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Sample records for radionuclides sources resulting

  1. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Micah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tonchev, Anton [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  2. The ENSDF based radionuclide source for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    A utility for generating source code of the Source subroutine of MCNP (a general Monte Carlo NxParticle transport code) on the basis of ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) is described. The generated code performs statistical simulation of processes, accompanying radioactive decay of a chosen radionuclide through a specified decay branch, providing characteristics of emitted correlated particles on its output. At modeling the following processes are taken into account: emission of continuum energy electrons at beta - -decay to different exited levels of a daughter nucleus; annihilation photon emission accompanying beta + -decay; gamma-ray emission; emission of discrete energy electrons resulted from internal conversion process on atomic K- and L I,II,III -shells; K and LX-ray emission at single and double fluorescence, accompanying electron capture and internal conversion processes. Number of emitted particles, their types, energies and emission times are sampled according to characteristics of a decay scheme of a particular radionuclide as well as characteristics of atomic shells of mother and daughter nuclei. Angular correlations, calculated for a particular combination of nuclear level spins, mixing ratios and gamma-ray multipolarities, are taken into account at sampling of directional cosines of emitted gamma-rays. The paper contains examples of spectrometry system response simulation at measurements with real radionuclide sources. (authors)

  3. Review of radionuclide source terms used for performance-assessment analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.

    1993-06-01

    Two aspects of the radionuclide source terms used for total-system performance assessment (TSPA) analyses have been reviewed. First, a detailed radionuclide inventory (i.e., one in which the reactor type, decay, and burnup are specified) is compared with the standard source-term inventory used in prior analyses. The latter assumes a fixed ratio of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) to boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent fuel, at specific amounts of burnup and at 10-year decay. TSPA analyses have been used to compare the simplified source term with the detailed one. The TSPA-91 analyses did not show a significant difference between the source terms. Second, the radionuclides used in source terms for TSPA aqueous-transport analyses have been reviewed to select ones that are representative of the entire inventory. It is recommended that two actinide decay chains be included (the 4n+2 ''uranium'' and 4n+3 ''actinium'' decay series), since these include several radionuclides that have potentially important release and dose characteristics. In addition, several fission products are recommended for the same reason. The choice of radionuclides should be influenced by other parameter assumptions, such as the solubility and retardation of the radionuclides

  4. Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qinhong; Weng Jianqing; Wang Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides 99 Tc and 129 I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides 99 Tc, 129 I, and 237 Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  5. SCATTER: Source and Transport of Emplaced Radionuclides: Code documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longsine, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    SCATTER simulated several processes leading to the release of radionuclides to the site subsystem and then simulates transport via the groundwater of the released radionuclides to the biosphere. The processes accounted for to quantify release rates to a ground-water migration path include radioactive decay and production, leaching, solubilities, and the mixing of particles with incoming uncontaminated fluid. Several decay chains of arbitrary length can be considered simultaneously. The release rates then serve as source rates to a numerical technique which solves convective-dispersive transport for each decay chain. The decay chains are allowed to have branches and each member can have a different radioactive factor. Results are cast as radionuclide discharge rates to the accessible environment

  6. Radionuclide power source for artificial heart autonomic apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarenko, Yu V; Gusev, V V; Pustovalov, A A

    1988-02-01

    Works on creating autonomous artificial heart devices with radionuclide heat source are described. Calculated and experimental parameters of /sup 238/Pu base radionuclide thermoelectric RITEG generators designed for supplying perspective blood pump electric drives are presented. RITEG structure is described and the prospects of increasing its efficiency are shown.

  7. Sources and distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in different marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1997-01-01

    The knowledge of the distribution in time and space radiologically important radionuclides from different sources in different marine environments is important for assessment of dose commitment following controlled or accidental releases and for detecting eventual new sources. Present sources from nuclear explosion tests, releases from nuclear facilities and the Chernobyl accident provide a tool for such studies. The different sources can be distinguished by different isotopic and radionuclide composition. Results show that radiocaesium behaves rather conservatively in the south and north Atlantic while plutonium has a residence time of about 8 years. On the other hand enhanced concentrations of plutonium in surface waters in arctic regions where vertical mixing is small and iceformation plays an important role. Significantly increased concentrations of plutonium are also found below the oxic layer in anoxic basins due to geochemical concentration. (author)

  8. Stabilization of radionuclides applied in radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielcarski, M.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt of comprehensive treatment of problems connected with the production of sealed radiation sources is made. In the introductory part of this work the basic information and definitions are contained. The classification systems currently applied are discussed. Attention was paid to the main fields of application. The methods of stabilization of radionuclides used for preparing radiation sources are discussed. The results of own investigations are presented, comprising the adsorption of some radionuclides on anodic Al 2 O 3 layers, stabilization in glazes and enamels, and the preparation of radioactive ceramics. In the adsorption investigations, these problems were considered as predominant which could form the basis for technological solutions. The results obtained allowed to establish the most favourable conditions of performing the process of stabilization by the use of this technique. In the case of radioactive enamels, the effect of glass composition on the yield of ionization has been investigated. Lowering of the content of radioactive component with simultaneous preserving the useful ionization ability was considered as being important. The mechanism of the observed increase of ionization caused by some inactive glass components is discussed. As concerns radioactive ceramics, a simplified method for preparing the ceramic core of cesium-137 sources is presented. This synthesis is based on the thermal transformation of moulded zeolite pellets into radioactive pollucite. Practical usefulness of different methods for the stabilization is discussed with emphasis given to those elaborated and applied in Poland. 131 refs., 37 figs., 20 tabs. (author)

  9. Mobilization of radionuclides from sediments. Potential sources to Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.; Boerretzen, P.; Mathisen, B.; Salbu, B.; Tronstad, E.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments can act as secondary sources of radionuclides to Arctic waters. In cases where the original source of contamination has ceased or been greatly reduced (e.g., weapons' testing, waste discharges from Mayak and Sellafield) remobilization of radionuclides from preciously contaminated sediments increases in importance. With respect to Arctic waters, potential secondary sources include sediments contaminated by weapons' testing, by discharges from nuclear installations to seawater, e.g., the Irish Sea, or by leakages from dumped waste containers. The major land-based source is run-off from soils and transport from sediments in the catchment areas of the Ob and Yenisey rivers, including those contaminated by Mayak discharges. Remobilization of radionuclides is often described as a secondary source of contamination. Whereas primary sources of man-made radionuclides tend to be point sources, secondary sources are usually more diffuse. Experiments were carried out on marine (Kara Sea, Irish Sea, Stepovogo and Abrosimov Fjords), estuarine (Ob-Yenisey) and dirty ice sediments. Total 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentrations were determined using standard radiochemical techniques. Tracer studies using 134 Cs and 85 Sr were used to investigate the kinetics of radionuclide adsorption and desorption. It is concluded that 90 Sr is much less strongly bound to marine sediments than 137 Cs, and can be chemically mobilized through ion exchange with elements is seawater. Radiocaesium is strongly and rapidly fixed to sediments. Discharges of 137 Cs to surface sediments (i.e., from dumped containers) would be expected to be retained in sediments to a greater extent than discharges to sea-waters. Physical mobilization of sediments, for example resuspension, may be of more importance for transport of 137 Cs than for 90 Sr. 7 refs., 4 figs

  10. Innovative methodology for intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators using short half-life in situ prepared radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P. A.; Santos, J. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: An original radionuclide calibrator method for activity determination is presented. The method could be used for intercomparison surveys for short half-life radioactive sources used in Nuclear Medicine, such as 99m Tc or most positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: By evaluation of the resulting net optical density (netOD) using a standardized scanning method of irradiated Gafchromic XRQA2 film, a comparison of the netOD measurement with a previously determined calibration curve can be made and the difference between the tested radionuclide calibrator and a radionuclide calibrator used as reference device can be calculated. To estimate the total expected measurement uncertainties, a careful analysis of the methodology, for the case of 99m Tc, was performed: reproducibility determination, scanning conditions, and possible fadeout effects. Since every factor of the activity measurement procedure can influence the final result, the method also evaluates correct syringe positioning inside the radionuclide calibrator. Results: As an alternative to using a calibrated source sent to the surveyed site, which requires a relatively long half-life of the nuclide, or sending a portable calibrated radionuclide calibrator, the proposed method uses a source preparedin situ. An indirect activity determination is achieved by the irradiation of a radiochromic film using 99m Tc under strictly controlled conditions, and cumulated activity calculation from the initial activity and total irradiation time. The irradiated Gafchromic film and the irradiator, without the source, can then be sent to a National Metrology Institute for evaluation of the results. Conclusions: The methodology described in this paper showed to have a good potential for accurate (3%) radionuclide calibrators intercomparison studies for 99m Tc between Nuclear Medicine centers without source transfer and can easily be adapted to other short half-life radionuclides

  11. Marine sediments as a sink, and contaminated sediments as a diffuse source of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Borretzen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Marine sediments may act as a sink for radionuclides originating from atmospheric fallout (e.g. Chernobyl accident), for radionuclides in discharges from nuclear installations (e.g. Sellafield, UK) for river transported radionuclides, and radionuclides released from nuclear waste dumped at sea (e.g. fjords at Novaya Zemlya). In order to assess short and long term consequences of radionuclides entering the marine ecosystem, the role of sediments as a relatively permanent sink and the potential for contaminated sediments to act as a diffuse source should be focused. The retention of radionuclides in sediments will depend on the source term, i.e. the physico-chemical forms of radionuclides entering the system and on interactions with various sediment components. Radionuclides associated with particles or aggregating polymers are removed from the water phase by sedimentation, while sorption to surface sediment layers is of relevance for ionic radionuclide species including negatively charged colloids. With time, transformation processes will influence the mobility of radionuclides in sediments. The diffusion into mineral lattices will increase fixation, while the influence of for instance red/ox conditions and bio-erosion may mobilize radionuclides originally fixed in radioactive particles. Thus, information of radionuclides species, surface interactions, transformation processes and kinetics is essential for reducing the uncertainties in marine transfer models. Dynamic model experiments where chemically well defined tracers are added to a sea water-marine sediment system are useful for providing information on time dependent interactions and distribution coefficients. When combined with sequential extraction techniques, information on mobility and rate of fixation is subsequently attained. In the present work experimental results from the Irish Sea and the Kara Sea will be discussed

  12. Man-made radionuclides in the environment and resulting radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.

    2009-01-01

    This contribution gives a survey about the sources of man-made environmental radioactivity and quantifies some of the resulting radiation exposures. The relevance of the different radionuclides with respect to the radiation exposures is discussed. Finally, the question of the effects of small doses is addressed. (orig.)

  13. Bayesian statistics in radionuclide metrology: measurement of a decaying source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochud, F. O.; Bailat, C.J.; Laedermann, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The most intuitive way of defining a probability is perhaps through the frequency at which it appears when a large number of trials are realized in identical conditions. The probability derived from the obtained histogram characterizes the so-called frequentist or conventional statistical approach. In this sense, probability is defined as a physical property of the observed system. By contrast, in Bayesian statistics, a probability is not a physical property or a directly observable quantity, but a degree of belief or an element of inference. The goal of this paper is to show how Bayesian statistics can be used in radionuclide metrology and what its advantages and disadvantages are compared with conventional statistics. This is performed through the example of an yttrium-90 source typically encountered in environmental surveillance measurement. Because of the very low activity of this kind of source and the small half-life of the radionuclide, this measurement takes several days, during which the source decays significantly. Several methods are proposed to compute simultaneously the number of unstable nuclei at a given reference time, the decay constant and the background. Asymptotically, all approaches give the same result. However, Bayesian statistics produces coherent estimates and confidence intervals in a much smaller number of measurements. Apart from the conceptual understanding of statistics, the main difficulty that could deter radionuclide metrologists from using Bayesian statistics is the complexity of the computation. (authors)

  14. Radioprotection technical entries for the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    These entries are devoted to responsible persons and employees of various laboratories or medical, pharmaceutical, university and industrial departments where radionuclides are handled as well as all the persons who attend to safety in this field. They contain the essential radiation protection data for the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources. This new series includes the following radionuclides: nickel 63; gallium 68; selenium 75; krypton 85; indium 111; cesium 137; barium 137m; iridium 192 and gold 198. (O.M.)

  15. Radionuclide and electric accelerator sources for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Matthews, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation processing of food requires radiation sources with high intensity, penetrability, reliability, and the flexibility to be adapted to current food processing techniques. Current proposed regulations limit the radiation sources which can be utilized to radionuclides or electrically-driven accelerators. Therefore, the power, throughput, and use efficiency of these sources are important factors affecting the design, installation, operation, and economics of large-scale food-processing facilities. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these sources is presented here, with special attention to the current status of both technologies, and with emphasis on the needs of the food-processing industry. (author)

  16. Radiation protection data sheets for the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    These radiation protection data sheets are intended for supervisors and staff in the different medical, hospital, pharmaceutical, university and industrial laboratories and departments where radionuclides are handled, and also for all those involved in risk prevention in this field. They provide essential data on radiation protection measures during the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources. The first seven data sheets published here cover tritium, carbon-14, phosphorus-32, strontium-90, - yttrium-90, iodine-125, iodine-131 and americium-241. The first radiation protection data sheets were published in the Cahier de Notes Documentaires in 1975: the series is now replaced by a new collection of more detailed documents. They have been enhanced with up-to-date technical and prevention data gathered as a result of the increasing use of radionuclides in industry, medicine and scientific research

  17. The sources and fate of radionuclides emitted to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalls, J.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis represents an account of the sources and fate of radionuclides entering the atmosphere, and indicates where the candidate, through his own work, has contributed to the overall picture. The sources of the natural and man-made radionuclides found in the atmosphere are identified. New data on emissions from UK coal-fired power stations and UK steel works are reported. Radionuclides produced in nuclear fission and released to the atmosphere in the detonation of nuclear weapons, in nuclear accidents, and through routine discharges from nuclear sites have added to the atmospheric burden of radioactive materials; both acute and chronic low-level emissions are discussed. The various natural processes which remove radionuclides from the atmosphere are described. Soon after release, many radioactive materials become attached to the atmospheric aerosol, but others undergo gas-phase reactions. Some gases are sufficiently long-lived in the troposphere as to find their way into the stratosphere where their fate may be determined by the short-wave radiation from the sun. The nature of the particles of fuel emitted to the atmosphere in the explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 are discussed, together with the associated environmental problems. The ground is the major sink for radionuclides leaving the atmosphere, and the behaviour of the more radiologically important radionuclides following deposition is described with special reference to: (i) fallout in both the urban and living environments; (ii) the pathways which may lead to contamination of the food chain; (iii) how the fuel particle fallout from Chernobyl was unique in nuclear accidents; (iv) soil-to-plant transfer of radioelements and (v) how radiation exposure of man can be mitigated in both the contaminated urban and rural environments. (author)

  18. Regulatory Technology Development Plan - Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term - Metal Fuel Radionuclide Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabaskas, David; Bucknor, Matthew; Jerden, James

    2016-01-01

    The development of an accurate and defensible mechanistic source term will be vital for the future licensing efforts of metal fuel, pool-type sodium fast reactors. To assist in the creation of a comprehensive mechanistic source term, the current effort sought to estimate the release fraction of radionuclides from metal fuel pins to the primary sodium coolant during fuel pin failures at a variety of temperature conditions. These release estimates were based on the findings of an extensive literature search, which reviewed past experimentation and reactor fuel damage accidents. Data sources for each radionuclide of interest were reviewed to establish release fractions, along with possible release dependencies, and the corresponding uncertainty levels. Although the current knowledge base is substantial, and radionuclide release fractions were established for the elements deemed important for the determination of offsite consequences following a reactor accident, gaps were found pertaining to several radionuclides. First, there is uncertainty regarding the transport behavior of several radionuclides (iodine, barium, strontium, tellurium, and europium) during metal fuel irradiation to high burnup levels. The migration of these radionuclides within the fuel matrix and bond sodium region can greatly affect their release during pin failure incidents. Post-irradiation examination of existing high burnup metal fuel can likely resolve this knowledge gap. Second, data regarding the radionuclide release from molten high burnup metal fuel in sodium is sparse, which makes the assessment of radionuclide release from fuel melting accidents at high fuel burnup levels difficult. This gap could be addressed through fuel melting experimentation with samples from the existing high burnup metal fuel inventory.

  19. Regulatory Technology Development Plan - Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term - Metal Fuel Radionuclide Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The development of an accurate and defensible mechanistic source term will be vital for the future licensing efforts of metal fuel, pool-type sodium fast reactors. To assist in the creation of a comprehensive mechanistic source term, the current effort sought to estimate the release fraction of radionuclides from metal fuel pins to the primary sodium coolant during fuel pin failures at a variety of temperature conditions. These release estimates were based on the findings of an extensive literature search, which reviewed past experimentation and reactor fuel damage accidents. Data sources for each radionuclide of interest were reviewed to establish release fractions, along with possible release dependencies, and the corresponding uncertainty levels. Although the current knowledge base is substantial, and radionuclide release fractions were established for the elements deemed important for the determination of offsite consequences following a reactor accident, gaps were found pertaining to several radionuclides. First, there is uncertainty regarding the transport behavior of several radionuclides (iodine, barium, strontium, tellurium, and europium) during metal fuel irradiation to high burnup levels. The migration of these radionuclides within the fuel matrix and bond sodium region can greatly affect their release during pin failure incidents. Post-irradiation examination of existing high burnup metal fuel can likely resolve this knowledge gap. Second, data regarding the radionuclide release from molten high burnup metal fuel in sodium is sparse, which makes the assessment of radionuclide release from fuel melting accidents at high fuel burnup levels difficult. This gap could be addressed through fuel melting experimentation with samples from the existing high burnup metal fuel inventory.

  20. Use of source term uncoupled in radionuclide migration equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Claudia Siqueira da; Lima, Zelmo Rodrigues de; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques

    2008-01-01

    Final repositories of high-level radioactive waste have been considered in deep, low permeability and stable geological formations. A common problem found is the migration modeling of radionuclides in a fractured rock. In this work, the physical system adopted consists of the rock matrix containing a single planar fracture situated in water saturated porous rock. The partial differential equations that describe the radionuclide transport were discretized using finite differences techniques, of which the following methods were adopted: Explicit Euler, Implicit Euler and Crank-Nicholson. For each one of these methods, the advective term was discretized with the following numerical schemes: backward differences, centered differences and forward differences. We make a comparison to determine which temporal and space discretization has the best result in relation to a reference solution. The obtained results show that the Explicit Euler Method with forward discretization in the advective term has a good accuracy. Next, with the objective of improving the answer of the Implicit Euler and Crank-Nicholson Methods it was accomplished a source term uncouplement, the diffusive flux. The obtained results were considered satisfactory by comparison with previous studies. (author)

  1. Sealed radionuclide sources - new technical specifications and current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabec, D

    1987-03-01

    Basic technical specifications are discussed valid in Czechoslovakia for sealed radionuclide sources, based on international ISO and CMEA standards. Described are the standardization of terminology, relationships of tests, testing methods, types of sealed sources and their applications, relations to Czechoslovak regulations on radiation protection and to IAEA specifications for radioactive material shipment, etc. Practical impact is shown of the introduction of the new standards governing sealed sources on the national economy, and the purpose is explained of various documents issued with sealed sources. (author). 2 figs., 45 refs.

  2. Methods radiation protection data sheets for the use radionuclides in unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    These radiation protection data sheets are devoted to responsible persons and employees of various laboratories or medical, pharmaceutical, university and industrial departments where radionuclides are handled as well as all the persons who attend to safety in this field. They contain the essential radiation protection data for the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources: physical characteristics, risk assessment, administrative procedures, recommendations, regulations and bibliography. This new series includes the following radionuclides: bromine 82, cobalt 58, cobalt 60, manganese 54, mercury 197, mercury 203, promethium 147, xenon 133 and ytterbium 169. (O.M.)

  3. Reference sources for radionuclide calibrations in nuclear programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da; Oliveira, E.M. de; Di Prinzio, M.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The radionuclide metrology laboratories aim to provide radioactive standards for detector calibrations in nuclear safety areas. To produce the reference sources to be furnished to users the following standards of 57 Co, 60 Co, 133 Ba, 241 Am, 152 Eu and 166 Ho are commonly used. In this work was made a verifying of the uncertainties obtained for the two methods: comparative (sample-standards) and efficiency curve. The total uncertainties obtained by sample-standard method varied from 0.4 to 1.2% (k = 1). The results using efficiency curve method to the same radioisotopes and same conditions are between 0.9 to 2.2% (k = 1). (author)

  4. Ionizing radiation and radionuclides in the environment: sources, origin, geochemical processes and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangic, A.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation related to the radioactivity and radionuclides appears to be ones of most dangerous environmental risks to the human health. The paper considers appearance and importance of radionuclides, both natural (cosmogenic and Earth's) and anthropogenic, mode of their entering into and movement through the environment. Most risk to the population are radionuclides related to the geological-geochemical systems - in Serbia, high concentrations of radionuclides related to these sources were indicated at a number of localities. Movement of radionuclides through the environment is regulated by the geochemical processes i.e. the geochemical cycles of the elements. For the discovering of radionuclides in the nature, the assessment of the health risks to the population and the related protection are necessary multilayer geochemical studies. (author)

  5. Estimation of scattering contribution in the calibration of neutron devices with radionuclide sources in rooms of different sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabaz Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calibrations of neutron devices used in area monitoring are often performed by radionuclide neutron sources. Device readings increase due to neutrons scattered by the surroundings and the air. The influence of said scattering effects have been investigated in this paper by performing Monte Carlo simulations for ten different radionuclide neutron sources inside several sizes of concrete wall spherical rooms (Rsp = 200 to 1500 cm. In order to obtain the parameters that relate the additional contribution from scattered neutrons, calculations using a polynomial fit model were evaluated. Obtained results show that the contribution of scattering is roughly independent of the geometric shape of the calibration room. The parameter that relates the room-return scattering has been fitted in terms of the spherical room radius, so as to reasonably accurately estimate the scattering value for each radionuclide neutron source in any geometry of the calibration room.

  6. Reference sources for radionuclide calibrations in nuclear programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da; Oliveira, E.M. de; Di Prinzio, M.A.R., E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2009-07-01

    The radionuclide metrology laboratories aim to provide radioactive standards for detector calibrations in nuclear safety areas. To produce the reference sources to be furnished to users the following standards of {sup 57}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 241}Am, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 166}Ho are commonly used. In this work was made a verifying of the uncertainties obtained for the two methods: comparative (sample-standards) and efficiency curve. The total uncertainties obtained by sample-standard method varied from 0.4 to 1.2% (k = 1). The results using efficiency curve method to the same radioisotopes and same conditions are between 0.9 to 2.2% (k = 1). (author)

  7. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  8. Establishment and application of a large calibration device of artificial radionuclide plane source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mingkao; Zhang Jiyun; Wang Xinxing; Zhang Sheng

    2010-01-01

    With the expansion of the application fields of nuclear techniques and the development of economy, more and more airborne/vehicle and other large γ spectrometers are applied in the environment radiation monitoring of artificial radioactive nuclides. In order to ensure the reliability of the monitoring results, a large calibration device of artificial radionuclide plane source is established. The paper introduces the device's built history and the results of application. (authors)

  9. Transuranic radionuclides in the Columbia River: sources, inventories, and geochemical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sources, inventories, and geochemical behavior of transuranic and other long-lived radionuclides in the lower Columbia River are summarized. Inventories have been estimated from the measured activities of the different radionuclides in 50 cores raised in 1977 and 1978, while annual export of transuranic radionuclides was determined from monthly water collections in the estuary. Continental shelf inventories of Pu and Am isotopes have been estimated using excess 210 Pb inventories and the mean 210 Pb//sup 239,240/Pu inventory ratio of 100 +/- 19 observed in representative cores raised from the shelf. Despite the substantial past addition of radioactivity to the river from operation of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford, the amounts of reactor-derived radionuclides in river sediments are small relative to fallout-derived nuclides. Erosional processes have mobilized both fallout-derived /sup 239,240/Pu and 137 Cs from the landscape to the river, but the quantities involved represent <1% of their fallout inventories within the river's drainage basin. 36 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  10. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolevatov, Yu.I.; Trykov, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252 Cf base with the activity from 10 6 to 10 9 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  11. Radionuclide sources in the Barents and Kara Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.N.; Ellis, K.M.; Forman, S.; Polyak, L.; Ivanov, G.; Matishov, D.; Kilius, L.

