific uptake of Tc 99 m-bone scan agents and gallium-67. New radiopharmaceuticals with greater infection avidity are being developed, including the nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) labeled with technetium 99 m. Tc 99 m-IgG may be available as a ready to use kit, with no reported side effects, low patient absorbed radiation dose and low cost. Material and Methods: 23 bone segments with suspected active chronic osteomyelitis or violated bone osteomyelitis were studied by Tc 99 m IgG scintigraphy. All patients underwent standard three phase bone scintigraphy using methylene diphosphonate (Tc 99 m MDP), gallium 67 scintigraphy and plain radiographs, compared with clinical evaluation and laboratory tests values. Results: Infection was found in 8 sites. Sensitivity and specificity for Tc-99 m MDP, gallium 67 and Tc 99 m IgG scintigraphy were, respectively, 88 and 36%, 75 and 73%, 88 and 82%. Conclusion: Tc-99 m IgG may be useful in the scintigraphic evaluation of osteomyelitis. (author)

  18. Comparison of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and HYNIC-TATE octreotide scintigraphy with FDG PET and 99mTc-MIBI in local recurrent or distant metastatic thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Sait; Kabasakal, Levent; Halac, Metin; Maecke, Helmut; Uslu, Lebriz; Önsel, Çetin; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2013-05-01

    There have been various studies for early diagnosis of local recurrent or distant metastatic thyroid cancers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical utility of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and 99mTc-HYNIC-TATE, octreotide derivatives, to detect recurrences or distant metastases in 131I-negative thyroglobulin positive thyroid cancer patients and to compare the lesions with FDG PET and 99mTc-MIBI studies in the same patient group. Twenty differentiated thyroid cancer patients, 7 male and 13 female, mean age 54.6 ± 15.3 (range 13-78 years), were included in this study. Eighteen patients had papillary thyroid cancer and 2 had follicular thyroid cancer. Fifteen patients received HYNIC-TOC and 5 patients received HYNIC-TATE as a radiopharmaceutical. All patients underwent whole-body scan 1 and 4 hours after injection of octreotide derivatives and SPECT imagings were performed from the suspicious sites. The lesions that were seen in 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and 99mTc-HYNIC-TATE studies were compared with 99mTc-MIBI and FDG-PET studies. Among 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and 99mTc-HYNIC-TATE scintigraphies, 15 patient studies were evaluated as true positive (75%) and 5 were false negative (25%). The total number of lesions in octreotide scintigraphy was 48 in 20 patients. Of 20 patients, 19 had FDG-PET study, 15 of them were evaluated as true positive (78.9%), and 4 them were evaluated as false negative (21.1%). Total number of lesions in FDG PET was 74. 99mTc-MIBI study was positive in 11 patients (55%) and negative in 9 patients (45%). Total number of lesions in 99mTc-MIBI was 25. Technetium-labeled somatostatin receptor scintigraphy analogues HYNIC-TOC and HYNIC-TATE are useful imaging alternatives in somatostatin receptor expressing thyroid cancer patients. Radiolabeling is easy and they are readily available for routine use.

  19. Effect of asiaticoside on 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-sestamibi uptake in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saeedi, Fatma J; Bitar, Milad; Pariyani, Smitha

    2011-12-01

    This study was done to examine the effect of asiaticoside on MCF-7 cell uptake of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin ((99m)Tc-Tfos) and (99m)Tc-sestamibi ((99m)Tc-MIBI). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiozol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to evaluate the effect of a 50% inhibitory concentration of asiaticoside on MCF-7 cell proliferation. MCF-7 cells were treated with 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μM asiaticoside for 48 h and then incubated with 59.2 MBq of either (99m)Tc-Tfos or (99m)Tc-MIBI tracer for 60 min. The uptake of the tracers was measured with a dose calibrator. The 50% inhibitory concentration of asiaticoside for MCF-7 cells was determined with the MTT assay to be 40 μM. The uptake results were expressed as the mean ± SE radioactivity in MBq/mg of protein, and P values were also calculated (P values of 0.03 indicated significant differences). In the control (no asiaticoside) and at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μM asiaticoside, the mean levels of (99m)Tc-Tfos uptake were 0.79 (SE, 0.059) (P = 0.14), 0.84 (SE, 0.057) (P = 0.60), 0.47 (SE, 0.034) (P = 0.03), 0.40 (SE, 0.050) (P = 0.03), 0.37 (SE, 0.050) (P = 0.03), and 0.15 (SE, 0.023) (P = 0.03), respectively; the mean levels of (99m)Tc-MIBI uptake were 0.95 (SE, 0.007) (P = 0.14), 0.81 (SE, 0.009) (P = 0.60), 0.79 (SE, 0.019) (P = 0.03), 0.63 (SE, 0.004) (P = 0.03), 0.13 (SE, 0.006) (P = 0.03), and 0.07 (SE, 0.008) (P = 0.03), respectively. Asiaticoside concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μM revealed the uptake kinetics for both (99m)Tc-Tfos and (99m)Tc-MIBI in MCF-7 cells. (99m)Tc-Tfos and (99m)Tc-MIBI showed similar trends; the radioactivity uptake was dose dependent, and asiaticoside inhibited 16% and 47% of (99m)Tc-Tfos uptake and (99m)Tc-MIBI uptake in MCF-7 cells, respectively. This study showed that asiaticoside, acting as a biochemical modulator, may induce apoptosis and enhance antitumor activity in MCF-7 cells, as determined by (99m)Tc-Tfos and (99m)Tc-MIBI uptake. These findings are promising

  20. Development of a formulation for the preparation of {sup 99m} Tc-Ida-bis-Biotin complex; Desarrollo de una formulacion para la preparacion del complejo {sup 99m} Tc-IDA-bis-Biotina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez B, L.C

    2000-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals of diagnostic use incorporate the radioisotope to an organic or inorganic molecule which goes selectively to the interest organ, to an a physiologic or metabolic process of the body with a simple and quantitatively interpretable kinetics. The {sup 99m} Tc occupies 80% from total of the studies realized in the world by the optimum combination of physical half-life (6 h), radionuclide quantity (ng) and high energy emission which allows to obtain results with the greatest information. Actually, in Nuclear Medicine, the research strategies are directed to the use of 'premarkers systems' based in the antibody administration, separated from radionuclide through the use of the avidin/biotin system. According to these considerations it was developed the {sup 99m} Tc-IDA-bis-Biotine complex as a new radiopharmaceutical which improves the diagnostic image of infectious core and tumorals. The IDA-biotin compound was synthesised and characterized by its melting point, IR spectroscopy, NMR, MS, UV and High-resolution liquid chromatography (HRLC). With base in an experimental factorial design those variables were established which influence in the radiochemical purity of the radiopharmaceutical which allowed to determine the reaction conditions, pH 9 at environmental temperature (22 Celsius degrees) and the optimum concentrations of the formulation components. IDA-biotine 1.0 mg, stannous chloride 0.1 mg and gluconate 15 mg as weak binding linking were realized to the lyophilized product quality control tests like: stability and radiochemical purity. The analytical techniques used UV spectrophotometry and HRLC were validated. The studies of biodistribution of the {sup 99m} Tc-Ida-bis-biotin complex were realized in healthy laboratory animals, showing stability 'In vivo' with renal purification. (Author)

  1. {sup 99m} Tc-UBI 29-41: radiolabelled antimicrobial peptide for the diagnostic by image of infectious processes; {sup 99m} Tc-UBI 29-41: peptido antimicrobiano radiomarcado para el diagnostico por imagen de procesos infecciosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro F, G.; Ramirez C, F.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M.; Rodriguez C, J. [INCMNSZ, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Melendez A, L. [Facultad de Medicina, UAEM, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Recently the radiolabelled anti microbic peptides has intended as new radiopharmaceuticals for distinguish a bacterial infection of a sterile inflammatory process through a diagnostic image. The ubiquicidine 29-41 (UBI), it is a fragment of an anti microbic cationic peptide located in the human skin whose sequence of amino acids is Thr-Gly-Arg-Ala-Lys-Arg-Arg-Met-Gln-Tyr-Asn-Arg-Arg. The objective of this study was to develop a derived of the UBI 29-41 radiolabelled with Tc-99m in high radiochemical purity and to evaluate the feasibility of using it in the specific detection of infectious focuses. The molecular structures of the UBI as well as of other 2 cationic peptides used as control (Tat-1-Scr and Tat-2-Scr), they were calculated and optimized in their more stable configuration by molecular mechanics procedures and quantum mechanics. Once established the site for the labelled with {sup 99m} Tc, the three complexes were represented by the general formula [Tc(V)(O)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Lys{sub n=1,2}-Arg{sub n=0.1}-peptide)]{sup 10+,11+}, with potential energy of 104.5 Kcal/mol, 95.6 Kcal/mol and 90.8 Kcal/mol for the {sup 99m}Tc-Tat-1-Scr, {sup 99m} Tc-Tat-2-Scr and {sup 99m}Tc-UBI 29-41 respectively. The three radio complexes got ready experimentally and their stability in vitro saline solution is evaluated, human serum and cysteine solutions. The experimental results correlated appropriately with the calculated data. The specificity in vitro was carried out evaluating the percentage of union of the {sup 99m}Tc-UBI 29-41 as well as of the control peptides at bacteria of S. aureus and two tumoral cellular lines (LS174T and ACHN). The In vivo specificity was determined using Balb-C mice with induction in a paw of an infectious process and in another paw of a sterile inflammatory process. Simultaneously it was administered to the mice with infection and inflammation induced {sup 99m}Tc-UBI 29-41 and {sup 67}Ga-citrate this last an unspecific radiopharmaceutical

  2. Comparison study among methodologies of planar chromatography for radiochemical control of technetium-99m; Estudo comparativo entre metodologias de cromatografia planar para controle radioquimico de radiofarmacos de tecnecio-99m

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    Monteiro, Elisiane de Godoy

    2012-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are substances that have radioisotopes in their composition. About 95% of the procedures performed in nuclear medicine use radiopharmaceuticals with diagnostic purposes, and the Lyophilized Reagents (LR) labeled with Technetium-99m ({sup 99}mTc), obtained from {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99}mTc generator, are the most one used. Quality Control represents the set of assays to be performed to assure that the product is adequate to its purpose. An important feature to be evaluated in {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals is the radiochemical purity (% RqP) to quantify free pertechnetate ({sup 99}mTcO{sub 4}{sup -}) and technetium colloidal (99mTcO{sub 2}) mainly by paper chromatography (PC), thin layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The objective of this work was to perform the comparison among the radiochemical control methodologies of LR labeled with {sup 99m}Tc, described in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (EP) and those used by IPEN. {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} eluate and DISIDA, DMSA, DTPA, EC, ECD, GHA, MIBI, MDP, PIRO, SAH and Sn Coloidal LR were provided by IPEN-CNEN/SP. TLC-cellulose, TLC-SG.TLC-SG reverse phase, HPTLC-cellulose, HPTLC-SG (Merck) and ITLC-SG (Pall Corporation), W1MM, W3MM, W17M e W31ET (Whatman) chromatographic plates were used. The measurement of the radioactivity was done in a Perkin Elmer Cobra D-5002 gamma counter. LR were labeled to obtain 55,0 MBq mL{sup 1} (1,5 mCi mL{sup 1}) of final radioactive concentration. The %{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, %{sup 99m}TcO{sub 2} and % RqP were determined up to 4 hour labeling. From 11 LR, only EC and GHA have no radiochemical control methods in USP and EP. In USP and/or EP, DTPA, MDP, PIRO, SAH and Sn Coloidal methods use ITLC-SG; IPEN uses this chromatography plate in DISIDA, EC, ECD, GHA, PIRO, MIBI and SAH. As ITLC-SG had been out of production (recommended in 40, 70 and 41% of the USP, EP and IPEN methodologies, respectively), it was

  3. A correlative study between {sup 99m}Tc-ESTCPTA and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in rats

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    Unak, Perihan E-mail: unak@bornova.ege.edu.tr; Enginar, Huseyin; Zuemruet Biber, F.; Yurt Lambrecht, Fatma; Aslani, M.A.A.; Ozkilic, Hayal

    2002-11-01

    Tissue distribution of the {sup 99m}Tc labeled derivative of the estrogen compound 3,17-{alpha}-estradiolyl propyl 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanyl-1-(4-methylbenzoic acid) ester (ESTCPTA), which has an 3,17-{alpha}-estradiolyl propinol coupled to 1-(4-methylbenzoic acid)1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (CPTA), was compared to {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (methoxyisobutyl isonitrile) in female Albino Wistar rats. Tissues of interest included lung, liver, heart, kidneys, spleen, stomach, intestines, pancreas, muscle, blood, breast, ovary, fat, and uterus. {sup 99m}Tc-ESTCPTA uptake by the uterus and ovary, as ER-rich tissues, was highly selective. Maximum uptakes for {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and {sup 99m}Tc-ESTCPTA are 90 min in breast, ovary and uterus. The pancreas also showed significant receptor saturated and unsaturated ratios for {sup 99m}Tc-ESTCPTA. Results are sufficiently encouraging to generate further evaluation of these and related compounds as possible estrogen receptor based tumor imaging and therapeutic agents in estrogen-rich tissues.

  4. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO SPECT in five patients with MELAS

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    Katagiri, Shinako; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Kitano, Masashi; Horiike, Shigeharu; Kan, Shinichi; Ishii, Katsumi; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Sakai, Fumihiko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Cerebral perfusion was studied in five patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes syndrome (MELAS), using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) or {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO). In four cases, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated by the method reported by Mastuda et al. Immediately after the stroke-like episodes, accumulation of the tracer was relatively increased in the temporooccipital lobe, and also increased rCBF was shown in the same area. However, the region showed decreased radioactivity at the chronic stage, and rCBF decreased also. These findings are consistent with positron emission tomography (PET) at the acute stage and autopsy. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT and {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO SPECT may be useful in the diagnosis and assessment of the progress of the MELAS. (author)

  5. Platelet binding and biodistribution of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin in animal species and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Linda C. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States)], E-mail: lknight@temple.edu; Romano, Jan E. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States); Bright, Lewis T.; Agelan, Alexis [University Laboratory Animal Resources, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States); Kantor, Steven; Maurer, Alan H. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Introduction: {sup 99m}Tc recombinant bitistatin (rBitistatin) is a radioligand for {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} (glycoproteins IIb/IIIa) receptor on platelets and is being developed as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical for in vivo imaging of acute thrombi and emboli. Prior to the first administration of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin to human subjects, its biodistribution and effects on platelets were evaluated in animals. This paper reports findings in animal studies in comparison with initial findings in normal human subjects. Methods: [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin was administered to mice, guinea pigs and dogs to assess time-dependent organ distribution, urinary excretion and blood disappearance rates. Blood samples were analyzed to determine radioligand binding to circulating platelets and the extent of plasma protein binding. The effect of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin on circulating platelet count was determined. These factors were also determined in normal human subjects who received [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin as part of a Phase I clinical trial. Results: The main organs that accumulated [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin were kidneys, liver and spleen in all animal species and humans. The main organs seen on human images were the kidneys and spleen. Liver uptake was fainter, and soft-tissue background was low. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin bound to circulating platelets in blood, with a higher percentage of binding to platelets in guinea pigs and dogs compared to that in humans. Plasma protein binding was low and of little consequence in view of platelet binding. The main route of excretion was through the urine. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin did not affect platelet counts in humans or dogs. Conclusions: [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin, when administered at low doses for imaging, has no adverse effects on platelets and has the qualitative biodistribution predicted by animal studies. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin was found to bind to circulating platelets in humans, suggesting that it will be able to bind

  6. Radiochemical quality control of phenobarbital, oxamniquine, amantadine and thalidomide molecules labelled with Technetium-99m; Controle de qualidade radioquimico das moleculas de fenobarbital, oxamniquine, amantadina e talidomida marcadas com tecnecio-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcia B.N. de; Correa, Rosane C.M.S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    1996-07-01

    The quality control of radiopharmaceuticals is very important. When it is not carried out in can cause problems to the patient, as the necessity of the repetition of the examination and/or misinterpretation of the scintigraphic images. The chromatographic methods have good acceptance and can be used in paper, instant thin-layer chromatography and in gel. In this paper we show the chromatographic techniques applied to molecules labeled with technitium-99m (oxamniquine, phenobarbital, amantadine and thalidomide) used for research in our laboratory. (author)

  7. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-Bombesin: images of GRP receptors; Biocinetica y dosimetria en humanos de {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-Bombesina: imagenes de receptores GRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos C, C. L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is expressed in several normal human tissues and is over-expressed in various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently [{sup 99m}Tc]EDDA/HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN) was reported as a radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-r binding and rapid cell internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN to image GRP-r and to assess the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics and dosimetry in 4 breast cancer patients and in 7 healthy women. Methods: Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 11 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN time-activity curves in each organ in order to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions, according with MIRD methodology. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Results: Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with renal excretion as predominant route. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in cancer mammary glands and well differentiated from the ubiquitous GRP-r expression in normal breast, lungs and airways. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the radiation absorbed doses between cancer patients and healthy women. The average equivalent doses (n=11) for a study using 740 MBq were 24.8 +- 8.8 mSv (kidneys), 7.3 +- 1.8 mSv (lungs), 6.5 +- 4.0 mSv (breast) 2.0 +- 0.3 mSv (pancreas), 1.6 +- 0.3 mSv (liver), 1.2 +- 0.2 mSv (ovaries) and 1.0 +- 0.2 mSv (red

  8. Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

  9. Biodistribution of 99m technetium- labeled creatinine in healthy rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yilmaz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of creatinine, one of the toxic guanidine compounds, in various tissues has not been studied in detail by using radiolabeled creatinine. Our objective was to investigate the biodistribution of creatinine labeled with 99m technetium (99mTc by the stannous (II chloride method in healthy male Wistar rats. Quality controls were carried out by radio thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and paper electrophoresis. The labeling yield was 85 ± 2% under optimum conditions (pH 7 and 100 µg stannous chloride. Rats (N = 12 were injected intravenously with 99mTc-creatinine and their blood and visceral organs were evaluated for 99mTc-creatinine uptake as percent of the injected dose per gram wet weight of each tissue (%ID/g. The lowest amount of uptake was detected in the brain and testis. When the rate of uptake was evaluated, only the kidney showed increasing rates of uptake of 99mTc-creatinine throughout the study. Kidneys showed the highest amount of uptake throughout the study (P < 0.001 compared to all other organs, followed by liver, spleen and lung tissue.

  10. Technique using Technetium-99m-MIBI Uptake Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinro Matsuo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play an important role in energy production for the cell. The proper function of a myocardial cell largely depends on the functional capacity of the mitochondria.  Therefore it is necessary to establish a novel and reliable method for a non-invasive assessment of mitochondrial function and metabolism in humans. Although originally designed for evaluating myocardial perfusion, 99mTc-MIBI can be also used to evaluate cardiac mitochondrial function. In a clinical study on ischemic heart disease, reverse redistribution of 99mTc-MIBI was evident after direct percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The presence of increased washout of 99mTc-MIBI was associated with the infarct-related artery and preserved left ventricular function. In non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, an increased washout rate of 99mTc-MIBI, which correlated inversely with left ventricular ejection fraction, was observed in patients with congestive heart failure. Increased 99mTc-MIBI washout was also observed in mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS and in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac mitochondrial function could be greatly beneficial in monitoring possible cardiotoxic drug use and in the evaluation of cardiac damage in clinical medicine.

  11. Estimation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin accumulation indexes in bone and joint bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin is a radiopharmaceutical preparation sintetized to improve diagnostic accuracy of bacterial infections in human tissues. It is mostly applied in diagnosis of bone and joint infections. Many papers have confirmed its sensitivity to infection, but newer papers argued its specificity. The aim of this study was to compare the results of visual analysis of scintigrams to semiquantitative calculations of accumulation indexes with the assumption that calculation of indexes would improve the specificity for bone and joint infections. Methods. We examined 40 patients, 25 with confirmed bone and joint bacterial infections and 15 patients with bone and joint diseases without bacterial infection. Scintigraphy was performed 5 minutes, 1, 4 and 24 hours after intravenous (iv injection of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin. Scintigrams were analyzed visually and by calculation and comparation of accumulation indexes values. Results. Visual sensitivity was 94%, but specificity only 47%. Index calculation achieved much higher specificity (100% after 1, 4 and 24 hours for cut off value of 1.50. All basic index values (5 min in the patients with infections increased in 24 hours. In 8 patients without infection occurred a slight increase and in 7 patients decrease of basic index values. Conclusion. Calculation of accumulation index values is needed in the use of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy as it is the only way to improve specificity for bacterial bone infections. Visual interpretation of results is sensitive, but not specific due to accumulation of the drug in a high percent of non infected bone and joint lesions.

  12. Study of the retention and release of {sup 99m} Tc in several chromatographic columns through the elution with different solvents; Estudo da retencao e liberacao do tecnecio metaestavel ({sup 99m} Tc) em diversas colunas cromatograficas usando diferentes solventes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Katia N.; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: norisuzuki6@yahoo.com.br

    2005-07-01

    About 80% of the radiopharmaceuticals used in Nuclear Medicine is labelled with {sup 99m} Tc due to its physical properties such as short half-life of 6h, gamma photon emission of 140 keV and easy attainment through generators of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m} Tc. The Center of Radiopharmacy (CR) of the IPEN-CNEN/SP developed a type generator production of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m} Tc through the reaction {sup 98}Mo(n,a) {sup 99}Mo that it occurs in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 of the IPEN-CNEN/SP, using the technique of elution of a gel of zirconium molybdate for the production of a MoZr gel type chromatographic generator. Although all the efforts used in the study of optimization of the conditions of preparation of the gel of MoZr, this generator possess a low to medium specific activity (925 MBq/mL) lower than the fission generator (1850 MBq/mL) used currently for the Brazilian medical costumers, as expected by this technology. The main objective of this work is the study of the retention and release of {sup 99m}-Tc in several chromatographic columns through the elution with different solvents. This is the first step for the attainment of a radioactive concentration of {sup 99m} Tc in order to attend the demand of the market without losing the quality and proving its clinical effectiveness. The initial results of adsorption and elution of {sup 99m} Tc from ion exchanging columns with different solvents will be presented. (author)

  13. Gastric Reflux on Routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Reflux of bile and digestive enzymes from the small bowel and duodenum into stomach has been observed in patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid derivatives hepatobiliary scan has been used as a noninvasive method to detect duodenogastric reflux. Sometimes, gastric reflux can be observed incidentally on routine Tc-99m DISA hepatobiliary scintigraphy. To evaluate the clinical meaning of gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan, we analyzed 36 patients showed gastric reflux incidentally on the routine Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy from December 1991 to June 1995 in Chungnam National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1) The gastric reflux was observed in 2.3% of 1,553 cases of routine Tc-99m DISIDA Hepatobiliary scintigraphy for 43 months. 2) Nineteen percent of patients with gastric reflux had the past medical history of operations on stomach or biliary system. And that history was more prevalent in patients with reflux than those without reflux, significantly (p<0.01). 3) On fiberoptic gastroduodenpscopic examination, 87% of the patients with gastric reflux had the gastroduodenal diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, duodenal cancer and ampullary diverticulosis. We thought that the gastric reflux can be observed considerably in patients without any operation history on stomach or duodenum, although the operation history is more prevalent in patients with gastric reflux than those without reflux, significantly and most of patients with gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA scan has various gastroduodenal diseases.

  14. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

  15. Novel Tc-99m radiotracers for brain imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Boschi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel class of Tc-99m complexes able to cross the blood brain barrier has been investigated and described here. These compounds are formed by reacting the bis-substituted nitrido precusors [99mTc(N(PS2] (PS = phosphino-thiol ligand with triethylborane (BEt3 under strictly anhydrous conditions and using non-aqueous solvents. The molecular structure of these tracers was not fully established, but preliminary experimental evidence suggests that they result from the interaction of the Lewis base [99mTc(N(PS2] with the Lewis acid BEt3, which leads to the formation of the novel -B-Nº Tc- adduct. After purification and recovery in a physiological solution, the new borane-nitrido Tc-99m derivatives were injected in rats for evaluating their in vivo biological behavior. Results showed a significant accumulation in brain tissue, thus indicating that these complexes are capable of penetrating the intact blood brain barrier. Uptake in the central nervous system was confirmed by imaging the distribution of activity on the integrated living animal using a YAP(SSPECT small animal scanner.Uma nova classe de complexos de Tc-99m capazes de atravessar a barreira hemato-encefálica foi investigada e descrita neste trabalho. Estes compostos são formados reagindo os precursores bissubstituídos do nitrido [99mTc(N(PS2] (PS = phosphino-tiol ligante com trietillborano (BEt3 sob restritas condições anidras e usando solventes não aquosos. A estrutura molecular desses traçadores não foi totalmente estabelecida, mas evidências experimentais preliminares sugerem que eles resultam da interação da base de Lewis [99mTc(N(PS2] com o ácido de Lewis BEt3, levando a formação do novo aducto -B-Nº Tc-. Após purificação e recuperação em uma solução fisiológica, os novos derivados borano-nitrido-Tc-99m foram injetados em ratos para avaliação de seu comportamento biológico in vivo. Os resultados mostraram uma acumulação significativa no tecido cerebral

  16. Evaluation of the eluate quality of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators in Recife, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington G.; Lima, Fabiana F. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: wandrade@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The assessment of the quality control of radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostic examinations in nuclear medicine is essential to obtain adequate images as well as to avoid unnecessary dose to the patient. The most of radiopharmaceuticals are labeled with {sup 99m}Tc eluate obtained from {sup 99M}o-{sup 99m}Tc generator. Before the labeling procedure, the eluate must be evaluated about its radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purities and pH, also. This study aims to evaluate the quality of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99}mTc generators used in nuclear medicine departments in Recife, Brazil. To determine the {sup 99}Mo content of the eluate, it was employed the attenuation method using a 6 mm thick lead cylinder. For chemical purity test, it was used a semi-quantitative colorimetrical test with standard solutions of Al{sup 3+} with concentrations of 5, 10 and 20ppm. The pH evaluation was performed with the universal pH strip (Merck). Radiochemical purity was determined by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel aluminum foil (Sorbentia Technologies) that it was cut in strips of 1x10cm. The solvents were acetone and saline. It was observed that about 2.0% of samples showed levels of {sup 99}Mo above the reference value. Two samples are outside of the recommended Al{sup 3+} concentration. Concerning the pH test, all samples were within the expected range. In relation to the content of free pertechnetate, 40% of samples showed values of Rf outside of the European and U.S. Pharmacopoeias recommendations. Thus, it is necessary to implement a quality control program of the eluate in clinics of nuclear medicine. (author)

  17. Estimation of absolute renal uptake with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid: direct comparison with the radioactivity of nephrectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana da Cunha Lopes de Lima

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Studies using radionuclides are the most appropriate method for estimating renal function. Dimercaptosuccinic acid chelate labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc-DMSA is the radiopharmaceutical of choice for high-resolution imaging of the renal cortex and estimation of the functional renal mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate a simplified method for determining the absolute renal uptake (ARU of 99mTc-DMSA prior to nephrectomy, using the radioactivity counts of nephrectomy specimens as the gold standard. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at the Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. METHODS: Seventeen patients (12 females; range 22-82 years old; mean age 50.8 years old underwent nephrectomy for various reasons. Renal scintigraphy was performed three to four hours after intravenous administration of a mean dose of 188.7 MBq (5.1 mCi of 99mTc-DMSA, which was done six to 24 hours before surgery. The in vivo renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA was determined using the radioactivity of the syringe before the injection (measured using a dose calibrator and the images of the syringe and kidneys, obtained from a scintillation camera. After surgery, the reference value for renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA was determined by measuring the radioactivity of the nephrectomy specimen using the same dose calibrator. RESULTS: The ARU measurements were very similar to those obtained using the reference method, as determined by linear regression (r-squared = 0.96. CONCLUSION: ARU estimation using the proposed method before nephrectomy seems to be accurate and feasible for routine use.

  18. Quality control of instant kit 99mTc-mercapto acetyl triglycine with inter- and intra-operator measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Murat Fani; Kiratli, Pinar Ozgen; Konyali, Deniz; Metin, Fatma

    2009-01-01

    This prospective study was aimed to assess inter- and intra-operator variability during routine quality control (QC) procedure for technetium-99m mercaptoacetyl triglycine ((99m)Tc-MAG3) instant kit formulation. A total of 160 QC analyses with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for 20 separate MAG3 re-constitutions were performed by 2 radiochemists. The percentage of free and hydrolysed (99m)Tc as well as binding efficiency, were calculated according to standard TLC. Each QC analysis was done using silica gel (SG), silica acrylic (SA), Whatman 1 (W1) and Whatman 3 (W3) TLC strips separately at 1h, following labeling MAG3 instant kit with (99m)Tc-pertechnetate. To assess the radiochemical stability of (99m)Tc-MAG3, the same analysis was performed 4h after kit reconstitution. Visual confirmation for QC with scintigraphy was also performed. At both time points, each radio-chemist repeated all the procedure twice for each of the TLC paper types to analyze the intra-operator reliability. Crombach's Test was used for the reliability analysis. High inter-operator correlation ratios (range: 0.821-0.920) per each TLC strip were found where the highest concordance rate was 0.921 for SA. Each TLC strip showed adequate kit reconstitution with acceptable free and hydrolysed (99m)Tc percentages both at 1 and 4 h analyses, along with high binding efficiency values of 94.3 +/- 2.9 and 92.5 +/- 1.9 at 1 and 4 h respectively. Intra-observers reliability showed almost equal high concordance rates (range: 0.888-0.961) for all types of strips. In conclusion, all kinds of ITLC/TLC strips were reliable to assess stability of the radiopharmaceutical at 1 and 4 h while analysis with the SA strip had the highest concordence rate. Inter- and intra-operator QC was also reliable.

  19. Evaluation of anti-peptidoglycan aptamers labeled with Technetium-99m for in vivo bacterial infection identification; Avaliacao de aptameros anti-peptidoglicano marcados com Tecnecio-99m para identificacao in vivo de infecoes bacterianas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ieda Mendes

    2017-07-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that display high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets and are emerging as promising molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. In a previous work, we selected two aptamers for peptidoglycan (the main constituent of bacterial cell walls) termed Antibac1 and Antibac2. In the present study, the characterization of these aptamers was completed, and the dissociation coefficients (K{sub d}) were determined. The aptamers were further labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and evaluated for bacterial infection diagnosis by scintigraphy. The K{sub d} obtained for Antibac1 was of 0.415 ± 0.047 μM and for Antibac2 of 1.261 ± 0.280 μM. The direct labeling method with {sup 99m}Tc allowed radiolabel yields higher than 90% and the radiolabel stability in saline, plasma and cysteine excess indicated that the process was suitable for labeling of both aptamers. The {sup 99m}Tc-aptamers are prone to bind to plasma proteins: 39.5% ± 2.9% (1 h) and 43.6% ± 1.2% (3 h) for {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1; 37.6% ± 2.0% (1 h) and 40.9% ± 0% (3 h) for {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac2. The blood clearance half-life for {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 was of 41.26 min and for the {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac2 of 31.58 min. The {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 in the group infected with S. aureus presented a target/non-target ratio of 2.81 ± 0.67, significantly higher than verified for the {sup 99m}Tc-library (control): 1.52 ± 0.07. In the model with C. albicans infection the target/non-target ratio for {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 was 1.46 ± 0.11, similar that obtained for the {sup 99m}Tc-library in the same model: 1.52 ± 0.05. The {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac2 in the group infected with S. aureus showed a target/non-target ratio of 2.61 ± 0.66, statistically higher than achieved for the {sup 99m}Tc-library in the same infection model: 1.52 ± 0.07. In the group infected with C. albicans this ratio for {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac2 was 1.75 ± 0.19, it was significantly higher than verified for the {sup 99m}Tc-library: 1

  20. Effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution and labeling blood components with {sup 99m}Tc-GH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekic, Betul; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut Biber; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Ichedef, Cigdem; Unak, Perihan [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences. Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: people consume vegetables without the knowledge of the side effects of the biological and chemical contents and interactions between radiopharmaceuticals and herbal extract. To this end, current study is focused on the effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucoheptonate ({sup 99m}Tc-GH) and radiolabeling of blood components. Methods: GH was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. Quality control studies were done utilizing TLC method. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with either broccoli extract or SF as control group for 15 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from rats' heart. Radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with GH, SnCl{sub 2} and {sup 99m} Tc. Results: radiochemical yield of {sup 99m}Tc-GH is 98.46{+-}1.48 % (n=8). Biodistribution studies have shown that according to the control, the treated group with broccoli has approximately 10 times less uptake in kidney. The percentage of the radioactivity ratios of the blood components is found to be same in both groups. Conclusions: although there is no considerable effect on the radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially on kidneys. The knowledge of this change on kidney uptake may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  1. Investigation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled tumor seeking agents. Usefulness of /sup 99m/Tc-isoniazid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Norihisa; Takashima, Harumi; Nohara, Fujio; Fujinawa, Tomoaki; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Hisada, Kinichi.

    1987-10-01

    For the development of /sup 99m/Tc labeled tumor seeking agents, 273 drugs and chemicals were evaluated. Agents labeled by SnCl/sub 2/-HCl method were injected to rats bearing Yoshida sarcoma. Scintigrams of the rats 2 hours after injection and the excised tumor and organs placed on a plate were taken and evaluated their affinity to the tumor. Isoniazid (INH) was found to be the most useful agent as a result of this screening study. Intensive study on /sup 99m/Tc-INH was subsequently performed. Another labeling method, FeSO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ method, was evaluated and shown to be superior in both absolute tumor uptake and tumor to muscle ratio. Uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-INH to Yoshida sarcoma occurred early after injection and maintained its level until later time. On the other hand, radioactivity in the blood and muscle decreased rapidly; that is, tumor to blood and muscle ratio showed rapid increase. Other animal tumor modeles, mouse bearing Ehrlich tumor or Sarcoma 180, were also used to evaluate the usefulness of /sup 99m/Tc-INH. The labeled agent showed good localization in these tumors too. In conclusion /sup 99m/Tc-INH might be a good tumor seeking agent and further clinical trials would be warrant.