    1995-01-01

    A study of radionuclide distributions in the Barents Sea sediments was carried out in 1992. The conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) Elevated levels of artificial radionuclides as great as 15,000 Bq/kg for 239,240 Pu, 250 Bq/kg for 137 Cs and 100 Bq/kg for 60 Co were measured in sediments in Chermaya Bay which have been contaminated by several nuclear tests conducted in the 1950s. 2) Sediment-depth distributions of 239,240 Pu and other artificial radionuclides are consistent with results from biodiffusion models that are constrained by 210 Pb sediment-depth distributions. These results indicate that sedimentation rates in Chernaya Bay are low ( 249 Pu/ 239 Pu and 241 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios of 0.030 and 0.0012, respectively and a 241 Am/ 239,240 Pu activity ratio of 0.05 (compared to 0.3 in fallout) which provides a method for tracking its dispersion over distances of 100 km into the Barents Sea. 4) Artificial radionuclide levels in sediments and seawater near a sunken barge loaded with radioactive wastes in the Novaya Zemlya trough are similar to background fallout levels in the Kara Sea and provide little evidence for the release of radioactive contaminants from the dumpsite. 7 refs., 4 figs

  12. Toward a Mechanistic Source Term in Advanced Reactors: Characterization of Radionuclide Transport and Retention in a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunett, Acacia J.; Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David

    2016-04-17

    A vital component of the U.S. reactor licensing process is an integrated safety analysis in which a source term representing the release of radionuclides during normal operation and accident sequences is analyzed. Historically, source term analyses have utilized bounding, deterministic assumptions regarding radionuclide release. However, advancements in technical capabilities and the knowledge state have enabled the development of more realistic and best-estimate retention and release models such that a mechanistic source term assessment can be expected to be a required component of future licensing of advanced reactors. Recently, as part of a Regulatory Technology Development Plan effort for sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs), Argonne National Laboratory has investigated the current state of knowledge of potential source terms in an SFR via an extensive review of previous domestic experiments, accidents, and operation. As part of this work, the significant sources and transport processes of radionuclides in an SFR have been identified and characterized. This effort examines all stages of release and source term evolution, beginning with release from the fuel pin and ending with retention in containment. Radionuclide sources considered in this effort include releases originating both in-vessel (e.g. in-core fuel, primary sodium, cover gas cleanup system, etc.) and ex-vessel (e.g. spent fuel storage, handling, and movement). Releases resulting from a primary sodium fire are also considered as a potential source. For each release group, dominant transport phenomena are identified and qualitatively discussed. The key product of this effort was the development of concise, inclusive diagrams that illustrate the release and retention mechanisms at a high level, where unique schematics have been developed for in-vessel, ex-vessel and sodium fire releases. This review effort has also found that despite the substantial range of phenomena affecting radionuclide release, the

  13. The role of laboratory animals in studying bone cancer resulting from skeletally deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Miller, S.C.; Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Griffith, W.C.; Guilmette, R.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    There is a continuing need to determine and understand the long-term health risks of internally deposited radionuclides in persons exposed medically or occupationally, or from radionuclides in the environment. A full understanding of these health risks, particularly for exposures involving low doses and dose rates, requires in-depth knowledge of both the dosimetry of a given exposure and the resulting long-term biological effects. Human data on 224 Ra and 226,228 Ra and their decay products are our primary sources of knowledge on the health risks of chronic alpha irradiation of the skeleton and serve as essential segments of our radiation protection practices for internally deposited radionuclides. However, we cannot obtain all of the needed information from these studies. This paper examines the role of laboratory animal studies in complementing and extending the knowledge of radiation-induced bone cancer obtained from studies of humans exposed to 224 Ra or 226,228 Ra

  14. Impact assessment of radionuclides released to environment from the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.; Andersson, K. [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Ene, D. [European Spallation Soure AB - ESS, Lund (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a large science and technology infrastructure project currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, with operation planned by 2019. The facility design and construction includes a linear proton accelerator, a heavy-metal target station, neutron instruments, laboratories, and a data management and software development centre. During operation the ESS will produce a wide range of radionuclides via spallation and activation processes. Radiological assessments are needed to ensure that operational discharges and releases from potential incidents/accidents are within acceptable limits. The spectrum of radionuclides produced at ESS is quite different from that produced in nuclear power plants and assessment work has therefore been challenged by lack of information on less well-known radionuclides. Traditional assessment methodologies have been applied focusing on releases to air and public sewer systems and calculating radiation doses to representative persons living in and near Lund close to the ESS site. Exposure pathways considered include external radiation from radionuclides in air, external radiation from radionuclides deposited on ground and skin, inhalation of radionuclides and ingestion of locally produced contaminated food. Atmospheric dispersion has been simulated with the Gaussian plume model which is considered adequate within a few kilometres. Effects of release height have been investigated and site specific values of other parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, rain fall etc. have been used. Contamination of food has been calculated from the (ECOSYS) food dose model used in the RODOS and ARGOS decision support systems. The food dose model does not contain specific data for a number of ESS relevant radionuclides, e.g. {sup 7}Be, {sup 32}P and {sup 35}S. The data required include mobility of these isotopes, soil-to-plant concentration ratios and equilibrium transfer factors of daily intake by ingestion of meat

  15. Radioactivity in papers: the concentration and source of naturally occurring radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, Asaya

    2005-01-01

    The radioactivities of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K) in papers such as magazines, newspapers, and copying papers produced in Japan were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry to obtain information on radioactivity level of papers. The X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples was also carried out to elucidate the source of radionuclides contained in them. The average 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K contents of pocket-sized books were 6.4, 21.5, 23.7, and 18.8 Bq kg -1 , respectively, and those of other kinds of samples were near to or less than the values. The 228 Th content was generally somewhat higher than the 228 Ra content. Possibly 228 Ra was leached from the raw materials of the papers to water during their production in preference to 228 Th. The concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides were correlated to each other. The X-ray diffraction study showed that kaolinite, talc, and calcite were contained in the papers. The kaolinite content of the samples was correlated to the concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides, indicating that the naturally occurring radionuclides in the paper samples were mainly brought with kaolinite used as filler or coating pigment in the papers. The regression analysis of the data showed that the natural radioactivity content of filler kaolinite was higher than that of pigment kaolinite. (author)

  16. Application of radionuclide sources for excitation in energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, P.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is in broad application in many fields of science where elemental determinations are necessary. Solid and liquid samples are analyzed by this method. Solids are introduced in thin or thick samples as melted glass, pellets, powders or as original specimen. The excitation of X-ray spectra can be performed by specific and polychromic radiation of X-ray tubes, by protons, deuterons, α-particles, heavy ions and synchrotron radiation from accelerators and by α-particles, X- and γ-rays and by bremsstrahlung generated by β - -particles from radionuclide sources. The radionuclides are devided into groups with respect to their decay mode and the energy of the emitted radiation. The broad application of radionuclides in XRF excitation is shown in examples as semi-quantitative analysis of glasses, as quantitative analysis of coarse ceramics and as quantitative determination of heavy elements (mainly actinides) in solutions. The advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide excitation in XRF analysis are discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. The results of artificial radionuclides monitoring in the Baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrauskiene, N.; Lukinskiene, M; Zemaitiene, G.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term radionuclides volume activity (v.a.) monitoring (1976-1990) data showed that measurement results obtained in steady observation station give reliable information of the coastal area of the Baltic sea radioactive equilibrium between atmosphere and surface water was observed in the coastal zone. Chernobyl Power Plant accident influenced upon the Baltic sea coastal water by radionuclides 137 Cs and 144 Ce. Radionuclide 90 Sr volume activity was practically unchangerable. The mechanism of radionuclides fallout from atmosphere are various. lt can be illustrated by 137 Cs and 144 Ce a.v. structure field variations in open sea and coastal zone near Juodkrante. The Baltic sea inhomogeneous contamination by radionuclide 137 Cs in 1988-1990 leads to equalization of 137 Cs v.a. in the surface waters and it causes v.a. increase in coastal waters. (author)

  18. SFACTOR: a computer code for calculating dose equivalent to a target organ per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in a source organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Pleasant, J.C.; Killough, G.G.

    1977-11-01

    A computer code SFACTOR was developed to estimate the average dose equivalent S (rem/..mu..Ci-day) to each of a specified list of target organs per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in source organs in man. Source and target organs of interest are specified in the input data stream, along with the nuclear decay information. The SFACTOR code computes components of the dose equivalent rate from each type of decay present for a particular radionuclide, including alpha, electron, and gamma radiation. For those transuranic isotopes which also decay by spontaneous fission, components of S from the resulting fission fragments, neutrons, betas, and gammas are included in the tabulation. Tabulations of all components of S are provided for an array of 22 source organs and 24 target organs for 52 radionuclides in an adult.

  19. SFACTOR: a computer code for calculating dose equivalent to a target organ per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in a source organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Pleasant, J.C.; Killough, G.G.

    1977-11-01

    A computer code SFACTOR was developed to estimate the average dose equivalent S (rem/μCi-day) to each of a specified list of target organs per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in source organs in man. Source and target organs of interest are specified in the input data stream, along with the nuclear decay information. The SFACTOR code computes components of the dose equivalent rate from each type of decay present for a particular radionuclide, including alpha, electron, and gamma radiation. For those transuranic isotopes which also decay by spontaneous fission, components of S from the resulting fission fragments, neutrons, betas, and gammas are included in the tabulation. Tabulations of all components of S are provided for an array of 22 source organs and 24 target organs for 52 radionuclides in an adult

  20. Primary calibrations of radionuclide solutions and sources for the EML quality assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisenne, I.M. [Dept. of Energy, New York, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The quality assurance procedures established for the operation of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Measurements Laboratory (DOE-EML`s) Quality Assessment Program (QAP) are essentially the same as those that are in effect for any EML program involving radiometric measurements. All these programs have at their core the use of radionuclide standards for their instrument calibration. This paper focuses on EML`s approach to the acquisition, calibration and application of a wide range of radionuclide sources that are required to meet its programmatic needs.

  1. Change of the Asian dust source region deduced from the composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Igarashi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent climate change, especially during the 2000s, may be the primary reason for the expansion of the Asian dust source region. The change in the dust source region was investigated by examining anthropogenic radionuclides contained in surface soil samples from Mongolia. Surface soil was globally labeled by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the late 1950s and early 1960s, but there are no current direct sources for anthropogenic radionuclides in the air (before the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011. Radionuclides in the atmosphere are therefore carried mainly by wind-blown dust from surface soil, that is, aeolian dust. Asian dust carries traces of 90Sr, 137Cs, and other anthropogenic radionuclides; the heaviest deposition occurs in spring and has been recorded in Japan since the early 1990s. The composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in atmospheric depositions would be affected by a change in the dust source. Previous studies of atmospheric deposition at long-term monitoring sites (e.g. in Tsukuba, Japan have detected changes in the 137Cs/90Sr ratio and in the specific activity of the radionuclides. These changes in the composition of observed atmospheric depositions are supposed to reflect changes in the climatic conditions of the dust source region. To investigate this dust source change, we conducted a field survey of radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs in surface soil samples in September 2007 in the eastern and southern regions of Mongolia, where dust storms have occurred more frequently since 2000. The specific activities of both radionuclides as well as the 137Cs/90Sr ratio in the surface soil were well correlated with annual average precipitation in the Mongolian desert-steppe zone. Higher specific activities and a higher 137Cs/90Sr ratio were found in grassland regions that experienced greater

  2. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  3. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations)

  4. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).

  5. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Frenchman Flat is one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) used for underground nuclear testing (Figure 1-1). These nuclear tests resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the underground test areas. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) of the Frenchman Flat underground test areas. Since 1996, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) has regulated NNSA/NSO corrective actions through the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' ([FFACO], 1996). Appendix VI of the FFACO agreement, ''Corrective Action Strategy'', was revised on December 7, 2000, and describes the processes that will be used to complete corrective actions, including those in the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. The individual locations covered by the agreement are known as corrective action sites (CASs), which are grouped into corrective action units (CAUs). The UGTA CASs are grouped geographically into five CAUs: Frenchman Flat, Central Pahute Mesa, Western Pahute Mesa, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, and Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (Figure 1-1). These CAUs have distinctly different contaminant source, geologic, and hydrogeologic characteristics related to their location (FFACO, 1996). The Frenchman Flat CAU consists of 10 CASs located in the northern part of Area 5 and the southern part of Area 11 (Figure 1-1). This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Frenchman Flat, CAU 98. The methodology used to estimate hydrologic source terms (HSTs) for the Frenchman Flat CAU is also documented. The HST of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total inventory of radionuclides that is released over time into the groundwater following the test. The total residual inventory of radionuclides associated with one or

  6. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  7. THE PROBLEMS OF USING EXEMPTION ACTIVITY VALUES FOR REGULATING THE MANAGEMENT OF SEALED RADIONUCLIDE SOURCES OF GAMMA-RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the procedure for exemption of the sealed and unsealed radionuclide sources of gamma radiation from regulatory control. The contradictory nature of the existing set of exemption criteria has been noted, leading, in some cases, to paradoxical situations. It is shown that the exempt activity values determined in NRB-99/2009 and in the international basic safety standards of the IAEA are significantly overestimated (in comparison with the activity values of a point source creating the ambient dose equivalent rate of 1 μSv / h at a distance of 0.1 m for a number of the most widely used gamma-emitting radionuclides, including 22Na, 54Mn, 75Se, 152Eu and 154Eu. It is proposed to revise the current values of exempt activity, bringing them in line with the dose rate criterion for the exempt of sealed radionuclide sources of gamma radiation, and to present them with one significant digit. The corrected values of exempt activity for  seven selected radionuclides are proposed for further use in the process of revision of the national radiation safety standards.

  8. Monte Carlo calculation of correction factors for radionuclide neutron source emission rate measurement by manganese bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunjuan; Liu Yi'na; Zhang Weihua; Wang Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The manganese bath method for measuring the neutron emission rate of radionuclide sources requires corrections to be made for emitted neutrons which are not captured by manganese nuclei. The Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP was used to simulate the manganese bath system of the standards for the measurement of neutron source intensity. The correction factors were calculated and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through the key comparison for the radionuclide neutron source emission rate measurements organized by BIPM. The uncertainties in the calculated values were evaluated by considering the sensitivities to the solution density, the density of the radioactive material, the positioning of the source, the radius of the bath, and the interaction cross-sections. A new method for the evaluation of the uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculation was given. (authors)

  9. Evaluation on In-vessel Source Term in PGSFR (2015 Results)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Won; Chang, Won-Pyo; Ha, Kwi-Seok; Ahn, Sang June; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chi-Woong; Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Kim, Jin Su; Jeong, Taekyeong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This strategy requires nuclear plants to have features that prevent radionuclide release and multiple barriers to the escape from the plants of any radionuclides that are released despite preventive measures. Considerations of the ability to prevent and mitigate release of radionuclides arise at numerous places in the safety regulations of nuclear plants. The effectiveness of mitigative capabilities in nuclear plants is subject to quantitative analysis. The radionuclide input to these quantitative analyses of effectiveness is the Source Term (ST). All features of the composition, magnitude, timing, chemical form and physical form of accidental radionuclide release constitute the ST. Also, ST is defined as the release of radionuclides from the fuel and coolant into the containment, and subsequently to the environment. Since the TMI accident in 1979, extensive experimental and analytical information has been accumulated on the accident ST for LWRs. Such mechanistic models and computer codes as the MELCOR and MAAP have been developed. The results of extensive calculations and experiments have been used to formulate an alternative to the simple TID-14844 ST for regulatory purpose. The in-vessel STs are calculated through several phases: The inventory of each radionuclide is calculated by ORIGEN-2 code using the peak burnup conditions. The nominal value of the radiological inventory is multiplied by a factor of 1.1 as an uncertainty margin to give the radiological inventory. ST in the release from the core to primary sodium is calculated by using the assumption of 4S methodology. Lastly, ST in the release from the primary sodium to cover gas space is calculated by using the assumption of 4S methodology.

  10. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  11. Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Child, David; Lane, Patrick; Hotchkis, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%, respectively. No systematic change in the source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the sediment tracing with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris flow events.

  12. Man-made radionuclides in the environment and resulting radiation exposures; Anthropogene Radionuklide in der Umwelt und daraus resultierende Strahlenexpositionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, R. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie

    2009-07-01

    This contribution gives a survey about the sources of man-made environmental radioactivity and quantifies some of the resulting radiation exposures. The relevance of the different radionuclides with respect to the radiation exposures is discussed. Finally, the question of the effects of small doses is addressed. (orig.)

  13. Development of repository-wide radionuclide transport model considering the effects of multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Koichiro; Watari, Shingo; Ijiri, Yuji

    1999-11-01

    Safety assessment of the geological isolation system according to the groundwater scenario has traditionally been conducted based on the signal canister configuration and then the safety of total system has been evaluated based on the dose rates which were obtained by multiplying the migration rates released from the engineered barrier and/or the natural barrier by dose conversion factors and total number of canisters disposed in the repository. The dose conversion factors can be obtained from the biosphere analysis. In this study, we focused on the effect of multiple sources due to the disposal of canisters at different positions in the repository. By taking the effect of multiple sources into consideration, concentration interference in the repository region is possible to take place. Therefore, radionuclide transport model/code considering the effect of concentration interference due to the multiple sources was developed to make assessments of the effect quantitatively. The newly developed model/code was verified through the comparison analysis with the existing radionuclide transport analysis code used in the second progress report. In addition, the effect of the concentration interference was evaluated by setting a simple problem using the newly developed analysis code. This results shows that the maximum park value of the migration rates from the repository was about two orders of magnitude lower than that based on single canister configuration. Since the analysis code was developed by assuming that all canisters disposed of along the one-dimensional groundwater flow contribute to the concentration interference in the repository region, the assumption should be verified by conducting two or three-dimensional analysis considering heterogeneous geological structure as a future work. (author)

  14. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  15. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  16. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  17. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  18. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Martian

    2009-05-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for CAU 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine. The total residual inventory of radionuclides associated with one or more tests is known as the radiologic source term (RST). The RST is comprised of radionuclides in water, glass, or other phases or mineralogic forms. The hydrologic source term (HST) of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total RST that is released into the groundwater over time following the test. In this report, the HST represents radionuclide release some time after the explosion and does not include the rapidly evolving mechanical, thermal, and chemical processes during the explosion. The CAU 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine has many more detonations and a wider variety of settings to consider compared to other CAUs. For instance, the source term analysis and evaluation performed for CAUs 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa and CAU 98: Frenchman Flat did not consider vadose zone attenuation because many detonations were located near or below the water table. However, the large number of Yucca Flat/Climax Mine tests and the location of many tests above the water table warrant a more robust analysis of the unsaturated zone.

  19. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  20. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  1. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-12-12

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  2. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene

    2005-09-01

    Frenchman Flat is one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) used for underground nuclear testing (Figure 1-1). These nuclear tests resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the underground test areas. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) of the Frenchman Flat underground test areas. Since 1996, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) has regulated NNSA/NSO corrective actions through the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' ([FFACO], 1996). Appendix VI of the FFACO agreement, ''Corrective Action Strategy'', was revised on December 7, 2000, and describes the processes that will be used to complete corrective actions, including those in the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. The individual locations covered by the agreement are known as corrective action sites (CASs), which are grouped into corrective action units (CAUs). The UGTA CASs are grouped geographically into five CAUs: Frenchman Flat, Central Pahute Mesa, Western Pahute Mesa, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, and Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (Figure 1-1). These CAUs have distinctly different contaminant source, geologic, and hydrogeologic characteristics related to their location (FFACO, 1996). The Frenchman Flat CAU consists of 10 CASs located in the northern part of Area 5 and the southern part of Area 11 (Figure 1-1). This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Frenchman Flat, CAU 98. The methodology used to estimate hydrologic source terms (HSTs) for the Frenchman Flat CAU is also documented. The HST of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total inventory of radionuclides that is released over time into the groundwater following the test. The total residual inventory

  3. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  4. Radiation exposure parameters resulting from the radionuclides in soil collected from Manavalakurichi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, Reeba Maria; Ben Byju, S.; Arunima, S.; Jojo, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) are and have always been a part of our environment. Exposure to ionizing radiation film natural sources is a continuous and unavoidable feature of life on earth. Human beings are exposed outdoors to the natural terrestrial radiation that originates predominantly from the upper 30 cm of the soil. Only radionuclides with half-lives comparable with the age of the earth or their corresponding decay products existing in terrestrial material such as 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K are of great interest. The radiological implication of these radionuclides is due to the gamma ray exposure of the body and irradiation of lung tissue from inhalation of radon and its daughters. Therefore the assessment of gamma radiation dose from natural source is of particular importance as natural radiation is the largest contributor to the external dose of the world population. The natural environmental radioactivity and the external exposure due to gamma radiation depend primarily on the geology and geographical condition and appear at different levels in the soils of each region in the world. A systematic radiological survey has been carried out in the region of high level natural radioactive area in South West India to assess the natural gamma radiation level

  5. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  6. Airborne radionuclides in the proglacial environment as indicators of sources and transfers of soil material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokas, Edyta; Wachniew, Przemysław; Jodłowski, Paweł; Gąsiorek, Michał

    2017-11-01

    A survey of artificial ( 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am) and natural ( 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, 210 Pb) radioactive isotopes in proglacial soils of an Arctic glacier have revealed high spatial variability of activity concentrations and inventories of the airborne radionuclides. Soil column 137 Cs inventories range from below the detection limit to nearly 120 kBq m -2 , this value significantly exceeding direct atmospheric deposition. This variability may result from the mixing of materials characterised by different contents of airborne radionuclides. The highest activity concentrations observed in the proglacial soils may result from the deposition of cryoconites, which have been shown to accumulate airborne radionuclides on the surface of glaciers. The role of cryoconites in radionuclide accumulation is supported by the concordant enrichment of the naturally occurring airborne 210 Pb in proglacial soil cores showing elevated levels of artificial radionuclides. The lithogenic radionuclides show less variability than the airborne radionuclides because their activity concentrations are controlled only by the mixing of material derived from the weathering of different parent rocks. Soil properties vary little within and between the profiles and there is no unequivocal relationship between them and the radionuclide contents. The inventories reflect the pathways and time variable inputs of soil material to particular sites of the proglacial zone. Lack of the airborne radionuclides reflects no deposition of material exposed to the atmosphere after the 1950s or its removal by erosion. Inventories above the direct atmospheric deposition indicate secondary deposition of radionuclide-bearing material. Very high inventories indicate sites where transport pathways of cryoconite material terminated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental radioactivity in Caithness and Sutherland. Pt. 1: Food-chain model validation and the attribution of radionuclide sources to deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, C.L.; Halliwell, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    This study is part of a continuing programme investigating the behaviour of environmental radioactivity in the vicinity of the AEA Technology establishment at Dounreay, Caithness and Sutherland. The study aims were to assess the applicability of a National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) food-chain model to the Caithness and Sutherland area, and to determine the contribution of different radionuclide sources to activities in measured total deposition in the same region. The NRPB model predicts the movement of radionuclides through the food-chain, and in this study was validated by comparing model outputs with measured crop data (ryegrass and clover). Five radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am) were considered. The contribution of different radionuclide sources to activities in total deposition were divided into three categories: Dounreay stack inputs, sea-to-land transfer, and the combined contribution from nuclear weapons testing and Chernobyl fallout. The analyses indicated that the contribution of the Dounreay stack to total deposition was very small for the radionuclides studied. The Chernobyl accident made a large impact on the total deposition of 137 Cs in the study area, and 90 Sr deposition was also affected by this, but to a much lesser extent. The Chernobyl accident appeared to have no effect on total Pu deposition in the region. The cessation of nuclear weapons testing and the length of time since Chernobyl meant that actual 137 Cs and 90 Sr deposition as a result of weapons/Chernobyl inputs had reached a low level by the end of the study period (summer 1987). It became evident that a contribution to total deposition was being made by additional factors, thought to be local resuspension of large particles for 137 Cs, and possibly deposition of plant material for 90 Sr. For Pu, sea-to-land transfer was probably an important contributor at coastal sites. (Author)

  8. Change in radionuclide content of crops as a result of food preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, J.; Nicholson, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclides, including 3 H, 14 C and 35 S, are periodically and routinely discharged from nuclear powered electricity generation sites and it is important to assess the radiological impact of such discharges on humans due to food consumption. Foodstuffs may be cooked before being eaten and this can change their radionuclide content. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a range of domestic food preparation techniques on the radionuclide contents of a range of food types. Radionuclide concentrations of tritium (free tritium, HTO, and organically bound tritium, (OBT), 14 C and 35 S were examined in a selection of fruit and vegetables that would form part of a typical diet. The foodstuffs included blackberries, broad beans, cabbages, carrots and potatoes (at two stages of development). The preparation techniques included boiling (potatoes, carrots, broad beans), roasting (potatoes), steaming (cabbage), or stewing (blackberries). In general, the radionuclide concentrations were reduced at the crops by at least 30% after preparation using any of the cooking techniques. The concentrations of 35 S fell by at least 60%, and this radionuclide showed the greatest reductions in the levels of HTO and 35 S. The results of this work indicate that the effects of cooking should be considered when assessing the dose received from the intake of foodstuffs. (Author)

  9. Radiation protection data sheet. Radiation protection data sheets for the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    These radiation protection data sheet are devoted to responsible persons and employees of various laboratories or medical, pharmaceutical, university and industrial departments where radionuclides are handled as well as all the persons who attend to satisfy in this field. They contain the essential radiation protection data for the use of unsealed sources: physical characteristics, risk assessment, administrative procedures, recommendations, regulations and bibliography. This new series includes the following radionuclides: californium 252, curium 244, gallium 67, indium 113m, plutonium 238, plutonium 239, polonium 210, potassium 42, radium 226, thorium 232, uranium 238 and zinc 65. (O.M.)

  10. Quality assurance in the analysis of natural radionuclides - measures and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, M [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    In the Laboratory for Environmental and Radionuclide Analytics we analyze several natural and also some artificial radionuclides in different materials. For the determination of radionuclides we use various analytical methods. (orig./DG)

  11. A method of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment using environmental radionuclides. A case study of Tsuzura river watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizugaki, Shigeru; Onda, Yuichi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Koga, Satoko; Hiramatsu, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    To study the fluvial sediment sources in forested watershed in Shikoku Island, Japan, the concentration of Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex and U decay series radionuclides were analyzed. The study area in the midstream of Shimanto River basin, located 700 km southwest of Tokyo. The 0.33 km 2 area watershed ranges in elevation from 170 m to 560 m above sea level. The soil sampling was conducted in hillslopes in various locations such as landslide scar, soil surface in unmanaged Hinoki (Chamacecyparis obtusa) plantation and unsealed forest road, and detailed sampling in the stream bed and bank was also conducted in several tributaries. Time-integrated suspended sediment sampler was adopted to obtain enough volume of sample to determine the radionuclides. The activities of Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-214 and Bi-214 of soils and fluvial sediments were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Correction for the effect of particle size distribution and organic matter content on the radionuclides were conducted to compare the radionuclides concentration between the soils of potential suspended sediment sources and fluvial sediments. It was found that there were significant differences of Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex concentration between forest floor or runoff sediment and forest road or stream bank. The Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex concentration of suspended sediment varied among them, suggesting the possibility of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment by Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex . (author)

  12. Peculiarities of radionuclide transfer to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkus, D.; Andriulaityte, I.; Luksiene, B.; Druteikiene, R.

    2003-01-01

    The biosphere and its interacting components (air, soil, bottom sediments, flora, fauna, human beings) are constantly affected by ionizing radiation. One of the ionizing radiation sources is noble radioactive gas that is continually released into the environment because of the normal operation of nuclear power plants (short-lived and long-lived noble gas) and nuclear fuel-reprocessing plants (long-lived noble gas). Another source is related to nuclear tests and the Chernobyl NPP accident, when long-lived gaseous and aerosol radionuclides ( 85 Kr, transuranics, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, etc) were spread in all environmental systems. In order to evaluate the mechanism of radionuclide transfer to plants, model experimental investigation using gaseous 85 Kr and ionic state 137 Cs was undertaken. For this purpose specific chambers with defined physical parameters were applied. The gained tentative results show the importance of these experiments for the estimation of radionuclide transfer to plants and for the prognosis of human internal irradiation. (author)

  13. Release of radionuclides following severe accident in interim storage facility. Source term determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandi, S.; Mariani, M.; Giacobbo, F.; Covini, R.

    2006-01-01

    Among the severe accidents that can cause the release of radionuclides from an interim storage facility, with a consequent relevant radiological impact on the population, there is the impact of an aircraft on the facility. In this work, a safety assessment analysis for the case of an aircraft crash into an interim storage facility is tackled. To this aim a methodology, based upon DOE, IAEA and NUREG standard procedures and upon conservative yet realistic hypothesis, has been developed in order to evaluate the total radioactivity, source term, released to the biosphere in consequence of the impact, without recurring to the use of complicated numerical codes. The procedure consists in the identification of the accidental scenarios, in the evaluation of the consequent damage to the building structures and to the waste packages and in the determination of the total release of radionuclides through the building-atmosphere interface. The methodology here developed has been applied to the case of an aircraft crash into an interim storage facility currently under design. Results show that in case of perforation followed by a fire incident the total released activity would be greater of some orders of magnitude with respect to the case of mere perforation. (author)

  14. Underground radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimz, G.J.; Thompson, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This document reviews results from a number of studies concerning underground migration of radionuclides from nuclear test cavities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Discussed are all cases known to the Department of Energy's Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program where radionuclides have been detected outside of the immediate vicinity of nuclear test cavities that are identifiable as the-source of the nuclides, as well as cases where radionuclides might have been expected and were intentionally sought but not fixed. There are nine locations where source-identifiable radionuclide migration has been detected, one where migration was purposely induced by pumping, and three where migration might be expected but was not found. In five of the nine cases of non-induced migration, the inferred migration mechanism is prompt fracture injection during detonation. In the other four cases, the inferred migration mechanism is water movement. In only a few of the reviewed cases can the actual migration mechanism be stated with confidence, and the attempt has been made to indicate the level of confidence for each case. References are cited where more information may be obtained. As an aid to future study, this document concludes with a brief discussion of the aspects of radionuclide migration that, as the present review indicates, are not yet understood. A course of action is suggested that would produce a better understanding of the phenomenon of radionuclide migration

  15. Update of NIST half-life results corrected for ionization chamber source-holder instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterweger, M.P.; Fitzgerald, R.

    2014-01-01

    As reported at the ICRM 2011, it was discovered that the source holder used for calibrations in the NIST 4πγ ionization chamber (IC) was not stable. This has affected a large number of half-life measurement results previously reported and used in compilations of nuclear data. Corrections have been made on all of the half-life data based on the assumption that the changes to the ionization chamber response were gradual. The corrections are energy dependent and therefore radionuclide specific. This presentation will review our results and present the recommended changes in half-life values and/or uncertainties. - Highlights: • The NIST half-life data is corrected for sample positioning variations and refitted. • These results are reported and increased errors in the reported values are given. • Longer lived radionuclides are discussed

  16. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  17. Unclassified Sources Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Martian

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for CAU 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine. The total residual inventory of radionuclides associated with one or more tests is known as the radiologic source term (RST). The RST is comprised of radionuclides in water, glass, or other phases or mineralogic forms. The hydrologic source term (HST) of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total RST that is released into the groundwater over time following the test. In this report, the HST represents radionuclide release some time after the explosion and does not include the rapidly evolving mechanical, thermal, and chemical processes during the explosion. The CAU 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine has many more detonations and a wider variety of settings to consider compared to other CAUs. For instance, the source term analysis and evaluation performed for CAUs 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa and CAU 98: Frenchman Flat did not consider vadose zone attenuation because many detonations were located near or below the water table. However, the large number of Yucca Flat/Climax Mine tests and the location of many tests above the water table warrant a more robust analysis of the unsaturated zone. The purpose of this report is to develop and document conceptual models of the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine HST for use in implementing source terms for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine models. This document presents future plans to incorporate the radionuclide attenuation mechanisms due to unsaturated/multiphase flow and transport within the Yucca Flat CAU scale modeling. The important processes that influence radionuclide migration for the unsaturated and saturated tests in alluvial, volcanic, and carbonate settings are identified. Many different flow and transport models developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including original

  18. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  19. Field surveying of radionuclide contamination in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turunen, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Ammann, M.

    2009-01-01

    Field measurements of radionuclides after an accidental contamination of forests assume the capacity for identification of a number of nuclides in varying source geometries. The continuous redistribution of radionuclides in forests through natural processes implies a decrease of prevailing surface contamination of trees and an increase in activity density on the ground. Portable gamma spectrometers have long been based on Na(I) detectors which, due to their low energy resolution, are not the tool for analysis of contamination from accidental releases of fission and activation products in the first days or weeks after a deposition. Data of airborne radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 were used for demonstration of initial and later distribution of radionuclides as sources of air Kerma in forests. Forest model (FDMF, PV. 6.0) of the RODOS system was used for the assessment of time-dependent Kerma rate from different forest compartments. The results show the fast reduction of activities of short-lived nuclides and their contributions to the Kerma rate in the first weeks and months. The results also give an estimate for the time needed until a gamma spectrometer with a low energy resolution would give useful information about long-lived radioactivity on the forest floor. An example is given on a portable high resolution semiconductor spectrometer that has suitable characteristics for field surveying also during occurrence of a great number of radionuclides contributing to the gamma spectrum. The needs for further research of a recently deposited radionuclide contamination on forest vegetation and soil, and the efforts for improvement of portable radiation meters and their use in management planning and radioecological research on contaminated forests are discussed. (au)

  20. The performance test of NAA laboratory at radionuclide measure with low activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Sukirno

    2016-01-01

    The performance test to measure the I-131 radionuclide activity has been carried out at CAST-NAA laboratory. The purpose of this activity is to know the performance of a laboratory in the testing of low radioactivity sample. The tested sample consists of the form I-131 radionuclide sources shaped thin plastic disk with a certain weight. Evaluation of laboratory performance test results carried out by the organizer of the program test appeal (PTKMR-BATAN). Evaluation results showed that testing of point source of the I-131 radionuclide with comparative method gives a good enough results with errors below 10%. The results of the performance test evaluation are useful as the external quality control to a testing method that is expected in NAA laboratory. (author)

  1. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  2. Results of radionuclide ventriculography in normal children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Krejcir, M.; Ruth, C.

    1989-01-01

    In order to assess the range of normal values in radionuclide ventriculography, 53 normal children and adolescents were selected in retrospect. All were exdamined by radionuclide angiocardiography on account of clinical and echocardiographical suspicion of congenital heart disease with a left-to-right shunt; a significant shunt was, however, excluded. In all patients, after equilibration of the radiopharmaceutical the ventricular function was examined by radionuclide ventriculography. The usual volume, time and rate characteristics were evaluated. The normal range was defined as the mean ±2 standard deviations which is 47 to 72% for the ejection fraction of the left ventricle and 31 to 56% for the ejection fraction of the right ventricle. (author). 2 tabs., 18 refs

  3. S values for selected radionuclides and organs with the heart wall and heart contents as source organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, J.L.; Watson, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    The generalized heart model of MIRD Pamphlet No. 5, Revised has no separation of heart wall from heart contents, and no phi values were listed for heart as either a source or target organ. Because of this, the heart model of the heterogeneous phantom for dosimetry calculations was revised and a description of this model and specific absorbed fractions will be published in MIRD Pamphlet No. 13. The purpose of this study is to use the specific absorbed fractions from MIRD-13 and decay scheme data to produce tables of S values (absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) for selected radionuclides with the heart wall and heart contents as the source organs. As in the MIRD reports the activity is assumed to be uniformly distributed in the source organs. The phi values for the photon energies of a given radionuclide were found by lineraly interpolating between the energies listed in MIRD-13. When the source and target are the same, all nonpenetrating radiations are assumed to be absorbed in the organ in which they originate. For organs with walls and with the contents as the source, the dose to the wall from nonpenetrating radiations is assumed to be half of the dose to the contents

  4. Recommendations: Introducing the quality system into the use of significant ionizing radiation sources in radiotherapy. Radionuclide irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document is a recommendation which sums up requirements of the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic, IEC and EN Standards and recommendations of the Czech Society for Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics applicable to radionuclide sources used in radiotherapy in the Czech Republic. This document should serve as a tool when developing Quality Assurance programmes, particularly for operating and long-term stability tests. Described are the procedure to inspect the parameter in question, evaluation of results and frequency of parameter inspections. (P.A.)

  5. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzerman, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  6. The foundation of computer based closed radionuclide sources turnover control system in Moscow city region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.E.; Kozlov, A.A.; Lavrov, K.N.; Sobolev, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of Closed Radionuclide Sources (CRS) automated account and control in Moscow city and Moscow region. Information relations structure between authorities and enterprises is shown. Special computer oriented system of CRS turnover monitoring is used for this purposes. Its possibilities and numeric characteristics of database are mentioned. This system benefit and application aspects are discussed in detail. (author)

  7. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard

  8. RADIONUCLIDES DISTRIBUTION NEAR FORMER URANIUM MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zaredinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows, that radionuclides from the stony rocks of uranium mines can be leached by atmospheric precipitations. In acid conditions, a degree of leaching is greater.Goal. The aim of this investigation was to study the distribution of radionuclides in uranium minings and their impact on the environmental contamination.Materials and methods. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a blade of rock was mixed with distilled water in proportions of 0,3 kg of gravel and 1 liter of water. After thirty days of soaking, water was sent to the gamma-spectrometric analysis to Canberra’s spectrometer (USA with a high-purity germanium detector. In the second stage, we carried out the similar experiment with water, wich was acidified to pH = 3. Contamination levels of areas near the in-situ leaching mine were determined. Intervention levels were used to estimate risk and possible water consumption by the population. Estimations were carried out taking into account the combined presence of several radionuclides in the water.Results. The results of these studies have shown that the distribution of radionuclides from the source of the contamination is about 360 meters during the 30 y period. The stream, along which samples of soil were collected and studied, was formed by the miner waters that flow along small ruts towards a village, thereby increasing the likelihood of water use by the public.Conclusions. The uranium mines are the source of radioactive contamination. Radionuclides are distributed due to the erosion of rocks and leached out of the stony rock by precipitations. The extent of leaching is significantly increased in an acidic environment, which takes place near the in-situ leaching mines.

  9. Haw-glass dissolution and radionuclide release: mechanism - modelling - source term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grambow, B [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fur Nukleare, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Important release controlling processes are: 1) kinetics of glass matrix dissolution (leaching), 2) formation of secondary alteration products (controlling thermodynamic solubility), 3) sorption on surfaces in the engineered barrier system and 4) formation of mobile species. Quantification of these processes requires assessment of the energetics and dynamics of the various reversible and irreversible processes within an overall open non-equilibrium system. Corrosion/dissolution of the waste matrices is not necessarily associated with a proportional release of radionuclides. The formation of new secondary phases, such as silicates, molybdates, uranates, carbonates... establishes a new geochemical barrier for re-immobilization of radionuclides dissolved from the waste matrices. The presence of iron (corroding canisters during glass alteration) reduces the solution concentration of redox sensitive radionuclides. Consequently, the container, after being corroded, constitutes an important geochemical barrier for radionuclide re-immobilization. Geochemical modelling of the long-term behaviour of glasses must be performed in an integrated way, considering simultaneous reactions of the glass, of container corrosion, of repository rock and of backfill material. Until now, only few attempts were made for integral systems modelling. (A.C.)

  10. Average dose to an organ per microcurie-day accumulated by a radionuclide in a source organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, W.S.; Ford, M.R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods are discussed that are used in calculations of the average radiation dose to an organ per microcurie/day accumulated by a radionuclide in a source organ. The dosimetric data on photons are obtained by Monte Carlo type computer calculations on a non-homogeneous phantom having the general form of the human body. (U.S.)

  11. Estimated airborne release of radionuclides from the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b building at the West Jefferson site as a result of postulated damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Ayer, J.E.

    1981-11-01

    The potential airborne releases of radionuclides (source terms) that could result from wind and earthquake dmage are estimated for the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site in Ohio. The estimated source terms are based on the damage to barriers containing the radionuclides, the inventory of radionuclides at risk, and the fraction of the inventory made airborne as a result of the loss of containment. In an attempt to provide a realistic range of potential source terms that include most of the normal operating conditions, a best estimate bounded by upper and lower limits is calculated by combining the upper-bound, best-estimate, and lower-bound inventories-at-risk with an airborne release factor (upper-bound, best-estimate, and lower-bound if possible) for the situation. The factors used to evaluate the fractional airborne release of materials and the exchange rates between enclosed and exterior atmospheres are discussed. The postulated damage and source terms are discussed for wind and earthquake hazard scenarios in order of their increasing severity

  12. Radionuclide releases to the Columbia River from Hanford Operations, 1944--1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Bates, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. One source of radionuclide releases to the Columbia River was from production reactor operations. This report provides a quantitative estimate of the amount of radioactivity released each month (1944--1971) to the Columbia River from eleven radionuclides as well as from gross beta activity

  13. Technical basis for selecting radionuclide concentrations for use in Hanford tank basis for interim operation source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a radiological source term for waste tanks at the Hanford Site Nuclear Reservation. It describes the methodology used to identify the most important radionuclides, determine appropriate concentrations, and define unit liter doses. An example of how unit liter doses are used is given

  14. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  15. Transfer of radionuclides in soil-plant systems following aerosol simulation of accidental release: design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauret, G.; Real, J.

    1995-01-01

    The behaviour of 134 Cs, 110m Ag and 85 Sr was studied in different soil-plant systems, using two types of Mediterranean soil with contrasting properties (sandy and sandy-loam soils). The plant species used was lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Contamination was induced at different stages of plant growth, using a synthetic aerosol which simulated a distant contamination source. Characterisation of aerosol and soils, interception factors in the various growth stages, foliar and root uptake, leaching from leaves by irrigation and distribution and migration of radionuclides of soils were studied, in an attempt to understand the key factors involving radionuclide soil-to-plant transferance. (author)

  16. Transfer of radionuclides in soil-plant systems following aerosol simulation of accidental release: design and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauret, G. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Quimica Analitica; Vallejo, V.R. [Universitat de barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Biologia Vegetal; Cancio, D. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Real, J. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1995-12-31

    The behaviour of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 85}Sr was studied in different soil-plant systems, using two types of Mediterranean soil with contrasting properties (sandy and sandy-loam soils). The plant species used was lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Contamination was induced at different stages of plant growth, using a synthetic aerosol which simulated a distant contamination source. Characterisation of aerosol and soils, interception factors in the various growth stages, foliar and root uptake, leaching from leaves by irrigation and distribution and migration of radionuclides of soils were studied, in an attempt to understand the key factors involving radionuclide soil-to-plant transferance. (author).

  17. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  18. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine tumors in Germany: first results of a multi-institutional cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörsch, Dieter; Ezziddin, Samer; Haug, Alexander; Gratz, Klaus Friedrich; Dunkelmann, Simone; Krause, Bernd Joachim; Schümichen, Carl; Bengel, Frank M; Knapp, Wolfram H; Bartenstein, Peter; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Plöckinger, Ursula; Schwartz-Fuchs, Sabine; Baum, R P

    2013-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is an effective treatment option for patients with well-differentiated somatostatin receptor-expressing neuroendocrine tumors. However, published data result mainly from retrospective monocentric studies. We initiated a multi-institutional, prospective, board-reviewed registry for patients treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in Germany in 2009. In five centers, 297 patients were registered. Primary tumors were mainly derived from pancreas (117/297) and small intestine (80/297), whereas 56 were of unknown primary. Most tumors were well differentiated with median Ki67 proliferation rate of 5% (range 0.9-70%). Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy was performed using mainly yttrium-90 and/or lutetium-177 as radionuclides in 1-8 cycles. Mean overall survival was estimated at 213 months with follow-up between 1 and 230 months after initial diagnosis, and 87 months with follow-up between 1 and 92 months after start of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Median overall survival was not yet reached. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that best results were obtained in neuroendocrine tumors with proliferation rate below 20%. Our results indicate that peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is an effective treatment for well- and moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumors irrespective of previous therapies and should be regarded as one of the primary treatment options for patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing neuroendocrine tumors.

  19. Radionuclide solubilities to be used in SKB 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sellin, P.

    1992-06-01

    We have performed thermodynamic calculations in order to assess the solubility limits (source term) for selected radionuclides. Equilibrium solubilities for U, Pu, Np, Am, Th, Ra, Sn, Tc, Zr, Sn, Ni, Sm, Pa, Nb and Pd have been calculated in four waters, representing average fresh and saline granitic groundwaters under oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively. The results from the calculations have been compared with the measured radionuclide concentrations in natural waters as well as in spent fuel leaching tests. (26 refs.)