  2. Comparison of relative renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, F.C.; Fujikawa, G.Y.; Decker, H.; Alonso, G.; Pereira, J.C.; Duarte, P.S. [Centro de Diagnostico Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Medicina Nuclear; Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Saude Publica. Dept. de Epidemiologia]. E-mail: paulo.duarte@fleury.com.br

    2006-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the renal function measured with either {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA or {sup 99m}Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Methods: the values of relative renal function measured in 111 renal dynamic scintigraphies performed either with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (55 studies) or with {sup 99m}Tc-EC (56 studies) were compared with the relative function measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy performed within a 1-month period. The comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The number of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-EC studies that presented relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, using chi square test were also compared. Results: the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-EC is not statistically different from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA (p = 0.97). The relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was statistically different from that measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, but with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). The number of studies with relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA is higher for the {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA scintigraphy (p 0.04) than for {sup 99m}Tc-EC. Conclusion: the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphy is comparable with that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy, while the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy presents a significant statistical difference from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. (author)

  3. [Guidelines for radiation protection in medicine--radiopharmaceutical quality control. German Society of Nuclear Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandau, W

    1994-04-01

    For the first time the revision of the "Guideline for radiation protection in medicine" defines extensive quality control procedures for radiopharmaceuticals. The principles of the 99Mo/99mTc-generator, the preparation of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals and the origin of the most frequent radiochemical impurities are illustrated. An introduction into the theory of thin layer chromatography is combined with a listing of radiochromatographic systems. This enables the determination of the radiochemical purity of the most important radiopharmaceuticals in clinical routine.

  4. An efficient HPLC method for the analysis of isomeric purity of technetium-99m-exametazime and identity confirmation using LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderghinste, D; Van Eeckhoudt, M; Terwinghe, C; Mortelmans, L; Bormans, G M; Verbruggen, A M; Vanbilloen, H P

    2003-08-08

    to obtain strong evidence for the structure of 99mTc-d,l-HMPAO and 99mTc-meso-HMPAO at nanomolar concentration. It is concluded that radio-LC-MS can become a sensitive aid in quality control of "no carrier added" radiopharmaceutical preparations.

  5. Preparation of lyophilized kit of HYNIC-[Tyr3]-Octreotate and labelling studies with 99m-Technetium; Preparo do reagente liofilizado HYNIC-[Ty3{sup 3}]-Octreotato e estudo de marcacao com Tecnecio-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Ivani Bortoleti

    2008-07-01

    The development of radiolabeled molecules with high specificity for an organ ar tumor has been contributed to the precise diagnostic in nuclear medicine. Somatostatin labeled derivatives constitutes a particular example of labeled peptide applied in the localization of neuroendocrine tumors. Nowadays, the {sup 111}In DTPA-octreotide is the radiopharmaceutical applied in diagnostic procedures for the visualization of tumors with high expression of somatostatin receptors. However, the 111-indium is a radionuclide that presents some limitations related to availability (cyclotron production), half-life (67 hours) and the emission of medium energy photons (171 keV e 245 keV), not favorable to the acquisition of images in SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). The favorable physical properties of the {sup 99m}-technetium ({sup 99m}Tc) make this radionuclide the more favorable to substitute the 111-indium on peptide labeling procedures. This work studied the preparation and labeling of a lyophilized kit of HYNIC-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate (HYNIC-octreotate) with {sup 99m}Tc, base on previously described procedures and using tricine and EDDA (ethylendiaminediacetic acid) as coligands. It was studied the labeling parameters (incubation time, temperature, volume and perthecnetate activity) and the stability of the lyophilized preparation. Additionally, it was studied the influence of the pre-freezing using liquid nitrogen in the stability of the lyophilized preparation, as well as the influence of manitol in the labeling yield and biological distribution of the complex. The stability studies showed that the lyophilization using liquid nitrogen pre-freezing resulted in a lyophilized preparation with stability over 4 month when stored under refrigeration. The stability of the lyophilized preparation obtained without liquid nitrogen pre-freezing was similar.The labeling studies determined the best labeling conditions, resulting in a radiochemical yield superior than 90

  6. 99m Tc-labeled heparin test in orthopaedic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, J.F.; Lafon, J.C.; Colin, M.; Chatelut, J.; Beaubatie, F. (Hopital Universitaire Dupuytren, Limoges (France))

    1983-06-30

    99m Tc-labeled heparin test was performed for early detection of phlebitis or pulmonary embolism after orthopaedic prothesis. Heparinic treatment and surgery per se were demonstrated to have no effect on the results. If this test demonstrates a statistical difference for pathologic patients, it is of greater value to consider ratio between rates before and after intervention.

  7. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  8. Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT scanning in Munchausen syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountz, J M; Parker, P E; Liu, H G; Bentley, T W; Lill, D W; Deutsch, G

    1996-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was studied in a patient with Munchausen syndrome using high resolution Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. The scan demonstrated marked hyperperfusion of the right hemithalamus. The cranial CT scan was normal. The abnormal right hemithalamic blood flow is discussed in relation to the hypothesized neuropathy of this disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8580117

  9. Accumulation of 99m TC-methylene diphosphonate radiotracer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scintigraphic scans were carried out in several areas of the rat's forelimbs by gamma camera 2 h after the injection of 99mTc-MDP via the tail vein. Accumulations of the radioisotope in the study areas were calculated using region of interest (ROI) technique. Results: Mean count of radioisotope in the right and left sides of ...

  10. The fourteenth report on survey of adverse reaction to radiopharmaceuticals; The 17th survey in 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report deals with adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals occurring during the period from April 1, 1991 through March 31, 1992. Questionnaires were sent to 1,150 facilities, and 906 (78.8%) responded. Twenty one cases of adverse reactions and 7 cases of drug defects were reported from a total of 19 facilities (2.1%), giving an annual incidence of 2.0 and 0.7 cases, respectively, for 100,000 administered cases. The ratio of the occurrence in the 17th survey to that in the 16th survey was 1.18 for adverse reactions and 0.39 for drug defects. The occurrence of drug defects in this survey was lowest compared with that in the previous five surveys. According to radiopharmaceuticals, the incidence of adverse reactions was as follows: I-131-6[beta]-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol>I-123 orthoiodohippurate>I-131 orthoiodohippurate>Tc-99m DMSA>Tc-99m DTPA>Tc-99m MAA>Ga-67 citrate>Tc-99m MDP>Tc-99m HMDP. Adverse reactions included reactions to the vagus nerves (n=9), allergic reactions (n=3), and others (n=9). Radiopharmaceuticals reported as drug defects were as follows: Tc-99m pertechnetate, Tc-99m MDP, Tc-99m HMDP, Tc-99m phytate, and Tl-201 chloride. (N.K.).

  11. Preclinical evaluation of technetium 99m-labeled P1827DS for infection imaging and comparison with technetium 99m IL-8.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, S.; Rennen, H.J.J.M.; Boerman, O.C.; Baumann, S.; Cyr, J.E.; Manchanda, R.; Lister-James, J.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Dinkelborg, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The technetium 99 m (99mTc)-radiolabeled, leukocyte-avid peptide-glycoseaminoglycan complex, [99mTc]P1827DS, has been synthesized as an improved infection/inflammation imaging agent to [99mTc]P483H (LeukoTect, Diatide). In a phase I/II clinical trail, [99mTc]P483H images were equivalent

  12. An automated module for the separation and purification of cyclotron-produced 99mTcO4-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Thomas J; Dodd, Maurice; Gagnon, Katherine; Hanemaayer, Vicky; Wilson, John; McQuarrie, Stephen A; English, Wade; Ruth, Thomas J; Bénard, François; Schaffer, Paul

    2012-05-01

    The shortage of reactor-produced molybdenum-99 ((99)Mo, t(½)=66 h) has renewed interest in alternative production methods of its daughter isotope, technetium-99m ((99m)Tc, t(½)=6.02 h). While adsorption chromatography serves as a mechanism for selective elution of sodium pertechnetate from technetium generators, this method of purification is not sufficient for many alternative production methods. Several ion-separation/solid phase extraction chromatography methods are known, yet none have been demonstrated on cyclotron-produced [(99m)Tc]TcO(4)(-). Herein we describe the design, manufacture and optimization of a remotely operated module for the purification of sodium pertechnetate from a bulk solution of molybdate. The automated purification module was designed to separate [(99m)Tc]TcO(4)(-) using either Dowex 1x8 or an Aqueous Biphasic Extraction Chromatography (ABEC) resin. (100)Mo composite targets were irradiated with 18.5 MeV protons for 10 μA·h using an ASCI TR19 cyclotron. Once purified, the radiopharmaceutical quality of (99m)TcO(4)(-) isolated from each process (Dowex and/or ABEC) was established by assaying for molybdate breakthrough, alumina levels and, in the case of the Dowex approach, residual organics. The separation processes are efficient (75% for Dowex, 90% for ABEC) and complete in less than 30 min. Overall, up to 2.1 GBq of (99m)Tc was produced using the (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc transformation, processed using the separation module and subjected to a detailed chemical and radionuclidic analysis. Due to its expense and limited availability, (100)MoO(4)(2-) was recovered in >90% yield using a precipitation/filtration/lyophilization approach. Na[(99m)Tc]TcO(4) was produced using a medical cyclotron, recovered using an automated purification module and found to exceed all established quality control parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or

  14. 188Re(V) Nitrido Radiopharmaceuticals for Radionuclide Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-01-19

    The favorable nuclear properties of rhenium-188 for therapeutic application are described, together with new methods for the preparation of high yield and stable 188Re radiopharmaceuticals characterized by the presence of the nitride rhenium core in their final chemical structure. 188Re is readily available from an 188W/188Re generator system and a parallelism between the general synthetic procedures applied for the preparation of nitride technetium-99m and rhenium-188 theranostics radiopharmaceuticals is reported. Although some differences between the chemical characteristics of the two metallic nitrido fragments are highlighted, it is apparent that the same general procedures developed for the labelling of biologically active molecules with technetium-99m can be applied to rhenium-188 with minor modification. The availability of these chemical strategies, that allow the obtainment, in very high yield and in physiological condition, of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals, gives a new attractive prospective to employ this radionuclide for therapeutic applications.

  15. 188Re(V Nitrido Radiopharmaceuticals for Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Boschi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The favorable nuclear properties of rhenium-188 for therapeutic application are described, together with new methods for the preparation of high yield and stable 188Re radiopharmaceuticals characterized by the presence of the nitride rhenium core in their final chemical structure. 188Re is readily available from an 188W/188Re generator system and a parallelism between the general synthetic procedures applied for the preparation of nitride technetium-99m and rhenium-188 theranostics radiopharmaceuticals is reported. Although some differences between the chemical characteristics of the two metallic nitrido fragments are highlighted, it is apparent that the same general procedures developed for the labelling of biologically active molecules with technetium-99m can be applied to rhenium-188 with minor modification. The availability of these chemical strategies, that allow the obtainment, in very high yield and in physiological condition, of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals, gives a new attractive prospective to employ this radionuclide for therapeutic applications.

  16. Radioluminescence from Tc-99m in glass predicts local dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Nicole L; Boschi, Federico; Spinelli, Antonello E

    2017-10-01

    The widely-used gamma-emitter Tc-99m has been shown to lead to optical emissions in mice and glass. We investigated the possibility that these emissions are due to the Cerenkov effect and whether the light emitted is proportional to local dose. By using a Geant4 Monte Carlo model matched to an experimental measurement, we show that the light detected by a small animal optical imaging system provides a 2D map of the dose throughout a glass sample. We conclude that radioluminescence from Tc-99m can be used to quantitatively measure dose in transparent materials, which could have applications in dosimetry and quality assurance. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging in acute cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Yun-Mee; Choe, Wonsick; Lee, Keon-Young; Ahn, Seung-Ik; Kim, Kwang; Cho, Young Up; Choi, Sun Keun; Hur, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sei-Joong; Hong, Kee-Chun; Shin, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Rae; Woo, Ze-Hong

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of a new nuclear imaging Infecton (Tc-99m ciprofloxacin) for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. METHODS: Sixteen patients thought to have acute cholecystitis were included in this study. The diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was made based on clinical symptoms and ultrasonographic and pathologic findings. RESULTS: The 16 patients were composed of 12 acute and 4 chronic cholecystitis patients. Twelve patients with acute cholecystitis were image-positive, including one false-positive. Four patients with chronic cholecystitis were image-negative, of whom three were true-negative. This nuclear imaging had a sensitivity of 91.7%, a specificity of 75%, a positive-predictive value of 91.7%, and a negative-predictive value of 75%. CONCLUSION: Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging is easy to perform and applicable for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. PMID:17589906

  18. 99m-Technetium Sestamibi Uptake in a Gastric Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawgi, Mohamed; Ali, Tamir; Scott, Matthew; Petrides, George

    2018-01-01

    We report the case of a 74-year-old woman with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent 99m-technetium-sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma. Unexpected focal sestamibi uptake was observed at a 5 cm submucosal tumor arising from the greater curve of the stomach. The patient underwent partial gastrectomy and the histological and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with the diagnosis of gastric schwannoma.

  19. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is the phytoterapic most used in popular medicine in the treatment of cerebral senescence. Red blood cells (RBC labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m is used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. This labeling depends on a reducing agent, usually the stannous ion. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceutical. We have evaluated the influence of the Ginkgo biloba extract on the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m. Blood was withdrawn and incubated with Ginkgo biloba extract (0; 0.004; 0.04; 0.4; 4; 20 and 40 mg/ml. Stannous chloride (1.2 ml/ml was added and, then, Tc-99m was added. Plasma (P and blood cells (RBC were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF and insoluble fractions (IF separated. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in the radioactivity (from 97.7 ± 0.7 to 49.5 ± 3.9% in RBC with the drug (4 mg/ml. In the labeling process of RBC with Tc-99m, the stannous and pertechnetate ions pass though the membrane, so, we suggest that the Ginkgo biloba effect can be explained by (i an inhibition of the transport of these ions, (ii damage in membrane, (iii competition with the cited ions for the same binding sites, or (iv possible generation of reactive oxygen species that could oxidize the stannous ion.

  20. Efficient preparation of {sup 99m}Tc(III) '4+1' mixed-ligand complexes for peptide labeling with high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstler, Jens-Uwe [Biotectid GmbH, Deutscher Platz 5c, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Seidel, Gesine [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Pietzsch, Hans-Jurgen, E-mail: h.j.pietzsch@fzd.d [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    An improved labeling procedure for peptides attached to organometallic {sup 99m}Tc(III) '4+1' mixed-ligand complexes in which the radiometal is coordinated by a tripodal tetradentate chelator 2,2',2''-nitrilotriethanethiol (NS{sub 3}) and a monodentate isocyanide ligand is presented. The labeling procedure was evaluated by the synthesis of [{sup 99m}Tc(NS{sub 3})(L2-RGD)]. The containing radiopharmaceutically interesting RGD-peptide cyclo[Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys] was modified with 4-isocyanobutanoic acid (L2) as linker conjugated to N{sup 6}-Lys to get the monodentate ligand L2-RGD. The structural identity of the {sup 99m}Tc-conjugate was confirmed by comparison to a Re reference compound. The Tc- and Re-conjugates had matching retention times under identical HPLC conditions. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeling was performed in a novel one-step procedure using the eluate of a {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator, NS{sub 3}, the isocyanide modified peptide, SnCl{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}EDTA, mannitol and ascorbic acid in the reaction mixture. Using optimized reagents it is possible to label 50 nmol peptide with {sup 99m}Tc within 60 min at room temperature with a radiochemical yield higher than 95% and a specific activity of {approx}20 GBq/{mu}mol.

  1. {sup 99m}Tc-N, N'-bis(aminoethyl)propanediamine hexaacetic acid (BPHA): a glomerular filtration agent similar to {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guozheng E-mail: Guozheng.Liu@umassmed.edu; Zhang Chunli; Liu Fei; Wang Rongfu; Fu Zhanli; Li Guiqun; Miao Zengxing

    2002-05-01

    Investigations on the biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-BPHA in normal and probenecid treated mice and a comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA injected mice suggested that {sup 99m}Tc-BPHA is also a glomerular filtration agent. Whole body radioactivity measurements in mice and rabbits after administration of {sup 99m}Tc-BPHA showed negligible whole body radioactivity at 24 h. Excellent kidney images both in rabbits and a human volunteer were obtained. The significance of higher GFR estimates using {sup 99m}Tc-BPHA compared to {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA is discussed.

  2. Dosimetric contribution of organs of biokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I to estimate radiation doses in thyroids of children of 1 and 5 years; Contribucion dosimetrica de organos de la biocinetica del {sup 99m}Tc y {sup 123}I para estimar dosis en tiroides de ninos de 1 y 5 anos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M.V.; Castillo, C.E.; Abanto, D.M.; Rocha, D.; Garcia, W.H.; Marin, K., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (UNT), Trujillo (Peru); Quispe, R. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, UNAM, Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    The absorbed doses by thyroids during uptake studies through biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing {sup 123}I (iodine) or {sup 99m}Tc (pertechnetate) are estimated. Using the MIRD scheme and the representation of Cristy-Eckerman for thyroids in children of 1 and 5 years, the objective of the study was to determine whether the dosimetric biokinetic contributions of the organs of {sup 123}I (iodide) and {sup 99m}Tc (pertechnetate) biokinetic are significant in the estimated of the absorbed dose for thyroid uptake studies.

  3. Influence of splenectomy on the biodistribution of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acucena, Maria Kadja Meneses Torres; Pereira, Kercia Regina Santos Gomes; Villarim Neto, Arthur; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Araujo Filho, Irami; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia]. E-mail: aldo@ufrnet.br

    2008-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate if the splenectomy alters the biodistribution of 99mTc-DMSA and renal function in Wistar rats. The animals were separated in the groups: splenectomy (n = 6) and control (n = 6). After splenectomy (15 days), the administration of 0.1 ml of 99mTc-DMSA IV (0.48 MBq) was carried out. Thirty minutes later, kidney, heart, lung, thyroid, stomach, bladder and femur and samples of blood were isolated. The organs were weighed, counted and the percentage of radioactivity /g (%ATI/g) determined. Serum urea and creatinine, hematocrit, leukocytes and platelets were measured. Statistics by t test (p<0.05) was done. There was a significant reduction in %ATI/g in kidney and blood (p<0.05) of splenectomized animals, a significant increase (p<0.05) of urea (88.8 {+-} 18.6 mg/dL) and creatinine (0.56 {+-} 0.08 mg/dL), compared to the controls (51.5{+-}1.6, 0.37{+-}0.02 mg/dL, respectively), as well as increase in platelets and leucocytes, and hematocrit reduction. The analysis of the results indicates that in rats, splenectomy seems to alter the renal function and the uptake of 99mTc-DMSA. (author)

  4. Small-animal radionuclide luminescence imaging of thyroid and salivary glands with Tc99m-pertechnetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Federico; Pagliazzi, Marco; Rossi, Barbara; Cecchini, Maria Paola; Gorgoni, Giancarlo; Salgarello, Matteo; Spinelli, Antonello E

    2013-07-01

    The in vitro and in vivo detection of visible photons from radioisotopes using optical techniques is a fast-growing field in molecular imaging. Tc99m-pertechnetate is used as an alternative to I123 in imaging of the thyroid and is generally imaged with gamma cameras or single photon emission tomography instruments. The uptake in the thyroid tissue is mediated by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), a glycoprotein that actively mediates iodide transport into the thyroid follicular cells and several extrathyroidal tissues. The luminescence of the gamma emitter Tc99m-pertechnetate in order to visualize its biodistribution in healthy small living animals by using a commercial optical imaging system is investigated. Here we show that in Nu/Nu mice, the uptake of Tc99m-pertechnetate in the thyroid gland and in salivary glands is very detectable by using radionuclide luminescence imaging. We also found light emission from the stomach in accordance with the literature. The localization of the light signals in the anatomical regions where the radiopharmaceutical is expected, confirmed by resections, shows that it is possible to image NIS-expressing tissues.

  5. Novel {sup 99m}Tcradiolabeled quinazolinone derivative [Qn-In]: synthesis, evaluation and biodistribution studies in mice and rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Saroj; Kalra, Neetu; Mishra, Pushpa; Chutani, Krishna; Mishra, Anil; Chopra, Madhu E-mail: madhu_india@hotmail.com

    2004-11-01

    A quinazolinone derivative as a novel non-peptidic CCK-B receptor antagonist designated as Qn-In, was synthesized, characterized by spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for radiopharmaceutical potential. The efficiency of labeling with {sup 99m}Tc was greater than 98% and the complex was stable for about 7 hours at 37 degree sign C in presence of serum. Affinity of Qn-In was determined to be in nanomolar range by competitive binding studies on cancer cell line MDA-MB-468. Bio-distribution of {sup 99m}Tc labeled Qn-In in mice was examined by intravenous administration and time-activity curves were generated. The ligand showed binding to most of the organs, known to express CCK-B receptor. The lack of uptake in brain may be due to the inability of the complex to cross the blood-brain barrier. Our results show that {sup 99m}Tc labeled Qn-In ligand provides a new template for further development of non-peptidic ligands for diagnosis and therapy of diseases related with CCK-B receptor.

  6. A comparison of dose savings of lead and lightweight aprons for shielding of 99m-Technetium radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Forward, Helen; Cardew, Paul; Smith, Bradley; Clack, Llewellyn; McWhirter, Kym; Johnson, Stacey; Wessel, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear medicine technologists (NMTs) have the highest effective doses of radiation among medical workers. With increase in the use of lightweight materials in diagnostic radiography, the aim was to compare the effectiveness of lead and lightweight aprons in shielding from 99m-Technetium ((99m)Tc) gamma rays. The doses received from a scattering phantom to the entrance, 9cm depth and exit of a phantom were measured with LiF:Mg, Cu, P thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). Doses and spectra were assessed without no shielding, with 0.5-mm lead and lightweight aprons. The lead and lightweight aprons decreased entrance surface doses by 76 and 59%, respectively. The spectral analysis showed that the lightweight apron provided better dose reduction at energies lead was 35% more efficient at higher energies. While lead apron demonstrated better shielding, the additional savings should be considered with the weight differential. It is concluded that the lightweight apron is suitable to be worn by NMTs interacting with patients injected with a (99m)Tc labelled radiopharmaceutical.

  7. Preparation and evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptide for integrin targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Eun; Hong, Young-Don; Choi, Kang-Hyuk; Lee, So-Young; Park, Pil-Hoon [Radioisotope Research Division, Basic Science and Technology Department, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sun-Ju, E-mail: choisj@kaeri.re.k [Radioisotope Research Division, Basic Science and Technology Department, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Technetium coordination chemistry has been a subject of interest in the development of radiopharmaceuticals, especially imaging radiotracers. Due to the extensive work done on developing chelates for {sup 99m}Tc, various chelators have been investigated and applied to radiopharmceuticals. Previous studies on the coordination chemistry of the [{sup 99m}Tc=O] core have established peptide-derived sequences as effective chelating ligands. These observations led to the design of tetradentate ligands derived from amino acid sequences. Such amino acid sequences provide a tetradentate coordination site for chelation to the radionuclide and an effective functional group for conjugation to biomolecules using conventional solid-phase synthetic routes. A derivative of a novel tripeptide chelating sequence, Pro-Gly-Cys (PGC) has been developed where it is possible to form stable technetium complexes with the [{sup 99m}Tc=O] via N{sub 3}S{sub 1} tetradentate coordination core that serves this function and can be readily incorporated into biomolecules using solid-phase synthesis techniques. As a model system, the RGD peptide was selected which has been well known to target the integrin receptor for angiogenesis and tumor imaging agents. The results of in vivo studies with these novel radiolabeled compounds in tumor xenografts demonstrated a distribution in tumor targeting and other organs, such as kidney, liver and intestines.

  8. Biodistribution of technetium-{sup 99m} pertechnetate after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (Capella technique) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses do; Jacome, Daniel Torres; Ramalho, Rachel de Alcantara Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Araujo-Filho, Irami; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha, E-mail: aldo@ufrnet.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: The biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate, the most used radiopharmaceutical in nuclear medicine, has not been studied in details after bariatric surgery. The objective was to investigate the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}Tc-) in organs and tissues of rats. Methods: Twelve rats were randomly divided into two groups of 6 animals each. The RYGB group rats were submitted to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the control group rats were not operated. After 15 days, all rats were injected with 0.1mL of Na{sup 99m}Tc- via orbital plexus with average radioactivity of 0.66 MBq. After 30 minutes, liver, stomach, thyroid, heart, lung, kidney and femur samples were harvested, weighed and percentage of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) of each organ was determined by gamma counter Wizard Perkin-Elmer. We applied the Student t test for statistical analysis, considering p<0.05 as significant. Results: Significant reduction in mean %ATI/g was observed in the liver, stomach and femur in the RYGB group animals, compared with the control group rats (p<0.05). In other organs no significant difference in %ATI/g was observed between the two groups. Conclusion: This work contributes to the knowledge that the bariatric surgery RYGB modifies the pattern of biodistribution of Na{sup 99m}Tc{sup -}. (author)

  9. The use of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinilkin, I., E-mail: sinilkinig@oncology.tomsk.ru; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Slonimskaya, E.; Doroshenko, A. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n = 34) were injected with radioactive {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Group II patients (n = 30) received {sup 99m}Tc-labeled phytate colloid. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. 18 hours after {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7–11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17–31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II SLNs were detected in 27 patients. 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5–2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4–7% by gamma probe. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. The sensitivity and specificity of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  10. The first experience of using of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, A.; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R.; Slonimskaya, E.; Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.; Sinilkin, I.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. Materials and methods. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n=34) were injected with radioactive 99mTc-Al203, and Group II patients (n=30) received 99mTc-labeled phytate colloid. Results. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. At 18 hours after 99mTc-Al203 injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7-11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17-31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II patients, SLNs were detected in 27 patients. At 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5-2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4-7% by gamma probe. Conclusion. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc - Al203 demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. Sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc - Al203 were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  11. Quality control of {sup 99m}Tc-EC: determination of radiochemical purity and investigation of the influence of impurities in the biodistribution; Controle de qualidade de EC-{sup 99m}Tc: determinacao de pureza radioquimica e investigacao da influencia de impurezas na biodistribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Erika V.; Monteiro, Elisiane G.; Alves, Edson V.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Barboza, Marycel F. de; Mengatti, Jair; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia], e-mail: erikavieira@usp.br

    2010-03-15

    Radiopharmaceuticals of meta-stable technetium ({sup 99m}Tc) are the most frequently used to obtain images in Nuclear Medicine. L, L-etilenodicisteina (EC) labeled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-EC) is used to assess kidneys function. The aim of this study was to determine the radiochemical purity (RCP) of {sup 99m}Tc-EC by paper chromatography (PC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), to investigate the influence of impurities on the quality of scintigraphy images and biodistribution in rats. The determination of the RCP of {sup 99m}Tc-EC ({sup 99m}Tc-EC RCP) by PC was developed in Whatman 1MM and 3MM chromatographic paper. The mobile phase used was acetone and 0.5 mol L-1 acetic acid for determination of {sup 99m}TcO4- and {sup 99m}TcO2, respectively. The analyses by HPLC were carried out in Shimadzu equipment (Prominence LC-20AT). The mobile phase was composed of 12.5 mmol L-1 phosphate buffer and ethanol. 1.0 mL min-1 flow rate and linear gradient were used. The biological tests were performed by injection of 0.370 MBq mL-1 {sup 99m}Tc-EC intravenously in Wistar rats (250 g) provided by the Animal Facility of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The results of analyses by Whatman 1MM and 3MM PC showed RCP of {sup 99m}Tc-EC up to (98.76 +- 0.29)% and (98.70 +- 0.31), respectively. Retention times of {sup 99m}TcO2, {sup 99m}TcO4- and {sup 99m}Tc-EC were 3.04, 5.08 and 10.06 minutes, respectively, in HPLC analyses and the maximum labeling efficiency of {sup 99m}Tc-EC was (98.99 +- 0.04)% at 30 minutes. {sup 99m}Tc-EC is rapidly reaches the plasma compartment and the biodistribution studies showed normal distribution of the injected dose in specified organs. Both PC and HPLC methods can be used in the routine quality control for determination of RCP as they showed to be accurate and fast. The biological quality controls showed application for diagnostic examination of the renal function dynamics. (author)

  12. Quality control of {sup 99m}Tc-EC; Determination of radiochemical purity and investigation of the influence of impurities in the biodistribution;Controle de qualidade de EC-{sup 99m}Tc: determinacao de pureza radioquimica e investigacao da influencia de impurezas na biodistribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Erika V.; Monteiro, Elisiane G.; Alves, Edson V.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Barboza, Marycel F. de; Mengatti, Jair; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia

    2009-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals of meta-stable technetium ({sup 99m}Tc) are the most frequently used to obtain images in Nuclear Medicine. L, L-ethylene dicysteine (EC) labeled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-EC) is used to assess kidneys function. The aim of this study was to determine the radiochemical purity (RCP) of {sup 99m}Tc-EC by paper chromatography (PC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), to investigate the influence of impurities on the quality of scintigraphy images and biodistribution in rats. The determination of the RCP of {sup 99m}Tc-EC ({sup 99m}Tc-EC RCP) by PC was developed in Whatman 1 MM and 3 MM chromatographic paper. The mobile phase used was acetone and 0.5 mol L{sup -1} acetic acid for determination of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}- and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2}, respectively. The analyses by HPLC were carried out in Shimadzu equipment (Prominence LC-20AT). The mobile phase was composed of 12.5 mmol L{sup -1} phosphate buffer and ethanol. 1.0 mL min{sup -1} flow rate and linear gradient were used. The biological tests were performed by injection of 0.370 MBq mL{sup -1} {sup 99m}Tc-EC intravenously in Wistar rats (250 g) provided by the animal facility of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The results of analyses by Whatman 1 MM and 3 MM PC showed RCP of {sup 99m}Tc-EC up to (98.76 +- 0.29)% and (98.70 +- 0.31), respectively. Retention times of {sup 99m}TcO2, {sup 99m}TcO4- and {sup 99m}Tc-EC were 3.04, 5.08 and 10.06 minutes, respectively, in HPLC analyses and the maximum labeling efficiency of {sup 99m}Tc-EC was (98.99 +- 0.04)% at 30 minutes. {sup 99m}9m-EC is rapidly reaches the plasma compartment and the biodistribution studies showed normal distribution of the injected dose in specified organs. Both PC and HPLC methods can be used in the routine quality control for determination of RCP as they showed to be accurate and fast. The biological quality controls showed application for diagnostic examination of the renal function dynamics. (author)

  13. Influence of splenectomy on the biodistribution of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kadja Meneses Torres Açucena

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate if the splenectomy alters the biodistribution of 99mTc-DMSA and renal function in Wistar rats. The animals were separated in the groups: splenectomy (n = 6 and control (n = 6. After splenectomy (15 days, the administration of 0.1ml of 99mTc-DMSA IV (0.48 MBq was carried out. Thirty minutes later, kidney, heart, lung, thyroid, stomach, bladder and femur and samples of blood were isolated. The organs were weighed, counted and the percentage of radioactivity /g (%ATI/g determined. Serum urea and creatinine, hematocrit, leukocytes and platelets were measured. Statistics by t test (pEstudo com objetivo de avaliar se a esplenectomia altera a biodistribuição do 99mTc-DMSA e alguns parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos em ratos Wistar. Os animais forma divididos em 2 grupos: esplenectomizados (n=6 e controle(n=6. Após 15 dias, administração de 0,1 ml de 99mTc-DMSA via plexo orbital (0,48 MBq foi realizada. Rim, coração, pulmão, tireóide, estômago, bexiga e fêmur e amostras de sangue foram separadas. Após pesagem e contagem da radioatividade foi determinado o percentual de radioatividade/g (% ATI/g. Dosadas uréia e creatinina sérica, hematócrito, plaquetas e leucócitos. Estatística pelo teste t, significância 0,05 foi realizada. Foi observada redução significante no %ATI/g no rim e sangue (p<0,05 dos animais esplenectomizados, aumento significante (p<0.05 da uréia (88,8±18,6 mg/dL e creatinina (0,56±0,08, comparado aos controles (51,5±1,6; 0,37±0,02mg/dL, respectivamente assim como aumento de leucócitos e plaquetas e redução de hematócrito. Conclui-se que em ratos, a esplenectomia alterou a captação de 99mTc-DMSA pelo rim, e a função renal.