  20. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  1. Radionuclide metrology: traceability and response to a radiological accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauhata, L.; Cruz, P.A.L. da; Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Oliveira, E.M. de; Poledna, R.; Loureiro, J. dos S.; Ferreira Filho, A.L.; Silva, R.L. da; Filho, O. L.T.; Santos, A.R.L. dos; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J. de A.; Quadros, A.L.L.; Araújo, M.T.F. de; Souza, P.S. de; Ruzzarim, A.; Conceição, D.A. da; Iwahara, A., E-mail: palcruz@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes

    2017-07-01

    In the case of a radiological accident, there are characteristic phases: discovery and initial assistance with first aid; the triage and monitoring of the affected population; the release of the affected people; forward the victims to medical care; as well as the preparation of the report on the accident. In addition, studies and associated researches performed in the later period. Monitors, dosimeters and measuring systems should be calibrated by contaminating radionuclide standards. The radioactive sources used must be metrologically reliable. In Brazil, this function is performed by LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, designated by INMETRO, which Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory is responsible for the standardization and supply of radioactive sources in diverse geometries and matrices. This laboratory has a stock of radionuclide solutions with controlled environmental variables for the preparation of sources, which are calibrated and standardized by mean of primary and secondary systems. It is also responsible for the dissemination of standards and, in order to establish the metrological traceability of national standards, participates in international key-comparisons promoted by BIPM and regional metrology organizations. Internally, it promotes the National Comparison Programs for laboratories for the analysis of environmental samples and the traceability for producing centers of radiopharmaceuticals and Nuclear Medicine Services in the country. The paper presents the demand for {sup 137}Cs related to the radioactive accident in Goiania/Brazil and the significant results for the main radionuclides standardized by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory for international key-comparisons and national comparisons to provide metrological traceability. With the obtained results, the LNMRI of Brazil integrates the international metrology BIPM network and fulfills its function of supplying, with about a hundred of radioactive standards, the country's needs in different applications

  2. Radionuclide metrology: traceability and response to a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Cruz, P.A.L. da; Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Oliveira, E.M. de; Poledna, R.; Loureiro, J. dos S.; Ferreira Filho, A.L.; Silva, R.L. da; Filho, O. L.T.; Santos, A.R.L. dos; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J. de A.; Quadros, A.L.L.; Araújo, M.T.F. de; Souza, P.S. de; Ruzzarim, A.; Conceição, D.A. da; Iwahara, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the case of a radiological accident, there are characteristic phases: discovery and initial assistance with first aid; the triage and monitoring of the affected population; the release of the affected people; forward the victims to medical care; as well as the preparation of the report on the accident. In addition, studies and associated researches performed in the later period. Monitors, dosimeters and measuring systems should be calibrated by contaminating radionuclide standards. The radioactive sources used must be metrologically reliable. In Brazil, this function is performed by LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, designated by INMETRO, which Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory is responsible for the standardization and supply of radioactive sources in diverse geometries and matrices. This laboratory has a stock of radionuclide solutions with controlled environmental variables for the preparation of sources, which are calibrated and standardized by mean of primary and secondary systems. It is also responsible for the dissemination of standards and, in order to establish the metrological traceability of national standards, participates in international key-comparisons promoted by BIPM and regional metrology organizations. Internally, it promotes the National Comparison Programs for laboratories for the analysis of environmental samples and the traceability for producing centers of radiopharmaceuticals and Nuclear Medicine Services in the country. The paper presents the demand for 137 Cs related to the radioactive accident in Goiania/Brazil and the significant results for the main radionuclides standardized by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory for international key-comparisons and national comparisons to provide metrological traceability. With the obtained results, the LNMRI of Brazil integrates the international metrology BIPM network and fulfills its function of supplying, with about a hundred of radioactive standards, the country's needs in different applications

  3. PRIMUS: a computer code for the preparation of radionuclide ingrowth matrices from user-specified sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, O.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Miller, C.W.; Begovich, C.L.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1984-10-01

    The computer program, PRIMUS, reads a library of radionuclide branching fractions and half-lives and constructs a decay-chain data library and a problem-specific decay-chain data file. PRIMUS reads the decay data compiled for 496 nuclides from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The ease of adding radionuclides to the input library allows the CRRIS system to further expand its comprehensive data base. The decay-chain library produced is input to the ANEMOS code. Also, PRIMUS produces a data set reduced to only the decay chains required in a particular problem, for input to the SUMIT, TERRA, MLSOIL, and ANDROS codes. Air concentrations and deposition rates from the PRIMUS decay-chain data file. Source term data may be entered directly to PRIMUS to be read by MLSOIL, TERRA, and ANDROS. The decay-chain data prepared by PRIMUS is needed for a matrix-operator method that computes either time-dependent decay products from an initial concentration generated from a constant input source. This document describes the input requirements and the output obtained. Also, sections are included on methods, applications, subroutines, and sample cases. A short appendix indicates a method of utilizing PRIMUS and the associated decay subroutines from TERRA or ANDROS for applications to other decay problems. 18 references

  4. Calculation Of Fuel Burnup And Radionuclide Inventory In The Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor Using The GETERA Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Dawahra, S.

    2011-01-01

    Calculations of the fuel burnup and radionuclide inventory in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) after 10 years (the reactor core expected life) of the reactor operation time are presented in this paper using the GETERA code. The code is used to calculate the fuel group constants and the infinite multiplication factor versus the reactor operating time for 10, 20, and 30 kW operating power levels. The amounts of uranium burnup and plutonium produced in the reactor core, the concentrations and radionuclides of the most important fission product and actinide radionuclides accumulated in the reactor core, and the total radioactivity of the reactor core were calculated using the GETERA code as well. It is found that the GETERA code is better than the WIMSD4 code for the fuel burnup calculation in the MNSR reactor since it is newer and has a bigger library of isotopes and more accurate. (author)

  5. Radionuclide containment in soil by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Francis, C.W.; Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Radionuclide transport from a contaminant source to groundwater and surface water is a common problem faced by most US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Containment of the radionuclide plume, including strontium-90 and uranium, is possible using phosphate treatment as a chemical stabilizer. Such a chemical process occurs in soils under natural environmental conditions. Therefore, the concept of phosphate amendment for radiostrontium and uranium immobilization is already a proven principle. In this presentation, results of bench-scale experiments and the concept of a field-scale demonstration are discussed. The phosphate treatment is possible at the source or near the advancing contaminant plume. Cleanup is still the ideal concept; however, containment through stabilization is a more practical and costeffective concept that should be examined by DOE Environmental Restoration programs

  6. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard.

  7. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and point source released radionuclides to an aquatic ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumblad, Linda [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology; Kautsky, Ulrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    In this report three ecosystem models are described in terms of structure, initial data, and results. All models are dynamic, mass-balanced and describe the transport and fate of elements in an open aquatic ecosystem. The models are based on ecologically sound principles, provide model results with high resolution and transparency, and are constrained by the nutrient dynamics of the ecosystem itself. The processes driving the transport in all the models are both the biological processes such as primary production, consumption, respiration and excretion, and abiotic e.g. water exchange and air-sea exchange. The first model, the CNP-model, describes the distribution and fluxes of carbon and nutrients for the coastal ecosystem off Forsmark. The second model, the C-14 model, is an extension of the CNP-model and describes the transport and distribution of hypothetically released C-14 from the underground repository SFR-1 to the ecosystem above. The third model, the RN-model, is a generic radionuclide flow model that models the transport and distribution of radionuclides other than C-14 hypothetically discharged to the ecosystem. The model also analyses the importance of some radionuclide specific mechanisms for the radionuclide flow. The generic radionuclide model is also based on the CNP-model, but has radionuclide specific mechanisms connected to each compartment.

  8. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and point source released radionuclides to an aquatic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, Linda

    2004-09-01

    In this report three ecosystem models are described in terms of structure, initial data, and results. All models are dynamic, mass-balanced and describe the transport and fate of elements in an open aquatic ecosystem. The models are based on ecologically sound principles, provide model results with high resolution and transparency, and are constrained by the nutrient dynamics of the ecosystem itself. The processes driving the transport in all the models are both the biological processes such as primary production, consumption, respiration and excretion, and abiotic e.g. water exchange and air-sea exchange. The first model, the CNP-model, describes the distribution and fluxes of carbon and nutrients for the coastal ecosystem off Forsmark. The second model, the C-14 model, is an extension of the CNP-model and describes the transport and distribution of hypothetically released C-14 from the underground repository SFR-1 to the ecosystem above. The third model, the RN-model, is a generic radionuclide flow model that models the transport and distribution of radionuclides other than C-14 hypothetically discharged to the ecosystem. The model also analyses the importance of some radionuclide specific mechanisms for the radionuclide flow. The generic radionuclide model is also based on the CNP-model, but has radionuclide specific mechanisms connected to each compartment

  9. Environmental Radioactive Pollution Sources and Effects on Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The sources of environmental radioactivity are essentially the naturally occurring radionuclides in the earth,s crust and the cosmogenic radionuclides reaching the environmental ecosystems. The other sources of environmental radioactivity are the man made sources which result from the radioactive materials in human life. The naturally occurring environmental radioactivity is an integral component of the terrestrial and extraterrestrial creation, and therefore it is not considered a source of radioactive pollution to the environment. The radioactive waste from human activities is released into the environment, and its radionuclide content becomes incorporated into the different ecosystems. This results in a situation of environmental radioactive pollution. This review presents the main features of environmental radioactive pollution, the radionuclide behaviour in the ecosystems, pathway models of radionuclides in the body and the probability of associated health hazards. The dose effect relationship of internal radiation exposure and its quantitative aspects are considered because of their relevance to this subject

  10. The contamination of the oceans by anthropogenic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Cunha, Ieda I.L.

    1998-01-01

    Several hundreds of artificial of artificial radionuclides are produced as the result of human activities, such as the applications of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, testing of nuclear weapons and nuclear accidents. Many of these radionuclides are short-lived and decay quickly after their production, but some of them are longer-lived and are released into the environment. From the radiological point of view the most important radionuclides are cesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium-239, due to their chemical and nuclear characteristics. The two first radioisotopes present long half life (30 and 28 years), high fission yields and chemical behaviour similar to potassium and calcium, respectively. No stable element exists for plutonium-239, that presents high radiotoxity, longh half-life (24000 years) and some marine organisms accumulate plutonium at high levels. The radionuclides introduced into marine environment undergo various physical, chemical and biological processes taking place in the sea. These processes may be due to physical, dispersion or complicated chemical and biological interactions of the radionuclides with inorganic and organic suspend matter, variety of living organism, bottom sediments, etc. The behaviour of radionuclides in the sea depends primarily on their chemical properties, but it may also be influenced by properties of interacting matrices and other environmental factors. The major route of radiation exposure of man to artificial radionuclides occuring in the marine environment is through ingestion of radiologically contamined marine organisms. This paper summarizes the main sources of contamination in the marine environment and presents an overview covering the oceanic distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in the FAO regions. A great number of measurements of artificial radioclides have been carried out on various marine environmental samples in different oceans over the world, being cesium-137 the most widely measured

  11. Radionuclide Data Centre. Tasks and problems of obtaining the most reliable values of the nuclear physics characteristics of radionuclides and radiation physics parameters of radionuclide sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechev, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the establishment of the Radionuclide Data Centre under the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute. Its functions and areas of activity are discussed. The paper focuses on the procedure of obtaining the evaluated values of the decay and radiative characteristics of the widely used radionuclides. (author)

  12. Development of a portable equipment for identification of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Marcos Santana; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R. de; Nedjah, Nadia; Mourelle, Luiza de Macedo

    2014-01-01

    The rapid and automatic identification of radionuclides present in a radioactive sample detected in the field, is information that helps in decision making. In areas of high traffic of people and materials, such as ports and airports as well as at major events, radiation monitoring, together with the identification of the radionuclide, it is advisable within protective standards to the public. The correct identification of radionuclides depends on the ability to determine whether specific peaks energy sources are present in the spectrum of gamma radiation sources. Radionuclides can be identified by these energy characteristics in the sense that the energy value associated with these peaks in the spectrum corresponds to the radiation sources present in the sample. There are many methods that can be used for automatic identification of radionuclides. Most of them are based on software algorithms for the detection of peaks in the energy spectrum. Processing time of these tasks can be very long for applications requiring quick responses, as in equipment portable. A dedicated digital hardware offers better performance for tasks with high processing demand like this. This work shows the development of a handle Portable radionuclides based on a digital hardware solution using a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) for implementing a clustering algorithm for the detection of energy peaks. (author)

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Protection Rad Neshaps Radionuclide Inventory Web Database and Rad Neshaps Source and Dose Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Patricia A; Smith, Linda L; Johnson, David N

    2017-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated national emission standards for emissions of radionuclides other than radon from US Department of Energy facilities in Chapter 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H. This regulatory standard limits the annual effective dose that any member of the public can receive from Department of Energy facilities to 0.1 mSv. As defined in the preamble of the final rule, all of the facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, i.e., the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, East Tennessee Technology Park, and any other U.S. Department of Energy operations on Oak Ridge Reservation, combined, must meet the annual dose limit of 0.1 mSv. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, there are monitored sources and numerous unmonitored sources. To maintain radiological source and inventory information for these unmonitored sources, e.g., laboratory hoods, equipment exhausts, and room exhausts not currently venting to monitored stacks on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus, the Environmental Protection Rad NESHAPs Inventory Web Database was developed. This database is updated annually and is used to compile emissions data for the annual Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad NESHAPs) report required by 40 CFR 61.94. It also provides supporting documentation for facility compliance audits. In addition, a Rad NESHAPs source and dose database was developed to import the source and dose summary data from Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 computer model files. This database provides Oak Ridge Reservation and facility-specific source inventory; doses associated with each source and facility; and total doses for the Oak Ridge Reservation dose.

  14. Fundamental approach to the analysis of radionuclide transport resulting from fluid flow through jointed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, K.L.

    1981-02-01

    A theoretical and experimental basis is being developed for analysis of radionuclide transport in jointed geologic media. Batch equilibration and rate experiments involving samples of Eleana argillite and Tertiary silicic tuffs in contact with solutions containing Cs, Sr or Pm indicated that most radionuclide sorption is associated with the surfaces of very small intergranular regions and that the rate of sorption is controlled by diffusion of the nuclides into such regions. Based on these experimental results, the continuity equations for radionuclides in the mobile and immobile phases were reduced to a model analogous to Rosen's equations for packed beds and were solved similarly to Rosen's solutions. Using the model and experimental data, limited radionuclide transport analyses were made which indicated that important parameters controlling transport include the intergranular porosity and nuclide penetration depth, fracture plate spacing and length, fluid velocity, and sorption distribution coefficient

  15. Medical application of radionuclides and the resulting radiation exposure of parts of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, K.D.; Gloebel, B.; Andres, C.

    1985-01-01

    In a big hospital an investigation was made to find out to what extent the radionuclides used there contribute to the radiation exposure of the population living in the vicinity. The hospital used about 100 Ci of short-lived radionuclides a year. By applying the calculation basis stipulated by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, the radiation exposure was calculated for unfavourable cases. As a result, up to 30 mrem/a can theoretically be reached. (orig.) [de

  16. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  17. Recent research involving the transfer of radionuclides to milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The radionuclides in milk, which result from exposure of dairy cows to radioactive fallout, are a major factor in assessment of internal radiation of humans. To evaluate the radionuclide intake of people from fallout-contaminated milk requires information about feed sources and milk distribution. Pasture intake and the shelf-life of milk are important factors in the case of a short-lived radionuclide like 131 I. Large-scale human radiation assessment studies are underway, all of which consider the dairy food chain as a critical component. These include retrospective studies of fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada site in the 1950s and the impact of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986

  18. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in a Ribble Estuary saltmarsh: transport and deposition of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; McDonald, P.; Parker, A.; Rae, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Routine discharges of low-level liquid radioactive waste by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfields have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. Variations in radionuclide concentrations ( 137 Cs, 230 Th, and 239240 Pu) with depth in a mature saltmarsh core were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends and waste-dispersal mechanisms. Core samples from Longton/Hutton Marsh were analysed by gamma-spectrometry and α-spectrometry for radionuclides and by laser granulometry to establish grain-size variations with depth. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137 Cs and 239240 Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs and 600 Bq kg -1 for 239240 Pu. Thorium-230 exhibited complex activity profiles with depth, specific activities ranging between 200 and 2400 Bq kg -1 . The vertical distributions of Sellafield-derived radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 239240 Pu) in mature saltmarsh deposits reflect the time-integrated discharge pattern from Sellafield, implying a transport mechanism that has involved the mixing of sediment labelled with radioactivity from recent discharges and sediment labelled from historical discharge events before deposition. A mechanism involving the transport of contaminated silt therefore seems to dominate. The vertical distribution of Springfields-derived 230 Th in the same areas reflects the annual gross-α discharge pattern from BNFL Springfields. In contrast to the Sellafield-derived radionuclides, a fairly rapid transport mechanism from source to sink is implied, with little or no time for mixing with radionuclides discharged years earlier. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. RADIONUCLIDE AIR EMISSIONS REPORT FOR THE HANFORD SITE CY2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 2003 and the resulting effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities''; Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, ''Radiation Protection-Air Emissions''; 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance; DOE Order 414.1B, Quality Assurance; NQA-1, Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Application; EPA QA/R-2, EPA Requirements for Quality Management Plans; and EPA QA/R-5, Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from DOE facilities and the resulting public dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE is not to be exceeded. The EDE to the MEI due to routine and nonroutine emissions in 2003 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.022 mrem (0.00022 mSv), or 0.22 percent of the federal standard. The portions of the Hanford Site MEI dose attributable to individual point sources as listed in Section 2.0 are appropriate for use in demonstrating the compliance of abated stack emissions with applicable terms of the Hanford Site Air Operating Permit and of Notices of Construction. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations, yet further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. WAC 246-247 also requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The EDE from

  20. Radionuclide response functions for the convection-dispersion equation from a point source along the axis of nested cylindrical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeNeveu, D.M.; Kolar, M.

    1996-07-01

    In this report we develop response functions for the mass transport of radionuclides from a small pinhole-sized defect in a waste container located in a cylindrical disposal room. The disposal rooms are considered to be Idled with buffer and backfill materials composed of mixtures of clay and sand or crushed rock. Mass transport of radionuclides released gradually into the room by diffusion through a pinhole can be determined by convolution with the response functions. A model based on the boundary-integral method (BIM) is described here. In this model the room is represented by three coaxial cylinders comprised of buffer, backfill and excavation damage zone, surrounded by the sparsely fractured rock. The main result of the model is the flux integrated over the surface of the excavation damage zone which can serve as the input into a model representing the surrounding geosphere. The integrated flux obtained from the BIM model is compared with the integrated flux obtained from the finite-element code called MOTIF (Chan et al. 1987). The finite-element model consists of coaxial rectangular regions that have the same volume as the respective cylinders in the BIM model. Sample numerical calculations are shown for 129 I which is one of longest lived and most readily Teachable radionuclides that would be released from a failed container. The two models give identical results in the absence of groundwater flow, and almost identical results for a range of small groundwater velocities. For very large groundwater velocities the BIM model is conservative (it gives higher integrated fluxes than the MOTIF model), except when the source is near the end of the room towards which the flow is directed. (author)

  1. Review Paper of Radionuclide Monitoring in Food Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Fadzilah Yusof; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Wo, Y.M.; Nurrul Assyikeen Mohd Jaffary

    2011-01-01

    The uncontrolled release of radionuclides into the atmospheric and aquatic environments may occur as the result of a nuclear or radiological accident. Monitoring of the accidental release at its source and especially direct monitoring of the environmental contamination with radionuclides is necessary for assessment and application of public protective actions and longer term countermeasures as well as emergency workers' protection. In areas historically contaminated with long lived radionuclides monitoring it is essential to protect the public and substantiation of any radiological incidents. Also, dietary pathways can be contaminated with radioactive materials resulting from natural occurrence or man-made applications especially during routine operation, accidents and migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste disposal repositories into the biosphere. Therefore, efforts should be made to determine the presence of radionuclides in a potentially high radiation area especially in operational nuclear facilities. This paper will review the strategies for food monitoring that has been adapted in most countries to obtain baseline data for future reference. Also, this study is discussing the type of food selection commonly collected as sample for radionuclide analysis in different countries over the years. Sampling procedure and analysis also included in this review for better understanding of the analysis. Stake holders' involvement is considered as an important asset in the establishment of monitoring strategies. As a conclusion, future plans for food monitoring programme in Malaysia are recommended as a preparation to embark on the Nuclear Power Plant programme. (author)

  2. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  3. An analysis of domestic experimental results for soil-to-crops transfer factors of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, In; Choi, Young Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Kang, Hee Seok; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    For more realistic assessment of Korean food chain radiation doses due to the operation of nuclear facilities, it is required to use domestically produced data for radionuclide transfer parameters in crop plants. This paper analyzed results of last about 10 year's studies on radionuclide transfer parameters in major crop plants by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, comparing with the published international data, and consequently suggested the proper parameters to use. The trends of transfer parameter shows normal distributions if we have a lot of experimental data, but some radionuclides showed enormous variations with the environment of experimental, crops and soils. These transfer factors can be used to assess realistic radiation doses or to predict the doses in crops for normal operation or accidental release. Some kinds of parameter can be produced as conservatives or fragmentary results because soil-to-plant transfer factors were measured through greenhouse experiments which sometimes showed improper field situations. But these parameters mentioned in this paper can be representative of the status of Korean food chain than that of foreign country.

  4. An analysis of domestic experimental results for soil-to-crops transfer factors of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, In; Choi, Young Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Kang, Hee Seok; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo

    2006-01-01

    For more realistic assessment of Korean food chain radiation doses due to the operation of nuclear facilities, it is required to use domestically produced data for radionuclide transfer parameters in crop plants. This paper analyzed results of last about 10 year's studies on radionuclide transfer parameters in major crop plants by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, comparing with the published international data, and consequently suggested the proper parameters to use. The trends of transfer parameter shows normal distributions if we have a lot of experimental data, but some radionuclides showed enormous variations with the environment of experimental, crops and soils. These transfer factors can be used to assess realistic radiation doses or to predict the doses in crops for normal operation or accidental release. Some kinds of parameter can be produced as conservatives or fragmentary results because soil-to-plant transfer factors were measured through greenhouse experiments which sometimes showed improper field situations. But these parameters mentioned in this paper can be representative of the status of Korean food chain than that of foreign country

  5. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 3, Results, Variability, and Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part three of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. The radionuclides of interest are the 238 U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by 235 U; 11 nuclides), and the 232 Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides 87 Rb and 40 K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides 14 C and 3 H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides 137 Cs- 137m Ba, 129 I and 90 Sr- 90 Y. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222 Rn, 220 Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. Part one reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Part two described the methods used to organize the data collected in part one and segregate it into the ages and genders defined by the study, imputed missing values from the existing data, apportioned activity in bone, and imputed activity in hollow organ contents and the remainder of the body. This paper estimates equivalent doses to target tissues from source regions and maps target tissues to lists of tissues with International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) tissue-weighting factors or to surrogate tissue regions when there is no direct match. Effective doses, using ICRP tissue-weighting factors recommended in 1977, 1990, and 2007, are then calculated, and an upper bound of variability of the effective dose is estimated by calculating the average coefficients of variation (CV), assuming all variance is due to variability. Most of the data were for adult males, whose average annual effective dose is estimated to be 337 (micro)Sv y -1 (CV = 0.65, geometric mean

  6. Dose assessment on natural radiation, natural radionuclide, and artificial radionuclide released by Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Furukawa, Masahide

    2012-01-01

    Various radionuclides are distributed in environmental materials such as soil, rock, and water. People are exposed every day to natural radiation. According to the UNSCEAR 2008 report, Sources of Ionizing Radiation, natural radiation sources are categorized as terrestrial gamma-rays, radon, cosmic rays and food. The effective dose from radon, thoron and its decay products is about 50% of all natural radiation exposure. Consciousness of the Japanese public toward radiation exposure has significantly increased since the start of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In this paper, the nationwide survey and dose estimation for terrestrial gamma-rays and radon are summarized. External dose from artificial radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident are also reported. (author)

  7. Transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere during complex meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Telenta, B.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclides from various sources (nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, nuclear facilities, medical facilities, etc.) are being released to the atmosphere. The meteorological conditions determine the atmospheric turbulence, dispersion, and removal processes of the radionuclides. A two-dimensional version of the cloud model based on the Klemp-Wilhelmson dynamic and Lin et al.'s microphysics and thermodynamics has been adapted and used to simulate the transport of radionuclides emitted from a power plant or other source to the atmosphere. Calculations of the trajectories and radii for a few puffs are included in this paper. These numerical investigations show that the presented model can be used for the transport simulation of radionuclides and for the assessment of the radiological impact of power plants and other sources in safety assessments and comparative studies. Because it can simulate puff trajectories, this model is especially valuable in the presence of complex meteorological conditions

  8. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  9. Direct methods for measuring radionuclides in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Occupational exposure leading to intakes of internally incorporated radionuclides can occur as a result of various activities. This includes work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve exposure to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. In 1987 the IAEA published a Safety Guide on basic principles for occupational radiation monitoring which set forth principles and objectives of a strategy for monitoring exposures of workers. Since drafting of the present Safety Practice commenced, the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) have been issued. On the basis of the principles laid down in the BSS, the 1987 Safety Guide is also being revised, and recommendations on the assessment of the occupational intake of radioactive materials are to be added. The present Safety Practice, which deals with direct measurement of radionuclides in the human body, is the first to be published in this area. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Pollen as indicator of radionuclide pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, M.B.; Corey, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    To assess hazards of radioactivity in the environment, agricultural scientists must identify plant and animal species which can be used as biological indicators of radionuclide contamination. In this experiments, the pollen-bee-honey system was chosen to study movement of radioactive elements in the plant-animal-man food chain. Pollen, bees, and honey were collected from different locations at a nuclear facility in South Carolina. They were analyzed for nine radionuclides and 22 stable elements. The results showed that pollen is a more sensitive indicator of pollution than bees or honey. If pollen-monitoring shows that an area has become polluted, hives and other sources of human and animal food should not be placed in the region until it is no longer contaminated. (author)

  11. Critical evaluation of the Laboratory of Radionuclide Metrology results of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD in the international key comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.; Tauhata, L.; Silva, C.J. da

    2014-01-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (LMR) of LNMRI/IRD has been participating since 1984, in international key-comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive sources organized by BIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations as EURAMET and APMP. The measured quantity is the activity of a radioactive solution, in becquerel (Bq), containing the radionuclide involved and the of measurement methods used are 4αβ-γ coincidence/anticoincidence, coincidence sum-peak and liquid scintillation. In this paper a summary of the methods used and a performance analysis of the results obtained are presented. (author)

  12. Radionuclides in the environment in the south of Spain, anthropogenic enhancements due to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjon, G. [Depto. de Fisica Aplicada 2, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 - Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Levels of natural radionuclides in the environment are affected by human activities in the South of Spain. Industry wastes, such as phospho-gypsum, have been released to an estuary since sixties until 1997. Nowadays the wastes management is careful with environment protection, which can be clearly observed today in the radionuclides pattern. Different sources of radionuclides (industry wastes, tidal action and mining) can be distinguished in the estuary. Uranium isotopes, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po were determined in water and sediment samples for this study. An iron recycling factory is working close to Seville (South of Spain). A {sup 137}Cs source was accidentally burnt in a furnace of this factory in 2001. The environmental impact of this accident was immediately denatured. Monitoring procedure and results are sho vn in this contribution. Radionuclides measurement involves difficult techniques. In this communication a procedure to determine the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb by liquid scintillation counting is presented. Two quality tests, using gamma- and alpha-spectrometry were applied to the {sup 210} Pb results. (Author)

  13. Radionuclides in the environment in the south of Spain, anthropogenic enhancements due to industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjon, G.