  14. Development of methods of labeling pentavalent DMSA with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re; Desenvolvimento de metodos para marcacao de DMSA pentavalente com {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Tania de Paula, email: jtoniolo@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Technetium-99 m is the most useful radionuclide in diagnostic imaging procedures in Nuclear Medicine, more than 80 percent of radiopharmaceuticals are {sup 99m}Tc-labeled compounds. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V) has been used for imaging of soft tissue, head and neck tumors. It shows a particularly high specificity for medullary thyroid carcinoma and bone metastases in a variety of cancers. Biodistribution studies of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) have shown that its general pharmacokinetic properties are similar to that of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V), so this agent could be used for targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. The aim of this work is the development of methods of labeling DMSA(V) with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V) can be prepared by two methods. One of them is the indirect one, through the use of a commercial kit of DMSA (III), by adjusting the pH from 2.5 to {approx} 8.5 with NaHCO{sub 3}. This method was evaluated and optimized presenting high labeling yields. The other method is the direct one, through the preparation of a lyophilised kit ready for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, being the method of interest of this work, due to the easy of its clinical use. The most adequate formulation of the kit was: 1.71 mg of DMSA, 0.53 mg of SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and 0.83 mg of ascorbic acid (pH 9). Labeling yields higher than 95% were achieved labeling this kit with 1 to 2 m L of {sup 99m}Tc with activities up to 4736 MBq (128 mCi). The kit was stable up to 6 months and biodistribution studies confirmed the quality of the DMSA (V) labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using this kit. The reduction potential of Re is lower than the one for Tc, so the labeling conditions of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) are different from the ones used for {sup 99m}Tc- DMSA(V). {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) is prepared in acid solution, that makes it possible to use the DMSA (III) commercial kit developed for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, prepared in pH 2.5, for labeling with {sup 188}Re. Labeling yields higher than 95% were

  15. Absorbed dose at subcellular level by Monte Carlo simulation for a {sup 99m}Tc-peptide with nuclear internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L.; Ferro F, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santos C, C. L., E-mail: leticia.rojas@inin.gob.m [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan esquina Paseo Colon s/n, Toluca 50120, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The utility of radiolabeled peptides for the early and specific diagnosis of cancer is being investigated around the world. Recent investigations have demonstrated the specificity of {sup 99m}Tc-bombesin conjugates to target breast and prostate cancer cells. The novel idea of adding the Tat (49-57) peptide to the radiopharmaceutical in order to penetrate the cell nucleus is a new proposal for therapy at cellular level. {sup 99m}Tc radionuclide produces Auger energy of 0.9 keV/decay and internal conversion electron energy of 15.4 keV/decay, which represent 11.4% of the total {sup 99m}Tc energy released per decay. It is expected that the dose delivered at specific microscopic levels in cancer cells induce a therapeutic effect. The aim of this research was to assess in vitro internalization kinetics in breast and prostate cancer cells of {sup 99m}Tc-Tat(49-57)-bombesin and to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose at subcellular level simulating the electron transport. The pen main program from the 2006 version of the Penelope code was used to simulate and calculate the absorbed dose by Auger and internal conversion electron contribution in the membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus of Pc-3 prostate cancer and MCF7 and MDA human breast cancer cell lines. Nuclear data were obtained from the 2002 BNM-LNHB {sup 99m}Tc decay scheme. The spatial distribution of the absorbed doses to the membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus were calculated using a geometric model built from real images of cancer cells. The elemental cell composition was taken from the literature. The biokinetic data were obtained evaluating total disintegrations in each subcellular compartment by integration of the time-activity curves acquired from experimental data. Results showed that 61, 63 and 46% of total disintegrations per cell-bound {sup 99m}Tc-Tat-Bn activity unit occurred in the nucleus of Pc-3, MCF7 and MDA-MB231 respectively. {sup 99m}Tc--Tat-Bn absorbed doses were 1.78, 5.76 and 2.59 Gy/Bq in the nucleus of

  16. Assessment the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel lymph nodes lymphoscintigraphy using Technetium-99m phytate in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eftekhari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Technetium-99m phytate (99mTc-ph is a readily available radiopharmaceutical and has been suggested as a suitable agent for sentinel lymph node (SLN detection. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy and false-negative rate of radionuclide SLN mapping using 99mTc-ph were investigated. "nMethods: Forty three women (mean age 52.3 years, range 31-74 years, who all had been diagnosed with breast cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients had no palpable axillary lymph nodes and had not undergone exploratory tumor resection or any drug treatment, previously. 99mTc-ph was injected peri-tumorally at four sites. Following SLN scintigraphic imaging, the patients were operated. Intraoperatively SLN were detected by a scintillation probe and a blue dye technique. Modified radical mastectomies with radical axillary dissection were performed with excision of the lymph nodes, to evaluate the accuracy of the SLN technique. "nResults: Intraoperative scinti-mapping identified SLN in 40 of the 43 patients (detection rate: 93%. Scintigraphically, none of the patients had internal mammary drainage or contralateral axillary involvement. The blue dye detection rate in 23 patients under study was 87% and all lymph nodes detected by the blue dye technique were also detected as "hot" spots in the lymphoscintigraphy. Using pathology as the gold standard, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of scintigraphic lymphatic mapping in detection of SLN by 99mTc-ph were 90% and 90.9%, respectively. The same values for blue dye lymphatic mapping were 84.6% and 77.7%, respectively. "nConclusion: 99mTc-ph used for SLN mapping is readily available, has low cost and gives better results than the blue dye technique. Long-term follow-up is required to assess accurately the incidence of failure in patients with negative SLN and the overall diagnostic accuracy and efficacy of the SLN mapping using 99mTc-ph as the radioactive tracer.

  17. Hyperfixation of Tc-99m ECD in subacute cortical infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kweon, Sun Uck; Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    It has been known that hyperfixation of Tc-99m ECD (HF) is not shown in subacute cerebral infarction because the brain distribution of Tc-99m ECD reflects not only perfusion but also the metabolic status of brain tissue. However, we observed several cases with HF in the subacute pure cortical infarction. To find out the cause of HF in subacute cortical infarction. We assessed the difference in associated cerebral hemodynamics and clinical findings between the subacute cortical infarctions with and without HF. We reviewed 16 patients (63.8{+-}8.6 yr, M/F: 15/1) with pure cortical infarction not involving adjacent subcortical white matter on MRI. All patients underwent acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD and MRI at subacute period (7.3{+-}4.4 days from ictus). Uptake of Tc-99m ECD in infarcted cortex was assessed visually comparing the contralateral side. To assess the difference in associate clinical findings between the infarctions with and without HF, rCVR of the cerebral territory including infarcted cortex, extent of Gd-enhancement on MRI. Intervals between SPECT and ictus, and the presence of associated ICA stenosis were evaluated. Infarctions were focal (n=8) or multifocal (n=8) and located in frontoparietal cortices on MRI. Twelve patients were accompanied with ipsilateral ICA stenosis. Resting SPECT showed increased cortical uptake (=HF) in 7 patients and decreased in 9. rCVR of the MCA territory was preserved in all of the 7 patients with HF, compared with 4 of the 9 patients without HF (p=0.03). Gd-enhancement was minimal in all of the 7 patients with HF, compared with of the 0 patients without HF (p=0.03). Presence of ipsilateral ICA stenosis and intervals from ictus were not different (p>0.1) Subacute cerebral cortical infarction with HF was more frequently associated with preserved rCVR and minimal destruction of the blood-brain barrier than that without HF. Our findings suggest that HF may result from luxury perfusion of

  18. Imaging of brain tumors and other lesions utilizing /sup 99m/Tc phosphates and /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauwecker, D.S.; Burt, R.W.; Richmond, B.D.

    1982-11-01

    The intensity of parenchymal brain lesions was compared using /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and /sup 99m/Tc phosphate. The following conclusions were made: 1. If the /sup 99m/Tc phosphate intensity is greater than the intensity of the /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scan, and the patient is evaluated within four weeks of ictus, the lesion is a CVA (P less than .001). 2. If the /sup 99m/Tc phosphate intensity is less than or equal to the intensity of the /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scan, and the patient is evaluated within four weeks of ictus, the parenchymal lesion is not a CVA (P less than .001). 3. If the evaluation takes place longer than six weeks after ictus, then no evaluation about the nature of the lesion can be made based upon uptake of /sup 99m/Tc phosphate and /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate.

  19. 99mTc-MDP bone imaging Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Soon Yong [School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    The pathology of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease be can described as a vascular disturbance leading to necrosis and subsequent revascularization of the femoral epiphyseal ossification center. The regional distribution of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in the skeleton can depend on a number of factors, but bone blood flow is a major physiological determinant of regional skeletal uptake of Tc-99m polyphosphate and bone imaging may thus be used for the detection of areas with both decreased and increased vascular supply. The authors analyzed the scintigraphic findings of 14 cases of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease at Kyung Hee University Hospital from Mar. '81 to Oct. '82. The results were as follows: 1. Scintigraphy revealed area of absent radioactivity in 14 cases; lateral 2/3 portion of the femoral epiphyseal ossification center was involved in 9 cases among 14 cases, and also increased radioactivity in epiphyseal ossification center, epiphyseal plate, or proximal metaphysis of femur were associated in 7 cases. 2. Three cases had radiographically normal hip, whereas scintigraphy reviewed distinctly absent radioactivity in femoral epiphyseal ossification center. 3. Magnification of hip imaging using a pinhole collimator provided good definition of presence and extent of pathologic defect or uptake in epiphyseal ossification center, epiphyseal plate, and metaphysis. Bone imaging provided earlier and more accurate information concerning the extent of the necrotic and revascularization process of Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease than the radiographys alone.

  20. Radioguided localisation of impalpable breast lesions using 99m-Technetium macroaggregated albumin: Lessons learnt during introduction of a new technique to guide preoperative localisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, Joanne [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Kulawansa, Sagarika [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); McCarthy, Michael; Troedson, Russell [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Phillips, Michael [Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Tinning, Jill [The Multidisciplinary Breast Service, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Taylor, Donna, E-mail: Donna.Taylor@health.wa.gov.au [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

    2015-03-15

    Preoperative wire-guided localisation (WGL) of impalpable breast lesions is widely used but can be technically difficult. Risks include wire migration, inaccurate placement, and inadequate surgical margins. Research shows that radioguided occult lesion localisation (ROLL) is quicker, easier, and can improve surgical and cosmetic outcomes. An audited introduction of ROLL was conducted to validate the technique as a feasible alternative to WGL. Fifty patients with single impalpable lesions and biopsy proven malignancy or indeterminate histology underwent WGL followed by intralesional radiopharmaceutical injection of 99m-Technetium macroaggregated albumin. Postprocedural mammography was performed to demonstrate wire position, and scintigraphy to evaluate radiopharmaceutical migration. Lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative sentinel node biopsy were performed if indicated, followed by lesion localisation and excision using a gamma probe. Specimen imaging was performed, with immediate reexcision for visibly inadequate margins. Accurate localisation was achieved in 86% of patients with ROLL compared to 72% with WGL. All lesions were successfully removed, with clear margins in 71.8% of malignant lesions. Reexcision and intraoperative sentinel node localisation rates were equivalent to preaudit figures for WGL. ROLL was easy to perform and problems were infrequent. Inaccurate radiopharmaceutical placement necessitating WGL occurred in four patients. Minor radiopharmaceutical migration was common, but precluded using ROLL in only two cases. ROLL is effective, simple, inexpensive, and easily learnt; however, preoperative confirmation of correct radiopharmaceutical placement using mammography and the gamma probe is important to help ensure successful lesion removal. Insertion of a backup hookwire is recommended during the initial introduction of ROLL.

  1. Consequences of radiopharmaceutical extravasation and therapeutic interventions: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol, Jochem van der; Voeoe, Stefan [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+), Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Postbox 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bucerius, Jan; Mottaghy, Felix M. [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+), Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Postbox 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Radiopharmaceutical extravasation can potentially lead to severe soft tissue damage, but little is known about incidence, medical consequences, possible interventions, and effectiveness of these. The aims of this study are to estimate the incidence of extravasation of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, to evaluate medical consequences, and to evaluate medical treatment applied subsequently to those incidents. A sensitive and elaborate literature search was performed in Embase and PubMed using the keywords ''misadministration'', ''extravasation'', ''paravascular infiltration'', combined with ''tracer'', ''radionuclide'', ''radiopharmaceutical'', and a list of keywords referring to clinically used tracers (i.e. ''Technetium-99m'', ''Yttrium-90''). Reported data on radiopharmaceutical extravasation and applied interventions was extracted and summarised. Thirty-seven publications reported 3016 cases of diagnostic radiopharmaceutical extravasation, of which three cases reported symptoms after extravasation. Eight publications reported 10 cases of therapeutic tracer extravasation. The most severe symptom was ulceration. Thirty-four different intervention and prevention strategies were performed or proposed in literature. Extravasation of diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals is common. {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 123}I, {sup 18}F, and {sup 68}Ga labelled tracers do not require specific intervention. Extravasation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can give severe soft tissue lesions. Although not evidence based, surgical intervention should be considered. Furthermore, dispersive intervention, dosimetry and follow up is advised. Pharmaceutical intervention has no place yet in the immediate care of radiopharmaceutical extravasation. (orig.)

  2. Biokinetics and dosimetry of {sup 99m} Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-bombesin in humans: imaging of GRP receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos C, C.L.; Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy, C.A de [INCMNSZ, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cardena, E.; Pichardo R, P. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Oncologia Centro Medico Siglo XXI, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: Bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is over-expressed on various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently we reported the {sup 99-}mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-Bombesin ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN) complex as a new radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-receptor binding and rapid internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN biokinetics and dosimetry in 5-healthy and 3-breast cancer women. Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source' organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 8 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN time activity curves in each organ, to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with predominantly renal excretion and minimal hepatobiliary elimination. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in breast cancer lesions and well differentiated from GRP-r expression in lungs and airways with normal GRP-r density (ratio 3:1). The equivalent doses for a study using 370 MBq were 7.38{+-}1.68, 0.59{+-}0.08, 2.07{+-}0.60, 0.58{+-}0.1, 0.75{+-}0.09 and 0.43{+-}0.07 mSv for kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, pancreas and red marrow respectively. The effective dose was 1.64{+-}0.25 mSv which is comparable with the doses known for most of the {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceutical studies in nuclear medicine. (Author)

  3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of the four isomers of technetium-99m labeled ethylenecysteamine cysteine ({sup 99m}Tc-ECC), the mono-acid derivative of {sup 99m}tc-L,L-ethylenedicysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanbilloen, Hubert P.; Cleynhens, Bernard J.; Verbruggen, Alfons M. E-mail: alfons.verbruggen@uz.kuleuven.ac.be

    2000-02-01

    A few years ago {sup 99m}Tc-ethylenedicysteine ({sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC) had been proposed as an interesting substitute for technetium-99m labeled mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) as renal function tracer agent. It possesses in its structure two carboxylate functions and is in this respect different from other renal tracers such as {sup 99m}Tc-N,N'-bis-(mercaptoacetyl)-2,3-diaminopropionate ({sup 99m}Tc-CO{sub 2}DADS), {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3, and Hippuran, which have only one carboxylic group. To study whether both carboxylic acid groups of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC contribute to the efficient renal handling of this compound we synthesized and biologically evaluated the technetium-99m labeled isomers of L- and D-ethylenecysteamine cysteine (ECC), the mono-acid derivative of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC. Labeling of L-ECC or D-ECC with {sup 99m}Tc using a direct or exchange labeling method yields for each of them two diastereomeric {sup 99m}Tc complexes (A and B, in the order of elution during reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography) in relative amounts depending on the pH during labeling. In mice, all four isomers of {sup 99m}Tc-ECC (LA, LB, DA, and DB) are cleared rapidly from the blood, mainly by the renal system. The isomers LB and DB show the most efficient renal handling, but none of the mono-acid derivatives has a urinary excretion rate as high as that of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC. The renal handling of the isomers of {sup 99m}Tc-ECC is partly due to tubular secretion because the urinary excretion of these compounds is significantly lower in mice pretreated with probenecid. In the baboon, isomers DA and DB show a plasma clearance comparable to that of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC. The plasma clearance of isomers LA and LB is lower but still comparable to or higher than that of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3. In a human volunteer, isomer DB shows a plasma clearance rate only slightly lower than that of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC. Thus, it appears that the presence of one carboxylate in {sup 99m

  4. Cardiac amyloidosis detection with pyrophosphate-99mTc scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Izaki, M.; Giorgi, M.C.P.; Soares Junior, J; Meneghetti, J.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Medicina Nuclear e Imagem Molecular

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Amyloidosis is a rare disease, characterized by extracellular deposition of insoluble amyloid fibrils in organs and tissues. It may affect virtually any system, preferably heart, kidneys and liver. The cardiac involvement produces a spectrum of clinical features, usually with progressive dysfunction. Early diagnosis is important for institution of appropriate therapy. Case report: Male patient, 75 years old, with diagnosed congestive heart failure functional class III and Mobitz II second-degree atrial-ventricular block, was hospitalized for implantation of definitive cardiac pacemaker. Patient mentioned history of worsening effort dyspnoea over a one-month period, progressing to minimum effort, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea and paroxysms of dry cough, and swelling of lower limbs. Echocardiography showed diffuse hypertrophy of left ventricle (LV), with systolic dysfunction due to diffuse hypokinesia and hyperrefringent aspect in the septum. It was questioned a cardiac infiltrating process. Cardiac amyloidosis was considered as a diagnostic hypothesis. The patient underwent a pyrophosphate-{sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy, which showed abnormal tracer uptake in the heart projection, with diffuse pattern on the left ventricle walls, compatible with the clinical suspicion cardiac amyloidosis, which was later confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy. Discussion: In this case report, the patient had clinical and other auxiliary examinations, such as electrocardiography and Doppler echocardiography, compatible with cardiac amyloidosis, which led to implementation with pyrophosphate-{sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy and later endomyocardial biopsy. Cardiac amyloidosis occurs in about half the cases of primary amyloidosis (AL) and is rare in secondary amyloidosis (AA). Its clinical presentation is polymorphic and it can be classified into four distinctive types: restrictive cardiomyopathy, systolic dysfunction, postural hypotension and conduction disorders

  5. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( sup 99m -Tc-HMPAO) single photon emission tomography (SPET) in febrile convulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, R.A.; Vandevivere, J. (Middelheim General Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Melis, K.; Janssens, G. (Children' s Hospital Antwerp (Belgium)); Dom, L. (Children' s Hospital Antwerp (Belgium) Middelheim General Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology); Luysterborgh, E. (Middelheim General Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology); Deyn, P.P. de (Middelheim General Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Lab. of Neurochemistry)

    1992-04-01

    We report our initial experience with technetium-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) brain single photon emission tomography (SPET) in the investigation of 19 children presenting with febrile convulsions. Two patients with complex febrile convulsions showed focal SPET lesions contralateral to the neurological deficit. However, in 9 out of 17 patients with simple febrile convulsions, focally disturbed perfusion was shown. in 4 out of 6 patients with electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities on admittance, SPET revealed at least 2 focal lesions. The temporofrontal region was the one most commonly involved. The SPET findings presented here also suggest a temporal relationship with the febrile convulsions, with markedly fewer lesions if examined after 12 days. In our initial experience, perfusion SPET did not show any particular pattern helpful in the differential diagnosis of the child presenting with febrile convulsions. Physiopathologically, our findings may support the hypothesis that brain tissue is regionally more vulnerable to fever, in patients presenting with febrile convulsions. (orig.).

  6. Optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using {sup 9}9mTc -DMSA in Cuba; Optimizacion de actividad a administrar para estudios de gammagrafia renal con {sup 9}9mTc-DMSA en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Perez Diaz, M.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Varela Corona, C.; Paz Viera, J. E.

    2009-07-01

    The present research is focused on the optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using {sup 9}9mTc-DMSA. The patients sample included 35 subjects, 23 of them were children and the other 12 were adults. Physical and metabolic characteristics of patients, total time of the study as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and gamma camera performance was considered in the experiments. Image quality of each study was evaluated using subjective criteria from two expert observers, without previous information about administered activity, and objective criteria based on signal/noise ratios and variance of the random noise in the images. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups of images with differentiated quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50%. (Author) 30 refs.

  7. Evaluation of aptamers labelled with {sup 99m}Tc for identification of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; Avaliacao de aptameros marcados com {sup 99m}Tc para identificacao de focos infecciosos de Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dos Santos, Sara Roberta

    2014-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is specie of great medical importance because it is often associated with many infections in humans. This bacterium can cause diseases ranging from simple infections to life-threatening infections such as endocarditis, pneumonia, meningitis, toxic shock syndrome, septicemia, osteomyelitis, among others. S. aureus is the most commonly agent found in infections of the skin and soft tissues, bone infections and bone prostheses. The difficulty in early detection of specific foci caused by bacteria has raised the need to search for new techniques for this purpose. Diagnosis by scintigraphy has advantages over other methods because it is able to identify damage tissues without the need of invasive procedures and is able to perform an early diagnosis even before anatomic changes. Thus, nuclear medicine could contribute to an accurate diagnosis of bacterial infections, since specific radiopharmaceuticals were developed. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that have high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets and are emerging as a new class of molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. Radiolabeled aptamers specific to the infectious agents, could give a significant contribution to the infection diagnosis by scintigraphy. In this study, aptamers selected to S. aureus were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and used for the bacteria identification in vitro and in vivo. The aptamers labeled with {sup 32}P and incubated in vitro with S. aureus cells showed high affinity for the bacterial cells when compared with the library of oligonucleotides with random sequences used as control. The aptamers labeled with {sup 99m}Tc also showed affinity for S. aureus cells when compared with the library, but unspecific binding was also verified. The {sup 99m}Tc labelled aptamers were stable in 0.9% saline, plasma of Swiss mice and in excess of cysteine. The in vivo biodistribution studies using Swiss mice with intramuscular infection in the right thigh showed that

  8. Tc-99m RBC SPECT in hepatic cavernous hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Park, Chan H.; Yoon, Seok Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Hepatic cavernous hemangioma (HCH) is the most common benign hepatic tumor which is detected incidentally during ultrasonography (US) done at health check-up and computed tomography (CT) done for evaluation of metastasis. The aim of the study is to evaluate retrospectively the accuracy of the modality in the diagnosis of HCH at our institution. 229 patients underwent Tc-99m RBC liver SPECT from Nov 16, 1994 to Sep 24, 2001. There were 127 males and 103 females. Their ages ranges from 82 to 17 years with a mean age of 45.8 years. Twenty millicuries of Tc-99m RBCs autologously labeled were injected. SPECT was done in 2-3 hours after the tracer administration and several hours delayed scan was also obtained in some patients. SPECT was performed with low energy high resolution collimators and triple-head gamma camera (MultiSPECT, Siemens medical systems, Inc., Hoffman Estate, III. USA). SPECT was evaluated visually and results were compared with US, CT, MRI, and clinical follow-up. Of the 156 patients a total of 210 hemangiomas were found in RBC liver SPECT. With regard to the distribution of the lesions, 113 cases revealed single; 43 cases depicted multiple HCHs, with 164 in the right lobe and 46 in the left lobe. The size of lesions ranges from 0.9 to 10 cm. Regarding the size of the lesions on radiographic image, 11 were less than 1cm, 144 were 1 to 4 cm, and the others were more than 4 cm in diameter. RBC liver SPECT is none-invasive and very useful method in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma in patients with sonographic and computed tomographic suspicion, if the size is more than 1 cm in diameter. The method is used often for confirmation of HCH in our institution.

  9. {sup 99m}Tc-labelled gold nanoparticles capped with HYNIC-peptide/mannose for sentinel lymph node detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo-Garcia, Blanca E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ramirez, Flor de M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ferro-Flores, Guillermina, E-mail: ferro_flores@yahoo.com.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); De Leon-Rodriguez, Luis M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Santos-Cuevas, Clara L.; Morales-Avila, Enrique [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Pedraza-Lopez, Martha [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico); Medina, Luis A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Camacho-Lopez, Marco A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this research was to prepare a multifunctional system of technetium-99m-labelled gold nanoparticles conjugated to HYNIC-GGC/mannose and to evaluate its biological behaviour as a potential radiopharmaceutical for sentinel lymph node detection (SLND). Methods: Hydrazinonicotinamide-Gly-Gly-Cys-NH{sub 2} (HYNIC-GGC) peptide and a thiol-triazole-mannose derivative were synthesized, characterized and conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNP, 20 nm) to prepare a multifunctional system of HYNIC-GGC-AuNP-mannose by means of spontaneous reaction of the thiol (Cys) present in HYNIC-GGC sequence and in the thiol-mannose derivative. The nanoconjugate was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), IR, UV-Vis, Raman, fluorescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Technetium-99m labelling was carried out using EDDA/tricine as coligands and SnCl{sub 2} as reducing agent with further size-exclusion chromatography purification. Radiochemical purity was determined by size-exclusion HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses. In vitro binding studies were carried out in rat liver homogenized tissue (mannose-receptor positive tissue). Biodistribution studies were accomplished in Wistar rats and images obtained using a micro-SPECT/CT system. Results: TEM and spectroscopy techniques demonstrated that AuNPs were functionalized with HYNIC-GGC-NH{sub 2} and thiol-mannose through interactions with thiol groups and the N-terminal amine of cysteine. Radio-chromatograms showed radiochemical purity higher than 95%. {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-GGC-AuNP-mannose ({sup 99m}Tc-AuNP-mannose) showed specific recognition for mannose receptors in rat liver tissue. After subcutaneous administration of {sup 99m}Tc-AuNP-mannose in rats (footpad), radioactivity levels in the popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes revealed that 99% of the activity was extracted by the first lymph node (popliteal extraction). Biodistribution studies and in vivo micro-SPECT/CT images in Wistar rats showed an evident

  10. Determination of 99Mo contamination in a nuclear medicine patient submitted to a diagnostic procedure with 99mTc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Maranhão Dantas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc is a radionuclide widely used for imaging diagnosis in nuclear medicine. In Brazil it is obtained by elution from 99Mo-99mTc generators supplied by the Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN. The elution is carried out in radiopharmacy laboratories located in hospitals and clinics. Depending of the quality of the generator and conditions of use during the elution process, 99Mo can be extracted from the column of the generator, becoming a radionuclidic impurity of the eluate used for the obtention of the radiopharmaceutical to be administered to the patient. 99Mo emits high-energy photons and beta particles and its presence degrades the quality of the image and unnecessarily increases the radiation dose delivered to the patient. An in-vivo measurement technique was developed to verify the occurrence of internal contamination by 99Mo in nuclear medicine patients. Direct measurements were made in a volunteer who underwent myocardial scintigraphy with 99mTc-sestamibi. The results indicated the presence of internal contamination of the patien by 99Mot. The activity was tracked for several days, and an assessment of the radiation dose from the contaminant 99Mo was made.O 99mTc é um radionuclídeo largamente utilizado em diagnósticos por imagem em medicina nuclear. No Brasil, ele é obtido por eluição de um gerador de 99Mo-99mTc fornecido pelo IPEN. A eluição do gerador é feita nas clínicas onde se realizam os exames. Durante a eluição o 99Mo pode ser carreado da coluna, tornando-se uma impureza radionuclídica do eluato a ser utilizado para a obtenção do radiofármaco administrado ao paciente. O 99Mo emite fótons de alta energia e partículas beta, e sua presença, além de provocar degradação na qualidade da imagem do exame, aumenta desnecessariamente a dose de radiação no paciente. Assim, com o objetivo de verificar a possível ocorrência de contaminação interna por 99Mo em pacientes de medicina nuclear, foi desenvolvida

  11. Scintigraphic imaging with technetium-99M-labelled ceftizoxime is a reliable technique for the diagnosis of deep sternal wound infection in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Henrique Nogueira; Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Tarabal, Bernardo; Takenaka, Isabella; Braga, Otavio; Vidigal, Paula Vieira Teixeira; Gelape, Claudio Leo; Araujo, Ivana Duval, E-mail: phnc@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: to evaluate whether scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled ceftizoxime ({sup 99m}Tc-CFT) can differentiate mediastinitis from aseptic inflammation associated with sternotomy. Methods: twenty female Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups: S (control) -partial upper median sternotomy with no treatment; SW (control) - sternotomy and treatment of sternal wounds with bone wax; SB - sternotomy and infection with Staphylococcus aureus; SWB - sternotomy with bone wax treatment and bacterial infection. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-CFT was performed eight days after surgery and images were collected 210 and 360 min after infusion of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: no animals exhibited clinical signs of wound infection at the end of the experiment, although histological data verified acute inflammatory response in those experimentally infected with bacteria. Scintigraphic images revealed that tropism of {sup 99m}Tc-CFT to infected sternums was greater than to their non-infected counterparts. Mean counts of radioactivity in bacteria-infected sternal regions (SB and SWB) were significantly higher (p = 0.0007) than those of the respective controls (S and SW).Conclusion: scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled ceftizoxime is a method that can potentially detect infection post sternotomy and differentiate from aseptic inflammation in animals experimentally inoculated with S. aureus (author)

  12. Initial direct comparison of 99mTc-TOC and 99mTc-TATE in identifying sites of disease in patients with proven GEP NETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, Jaroslaw B; Mikolajczak, Renata; Pawlak, Dariusz; Buscombe, John R; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Bator, Andrzej; Maecke, Helmut R; Walecki, Jerzy

    2008-07-01

    The imaging of neuroendocrine tumors has become one of the most significant areas in nuclear oncology. In an attempt to provide high-quality imaging and possible sensitivity at a reduced cost, time, and radiation dose, several (99m)Tc agents have been proposed. The aim of this initial study was to compare the tumor uptake and biodistribution of 2 new 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC)-derivatized Tyr(3)-octreotide analogs, (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TOC) and (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3),Thr(8)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TATE), in patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing tumors. Each of 12 patients with proven gastrointestinal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors received a mean activity of 520 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC and (99m)Tc-TATE. Scintigraphy with both tracers was performed 3-4 h after their injection using standard whole-body and SPECT imaging. The images were reviewed subjectively by 2 readers, who reported tumor uptake lesion by lesion. Both radiotracers demonstrated concordance between the results in 7 patients (58%). In total, 110 sites of disease were identified with (99m)Tc-TOC, compared with 115 with (99m)Tc-TATE. There was 1 case in which (99m)Tc-TOC identified sites of disease not seen on (99m)Tc-TATE imaging but 4 cases in which some sites of disease were seen with (99m)Tc-TATE and not (99m)Tc-TOC. In this initial study, both tracers seem to show similar sites of tumor, with (99m)Tc-TATE having a slight edge in the total number of lesions seen, especially in lymph node metastases.

  13. Technetium{sup 99m} shortage: Practical solutions to manage lack of the radio-isotope in nuclear medicine departments; Penurie de technetium{sup 99m}: des pistes pratiques pour gerer les periodes de crise dans les services de medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biechlin-Chassel, M.L. [Radiopharmacie, service de pharmacie, centre hospitalier de Chambery, 73 - Chambery (France); Francois-Joubert, A. [Service de medecine nucleaire, centre hospitalier de Chambery, 73 - Chambery (France); Bolot, C. [Service de radiopharmacie, service pharmaceutique, centre de medecine nucleaire, groupement hospitalier Est, 69 - Bron (France); Desruet, M.D. [Radiopharmacie, service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Grenoble, 38 - Grenoble (France); Bourrel, F. [Services de pharmacie et medecine nucleaire, centre hospitalier d' Avignon, 84 - Avignon (France); Pelegrin, M. [Institut de recherche en cancerologie (IRCM), 34 - Montpellier (France); Inserm U896, universite Montpellier 1, 34 - Montpellier (France); CRLC Val d' Aurelle Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France); Couret, I. [Service de medecine nucleaire, hopital Lapeyronie, 34 - Montpellier (France); Lao, S. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU Hopital de l' Archet, 06 - Nice (France); Quelven, I. [Faculte de medecine, 87 - Limoges (France)

    2010-11-15

    Technetium{sup 99m} ({sup 99m}Tc) shortage crisis regularly affect nuclear medicine activity and oblige the community to find solutions in order to perform most of the prescribed exams and avoid systematic substitutions by other non-nuclear medicine techniques. Firstly, some practical solutions can be set up in radiopharmacy departments such as using more than two generators together, realizing fractionated elutions, preparing radiopharmaceuticals with elutions providing from different generators.. Then, it could be interesting to have a reflexion in nuclear medicine departments to convene patients the days when {sup 99m}Tc supply is sufficient, to pool some exams or to make substitutions with more available isotopes. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the lungs due to Xe{sup 133} and Tc{sup 99m} (MAA); Evaluacion de la dosis absorbida en los pulmones debido al Xe{sup 133} y Tc{sup 99m} (MAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez A, M.; Murillo C, F.; Castillo D, C.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Sanchez S, P. [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Trujillo (Peru); Rojas P, E. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, Lima (Peru); Marquez P, F., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Av. Angamos 2520, Lima (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    The absorbed dose in lungs of an adult patient has been evaluated using the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing Xe{sup 133} or Tc{sup 99m} (MAA). The absorbed dose was calculated using the MIRD formalism, and the Cristy-and Eckerman lungs model. The absorbed dose in the lungs due to {sup 133}Xe is 0.00104 mGy/MBq. Here, the absorbed dose due to remaining tissue, included in the {sup 133}Xe biokinetics is not significant. The absorbed dose in the lungs, due Tc{sup 99m} (MAA), is 0.065 mGy/MBq. Approximately, 4.6% of the absorbed dose is due to organs like liver, kidneys, bladder, and the rest of tissues, included in the Tc{sup 99m} biokinetics. Here, the absorbed dose is very significant to be overlooked. The dose contribution is mainly due to photons emitted by the liver. (Author)

  15. Technetium-99m Tricarbonyl Labeled a Broad-spectrum Quinolone as a Specific Imaging Agent in Infection Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramrouz, Seyed Javad; Erfani, Mostafa; Athari Allaf, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging has been used to localize infection sites, and efforts have been continued to develop modified infection specific radiopharmaceuticals. In this study gemifloxacin as a broad-spectrum quinolone has been labeled with [(99m)Tc (CO)3 (H2O)3](+) core in order to evaluate its feasibility as an infection imaging agent for in-vivo use. The stability of radioconjugate was checked in human serum at 37 °C and biodistribution was studied in mice. Labeling yield of > 95% was obtained corresponding to a specific activity of 0.14 GBq/μmol. The radioconjugate showed good stability in human serum. Our main achievement was the high accumulation in the infected muscle in mice (T/NT = 2.93 ± 0.3 at 1 h post injection), which may diagnostically be beneficial for differentiate sites of infection from sites of inflammation.

  16. PEGylation of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled bombesin analogues improves their pharmacokinetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daepp, Simone; Garayoa, Elisa Garcia [Paul Scherrer Institute, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Maes, Veronique; Brans, Luc; Tourwe, Dirk A. [Department of Organic Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mueller, Cristina [Paul Scherrer Institute, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Schibli, Roger, E-mail: roger.schibli@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    preferential renal excretion. The tumor uptake of the {sup 99m}Tc-PEG{sub 5}-Lys-BN conjugate was slightly higher compared to that of the non-PEGylated analogue (3.91%{+-}0.44% vs. 2.80%{+-}0.28% injected dose per gram 1 h postinjection, p.i.). Tumor retention was also increased, resulting in a threefold higher amount of radioactivity in the tumor at 24 h p.i. Furthermore, decreased hepatobiliary excretion and increased tumor-to-nontarget ratios (tumor-to-blood: 17.1 vs. 2.1; tumor-to-kidney: 1.1 vs. 0.4; tumor-to-liver: 5.8 vs. 1.0, 24 h p.i.) were observed and further confirmed via small-animal SPECT images 1 h p.i. Conclusion: PEGylation proved to be an effective strategy to enhance the tumor-targeting potential of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled BN-based radiopharmaceuticals and probably other radiolabeled peptides.

  17. Different uptake of 99mTc-ECD adn 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Y; Lee, J S; Rha, J H; Lee, I K; Ha, C K; Lee, D S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62+/-12 years) using 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either 99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the 99mTc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO.