    2007-01-01

    Levels of natural radionuclides in the environment are affected by human activities in the South of Spain. Industry wastes, such as phospho-gypsum, have been released to an estuary since sixties until 1997. Nowadays the wastes management is careful with environment protection, which can be clearly observed today in the radionuclides pattern. Different sources of radionuclides (industry wastes, tidal action and mining) can be distinguished in the estuary. Uranium isotopes, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po were determined in water and sediment samples for this study. An iron recycling factory is working close to Seville (South of Spain). A 137 Cs source was accidentally burnt in a furnace of this factory in 2001. The environmental impact of this accident was immediately denatured. Monitoring procedure and results are sho vn in this contribution. Radionuclides measurement involves difficult techniques. In this communication a procedure to determine the activity concentration of 210 Pb by liquid scintillation counting is presented. Two quality tests, using gamma- and alpha-spectrometry were applied to the 210 Pb results. (Author)

  14. Selection of dominant radionuclides for Phase 1 of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions from nuclear operations at Hanford since their inception in 1944. A vital step in the estimation of radiation doses is the determination of the source term,'' that is, the quantities of radionuclides that were released to the environment from the various Hanford operations. Hanford operations have at various times involved hundreds of different radionuclides, some in relatively large quantities. Those radionuclides present in the largest quantities, although significant from an operational handling point of view, may not necessarily have been those of greatest concern for offsite radiation dose. This report documents the selection of the dominant radionuclides (those that may have resulted in the largest portion of the received doses) in the source term for Phase 1 of the HEDR Project, that is, for atmospheric releases from 1944 through 1947 and for surface water releases from 1964 through 1966. 15 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L.

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

  16. Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

  17. Natural Radionuclides in Private Wells | RadTown USA | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    About 15 percent of Americans use private wells as their main source of drinking water. Those who use private wells should remember: Test for radionuclides every three years. Take appropriate steps if radionuclide levels are higher than EPA's limits.

  18. Inverse modelling of radionuclide release rates using gamma dose rate observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Thomas; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Stohl, Andreas; von Haustein, Christoph; Thummerer, Severin; Wallner, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Severe accidents in nuclear power plants such as the historical accident in Chernobyl 1986 or the more recent disaster in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have drastic impacts on the population and environment. Observations and dispersion modelling of the released radionuclides help to assess the regional impact of such nuclear accidents. Modelling the increase of regional radionuclide activity concentrations, which results from nuclear accidents, underlies a multiplicity of uncertainties. One of the most significant uncertainties is the estimation of the source term. That is, the time dependent quantification of the released spectrum of radionuclides during the course of the nuclear accident. The quantification of the source term may either remain uncertain (e.g. Chernobyl, Devell et al., 1995) or rely on estimates given by the operators of the nuclear power plant. Precise measurements are mostly missing due to practical limitations during the accident. The release rates of radionuclides at the accident site can be estimated using inverse modelling (Davoine and Bocquet, 2007). The accuracy of the method depends amongst others on the availability, reliability and the resolution in time and space of the used observations. Radionuclide activity concentrations are observed on a relatively sparse grid and the temporal resolution of available data may be low within the order of hours or a day. Gamma dose rates, on the other hand, are observed routinely on a much denser grid and higher temporal resolution and provide therefore a wider basis for inverse modelling (Saunier et al., 2013). We present a new inversion approach, which combines an atmospheric dispersion model and observations of radionuclide activity concentrations and gamma dose rates to obtain the source term of radionuclides. We use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al., 1998; Stohl et al., 2005) to model the atmospheric transport of the released radionuclides. The

  19. Hot beta particles in the lung: Results from dogs exposed to fission product radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident resulted in the release of uranium dioxide fuel and fission product radionuclides into the environment with the fallout of respirable, highly radioactive particles that have been termed {open_quotes}hot beta particles.{close_quotes} There is concern that these hot beta particles (containing an average of 150-20,000 Bq/particle), when inhaled and deposited in the lung, may present an extraordinary hazard for the induction of lung cancer. We reviewed data from a group of studies in dogs exposed to different quantities of beta-emitting radionuclides with varied physical half-lives to determine if those that inhaled hot beta particles were at unusual risk for lung cancer. This analysis indicates that the average dose to the lung is adequate to predict biologic effects of lung cancer for inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides in the range of 5-50 Gy to the lung and with particle activities in the range of 0.10-50 Bq/particle.

  20. Generalization of some results of a vertical radionuclide migration study in soils of 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziborov, A.M.; Sadol'ko, I.V.; Sushchik, Yu.Ya.; Tikhanov, Eh.K.; Proskuryakov, A.G.; Kuz'michev, V.N.; Shcheglov, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    Results of radionuclide distribution study in a vertical profile of soils are presented under different landscape geochemical conditions in 1989-1991. It is ascertained that radionuclide migration process in geochemical profile of soils of 30-km zone is in early stage of development. More than 90% of radioactivity concentrates in the upper 5-10 cm layer whereas measurable radioactivity fixes at a depth up to 1 m. The process of deepening of radioactivity reserve center takes place in the surface soil layer. Now it equals 1,5-3 cm. Peculiarities of the vertical radionuclide distribution haven't brightly pronounced character depending on soil types and are at the formation stage. 12 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Performance and quality control of radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.; Baker, M.

    2002-01-01

    operators can be determined by the conduct of comparison exercises by expert and impartial laboratories. Such exercises can also have the added advantage of enabling the calibration of particular calibrators to be checked and even determined more accurately. A regular programme of such comparisons has been organised in the United Kingdom by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) over the last fifteen to twenty years and follow-up workshops have been held for the participants to discuss the results and the potential avenues to performance improvements. The outputs from these comparisons, supplemented by regular dialogues and exchanges of information and experiences between the NPL and the user community, have identified a number of potential sources of error. In addition, the NPL, together with the relevant professional organisation in the UK, produced a quality assurance protocol in 1992, designed to establish and maintain the calibration of medical radionuclide calibrators and their quality control. That protocol is currently being revised to take into account both the increased emphasis on uncertainty estimation, the accumulation of comparison data and user experiences and the changes in equipment formats. This paper presents and discusses the results of the various comparisons conducted by NPL, particularly as they relate to the potential improvements in performance that can be achieved, and the developments in the recommended quality assurance protocol. It also addresses the developments of calibration facilities available with these systems, especially as they relate to the measurement of, and achievable accuracies for, therapeutic radiation sources. (author)

  2. Speciation and transport of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the chemical speciation of a number of radionuclides migrating in a slightly contaminated ground water plume are identifying the most mobile species and providing an opportunity to test and/or validate geochemical models of radionuclide transport in ground waters. Results to date have shown that most of the migrating radionuclides are present in anionic or nonionic forms. These include anionic forms of 55 Fe, 60 Co, /sup 99m/Tc, 106 Ru, 131 I, and nonionic forms of 63 Ni and 125 Sb. Strontium-70 and a small fraction of the mobile 60 Co are the only cationic radionuclides which have been detected moving in the ground water plume beyond 30 meters from the source. A comparison of the observed chemical forms with the predicted species calculated from modeling thermodynamic data and ground water chemical parameters has indicated a good agreement for most of the radioelements in the system, including Tc, Np, Cs, Sr, Ce, Ru, Sb, Zn, and Mn. The discrepancies between observed and calculated solutions species were noted for Fe, Co, Ni and I. Traces of Fe, Co, and Ni were observed to migrate in anionic or nonionic forms which the calculations failed to predict. These anionic/nonionic species may be organic complexes having enhanced mobility in ground waters. The radioiodine, for example, was shown to behave totally as an anion but further investigation revealed that 49-57% of this anionic iodine was organically bound. The ground water and aqueous extracts of trench sediments contain a wide variety of organic compounds, some of which could serve as complexing agents for the radionuclides. These results indicate the need for further research at a variety of field sites in defining precisely the chemical forms of the mobile radionuclide species, and in better understanding the role of dissolved organic materials in ground water transport of radionuclides

  3. Analysis of 137Cs radionuclides activities in Cs-zeolite using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviarty; Ginting, Aslina Br; Anggraini, Dian; Rosika K

    2013-01-01

    137 Cs Radionuclide activity analysis has been carried out. The objective is to determine the activity of the 137 Cs radionuclide in Cs-zeolite are packaged in the form of point source. Analysis of 137 Cs Radionuclide activities in Cs zeolite samples was determined by measuring intensity of the isotope 137 Cs gamma energy at 661.7 keV use-y spectrometer. Before measurement the sample, was first carried out measurements of 137 Cs radionuclide in certified point standards from Amersham, to determine the efficiency value. Result the standard sample measurement obtained the efficiency value of 43.98%. Efficiency values obtained are used in the calculation of sample activity. On the measurement of the intensity of the sample obtained results dose rate 196.4537 cps with a standard deviation of 0.5274. By using standard measurement efficiency values obtained by the calculation of the average activity of the radionuclide 137 Cs in Cs-zeolite 524.9082 Bq. Deviation measurements were below 5% (0.27% ) so that the analysis of the activity of radionuclide 137 Cs in Cs-zeolite samples using gamma spectrometer can be accepted with a 95% confidence level. (author)

  4. Behaviour and fate radionuclides in soils. Mathematical modelling and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovdan, E.N.

    2003-01-01

    The uncontrolled release of radionuclides as result of Chernobyl accident has led to contamination of 23% of territory of Republic of Belarus. Soil has high capacity to adsorb radionuclides and their intensive sorption provides the creation of a long-lived radionuclide source in a terrestrial environment. In the management of the contaminated areas and application of a countermeasure strategy it is extremely important to know the environmental mechanisms governing the behaviour of radionuclides in soils. Basic attention in the work is paid to the study of 137 Cs and 90 Sr because they are the main radionuclides from the view point of radioactive danger in polluted areas. The main features and processes that control radionuclide behaviour in soil have been analysed. On the basis of natural researches, lab test and mathematical modelling the impact of physical-chemical factors and the soil component composition changes upon the radionuclides migration and sorption in natural dispersed systems (peat, sand, bentonite, kaolin, sapropel) has been investigated. The investigations done allowed to substantiate the mathematical models of the radionuclides migration in the regions of positive and negative temperatures, to develop methods of experimental identification of main transfer characteristics and to compile a data base for these models. (orig.)

  5. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the environment at accident sites, a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, A.C.; Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. The authors intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of the literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments

  6. Preliminary rate expressions for analysis of radionuclide migration resulting from fluid flow through jointed media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, K.L.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental basis is being developed for analysis of radionuclide transport in jointed geologic media. Batch equilibration and rate experiments involving samples of Eleana argillite and tertiary silicic tuffs in contact with solutions containing Cs, Sr, or Pm indicated that most radionuclide sorption was associated with the surfaces of very small intergranular regions and that the rate of sorption was controlled by diffusion of the nuclides into such regions. Based on these experimental results, the continuity equations for radionuclides in the mobile and immobile phases were reduced to a model analogous to Rosen's equations for packed beds and were solved similarly. Using the model and experimental data, limited radionuclide transport analyses were made which indicated that important parameters controlling transport include the intergranular porosity and nuclide penetration depth, fracture plate spacing and length, fluid velocity and sorption distribution coefficient. Many of these parameters represent physical quantities or processes which can be quantified in the laboratory. However, fluid velocities and fracture plate spacings and lengths must be obtained from the field, and methods must be developed to establish reliable bounds for such field-determined parameters.

  7. Preliminary rate expressions for analysis of radionuclide migration resulting from fluid flow through jointed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, K.L.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental basis is being developed for analysis of radionuclide transport in jointed geologic media. Batch equilibration and rate experiments involving samples of Eleana argillite and tertiary silicic tuffs in contact with solutions containing Cs, Sr, or Pm indicated that most radionuclide sorption was associated with the surfaces of very small intergranular regions and that the rate of sorption was controlled by diffusion of the nuclides into such regions. Based on these experimental results, the continuity equations for radionuclides in the mobile and immobile phases were reduced to a model analogous to Rosen's equations for packed beds and were solved similarly. Using the model and experimental data, limited radionuclide transport analyses were made which indicated that important parameters controlling transport include the intergranular porosity and nuclide penetration depth, fracture plate spacing and length, fluid velocity and sorption distribution coefficient. Many of these parameters represent physical quantities or processes which can be quantified in the laboratory. However, fluid velocities and fracture plate spacings and lengths must be obtained from the field, and methods must be developed to establish reliable bounds for such field-determined parameters

  8. Calculations of fuel burn-up and radionuclide inventory in the syrian miniature neutron source reactor using the WIMSD4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.

    2005-01-01

    Calculations of the fuel burn up and radionuclide inventory in the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor after 10 years (the reactor core expected life) of the reactor operating time are presented in this paper. The WIMSD4 code is used to generate the fuel group constants and the infinite multiplication factor versus the reactor operating time for 10, 20, and 30 kW operating power levels. The amounts of uranium burnt up and plutonium produced in the reactor core, the concentrations and radioactivities of the most important fission product and actinide radionuclides accumulated in the reactor core, and the total radioactivity of the reactor core are calculated using the WIMSD4 code as well

  9. Effect of ionizing radiation on radionuclide speciation: Preliminary results from site-specific experiments in a basaltic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Burnell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations, under contract to the Department of Energy, is investigating the suitability of the Hanford site in the state of Washington as a high level nuclear waste repository. An important consideration in these investigations is the effect of ionizing radiation on the speciation of radionuclides in the groundwater after the high-level-waste container has been breached and there is direct contact between the groundwater and the waste form (controlled released period). The effect of ionizing radiation on radionuclide speciation depends on the radiation environment and site-specific chemistry near the waste container. With respect to these two aspects, the following results will be presented: a definition of the radiation environment during the controlled release period; preliminary site-specific experimental results: (1) basaltic systems spiked with radionuclides; (2) spent fuel-groundwater-basalt experiments

  10. Results of an international comparison for the determination of radionuclide activity in bilberry material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wätjen, U.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Ceccatelli, A.; Dikmen, H.; Emteborg, H.; Ferreux, L.; Frechou, C.; La Rosa, J.; Luca, A.; Moreno, Y.; Oropesa, P.; Pierre, S.; Schmiedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity found in wild food products has assumed greater importance when assessing the total exposure of the population. For this reason, IRMM has been developing a reference material for the activity concentration of three radionuclides in bilberry samples. In order to characterise this new material, a CCRI(II) supplementary comparison was organised. The difficulties encountered in this comparison are discussed, in particular the efficiency calibration for volume sources of gamma-ray emitters, and comparison reference values for 137 Cs and 40 K are calculated. - Highlights: ► CCRI(II) supplementary comparison for Cs-137 and K-40 in bilberry matrix completed. ► Fundamentally different methods used to establish link to SI traceable standards and SIR. ► Variation of results higher than in CCRI(II) key comparisons. ► Comparison reference values will be robust property values of IRMM reference material. ► Certified reference material for radioactivity in food developed.

  11. Development of a general model to predict the rate of radionuclide release (source term) from a low-level waste shallow land burial facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Kempf, C.R.; Suen, C.J.; Mughabghab, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Federal Code of Regulations 10 CFR 61 requires that any near surface disposal site be capable of being characterized, analyzed, and modeled. The objective of this program is to assist NRC in developing the ability to model a disposal site that conforms to these regulations. In particular, a general computer model capable of predicting the quantity and rate of radionuclide release from a shallow land burial trench, i.e., the source term, is being developed. The framework for this general model has been developed and consists of four basic compartments that represent the major processes that influence release. These compartments are: water flow, container degradation, release from the waste packages, and radionuclide transport. Models for water flow and radionuclide transport rely on the use of the computer codes FEMWATER and FEMWASTE. These codes are generally regarded as being state-of-the-art and required little modification for their application to this project. Models for container degradation and release from waste packages have been specifically developed for this project. This paper provides a brief description of the models being used in the source term project and examples of their use over a range of potential conditions. 13 refs

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  13. Update of NIST half-life results corrected for ionization chamber source-holder instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterweger, M P; Fitzgerald, R

    2014-05-01

    As reported at the ICRM 2011, it was discovered that the source holder used for calibrations in the NIST 4πγ ionization chamber (IC) was not stable. This has affected a large number of half-life measurement results previously reported and used in compilations of nuclear data. Corrections have been made on all of the half-life data based on the assumption that the changes to the ionization chamber response were gradual. The corrections are energy dependent and therefore radionuclide specific. This presentation will review our results and present the recommended changes in half-life values and/or uncertainties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Spectrometric control of radionuclides production parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, I.; Potarenko, A.; Yarochevich, O.; Hluboky, N.; Kerko, P.; Bogdanov, V.; Dyatel, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A radioactive preparations and sources are widely used all over the world for scientific, industrial and medical purposes. These preparations in Belarus are planned to produce by the Joint Belarussian-Russian Closed Joint Stock Company 'Isotope technologies' (CJSC IT). The company was created in 1998 by two leading scientific centers-SSI 'Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny' the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus and the State Center of Science of the Russian Federation 'Scientific research institute of nuclear reactors'. One of the mainstream directions in CJSC IT activities is production of radioactive preparations for the industrial and scientific application (such as 133 Ba, 109 Cd, 63 Ni, 60 Co) and for the medical purposes (such as 19 '2Ir, 60 Co). All radioactive preparations have a good export potential and adequate to modern technical and consumer requirements. X-γ spectrometric analysis of considered radioactive sources is one of the basic methods for quality control of radioactive sources. At present, we are developing x-γ spectrometric support of purification process from contaminating radionuclides of 109 Cd -γ preparation and 63 Ni - β preparation. Work on x-γ spectrometric quality control of 133 Ba preparation is carried out. The description of the used equipment is given. Techniques of contaminating radionuclides determination (contents ∼10 - '6 from activity of the basic radionuclide) are presented. Problems of the choice of geometry of measurements of sources with activity about 10 7 -10 9 Bq and possible sources of errors are discussed. (author)

  15. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests; Forests ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  16. Clearance of materials resulting from the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    It has long been recognized that the use of sources of radiation should be regulated. The recommended regulatory approach is based on a system of notification and authorization exemplified by the IAEA International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS). However, some types of radiation source do not meet to be subject to regulatory control because they can only give rise to trivial radiation hazards. Such sources may be exempted or cleared from the requirements of regulatory control. Exemption applies to radiation sources which do not enter the regulatory control regime, while clearance is relevant to radiation sources which were within the regulatory regime but can be released because they present an insignificant risk to health. It is the latter situation which is the subject of this publication. While the emphasis of the report is on providing guidance on the clearance process and on methods for determining clearance leaves, taking account of site specific factors as appropriate, a set of conservatively derived generic clearance levels is also presented. These are expected to be of considerable help to users of small quantities of radionuclides in laboratories and hospitals and their regulators. They can be used, taking due account of the associated notes of caution, as reference levels for determining when clearance is the appropriate option for disposing of the materials

  17. Transuranic radionuclides in the environment surrounding radioactive waste diposal sites, a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, A.C.; Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Brunk, J.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Jones, H.E.; Kehl, S.; Stuart, M.L.; Wasley, L.M.; Bradsher, R.V.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e. site specific). An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. In an attempt to gather relevant information about the transuranic radionuclides in a variety of environments, we conducted an extensive literature search. In our literature search we identified over 5700 potential written sources of information for review. In addition, we have identified many references which were not found through the literature searches, but which were known to contain useful data. A total of approximately 2600 documents were determined to contain information which would be useful for an in depth study of radionuclides in different environments. The journal articles, books, reports and other documents were reviewed to obtain the source term of the radionuclides studied. Most references containing laboratory study data were not included in our databases. Although these may contain valuable data, we were trying to compile references with information on the behavior of the transuranics in the specific environment being studied

  18. Generalized skeletal pathology: Results of radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueger, G.F.; Aigner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Generalized pathological changes may involve the skeleton systematically (bone tissue, bone marrow) or at multiple sites involving destruction or infiltration. Appropriate radionuclide studies include total-body bone or bone marrow scintigraphy, absorptiometry (osteodensitometry) and the 24 h whole-body retention measurement. Established radioindicators are 99m-Tc-(hydroxy)methylendiphosphonate (HMDP or MDP) and 99m-Tc-human serumalbumin-nanocolloid. Absorptiometry of the forearm, extended by computer-assisted transaxial tomography, may be expected to prove as the most efficient method of bone density measurement. The 24 h whole-body retention measurement is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of metabolic and endocrine osteopathies, if the very same osteotropic 99m-Tc-chelate is used. Whole-body bone scintigraphy today is one of the most important radionuclide studies for diagnosis and follow-up of skeletal metastases. Scintigraphy provides evidence of skeletal metastases several months earlier than radiological examinations. In about 40 percent of patients with cancer of the prostate, scintigraphy provided positive findings of skeletal metastases in the absence of both pain and increased levels of phosphatase. In patients with a history of malignancy, 60 percent of solitary findings on skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy ranges from 2 to 4%. Compared to skeletal scintigraphy, bone marrow scintigraphy frequently yields significant additional findings in cases of plasmocytoma, histiocytoma, lymphoma and haemoblastoses. (orig.) [de

  19. Analysis of radionuclide dispersion at normal condition for AEC 1000 MW reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Kuntjoro

    2010-01-01

    Analysis for radionuclide dispersion for the Atomic Energy Agency (AEC) 3,568 MWth Power Reactor, equal to the 1,000 MWe at normal condition has been done. Analysis was done for two piles that is separated by 500 m distance and angle of 90° one to other. Initial pace in doing the analysis is to determine reactors source term using ORIGEN2 and EMERALD NORMAL. computer code program. ORIGEN2 applied to determine radionuclide inventory emerged in the reactor. Hereinafter, by using Emerald Normal Computer code is calculated source term reaching the reactor stack. To analyze dose received by population is done by using PC-CREAM computer code. Calculation done for one and two PLTN attached in site candidate of plants. The result showed is that the highest radionuclide release for one PLTN is at 1 km distance and to 9 th zone toward ( 19.25° ) and for two PLTN is at 1 km distance and to 10 th zone toward (21.75° ). Radionuclide which up to population through two pathways that are foodstuff and inhalation. To foodstuff comes from radionuclide I 131 , and the biggest passed from milk product with 53.40 % for one and also two PLTN For inhalation pathway the highest radionuclide contribution come from Kr 85m is about 53.80 %. The highest total dose received by population is at 1 Km distance received by baby that is 4.10 µSi and 11.26 µSi for one and two PLTN respectively. Those result are very small compared to the maximum permission dose to population issued by regulatory body that is equal to 1 mSi. (author)

  20. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  1. Modelling for radiological and radioecological consequences of an accidental radionuclide release at Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Scenarios concerning accidental releases of radionuclides into water bodies can be found in the open literature, mostly in connection with nuclear power plants located either onshore or inland. However, meager attention has been given to nuclear reactors used as energy sources for propulsion at sea, which are also subject to accidents. Such potential accidents may involve the loss of part of the reactor core to the surrounding water body. In addition of the initial instantaneous releases, one can estimate delayed source terms based on the rate at which radionuclides are dissolved or leached from the solidified material, like part of the core or structural materials in contact with water. Most of such solidified material might be a mixture of uranium, zirconium, iron, calcium, silica, fission and activation products, and transuranium elements as oxides, forming a glassy type solid. Transport models were used to calculate radionuclide concentrations in water resulting from short and delayed source terms. Oceanographic data used in the calculations were taken either from the open literature or from unclassified reports of the Brazilian Navy, being, however, as generic as possible. Time-dependent concentration functions for radionuclides in aquatic food following an accidental release reflect the net result of intake and elimination processes. However, to avoid the complexities of multiple parameters involved in such processes, the model accounts only for trophic transfer of radionuclides, and yet avoids the necessity of analyzing the details of each transfer step used to determine fish, crustacea, molluscs and seaweed accumulation. Swimming and other aquatic sports are not included in the model used for dose calculations because of theirs relatively low importance in comparison with the pathways concerning ingestion of aquatic food

  2. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIEDIKER, L.P.