  18. Report on survey of the adverse reaction to radiopharmaceuticals, 12; The 15th survey in 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This is the 12th report concerning adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals occurring during the period from April 1, 1989 through March 31, 1990. Questionnaires were sent to 1,111 facilities, and 827 (74.4%) responded. Twenty two cases of adverse reactions and 10 cases of drug defect were reported from a total of 29 facilities (3.5%), giving an annual occurrence of 2.4 cases and 1.1 cases, respectively, for 100, 000 examinations. The incidence of adverse reactions was the highest for I-131-6B-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (184 cases/100,000 examinations), followed by I-131 sodium hippurate (22), Tc-99m HSA-DTPA (20), Tc-99m HM-PAO (13), Tc-99m pyrophosphate and Tc-99m DTPA (8), and Tl-201 thallium chloride and I-123 IMP (2). Adverse reactions included reactions to the vagus nerves (n=10), allergic reactions (n=6), and others (n=6); they were characterized by face or skin redness and nausea or vomiting induced by Tc-99m pyrophosphate, eruptions 5 hr after Tl-201 thallium chloride injection, and symptoms following the injection of Tc-99m HM-PAO, I-123 IMP, and Tc-99m HSA-DTPA. Radiopharmaceuticals reported as drug defects were as follows: Tc-99m MDP, Tc-99m tin colloid, Tl-201 thallium chloride, Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m HMDP, Tc-99m HM-PAO, Xe-133 gas, and Tc-99m generator. (N.K.).

  19. In-vivo biodistribution and safety of 99mTc-LLP2A-HYNIC in canine non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Zwingenberger

    Full Text Available Theranostic agents are critical for improving the diagnosis and treatment of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL. The peptidomimetic LLP2A is a novel peptide receptor radiotherapy candidate for treating NHL that expresses the activated α4β1 integrin. Tumor-bearing dogs are an excellent model of human NHL with similar clinical characteristics, behavior, and compressed clinical course. Canine in vivo imaging studies will provide valuable biodistribution and affinity information that reflects a diverse clinical population of lymphoma. This may also help to determine potential dose-limiting radiotoxicity to organs in human clinical trials. To validate this construct in a naturally occurring model of NHL, we performed in-vivo molecular targeted imaging and biodistribution in 3 normal dogs and 5 NHL bearing dogs. (99mTc-LLP2A-HYNIC-PEG and (99mTc-LLP2A-HYNIC were successfully synthesized and had very good labeling efficiency and radiochemical purity. (99mTc-LLP2A-HYNIC and (99mTc-LLP2A-HYNIC-PEG had biodistribution in keeping with their molecular size, with (99mTc-LLP2A-HYNIC-PEG remaining longer in the circulation, having higher tissue uptake, and having more activity in the liver compared to (99mTc-LLP2A-HYNIC. (99mTc-LLP2A-HYNIC was mainly eliminated through the kidneys with some residual activity. Radioactivity was reduced to near-background levels at 6 hours after injection. In NHL dogs, tumor showed moderately increased activity over background, with tumor activity in B-cell lymphoma dogs decreasing after chemotherapy. This compound is promising in the development of targeted drug-delivery radiopharmaceuticals and may contribute to translational work in people affected by non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  20. Effect of Hypericum perforatum extract on in vitro labelling of blood elements with technetium-{sup 99m} and on bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats; Efeito de um extrato de Hiperico (Hypericum perforatum) na marcacao in vitro de elementos sanguineos com tecnecio-99m e na biodisponibilidade do radiofarmaco pertecnetato de sodio em ratos Wistar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a hypericum extract (Hypericum perforatum) on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-{sup 99m} ({sup 99m}Tc) and in the bioavailability of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. Methods: Blood (heparinized) withdrawn from Wistar rats is incubated with a hypericum extract, with a stannous chloride and with {sup 99m}Tc, as sodium pertechnetate ({sup 99m}TcO Na). Plasma (P) and cells (C) are isolated by centrifugation. Samples of P and C are also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA 5%) and soluble (FS-P; FS-C) and insoluble (FI-P; FI-C) fractions are separated. In the bioavailability analysis, the extract or NaCl 0.9% solution is administrated into Wistar rats (gavage) during 15 days. Sodium pertechnetate was administered and after 10 min, the animals are sacrificed, the organs were isolated, the radioactivity determined in a well counter, and the percentages of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) in the organs are calculated. Results: The hypericum extract decreased significantly (P<0.05) the %ATI in the cells, cellular insoluble fraction and plasma insoluble fraction. The biodistribution was significantly (P<0.01) decreased in bone, muscle and thyroid and significantly (P<0.05) increased in pancreas. Conclusion: The analysis of the results indicates that in studied extract should have substances that should oxidize the stannous ion, reducing the fixation of the {sup 99m}Tc on the erythrocytes and plasma and cellular proteins. Moreover, it could produce metabolic alterations with influence in the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na in bone, muscle, pancreas and thyroid. (author)

  1. [Evaluation of left ventricular function using 99mTc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-human serum albumin (DTPA-HSA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumita, Y; Inoue, T; Oriuchi, N; Tomiyoshi, K; Sasaki, Y; Iizuka, T; Suzuki, T; Igarashi, H

    1988-09-01

    A newly developed blood pool agent 99mTc-DTPA-HSA (Japan Mediphysics, Inc.) was used for ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy. The radiopharmaceutical remained in the blood pool with disappearance half time of 420 min in a healthy subject. The gated blood pool study in the same subject clearly demonstrated contracting left ventricle and right ventricle both with planar and SPECT images. Three healthy volunteers and 14 patients were included in the study, in that gated blood pool images were successfully obtained. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) calculated by the analysis of LV volume curves correlated well with those obtained by echocardiography (US). In 11 patients with implanted pacemaker for complete atrioventricular block and sick sinus syndrome changes of LVEF were evaluated in relation to pacing rates. The mean LVEF at pacing rate of 60/min was 58.5%, which decreased to 54.4% at 100/min pacing rate. However, changes of LVEF in individual patient did not show same pattern. We conclude that 99mTc-DTPA-HSA is a convenient blood pool scanning agent which does not require time consuming labeling preparations. Stable labeling and slow blood clearance allows its use for repeat measurements of LVEF in different conditions in a patient such as with pacemaker.

  2. PEMBUATAN RADIONUKLIDA MOLIBDENUM-99 (99Mo HASIL AKTIVASI NEUTRON DARI MOLIBDENUM ALAM UNTUK MEMPEROLEH TEKNESIUM-99m (99mTc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Saptiama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PEMBUATAN RADIONUKLIDA MOLIBDENUM-99 (99Mo HASIL AKTIVASI NEUTRON DARI MOLIBDENUM ALAM UNTUK MEMPEROLEH TEKNESIUM-99m (99mTc. Pembatasan penggunaan uranium sebagai target untuk produksi 99mTc menyebabkan rumah sakit di Indonesia  kesulitan mendapatkan pasokan 99mTc. Saat ini 99mTc diperoleh dari 99Mo hasil fisi (pembelahan uranium.  Pembuatan radionuklida 99Mo dari aktivasi neutron  molibdenum alam (MoO3 di teras reaktor G.A Siwabessy digunakan sebagai metode alternatif untuk memperoleh 99mTc. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melakukan pembuatan radionuklida 99Mo dari aktivasi neutron molibdenum alam untuk memperoleh 99mTc. Serbuk MoO3 alam sebanyak 5 gram dikemas dalam ampul kuarsa dan dimasukkan ke dalam inner capsul selanjutnya dikemas menggunakan outer capsul sebagai bahan target. Bahan target diiradiasi di reaktor G.A Siwabessy selama 100 jam. Hasil perhitungan diperoleh aktivitas  99Mo sebesar 65 % dari nilai maksimum yang dapat diperoleh. MoO3 paska iradiasi dilarutkan dengan NaOH 4 M sehingga diperoleh larutan natrium molibdat (Na2MoO4. Radionuklida 99Mo dan 99mTc diukur menggunakan spektrometer gamma. Radionuklida 99Mo terdeteksi dalam produk larutan  Na2MoO4 dengan  aktivitas jenis 99Mo yang diperoleh sebesar 0,81 Ci 99Mo/g Mo.  Radionuklida anak luruh 99mTc dipisahkan dari radionuklida induk 99Mo menggunakan kolom pemisah yang berisi material berbasis zirkonium (MBZ sebagai penyerap 99Mo. Radionuklida 99mTc hasil pemisahan diperoleh dalam bentuk natrium pertehnetat (Na99mTcO4.dengan recovery yang masih rendah yaitu sekitar 52 hingga 71 %. Kata kunci: Molibdenum, teknesium, radionuklida, pemisahan, iradiasi. ABSTRACT PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED  NEUTRON MOLYBDENUM-99 (99Mo RADIONUCLIDE FROM NATURAL MOLYBDENUM TO OBTAIN TECHNETIUM-99m (99mTc.  Uranium usage restriction causes the hospitals in indonesia difficult to obtain the suply of  99mTc. At Present, 99mTc is obtanied from molybdenum as a uranium fission product

  3. Technetium-99m-sestamibi scintigraphy in breast nodes; Estudo cintilografico de nodulos mamarios com tecnecio-99m-sestamibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Balen, Jacir Luiz; Fabricio, Maria Ines Menescal [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Inst. de Ginecologia; Amarante Junior, Jose Luiz de Medeiros

    1997-01-01

    The purpose was to was to determine if technetium-99m-sestamibi accumulates preferentially within the malignant palpable nodes of breast. Twenty-five patients, mean age 36.16 ({+-} 9.34) year, and without any other additional information, underwent breast scintigraphy and excisional biopsy. We had nineteen true-negative cases, four true-positive, two false-positive and none false-negative. Sensitivity, 100% specificity, 90.5%, accuracy, 92%; PPV, 66.7%, NPV, 100%. The four true positive were invasive intraductal carcinomas and one of them metastases in auxiliary lymph-nodes, confirmed in biopsy and well defined in scintigraphy. The two false-positives were a fibroadenoma with high cellularity and a fibrodisplasy surrounded by chronic inflammatory process. Two statistical tests were applied: chi-square and Fisher. Both rejected the antithesis at a confidence interval of 99% (p , 0.01) We concluded that technetium-99-sestamibi accumulates preferentially within the malignant nodes of breast. (author) 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Semiquantitative evaluation of {sup 99}mTctrodat1 binding potential by two methods of SPECT image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Melissa Furlaneto Lellis; Reis, Marilia Alves dos; Oliveira, Cassio Miri; Castiglioni, Mario Luiz Vieira; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca, E-mail: mefurlaneto@hotmail.com, E-mail: rodrigoabressan@gmail.com, E-mail: mario.castiglioni@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    TRODAT-1 is a radiopharmaceutical derived from tropane and linked to Technetium-99m ([{sup 99m}Tc] TRODAT-1) has been used in studies of dopamine transporter (DAT) in central nervous system. Associated with the SPECT technique of acquisition, is able to detect changes in neurological disorders like Parkinson´s disease, evaluating the binding potential (BP) of DAT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the image reconstruction methods, Filtered Back Projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (OSEM), in BP values at the striatal region in 30 healthy volunteers. Images were analyzed by visual inspection and semi-quantitative analysis. Regions of interest (ROI) were made over striatal areas on both sides. Nonparametric Wilcoxon statistical analysis was performed between the BP values from the FBP and OSEM methods. Our results showed that the reconstruction methods have a statistical significant BP values difference in the total striatum (Z = -2,2787 p = 0.005), right striatum (Z = -2,602 p = 0.009) and left striatum (Z= 2,746 p = 0.006). The effect size was calculated to see if there influence in this test: the 'large effect size' for all measurements was observed (total striatum r= -0.51; right striatum r= -0.48; left striatum r= -0.50). FBP is the usual method of reconstruction for brain SPECT images, and our results showed influence of the OSEM method in BP. It is concluded that the method of image reconstruction adopted should be standardized to avoid incorrect evaluations of BP values using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1. (author)

  5. Evaluation of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator columns after irradiation with different absorbed doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Mengatti, Jair; Matsuda, Margareth M.N., E-mail: ntfukumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator is widely used in nuclear medicine and it consists of a glass column containing Teflon® strips and alumina in which {sup 99}Mo produced by {sup 235}U fission is adsorbed. The {sup 99}mTcO4- eluate shall meet the sterile and pyrogen free conditions for injectable radiopharmaceuticals as determined by the Good Manufacturing Practices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using gamma radiation in the sterilization of the {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator column and the influence on the elution efficiency. Alumina-containing columns were irradiated with 10, 15, 25 and 50 kGy absorbed doses. Alumina samples and control (non-irradiated) were submitted to X-ray diffraction and the combined use of scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Teflon® samples were evaluated by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray diffractograms and micrographies with elemental analysis showed no significant changes in the crystalline structure of the alumina because it was stable α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. TGA demonstrated that higher doses showed changes in lower temperatures and times than the control material. For DSC the higher the absorbed dose, the greater the polymer chain breakage and crosslinking in the material. The generator system without radioactivity was set up with the irradiated columns and the eluates demonstrated to be sterile and pyrogen free. The effects of different absorbed doses on the generator column, although some reported changes in the materials, demonstrated that the sterilization of the columns by irradiation with gamma rays as an alternative to wet heat sterilization is feasible from a technical and financial point of view. (author)

  6. The eleventh report on survey of the adverse reaction to radiopharmaceuticals; The 14th survey in 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report deals with adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals occurring during the period from April 1, 1988 through March 31, 1989. Qestionnaires were sent to 1,110 facilities, and 748 (67.4%) responded. Twenty one cases of adverse reactions and 13 cases of drug defect were reported from a total of 24 facilities (3.2%), giving an annual occurrence of 2.6 cases and 1.6 cases, respectively, for 100,000 examinations. The incidence of adverse reactions was the highest for I-131-6{beta}-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (n=254), followed by I-131 sodium iodide capsule (n=29), Tc-99m PMT injection (n=16), Tc-99m DTPA (n=12), I-131 sodium iodohippurate (n=12), Tc-99m pertechnetate (n=3), Tc-99m MDP injection (n=2), Tc-99m phytate (n=2), and Ga-67 citrate injection(n=one). Adverse reactions included reactions to the vagus nerves (n=7), allergic reactions (n=3), and others (n=11). Radiopharmaceuticals reported as drug defects were as follows: Tc-99m HMDP, Tc-99m MDP, Tc-99m PMT, Tc-99m pyrophosphate, and Tc-99m generator. (N.K.).

  7. The fifteenth report on survey of the adverse reaction to radiopharmaceuticals; The 18th survey in 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This report deals with adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals occurring during the period from April 1, 1992 through March 31, 1993. Questionnaires were sent to 1,160 facilities, and 894 (77.1%) responded. Fifteen cases of adverse reactions and 8 cases of drug defects were reported from a total of 19 facilities (2.1%), giving an annual occurrence of 1.4 cases of adverse reactions and 0.8 cases of drug defects for 100,000 examinations. The incidence of adverse reactions was the highest for sodium iodohippurate injection (I-123 or I-131)(n=5), followed by Tc-99m DTPA injection (n=3), Ga-67 citrate injection (n=2), Tc-99m RBC pyrophosphate (n=2), I-131 iodomethyl norcholesterol (n=one), Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin(MAA) (n=one), and Tc-99m Sn colloid (n=one). Adverse reactions included reactions to vagus nerves (n=5), allergic reactions (n=5) and others (n=5). Radiopharmaceuticals reported as drug defects were as follows: Tc-99m generator, Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m pyrophosphorie acid, Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate(HMDP), Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate(MDP), Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime(HMPAO), and Ga-67 citrate. (N.K.).

  8. Potential value of color-coded dynamic breast-specific gamma-imaging; comparing {sup 99m}Tc-(V)-DMSA, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, and {sup 99m}Tc-HDP in a mouse mammary tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van, E-mail: fw.v.leeuwen@nki.n [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buckle, Tessa; Batteau, Lukas; Pool, Bert; Sinaasappel, Michiel [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jonkers, Jos [Department of Molecular Biology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A. [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    Using a mouse mammary tumor model based on orthotopic transplantation of luciferase-expressing mouse ILC cells (KEP1-Luc cells), we evaluated the diagnostic value of three clinically applied tracers: {sup 99m}Tc-(V)-DMSA, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, and {sup 99m}Tc-HDP. Uptake of the tracers is compared using static and dynamic imaging procedures. We found that dynamic imaging in combination with pixel-by-pixel color coding has an added value over (high resolution) static imaging procedures. Such dynamic imaging procedures could enhance the potential of breast-specific gamma-imaging.

  9. Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA renal scan findings in patients with congenital megacalyces and megaureter without urinary tract obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Sin Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    A 10 days old male infant with congenital megacalyces and megaureter, diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonographic screening, underwent Tc-99m DTPA renal scan for evaluation of urinary tract patency, Tc-99m DMSA scan for evaluation of renal cortical damage. He also underwent intravenous urography(IVU) and renal ultrasonography. Tc-99m DTPA renal scan demonstrates intense tracer accumulation in enlarged both renal pelvocalyses and ureters, which rapidly washout diuretics administration. Tc-99m DMSA renal cortical scan shows no remarkable photon defect in both renal cortices and visible tracer uptake in both megaureter areas. Ultasonographic and IVU studies show enlarged both renal calyses and bullously dilated ureters, but no dilatation in renal pelvis. Follow up Tc-99m DTPA renal scan, performed at one year later, also reveals intense tracer accumulation in enlarged both urinary tracts which rapidly washout without diuretics, and shows no significant change compare to the previous Tc-99m DTPA renal scan. Urinary tract obstruction and renal cortical damage can be easily evaluated with Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA scans in patients with megacalyces and megaureter.

  10. Studies of the retention mechanism of the brain perfusion imaging agent {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate ({sup 99m}{Tc}-ECD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walovitch, R.C.; Cheesman, E.H.; Maheu, L.J.; Hall, K.M. [DuPont Merck Pharmaceutical Co., North Billerica, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The structure-activity relationship in a series of analogues of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate ({sup 99m}{Tc}-N,N{prime}-1,2-ethylene-diylbis-L-cysteine diethyl ester dihydrochloride, RP-217) is described using in vivo studies in rodent and primate brain tissue. All analogues investigated were {sup 99m}{Tc}-diamine dithiol diesters, which were neutral and lipophilic and had modified brain uptake indexes ({ge}40) suggesting adequate first-pass extraction. All analogues were poorly retained by the rodent brain. In contrast, the stereochemistry and structure of the {sup 99m}{Tc}-complexes affected their brain retention in primates. All compounds that demonstrated selective primate brain retention were L-diesters that were metabolized in primate brain tissue to nonlypophilic complexes resulted from ester hydrolysis. Unretained complexes were not metabolized in primate brain tissue. More extensive studies were performed with {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate, which demonstrated poor brain retention in several nonprimate species (i.e., dogs, ferrets, pigs, and rodents). In rodent and nonhuman primate tissue, {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate was rapidly metabolized to a monoacid ester ({sup 99m}{Tc}-N,N{prime}-1,2-ethylenediylbis-L-cysteine monoethyl ester). Therefore, brain metabolism of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate results in the formation of an acid product(s) that is selectively trapped in primate brain. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Acute thromboscintigraphy with (99m)Tc-apcitide: Results of the phase 3 multicenter clinical trial comparing (99m)Tc-apcitide scintigraphy with contrast venography for

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymond Taillefer; Stephen Edell; Grant Innes; John Lister-James

    2000-01-01

    (99m)Tc-apcitide (formerly known as (99m)Tc-P280) is a radiolabeled peptide that binds with high affinity and specificity to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors expressed on the activated platelets that are involved in acute thrombosis...

  12. Radioisotopic Purity of Sodium Pertechnetate 99mTc Produced with a Medium-Energy Cyclotron: Implications for Internal Radiation Dose, Image Quality, and Release Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, Svetlana V; Lavallée, Éric; Senta, Helena; Caouette, Lyne; Sader, Jayden A; van Lier, Erik J; Zyuzin, Alexander; van Lier, Johan E; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Éric; Lecomte, Roger

    2015-10-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc is a promising route to supply 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals. Higher 99mTc yields can be obtained with medium-energy cyclotrons in comparison to those dedicated to PET isotope production. To take advantage of this capability, evaluation of the radioisotopic purity of 99mTc produced at medium energy (20-24 MeV) and its impact on image quality and dosimetry was required. Thick 100Mo (99.03% and 99.815%) targets were irradiated with incident energies of 20, 22, and 24 MeV for 2 or 6 h. The targets were processed to recover an effective thickness corresponding to approximately 5-MeV energy loss, and the resulting sodium pertechnetate 99mTc was assayed for chemical, radiochemical, and radionuclidic purity. Radioisotopic content in final formulation was quantified using γ-ray spectrometry. The internal radiation dose for 99mTc-pertechnetate was calculated on the basis of experimentally measured values and biokinetic data in humans. Planar and SPECT imaging were performed using thin capillary and water-filled Jaszczak phantoms. Extracted sodium pertechnetate 99mTc met all provisional quality standards. The formulated solution for injection had a pH of 5.0-5.5, contained greater than 98% of radioactivity in the form of pertechnetate ion, and was stable for at least 24 h after formulation. Radioisotopic purity of 99mTc produced with 99.03% enriched 100Mo was greater than 99.0% decay corrected to the end of bombardment (EOB). The radioisotopic purity of 99mTc produced with 99.815% enriched 100Mo was 99.98% or greater (decay corrected to the EOB). The estimated dose increase relative to 99mTc without any radionuclidic impurities was below 10% for sodium pertechnetate 99mTc produced from 99.03% 100Mo if injected up to 6 h after the EOB. For 99.815% 100Mo, the increase in effective dose was less than 2% at 6 h after the EOB and less than 4% at 15 h after the EOB when the target was irradiated at an incident energy of 24 MeV. Image spatial resolution

  13. A 99mTc-Labelled Tetrazine for Bioorthogonal Chemistry. Synthesis and Biodistribution Studies with Small Molecule trans-Cyclooctene Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vito, Alyssa; Alarabi, Hussain; Czorny, Shannon; Beiraghi, Omid; Kent, Jeff; Janzen, Nancy; Genady, Afaf R; Al-Karmi, Salma A; Rathmann, Stephanie; Naperstkow, Zoya; Blacker, Megan; Llano, Lisset; Berti, Paul J; Valliant, John F

    2016-01-01

    A convenient strategy to radiolabel a hydrazinonicotonic acid (HYNIC)-derived tetrazine with 99mTc was developed, and its utility for creating probes to image bone metabolism and bacterial infection using both active and pretargeting strategies was demonstrated. The 99mTc-labelled HYNIC-tetrazine was synthesized in 75% yield and exhibited high stability in vitro and in vivo. A trans-cyclooctene (TCO)-labelled bisphosphonate (TCO-BP) that binds to regions of active calcium metabolism was used to evaluate the utility of the labelled tetrazine for bioorthogonal chemistry. The pretargeting approach, with 99mTc-HYNIC-tetrazine administered to mice one hour after TCO-BP, showed significant uptake of radioactivity in regions of active bone metabolism (knees and shoulders) at 6 hours post-injection. For comparison, TCO-BP was reacted with 99mTc-HYNIC-tetrazine before injection and this active targeting also showed high specific uptake in the knees and shoulders, whereas control 99mTc-HYNIC-tetrazine alone did not. A TCO-vancomycin derivative was similarly employed for targeting Staphylococcus aureus infection in vitro and in vivo. Pretargeting and active targeting strategies showed 2.5- and 3-fold uptake, respectively, at the sites of a calf-muscle infection in a murine model, compared to the contralateral control muscle. These results demonstrate the utility of the 99mTc-HYNIC-tetrazine for preparing new technetium radiopharmaceuticals, including those based on small molecule targeting constructs containing TCO, using either active or pretargeting strategies.

  14. Targeting murine heart and brain: visualisation conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT with (99m)Tc- and (123)I-labelled probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissarek, M; Meyer-Kirchrath, J; Hohlfeld, T; Vollmar, S; Oros-Peusquens, A M; Flögel, U; Jacoby, C; Krügel, U; Schramm, N

    2009-09-01

    The study serves to optimise conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT small animal imaging of (123)I- and (99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals with different distributions in murine heart and brain and to investigate detection and dose range thresholds for verification of differences in tracer uptake. A Triad 88/Trionix system with three 6-pinhole collimators was used for investigation of dose requirements for imaging of the dopamine D(2) receptor ligand [(123)I]IBZM and the cerebral perfusion tracer [(99m)Tc]HMPAO (1.2-0.4 MBq/g body weight) in healthy mice. The fatty acid [(123)I]IPPA (0.94 +/- 0.05 MBq/g body weight) and the perfusion tracer [(99m)Tc]sestamibi (3.8 +/- 0.45 MBq/g body weight) were applied to cardiomyopathic mice overexpressing the prostaglandin EP(3) receptor. In vivo imaging and in vitro data revealed 45 kBq total cerebral uptake and 201 kBq cardiac uptake as thresholds for visualisation of striatal [(123)I]IBZM and of cardiac [(99m)Tc]sestamibi using 100 and 150 s acquisition time, respectively. Alterations of maximal cerebral uptake of [(123)I]IBZM by >20% (116 kBq) were verified with the prerequisite of 50% striatal of total uptake. The labelling with [(99m)Tc]sestamibi revealed a 30% lower uptake in cardiomyopathic hearts compared to wild types. [(123)I]IPPA uptake could be visualised at activity doses of 0.8 MBq/g body weight. Multi-pinhole SPECT enables detection of alterations of the cerebral uptake of (123)I- and (99m)Tc-labelled tracers in an appropriate dose range in murine models targeting physiological processes in brain and heart. The thresholds of detection for differences in the tracer uptake determined under the conditions of our experiments well reflect distinctions in molar activity and uptake characteristics of the tracers.

  15. Synthesis of the d,I-HM-PAO and formulation of nucleo-equipment for the obtention of {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO; Sintesis del d,I-HM-PAO y formulacion de nucleo-equipos para la obtencion de {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezama C, J.; Ferro F, G.; Alcazar A, P

    1991-09-15

    Most brain imaging radiopharmaceuticals are conventional hydrophilic compounds that are excluded from entering the normal brain by an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under pathologic conditions, the barrier is disrupted and radiotracer concentrates in the leisure for positive identification. {sup 99m} Tc- hexa methyl propylene amine oxime ({sup 99} {sup m} Tc-HM-PAO) is a newer-type lipophilic agent that enter the normal brain through an intact BBB. Studies with this agent offer the promise of measuring cerebral perfusion in the normal and diseased brain. In this paper we present the synthesis and Tc-99m labelling of d,I-HM-PAO. The synthesis of the ligand was carried out by condensation of two molecular equivalents of butanedione monoxime with one molecular equivalent of 1,3 propanediamine provided a bis imine intermediate, which was reduced with sodium borohydride to get the meso and d,I diastereoisomers of HM-PAO. Separation of these was achieved by fractional crystallization. {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO was obtained by stannous ion reduction of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator eluate in the presence of the ligand. Complex radiochemical purity was determined by instant thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography. Finally, we obtained {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO with a high radiochemical yield, in excess of 90%. However, for subsequent clinical studies the preparation has to be done a few minutes before application because our product has a low stability. (Author)

  16. Evaluation of 99mTc-Labeled Cyclic RGD Dimers: Impact of Cyclic RGD Peptides and 99mTc Chelates on Biological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Kim, Young-Seung; Lu, Xin; Liu, Shuang

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to explore the impact of cyclic RGD peptides and 99mTc chelates on biological properties of 99mTc radiotracers. Cyclic RGD peptide conjugates, HYNIC-K(NIC)-RGD2 (HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; RGD2 = E[c(RGDfK)]2 and NIC = nicotinyl) HYNIC-K(NIC)-3G-RGD2 (3G-RGD2 = Gly-Gly-Gly-E[Gly-Gly-Gly-c(RGDfK)]2), and HYNIC-K(NIC)-3P-RGD2 (3P-RGD2 = PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2), were prepared. Macrocyclic 99mTc complexes [99mTc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-RGD2)(tricine)] (1), [99mTc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-3G-RGD2)(tricine)] (2) and [99mTc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-3P-RGD2)(tricine)] (3) were evaluated for their biodistribution and tumor-targeting capability in athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-435 human breast tumor xenografts. It was found that 1, 2 and 3 could be prepared with high specific activity (~111GBq/3mol). All three 99mTc radiotracers have two major isomers, which show almost identical uptake in tumors and normal organs. Replacing the bulky and highly charged [99mTc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3′,3″-trisulfonate) with a smaller [99mTc(HYNIC-K(NIC))(tricine)] resulted in less uptake in the kidneys and lungs for 3. Surprisingly, all three 99mTc radiotracers shared a similar tumor uptake (1: 5.73 ± 0.40 %ID/g; 2: 5.24 ± 1.09 %ID/g; and 3: 4.94 ± 1.71 %ID/g) at 60 min p.i. The metabolic stability of 99mTc radiotracers depends on cyclic RGD peptides (3P-RGD2 > 3G-RGD2 ~ RGD2) and 99mTc chelates ([99mTc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] > [99mTc(HYNIC-K(NIC))(tricine)]). Immunohistochemical studies revealed a linear relationship between the αvβ3 expression levels and tumor uptake or tumor/muscle ratios of 3, suggesting that 3 is useful for monitoring the tumor αvβ3 expression. Complex 3 is a very attractive radiotracer for detection of integrin αvβ3 –positive tumors. PMID:22369387

  17. Evaluation of 99mTc-labeled cyclic RGD dimers: impact of cyclic RGD peptides and 99mTc chelates on biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Kim, Young-Seung; Lu, Xin; Liu, Shuang

    2012-03-21

    The main objective of this study is to explore the impact of cyclic RGD peptides and (99m)Tc chelates on biological properties of (99m)Tc radiotracers. Cyclic RGD peptide conjugates, HYNIC-K(NIC)-RGD(2) (HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; RGD(2) = E[c(RGDfK)](2) and NIC = nicotinyl), HYNIC-K(NIC)-3G-RGD(2) (3G-RGD(2) = Gly-Gly-Gly-E[Gly-Gly-Gly-c(RGDfK)](2)), and HYNIC-K(NIC)-3P-RGD(2) (3P-RGD(2) = PEG(4)-E[PEG(4)-c(RGDfK)](2)), were prepared. Macrocyclic (99m)Tc complexes [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-RGD(2))(tricine)] (1), [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-3G-RGD(2))(tricine)] (2), and [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-3P-RGD(2))(tricine)] (3) were evaluated for their biodistribution and tumor-targeting capability in athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-435 human breast tumor xenografts. It was found that 1, 2, and 3 could be prepared with high specific activity (∼111 GBq/μmol). All three (99m)Tc radiotracers have two major isomers, which show almost identical uptake in tumors and normal organs. Replacing the bulky and highly charged [(99m)Tc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3″-trisulfonate) with a smaller [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC))(tricine)] resulted in less uptake in the kidneys and lungs for 3. Surprisingly, all three (99m)Tc radiotracers shared a similar tumor uptake (1, 5.73 ± 0.40%ID/g; 2, 5.24 ± 1.09%ID/g; and 3, 4.94 ± 1.71%ID/g) at 60 min p.i. The metabolic stability of (99m)Tc radiotracers depends on cyclic RGD peptides (3P-RGD(2) > 3G-RGD(2) ∼ RGD(2)) and (99m)Tc chelates ([(99m)Tc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] > [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC))(tricine)]). Immunohistochemical studies revealed a linear relationship between the α(v)β(3) expression levels and tumor uptake or tumor/muscle ratios of 3, suggesting that 3 is useful for monitoring the tumor α(v)β(3) expression. Complex 3 is a very attractive radiotracer for detection of integrin α(v)β(3)-positive tumors.

  18. Activation of [(99(m))TcO4](-) by phosphonium cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braband, Henrik; Benz, Michael; Tooyama, Yuji; Alberto, Roger

    2014-04-21

    Phosphonium salts in solution or bound to solid phase supports interact with the robust [(99(m))TcO4](-) anion in neutral water. This activated form of [(99(m))TcO4](-) represents a source for complexes with the fac-{(99m)Tc(VII)O3}(+) core, which can be synthesized in high yields and purity.

  19. Evaluation of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate scanning for the detection of coeliac disease and Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, S.; Taylor, T.V.; McLoughlin, G.P.; Heading, R.C.; Tothill, P.

    1981-08-01

    To investigate the use of abdominal scintiscanning in the detection of small bowel pathology, the accumulation of pertechnetate sup(99m)Tc, following intravenous injection, has been studied in 21 patients with coeliac disease, 13 patients with Crohn's disease and in 83 control subjects without known small bowel disease. Although a trend for a greater accumulation of sup(99m)Tc was noted in patients with coeliac disease and Crohn's disease compared with controls (P < 0.025) there was a large overlap in individual studies. Under the conditions of this study the accumulation of sup(99m)Tc by the small bowel did not provide a reliable diagnostic test for coeliac disease or Crohn's disease of the small intestine. The accumulation of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate by normal small bowel suggests that scintiscanning with this radiopharmaceutical does not provide a consistently reliable method for the detection of small bowel pathology.

  20. Imaging, biodistribution and in vitro study of smart99mTc-PAMAM G4 dendrimer as novel nano-complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narmani, Asghar; Yavari, Kamal; Mohammadnejad, Javad

    2017-11-01

    Overexpression of folic acid receptor in various human tumors cells makes it as good candidate for targeting delivery of chemotherapeutic and radiopharmaceutical agents. In this research, FA used for functionalization of PEG modified PAMAM G4 dendrimer as a smart delivery of 5-FU and 99m Tc for the breast carcinoma in order to chemotherapeutic and imaging goals. One aim of this research was assess the FA-mediated cell viability assay of PEG-PAMAM G4-FA-5FU- 99m Tc and in vitro uptake of PEG-PAMAM G4-FA- 99m Tc as the novel nano-complex determined on C2Cl2 (normal cell) and MCF-7 (breast cancer cell) cell lines. Other main goals were studied. Morover, an investigation in to in vivo imaging and biodistribution was carried out via a novel radio tracer by which tumor accumulation and site were obviously detected. The targeted tumor images taken by tail intravenous injection demonstrated that nano-complex can be smartly used in imaging study of the clinical practices. Also, the biodistribution of this nano-complex was investigated and the organ predestination of 99m Tc labeled nano-complex (%ID/g) was ascertained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of sentinel node mapping in malignant melanoma: experience with {sup 99m}Tc-phytate and a review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, Marcelo T.; Soares Junior, Jose; Marone, Marilia M.S.; Tavares, Marcia G.M.; Endo, Irene S.; Campos Neto, Guilherme C.; Lewin, Shlomo [Hospital Samaritano de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unidade de Diagnostico e Densitometria Ossea (UDDO)]. E-mail: mtsapienza@hotmail.com; Lopes, Margarida M.M. F.; Nakagawa, Sergio; Belfort, Francisco A. [Instituto Brasileiro de Controle do Cancer (IBCC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN), corresponding to the first lymph node draining the tumor, is usually the first one to receive its metastasis, and its biopsy is used to define the status of the whole lymphatic basin. The aim of this paper is to describe the use {sup 99m} Tc-phytate in SLN localization in malignant melanoma patients, and to review the main indications and information provided by SLN biopsy. A total of 92 patients with malignant melanoma was studied. Lymph node scintigraphy was carried out after the sub dermal injection of {sup 99m} Tc-Phytate. After 18-24 hours, intra-operative SLN localization was carried out using the gamma-probe and lymph node dissection was then performed. Lymphoscintigraphy identified the sentinel node in all studies and intra-operative detection using gamma-probe was reached in 98.8% of the cases. The SLN was involved in 23 patients (26%). The method's negative predictive value was 100%, and there were no side effects related to {sup 99m} Tc-Phytate. Scintigraphic and intra-operative sentinel node detection was satisfactorily performed using {sup 99m} Tc- Phytate, an easily available and low cost radiopharmaceutical. SLN mapping allows the use of more accurate tumor staging techniques and reduces surgical morbidity. (author)

  2. Required time delay from (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection to SPECT data acquisition: healthy subjects and patients with rCBF pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G.; de, Nijs R.; Hogh-Rasmussen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Procedure Guidelines for Brain Perfusion SPET using (99m)Tc-labeled Radiopharmaceuticals recommend a time delay of 90 min between injection of (99m)Tc-HMPAO and data acquisition. This time delay is difficult to comply within the daily routine and present a problem, particularly with the elderly or demented...... patients. This study investigates in patients with perfusion deficits and in healthy subjects if the quality of the SPECT image is affected by lowering the time delay between (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection and data acquisition to 30 or 60 min. METHODS: Thirty-seven healthy subjects (17 females; mean age 65; range...... proportion of the total variance explained by the first principal component was 99.5% (range 98.9-99.6) for the healthy subjects and 99.4% (range 98.5-99.8) for the patients. CONCLUSION: The time delay from injection of (99m)Tc-HMPAO to the start of the SPECT data acquisition can be reduced from 90 to 30 min...

  3. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, G S; Pereira, M O; Benarroz, M O; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, V C; Pereira, M J; Fonseca, A S; Medeiros, A C; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2011-01-01

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na(99m)TcO(4)) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with (99m)Tc ((99m)Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na(99m)TcO(4) and (99m)Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, G.S.; Pereira, M.O. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Benarroz, M.O.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, M.J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Fisiologia, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Biomedico, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Rua Frei Caneca, 94, Rio de Janeiro 20211040 (Brazil); Medeiros, A.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Coordenadoria de Pesquisa Basica, Praca Cruz Vermelha, 23, 20230130 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  5. A fast and simple dose-calibrator-based quality control test for the radionuclidic purity of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Esquinas, P; Vuckovic, M; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2015-11-07

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the (100)Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. Like most radioisotope production methods, cyclotron production of 99mTc will result in creation of unwanted impurities, including Tc and non-Tc isotopes. It is important to measure the amounts of these impurities for release of cyclotron-produced 99mTc (CPTc) for clinical use. Detection of radioactive impurities will rely on measurements of their gamma (γ) emissions. Gamma spectroscopy is not suitable for this purpose because the overwhelming presence of 99mTc and the count-rate limitations of γ spectroscopy systems preclude fast and accurate measurement of small amounts of impurities. In this article we describe a simple and fast method for measuring γ emission rates from radioactive impurities in CPTc. The proposed method is similar to that used to identify (99)Mo breakthrough in generator-produced 99mTc: one dose calibrator (DC) reading of a CPTc source placed in a lead shield is followed by a second reading of the same source in air. Our experimental and theoretical analysis show that the ratio of DC readings in lead to those in air are linearly related to γ emission rates from impurities per MBq of 99mTc over a large range of clinically-relevant production conditions. We show that estimates of the γ emission rates from Tc impurities per MBq of 99mTc can be used to estimate increases in radiation dose (relative to pure 99mTc) to patients injected with CPTc-based radiopharmaceuticals. This enables establishing dosimetry-based clinical-release criteria that can be tested using commercially-available dose calibrators. We show that our approach is highly sensitive to the presence of 93gTc, 93mTc, 94gTc, 94mTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, and 96gTc, in addition to a number of non-Tc impurities.

  6. Evaluation of the influence of percent labeling of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI on nuclear medicine procedures in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil; Avaliacao da influencia do percentual de marcacao do {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI em procedimentos de medicina nuclear em Recife, PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jucilene Maria

    2003-08-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of percent labeling of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI on the procedures adopted by the nuclear medicine clinics in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, and their possible interference with image quality in myocardial perfusion examinations. This work was performed at two nuclear medicine services in Recife that use pharmaceuticals provided by two different manufacturers: Cardiolite, provided by Dupont and Cardiosyd, provided by SYDMA. The pH, percent labeling and stability of samples of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and the percent uptake in heart and liver of a number of patients were evaluated. The results showed that the pH values measured in all samples of both radiopharmaceuticals were within the limits recommended. In 48% of the Cardiolite samples, the percent labeling was less than 90%, which is the minimum recommended limit. On the other hand, 87,5% of the Cardiosyd samples measured values above 98%. Both radiopharmaceuticals had good labeling stability, even in samples with low percent labeling efficiencies. In spite of the higher percent labeling of Cardiosyd its heart uptake is similar to that observed with the Cardiolite, even when the percent labeling is lower than 90%. On the other hand, the image quality, according to physicians, evaluation was poorer for Cardiosyd images, due to high noise and poor sharpness. (author)

  7. The effect of glucantime™ on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m Efeito do glucantime™ na marcação de constituintes do sangue com tecnécio-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Maria Carvalho Xavier Holanda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The labeling of red blood cells (C with 99mTc is employed in clinical nuclear medicine for a variety of diagnostic procedures. Drugs can alter this labeling method and modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. In this paper, the influence of glucantime on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was reported. METHODS: Blood was withdrawn from rats and incubated with glucantime. Stannous chloride and 99mTc were added. After centrifugation, plasma (P and (C were isolated. Samples of P and C were precipitated with TCA 5%, centrifuged and insoluble (IF and soluble fractions (SF separated. The percentages of total activity injected (%ATI in C, IF-P and IF-C were calculated (pOBJETIVO: A marcação de hemácias sangüíneas (C com 99mTc é muito utilizada nos procedimentos diagnósticos na medicina nuclear. Drogas podem alterar este método de marcação e modificar a biodisponibilidade de radiofármacos. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a influência de glucantime na marcação de elementos sangüíneos com 99mTc. MÉTODOS: Sangue foi retirado de ratos e incubado com glucantime. Adicionou-se cloreto estanoso e 99mTc. Após centrifugação, plasma (P e (C foram isolados. Amostras de P e C foram precipitadas com TCA 5%, centrifugadas e separadas em frações solúveis (FS e insolúveis (FI. Os percentuais de atividade total injetada (%ATI em C, FI-P e FI-C foram calculados (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: O %ATI em C diminuiu, em relação ao controle, nas seguintes concentrações de glucantime (6,25%;12,5%;25%;50%;100%, respectivamente: 94,06±1,29 (controle para 77,15±2,79; para 76,68±1,88; para 75,15±2,79; para 72,64±4,40 e para 63,05±3,84. Em FI-C, o %ATI diminuiu, em relação ao controle, em todas as concentrações de glucantime (3,125%;6,25%;12,5%;25%;50%; 100%, respectivamente: 93,34±1,18 (controle para 78,81±2,76; para 74,76±4,82; para 74,02±5,32; para 64,35±4,82; para 62,81±1,97 e para 54,55±3,58. CONCLUSÕES: Este

  8. Tumor targeting HPMA-porphyrin-99mTc copolymer molecular imaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Ma, Yabing; Yuan, Jianchao

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrins typically show preferential uptake and retention by tumor tissues via receptor-mediated endocytosis of low-density lipoproteins. To investigate the relative importance of active and passive targeting strategies, the synthesis, characterization, in vitro uptake, and in vivo biodistribution of specific targeting porphyrin HPMA [HPMA: N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] copolymer tracer poly(HPMA)-porphyrin-DTPA-(99m)Tc (DTPA: diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), nonspecific targeting HPMA copolymer tracer poly(HPMA)-DTPA-(99m)Tc, and nontargeting tracer DTPA-(99m)Tc are described in this study. The results showed that the cellular accumulation of poly(HPMA)-porphyrin-DTPA-(99m)Tc complex was found to be time-dependent. The uptake of poly(HPMA)-porphyrin-DTPA-(99m)Tc was significantly higher than that of poly(HPMA)-DTPA-(99m)Tc, indicating that uptake of the poly(HPMA)-porphyrin-DTPA-(99m)Tc was active binding. The uptake of poly(HPMA)-DTPA-(99m)Tc was significantly higher than that of DTPA-(99m)Tc, suggesting that uptake of the poly(HPMA)-DTPA-(99m)Tc was passive binding. Twenty-four hour necropsy data in the hepatocellular carcinoma tumor model showed significantly higher (p HPMA)-porphyrin-DTPA-(99m)Tc (5.18 ± 0.50% ID/g [percentage injected dose per gram tissue]) compared with poly(HPMA)-DTPA-(99m)Tc (2.69 ± 0.15% ID/g) and DTPA-(99m)Tc (0.83 ± 0.03% ID/g). Moreover, higher T/B for poly(HPMA)-porphyrin-DTPA-(99m)Tc indicated reduced extravasation of the targeted polymeric conjugates in normal tissues. Thus, the poly(HPMA)-porphyrin-DTPA-(99m)Tc is a potential macromolecular tumor targeting molecular agent.

  9. Brain PET and technetium-99m-ECD SPECT imaging in Lhermitte-Duclos disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, K.; Yasuda, S.; Beppu, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Doi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Ogawa, A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    Two patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease were evaluated by brain positron emission tomography (PET) and technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In the lesions in both patients, hyperperfusion was detected on cerebral blood flow images obtained by PET, and hyperactivity by standard {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT. Dynamic {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT images demonstrated a plateau of activity in each lesion. These findings suggest that lesions in Lhermitte-Duclos disease have a retention mechanism for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD equivalent to that of normal neural tissue. (orig.)

  10. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD perform differently in typically hypoperfused areas in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France); Laboratoire de Biophysique, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, UFR de Medecine, 28 Avenue de Valombrose, 06107, Nice Cedex 2 (France); Nobili, Flavio; Vitali, Paolo; Girtler, Nicola; Rodriguez, Guido [Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa (Italy); Migneco, Octave; Darcourt, Jacques [Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France); Robert, Philippe H. [Memory Center, Federation of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2003-07-01

    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) and {sup 99m}Tc-N,N''-1,2-ethylene diylbis-l-cysteine diethyl ester dihydrochloride (ECD) yield significantly different images of cerebral perfusion owing to their particular pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to assess the topography, extension and statistical significance of these differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sixty-four patients with mild to moderate AD were retrospectively selected by two European centres. Two series of patients, including 32 studied with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and 32 studied with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET, were matched for sex, age ({+-}3 years) and severity of cognitive impairment as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ({+-}2 points), following a case-control procedure. SPET data were processed using SPM99 software (uncorrected height threshold: P=0.001). {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET gave significantly higher uptake ratio values than {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in several symmetrical clusters, including the right and left occipital cuneus, the left occipital and parietal precuneus, and the left superior and middle temporal gyri. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET gave significantly higher uptake ratio values than ECD in two smaller clusters, including the hippocampus in both hemispheres. In AD, relative brain uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD is different in several brain regions, some of which are typically involved in AD, such as the precuneus and the hippocampus. These differences confirm the need for specific normal databases, but their impact on routine SPET reports in AD is not known and deserves an ad hoc investigation. (orig.)

  11. Investigation of four {sup 99m}Tc-labeled bacteriophages for infection-specific imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusckowski, Mary [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655-0243 (United States)], E-mail: mary.rusckowski@umassmed.edu; Gupta, Suresh; Liu Guozheng; Dou Shuping; Hnatowich, Donald J. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655-0243 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Introduction: This study investigated radiolabeled bacteriophages for specific detection of infection through gamma imaging. Previously, a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled M13 phage demonstrated specific binding for its host Escherichia coli in vitro and in mice through imaging. Methods: This study was extended to phages P22, E79, VD-13 and phage 60. Each was radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc using the chelator MAG{sub 3}, and were evaluated for binding to host and non-host bacteria in vitro and in a mouse infection model. Results: In vitro, each {sup 99m}Tc-phage bound to its host at least 4-fold higher than to non-host bacteria. For example, {sup 99m}Tc-E79 showed 10- to 20-fold greater binding to host Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to non-host Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, and {sup 99m}Tc-phage 60 showed 20-fold greater binding to host Klebsiella pneumoniae over non-hosts. Mice received host or non-host bacteria in one thigh, and 3 h later, the {sup 99m}Tc-phages were administered intravenously. After a further 3 h, the tissues were counted. Liver accumulation was highest for {sup 99m}Tc-E79, averaging 39% compared to an average of 13% for the other {sup 99m}Tc-phages. Animals infected with host bacteria showed infected thigh/normal thigh ratios of 14.2 for {sup 99m}Tc-E79, 2.9 for {sup 99m}Tc-P22, 3.5 for {sup 99m}Tc-VD-13 and 2.1 for {sup 99m}Tc-phage 60. Conclusions: Although specific host binding was observed in vitro for each of these four {sup 99m}Tc-phages, only {sup 99m}Tc-E79 showed specificity for its host in an in vivo model.

  12. {sup 99m}Tc-MDP and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintimammography in patients with clinically suspicious breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Moon Sun; Park, Chan H.; Kim, Su Zy; Yoon, Suk Nam; Park, Hee Boong [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scintimammography(SM) was performed at the time of the preoperative bone scan in patients with suspicious breast cancer. These patients also had {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintimammography before or after the bone scan. The purpose of this report is to compare {sup 99m}Tc-MDP SM and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SM with the surgical results. Scintimammography with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP was performed in 20 patients with palpable mass and radiologic suspicion or proven diagnosis of breast cancer preoperatively. Patients ranged in age from 34 to 72. No male patient was included. Both prone lateral and supine anterior views were obtained for 10 min each 10-15min after IV administration of 740 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. The {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintimammography was also performed before surgery. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SM began in 5 min. postinjection of 740MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI with prone lateral views for 10 min. Scintimammography was evaluated as positive or negative for presence or absence of focal localization of the tracers and the results were compared to histological findings. Breast cancer was histologically diagnosed in all patients ( 16 infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 2 comedocarcinoma, 1 phyllodes tumor, 1 paget disease). The size of tumor mass ranged 1.5-3 cm. Lymph node metastasis was found in 4 patients by the histologic examination. The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in breast cancer was noted in all patients except two. One of the two patients was in post excisional biopsy state and the other was also negative in the MIBI scan. There was MDP axillary node uptake in 5 patients. Two of 5 patients with axillary lymph node uptake were false positive but they were all positive with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintimammography. Two masses found in MIBI scan of a patients cannot be separated o the MDP scan. It showed more diffuse uptake than MIBI scan. The concordance between MDP-SM with MIBI-SM(similar pattern of uptake) was 45% and the remaining cases showed not focal but more diffuse uptake

  13. The thirteenth report on survey of the adverse reaction to radiopharmaceuticals; The 16th survey in 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report deals with adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals occurring during the period from April 1, 1990 through March 31, 1991. Questionnaires were sent to 1,141 facilities, and 857 (75.1%) responded. Thirteen cases of adverse reactions and 15 cases of drug defects were reported from a total of 23 facilities (2.7%), giving an annual occurrence of 1.3 cases and 1.5 cases, respectively, for 100,000 examinations. Among the reported 13 adverse reactions, the highest incidence was seen for both I-131 sodium iodohippurate (n=4) injection and Tc-99m DTPA injection (n=4), followed by I-131 iodomethyl norcholesterol (n=2). Each one of the other adverse reactions was seen for Tc-99m RBC injection, Tc-99m HMDP injection, and I-123 IMP injection. Adverse reactions included reactions to the vagus nerves (n=8), allergic reactions (n=2), and others (n=3). Drug defects consisted of unfavorable distribution (n=8), destroyed or contaminated containers (n=4), unfavorable elution (n=2), and mixed foreign bodies (n=one). Radiopharmaceuticals reported as drug defects were as follows: Ga-67 citrate, Tc-99m generator, Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m RBC, Tc-99m DMSA, Tc-99m MDP, Tc-99m HMDP, Xe-133 injection, and Tl-201 chloride. (N.K.).

  14. “In-house” preparation of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC, a specific targeting agent for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Kuzmanovska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of radiolabeled peptide ligands as diagnostics and therapeutics in nuclear oncology has increased recently. One of the most frequently used radiopharmaceutical is 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC, a somatostatin analog with affinity for certain types of somatostatin receptors, overexpressed in tumors of neuroendocrine origin. The radiopharmaceutical is not readily available; therefore we introduced its “in house” preparation within project activities supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. We optimized the radiolabeling protocol, prepared a small batch of frozen kits, performed ITLC quality control and animal biodistribution during the preclinical evaluation procedures. The co-ligand exchange labeling procedure was carried out at 100°C during 10 min, resulting in radiochemical purity >90%. The biodistribution scintigrams in normal Wistar rats showed rapid blood clearance after 15 min and predominant kidney accumulation after 4 h, in accordance with the data reported by other authors. Storage stability of the formulated small batch frozen kit (-20°C was evaluated within 6 months, with radiolabeling yield ranging between 94,3% and 96,9%. We conclude that frozen kit can be a safe alternative to the freeze-dried for small batch in house production, and after the satisfactory preclinical evaluation, the “in house” prepared 99mTc-EDDA/ HYNIC-TOC can be introduced in clinical practice as specific targeting agent for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy.

  15. Tracers to monitor the response to chemotherapy: in vitro screening of four radiopharmaceuticals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus-Oei, L.F. de; Eerd-Vismale, J.E.M. van; Molthoff, C.F.M.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Boerman, O.C.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been postulated that radiopharmaceuticals can be used to predict the therapeutic response to (chemo)therapy, which could lead to individualized treatment regimens. In this study, 18F-deoxyglucose, 99mTc-tetrofosmin, 125I-deoxyuridineribose, and 125I-methyltyrosine were tested for

  16. [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT study in dementia and aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Otsuka, Makoto; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Masuda, Kouji; Ichimiya, Atsushi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-09-01

    We studied clinical significance of [sup 99m]Tc-L,L,-ethyl cysteine dimer ([sup 99m]Tc-ECD) SPECT study in dementia and aphasia, and compared it with [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT study. The subjects consisted of 13 patients, including 10 patients with dementia and 3 patients with aphasia. Hypoperfusion areas were detected in 5 out of 10 patients with dementia and 2 out of 3 patients with aphasia in [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT, and in 4 out of 10 patients with dementia and all of 3 patients with aphasia in [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT. The count rate ratios in [sup 99m]Tc-ECD and [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT were correlated well with each other, and the contrast of the [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT image was equivalent or slightly higher as compared with [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO. Therefore, [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT study was considered to be useful for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in dementia and aphasia. (author).

  17. Evaluation of '9{sup 9}Mo presence in eluates of {sup 99}mTc used in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da presenca de {sup 99}Mo em eluatos de {sup 99m}Tc utilizados em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Bianca da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Tc-99m is used for diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine through SPECT technique. It is obtained by the elution of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators. During the elution process {sup 99}Mo can be extracted becoming a radionuclidic impurity. One of the quality parameters of the eluate is the radionuclidic purity, MBT (molybdenum break through), defined as the ratio between {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc activities in the eluate. The North-American and European pharmacopoeias restrict the {sup 99}Mo content, respectively, in 0.015 e 0.1% and, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the activity ratio at the moment of administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient, should not exceed 0.015%. In Brazil, the control of such parameter is not obliged in official regulations. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of {sup 99}Mo in {sup 99m}Tc eluates. It was initially optimized a methodology to determine the activity of {sup 99}Mo in eluate samples. Efficiency curves were obtained for a NaI (Tl) 8'' x 4'' scintillation detector installed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LABMIV-IRD). The methodology has been validated through the measurement of a {sup 99}Mo standard liquid source calibrated at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The samples analyzed in this work were gently supplied by 5 Nuclear Medicine Clinics located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The activities of {sup 99}mTc and {sup 99}Mo in those samples have been measured respectively at the clinics and at the LABMIV. By applying a standardized methodology, the ration between the activities were calculated. The results show that 147 out of 174 samples presented {sup 99}Mo activities above the minimum detectable activity of the technique. On the other hand, only 2 out of 147 samples surpassed the MBT limit suggested by the IAEA and have been detected in samples eluted from generators of 750 mCi. In one of the

  18. Preparation and evaluation of 99mTc-t-butylisonitrile (99mTc-TBI) for myocardial imaging: a kit for hospital radiopharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, S S; Ramamoorthy, N; Nayak, U N; Patel, R B; Ramanathan, P; Srivastava, S; Lal, R; Raghavan, S V; Shah, K B; Desai, C N

    1990-01-01

    A previous method was modified to obtain [99mTc(TBI)6]+ by reacting Zn(TBI)2Br2 directly with 99mTcO4- in the presence of Sn2+ ions. [Cu(TBI)4]Cl was next used as a source of TBI. On reaction with 99mTcO4- and Sn2+ ions for 3 min at 100 degrees C, [99mTc(TBI)6]+ product of radiochemical purity greater than 90% and yield greater than 70% was obtained. Data of biodistribution in rats (2-2.5% in heart) and biokinetics in rabbits were satisfactory. The kit formulation was found to be stable and also safe for administration.

  19. Clinical investigation of accumulation process of {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP and -MDP in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matumoto, Takahiro [Health Insurance Naruto Hospital, Tokushima (Japan); Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Satou, Kazuo; Kishi, Taro; Yoshino, Tomio; Nishitani, Hiromu

    2000-06-01

    The accumulation process in bone of {sup 99m}Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-HMDP) and {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) was examined on 9 subjects (5 for {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP and 4 for {sup 99m}Tc-MDP). {sup 99m}Tc compounds in blood were analyzed with radio-thinlayer chromatography, radioactivity was measured using a scintillation counter, and the uptake of both {sup 99m}Tc diphosphonates in bone was examined by scintigraphy. The amounts of {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP and MDP compounds disappeared from blood for 2 h after injection were 83% and 87%, respectively, and these were almost unchanged even after 3 h. While the greater part of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} contained in both diphosphonates was disappeared from blood, the small amounts of unknown {sup 99m}Tc compounds were produced in blood. The ratio of the radioactivity of {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP in lumbar vertebra to soft tissue near bone was 1.5{+-}0.5 after about 3 h, showing that equilibrium occurred in the process of the accumulation in bone, and good scintigrams were depicted in all the cases. These results suggest that the accumulation in bone of both {sup 99m}Tc diphosphonates may be by both fast chemical absorption onto the surface of the hydroxyapatite in bone and slow uptake mediated through osteoblast-like cells and organic matters. (author)

  20. Evaluation of mitomycin-C effect on biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid in BALB/C mice; Avaliacao do efeito da mitomicina-c na biodistribuicao do radiofarmaco acido dimercaptosuccinico marcado com tecnecio-99m em camundongos BALB/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Maria Luisa; Britto, Deise Mara de M.; Freitas, Rosimeire de S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica; Braga, Ana Cristina de S.; Bezerra, Roberto Jose A.C. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    1999-11-01

    The many desirable characteristics of technetium-99m have stimulated the development of labeling techniques for different molecular and cellular structures. It is accepted that a variety of factors such the drug chemotherapy can alter the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. The unknowledge of these factor may result in an unexpected behavior of the radiopharmaceuticals. Since patients on chemotherapeutic treatment can be submitted to a nuclear medicine procedure, we have studied in mice, the effect of mitomycin-C on the {sup 99m} Tc-DMSA used for kidney scintigraphy. Mitomycin-C is an antineoplastic agent obtained from Streptomyces caesptosus. The metabolism of this drug produces different toxic and inactive metabolites. Mitomycin-C 0.15 mg was administered in Balb/c female with an interval of 72 hours. After one hour of the last dose, 0.3 ml of 9{sup 9m}c-DMSA (7.4 MBq) were injected and after 0.5 h the animals were sacrificed. The organs were isolated and counted in a well counter. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) were calculated and statistical analysis were performed (Wilcoxon Test). The results have shown that the %ATI: has increased in stomach and uterus, has decreased in kidney and ovary; has not altered in pancreas, spleen, lung, heart, liver, thymus, thyroid, bone and brain. The increase of % ATI could be justified by the metabolic process or the therapeutical effect of mitomycin-C. As an effect of this drug is observed in the uptake of the {sup 99m} Tc-DMSA by the kidney, probably an alteration in the kidney scintigraphy is expected. However, the increase of %ATI of this radiopharmaceutical in other organs by the mitomycin-C could be evaluated carefully. (author) 12 ref., 2 tabs.

  1. Warthin's tumor of parotid gland on Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy with lemon juice stimulation: Tc-99m uptake, size, and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Hidetoshi; Matsumoto, Akira; Hori, Yuko; Takeoka, Hiroshi; Kiyosue, Hiro; Hori, Yuzo; Mori, Hiromu [Dept. of Radiology, Oita Medical Univ., Oita (Japan); Ueyama, Shigehiro [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Oita Medical Univ. (Japan); Kashima, Kenji [Dept. of Pathology, Oita Medical Univ. (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of technetium-99m (Tc-99m) pertechnetate scintigraphy with lemon juice stimulation in the diagnosis of Warthin's tumor and its correlation with Tc-99m uptake, tumor size, and histologic subtype. Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy before and after lemon juice stimulation and pathologic specimens of 34 Warthin's tumors and 47 non-Warthin's lesions were retrospectively evaluated. Tc-99m uptake of Warthin's tumors before and after stimulation was visually graded as follows: absent; indeterminate; low grade; definite; and strong. Tumor size was defined as maximum diameter of the tumor measured from the surgical specimen. Warthin's tumors were classified into three histologic subtypes according to the ratio of epithelial and lymphoid stromal components: predominant epithelial; intermediate; and low-grade epithelial types. Eighteen of 34 (53%) Warthin's tumors and one benign lymphoepithelial cyst showed higher uptake than that of the normal parotid gland on Tc-99m scintigraphy before lemon juice stimulation. Thirty-two of the 34 (94%) Warthin's tumors, one benign lymphoepithelial cyst, one pleomorphic adenoma, and one oncocytoma revealed higher uptake than that of the normal parotid gland on Tc-99m scintigraphy after lemon juice stimulation. The mean size was 37 mm in strong uptake Warthin's tumors, 24 mm in definite uptake tumors, 19 mm in low-grade uptake tumors, and 12 mm in low-grade uptake tumors excluding those tumors with large cystic component. There was a significant correlation between tumor size and degree of Tc-99m uptake after lemon juice stimulation. However, there was no correlation between histologic subtype and Tc-99m uptake, and histologic subtype and tumor size in Warthin's tumors. Our study concludes that Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy with lemon juice stimulation is useful for the detection and diagnosis of Warthin's tumor. The degree of uptake in

  2. Radioprotective efficacy of Ginkgo Biloba and Angelica Archangelica extract against Technetium-99m-sestamibi induced oxidative stress and lens injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Mahmoud H; Shafaa, Medhat W; Abdel-Ghaffar, Amany; Saleh, Ahmed

    2017-11-20

    Technetium-99m is a radioactive tracer that emits gamma rays. Its half-life time is 6 hours. Similar to other ionizing radiations, the main mechanism of radiation-induced effects is initiated through the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of Ginkgo-Biloba and Angelica-Archangelica against oxidative organ damage that was induced by (99m)Tc-sestamibi. The experiments were performed on thirty-six Wistar-rats which were subdivided into control groups and groups exposed to (99m)Tc-sestamibi. The irradiated groups were either untreated or pre-treated with Ginkgo-Biloba or Angelica-Archangelica. For all groups, the levels and/or activities of Catalase (CAT), Glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Superoxide-dismutase (SOD) were measured in blood and lenses. The soluble/insoluble protein ratio was determined and lens-protein profiles were obtained via Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel-Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). There were no significant difference between the pre-treated and irradiated Ginkgo-Biloba group and control group, while both groups were significantly different (p < 0.05) from the untreated irradiated group. On the other hand, treatment with Angelica-Archangelica did not confer any significant protection against (99m)Tc-sestamibi induced toxicity. The present study demonstrated that Ginkgo-Biloba, through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, successfully attenuated (99m)Tc-sestamibi radiation-induced oxidative organ injury. The latter is a crucial factor of cataractogenesis in rats, suggesting that Ginkgo-Biloba may have a potential benefit in the protection against radiopharmaceuticals.

  3. Utility of the tetrophosmine-{sup 99m}Tc in the determination of malignant tumours located in the muscle-skeletal system, preliminary report; Utilidad de la tetrofosmina-{sup 99m}Tc en la determinacion de malignidad de tumores localizados en el sistema musculoesqueletico, reporte preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia R, J.C.; Gonzalez, I.F.; Rico, G.; Linares, L.M.; Delgado C, E.; Baena, L. [Centro Nacional de Rehabilitacion, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Adame, G.; Gonzalez R, D. [MIYMSA, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Perez C, J.P.; Valencia, S. [Hospital medica Sur, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    From its authorization by the FDA, as radiopharmaceutical to be used in studies of myocardial perfusion, multiple articles have appeared in the literature it prescribes that its validate the use of the tetrophosmine-{sup 99m}Tc in the valuation of different tumors, so much in the determination of malignancy, like in the evolution and in the response to the treatment. For that reason the objective of this protocol is to evaluate the utility of the tetrophosmine- {sup 99m}Tc in the determination of malignancy in non treated tumors located in the skeletal muscle system, in a population of 40 patients coming from the service of bony tumors of the National Center of Rehabilitation. For the time being its report the discoveries in 27 studies. (Author)

  4. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.

  5. Profile of MIBI Liquid Phase Radiopharmaceutical for Myocardial Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Daruwati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 99mTc-MIBI radiopharmaceutical has been used innuclear medicine in Indonesia for myocardial imaging. BATAN researchers have mastered the technology to manufacture MIBI as a liophylized kit. A reformulation of MIBI radiopharmaceutical has been conducted to improve the stability of the kit especially in the liquid-phase kit. Basically, radiopharmaceuticals in liquid form are not different from the dry kit. However in the manufacturing of liquid-phase kit, lyophilization process was not done. To improve the stability of liquid kit, a reformulation of the components was conducted by using two separate vials (Formulation 2 and the characteristics were compared with the one-vial formulation (Formulation 1.The MIBI Formulation 2 consists of two vials, vial A containing 0.06 mg of SnCl2 2H2O and 2.6 mg Sodium Citrate 2H2O and vial B containing 0.5 mg of [Cu(MIBI4]BF4, 1 mg of cysteine hydrochloride, and 20 mg of mannitol.The purposes of this study wereto determine the stability of two different formulations of MIBI as a liquid-phase kit, to compare theirstability in different storage condition such as in refrigerator and freezer, and to compare the ratio of activities attained between target and nontargetorgans after injection to animal model. As a diagnostic agent, MIBI was reconstituted with Technetium-99m as radionuclide tracer to 99mTc-MIBI labeled compound. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-MIBI was determined by chromatography method using alumina thin-layer chromatography paper as the stationary phase and ethanol 95% as the mobile phase. The results showed MIBI Formulation 2 has a higher stability than Formulation 1. Formulation 2 also maintaineda 96.68%radiochemical purity under 52-day storage and attainedatarget-to-nontarget activity ratio of 8.22.

  6. Estimation of myocardial perfusion and viability using simultaneous 99mTc-tetrofosmin--FDG collimated SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, K; Katafuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Shimotsu, Y; Toba, M; Hayashida, K; Takamiya, M; Ishida, Y

    2000-08-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the usefulness of crosstalk correction for dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) with 99mTc-tetrofosmin and FDG in estimating myocardial perfusion and viability. Eighteen patients with coronary artery disease were studied. First, SPECT was performed with a low-energy high-resolution collimator after a single injection of 99mTc-tetrofosmin (single 99mTc-tetrofosmin). Second, PET and DISA with an ultra-high-energy collimator were performed after glucose loading and an injection of FDG. DISA was designed to operate with simultaneous 3-channel acquisition, and weighted scatter correction of crosstalk from the 18F photopeak to the 99mTc photopeak was performed by modification of an existing dual-window technique. The FDG SPECT images were compared with the images obtained by PET. Both crosstalk-corrected and uncorrected 99mTc-tetrofosmin images were generated and compared with the single 99mTc-tetrofosmin images. Regional percentage uptake of FDG agreed well between DISA and PET. However, regional percentage uptake of 99mTc-tetrofosmin was generally higher on the uncorrected 99mTc-tetrofosmin images than on the single 99mTc-tetrofosmin images, especially in areas of low flow (percentage count of 99mTc-tetrofosmin > or = 50%). The crosstalk correction contributed to improving the agreement between regional percentage uptakes and significantly improved the detectability of myocardial perfusion-metabolism mismatching. With 3-channel acquisition and weighted-scatter correction of crosstalk from the 18F photopeak to the 99mTc photopeak, DISA with 99mTc-tetrofosmin and FDG is feasible for assessing regional myocardial perfusion and viability.