    1999-06-15

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in I998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR SI), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection--Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H; require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv), which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.5 E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from

  3. Use of natural radionuclides to determine the time range of the accidental melting of an orphan radioactive source in a steel recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaluppi, Chiara; Ceccotto, Federica; Cianchi, Aldo

    2012-02-01

    In the rare event that an orphan radioactive source is melted in an Electric Arc Furnace steel recycling plant, the radionuclides present are partitioned in the different products, by-products and waste. As a consequence of an unforeseen melting of a radiocesium source, cesium radioisotopes can be found in the dust, together with many natural radionuclides from the decay of radon and thoron, which are present in the atmosphere, picked up from the off-gas evacuation system and associated with the dust of the air filtration system ("baghouse"). In this work we verified that the activity concentration of ²¹²Pb in this dust is essentially constant in a specific factory so that it is possible to use it to date back to the time of the accidental melting of the orphan radioactive source. The main features of this method are described below, together with the application to a particular case in which this method was used for dating the moment in which the dust was contaminated with ¹³⁷Cs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Legore, Virginia L.; Parker, Kent E.; Orr, Robert D.; McCready, David E.; )

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products o f the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions

  5. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out

  6. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  7. Radionuclide contents in food products from domestic and imported sources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibiri, N N; Okusanya, A A

    2008-01-01

    Samples of some domestic and imported food products of nutritive importance to both the child population and the adult population in Nigeria were collected and analysed in order to determine their radionuclide contents. The samples were collected from open markets in major commercial cities in the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was employed in the determination of the radionuclide contents in the products. The gamma-ray peaks observed with reliable regularity in all the samples analysed belong to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K. The activity concentrations of these radionuclides in both the domestic and imported products were observed to be not significantly different. Essentially radioactive elements such as 137 Cs were not detected in any of the samples. The non-detection of 137 Cs in the imported products may be attributed to the suitably modified agricultural practices and countermeasures being employed to reduce caesium uptake by plants after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. It seems unlikely that the elemental concentrations in the food products analysed will contribute significantly to public health risks in the country, as the cumulative ingestion effective dose values from 226 Ra and 228 Th were found to be low. Although 40 K has the highest activity concentrations in all the samples analysed, it is usually under homeostatic control in the body, and hence the concentrations are irrelevant to possible contamination in the food products analysed. (note)

  8. Natural Radionuclides and Heavy Metals Pollution in Seawater at Kuala Langat Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabarina Md Yunus; Zaini Hamzah; Ab Khalik Hj Wood; Ahmad Saat

    2015-01-01

    Rapid industrial developments along the Langat river basin play an important role in contributing to the increases of pollution loading at Kuala Langat coastal area. The major pollutant sources in this area may be originating from human activities such as industrial discharge, domestic sewage, construction, agriculture and pig farming near the tributaries that affects the water quality. In addition, Langat and Semenyih rivers flow through the mining and ex-mining area, which is related to the source of natural radionuclides contamination. Heavy metals in the aquatic environment and more likely to enter the food chain. This study is focusing to the levels of radionuclides and heavy metals in seawater. The samples were collected using appropriate water sampler, which is then acidified until pH 2 and filtered using cellulose acetate 0.45 μm. The concentration of these radionuclides and heavy metals were determined using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS) after dilution. In general, the radionuclides and heavy metals concentrations are lower than Malaysia Marine Water Quality Standard (MMWQS) except for few locations where the concentration levels above the standards. The higher concentration of pollutant in the seawater may have a toxic effect on sensitive plants and living organisms. The results of pollution levels of these radionuclides and heavy metals were also compared with other studies. (author)

  9. Separation of radionuclides from gas by sorption on activated charcoal and inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepak, F.

    1988-01-01

    The review deals with the sorption and ion exchange of gaseous radionuclides on activated charcoal and on inorganic sorbents. It presents the physical and chemical characteristics of radionuclides, the sources of gaseous forms of radionuclides as well as the composition of radioactive gases from some nuclear facilities. 79 refs. (author)

  10. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  11. Natural radionuclides in the human body; Natuerliche Radionuklide im menschlichen Koerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelkle, Hansruedi [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Physikdept.

    2017-08-01

    Natural radionuclides in the human body produce worldwide a medium annual radiation exposure of 0.31 mSv. 0.17 mSv are due to potassium-40 (K-40) per year, 0.12 mSv per year are due to radionuclides from the uranium and thorium decay series, less than 0.02 mSv due to cosmogenic radionuclides. Natural radioactivity is therefore the largest exposure source, anthropogenic exposure is comparatively marginal.

  12. Radionuclides in the oceans inputs and inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, P.; Germain, P.; Metivier, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after Chernobyl, following the decision by France to end nuclear weapon testing in the Pacific ocean, after the end of the OECD-NEA Coordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance programme related to low-level waste dumping in the deep ocean, and one hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity, the IPSN wanted to compile and review the available information on artificial radioactivity levels in seas and oceans. International experts have been invited to present data on inputs and inventories of radionuclides in the marine environment, and to describe the evolution of radioactivity levels in water, sediments and living organisms. Different sources of radionuclides present in the aquatic environment are described: atmospheric fallout before and after Chernobyl, industrial wastes, dumped wastes and ships, nuclear ship accidents, river inputs, earth-sea atmospheric transfers and experimental sites for nuclear testing. Radioactivity levels due to these sources are dealt with at ocean (Atlantic, Pacific and Indian) and sea level (Channel, North Sea, Irish Sea, Mediterranean, Baltic, Black Sea and Arctic seas). These data collected in the present book give an up-to-date assessment of radionuclide distributions which will be very useful to address scientific and wider public concerns about radionuclides found in the aquatic environment. It gives many references useful to those who want to deepen their understanding of particular aspects of marine radioecology. (authors)

  13. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  14. CRRIS, Health Risk Assessment from Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    . ANEMOS employs a Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model. RETADD-II is based on long-range trajectory estimates using upper-air wind data. ANEMOS, RETADD, TERRA, MLSOIL and ANDROS solve differential equations that describe decay and ingrowth. PRIMUS and ANDROS can be characterized as bookkeeping rather than computational programs. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: ANEMOS is not to be used for short-term or accidental releases. It is appropriate only for chronic releases. It models only one source per run. Multiple ANEMOS results may be combined using SUMIT. MLSOIL does not allow upward transport of radionuclides. MLSOIL will truncate radionuclide chains of length greater than 20. All sample cases in this package are to be considered demonstration assessments. No special significance should be attached to the choices of parameters and options for these jobs

  15. Radionuclide release from spent fuel under geologic disposal conditions: An overview of experimental and theoretical work through 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, P.W.; Simonson, S.A.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents an overview of experimental and theoretical work on radionuclide release from spent fuel and uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) under geologic disposal conditions. The purpose of the report is to provide a source book of information that can be used to develop models that describe radionuclide release from spent fuel waste packages. Modeling activities of this nature will be conducted within the Waste Package Program (WPP) of the Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). The topics discussed include experimental methods for investigating radionuclide release, how results have been reported from radionuclide release experiments, theoretical studies of UO/sub 2/ and actinide solubility, results of experimental studies of radionuclide release from spent fuel and UO/sub 2/ (i.e., the effects of different variables on radionuclide release), characteristics of spent fuel pertinent to radionuclide release, and status of modeling of radionuclide release from spent fuel. Appendix A presents tables of data from spent fuel radionuclide release experiments. These data have been digitized from graphs that appear in the literature. An annotated bibliography of literature on spent fuel characterization is provided in Appendix B.

  16. Agriculture products as source of radionuclides and some monitoring principles of agriculture near nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksakhin, R.M.; Korneev, N.A.; Panteleev, L.I.; Shukhovtsev, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    Migration of radionuclides into agriculture products in regions adjoining the nuclear facilities depends on a large number of factors. Among them is the complex of ecological conditions: meteorological factors, type of soils etc., as well as biological peculiarities of agriculture plants and animals. It is possible to control the radionuclide content administered to man's organism with agriculture products changing large branches of agriculture and varying within the range of seprate branches of industry, taking into account the most effective ways of radionuclide pathways

  17. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  18. Calculation of age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides uniformly distributed in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tran Van; Satoh, Daiki; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Tsuda, Shuichi; Endo, Akira; Saito, Kimiaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2005-02-01

    Age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air were calculated. The size of the source region in the calculation was assumed to be effectively semi-infinite in extent. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using MCNP code, a Monte Carlo transport code. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources of twelve energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. The calculated effective doses were used to interpolate the conversion coefficients of the effective doses for 160 radionuclides, which are important for dose assessment of nuclear facilities. In the calculation, energies and intensities of emitted photons from radionuclides were taken from DECDC, a recent compilation of decay data for radiation dosimetry developed at JAERI. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m -3 ). (author)

  19. Dependence of alpha radionuclide diffusion and deposition on relative air humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, A.; Ciubotariu, M.; Oncescu, M.; Mocsy, I.; Tomulescu, V.

    2000-01-01

    The diffusion and deposition of the gaseous and solid alpha radionuclides/aerosols depend strongly on the relative air humidity. This dependence gets a great significance in the case of radon and their genetically related alpha radionuclides monitoring in the dwelling and working places for radioprotection purposes, particularly in establishing the equilibrium factor. For the gaseous and solid alpha radionuclides genetically related, Rn-222 and its solid alpha descendants including their aerosols obtained by radionuclide attachments to different particles present in air, the vertical gradient of volume concentrations was experimentally determined. The experiments were performed in: an airtight tubular laboratory chamber, a house cellar (Cluj-Napoca) and the entrance gallery of an abandoned mine (Avram Iancu, Bihor), in which the relative humidity was ranging from 65% up to 96%. For the laboratory chamber, these radionuclides were generated by a calibrated Ra-226 source, prepared at the Radionuclide Production Centre, IPNE-HH, Bucharest. The source was included into an air tight device with a well known volume and it was used only after 40 days, when the Ra-226 and its alpha descendants were under radioactive equilibrium. For the diffusion/deposition studies, this source was coupled with the airtight laboratory chamber. In the mine gallery and house cellar, the radon and its descendants were naturally and continuously generated by radium sources in soil and building materials. The alpha volume concentration determinations required the use of a very accurate and sensitive alpha measurement method. These requirements were met by the alpha track method. This method was used by us in the following conditions: the CR-39 plastic track detector (Page, England) for the detection of the alpha particles and the optical microscopy for the study of alpha tracks (Wild stereomicroscope M7S and a Karl Zeiss Jena binocular microscope). The volume concentrations of radon and the

  20. The soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides. Feasibilities and limits of the transfer concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The present paper discusses the simple transfer model. After the Chernobyl fallout in Austria field investigations dealt with the behaviour of radionuclides in the soil-plant system. They led to the following conclusions: (1) A single plowing does not result in a homogeneous radionuclide distribution in the A p horizon. (2) Low plant availability of radionuclides (e.g. 137 Cs) led to a higher contribution of outer contamination (resuspension) to concentrations in plants in the first years after the fallout. Differences arose between high and low contamination areas. This was not true for 90 Sr, which exhibited three to ten times higher transfer factors as compared to 137 Cs. (3) The contamination source has a distinct impact on the plant availability of radionuclides. (4) In semi-natural environments radiocaesium can be bound to the biomass to a great extent, which results in significantly higher biological half-lives as compared to agricultural ecosystems. (author)

  1. An determination of man-made γ-emitting radionuclides in coal fly ash and standard solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cuihua; Zhou Qiang

    2004-01-01

    We participated an international comparison on the determination of man-made γ-emitting radionuclides in coal fly ash and in standard solution organized by the Analytical Quality Control Service of the IAEA in 2002. The sample was dispensed in 100.0 ± 0.1 g aliquots in plastic container and was spiked with known amounts of certified standard γ-emitting radionuclides 54 Mn, 57 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 88 Y, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 241 Am. The determination of the anthropogenic )γ-emitting radionuclides in the test samples was carried out with an ORTEC gamma-ray spectrometry system coupled with a HPGe detector with resolution of 1.75 keV and relative efficiency of 55% for 137 Cs, located in a 10 cm thick lead container. The energy and efficiency calibration were with home-made volume calibration sources containing some of the radionuclides to be analyzed. The analysis procedure is described elsewhere. Table 1 lists the results of the determination and the comparisons with IAEA reference data and evaluation. Overall our results are agreeable in ±8.6% with the IAEA reference data, except for 60 Co. The differences for 60 Co was -10.8%. It may be caused by the 60 Co calibration source made with residual of quiet old standard solution. The difference for 241 Am is due to self-absorption in the fly ash sample. This bias was small for the solution sample. For standard solution sample, the results are agreeable within ±3.7% for all radionuclides except for 60 Co, being 12%. (authors)

  2. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  3. Dosimetric Aspects of Personnel Skin Contamination by Radionuclides - Estimate of a Skin Dose, Monitoring and Interpretation of Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Kleinbauer, K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: On the basis of a critical comparison of literary data, tables are compiled of beta and gamma dose rate in mSvh -1 (kBqcm -1 ) to the basal layer of the skin at 0.07 mm depth from contamination by 75 radionuclides unsealed sources; radioactive substances are assumed to reside on the skin surface. The residence time needed for the estimate of the skin dose is calculated assuming that a residual activity per unit area of any radionuclide on the skin, which could not be removed by the repeated careful decontamination, is supposed to be eliminated with the biological half-life of 116 h as a consequence of the natural sloughing off of the skin. Radionuclides are divided into five groups according to the dose estimate in mSv (kBqcm -2 ): ≥250 (e.g. 32 P, 89 Sr, 137 Cs/ 137m Ba), 100-250 (e.g. 90 Y, 131 I, 186 Re), 10-100 (e.g. 35 S, 67 Ga, 200 Tl), 1-10 (e.g. 18 F, 51 Cr, 99m Tc), ≤1 (e.g. 63 Ni, 144 Pr, 238 U). If it is possible, doses can be determined more precisely by measuring the effective half-life of the residual activity on the contaminated area. Our dose estimates are approximately valid on the condition that, after decontamination, residual activity of radionuclides persists predominantly in the superficial layers of epidermis. This and further uncertainties connected with the dose assessment are discussed. Our tables can help to determine easily rough values of doses to personnel in contamination incidents and to interpret them in relation to regulatory derived limits. This work was supported by State Office for Nuclear Safety in Prague. (author)

  4. Specific processes in solvent extractiotn of radionuclide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.

    1982-01-01

    The doctoral thesis discusses the consequences of the radioactive beta transformation in systems liquid-liquid and liquid-ion exchanger, and the effect of the chemical composition of liquid-liquid systems on the distribution of radionuclide traces. A model is derived of radiolysis in two-phase liquid-liquid systems used in nuclear chemical technology. The obtained results are used to suggest the processing of radioactive wastes using the Purex process. For solvent extraction the following radionuclides were used: 59 Fe, 95 Zr- 95 Nb, 99 Mo, sup(99m)Tc, 99 Tc, 103 Pd, 137 Cs, 141 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 234 Th, and 233 Pa. Extraction was carried out at laboratory temperature. 60 Co was used as the radiation source. Mainly scintillation spectrometry equipment was used for radiometric analysis. (E.S.)

  5. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Robin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Peyton, Brent M. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Apel, William A. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy metals, radionuclides and assorted organic materials. In addition, there are numerous sites around the world that are contaminated with a mixture of organic and inorganic contaminants. In most sites, over time, water infiltrates the wastes, and releases metals, radionuclides and other contaminants causing transport into the surrounding environment. We investigated the role of fermentative microorganisms in such sites that may control metal, radionuclide and organics migration from source zones. The project was initiated based on the following overarching hypothesis: Metals, radionuclides and other contaminants can be mobilized by infiltration of water into waste storage sites. Microbial communities of lignocellulose degrading and fermenting microorganisms present in the subsurface of contaminated DOE sites can significantly impact migration by directly reducing and immobilizing metals and radionuclides while degrading complex organic matter to low molecular weight organic compounds. These low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols can increase metal and radionuclide mobility by chelation (i.e., certain organic acids) or decrease mobility by stimulating respiratory metal reducing microorganisms. We demonstrated that fermentative organisms capable of affecting the fate of Cr6+, U6+ and trinitrotoluene can be isolated from organic-rich low level waste sites as well as from less organic rich subsurface environments. The mechanisms, pathways and extent of contaminant transformation depend on a variety of factors related to the type of organisms present, the aqueous chemistry as well as the geochemistry and mineralogy. This work provides observations and quantitative data across multiple scales that identify and predict the coupled effects of fermentative carbon and electron flow on the transport of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic contaminants in

  6. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M.; Apel, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy metals, radionuclides and assorted organic materials. In addition, there are numerous sites around the world that are contaminated with a mixture of organic and inorganic contaminants. In most sites, over time, water infiltrates the wastes, and releases metals, radionuclides and other contaminants causing transport into the surrounding environment. We investigated the role of fermentative microorganisms in such sites that may control metal, radionuclide and organics migration from source zones. The project was initiated based on the following overarching hypothesis: Metals, radionuclides and other contaminants can be mobilized by infiltration of water into waste storage sites. Microbial communities of lignocellulose degrading and fermenting microorganisms present in the subsurface of contaminated DOE sites can significantly impact migration by directly reducing and immobilizing metals and radionuclides while degrading complex organic matter to low molecular weight organic compounds. These low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols can increase metal and radionuclide mobility by chelation (i.e., certain organic acids) or decrease mobility by stimulating respiratory metal reducing microorganisms. We demonstrated that fermentative organisms capable of affecting the fate of Cr6+, U6+ and trinitrotoluene can be isolated from organic-rich low level waste sites as well as from less organic rich subsurface environments. The mechanisms, pathways and extent of contaminant transformation depend on a variety of factors related to the type of organisms present, the aqueous chemistry as well as the geochemistry and mineralogy. This work provides observations and quantitative data across multiple scales that identify and predict the coupled effects of fermentative carbon and electron flow on the transport of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic contaminants in

  7. The diffusion and deposition of the gaseous and solid alpha radionuclides/aerosols in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, A.; Ciubotariu, M.; Oncescu, M.; Mocsy, I.

    1999-01-01

    The diffusion and deposition of gaseous and solids alpha radionuclides and aerosols in air are processes which implicate low element amounts and therefore their studies require the using of very accurate and sensitive analysis methods. The alpha track method meets these requirements. The used alpha radionuclides were: Rn-222, as gaseous radionuclide and its solid descendants genetically related as solid radionuclides and the descendants attached to different particles from air as alpha aerosols. All these radionuclides were obtained from a calibrated Ra-226 source. The source was included into an air tight device with a well known volume and used after 40 days when the Ra-226 and its alpha descendants were under radioactive equilibrium. The relative amount and activity of each decay product, at any duration, for any initial mass of Ra-226 parent radionuclide, were calculated using a programme for computation of the U-238 radioactive series gamma accumulation, UURASE, adapted for alpha accumulation as ALFAURASE programme. The radon, Rn-222, as well as the solid alpha radionuclides and aerosols were measured using a new alpha monitoring device with or without paper filter for solid radionuclides and aerosols stopping. The track detectors of CR-39 type were incorporated with these monitoring devices. In order to calibrate the CR-39 detectors, a radon intercomparison programme was established with the participation of the SSNTD group from the Institute of Nuclear Research ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary, Institute of Public Health, Cluj-Napoca and SSNTD research group from IFIN-HH. We have used for radon calibration a special experimental device and a Ra-226 source. Using an air tight diffusion and deposition device, coupled with the source device, the concentration of radon and solid alpha radionuclides and aerosols were determined using the alpha track method. The alpha monitoring devices were fixed vertically at different distances from the place of radon penetration into

  8. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  9. Natural radionuclides in the UK marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollo, S F.N.; Camplin, W C; Allington, D J; Young, A K [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (United Kingdom). Fisheries Radiobiological Lab.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of natural radionuclides giving rise to radiation exposure of man from marine consumption pathways has been known for some time. However, the extent of surveys of levels in marine biota has been limited. This paper presents new data on concentrations of natural radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweeds taken from coastal sampling locations in the U.K. Sampling included areas where levels due to natural sources would be predominant, but efforts were made to study potential sources of technologically enhanced discharges to seas and rivers, particularly the phosphogypsum plant at Whitehaven in Cumbria. The highest concentrations (up to 371 Bq.kg[sup -1] (wet) [sup 210]Po) were observed in winkles near Whitehaven. The general levels at sites remote from known sources were much lower. Monthly concentrations in molluscs at a single location were elevated by approximately a factor of 2 during the summer months. An assessment of the expected doses to members of the public from marine consumption pathways is made. (author).

  10. Testing and intercomparison of model predictions of radionuclide migration from a hypothetical area source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.S.; Yu, C.; Zeevaert, T.; Olyslaegers, G.; Amado, V.; Setlow, L.W.; Waggitt, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    This work was carried out as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS program. One aim of the work was to develop scenarios for testing computer models designed for simulating radionuclide migration in the environment, and to use these scenarios for testing the models and comparing predictions from different models. This paper presents the results of the development and testing of a hypothetical area source of NORM waste/residue using two complex computer models and one screening model. There are significant differences in the methods used to model groundwater flow between the complex models. The hypothetical source was used because of its relative simplicity and because of difficulties encountered in finding comprehensive, well-validated data sets for real sites. The source consisted of a simple repository of uniform thickness, with 1 Bq g -1 of uranium-238 ( 238 U) (in secular equilibrium with its decay products) distributed uniformly throughout the waste. These approximate real situations, such as engineered repositories, waste rock piles, tailings piles and landfills. Specification of the site also included the physical layout, vertical stratigraphic details, soil type for each layer of material, precipitation and runoff details, groundwater flow parameters, and meteorological data. Calculations were carried out with and without a cover layer of clean soil above the waste, for people working and living at different locations relative to the waste. The predictions of the two complex models showed several differences which need more detailed examination. The scenario is available for testing by other modelers. It can also be used as a planning tool for remediation work or for repository design, by changing the scenario parameters and running the models for a range of different inputs. Further development will include applying models to real scenarios and integrating environmental impact assessment methods with the safety assessment tools currently

  11. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  12. Uranium and thorium decay series radionuclides in human and animal foodchains - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.

    1994-01-01

    Human exposures along plant and animal pathways to isotopes of U, Th, Ra, Pb, and Po are reviewed. The range and variability of intakes among human populations resulting from dietary sources are presented. Also discussed are the sources of intake among fare animals reared for consumption. Under most circumstances, the soil-plant-human pathway is the predominant route of intake for humans and livestock. Radionuclide distributions within livestock and human tissues, and the transfer factors used to model intakes along various food chain pathways an summarized. Bone is the major site of deposition in livestock and humans. Where possible, summary data and conclusions from previous reviews are considered along with some notable gaps in the data base for natural series radionuclides. 67 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Secondary contamination of 30-km zone of the Chernobyl atomic electric plant and adjacent territory due to radionuclides carried by ascending wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garger, E.K.; Gavrilov, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The territory contaminated with radionuclides as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic electric plant is a surface source of radioactive aerosols carried into the atmosphere by ascending winds. In this connection, a number of problems arise whose solution is important for assessment of the radiation conditions in the atmosphere near the Earth's surface: (1) calculation of the volume concentration of radionuclides and their fallout on the contaminated and neighboring territory and on this basis determine the potentially dangerous contaminated regions; (2) assessment of the secondary contamination of deactivated territories due to ascending winds and transfer of radionuclides; and (3) determination of the size of the protective (buffer) zones around or near populated areas to ensure low volume concentrations of radionuclides during strong winds. In order to calculate the transfer of radionuclides from a surface source, it is necessary to know its dust intensity, which is the vertical turbulent flux of the radionuclides in the atmosphere layer near the ground Q (Ci · m -2 sec -1 ). A quantity frequently used in practice is Q referred to the contamination density of the surface layer c (Ci/m 2 ) and called the wind ascent intensity α = Q/c. As a rule, the radionuclide wind ascent intensity for a plane source with a nonuniform surface and contamination density may depend on the physical characteristics of the surface as well as on those of the radionuclides and also on the space coordinates x, y and on time. In the present study, the wind ascent intensity was determined by gradient measurements of the mean radionuclide concentration, the wind velocity and air temperature; the conditions during the measurements were assumed to correspond to the case of a plane homogeneous, stationary source of a nondepositing admixture

  14. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article

  15. Distribution of anthropogenic and naturally occurring radionuclides in soils and lakes of Central Spitsbergen (Arctic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokas, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    This work provides the first results on activity concentrations, inventories and activity ratios of the artificial and natural fallout ("1"3"7Cs, "2"3"8Pu, "2"3"9"+"2"4"0Pu, "2"4"1Am, "2"1"0Pb) and lithogenic radionuclides ("2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra, "4"0K) in soils and lake sediments of the inland Spitsbergen. The depths of activity peaks of the artificial radionuclides point to accumulation of up to 10 cm thick deposits during last 50 years. The activity ratios of the radionuclides suggest global fallout as their source. Despite low annual precipitation the inventories of fallout radionuclides in sites not affected by the secondary deposition agree with those reported from the more humid areas of Spitsbergen. (author)

  16. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  17. Development of an open source software of quantitative analysis for radionuclide determination by gamma-ray spectrometry using semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduar, Marcelo Francis

    2010-01-01

    Radioactivity quantification of gamma-ray emitter radionuclides in samples measured by HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry relies on the analysis of the photopeaks present in the spectra, especially on the accurate determination of their net areas. Such a task is usually performed with the aid of proprietary software tools. This work presents a methodology, algorithm descriptions and an open source application, called OpenGamma, for the peak search and analysis in order to obtain the relevant peaks parameters and radionuclides activities. The computational implementation is released entirely in open-source license for the main code and with the use of open software packages for interface design and mathematical libraries. The procedure for the peak search is performed on a three step approach. Firstly a preliminary search is done by using the second-difference method, consisting in the generation of a derived spectrum in order to find candidate peaks. In the second step, the experimental peaks widths are assessed and well formed and isolated ones are chosen to obtain a FWHM vs. channel relationship, by application of the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization method for non-linear fitting. Lastly, regions of the spectrum with grouped peaks are marked and a non-linear fit is again applied to each region to obtain baseline and photopeaks terms; from these terms, peaks net areas are then assessed. (author)

  18. Comparative economic factors on the use of radionuclide or electrical sources for food processing with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation is a promising addition to conventional food processing techniques. However, as is the case with most new technologies, its economic suitability will be determined by comparison to current methods. Assuming that current food processing facilities are adaptable to the incorporation of a food irradiation capability, an analysis of cost for several different optional systems able to process up to 100 Mrad ton/day (1 MGy ton/day; or 1,000 ton/day at 100 krad) will be made. Both radionuclide and electrical accelerators will be compared as sources of ionizing radiation. The cost of irradiation will be shown to be competitive with most other treatments including fumigation, low-temperature storage, and controlled atmosphere. A proper figure-of-merit for comparing the different sources will be defined and used as a basis for an economic evaluation of food irradiation. (author)

  19. Radionuclides in radiation-induced bystander effect; may it share in radionuclide therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widel, M

    2017-01-01

    For many years in radiobiology and radiotherapy predominated the conviction that cellular DNA is the main target for ionizing radiation, however, the view has changed in the past 20 years. Nowadays, it is assumed that not only directed (targeted) radiation effect, but also an indirect (non-targeted) effect may contribute to the result of radiation treatment. Non-targeted effect is relatively well recognized after external beam irradiation in vitro and in vivo, and comprises such phenomena like radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal (out of field) effect. These stress-induced and molecular signaling mediated phenomena appear in non-targeted cells as variety responses resembling that observed in directly hit cells. Bystander effects can be both detrimental and beneficial in dependence on dose, dose-rate, cell type, genetic status and experimental condition. Less is known about radionuclide-induced non-targeted effects in radionuclide therapy, although, based on characteristics of the radionuclide radiation, on experiments in vitro utilizing classical and 3-D cell cultures, and preclinical study on animals it seems obvious that exposure to radionuclide is accompanied by various bystander effects, mostly damaging, less often protective. This review summarizes existing data on radionuclide induced bystander effects comprising radionuclides emitting beta- and alpha-particles and Auger electrons used in tumor radiotherapy and diagnostics. So far, separation of the direct effect of radionuclide decay from crossfire and bystander effects in clinical targeted radionuclide therapy is impossible because of the lack of methods to assess whether, and to what extent bystander effect is involved in human organism. Considerations on this topic are also included.

  20. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  1. Extreme radionuclide accumulation on alpine glaciers in cryoconites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Wilflinger, T.; Hubmer, A.K.; Bossew, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Under environmental conditions when radionuclide fallout will not be diluted by media like soil or water, radionuclides deposited may accumulate to unusual high activities. On glacier surfaces conditions as such exist for aerosols and airborne dust deposited with anthropogenic and natural radionuclides attached on their surfaces. In the course of agglomeration processes initiated by melting and redistribution, these particles may concentrate in small depressions, ice pockets, ablation edges etc. and form substances called cryoconites ('ice dust'). As there is no other matrix than the original aerosol particles, cryoconites are a sink for radionuclides and airborne pollutants and their activity levels are among the highest produced by natural processes observed in environmental media. 137 Cs activities found on glaciers in the Austrian alps are between 255 and 136.000 Bq/kg and predominantly derived from Chernobyl, but also from global fallout. Further anthropogenic radionuclides detected are 134 Cs, 90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 125 Sb, 154 Eu, 60 Co and 207 Bi. In combination with the naturally occurring radionuclides 7 Be and 210 Pb and isotopic ratios such as 134 Cs/ 137 Cs, identification and discrimination of the sources, the nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl fallout, can be carried out. (author)

  2. Study on radionuclides transport from natural evaporating ponds to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Keqiang; Zou Changgui

    1997-08-01

    The results of simulated experiments, field monitoring and radiation health risk evaluation of radionuclides transport to the atmosphere from the natural evaporating ponds of a certain nuclear factory, and the estimating method of releasing source strength are presented. The estimated results of radiation health risk show that the maximum individual annual risk is 6.5 x 10 -9 and the total collective annual risk within a radius of 20 km is 3.2 x 10 -5 person, which are caused by operation of the evaporating ponds. It should be pointed out that the above estimated results only refer to one operating year (1990). If the cumulative effect of radionuclides deposition in ground is considered, the risk will increase a little with time until the dynamic balance is achieved. (5 ref., 8 tabs.)

  3. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  4. Distribution of natural radionuclide in soil of Ukhimath region of Garhwali Himalaya and its radiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Manjulata; Rawat, Mukesh; Prasad, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Gusain, G.S.; Ramola, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides present in soil include 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K some of these radionuclides are transferred to man through food chain or inhalations, while the extraterrestrial radiation originate from outer space as primary cosmic rays. External exposure will occur as a result of irradiation, and internal exposure will occurs as result of inhalation. Therefore, the assessment of gamma radiations dose from natural sources is of particular importance as natural radiation is the largest contributor to the external dose of world population

  5. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company's management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring

  6. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  7. Comparison of radionuclide data analysis results of the CTBTO/IDC and the Finnish NDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansaranta, T.; Ala-Heikkilae, J.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-06-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is to operate a world-wide radionuclide monitoring network consisting of 80 measuring stations that transmit daily gamma-ray spectra measured from air filter samples to the International Data Centre (IDC). All spectra are analysed automatically and the results are reviewed interactively by an analyst. Quality of the automated analysis has a substantial impact on the reliability and efficiency of the analysis operation. The Finnish National Data Centre (FiNDC) receives the analysis results and raw spectral data from the IDC and performs radionuclide analysis of the spectra using dedicated Finnish software packages. This work evaluates the differences between the analysis results of the IDC and the FiNDC. The results are studied with respect to the spectrum peak finding, fitting and explaining performance. Furthermore, nuclides associated with the peaks are considered, and an effort is made to approximate the number of spurious nuclide identifications. The material of this work consists of representative sets containing 500 to 1500 spectra and their respective analysis result pairs. The spectra were measured by the five certified radionuclide stations and three prototype stations that were operating between August 1, 2000 and March 26, 2001. In the set of 1500 spectra from eight stations, the FiNDC analysis software package was found to detect 4.2 more peaks per spectrum and to explain 5.6 more peaks per spectrum than the IDC software package, which, in turn, left 1.4 more peaks per spectrum unexplained. The median peak explanation percentages of the FiNDC and IDC were 96.7 and 92.3, respectively. The FiNDC analysis software package was found to report 0.7 more spurious nuclides than the IDC analysis software package. When only the CTBTO relevant nuclides were considered, the difference decreased to 0.05. The throughput times involved with the IDC raw measuring data transfer and automatic analysis result

  8. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  9. Radionuclide release calculations for selected severe accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.; Leonard, M.T.; Cybulskis, P.; Lee, K.W.; Kelly, R.F.; Jordan, H.; Schumacher, P.M.; Curtis, L.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report provides the results of source term calculations that were performed in support of the NUREG-1150 study. ''Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Power Plants.'' This is the sixth volume of a series of reports. It supplements results presented in the earlier volumes. Analyses were performed for three of the NUREG-1150 plants: Peach Bottom, a Mark I, boiling water reactor; Surry, a subatmospheric containment, pressurized water reactor; and Sequoyah, an ice condenser containment, pressurized water reactor. Complete source term results are presented for the following sequences: short term station blackout with failure of the ADS system in the Peach Bottom plant; station blackout with a pump seal LOCA for the Surry plant; station blackout with a pump seal LOCA in the Sequoyah plant; and a very small break with loss of ECC and spray recirculation in the Sequoyah plant. In addition, some partial analyses were performed which did not require running all of the modules of the Source Term Code Package. A series of MARCH3 analyses were performed for the Surry and Sequoyah plants to evaluate the effects of alternative emergency operating procedures involving primary and secondary depressurization on the progress of the accident. Only thermal-hydraulic results are provided for these analyses. In addition, three accident sequences were analyzed for the Surry plant for accident-induced failure of steam generator tubes. In these analyses, only the transport of radionuclides within the primary system and failed steam generator were examined. The release of radionuclides to the environment is presented for the phase of the accident preceding vessel meltthrough. 17 refs., 176 figs., 113 tabs

  10. Dispersion of long-lived radionuclides from uranium mining, milling and fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.B.L.

    1990-11-01

    The principal aim of the study was to gain further insight into the environmental dispersion of long-lived U series radionuclides from selected part of the nuclear fuel cycle and to assess the resulting exposure of members of the public. The specific objectives of this study were: 1. To determine the levels of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of two U deposits in Sweden and to establish whether U prospecting had generated significant radiological impact on man. 2. To investigate the spatial distributions of long-lived U series radionuclides caused by the dispersion of dust from the Ranger open-pit U mine in Australia. 3. To study the uptakes of long-lived U and T series radionuclides by the waterlily in order to facilitate assessment of natural exposures to the public and predictions of exposures arising from consumption of the plant due to any subsequent discharges of water from the Ranger U mine. 4. To investigate the spatial distributions of U isotopes in environmental air as a result of the release of radionuclides from the ABB-ATOM nuclear fuel factory at Vaesteraas in Sweden. In these investigations special emphasis was given to - activity ratio techniques suitable for distinguishing between natural and operation-related concentrations and for facilitating determination of the source of radionuclide uptake in the waterlily, and - the use of passive air samplers such as 'sticky vinyl' and bioindicators in investigating the aerial dispersion of radionuclides. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the radionuclide tracer test conducted at the project Gnome Underground Nuclear Test Site, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohll, G.; Pohlmann, K.

    1996-08-01

    A radionuclide tracer test was conducted in 1963 by the U.S. Geological Survey at the Project Gnome underground nuclear test site, approximately 40 km southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The tracer study was carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to study the transport behavior of radionuclides in fractured rock aquifers. The Culebra Dolomite was chosen for the test because it was considered to be a reasonable analogue of the fractured carbonate aquifer at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the principal location of U.S. underground nuclear tests. Project Gnome was one of a small number of underground nuclear tests conducted by the AEC at sites distant from the NTS. The Gnome device was detonated on December 10, 1961 in an evaporate unit at a depth of 360 m below ground surface. Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close these offsite nuclear test areas. An early step in this process is performance of a preliminary risk analysis of the hazard posed by each site. The Desert Research Institute has performed preliminary hydrologic risk evaluations for the groundwater transport pathway at Gnome. That evaluation included the radioactive tracer test as a possible source because the test introduced radionuclides directly into the Culebra Dolomite, which is the only aquifer at the site. This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the radionuclide tracer test as a source for radionuclide migration in the Culebra Dolomite. The results of this study will assist in planning site characterization activities and refining estimates of the radionuclide source for comprehensive models of groundwater transport st the Gnome site

  12. Calibration and operation of continuous air monitors for alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Spectrometer-based continuous air monitors have improved our capabilities for detecting aerosols of alpha-emitting radionuclides. This paper describes basic requirements and statistical limitations in the sensitivity of alpha continuous air monitors, and presents a technical basis for selecting the energy window for detection of uranium and plutonium aerosols, correcting for interference from airborne dust, selecting filters with low pressure drop and good front surface collection characteristics, and properly using electroplated calibration sources. Sensitivity limits are described for detecting uranium or plutonium aerosols in the presence of increased concentrations of naturally occurring, alpha-emitting radon progeny radionuclides. Decreasing the lower energy boundary of the detection window from 4.3 MeV to 2.7 MeV improves by a factor of three the detection of plutonium in the presence of dust, while causing minimal additional interference from ambient radon progeny. Selection of the Millipore Fluoropore teflon membrane filter reduces both pressure drop and interference from ambient radon progeny by up to a factor of two. Field collection of ambient radon progeny can be used to verify the proper energy of alpha emissions from electroplated calibration sources. In the absence of energy verification, errors in instrument calibration may result from solid state diffusion of the electroplated calibration radionuclide into the substrate plate

  13. Radionuclides at the Hudson Canyon disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Nevissi, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    A sampling and analytical program was initiated in June 1978 to measure radionuclides in water, sediments, and biota collected at the deepwater (4000 m) radioactive waste disposal site at the mouth of the Hudson Canyon 350km off New York Harbor in the western Atlantic Ocean. Plutonium, americium, cesium, strontium, and uranium series isotopes were measured in selected samples; the /sup 210/Pb data were used to give sedimentation and mixing rates in the upper sediment layers. The results showed that /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, and /sup 238/Pu were found at low concentrations in the skin, viscera, and stomach contents for some of the fish collected. Significant concentrations of /sup 241/Am were found in tissues of the common rattail Coryphaenoides (Macrouridae) collected at the disposal site, suggesting a local source for this radionuclide and biological accumulation. The edible muscle of this fish contained less than 2.6 x 10/sup -5/ Bq g/sup -1/ (dry wt) of /sup 239,240/Pu. Radionuclides measured in sediment-core profiles showed that mixing occurred to depths of 16 cm and that variable sedimentation or mixing rates, or both, exist at 4000 m deep. Radionuclide deposition near the canisters was not found to be significantly higher than the expected fallout levels at 4000 m deep. At the mouth of the Hudson Canyon variable sedimentation and mixing rates were found using the natural unsupported /sup 210/Pb tracer values; these variable rates were attributed to sediment transport by the currents and to bioturbation

  14. Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L.I.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive tracers for in vivo clinical diagnosis fall within a narrow, strictly-defined set of specifications in respect of their physical properties, chemical and biochemical characteristics, and medical applications. The type of radioactive decay and physical half-life of the radionuclide are immutable properties which, along with the demands of production and supply, limit the choice of radionuclides used in medicine to only a small fraction of those known to exist. In use, the biochemical and physiological properties of a radiotracer are dictated by the chemical form of the radionuclide. This chemical form may range from elemental, molecular or ionic, to complex compounds formed by coordinate or covalent bonding of the radionuclide to either simple organic or inorganic molecules, or complex macromolecules. Few of the radiotracers which are tested in model systems ever become radiopharmaceuticals in the strictest sense. Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals in use are reviewed. Drug legislation and regulations concerning drug manufacture, as well as hospital ethical constraints and legislation concerning unsealed sources of radiation must all be satisfied in order to translate a radiopharmaceutical from the laboratory to clinical use. (author)

  15. Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Leonard I.

    Radioactive tracers for in vivo clinical diagnosis fall within a narrow, strictly-defined set of specifications in respect of their physical properties, chemical and biochemical characteristics, and (approved) medical applications. The type of radioactive decay and physical half-life of the radionuclide are immutable properties which, along with the demands of production and supply, limit the choice of radionuclides used in medicine to only a small fraction of those known to exist. In use, the biochemical and physiological properties of a radiotracer are dictated by the chemical form of the radionuclide. This chemical form may range from elemental, molecular or ionic, to complex compounds formed by coordinate or covalent bonding of the radionuclide to either simple organic or inorganic molecules, or complex macromolecules. Few of the radiotracers which are tested in model systems ever become radiopharmaceuticals in the strictest sense. Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals in use are reviewed. Drug legislation and regulations concerning drug manufacture, as well as hospital ethical constraints and legislation concerning unsealed sources of radiation must all be satisfied in order to translate a radiopharmaceutical from the laboratory to clinical use.

  16. Automatic procedure go keep updated the activity levels for each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic procedure to keep updated the activity levels each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory, and its classification according to the Spanish Regulations on Nuclear and Radioactive Establishments is described. This procedure takes into account the mixed composition of each source and whether it is sealed or the activity and mass variation due to extraction or evaporation in non-sealed sources. For a given date and time, the procedure prints out a complete listing of the activity of each radioactive source, the accumulated activity for each radionuclide, for each kind of radionuclide and the actual classification of the laboratory according to the legal regulations above mentioned. (Author)

  17. Worldwide marine radioactivity studies (WOMARS): Radionuclide levels in oceans and seas. Final report of a coordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies (WOMARS) carried out by the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. It provides the most comprehensive information on levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the world ocean. Three anthropogenic radionuclides - 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu - were chosen as the most representative of anthropogenic radioactivity in the marine environment, comprising beta-, gamma- and alpha-emitters which have the highest potential contribution to radiation doses to humans via seafood consumption. Although the ocean contains the majority of the anthropogenic radionuclides released into the environment, the radiological impact of this contamination is low. Radiation doses from naturally-occurring radionuclides in the marine environment (e.g. 210 Po) are on the average two orders of magnitude higher. The results confirm that the dominant source of anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment is global fallout. The total 137 Cs input from global fallout was estimated to be 311 PBq for the Pacific Ocean, 201 PBq for the Atlantic Ocean, 84 PBq for the Indian Ocean and 7.4 PBq for the Arctic Ocean. For comparison, about 40 PBq of 137 Cs was released to the marine environment from Sellafield and Cap de la Hague reprocessing plants. The Chernobyl accident contributed about 16 PBq of 137 Cs to the sea, mainly the Baltic and Black Seas, where the present average concentrations of 137 Cs in surface water were estimated to be about 60 and 25 Bq/m 3 , respectively, while the worldwide average concentration due to global fallout is about 2 Bq/m 3 . For the purposes of this study, the world ocean was divided into latitudinal belts for which average radionuclide concentrations were estimated. Further, where available, time trends in radionuclide concentrations in surface water were studied and mean residence times of radionuclides in these areas as well as in

  18. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  19. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  20. Barriers to migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.

    1999-01-01

    Natural inorganic sorbents are known as effective barriers that reduce the migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories and contaminated sites. They could be used as buffer, backfill and sealing materials in the repository and their presence in the host rock and the surrounding geological formations increases the retention properties of the strata. Natural occurring minerals from local origin are used in the study - zeolites (clinoptilolite and mordenite), celadonite and loess. Sorption of wide range of radionuclides is studies. Batch capacity is determined. Sorption of radionuclides from simulated natural solution is studied. Distribution coefficients are calculated from sorption isotherms. Desorption in presence of different natural solutions is studied. Sorption properties are compared. It is shown that clinoptilolite acts as effective barrier against migration of radionuclides from repositories. The presence of celadonite in the clinoptilolite rock increases the retention of polyvalent ions. The retention of radionuclides on loess samples fulfils the requirements for host media for repository for low and intermediate level waste. A method for construction of additional barrier to the existing in the country disposal vault for spent sealed sources is proposed

  1. MATADOR (Methods for the Analysis of Transport And Deposition Of Radionuclides) code description and User's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, H.I.; Raghuram, S.; Baybutt, P.