  7. Clearance of 99mTc DTPA from guinea pig nasal, tracheobronchial, and bronchoalveolar airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, L; Wollmer, P; Erjefält, I; Pipkorn, U; Persson, C G

    1990-01-01

    Technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (99mTc-DTPA) was used to compare small solute absorption (clearance) from nasal, tracheobronchial, and bronchoalveolar airways in anaesthetised guinea pigs. 99mTc DTPA dissolved in saline was superfused through nasal and orolaryngeal catheters on to nasal and tracheobronchial airways; a small particle aerosol of nebulised 99mTc DTPA was delivered to the bronchoalveolar airways through a tracheostomy. Radioactivity over the appropriate region was then determined with a gamma camera. Mucociliary transport of 99mTc DTPA appeared not to contribute to the disappearance of 99mTc DTPA. Time-activity curves were obtained and half life values calculated by fitting a monoexponential equation to the experimental data. A progressive reduction in 99mTc DTPA was recorded from the nasal and tracheobronchial airways and from the bronchoalveolar airway, suggesting that absorption was occurring. The disappearance of 99mTc DTPA was fastest from the bronchoalveolar region, which also had the largest mucosal surface. The similar shape of the retention curves for the nasal and tracheobronchial regions suggests that the characteristics of nasal absorption of 99mTc DTPA could prove applicable to the tracheobronchial region. It is proposed that the present methods are suited for comparing the pharmacology of small solute absorption across nasal, tracheobronchial, and bronchoalveolar airway mucosa. Images PMID:2256011

  8. Effective detection of the tumors causing osteomalacia using [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Hongli, E-mail: annsmile1976@sina.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Fang, E-mail: lifang@pumch.cn [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhuang, Hongming, E-mail: zhuang@email.chop.edu [Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, 34th and Civic Ctr Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Wang, Zhenghua, E-mail: ccq1214@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Tian, Jian, E-mail: tianjian4809@hotmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Xing, Xiaoping, E-mail: xingxp@126.com [Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Jin, Jin, E-mail: jinjin9010@126.com [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhong, Dingrong, E-mail: ZhongDR@pumch.cn [Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhang, Jingjing, E-mail: zhangjingjingtag@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an endocrine disorder caused by tumors producing excessive fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). The causative tumors are generally small, slow-growing benign mesenchymal tumors. The only cure of the disease depends on resection of the tumors, which are extremely difficult to localize due to their small sizes and rare locations. Since these tumors are known to express somatostatin receptors, this research was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body imaging in this clinical setting Methods: Images of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scans and clinical chart from 183 patients with hypophosphatemia and clinically suspected TIO were retrospectively reviewed. The scan findings were compared to the results of histopathological examinations and clinical follow-ups. Results: Among 183 patients, 72 were confirmed to have TIO while 103 patients were found to have other causes of hypophosphatemia. The possibility of TIO could not be either diagnosed or excluded in the remaining 8 patients. For analytical purposes, these 8 patients who could neither be diagnosed nor excluded as having TIO were regarded as having the disease, bringing the total of TIO patients to 80. The 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scan identified 69 tumors in 80 patients with TIO, which rendered a sensitivity of 86.3% (69/80). 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy excluded 102 patients without TIO with a specificity of 99.1% (102/103). The overall accuracy of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC whole body scan in the localization of tumors responsible for osteomalacia is 93.4% (171/183). Conclusions: Whole body 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC imaging is effective in the localization of occult tumors causing TIO.

  9. Effective detection of the tumors causing osteomalacia using [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hongli; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming; Wang, Zhenghua; Tian, Jian; Xing, Xiaoping; Jin, Jin; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhang, Jingjing

    2013-11-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an endocrine disorder caused by tumors producing excessive fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). The causative tumors are generally small, slow-growing benign mesenchymal tumors. The only cure of the disease depends on resection of the tumors, which are extremely difficult to localize due to their small sizes and rare locations. Since these tumors are known to express somatostatin receptors, this research was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body imaging in this clinical setting Images of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scans and clinical chart from 183 patients with hypophosphatemia and clinically suspected TIO were retrospectively reviewed. The scan findings were compared to the results of histopathological examinations and clinical follow-ups. Among 183 patients, 72 were confirmed to have TIO while 103 patients were found to have other causes of hypophosphatemia. The possibility of TIO could not be either diagnosed or excluded in the remaining 8 patients. For analytical purposes, these 8 patients who could neither be diagnosed nor excluded as having TIO were regarded as having the disease, bringing the total of TIO patients to 80. The 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scan identified 69 tumors in 80 patients with TIO, which rendered a sensitivity of 86.3% (69/80). 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy excluded 102 patients without TIO with a specificity of 99.1% (102/103). The overall accuracy of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC whole body scan in the localization of tumors responsible for osteomalacia is 93.4% (171/183). Whole body 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC imaging is effective in the localization of occult tumors causing TIO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional imaging studies of cognition using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT: empirical validation using the n-back working memory paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Catherine; Ribaupierre, Anik de [University of Geneva, Center for Interdisciplinary Gerontology, Geneva (Switzerland); Chicherio, Christian [Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Center for Lifespan Psychology, Berlin (Germany); Terraneo, Luc [Geneva University Hospitals, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Magistretti, Pierre [EPFL, Brain Mind Institute, Lausanne (Switzerland); Slosman, Daniel [Clinique Generale-Beaulieu, Nuclear Medicine Institute, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    Functional activation protocols are widely applied for the study of brain-cognition relations. Only few take advantage of the intrinsic characteristics of SPECT, particularly those allowing cognitive assessment outside of the camera, in settings close to the standard clinical or laboratory ones. The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of a split-dose activation protocol with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO using low irradiation dose. A two-scans protocol was applied to 12 healthy young volunteers using 270 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO per scan, with each image associated to a particular experimental condition of the verbal n-back working memory task (0-back, 2-back). Subtraction method was used to identify regional brain activity related to the task. Voxel-wise statistical analysis showed left lateralized activity associated with the 2-back task, compared to the 0-back task. Activated regions, mainly prefrontal and parietal, were similar to those observed in previous fMRI and {sup 15}O-PET studies. The results support the use of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT for the investigation of brain-cognition relations and demonstrate the feasibility of optimal quality images despite low radiopharmaceutical doses. The findings also acknowledge the use of HMPAO as a radioligand to capture neuro-energetic modulations linked to cognitive activity. They encourage extending the application of the described activation protocol to clinical populations. (orig.)

  11. Influence of bidentate ligand donor types on the formation and stability in 2 + 1 fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Thomas R; Bottorff, Shalina C; Slocumb, Winston S; Barnes, Charles L; Clark, Aurora E; Benny, Paul D

    2017-01-24

    In the last two decades, a number of chelate strategies have been proposed for the fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) core in radiopharmaceutical applications. However, the development of new ligands/complexes with improved function and in vivo performance has been limited in recent years. Expanding on our previous studies using the 2 + 1 labeling strategy, a series of bidentate ligands (neutral vs. anionic) containing an aromatic amine in combination with monodentate pyridine analogs or imidazole were explored to determine the influence of the bidentate and monodentate ligands on the formation and stability of the respective complexes. The 2 + 1 complexes with Re and (99m)Tc were synthesized in two steps and characterized by standard radio/chemical methods. X-ray characterization and density functional theory analysis of the Re 2 + 1 complexes with the complete bidentate series with 4-dimethylaminopyridine were conducted, indicating enhanced ligand binding energies of the neutral over anionic ligands. In the (99m)Tc studies, anionic bidentate ligands had significantly higher formation yields of the 2 + 1 product, but neutral ligands appear to have increased stability in an amino acid challenge assay. Both bidentate series exhibited improved stability by increasing the basicity of the pyridine ligands.

  12. Indium-111 myosin-specific antibodies and technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the detection of acute cardiac rejection of transplanted hearts. Studies in a heterotopic rat heart model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kan (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine); Ueda, Keisuke (Saitama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Surgery); Scheffel, U.; Ravert, H.; Wagner, H.N. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology); LaFrance, N.D. (Du Pont (E.I.) Co., Inc., North Billerica, MA (USA)); Baumgartner, W.A.; Reitz, B.A.; Herskowitz, A. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Surgery)

    1991-07-01

    {sup 111}In-labelled myosin-specific antibodies were evaluated as an indicator of early changes in acute rejection in a rat heart heterotopic transplant model. Uptake of antibodies was measured in allograft and isograft hearts of animals undergoing different regimens of cyclosporine treatment and compared with the uptake of technetium 99m pyrophosphate. The data were correlated with histological estimation of the severity of myocyte necrosis and sign of early rejection (venous cuffing and endocardial inflammation, indicators of perivascular infiltrate and intermyocyte extension, respectively). Myocyte necrosis in transplanted hearts was reflected by increases in technetium 99m pyrophosphate accumulation (r=0.88) but was poorly correlated with labelled antibody uptake (r=0.58). There was no positive correlation between the degree of early cardiac rejection and uptake of either of the radiopharmaceuticals: accumulation of the labeled antibodies paradoxically declined with increased histological severity scores, whereas that of technetium 99m pyrophosphate remained unchanged. Cyclosporine treatment augmented the uptake of labelled antibodies in transplanted hearts. This may be due to alterations in plasma membrane permeability brought about by the drug, resulting in a rise in antibody binding to intracellular myosin. (orig.).

  13. {sup 99m}Tc-interleukin-2 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with inactive Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annovazzi, Alessio; Chianelli, Marco; Capriotti, Gabriela; Signore, Alberto [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I, University ' ' La Sapienza' ' , 00161, Rome (Italy); Biancone, Livia; Pallone, Francesco [Gastroenterology Unit, University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Caviglia, Renato [Gastroenterology Unit, University ' ' Campus Biomedico' ' , Rome (Italy); Mather, Stephen J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, Cancer Research UK, London (United Kingdom); Caprilli, Renzo [Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, University ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, Francesco [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

    2003-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that may involve the whole gut. Marked intestinal T cell and macrophage activation is a key feature of the disease. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration is also observed in the diseased gut, mainly during active inflammation. Scintigraphic detection of granulocytes and activated lymphocytes infiltrating the gut wall may be useful in identifying a subgroup of patients with clinically inactive CD who are undergoing early clinical relapse. The aims of the present study were (a) to compare the effectiveness of scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled interleukin-2 ({sup 99m}Tc-IL2) and with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled granulocytes ({sup 99m}Tc-WBC) in detecting the presence and extent of bowel inflammation in patients with long-term inactive CD (>12 months) and (b) to assess the accuracy of these techniques in predicting future disease relapse. We studied 29 patients with ileal and/or colonic CD in stable clinical remission (Crohn's Disease Activity Index <150 for at least 12 months) using both {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 and {sup 99m}Tc-WBC scintigraphy in order to evaluate the extent of acute and chronic inflammation in the bowel. Planar and single-photon emission tomography images were acquired in each patient at 1 h p.i. For quantitative analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 uptake, the abdomen was divided into 32 regions of interest. Despite the absence of symptoms, 18 patients (62%) showed a positive {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 and 18 (62%) a positive {sup 99m}Tc-WBC scan. Only 12 patients (41.4% of the total group) were positive on both scans, and the sites of IL2 and granulocyte bowel uptake were usually located in different segments, indicating that in CD, acute and chronic inflammation can be present in different sites. As far as the prognostic role of the two scans in predicting future disease relapse is concerned, both {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 and {sup 99m}Tc-WBC scintigraphy showed a high negative predictive value (1.00 and 0

  14. 99mTc-labeled HYNIC-DAPI causes plasmid DNA damage with high efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Kotzerke

    Full Text Available (99mTc is the standard radionuclide used for nuclear medicine imaging. In addition to gamma irradiation, (99mTc emits low-energy Auger and conversion electrons that deposit their energy within nanometers of the decay site. To study the potential for DNA damage, direct DNA binding is required. Plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between molecules and DNA that result in single-strand breaks (SSBs or double-strand breaks (DSBs; the resulting DNA fragments can be separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. This study aimed to compare the plasmid DNA damage potential of a (99mTc-labeled HYNIC-DAPI compound with that of (99mTc pertechnetate ((99mTcO4(-. pUC19 plasmid DNA was irradiated for 2 or 24 hours. Direct and radical-induced DNA damage were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. For both compounds, an increase in applied activity enhanced plasmid DNA damage, which was evidenced by an increase in the open circular and linear DNA fractions and a reduction in the supercoiled DNA fraction. The number of SSBs elicited by 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI (1.03 was twice that caused by (99mTcO4(- (0.51, and the number of DSBs increased fivefold in the (99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated sample compared with the (99mTcO4(- treated sample (0.02 to 0.10. In the presence of DMSO, the numbers of SSBs and DSBs decreased to 0.03 and 0.00, respectively, in the (99mTcO4(- treated samples, whereas the numbers of SSBs and DSBs were slightly reduced to 0.95 and 0.06, respectively, in the (99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated samples. These results indicated that (99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI induced SSBs and DSBs via a direct interaction of the (99mTc-labeled compound with DNA. In contrast to these results, (99mTcO4(- induced SSBs via radical formation, and DSBs were formed by two nearby SSBs. The biological effectiveness of (99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI increased by approximately 4-fold in terms of inducing SSBs and by approximately

  15. Diversification of 99Mo/99mTc separation: non–fission reactor production of 99Mo as a strategy for enhancing 99mTc availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Maroor R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of obtaining (99m)Tc from non-fission reactor-produced low-specific-activity (99)Mo. This scenario is based on establishing a diversified chain of facilities for the distribution of (99m)Tc separated from reactor-produced (99)Mo by (n,γ) activation of natural or enriched Mo. Such facilities have expected lower investments than required for the proposed chain of cyclotrons for the production of (99m)Tc. Facilities can receive and process reactor-irradiated Mo targets then used for extraction of (99m)Tc over a period of 2 wk, with 3 extractions on the same day. Estimates suggest that a center receiving 1.85 TBq (50 Ci) of (99)Mo once every 4 d can provide 1.48-3.33 TBq (40-90 Ci) of (99m)Tc daily. This model can use research reactors operating in the United States to supply current (99)Mo needs by applying natural (nat)Mo targets. (99)Mo production capacity can be enhanced by using (98)Mo-enriched targets. The proposed model reduces the loss of (99)Mo by decay and avoids proliferation as well as waste management issues associated with fission-produced (99)Mo.

  16. Genotoxic effect of radio marked lymphocytes using Tc-99m complexes; Efecto genotoxico del radiomarcado de linfocitos empleando complejos de Tc-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza L, M.; Ferro F, G.; Mendiola C, M.T.; Morales R, P. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The genotoxic effect of radio marked lymphocytes was evaluated using {sup 99m}-Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}-Tc- gentisic acid complexes. With the results of this work it is pretended to contribute to the knowledge of genetic and structural damages that provokes the radiation in the marked lymphocytes. The d, 1-HMPAO was synthesized in laboratory with a yielding of 30 %. The radiochemical purity of the complexes was greater than 85%. Mouse lymphocytes obtained of sanguineous volumes 2 ml were used. The radio marked efficiency of cells was 19.6 {+-} 6.4% and 25.6 {+-} 5.8% for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m} Tc gentisic acid respectively. The genotoxic effect was evaluated using the technique of Unicellular Electrophoresis in Micro gel (Comet assay). The results showed that both {sup 99m} Tc complexes produce genotoxicity due to their capacity to penetrate cells, therefore the Auger and M internal conversion electrons place all their energy obtaining doses of Gray order. (Author)

  17. L-Carnitine Protection Against Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity In Rats: Comparison with Amifostin Using Quantitative Renal Tc 99m DMSA Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Yürekli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of L-carnitine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and to compare its efficacy with that of amifostin by quantitative renal Tc 99m DMSA uptake. Material and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each. 1 Control (saline; 5 ml/kg intraperitoneally; 2 L-carnitine (CAR; 300 mg/kg intraperitoneally; 3 Amifostine (AMI; 200 mg /kg intraperitoneally; 4 Cisplatin (CIS;7 mg/kg intraperitoneally; 5 Cisplatin plus L-carnitine (CIS + CAR; 6 Cisplatin plus amifostine (CIS + AMI. L-carnitine and amifostine were injected 30 minutes before cisplatin in Group 5 and 6. Tc 99m DMSA, 7.4 MBq/0.2 ml, was injected through the tail vein 72 hours after the drug administration. Rats were killed and kidneys removed by dissection 2 hours after the injection of the radiopharmaceutical. The percentage of the injected dose per gram of kidney tissue (%ID/g was calculated. Renal function was monitored by measuring BUN and plasma levels of creatinine. Lipid peroxidation and glutathione content were determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH in kidney tissue homogenates. Results: Tc 99m DMSA uptake per gram tissue of the kidney as %ID/g was 29.54±4.72, 29.86 ± 7.47 and 26.37 ± 4.54 in the control, CAR and AMI groups respectively. %ID/g was the lowest of all the groups, 11.60±3.59 (p<0.01, in the cisplatin group. Carnitine or amifostine administration 30 minutes before cisplatin injection resulted a significant increase in %ID/g, 21.28±7.73 and 18.97±3.24 respectively, compared to those of cisplatin-treated rats (p<0.002. A marked increase in plasma BUN and creatinine indicating nephrotoxicity and acute renal failure was observed in the cisplatin-treated group. MDA and GSH levels were concordant with cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results showed that L-carnitine significantly

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of a technetium-99m labeled cytotoxic bombesin peptide conjugate for targeting bombesin receptor-expressing tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okarvi, Subhani M. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: sokarvi@kfshrc.edu.sa; Al Jammaz, Ibrahim [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-04-15

    Conjugation of the cytotoxic drugs to receptor-binding peptides is an attractive approach for the targeted delivery of cytotoxic peptide conjugates to tumor cells. In an attempt to develop an efficient peptide-based radiopharmaceutical for targeting bombesin (BN) receptor-expressing tumors (i.e., breast and prostate), we have prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis, a novel BN analog derived from the universal sequence of BN and conjugated to a widely characterized antineoplastic agent, methotrexate (MTX). MTX-BN, after radiolabeling with {sup 99m}Tc via stannous-tartrate exchange, showed a good stability against cysteine and histidine transchelation as well as a high in vitro metabolic stability in human plasma. In vitro cell-binding and internalization on MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, T47-D breast cancer and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines demonstrated high affinity and specificity of {sup 99m}Tc-MTX-BN towards both human breast and prostate cancer cells (binding affinities in nanomolar range). In addition, the radioconjugate displayed a significant internalization (values ranged between 19-35%) into the tumor cells. In vivo biodistribution and clearance kinetics in Balb/c mice are characterized by an efficient clearance from the blood and excretion mainly through the renal-urinary pathway with some elimination via the hepatobiliary system. In vivo tumor uptake in nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 cells was 2.70{+-}0.44% ID/g at 1 h, whereas in nude mice with human epidermoid KB cells the accumulation in the tumor was found to be 1.48{+-}0.31% ID/g at 1 h post injection. The tumor uptake was always higher than in the blood and muscle, with good tumor retention and good tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios. The accumulation/retention in the major organs (i.e., lungs, stomach, liver, intestines, etc.) was low to moderate (<6% ID/g) in both healthy and tumor-bearing mice. However, the uptake/retention in the kidneys was rather high (up to 11.05{+-}1.80% ID/g), which is of a

  19. Limitations of Tc99m-MIBI-SPECT imaging scans in persistent primary hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Janneke E.; Kievit, Job; Stokkel, Marcel P. M.; Morreau, Hans; Romijn, Johannes A.; Hamdy, Neveen A. T.

    2011-01-01

    In primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) the predictive value of technetium 99m sestamibi single emission computed tomography (Tc99m-MIBI-SPECT) for localizing pathological parathyroid glands before a first parathyroidectomy (PTx) is 83-100%. Data are scarce in patients undergoing reoperative

  20. Evaluating 99mTc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2010-07-01

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has been widely used as an imaging agent but only recently has been considered for therapeutic applications. This study aims to analyze the potential use of 99mTc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by evaluating the DNA damage and its probability of correct repair and by studying the cellular kinetics, following 99mTc Auger electron irradiation in comparison to iodine-131 (131I) beta minus particles and astatine-211 (211At) alpha particle irradiation. Computational models were used to estimate the yield of DNA damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and cell kinetic effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) after irradiation with the selected particles. The results obtained with the algorithms used suggested that 99mTc CKMMX (all M-shell Coster-Kroning--CK--and super-CK transitions) electrons and Auger MXY (all M-shell Auger transitions) have a therapeutic potential comparable to high linear energy transfer 211At alpha particles and higher than 131I beta minus particles. All the other 99mTc electrons had a therapeutic potential similar to 131I beta minus particles. 99mTc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY presented a higher probability to induce apoptosis than 131I beta minus particles and a probability similar to 211At alpha particles. Based on the results here, 99mTc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY are useful electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy.

  1. Imaging endocarditis with Tc-99m-labeled antibody--an experimental study: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, D.W.; Dhawan, V.K.; Tanaka, T.; Mishkin, F.S.; Reese, I.C.; Thadepalli, H.

    1982-03-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m-labeled antibacterial antibody (Tc-99m Ab) for detecting bacterial endocarditis were evaluated in an experimental model. Rabbit-produced antistaphylococcal antibody was extracted using Rivanol and chemically labeled with Tc-99m. This Tc-99m Ab was injected intravenously in New Zealand rabbits 24 hr after producing Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis of the aortic valve. Imaging and tissue analyses were performed on the following day. All 11 animals developed S. aureus aortic-valve vegetations and showed increased uptake of Tc-99m Ab at the aortic valve, 118 times higher than at the uninfected tricuspid valve. Although high hepatic radioactivity and anatomic uncertainties interfered with in vivo delineation of these lesions, images of the excised hearts showed all affected valves. Two rabbits inoculated with Escherichia coli did not develop endocarditis and had little uptake of Tc-99m Ab, while six rabbits with enterococcal endocarditis had no uptake of the Tc-99m Ab in their vegetations. The findings suggest potential value of Tc-99m Ab on the rapid diagnosis of endocarditis.

  2. Spontaneous perforation of the ureter diagnosed on technetium 99m DTPA excretory urography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barasch, E.; Kashdan, B.; Rathore, A.

    1988-01-01

    A case of nontraumatic rupture of the ureter secondary to a nonopaque calculus is presented. Because of the inherent high image contrast caused by the leak of technetium 99m-DTPA-labeled urine, the technetium 99m-DTPA excretory urogram is seen as an alternative to the intravenous urogram or contrast-enhanced computed tomography in selected cases of suspected ureteral rupture.

  3. Labeling of thymine with {sup 99m} technetium: a suggestion of a chemical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfilen, Bianca; Silva, Claudia Ribeiro da; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Ribeiro, Barbara Luzia Almeida [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica; Mattos, Maura Ferreira [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1996-03-01

    Successful targeting of diagnose but also to stage cancer. It has been shown that certain tumor cells are permeable to low level of exogenous adenosine-diphosphate and adenosine-triphosphate nucleotides, that are incorporated into intracellular pools. We present the labeling of a nucleotide precursor, a base, thymine technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc). (author)

  4. Acid-base equilibria of 2,4-diiodo-6-methylphenylcarbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid and its labeling with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VLADIMIROV

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The acid-base equilibria of a novel hepatobiliary imaging agent, 2,4-diiodo-6-methylphenylcarbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid (DIIODIDA were studied. The potentiometrically determined acidity constants of the second carboxylic group, amino and amide groups were pK2 = 2.52 ± 0.02; pK3 = 5.86 ± 0.06 and pK4 = 10.9 ± 0.1. The determinations were performed at 25 ºC and an ionic strength of 0.1 mol/dm3 (NaCl. The acidity constants (pK1 = 1.3 ± 0.4 corresponding to the first carboxylic group was determined indirectly, on the basis of equilibrium constants obtained in a heterogeneous system, at 25 ºC and an ionic strength 1 mol/dm3 (HCl, NaCl. DIIODIDA was labeled with technetium-99m, and the influence of pH on the yield of labeling was investigated. It was found that labeling within the pH range from 5.5 to 6.5 provided a radiopharmaceutical of high radiochemical purity (>98 %.

  5. Tc-99m technegas scintigraphy to evaluate the lung ventilation in patients with oral corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Jiro; Okada, Hiroki; Momoi, Atsuko; Yamadori, Ichiro; Takahara, Jiro; Tanabe, Masatada [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan); Takahashi, Kazue; Satoh, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi

    1999-08-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by the reversibility of airway obstruction. Recently it has been suggested that remodeling of the airway causes irreversible airway obstruction which may be responsible for the patient's symptoms. With this background, the purpose of the present study was to assess patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma by Tc-99m Technegas scintigraphy (Technegas) in both planar and SPECT images. Twelve patients (7 females and 5 males aged 36-72 years with a median age of 60 years: 4 smokers and 8 non-smokers) with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma were enrolled in this study. Lung ventilation scanning with Technegas in both planar and SPECT images, high-resolution computed tomography, and pulmonary function tests were performed in all patients. The results of Technegas scanning were graded and correlations with other clinical parameters were evaluated. Significant abnormalities were detected by ventilation scintigraphy with Technegas in patients with corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma even during remission. Our data demonstrate that airflow obstruction took place in patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma even during remission. Technegas scanning appears to be a useful radiopharmaceutical for demonstrating airflow obstruction in patients with bronchial asthma. (author)

  6. Direct Technetium radiopharmaceuticals production using a 30MeV Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, AR.; Targholizadeh, H.; Raisali, GR.; Zandi, H.; Kamali Dehgan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Technetium-99m is the major radionuclide used in the world and mainly is provided by fission product. However extensive research has been conducted on the use of accelerators for production of 99mTc. This investigation reports the production of 99mTc radioisotope using cyclotrons and the preparation, quality control and biodistribution studies of four major Tc-radiopharmaceuticals. Methods The high purity molybdenum natural target (130 mg/cm2) was irradiated in a Cyclone 30 accelerator using 160 µA of 25 MeV proton beam energy for 1000 µA-h. After dissolution, the technetium radionuclides were extracted using methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) followed by preparation of Tc-MIBI, Tc-DTPA, Tc-DMSA and Tc-phytate as radiopharmaceutical samples. Results The results of quality controls and animal biodistribution studies showed successful production of Tc radionuclides (including 99mTc) in the bombarded target and subsequent labelling of the kit with Tc. Conclusion The developed high power Mo target if constructed using enriched 100Mo, could be a practical method for large-scale production of 99mTc and promising as an alternative to fission product 99Mo-99mTc generators for local applications near cyclotron facilities. PMID:22615656

  7. Direct Technetium radiopharmaceuticals production using a 30MeV Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kamali Dehgan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Technetium-99m is the major radionuclide used in the world and mainly is provided by fission product. However extensive research has been conducted on the use of accelerators for production of 99mTc. This investigation reports the production of 99mTc radioisotope using cyclotrons followed by the preparation, quality control and biodistribution studies of four major Tc-radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: The high purity molybdenum natural target (130mg/cm2 was irradiated in a Cyclone 30 accelerator using 160 µA of 25 MeV proton beam energy for 1000 µA-h. After dissolution, the technetium radionuclides were extracted using methyl ethyl ketone (MEK followed by preparation of Tc-MIBI, Tc-DTPA, Tc-DMSA and Tc-phytate as radiopharmaceutical samples. Results: The results of quality controls and animal biodistribution studies showed successful production of Tc radionuclides (including 99mTc in the bombarded target and subsequent labelling of the kit with Tc. Conclusion: The developed high power Mo target if constructed using enriched 100Mo, could be a practical method for large-scale production of 99mTc and promising as an alternative to fission product 99Mo-99mTc generators for local applications near cyclotron facilities.

  8. Evaluation of radiochemical purities of some radiopharmaceuticals in Shiraz Namazi teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadeghpour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many radiopharmaceuticals, as a special group of drugs, are eventually prepared at the nuclear medicine departments of the hospitals. Therefore, their quality control procedures such as sterility tests, radionuclide, radiochemical and chemical purity should be carried out in the hospitals. In this study, radiochemical purity for more than 300 preparations of three different radiopharmaceutical formulations from commercial kits were tested using instant thin layer chromatography. The formulations 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-MDP and 99mTc-MIBI were obtained from Pars Isotope Co. Several paper chromatographic systems including standard and factory recommended thin layer chromatography systems were used in this study. In addition different equipments for detection of radioactivity in paper chromatography like gamma camera and dose calibrator were used. The results showed that the most observed impurities were hydrolyzed reduced technetium (HR-Tc. There were no significant differences between calculated 99mTc-MIBI radiochemical purities when the radioactive detection device was gamma camera instead of dose calibrator. In case of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-MDP, there were significant differences in detection of HR-Tc. On the contrary, no significant differences in free pertechnetate were observed when package insert procedures for quality control were used instead of those recommended in the references. Finally, we observed that the package insert procedures for quality control can offer higher radiochemical purities.

  9. Eighth report on survey of the adverse reaction to radiopharmaceuticals. 11th survey in 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    Adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals occurring in the past one year from April 1, 1985 through March 31, 1986 are reported. Questionnaires were sent to 1,003 facilities, and 72% (722) responded. Twenty-seven adverse reactions and 9 drug defects were reported from a total of 29 facilities, giving an annual incidence of 2.7/100,000 and 0.9/100,000, respectively. The incidence of adverse reactions to I-131-6..beta..-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol was the highest (242/100,000), followed by I-131 sodium iodohippurate (16/100,000), Tc-99m diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (10/100,000), Ga-67 citrate (2/100,000), and Tc-99m pyrophosphate (2/100,000). Common adverse reactions included (a) reactions to the vagus nerves (n = 17), such as nausea, palpitation, and hypotension; (b) allergic reactions (n = 5), such as redness, itching, and dyspnea; and (c) others (n = 5), including back pain and tongue numbness. There was no fever. Radiopharmaceuticals reported as poor quality (drug defects) were Tc-99m Sn colloid, Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate, Tc-99m phytate, and Tc-99m generator. (Namekawa, K.).

  10. Synthesis and biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-Vancomycin in a model of bacterial infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roohi, S.; Mushtaq, A. [Isotope Production Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Malik, S.A. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Quaid-e-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2005-07-01

    Vancomycin Hydrochloride is an antibiotic produced by the growth of certain strains of Streptomyces orientalis. As vancomycin hydrochloride is poorly absorbed after oral administration; it is given intravenously for therapy of systemic infections. Vancomycin was labeled with technetium-99m pertechnetate using SnCl{sub 2} . 2H{sub 2}O as reducing agent. The labeling efficiency depends on ligand/reductant ratio, pH, and volume of reaction mixture. Radiochemical purity and stability of {sup 99m}Tc-Vancomycin was determined by thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution studies of {sup 99m}Tc-Vancomycin were performed in a model of bacterial infection in Sprague-Dawley rats. A significantly higher accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-Vancomycin was seen at sites of S. aureus infected animals. Whereas uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-Vancomycin in turpentine inflamed rats were quite low. (orig.)

  11. Accumulation of sup 99m Tc-DTPA in neurofibroma of Recklinghausen disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaki, Hiroki; Tomita, Yasuji; Kondo, Hidemaru; Shiba, Ritsu; Honma, Genki; Sai, Shitake; Urushibara, Nobuo; Murota, Kagehisa; Kawakami, Kenji (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-07-01

    The ability of scanning with Tc-99m DTPA to detect neurofibroma in Rechlinghausen's disease was evaluated in 8 patients with confirmed neurofibroma, whose ages ranged from 10 to 58 years. They were scanned 2 hours after i.v. injection of Tc-99m DTPA (20 mCi for adults and 10 mCi for children). Tc-99m DTPA was taken up by plexiform neurofibroma in 5 patients and by pachydermatocele in 4 patients. The uptake in plexiform neurofibroma was noticeable. In one patient who had systemic multiple epidermal neurofibromas, uptake of Tc-99m DTPA was not observed. Tc-99m DTPA scanning is considered to be an extremely useful technique in localizing masses in the chest and abdomen of patients with Rechlinghausen's disease. (N.K.).

  12. Understanding the radiolabelling mechanism of 99mTc-antimony sulphide colloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of antimony trisulphide colloid (ATC) was examined to elucidate the radiolabelling mechanism with 99mTcO4(-). Ion exchange chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry techniques determined ATC to be resistant to hydrolysis in 0.1M hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 25 degrees C or 100 degrees C (>97% recovery, Sb3+ absent). Hydrogen sulphide gas detected did not participate in the mechanism, where antimony trisulphide and 99mTcO4(-) in HCl/100 degrees C yielded 96% 99mTc-product from a K2S-free formulation (versus 98% when K2S was present). 99mTcO4(-) was reduced >90% by DMSA or dithiothreitol under the same conditions, identifying involvement of thiol groups. Infrared analysis of Re-ATC showed S=O bonds, indicating excess thiol groups at the colloid surface were oxidised at the expense of 99mTcO4(-) reduction.

  13. Caution to HPLC analysis of tricarbonyl technetium radiopharmaceuticals: an example of changing constitution of complexes in column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangji; Guo, Yunhang; Liu, Boli

    2007-03-12

    Radio-HPLC is a powerful tool for analyzing radioactive species in radiopharmaceutical chemistry. In this paper, we found an example that the commonly used eluting solvent, acetonitrile, could coordinate with the popular radiopharmaceutical nuclides, technetium-99m, during chromatography. [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)](+) and [Re(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)](+) showed quite different retention time when they were eluted using acetonitrile/water as mobile phase. However, they almost demonstrated the same retention time when they were eluted using methanol/water as mobile phase. Further analysis showed that both [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)](+) and [Re(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)](+) could be changed into [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)(3)](+) and [Re(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)(x)(H(2)O)(3-x)](+) during the separation, respectively. Some former works mistook the [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)(3)](+) for [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)](+) when using acetonitrile and water in analysis. Quality control of the radiopharmaceuticals containing metal complex should be careful since HPLC solvent could replace some liable ligand molecules.

  14. PENGARUH REGENERASI KOLOM ALUMINA ASAM TERHADAP RECOVERY DAN KUALITAS 99mTc HASIL EKSTRAKSI PELARUT MEK DARI 99Mo HASIL AKTIVASI NEUTRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang H G

    2017-01-01

    radiopharmaceutical kit. In this study, the used of acidic alumina column for 99mTc purification was tried more than once by regeneration using 0.1N HNO3 solution after purification process is completed. Parameters observed in this study are the percent recovery, elution profile, pH, radiochemical purity and radionuclida purity. The results of observational studies conducted over 5 days has been obtained pH ~ 5,% recovery > 60%, radiochemical purity of > 95% and 99Mo leakage not detected. The treatment of acidic alumina column with 0,1 N HNO3 solution concluded that acidic alumina column does not need to be replaced every day. Keywords: 99mTc, 99Mo, MEK, acidic alumina column, radiochemical purity.

  15. The preparation of {sup 99m}Tc from {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc using Poly-Zirconium Compound (PZC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laohawilai, S. [Isotope Production Div., Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (Thailand)

    1998-10-01

    The process of for providing the {sup 99m}Tc-gel generator followed the protocol that received from Department of Radioisotopes, Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI. Sodium molybdate (molybdenum-99), pH 7 with concentration 20 mg/ml and activity nearly 1 mCi/ml was added into the adsorbent (PZC). The total activity of {sup 99}Mo was about 10 mCi and the heating time was varied from 3-18 hours at 70degC. The properties of the gel were studied for elution profile and elution efficiency. The molybdenum breakthrough in sodium pertechnetate (technetium-99m) was also performed. (author)

  16. Contact thermography, 99mTc-plasmin scintimetry and 99mTc-plasmin scintigraphy as screening methods for deep venous thrombosis following major hip surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S W; Wille-Jørgensen, P; Kjaer, L

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-six patients scheduled for total hip alloplasty were screened for deep venous thrombosis by means of 99mTc-plasmin scintimetry, 99mTc-plasmin scintigraphy and contact thermography. Investigations were performed on the seventh postoperative day, and a total of 112 legs were examined. Bilateral....... The nosographic sensitivity/specificity was 33%/75% for scintimetry, 50%/91% for scintigraphy and 33%/87% for contact thermography, respectively. It is concluded that all three tests are of no value as screening methods for deep venous thrombosis following major elective hip surgery....

  17. Report on survey of the adverse reaction to radiopharmaceuticals. 16. The 19th survey in 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report deals with adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals occurring during the period from April 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. Questionnaires were sent to 1,176 facilities, and 904 (76.9%) responded. A total of 8 cases of adverse reactions and 16 cases of drug defect were reported from 22 (2.4%) of the 904 facilities, giving an annual occurrence of 0.7 and 1.4 cases, respectively, for 100,000 examinations. The present data provided the lowest incidence of adverse reactions, compared with the previous data for 5 years. The incidence of drug defect also tended to be decreased. The incidence of adverse reactions for a total of 904 facilities was the highest for I-131-6{beta}-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (n=34), followed by {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (n=16), {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (n=4), {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO (n=4), {sup 99m}Tc-MAA (n=3), and {sup 201}Tl-chloride (n=1). Adverse reactions included reactions to the vagus nerves (n=4), allergic reactions (n=3), and others (n=1). Radiopharmaceutical reported as drug defect were as follows: {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc-generator, {sup 99m}Tc-phytate, {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP, {sup 99m}DMSA, {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO, {sup 67}Ga citrate, {sup 123}I-BMIPP, {sup 131}I-sodium iodide capsule for treatment, {sup 111}In-iridium chloride, and {sup 133}Xe-xenogas. (N.K.).

  18. Is the renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA decreased in microalbuminuric diabetic patient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki [College of Medicine, Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease and the incidence is progressively increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal uptake among diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria, and then to determine the clinical usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in predicting early diabetic nephropathy. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scan was performed and a total renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA was measured in 145 diabetic patients. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the amount of 24 hour urinary albumin excretion as Group I (normoalbuminuria, 74 cases ), Group II (microalbuminuria, 39 cases), and Group III (overt proteinuria, 32 cases). The differences of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal uptake among the 3 groups and the correlation between the renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and other clinical parameters were analyzed. The total renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA of Group II (40.8{+-}11.0%) was significantly lower than that of Group I (54.4{+-}6.3%, p<0.001). The uptake of Group III (27.7{+-}12.0%) was significantly lower than those of both Group I and Group II (p<0.001). {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA total renal uptakes correlated negatively with serum creatinine level (r=0.629, p<0.001) and positively correlated with creatinite clearance rate (r=0.702, p<0.001). {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA total renal uptake of diabetic patients with microalbuminuria was significantly decreased compared with that of patients of normoalbuminuria. Therefore, {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scan can be used as a diagnostic study for early detection of the diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Radiopharmaceutical development of radiolabelled peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fani, Melpomeni; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Receptor targeting with radiolabelled peptides has become very important in nuclear medicine and oncology in the past few years. The overexpression of many peptide receptors in numerous cancers, compared to their relatively low density in physiological organs, represents the molecular basis for in vivo imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy with radiolabelled peptide-based probes. The prototypes are analogs of somatostatin which are routinely used in the clinic. More recent developments include somatostatin analogs with a broader receptor subtype profile or with antagonistic properties. Many other peptide families such as bombesin, cholecystokinin/gastrin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/exendin, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) etc. have been explored during the last few years and quite a number of potential radiolabelled probes have been derived from them. On the other hand, a variety of strategies and optimized protocols for efficient labelling of peptides with clinically relevant radionuclides such as {sup 99m}Tc, M{sup 3+} radiometals ({sup 111}In, {sup 86/90}Y, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 67/68}Ga), {sup 64/67}Cu, {sup 18}F or radioisotopes of iodine have been developed. The labelling approaches include direct labelling, the use of bifunctional chelators or prosthetic groups. The choice of the labelling approach is driven by the nature and the chemical properties of the radionuclide. Additionally, chemical strategies, including modification of the amino acid sequence and introduction of linkers/spacers with different characteristics, have been explored for the improvement of the overall performance of the radiopeptides, e.g. metabolic stability and pharmacokinetics. Herein, we discuss the development of peptides as radiopharmaceuticals starting from the choice of the labelling method and the conditions to the design and optimization of the peptide probe, as well as some recent developments, focusing on a selected list of peptide families, including somatostatin

  20. Value of scintiscanning using 99mTc-MDP to assess disorders of the knee and ankle joints in orthopedic patients as compared to that of X-ray procedures. Die Wertigkeit der Scintigraphie mit 99m Tc-MDP bei Knie- und Fussgelenksaffektionen des orthopaedischen Krankenguts im Vergleich zur Roentgendiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyer, B.

    1983-10-20

    Relevant analyses were carried out on the basis of the data of 100 patients. The radiopharmaceutical examinations were performed using a scanner two hours after injection of 10 mCi 99mTc-MDP. Following interpretation of the density patterns, the concentration quotients of the scintiscans were calculated to permit a semi-quantitative assessment to be made. As far as arthropathies were concerned, the scintiscans did not contribute much useful information to diagnose patellar chondropathy at an early stage of the disease, nor were they seen to offer any decisive advantages over X-ray examinations in degenerative disorders of the joints. Scintiscanning was also found an unsuitable method to differentiate athritis from arthrosis. Under certain circumstances, joint scintiscanning may have an additional indication in the diagnosis of meniscitis. In rheumatoid arthritis and Sudeck's syndrome the scintiscans were found to be in better agreement with the clinical symptoms than the corresponding X-ray findings. In soft tissue disorders scintiscanning did not appear to be an adequate method to obtain additional diagnostic information. On the other hand, all types of osteopathy caused by inflammation, necrosis, neoplasms or cysts are clearly falling within the domaine of scintiscanning. Foot deformities were invariably seen to be associated with locallised concentration of the tracer substance. Owing to the limited specifity of radiopharmaceutical investigations using 99mTc-MDP, concentional X-ray examinations will indispensable in the vast majority of cases. (TRV).

  1. Melanin-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S; Fairchild, R G; Watts, K P; Greenberg, D; Hannon, S J

    1980-01-01

    The scope of this paper is limited to an analysis of the factors that are important to the relationship of radiopharmaceuticals to melanin. While the authors do not attempt to deal with differences between melanin-binding vs. melanoma-binding, a notable variance is assumed. (PSB)

  2. The development of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, K. W.; Suh, Y. S.; Lee, J. D.; Ahn, S. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to developthe radiopharmaceuticals and automatic synthetic unit for labelled compounds, and to establish mass production system of radiopharmaceuticals. These will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease hard to cure. The contents of this project are as follows, the development of the radiopharmaceutical for imaging of cancer, the development of automatic synthesizer for the synthesis of radio-pharmaceuticals, the development of hormone derivatives labelled with {sup 12}'3I, the development of the radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of myocardial metabolism.

  3. Lyophilized kits of diamino dithiol compounds for labelling with {sup 99m}-technetium. Pharmacokinetics studies and distribution compartmental models of the related complexes; Conjuntos de reativos liofilizados de compostos diaminoditiolicos para marcacao com tecnecio-99m. Estudo farmacocinetico e elaboracao de modelos compartimentalizados dos respectivos complexos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de

    1995-07-01

    The present work reflects the clinical interest for labelling diamino dithiol compounds with technetium-99m. Both chosen compounds, L,L-Ethylene dicysteine (L,L-EC) and L,L-Ethylene dicysteine diethyl esther (L,L-ECD) were obtained with relative good yield and characterized by IR and NMR. The study of labelling conditions with technetium-99m showed the influence of the type and mass of reducing agent as well as the pH on the formation of complexes with desired biological characteristics. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lyophilised kits of L,L-EC and L,L-ECD for labelling with {sup 99m}Tc were obtained, with stability superior to 120 days, when stored under refrigeration, enabling the kits marketing. The ideal formulation of the kits as well as the use of liquid nitrogen in the freezing process, determined the lyophilization success. Distribution biological studies of the {sup 99m}Tc complexes were performed on mice by invasive method and on bigger animals by scintigraphic evaluation. Biological distribution studies of the complex {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC showed fast blood clearance, with the elimination of about 90% of the administered dose after 60 minutes, almost exclusively by the urinary system. The biological distribution results were adjusted to a three compartmental distribution model, as expected for a radiopharmaceutical designed to renal dynamic studies, with tubular elimination. The complex interaction with renal tubular receptors is related with structural characteristics of the compound, more specifically with the presence and location of polar groups. In comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC, biological studies of the complex {sup 99m}Tc -L,L-ECD showed different distribution aspects, despite some structural similarities. The presence of ethyl groups confers to the complex neutrality and lipophilicity. It cross the intact blood brain barrier and is retained in the brain

  4. Synthesis, physicochemical and biological evaluation of technetium-99m labeled lapatinib as a novel potential tumor imaging agent of Her-2 positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniazdowska, Ewa; Koźmiński, Przemysław; Bańkowski, Krzysztof; Łuniewski, Wojciech; Królicki, Leszek

    2014-11-24

    Tumors that are Her-2-positive tend to grow and spread more quickly than other types of breast cancer. Overexpression of Her-2 can be a predictive biomarker for stratification of patients for therapy with Herceptin (containing humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab) or Tykerb (containing lapatinib di-p-toluenesulfonate) drug. Usually, Her-2 status is determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) as well as fluorescent or chromogenic in situ hybridisation (FISH or CISH) analysis of biopsy material. The objective of the present work was to standardize the conjugation of anti-cancer drug lapatinib (which recognizes selectively the Her-2 extracellular domain) with technetium-99m complex, of type '4+1', to obtain (99m)Tc(NS3)(CN-lapatinib) conjugate for use as in vivo tracer of the Her-2 expression in breast cancer. The conjugate (99m)Tc(NS3)(CN-lapatinib) was formed with high yield, high radiochemical purity and specific activity within the range 25-30 GBq/μmol. The biological in vitro and in vivo studies of the conjugate showed its high affinity to Her-2 receptor (Kd = 3.5 ± 0.4 nM, Ki = 2.9 ± 0.5 nM, Bmax = 2.4 ± 0.3 nM, approximate number of 2.4 × 10(6) binding sites per cell, IC50 = 41.2 ± 0.4 nM) and also pointed out to the clearance through the hepatic and renal route in comparable degree. Basing on these results one can conclude that (99m)Tc(NS3)(CN-lapatinib) conjugate could be a promising radiopharmaceutical for in vivo diagnosis of the Her-2 status in breast with impact on treatment planning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of radionuclidic impurities in 99mTceluate from 99Mo/99mTc generator for quality control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Technetium-99m is the principal radioisotope used in medical diagnostics; radionuclidic impurity is the major concern of its quality. This work presents a analytical method for sequential determination of all radionuclidic impurities listed in pharmacopoeia including gamma emitters, alpha emitter...

  6. The relationship between the percentage of lung shunting on Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA scan and the grade of hepatocellular carcinoma vascularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Refaat

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Tc-99m MAA scan is fundamental prior to Y-90 microsphere SIRT as it minimizes the risk of post-radioembolization complications, hence, enhancing the safety of Y-90 microsphere subsequent administration. Moreover, the percentage of lung shunting varies considerably among patients with HCC relying on the grade of tumor vascularity.

  7. A new approach for manufacturing and processing targets to produce 99mTc with cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, L.; McRae, G.; Galea, R.; Niculae, D.; Craciun, L.; Leonte, R.; Surette, G.; Langille, S.; Louis, C. St.; Gelbart, W.; Abeysekera, B.; Johnson, R. R.

    2017-06-01

    The most important radioisotope for nuclear medicine is 99mTc. After the supply crisis of 99Mo starting in 2008, the availability of 99mTc became a worldwide concern. Alternative methods for producing the medical imaging isotope 99mTc are actively being developed around the world. The reaction 100Mo(p, 2n)99mTc provides a direct route that can be incorporated into routine production in nuclear medicine centers that possess medical cyclotrons for production of other isotopes, such as those used for Positron Emission Tomography. This paper describes a new approach for manufacturing targets for the (p, 2n) nuclear reaction on 100Mo and the foundation for the subsequent commercial separation and purification of the 99mTc produced. Two designs of targets are presented. The targets used to produce 99mTc are subject to a number of operational constraints.They must withstand the temperatures generated by the irradiation, accommodate temperature gradients from cooling system of the target, must be resilient and must be easily post-processed to separate the 99mTc. After irradiation, the separation of Tc from Mo was carried out using an innovative two-step approach. The process described in this paper can be automated with modules that easily fit in standard production hot cells found in nuclear medicine facilities.

  8. A solvent-extraction module for cyclotron production of high-purity technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Duatti, Adriano; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Esposito, Juan

    2016-12-01

    The design and fabrication of a fully-automated, remotely controlled module for the extraction and purification of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), produced by proton bombardment of enriched Mo-100 molybdenum metallic targets in a low-energy medical cyclotron, is here described. After dissolution of the irradiated solid target in hydrogen peroxide, Tc-99m was obtained under the chemical form of 99mTcO4-, in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, by solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). The extraction process was accomplished inside a glass column-shaped vial especially designed to allow for an easy automation of the whole procedure. Recovery yields were always >90% of the loaded activity. The final pertechnetate saline solution Na99mTcO4, purified using the automated module here described, is within the Pharmacopoeia quality control parameters and is therefore a valid alternative to generator-produced 99mTc. The resulting automated module is cost-effective and easily replicable for in-house production of high-purity Tc-99m by cyclotrons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does Technetium-99m Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate Clearance Predict the Clinical Course of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mura

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Clearance of inhaled technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA is a potential indicator of disease activity and progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of 99mTc-DTPA scans in IPF. A total of 22 patients (18 males, aged 33 to 80 years with IPF were followed for six to 20 months (mean 13 months. At diagnosis, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scans showed a honeycomb pattern with bibasilar reticular opacities in all cases. At T0 (diagnosis and T1 (follow-up, each patient had pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and partial arterial O2 pressure, extension of fibrosis evaluated by HRCT visual score and 99mTc-DTPA lung clearance. Results at T0 and T1 were compared, taking into account the whole population and patients with relatively fast and slow 99mTc-DTPA wash-out. 99mTc-DTPA clearance did not show any significant correlation with functional tests or HRCT score. These findings indicate that clearance of inhaled 99mTc-DTPA is not of value in following the progress of IPF.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of technetium-99m MAG3 as a hippuran replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzberg, A.R.; Kasina, S.; Eshima, D.; Johnson, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    A new technetium-chelating agent based on a triamide monomercaptide tetradentate set of donor groups, mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG3), was synthesized and evaluated. Chelation with /sup 99m/Tc resulted in a single radiochemical product as expected. Studies in mice of (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3 indicated excretion rates faster than omicron-iodohippurate (OIH) both in normal and in probenecid treated animals. Specificity for renal excretion was essentially complete. Clearance studies in rats resulted in 2.84 ml/min/100 g for (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3, 2.17 for OIH, and 1.29 for (125I)iothalamate. Extraction efficiencies were 85% for (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3, 69% for OIH and 39% for (125I)iothalamate. Probenicid depressed the clearance both of (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3 and OIH at 25 and 50 mg/kg/hr, but to a greater extent with (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3. The greater effect is offset, however, by the larger fraction secreted by the renal tubular cells. The animal results suggest that (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3 may be a useful alternative to (131I)OIH.

  11. {sup 99m}Tc-glycopeptide: Synthesis, biodistribution and imaging in breast tumor-bearing rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, I-C. [Center for Innovation Development, Taiwan Hopax Chems Mfg. Co., Ltd., No. 28, Hua Dong Road, Daliao, Kaohsiung 83162, Taiwan (China); Tsao Ning [Division of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Box 59, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Huang Yahui; Ho Yensheng; Wu Chungchin [Center for Innovation Development, Taiwan Hopax Chems Mfg. Co., Ltd., No. 28, Hua Dong Road, Daliao, Kaohsiung 83162, Taiwan (China); Yu Dongfang [Division of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Box 59, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Yang, David J. [Division of Diagnostic Imaging, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Box 59, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: dyang@di.mdacc.tmc.edu

    2008-03-15

    This study was aimed to develop a glycopeptide (GP) to be used as a carrier for anti-cancer drug delivery. GP was synthesized by conjugating glutamate peptide and chitosan using carbodiimide as a coupling agent. Elemental analysis and capillary electrophoresis confirmed the purity was >95%. GP was labeled with sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) for in vitro and in vivo studies. Rhenium-GP was synthesized to support the binding site of {sup 99m}Tc at the glutamate positions 3-5. In vitro cellular uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-GP was performed in breast cancer cells. Cytosol had 60% whereas nucleus had 40% uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-GP. When cancer cells were incubated with glutamate or aspartate, followed by {sup 99m}Tc-GP, there was decreased uptake in cells treated with glutamate but not aspartate. The findings indicated that cellular uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-GP was via glutamate transporters. In addition, {sup 99m}Tc-GP was able to measure uptake differences after cells treated with paclitaxel. Biodistribution and planar imaging were conducted in breast tumor-bearing rats. Biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-GP showed increased tumor-to-tissue ratios as a function of time. Planar images confirmed that {sup 99m}Tc-GP could assess tumor uptake changes after paclitaxel treatment. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that GP could target tumor cells, thus, GP may be a useful carrier for anti-cancer drug delivery.

  12. Is [(99m)Tc]glucarate uptake mediated by fructose transporter GLUT-5?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnardi, Vanina; Clotagatide, Anthony; Bruel, Sebastien; Perek, Nathalie

    2012-11-01

    There is growing interest in the ability of [(99m)Tc]Glucarate ([(99m)Tc]GLA) to accumulate in viable tumor cells. Recent vivo studies suggest that [(99m)Tc]Glucarate could be helpful for tumor detection. Fructose transport is thought to be implicated. It is clearly established that facilitated fructose transport in tumor cells is related to the GLUT-5 transporter. This study therefore investigated whether [(99m)Tc]GLA uptake is mediated by GLUT-5 transporter. Different tumor cell lines were used. Modulation of GLUT-5 expression was assessed with and without antisense oligonucleotides directed against GLUT-5. GLUT-5 expression was assessed by indirect cell ELISA. To correlate GLUT-5 expression with tracer accumulation, [(99m)Tc]GLA uptake was determined after antisense treatment. A competition with fructose was also monitored. Inhibition of GLUT-5 expression by antisense oligonucleotides directed against GLUT-5 was effective after 24 h. An optimal of 10μM antisense oligonucleotides directed against GLUT-5 produced a 30%-40% decrease in protein expression. Modulation of [(99m)Tc]GLA uptake was monitored either by use of specific antisense oligonucleotides or by competition with fructose. Both of them produced a significant decrease of [(99m)Tc]GLA accumulation in all tested cell lines. Our results clearly demonstrate that [(99m)Tc]GLA uptake is related to GLUT-5 transporter expression and transport. In tumor imaging, [(99m)Tc]GLA may be a useful tool for non-invasive detection of malignant tumors expressing high levels of GLUT-5 transporter as, for example, breast cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct production of 99mTc using a small medical cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapi, Suzanne [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2017-10-03

    This project describes an investigation towards the production of 99mTc with a small medical cyclotron. This endeavor addresses the current urgent problem of availability of 99mTc due to the ongoing production reactor failures and the upcoming Canadian reactor shut down. Currently, 99mTc is produced via nuclear fission using highly enriched uranium which is a concern due to nuclear proliferation risks. In addition to this, the United States is dependent solely on currently unreliable foreign sources of this important medical isotope. Clearly, a need exists to probe alternative production routes of 99mTc. In the first year, this project measured cross-sections and production yields of potential pathways to 99mTc and associated radionuclidic impurities produced via these pathways using a small 15 MeV medical cyclotron. During the second and third years target systems for the production of 99mTc via the most promising reaction routes were developed and separation techniques for the isolation of 99mTc from the irradiated target material will be investigated. Systems for the recycling of the enriched target isotopes as well as automated target processing systems were examined in years four and five. This project has the potential to alleviate some of the current crisis in the medical community by developing a technique to produce 99mTc on location at a university hospital. This technology will be applicable at many other sites in the United States as many other similar, low energy (<20 MeV) cyclotrons (currently used for a few hours per day for the production of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose) are available for production of 99mTc though this method, thus leading to job creation and preservation.

  14. {sup 99m}Tc labeled VIP analog: evaluation for imaging colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.S.; Thakur, M.L. E-mail: Mathew.Thakur@mail.tju.edu; Pallela, V.; Patti, R.; Reddy, K.; Li, H.; Sharma, S.; Pham, H.L.; Diggles, L.; Minami, C.; Marcus, C.S

    2001-05-01

    Early and reliable diagnosis of colorectal cancer continues to be demanding and challenging. Colorectal cancer cells express Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) receptors in high density. We have prepared a VIP analog (TP3654), labeled it with {sup 99m}Tc, and evaluated it in experimental animals as an agent for imaging colorectal cancer. The tissue distribution of {sup 99m}Tc-TP3654 has been compared with that of {sup 111}In-DTPA-Octreotide and {sup 99m}Tc-anti-CEA scan in nude mice bearing human colorectal cancer LS174T. Finally, pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of {sup 99m}Tc-TP3654 have been performed in four normal human volunteers. Data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-TP3654 can be prepared efficiently without loss of its receptor specificity and biological activity. Although the 24 hr tumor uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-TP3654 in the animal model used was modest (0.21 {+-} 0.07% I.D./g), the tissue distribution profile was more favorable than that of {sup 111}In-DTPA-Octreotide or {sup 99m}Tc-anti-CEA scan. Human studies indicated that {sup 99m}Tc-TP3654 had no adverse effect in any subject. Within 24 hours, approximately 70% of the injected dose cleared through the kidneys, and approximately 20% through the hepatobiliary system. In these non-fasting volunteers hepatobiliary clearance was slow and in cancer patients tumor uptake was rapid. Data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-TP3654 is a promising agent for imaging colorectal cancer.

  15. The Effects of (99mTc Hm-Pao Labeling on Lymphocyte Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Ülker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (99mTc HM-PAO labeled leucocytes have been used as a standard diagnostic procedure for the detection of infection and inflammation. Although, some investigators have already pointed out that labeling of leucocytes with (99mTc HM-PAO has detrimental effects on the cells, still very little is known regarding the effects of ionizing radiation on lymphocyte functions. Methods: In this study, we evaluated the effects of (99mTc HM-PAO labeling on lymphocyte adhesion, proliferation, migration and apoptosis. We used NC-NC lymphoblastoid cell line as the lymphocyte population. (99mTc HM-PAO labeling decreased cell adhesion, proliferation and motility whereas induced apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. Proliferation assays were performed both using MTT and ELISA tests with 24 hours intervals following labeling. Results: It was recorded that the rate of decrease in proliferation was up to 70% by the 4th day after labeling. (99mTc HMPAO labeling led a 35% decrease on adhesion ability of the cells on fibronectin. By using Boyden chamber motility assay, we showed that both spontaneous and MCP-1 induced lymphocyte motility were potently blocked by (99mTc HM-PAO labeling. The rate of decrease in motility was approximately five times. In addition, we observed a 12 times increase in the apoptosis rate within the (99mTc HM-PAO treated cells compared to the control cells. Besides it was observed that cell cycle arrest was induced starting from 3rd day after (99mTc HM-PAO treatment. Conclusion: Based on our data (99mTc HM-PAO labeling has damaging effects on lymphocyte functions including cell adhesion, proliferation, motility and viability in in vitro

  16. Radiosynthesis and evaluation of a (99m)Tc-folic acid radiotracer prepared using [(99m)TcN(PNP)](2+) metal fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Kusum; Subramanian, Suresh; Mathur, Anupam; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-03-01

    Folate receptors (FR) are over-expressed on a wide variety of tumor cells and are a potential molecular target for radiolabeled folates. In this respect, several SPECT and PET based radiofolates have been evaluated in the past albeit with their high renal uptake posing limitation towards their clinical use. To overcome this, a new (99m)Tc labeled folic acid was synthesized via the use of [(99m)TcN(PNP)](2+) metal fragment, where the presence of the latter pharmacophore redirects in vivo clearance via the hepatobiliary pathway. In this respect, folic acid was derivatized at the γ-acid group with a cysteine BFCA (bifunctional chelating agent) and subsequently reacted with the preformed [(99m)TcN](2+) intermediate in presence of PNP2 (bisphosphine) ligand, to yield the final complex. While preliminary, in vivo distribution of the complex exhibited high association of activity with liver and intestines and provided support to the rationality of the present design as clearance of labeled folic acid could be effected via the hepatic route, the in vitro studies of the folic acid-cysteine conjugate carried out in KB-31 cells, did not show much promise with reduction in receptor affinity in comparison with the native folic acid. The route followed herein to prepare a folic-acid based radiotracer constitutes the first report of radiolabeling folic acid using the [(99m)TcN(PNP)](2+) as a radiosynthon. Modification in the structure of conjugate by linking the BFCA through a long-chain linker can be envisaged to improve the affinity of [(99m)TcN(PNP)]-folic acid complex towards FRs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Satya S.; Wareham, David W. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Microbiology; Britton, Keith E. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hall, Anne V. [Harefield Hospital, Middlesex (United Kingdom). Microbiology Dept.

    2002-09-01

    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  18. A conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, N.; Swanson, D.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (less than 20 min) and conveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  19. Conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, N. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor); Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (<20 min) and coveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  20. {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP accumulation in soft tissue tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-11-01

    Accumulation with bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-HMDP) in 68 cases with radiographically or pathologically verified soft tissue tumor was examined. Radiographical or histopathologic diagnoses of the 68 cases included; 14 lipomas, 11 liposarcomas, 11 neurinomas or neurofibromas, 6 malignant lymphomas, 5 malignant fibrous histiocytomas, 5 hemangioma, rhabdomyosarcomas, 2 Langerhans cell histiocytoses, 2 desmoid tumors and one each of neuroblastoma, hemangiopericytoma, angiomyxoma, plasmacytoma, liomyosarcoma, lymphangioma, fibrosarcoma, elastofibroma, synovial sarcoma, and ganglion. Thirty-seven (54%) showed positive accumulation and 31 were negative. One half of soft tissue tumors can be accumulated by {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP. (author)

  1. Detection of bacterial infection by a technetium-99m-labeled peptidoglycan aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Iêda Mendes; de Sousa Lacerda, Camila Maria; Dos Santos, Sara Roberta; de Barros, André Luís Branco; Fernandes, Simone Odília; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear medicine clinicians are still waiting for the optimal scintigraphic imaging agents capable of distinguishing between infection and inflammation, and between fungal and bacterial infections. Aptamers have several properties that make them suitable for molecular imaging. In the present study, a peptidoglycan aptamer (Antibac1) was labeled with (99m)Tc and evaluated by biodistribution studies and scintigraphic imaging in infection-bearing mice. Labeling with (99m)Tc was performed by the direct method and the complex stability was evaluated in saline, plasma and in the molar excess of cysteine. The biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging studies with the (99m)Tc-Antibac1 were carried out in two different experimental infection models: Bacterial-infected mice (S. aureus) and fungal-infected mice (C. albicans). A (99m)Tc radiolabeled library, consisting of oligonucleotides with random sequences, was used as a control for both models. Radiolabeling yields were superior to 90% and (99m)Tc-Antibac1 was highly stable in presence of saline, plasma, and cysteine up to 6h. Scintigraphic images of S. aureus infected mice at 1.5 and 3.0h after (99m)Tc-Antibac1 injection showed target to non-target ratios of 4.7±0.9 and 4.6±0.1, respectively. These values were statistically higher than those achieved for the (99m)Tc-library at the same time frames (1.6±0.4 and 1.7±0.4, respectively). Noteworthy, (99m)Tc-Antibac1 and (99m)Tc-library showed similar low target to non-target ratios in the fungal-infected model: 2.0±0.3 and 2.0±0.6for (99m)Tc-Antibac1 and 2.1±0.3 and 1.9 ± 0.6 for (99m)Tc-library, at the same times. These findings suggest that the (99m)Tc-Antibac1 is a feasible imaging probe to identify a bacterial infection focus. In addition, this radiolabeled aptamer seems to be suitable in distinguishing between bacterial and fungal infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Acetylsalicylic acid and labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid is the drug most used an anti-inflammatory agent and for secondary prevention of thrombotic phenomenon. Drugs can modify the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro or in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid on the labeling of the blood constituents with 99mTc. In vitro assay was performed with samples of whole blood from Wistar rats incubated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.0 mg/ml for one hour before the 99mTc-labeling process. For in vivo assay, Wistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.5 mg/kg during one hour, and the whole blood was withdrawn for the 99mTc-labeling process. Saline was used in control groups. Data showed that the fixation of 99mTc to the blood constituents was not significantly (p>0.05 modified in in vitro and in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid, at least not when the experiments were carried out with the doses normally used in human beings.Ácido acetilsalicílico é a droga mais usada como antiinflamatório e para prevenção de fenômenos trombóticos. Drogas podem modificar a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ácido acetilsalicílico in vitro ou in vivo na marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc. Ensaios in vitro foram realizados com amostras de sangue total de ratos Wistar incubadas com ácido acetilsalicílico (1.0mg/ml 1 hora antes do processo de marcação com 99mTc. Para ensaios in vivo, ratos Wistar foram tratados com ácido acetilsalicílico (1.5mg/kg durante 1 hora e, em seguida, o sangue total foi retirado para o processo de marcação com 99mTc. Salina foi usada nos grupos controles. Dados mostraram que nos ensaios in vitro e in vivo com ácido acetilsalicílico, a fixação do 99mTc nos constituintes sangüíneos não foi significativamente (p>0.05 modificada, pelo menos, quando os experimentos foram

  3. Targeting murine heart and brain: visualisation conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT with {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 123}I-labelled probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pissarek, M. [Research Centre Juelich, Institute of Neurosciences and Biophysics-Nuclear Chemistry (INB-4), Juelich (Germany); Meyer-Kirchrath, J.; Hohlfeld, T. [Heinrich Heine University, Institute of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Vollmar, S. [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, Cologne (Germany); Oros-Peusquens, A.M. [Research Centre Juelich, Institute of Neurosciences and Biophysics-Medicine (INB-3), Juelich (Germany); Floegel, U.; Jacoby, C. [Heinrich Heine University, Institute of Heart and Circulation Physiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kruegel, U. [University of Leipzig, Rudolf Boehm Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Leipzig (Germany); Schramm, N. [Research Centre Juelich, Central Institute for Electronics, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The study serves to optimise conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT small animal imaging of {sup 123}I- and {sup 99m}Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals with different distributions in murine heart and brain and to investigate detection and dose range thresholds for verification of differences in tracer uptake. A Triad 88/Trionix system with three 6-pinhole collimators was used for investigation of dose requirements for imaging of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor ligand [{sup 123}I]IBZM and the cerebral perfusion tracer [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO (1.2-0.4 MBq/g body weight) in healthy mice. The fatty acid [{sup 123}I]IPPA (0.94 {+-} 0.05 MBq/g body weight) and the perfusion tracer [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi (3.8 {+-} 0.45 MBq/g body weight) were applied to cardiomyopathic mice overexpressing the prostaglandin EP{sub 3} receptor. In vivo imaging and in vitro data revealed 45 kBq total cerebral uptake and 201 kBq cardiac uptake as thresholds for visualisation of striatal [{sup 123}I]IBZM and of cardiac [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi using 100 and 150 s acquisition time, respectively. Alterations of maximal cerebral uptake of [{sup 123}I]IBZM by >20% (116 kBq) were verified with the prerequisite of 50% striatal of total uptake. The labelling with [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi revealed a 30% lower uptake in cardiomyopathic hearts compared to wild types. [{sup 123}I]IPPA uptake could be visualised at activity doses of 0.8 MBq/g body weight. Multi-pinhole SPECT enables detection of alterations of the cerebral uptake of {sup 123}I- and {sup 99m}Tc-labelled tracers in an appropriate dose range in murine models targeting physiological processes in brain and heart. The thresholds of detection for differences in the tracer uptake determined under the conditions of our experiments well reflect distinctions in molar activity and uptake characteristics of the tracers. (orig.)

  4. Effect of tripanossomicide benznidazole (Rochagan) on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO4) in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Vanessa Santos de Arruda; Holanda, Cecilia Maria de Carvalho Xavier; Silva, Roseane Pereira da; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: vambio@oi.com.br; Oliveira, Daniel Pereira de; Silva Junior, Mauricio Ferreira da; Oliveira, Elias Herculano de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Microbiologia e Parasitologia; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica

    2008-12-15

    Benznidazole, a drug with specific anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity, is used in the treatment of Chagas' disease. The radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) is used to obtain diagnostic images of the stomach, thyroid, parathyroids, salivary glands, brain and in the study of esophageal reflux and blood flow. This study aimed at evaluating in vivo the influence of benznidazole treatment on the sodium pertechnetate biodistribution in Wistar rats. The percentage of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) of various organs (brain, heart, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, spleen, liver, muscle and blood) was determined. Comparing the treated rats with the controls, we observed that sodium pertechnetate biodistribution did not change when administered to rats treated for thirty days with benznidazole. (author)

  5. Detection of urinary extravasation by delayed technetium-99m DTPA renal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, J.; Tonami, N.; Aburano, T.; Hisada, K.

    1986-08-01

    Delayed imaging with Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy demonstrated urinary extravasation in a patient with acute anuria in whom early sequential imaging showed no abnormal extrarenal radionuclide accumulation.

  6. Limitations and pitfalls of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd) scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Ildikó; Barna, Sandor; Nagy, Gabor; Forgacs, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Tektrotyd kit was developed by Polatom company for 99mTc labeling to make an alternative tracer of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy available. Since 2005, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide has been used in clinical imaging and achieved high impact in management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Knowing the limitations and pitfalls is essential to provide ac-curate diagnosis. Therefore, the potential pitfalls associated with the use of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC are reviewed on the basis of own experience. Data were analyzed of 310 patients who underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 99mTc-Tektrotyd. Pitfalls during radiolabeling process or acquisition can worsen the sensitivity of SRS (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy). Recognizing physi-ological and clinical pitfalls, the diagnostic accuracy will improve.

  7. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination...... with iodine-labeled human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 15 healthy volunteers, simultaneous plasma volume measurements with (99m)Tc-HSA and (125)I-HSA were performed after ½ hour in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the injection....... It needs to be emphasized however, that repeated blood sampling for 1/2 hour after injection of the tracer is required to correct for the disappearance of (99m)Tc and (99m)Tc-HSA from the circulation....

  8. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis demonstrated by Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lise, Hobolt; Nemery, Michel; Albrectsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    -99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan showed several foci with increased activity in both femurs. MR scan showed excessive periostal inflammatory and mild intramedullary changes in both femurs. A percutaneous bone biopsy demonstrated changes consistent with chronic recurrent multifocal...

  9. Technetium-99m tetrofosmin: Use for myocardial perfusion imaging in the detection of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Erica D’Arceuil

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen Erica D’ArceuilDepartment of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California, USAAbstract: Technetium-99m tetrofosmin is a radioactive tracer which is designed for ­myocardial perfusion imaging. Differential tracer uptake allows discrimination between normal and ischemic myocardium. Technetium-99m tetrofosmin has shown excellent utility as a safe, cost-effective, and technically sound agent for use in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. This paper provides an overview of the available literature on clinical applications of technetium-99m tetrofosmin, and shows how this tracer has gained widespread acceptance as a diagnostic aid since its inception approximately 17 years ago. The various cardiac imaging modalities and imaging protocols which have employed this agent are also briefly reviewed.Keywords: technetium-99m tetrofosmin, myocardial, viability, imaging

  10. Renal handling of amino acid /sup 99m/technetium chelates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, M.; Banerjee, S.

    1988-09-01

    Four amino acids--alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, cystine, and cystein--and also one diamine, ethylenediamine, were chelated with /sup 99m/-technetium (/sup 99m/Tc), and their renal excretion patterns were studied in rabbits in the presence and absence of two renal tubular transport inhibitors, probenecid and 2,4-dinitrophenol. From the depression of renal excretion for the first three amino acid chelates, in the presence of the inhibitors, a renal tubular excretory pathway of elimination was suggested for these compounds. The renal excretions of /sup 99m/Tc-cystein and /sup 99m/Tc-ethylenediamine however, remained undepressed under similar experimental conditions. An explanation of these observations was forwarded from the possible chemical structures of these chelates.

  11. Altered distribution of technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate associated with antimicrobial therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castronuovo, J.J.; Chervu, L.R.; Milstein, D.M.

    1985-12-01

    Three patients underwent brain scanning for evaluation of central nervous system disease and were simultaneously treated for infectious diseases unrelated to the central nervous process. All revealed intense vascular pooling on their brain images. The imaging studies had been performed following the administration of Tc-99m pertechnetate. None of the patients had prior nuclear medicine examinations to suggest the causal effect of stannous ion as a source of interference. All of the patients were on combination antimicrobial drugs: two on sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, and one on isoniazid and ethambutol. One patient revealed 75% Tc-99m red cell tagging. Another patient's repeat brain scan with Tc-99m DTPA revealed normal distribution. Our findings suggest that patients on antimicrobial combination drug regimens who require brain scans should be imaged routinely with agents other than Tc-99m.

  12. Abnormal uptake of technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile in a primary cardiac lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medolago, G.; Virotta, G.; Bertocchi, C. (Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Piti, A.; Tespili, M.; D' Adda, F. (Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy). Dept. of Cardiology); Rottoli, M.R. (Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy). Dept. of Neurology); Comotti, B. (Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy). Dept. of Hematology); Motta, T. (Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy). Dept. of Pathology); Orlandi, C. (Du Pont Pharma, North Billerica, MA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    Abnormally high uptake of technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc-SESTAMIBI) in the right ventricle and in the septum was observed in a 47-year-old woman initially presenting with dysarthria and left hemiparesis. Endomyocardial biopsy demonstrated a high-grade malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Complete remission was achieved by combined cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherpay and radiotherapy of the heart and mediastinum. The post-remission single photon emission tomography (SPET) {sup 99m}Tc-SESTAMIBI study showed a homogeneous distribution pattern, in agreement with echocardiography computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Increased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-SESTAMIBI, a myocardial perfusion agent, has been observed in some benign and malignant tumours. It may prove to be useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of malignancies. (orig.).

  13. Synthesis and biological assessment of folate-accepted developer (99m)Tc-DTPA-folate-polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Shao, Kejing; Zhu, Bao; Jiang, Mengjun

    2016-05-15

    A novel cancer-targetable folate-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PFDH) copolymer containing DTPA segment was prepared by conventional chemical synthesis and labeled with (99m)Tc subsequently. The (99m)Tc-labled PFDH could be produced easily with high radiochemical yield of 91% and radiochemical purity of 95%. The LogP octanol-water value for the (99m)Tc-labled PFDH was -2.19 and the radiotracer was stable in phosphate-buffered saline and human serum for 2h (>95% in PBS or ∼90% in human serum). To investigate (99m)Tc-labled PFDH tumor targeting, the in vitro and in vivo stability, cell uptake, in vivo biodistribution, and SPECT imaging were evaluated, respectively. These preliminary results strongly suggest that the novel folate conjugated dendrimer maybe developed to be potential for delivery of therapeutic radionuclides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. {sup 99m}Tc-besilesomab (Scintimun {sup registered}) in peripheral osteomyelitis: comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled white blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Wolf S. [Pharmtrace Klinische Entwicklung GmbH, Berlin (Germany); University Clinics Magdeburg (Germany). Clinics for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Ivancevic, Velimir [Nuclear Medicini, Celle (Germany); Meller, Johannes [University Medicine, Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Lang, Otto [UH Kralovske, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nclear Medicine; Le Guludec, Dominique [CHU Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris (France). Service de Medecine Nucleaire; Szilvazi, Istvan [Orszagos Gyogyintezeti Koezpont, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Amthauer, Holger [University Clinics Magdeburg (Germany). Clinics for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Chossat, Florence; Dahmane, Amel [IBA/CIS Bio International, Gif sur Yvette (France); Schwenke, Carsten [SCOSSIS, Berlin (Germany); Signore, Alberto [University of Rome, Faculty of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    The diagnosis of osteomyelitis is a challenge for diagnostic imaging. Nuclear medicine procedures including white blood cell imaging have been successfully used for the identification of bone infections. This multinational, phase III clinical study in 22 European centres was undertaken to compare anti-granulocyte imaging using the murine IgG antibody besilesomab (Scintimun {sup registered}) with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled white blood cells in patients with peripheral osteomyelitis. A total of 119 patients with suspected osteomyelitis of the peripheral skeleton received {sup 99m}Tc-besilesomab and {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled white blood cells (WBCs) in random order 2-4 days apart. Planar images were acquired at 4 and 24 h after injection. All scintigraphic images were interpreted in an off-site blinded read by three experienced physicians specialized in nuclear medicine, followed by a fourth blinded reader for adjudication. In addition, clinical follow-up information was collected and a final diagnosis was provided by the investigators and an independent truth panel. Safety data including levels of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) and vital signs were recorded. The agreement in diagnosis across all three readers between Scintimun {sup registered} and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs was 0.83 (lower limit of the 95% confidence interval 0.8). Using the final diagnosis of the local investigator as a reference, Scintimun {sup registered} had higher sensitivity than {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs (74.8 vs 59.0%) at slightly lower specificity (71.8 vs 79.5%, respectively). All parameters related to patient safety (laboratory data, vital signs) did not provide evidence of an elevated risk associated with the use of Scintimun {sup registered} except for two cases of transient hypotension. HAMA were detected in 16 of 116 patients after scan (13.8%). Scintimun {sup registered} imaging is accurate, efficacious and safe in the diagnosis of peripheral

  15. Absorbed dose in the fetus of a pregnant patient when I{sup 131} (iodide/Tc{sup 99m} (pertechnetate) is administered during thyroid studies; Dosis absorbida en el feto de una paciente embarazada cuando se administra I{sup 131} (yoduro)/Tc{sup 99m} (pertecnetato) durante estudios tiroideos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez A, M.; Murillo C, V.; Arbayza F, J.; Sanchez S, P.; Cabrera S, C., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Trujillo (Peru)

    2016-10-15

    The radiation absorbed dose in the fetus of a pregnant woman during thyroid studies is estimated through the analysis of the bio-kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing I{sup 131} (iodide) or Tc{sup 99m} (pertechnetate). MIRD formalism and its representation Cristy-Eckerman are used. The results indicate that the absorbed dose by the fetus of a woman of 3, 6 and 9 months of gestation due to Tc{sup 99m} emissions is lower than that obtained by I{sup 131}; represent 34.7%, 6% and 3.5% of the dose generate by the iodide. The auto-dose in the fetus of a pregnant woman is mainly due to the local energy deposition of the beta and gamma emissions of I{sup 131}, being greater than the one reported by the gamma emissions and conversion electrons of the Tc{sup 99m}, for fetuses of 6 and 9 months. The dose incorporated to the fetus due to the organs of the maternal tissues, which are part of the bio-kinetics, are basically due to the emission of its gamma photons and correspond to 38.50% /60.52% in fetuses of 3 months, 64.71% /12.43% in fetuses of 6 months and 69.79% /10.97% in fetuses of 9 months for the radiopharmaceuticals Tc{sup 99m} (pertechnetate) / I{sup 131} (iodide). The organs of bio-kinetics that contribute to the fetus dose are mainly due to the bladder, followed by the rest, and small intestine (fetuses of 3 months); of the rest, followed by the small intestine and bladder (fetuses of 6 months); of the bladder, followed by the small intestine and stomach (fetuses of 9 months) when using I{sup 131}; while for the Tc{sup 99m} the bladder and rest contribute (fetuses of 3 months); of the placenta, followed by the rest and bladder (fetuses of 6 and 9 months). (Author)

  16. Dose calibrator linearity test: 99mTc versus 18F radioisotopes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willegaignon, José; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing 18F with 99mTc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and Methods The test was performed with sources of 99mTc (62 GBq) and 18F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results Mean deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the 99mTc source as measured with the equipment pre-calibrated to measure 99mTc and 18F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the 18F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion The results of the linearity test using 99mTc were compatible with those obtained with the 18F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in 18F acquisition suggest 99mTc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use 18F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. PMID:25798005

  17. A {sup 99m}Tc Generator using PZC for (n,{gamma}) {sup 99}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adang, H.G.; Mutalib, A.; Suparman, I.; Hamid; Purwadi, B.; Pancoko, M.; Setiowati, S.; Yulianti, V.; Robertus, D.H. [Radioisotope Production Center, National Atomic Energy Agency Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    The high performance adsorbent Poly Zirconium Compound (PZC) was produced by Department of Radioisotope, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This compound was developed as an adsorbent for natural Mo (n,{gamma}) {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc Generator. In the present paper, we report the performance of the PZC for a {sup 99m}Tc Generator which was focused on the yield, on elution profile and {sup 99}Mo breakthrough. (author)

  18. [Imaging of hyperparathyroidism-Ultrasonography and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Yoshida, Atsushi; Kotani, Kohei; Shiomi, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    Treatments for primary hyperparathyroidism due to adenoma, hyperplasia and carcinoma and secondary hyperparathyroidism are mainly surgical resections of them. Accurate imaging diagnoses of the existences and the regions are very important for reductions of invasiveness. We describe ultrasonography and (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy of hyperparathyroidism. We explain an advantage, a disadvantage and diagnosability of these modalities. We mention utilities of SPECT/CT, too. We show echogram and (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy images about 3 cases of hyperparathyroidism.

  19. Dose calibrator linearity test: {sup 99m}Tc versus {sup 18}F radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles, E-mail: willegaignon@hotmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing {sup 18}F with {sup 99m}Tc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and methods: the test was performed with sources of {sup 99m}Tc (62 GBq) and {sup 18}F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results: mean deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the {sup 99m}Tc source as measured with the equipment precalibrated to measure {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the {sup 18}F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion: the results of the linearity test using {sup 99m}Tc were compatible with those obtained with the {sup 18}F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in {sup 18}F acquisition suggest {sup 99m}Tc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use {sup 18}F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. (author)

  20. Technetium-99m radiolabeled paclitaxel as an imaging probe for breast cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Liziane O F; Fernandes, Renata S; Castro, Luciano C; Cardoso, Valbert N; Oliveira, Mônica C; Townsend, Danyelle M; Ferretti, Alice; Rubello, Domenico; Leite, Elaine A; de Barros, André L B

    2017-05-01

    The high incidence and mortality of breast cancer supports efforts to develop innovative imaging probes to effectively diagnose, evaluate the extent of the tumor, and predict the efficacy of tumor treatments while concurrently and selectively delivering anticancer agents to the cancer tissue. In the present study we described the preparation of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-labeled paclitaxel (PTX) and evaluated its feasibility as a radiotracer for breast tumors (4T1) in BALB/c mice. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was used to determine the radiochemical purity and in vitro stability of (99m)Tc-PTX. PTX micelles showed a unimodal distribution with mean diameter of 13.46±0.06nm. High radiochemical purity (95.8±0.3%) and in vitro stability (over than 95%), up to 24h, were observed. Blood circulation time of (99m)Tc-PTX was determined in healthy BALB/c mice. (99m)Tc-PTX decays in a one-phase manner with a half-life of 464.3 minutes. Scintigraphic images and biodistribution were evaluated at 4, 8 and 24h after administration of (99m)Tc-PTX in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. The data showed a significant uptake in the liver, spleen and kidneys, due to the importance of these routes for excretion. Moreover, high tumor uptake was achieved, indicated by high tumor-to-muscle ratios. These findings indicate the usefulness of (99m)Tc-PTX as a radiotracer to identify 4T1 tumor in animal models. In addition, (99m)Tc-PTX might be used to follow-up treatment protocols in research, being able to provide information about tumor progression after therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of hypofunctioning thyroid nodules with technetium-99m MIBI and ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Farate

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC cannot reliably differentiate follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma (FC, which requires histological evidence of capsular or vascular invasion. FC is the most predominant thyroid cancer in our loco-regional environment, indicating the need for improvement in preoperative diagnostic accuracy of thyroid nodules to ensure appropriate and timely interventions.Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the role of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and ultrasonography (USG in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules.Methods: Forty-two patients with hypofunctioning thyroid nodules were prospectively studied with 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and USG to differentiate benign from malignant nodules. An injection of 740 MBq of 99mTc-MIBI was intravenously administered, followed by semiquantitative analysis of dual-phase scans using a 4-point (0 to 3 scoring system. USG was subsequently performed and interpretation was based on some sonographic criteria for malignancy. In the following days and weeks, patients underwent FNAC followed by surgery and histopathologic examination.Results: All malignant nodules were positive on 99mTc-MIBI and all but two malignant nodules were positive on USG. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and accuracy are, respectively, 100%, 70%, 65%, 100%, and 81% for 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy; 87%, 78%, 68%, 91% and 81% for USG; and 83%, 100%, 100%, 96% and 64% for FNAC. There was no statistically significant difference between 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and USG performance for both benign (p = 0.317 and malignant (p = 0.573 nodules.Conclusion: 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and USG are important imaging modalities in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, particularly follicular neoplasms which are frequently associated with non-diagnostic cytology.

  2. Direct labeling of isoniazid with technetium-99m for diagnosis of tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roohi, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Jehangir, M. [Isotope Production Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Malik, S.A. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Quaid-e-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2006-07-01

    Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (isoniazid) is one of the most effective agents in tuberculosis therapy. Hence it was chosen as ligand for {sup 99m}Tc labeling and imaging in the developed animal model with a gamma camera. Direct labeling of isoniazid with technetium-99m was studied. Factors affecting the radiolabeling efficiency such as amount of reducing agent, pH and time of the reaction were studied. Biodistribution of the labeled compound was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. The localization kinetics of the radiolabeled complex was also studied in the developed animal model by injecting 100-125 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-isoniazid intravenously in the ear of rabbit and the images were taken with a gamma camera. Optimum conditions gave > 98% labeling efficiency of {sup 99m}Tc-isoniazid. Biodistribution studies in rats revealed that the maximum uptake was in kidneys (15%, 8% and 2.5% at 0.5, 4 and 24 hours, respectively), indicating renal excretion of the {sup 99m}Tc-isoniazid. High accumulation was obtained in liver (10%, 11% and 4% at 0.5, 4 and 24 hours, respectively) and significant radioactivity was also seen in the intestines (8%, 6% and 1% at 0.5, 4 and 24 hours, respectively), indicating hepatobiliary excretion of the complex. Less than 2% uptake in stomach until 24 hours confirmed good in vivo stability of the complex. {sup 99m}Tc-isoniazid initially accumulated in infective lesions of S. aureus in rabbits due to hyper-vascularity, but because of its non specificity for S. aureus the residency of {sup 99m}Tc-isoniazid was low and it showed rapid wash out from the lesion, whereas residency of tubercular lesion was high and it remained in the tubercular lesion in the delayed images also. The results suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-isoniazid is a specific agent for localization of tubercular lesions. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of breast MIBI-Tc 99 m scintigraphy for the detection of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loriaux, C.; Baeyens, L.; Paternot, J.; Martin, P.; Verhas, M. [Hospital Universitaire Brugmann, Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Clinique de Senologie

    1997-12-31

    Full text. The aim of the work was to appreciate the contribution of MIBI-Tc 99 m scintigraphy for the detection of breast cancer and to situate this procedure in comparison with mammography 5 (X-ray M) and echography (E C). 21 patients presenting suspected lesion on clinical evaluation/or mammography were referred to the department for breast MIBI-Tc 99 m scintigraphy. 10 min after IV injection of MIBI-Tc 99 m 3 planar scan were realized with a present time of 10 min. The whole investigation including X-ray and surgical procedures were performed within 15 days. The pathologic findings were: 21 malignant lesion (18 canal cancers, 3 lobular cancers), 4 benign lesions (1 fibroadenoma, 2 granuloma, 1 fibrocystic disease). Lesions were bilateral in 3 cases and there was 1 bifocal lesion. 17 tumours were palpable and 8 not palpable, 10 lesion were <1 cm (40%), 9 were between 1,1 and 2,5 cm (36%) and 7 were >2,5 cm (24%). The overall sensitivity and specificity for MIBI-Tc 99 m were 67% and 75% respectively. For the group of palpable tumours, sensitivity of MIBI-Tc 99 m was 86%. In three cases, the X-ray M was difficult to interpret, the MIBI-Tc 99 m was true positive. In 3 false positive X-ray M procedures, the scintigraphy was true negative but, whatever the size of the tumor the best sensitivity was obtained with X-ray M (71%) and E C (70%) while for MIBI Tc-99 m, sensitivity was less (67%). MIBI-Tc 99 m appears to be a complementary tool in cases of difficulty of interpretation of mammography particularly in case of recurrence of the disease

  4. Optimization of preparation, labelling and quality control procedures of {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction; Otimizacao dos procedimentos de preparacao, marcacao e controle de qualidade do glucarato-{sup 99m}Tc para diagnostico do infarto agudo do miocardio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Ana Claudia

    2007-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases account for the main causes of morbidity and mortality among the adult population. Despite the advances of preventive medicine, acute myocardial infarction continues to be frequent and the difficulty of the differential diagnosis is an additional cause of fatal events. Its diagnosis is based on the triad: typical chest pain, alterations in the electrocardiogram and elevation of serum cardiac enzymes. However, many patients evolve without the complete syndrome. Therefore the development of non-invasive assays for the early detection of damaged myocardium is of extreme importance. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate is a radiopharmaceutical of great interest for application in Nuclear Medicine, because it is referred as a potential marker of necrotic tissues in the early phase of an acute coronary event. This presentation describes the optimization of preparation, lyophilization and labelling as well as quality control procedures of {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate, based on former studies published in the literature. Radiochemical purity was evaluated by the ascending paper chromatography technique. Labelling efficiency as a function respectively of time of reaction, volume and activity of {sup 99m}TcO4- was consistently higher than 97%. The lyophilized kit was stable during 12 months of storage. Biodistribution in healthy Swiss mice showed rapid blood clearance, renal excretion and low uptake by organs adjacent to the heart. Scintigraphic studies of injected Wistar rats confirmed the results of the biodistribution obtained by direct organ counting. Scintigraphies of infarcted female rats proved the sensitivity of the method. (author)

  5. Tc-99m-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in patients with carcinoids

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    Vlajković Marina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of Ki-67 proliferation index on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SSRS with Tc-99m-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC (Tc-99m-Tektrotyd somatostatin analogue in patients with carcinoid tumors. Sixty-one patients (31 female, 30 male; age range: 33-76 years were examined: 13 patients highly suspected of having a carcinoid, and 48 patients who had undergone the surgical removal of the tumor. Whole body SSRS at 4 h postinjection, spot scintigrams and SPECT of the selected regions were obtained for all patients. Tc-99m-Tektrotyd scintigraphy was classified as true positive in 26 out of 30 and true negative in 24 out of 28 patients. The sensitivity of Tc-99mTc-Tektrotyd scintigraphy was found to be as high as 94.74% in the group of patients with low mitotic index Ki67 (20%. The likelihood of Tc-99m-Tektrotyd scan being positive when a carcinoid is present was found to be inversely proportional to the value of Ki67 proliferation index. The results showed that Tc-99m-Tektrotyd SSRS is a sensitive method for diagnosing and staging patients with well-differentiated carcinoid tumors. However, in poorly differentiated tumors with high Ki67 proliferation index, additional analyses are necessary for precise staging.

  6. Is Ureter Visualization Possible on Tc-99m DMSA Scintigraphy with Vesicoureteral Reflux Patients?

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    Hasan Atilgan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Ureter or pelvicalyceal system is not be vizualized with 99mTechnetium- dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA which is accumulated by renal cortex normally. In this study the cases whose ureters are visible were reviewed with 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy. Material and Method: 18 patients (5 females, 13 males with median age 3.5 years (min 2 months-max 18 years were included in this study. Twenty ureters and/or pelvis of 18 patients were visible in 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy. In two patients%u2019s both ureters were visible. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR grade, 99mTc-DMSA uptake, renal size, status of pelvicalyceal system, urea, creatinine levels were evaluated in all patients. Results: Three of the visible ureters were actually due to pelvicaliectasis. These pelvicaliectasic patients were excluded from the study. In the evaluation of the remaining 17 ureters of patients, congenital megaureter was present in three patients. Grade 3 VUR was detected in three patients, grade 4 was in three patients. VUR is seen as grade five in eight kidneys of seven patients because one of these patients has bilateral vizualized ureter. Discussion: In patients with congenital megaureter and VUR, ureters can be visible with 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy and further imaging modalities are recommended for these patients.

  7. Acetylsalicylic acid and labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Psicobiologia; Frydman, Jacques Natan Grinapel; Rocha, Vanessa Camara da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2005-10-15

    Acetylsalicylic acid is the drug most used an anti-inflammatory agent and for secondary prevention of thrombotic phenomenon. Drugs can modify the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99m Tc). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro or in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid on the labeling of the blood constituents with 99m Tc. In vitro assay was performed with samples of whole blood from Wistar rats incubated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.0 mg/ml) for one hour before the 99m Tc-labeling process. For in vivo assay, Wistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.5 mg/kg) during one hour, and the whole blood was withdrawn for the 99m Tc-labeling process. Saline was used in control groups. Data showed that the fixation of 99m Tc to the blood constituents was not significantly (p>0.05) modified in in vitro and in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid, at least not when the experiments were carried out with the doses normally used in human beings. (author)

  8. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract. PMID:16691636

  9. A rapid chromatographic method for quality control of technetium-99m-bicisate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, K C; Saha, G B; Go, R T

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a simple and rapid method to determine the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-bicisate. A rapid paper chromatographic (PC) method was developed to determine the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-bicisate and compare the results with those of the manufacturer's recommended method. The present PC method included Whatman 3MM paper as the solid phase and ethyl acetate as the solvent. The time for chromatography by this technique was 4-5 min compared to about 23 min by the manufacturer's method. The Rf value of 99mTc-bicisate (Rf = 0.9-1.0) was widely different from those of 99mTcO4- and reduced 99mTc (Rf = 0.0 for both) so the chromatographic strip after development could be readily cut into two segments, in order to determine the labeling yield. No significant difference in labeling yields was found between the present method and the manufacturer's method. The PC method using Whatman 3MM paper and ethyl acetate is a simple and fast technique to determine the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-bicisate and may be substituted for the manufacturer's recommended method to save time.

  10. Radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1990-06-01

    During this grant period 1 January 1988--31 December 1990, we have successfully developed a number of new approaches to fluorine-18 labeled compounds, prepared several new radiotracers for both animal studies and eventual clinical trials, and explored the utility of a high-quality industrial robot in radiopharmaceutical applications. The progress during the last grant period is summarized briefly in the following sections. Publications arising from this research are listed below and can be found in Appendix I. 1 fig.

  11. Breast dosimetry in complementary radiotherapy with sodium pertechnetate-{sup 99m}-Tc (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) balloon at neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Carla Flavia de; Campos, Tarcisio P. R. de, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: carla.flavia@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, BH (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2013-07-01

    A dosimetric analyzes was performed at breast tissue in which a sodium pertechnetate-{sup 99m}Tc filled balloon was placed. An additional dose booster can be used as a complementary method to the surgical treatment in patients with breast cancer. The methodology involved the development of dosimetry in a physical phantom and a computational voxel model. Radiochromic films were calibrated providing dose versus optical density (OD) response from sample films taken at the surface of the balloon up to 10 cm far with the theoretical dose provided by MCNP modeling in water-equivalent model. A voxel model of the breast, developed at the SISCODES software, with an filled balloon inside was simulated at the MCNP code in order to generate the spatial dose distribution. Spatial dose distributions and the doses at surfaces of the breast, including those received in the chest wall, skin and lung were generated. The dosimetric results allow validating the dose in the tumor bed and adjacent health tissues. The simulations show that the application of sodium pertechnetate-{sup 99m}Tc implies high dose in the breast tissue adjacent to the tumor and preserves vital adjacent structures. As conclusion, the balloon presents itself as a viable option for the adjunctive treatment of breast cancer in patients who have appropriate indication. Irradiation with sodium pertechnetate-{sup 99m}Tc generates high doses in breast tissue and consequently in the tumor bed. Adjuvant radiation therapy in situ with sodium pertechnetate-{sup 99m}Tc balloon has low cost, availability and reduced time of treatment, decreasing the side effects of conventional radiotherapy. In progress, the dose versus OD mathematical representation will be used to identify absorbed doses at planar film placed at a breast phantom in order to generate maps of breast doses. (author)

  12. Effect of administered radioactive dose level on image quality of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Armeniakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion imaging by means of 99mTc-labeled hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO is a well-established Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedure. The administered dose range recommended by the supplying company and reported in bibliography is rather wide (approximately 9.5-27 mCi. This fact necessitates further quantitative analysis of the technique, so as to minimise patient absorbed dose without compromising the examination diagnostic value. In this study, a quantitative evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical performance for different values of administered dose (10, 15, 20 mCi was carried out. Subsequently, a generic image quality index was correlated with the administered dose, to produce an overall performance indicator. Through this cost-to-benefit type analysis, the necessity of administration of higher radioactive dose levels in order to perform the specific diagnostic procedure was examined.Materials & methods: The study was based on a sample of 78 patients (56 administered with 10 mCi, 10 with 15 mCi and 12 with 20 mCi. Some patients were classified as normal, while others presented various forms of pathology. Evaluation of image quality was based on contrast, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio indicators, denoted CI, NI and CNR respectively. Calculation of all indicators was based on wavelet transform. An overall performance indicator (denoted PI, produced by the ratio of CNR by administered dose, was also calculated.Results: Calculation of skewness parameter revealed the normality of CI, NI and non-normality of CNR, PI populations. Application of appropriate statistical tests (analysis of variance for normal and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal populations showed that there is a statistically significant difference in CI (p0.05 values. Application of Tukey test for normal populations CI, NI led to the conclusion that CI(10 mCi = CI(20 mCiNI(20 mCi, while NI(15 mCi can not be characterised. Finally, application of non

  13. {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plachcinska, Anna; Kusmierek, Jacek [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University, ul.Czechoslowacka 8/10, 92-216, Lodz (Poland); Mikolajczak, Renata [Radioisotope Centre POLATOM, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Maecke, Helmut R. [Radiological Chemistry Unit, Kantonspital Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Michalski, Andrzej; Rzeszutek, Katarzyna [Centre for Treatment of Pulmonary Diseases, Lodz (Poland); Kozak, Jozef [Thoracic Surgery Ward, Copernicus Hospital, Lodz (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Forty-three consecutive patients with solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) on chest radiographs were studied scintigraphically after administration of the somatostatin analogue {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. The objective of the study was to assess the usefulness of the procedure for differentiation of SPNs as malignant or benign. The administered activity was 740-925 MBq, and a single-photon emission computed tomography imaging technique was employed. Verification of the nodule aetiology was based on histology or cytology and bacteriology. A stable tumour size on chest radiography for at least 3 years was accepted as an additional criterion of benignity. In 29 patients, nodules were found to be malignant. The diagnoses included ten adenocarcinomas, five squamous cell carcinomas, two large cell carcinomas, six non-small cell lung cancers without specification of the more detailed morphology, two small cell lung cancers, two typical carcinoids and two metastatic tumours (leiomyosarcoma and malignant melanoma). In 14 patients the following benign tumours were diagnosed: four tuberculomas, one other granuloma, three hamartomas, one non-specific inflammatory infiltrate, one abscess, one peripheral carcinoid with the morphological characteristics of a benign tumour, one ectopic lesion of thyroid tissue and two benign tumours of unspecified aetiology with a stable size over 3 and 5 years respectively. Positive scintigraphic results were obtained in 26 of the 29 patients (90%) with malignant SPNs; among these, 24 of the 25 (96%) cases of primary pulmonary carcinoma yielded positive results. The remaining two false negative cases were the metastatic tumours, liposarcoma and melanoma. Of the 14 benign lesions, ten (71%) did not accumulate the radiopharmaceutical. The remaining four benign tumours that were visible on scintigrams comprised one tuberculoma, one hamartoma, one abscess and one case in which the diagnosis could not be established (the tumour had a stable size over 3

  14. Magnesium-molybdenum compounds as matrices of generators of {sup 99m} Tc; Compuestos de magnesio-molibdeno como matrices de generadores de {sup 99m} Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez M, T.S.; Monroy G, F. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: thania_susana@terra.com.mx

    2004-07-01

    The generator system of radionuclides more diffused, and used in the world, it is the{sup 99}Mo / {sup 99m} Tc. These use {sup 99} Mo, product of fission of the {sup 235} U of very high specific activity, adsorbed on alumina (0.2% of {sup 99} Mo/gram of alumina). An alternative for the production of generators of low activity specifies, via the reaction {sup 98} Mo(n, {gamma}) {sup 99} Mo, it is based on the use of compounds with molybdates base, as matrices of the generators {sup 99} Mo / {sup 99m} Tc. In this work is proposed to develop a generator at base of compounds of magnesium molybdates that could be irradiated after its synthesis, given the short half life of the only radioisotope produced by magnesium: {sup 27} Mg (t{sub 1/2} = 9.46 m). In this work two parameters were studied, fundamental in the preparation of the magnesium molybdates, matrices of the generators {sup 99}Mo / {sup 99m}Tc, and their influence in the efficiency and radionuclide purity: the washing of the gels previous to its irradiation and the molar ratio Mo:Mg. The magnesium molybdates non washing presents bigger efficiencies (72%), but they don't fulfill a smaller percentage to 0.015% of {sup 99} Mo, neither with a radiochemical purity of 90%, except when the molar ratio Mo: Mg of 1:1.08 which provide the best results. (Author)

  15. Franol effect on the labelling of erythrocytes with Tc-99m; Efeito do franol na marcacao de hemacias com tecnecio-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, A.C.S.; Oliveira, J.F.; Oliveira, M.B.N.; Avila, A.S.R.; Gutfilen, B. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Bernardo-Filho, M. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this investigation is to study if franol, is capable to interfere with the binding to technetium-99m (Tc-99m) on blood elements. Blood with heparine was withdraw from Wistar rats were incubated with franol solution (1 hour). Then, Stannous chloride (Sn CL{sub 2}) solutions in different concentrations were added. After 1 hour Tc-99m (3.7 MBq), was added and the incubation continued for another 10 min. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated. Aliquots of P or BC were precipitated in trichloroacetic acid 5%, centrifuged and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) were separated. The % rad in P, BC, IF from BC and P were calculated. Franol altered (i) the % rad in P and BC only to Sn CL{sub 2} concentration of 12 ug/ml, the % rad in IF-P only to Sn CL{sub 2} concentration of 0.06 ug/mg and (increased the % rad in IF-BC to Sn CL{sub 2} concentrations of 1.2 and 12 ug/ml. The franol effect can be explained by an action of these substances (ephedrine and theophylline). (author)

  16. A generator-produced gallium-68 radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of myocardial perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sharma

    Full Text Available Lipophilic cationic technetium-99m-complexes are widely used for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI. However, inherent uncertainties in the supply chain of molybdenum-99, the parent isotope required for manufacturing 99Mo/99mTc generators, intensifies the need for discovery of novel MPI agents incorporating alternative radionuclides. Recently, germanium/gallium (Ge/Ga generators capable of producing high quality 68Ga, an isotope with excellent emission characteristics for clinical PET imaging, have emerged. Herein, we report a novel 68Ga-complex identified through mechanism-based cell screening that holds promise as a generator-pr