    1985-04-01

    A new computer code called MATADOR (Methods for the Analysis of Transport And Deposition Of Radionuclides) has been developed to replace the CORRAL-2 computer code which was written for the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). This report is a User's Manual for MATADOR. MATADOR is intended for use in system risk studies to analyze radionuclide transport and deposition in reactor containments. The principal output of the code is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containment and their removal by natural deposition and by engineered safety systems such as sprays. It is capable of analyzing the behavior of radionuclides existing either as vapors or aerosols in the containment. The code requires input data on the source terms into the containment, the geometry of the containment, and thermal-hydraulic conditions in the containment

  2. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  3. Past and present levels of some radionuclides in fish from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshkin, V E; Robison, W L; Wong, K M; Brunk, J L; Eagle, R J; Jones, H E

    1997-07-01

    Bikini and Enewetak were the sites in the Northern Marshall Islands that were used by the United States as testing grounds for nuclear devices between 1946 and 1958. The testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with different radionuclides and which entered the aquatic environment. The contaminated lagoon sediments became a reservoir and source term of manmade radionuclides for the resident marine organisms. This report contains a summary of all the available data on the concentrations of 137Cs, 60Co and 207Bi in flesh samples of reef and pelagic fish collected from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls between 1964 and 1995. The selection of these three radionuclides for discussion is based on the fact that these are the only radionuclides that have been routinely detected by gamma spectrometry in flesh samples from all fish for the last 20 y. Flesh from fish is an important source of food in the Marshallese diet. These radionuclides along with the transuranic radionuclides and 90Sr contribute most of the small radiological dose from ingesting marine foods. Some basic relationships among concentrations in different tissues and organs are discussed. The reef fish can be used as indicator species because their body burden is derived from feeding, over a lifetime, within a relatively small contaminated area of the lagoon. Therefore, the emphasis of this report is to use this extensive and unique concentration data base to describe the effective half lives and cycling for the radionuclides in the marine environments during the 31-y period between 1964 and 1995. The results from an analysis of the radionuclide concentrations in the flesh samples indicate the removal rates for the 3 radionuclides are significantly different. 137Cs is removed from the lagoons with an effective half life of 9-12 y. Little 60Co is mobilized to the water column so that it is depleted in both environments, primarily through radioactive decay. The properties of 207Bi are different

  4. Distribution of some radionuclides in the St. Lawrence estuary, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serodes, J.B.; Roy, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of γ-emitting radionuclides in the St. Lawrence estuary was studied in 1978 and 1979, by means of double sampling and the flocculation and centrifugation of very large volumes of water. Eleven radionuclides were detected, originating from a variety of sources, including soil erosion and nuclear weapons testing. The concentrations measured in 1979 were higher than those of 1978; the 21st Chinese nuclear test could be responsible for the increase of some radionuclides. Concentrations decrease markedly from the freshwater part to the marine region of the estuary. Dilution by oceanic waters, relative affinity with suspended matter and radioactive decay are the principal mechanisms involved in the distribution patterns. Cesium-137, 144 Ce, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 228 Th are strongly associated with suspended matter, while about two thirds of 7 Be, 106 Ru and 235 U are present in the liquid phase. Results suggest that 235 U is released from sediments in the maximum turbidity zone

  5. Comparisons between a new point kernel-based scheme and the infinite plane source assumption method for radiation calculation of deposited airborne radionuclides from nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaole; Efthimiou, George; Wang, Yan; Huang, Meng

    2018-04-01

    Radiation from the deposited radionuclides is indispensable information for environmental impact assessment of nuclear power plants and emergency management during nuclear accidents. Ground shine estimation is related to multiple physical processes, including atmospheric dispersion, deposition, soil and air radiation shielding. It still remains unclear that whether the normally adopted "infinite plane" source assumption for the ground shine calculation is accurate enough, especially for the area with highly heterogeneous deposition distribution near the release point. In this study, a new ground shine calculation scheme, which accounts for both the spatial deposition distribution and the properties of air and soil layers, is developed based on point kernel method. Two sets of "detector-centered" grids are proposed and optimized for both the deposition and radiation calculations to better simulate the results measured by the detectors, which will be beneficial for the applications such as source term estimation. The evaluation against the available data of Monte Carlo methods in the literature indicates that the errors of the new scheme are within 5% for the key radionuclides in nuclear accidents. The comparisons between the new scheme and "infinite plane" assumption indicate that the assumption is tenable (relative errors within 20%) for the area located 1 km away from the release source. Within 1 km range, the assumption mainly causes errors for wet deposition and the errors are independent of rain intensities. The results suggest that the new scheme should be adopted if the detectors are within 1 km from the source under the stable atmosphere (classes E and F), or the detectors are within 500 m under slightly unstable (class C) or neutral (class D) atmosphere. Otherwise, the infinite plane assumption is reasonable since the relative errors induced by this assumption are within 20%. The results here are only based on theoretical investigations. They should

  6. EVALUATING THE SENSITIVITY OF RADIONUCLIDE DETECTORS FOR CONDUCTING A MARITIME ON-BOARD SEARCH USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION IMPLEMENTED IN AVERT(regsign)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.; Dave Dunn, D.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of two specific types of radionuclide detectors for conducting an on-board search in the maritime environment was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation implemented in AVERT(reg s ign). AVERT(reg s ign), short for the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risk of Terrorism, is personal computer based vulnerability assessment software developed by the ARES Corporation. The sensitivity of two specific types of radionuclide detectors for conducting an on-board search in the maritime environment was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. The detectors, a RadPack and also a Personal Radiation Detector (PRD), were chosen from the class of Human Portable Radiation Detection Systems (HPRDS). Human Portable Radiation Detection Systems (HPRDS) serve multiple purposes. In the maritime environment, there is a need to detect, localize, characterize, and identify radiological/nuclear (RN) material or weapons. The RadPack is a commercially available broad-area search device used for gamma and also for neutron detection. The PRD is chiefly used as a personal radiation protection device. It is also used to detect contraband radionuclides and to localize radionuclide sources. Neither device has the capacity to characterize or identify radionuclides. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of both the RadPack and the PRD while being used under controlled conditions in a simulated maritime environment for detecting hidden RN contraband. The detection distance varies by the source strength and the shielding present. The characterization parameters of the source are not indicated in this report so the results summarized are relative. The Monte Carlo simulation results indicate the probability of detection of the RN source at certain distances from the detector which is a function of transverse speed and instrument sensitivity for the specified RN source

  7. Sellafield waste radionuclides in Irish sea intertidal and salt marsh sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, A B; Scott, R D

    1993-09-01

    Low level liquid radioactive waste discharges from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in north west England had generated environmental inventories of about 3 × 10(16) Bq of(137)Cs, 6.8 × 10(14) Bq of(239,240)Pu and 8.9 × 10(14) Bq of(241)Am by 1990. Most of the(239,240)Pu and(241)Am and about 10% of the(137)Cs has been retained in a deposit of fine marine sediment close to the discharge point. The quantities of radionuclides discharged annually from Sellafield decreased by two orders of magnitude from the mid-1970s to 1990 but estimated critical group internal and external exposure decreased by less than one order of magnitude over this period. This indicates that during the period of reduced discharges, radionuclides already in the environment from previous releases continued to contribute to the critical group exposure and highlights the need to understand processes controlling the environmental distribution of the radionuclides.Redistribution of the contaminated marine sediment is potentially of major significance in this context, in particular if it results in transport of radionuclides to intertidal areas, where contact with the human population is relatively likely.A review is presented of published work relating to Sellafield waste radionuclides in Irish Sea sediments. Data on temporal and spatial trends in radionuclide concentrations and activity ratios are collated from a number of sources to show that the dominant mechanism of radionuclide supply to intertidal areas is by redistribution of the contaminated marine sediment. The implications of this mechanism of supply for trends in critical group radiation exposure are considered.

  8. Actinides and long-lived radionuclides in tissues of the Japanese population. Summary of the past 20-year studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Yamashita, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive fallout constitutes the major source of contamination of the environment with fission products. Our primary interest was in selected fission products, such as 131 I, 89 Sr, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs, and neutron activation products, such as 3 H and 14 C. Plutonium-239,240, 241 Am and 90 Tc are generated from nuclear tests, and they are important by-products on nuclear industries. Polonium-210, 210 Pb and 232 Th, 230 Th and 228 Th occur widely in nature. These radionuclides enter the human body through inhalation and the ingestion through food and water. These nuclides may cause radiation doses to certain organs of the body. Assessment of the resulting health hazards is an essential public health activity, which demands reliable techniques for the assay of the various radionuclides in man and his environment. Accumulation of radionuclides from man-made sources and primordial radionuclides in various tissues of the Japanese population is presented. The studies were performed at the Department of Public Health, Akita University School of Medicine, during the periods from 1973 to 1995. (author)

  9. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis of components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Havranek, E.; Dejmkova, E.

    1983-12-01

    The physical foundations and methodology are described of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis. The sources are listed of air, water and soil pollution, and the transfer of impurities into biological materials is described. A detailed description is presented of the sampling of air, soil and biological materials and their preparation for analysis. Greatest attention is devoted to radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis of the components of the environment. (ES)

  10. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the 2014 highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The dose to the PNNL Campus MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2014 from PNNL Campus sources is 2E 05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from all fugitive sources is 3E-6 mrem (3E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-6 mrem (1E-8 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2014. The total radiological dose for 2014 to the MEI from all PNNL Campus radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 3E-5 mrem (3E-7 mSv) EDE, or more than 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Campus is in compliance.

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the 2015 highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The dose to the PNNL Campus MEI from routine major and minor point source emissions in 2015 from PNNL Campus sources is 2.6E-4 mrem (2.6E-6 mSv) EDE. The dose from all fugitive sources is 1.8E-6 mrem (1.8E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 4.4E-8 mrem (4.4E-10 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2015. The total radiological dose to the MEI from all PNNL Campus radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2.6E-4 mrem (2.6E-6 mSv) EDE, or more than 10,000 times less than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, with which the PNNL Campus is in compliance.

  15. Dynamic models for radionuclide transport in agricultural ecosystems: summary of results from a UK code comparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekings, G.F.; Walters, B.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, models have been developed by three organisations in the UK to represent the time-dependent behaviour of radionuclides in agricultural ecosystems. These models were developed largely independently of each other and, in view of their potential applications in relation to radioactive waste management and discharge, the Food Science Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food initiated a calculational intercomparison exercise with the agreement and cooperation of all three organisations involved. A subset of the results obtained is reported here. In general a high degree of consistency between the results of the various models was obtained particularly regarding the responses with time. The exercise supported the case for using dynamic models in radiological assessment studies. It also demonstrated areas where differences in results from the models are a consequence of a lack of appropriate data on the environmental behaviour of the radionuclides considered. (author)

  16. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  17. Impact assessment of radionuclide dispersion due to stuck of sources used in well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, V. A.; Alvarez, D.E.; Lee Gonzáles, H.

    2015-01-01

    The well logging allows to characterize and to predict the hydrocarbon potential of an area. For this, tools that may contain one or more radioactive sources are used. Eventually, they may be stuck at a certain depth, without viable technical alternatives for recovery. In this case, it is necessary to implement actions that minimize the risk of release of radioactive material into the groundwater, because of the natural degradation of shielding or by the accidental destruction by the unexpected collision with another tool, in a possible future drilling. In this paper, a simplified assessment of the doses associated with the natural degradation and the breakdown of shielding radioactive sources is presented. For this purpose two main pathways of exposure; incorporation by ingestion of contaminated water from the aquifer and external irradiation because of the drilling mud that rise to the surface and distributed over it, are considered. Each of these pathways corresponds to a different scenario. In the first scenario, the evaluation was performed by applying the Dispersion of Radionuclides in Aquifers model that take in account pollutants dispersion in the aquifer unto extraction well water. This model solves the equation of solute transport in porous media in three dimensions, considering soil retention and radioactive decay. In the second scenario the contaminated mud rises from the well to the surface, due to actions taken to retrieve stuck sources or because of new drillings are assumed. The aim of this work is to present a simple and conservative method to estimate doses involved in the natural degradation of shielding or by accidental destruction of sources used in well logging. (authors) [es

  18. Assessment of Radionuclides Release from Inshas LILW Disposal Facility Under Normal and Unusual Operational Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Disposing of low and intermediate radioactive waste (LILW) is a big concern for Egypt due to the accumulated waste as a result of past fifty years of peaceful nuclear applications. Assessment of radionuclides release from Inshas LILW disposal facility under normal and unusual operational conditions is very important in order to apply for operation license of the facility. Aqueous release of radionuclides from this disposal facility is controlled by water flow, access of the water to the wasteform, release of the radionuclides from the wasteform, and transport to the disposal facility boundary. In this work, the release of 137 Cs , 6C o, and 90 Sr radionuclides from the Inshas disposal facility was studied under the change of operational conditions. The release of these radio contaminants from the source term to the unsaturated and saturated zones , to groundwater were studied. It was found that the concentration of radionuclides in a groundwater well located 150 m away from the Inshas disposal facility is less than the maximum permissible concentration in groundwater in both cases

  19. Searching for Orphan radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, Evgenij; Antonau, Uladzimir; Gurinovich, Uladzimir; Kazhamiakin, Valery; Petrov, Vitaly; Shulhovich, Heorhi; Tischenko, Siarhei

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The problem of orphan sources cannot be left unaddressed due high probability of accidental exposure and use of sources for terrorism. Search of objects of this kind is complex particularly when search territory is large. This requires devices capable of detecting sources, identifying their radionuclide composition, and correlating scan results to geographical coordinates and displaying results on a map. Spectral radiation scanner AT6101C can fulfill the objective of search for gamma and neutron radiation sources, radionuclide composition identification, correlation results to geographical coordinates and displaying results on a map. The scanner consists of gamma radiation scintillation detection unit based on NaI(Tl) crystal, neutron detection unit based on two He 3 counters, GPS receiver and portable ruggedized computer. Built-in and application software automates entire scan process, saving all results to memory for further analysis with visual representation of results as spectral information diagrams, count rate profile and gamma radiation dose rates on a geographical map. The scanner informs operator with voice messages on detection of radiation sources, identification result and other events. Scanner detection units and accessories are packed in a backpack. Weighing 7 kg, the scanner is human portable and can be used for scan inside cars. The scanner can also be used for radiation mapping and inspections. (author)

  20. Airborne remote sensing of estuarine intertidal radionuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainey, M.P.

    1999-08-01

    was assessed by comparison with in situ samples and the results of previous radiological studies within the estuary. Finally, detailed conclusions are made regarding radionuclide sinks and sources, and surface activity redistribution within the Ribble Estuary environment. (author)

  1. Application of Monte Carlo simulation to the standardization of positron emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongu, Margareth Lika Onishi

    2009-01-01

    Since 1967, the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LNM) at the Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN) in Sao Paulo, Brazil, has developed radionuclide standardization methods and measurements of the Gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay by means of 4πβ-γ coincidence system, a high accuracy primary method for determining disintegration rate of radionuclides of interest. In 2001 the LNM started a research field on modeling, based on Monte Carlo method, of all the system components, including radiation detectors and radionuclide decay processes. This methodology allows the simulation of the detection process in a 4πβ-γ system, determining theoretically the observed activity as a function of the 4πβ detector efficiency, enabling the prediction of the behavior of the extrapolation curve and optimizing a detailed planning of the experiment before starting the measurements. One of the objectives of the present work is the improvement of the 4π proportional counter modeling, presenting a detailed description of the source holder and radioactive source material, as well as absorbers placed around the source. The simulation of radiation transport through the detectors has been carried out using code MCNPX. The main focus of the present work is on Monte Carlo modeling of the standardization of positron emitting radionuclides associated (or not) with electron capture and accompanied (or not) by the emission of Gamma radiation. One difficulty in this modeling is to simulate the detection of the annihilation Gamma ray, which arise in the process of positron absorption within the 4π detector. The methodology was applied to radionuclides 18 F and 22 Na. (author)

  2. Measurement of the leaching rate of radionuclide 134Cs from the solidified radioactive sources in Portland cement mixed with microsilica and barite matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, Ismail; Assi, Nasim

    2011-01-01

    Portland cement was mixed with radionuclide 134 Cs to produce low-level radioactive sources. These sources were surrounded with cement mixed with different materials like microsilica and barite. The leaching rate of 134 Cs from the solidified radioactive source in Portland cement alone was found to be 4.481 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day. Mixing this Portland cement with microsilica and with barite reduced significantly the leaching rate to 1.091 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day and 3.153 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day for 1 wt.% mixing, and to 1.401 x 10 -5 g/cm 2 per day and 1.703 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day for 3 wt.% mixing, respectively. It was also found that the application of a latex paint reduced these leaching rates by about 6.5%, 20.3% and 13.3% for Portland cement, cement mixed with microsilica and with barite, respectively. The leaching data were also analyzed using the polynomial method. The obtained results showed that cement mixed with microsilica and with barite can be effectively used for radioactive sources solidification.

  3. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  4. Standardization of sequential separation of naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Madhu G.; Rao, D.D.; Sathyapriya, R.S.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Human are constantly exposed to radiation originating from natural or manmade sources. The main contribution for internal dose is due to radionuclides from uranium and thorium series in drinking water. The distribution of these elements varies depending on the geological and physiological characteristics of the aquifer. With increased concern for radiological safety of public, it is necessary to evaluate the naturally occurring radionuclides in the drinking water

  5. The biokinetics of Rhuthenium and Zirconium radionuclides in humans studied with stable tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronese, I.; Cantone, M.C.; Giussani, A.

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of the internal radiation dose delivered by radionuclides incorporated in the human body after accidental release into the environment requires the use of suitable biokinetic models. These models describe the absorption of radionuclides into the blood circulation, their distribution and retention in various organs and tissues, and the excretion routes. Biokinetic models are also employed for interpreting bioassay measurements in exposed subjects, like activity concentration measurements in body fluids (e.g. urine, blood), in order to estimate the incorporated amount of radioactive substances. The reliability of a biokinetic model is closely linked to the available experimental data used to develop the model itself. Biokinetic data for human subjects are available for most essential elements, as well as for some important non-essential elements such as caesium, lead, radium, uranium, americium and plutonium. For many other radionuclides, either very little or no information is available from human studies, and the respective models must be derived from other sources. These may include results from studies in animals, comparative data on the behaviour of similar radionuclides or chemical analogues in vitro. Biokinetic models developed from such a variety of data sources can be applied to humans only with a limited degree of confidence. The availability of data directly obtained on human subjects is therefore fundamental to set up more reliable and realistic models. Ruthenium and zirconium are among the elements characterised by a serious lack of reliable data in humans

  6. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  7. Natural analogue approach for estimating the health risks from release and migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The health risks from radioactive waste may be expressed as a sum of products of transfer factors that characterize the causal chain of events between disposal of radionuclides in a waste field and the consequent health effects. Model estimates for the transfer factors are commonly obtained by modeling transport and other mechanisms in the subsystems that form the links in the causal chain. Natural estimates of some conversion factors for naturally occurring radionuclides can be obtained from data on the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil, food, and the human body. These model and natural estimates can be used with scaling procedures to estimate the uncertainties and to obtain better estimates of the values. The scaling procedures take into account the differences in the source characteristics for radionuclides in a waste field of limited size and for radionuclides generally distributed in the natural environment. The ratios of the natural estimates to the model estimates for several transfer factors and several radionuclides belonging to the U-238 decay series have been determined. These ratios range from 1/8 to 4/1 for food-concentration/source-concentration transfer factors for the food pathways and from 1 to 77 for dose-rate/source-concentration transfer factors for the internal radiation dose pathways to various organs. 14 references

  8. Evaluation of the anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in sediments and fauna collected in the Beaufort Sea and northern Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efurd, D.W.; Miller, G.G.; Rokop, D.J.

    1997-07-01

    This study was performed to establish a quality controlled data set about the levels of radio nuclide activity in the environment and in selected biota in the U.S. Arctic. Sediment and biota samples were collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Biological Service, and the North Slope Borough's Department of Wildlife Management to determine the impact of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic. The results summarized in this report are derived from samples collected in northwest Alaska with emphasis on species harvested for subsistence in Barrow, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for the anthropogenic radionuclides 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am. The naturally occurring radionuclides 40 K, 212 Pb and 214 Pb were also measured. One goal of this study was to determine the amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Beaufort Sea. Sediment samples were isotopically fingerprinted to determine the sources of radio nuclide activities. Biota samples of subsistence and ecological value were analyzed to search for evidence of bio-accumulation of radionuclides and to determine the radiation exposures associated with subsistence living in northern Alaska. The anthropogenic radio nuclide content of sediments collected in the Beaufort Sea was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. No other sources of anthropogenic radionuclides could be conclusively identified in the sediments. The anthropogenic radio nuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. Assuming that ingestion of food is an important pathway leading to human contact with radioactive contaminants and given the dietary patterns in coastal Arctic communities, it can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected

  9. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  10. [Ranking of radionuclides and pathways according to their contribution to the dose burden to the population resulting from NPP releases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, S I; Karpenko, E I; Sharpan, L A

    2013-01-01

    Approaches are described towards estimating the consequences of radioactive contamination of ecosystems by nuclear fuel cycle enterprises with the rationale for the optimal specification level for nuclear power plants (NPP) operating in the normal mode. Calculations are made based on the initial data of the IAEA project, INPRO ENV, dealing with the ranking of radionuclides escaping to the environment from the operating NPPs. Influence of various factors on rankings of radionuclides and pathways of public exposure is demon- strated. An important factor is the controlled radionuclide composition of atmospheric NPP releases. It has been found that variation in the dose coefficients for some radionuclides leads to significant changes not only in the ranking results but also in the estimates of total dose burdens. Invariability is shown of the estimation concerning the greatest contribution of the peroral route to the population dose of irradiation in the situation considered. A conclusion was drawn on the need of taking into consideration uncertainties of different factors when comparing effects on the environment from enterprises of conventional and innovative nuclear fuel cycles.

  11. Quantifying the sources and the transit times of sediment using fallout radionuclides (7Be, 137Cs, 210Pbxs) in contrasted cultivated catchments across the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, O.; Le Gall, M.; Laceby, J. P.; Foucher, A.; Lefèvre, I.; Salvador-Blanes, S.; Morera, S.; Ribolzi, O.

    2017-12-01

    Soil erosion and fine sediment supply to rivers are exacerbated in intensively cultivated catchments. Information on the sediment sources and transit times in rivers is required to improve our understanding of these processes and to guide the implementation of effective conservation measures. Accordingly, natural (7Be, 210Pb) and artificial (137Cs) fallout radionuclide concentrations were measured in overland flow and suspended sediment collected during the erosive season in contrasted cultivated catchments. In Laos, samples were collected in a steep catchment (Houay Pano, 12 km²) covered with cropland and teak plantations during the first flood of the monsoon in 2014. Cropland surface sources dominated the supply of sediment at the upstream sampling location (55%), whereas subsurface sources (channel, landslides) contributed the majority of material at the outlet (60%). Furthermore, the material exported from the catchment mainly consisted of re-suspended sediment. In Central France, the study was conducted in a flat and drained cultivated catchment (Louroux, 25 km²) during a sequence of winter events in 2013-2014 and 2016. Only surface material enriched in 137Cs was found to transit through the river during floods. The results demonstrated the initial re-suspension of material accumulated in the river channel during the first winter flood before the direct supply of sediment recently eroded from the hillslopes during the next events. In Peru, sediment was collected during a series of summer flood events (2017) in a river draining páramos (Ronquillo, 42 km²) that were recently put in cultivation. Preliminary results show that subsurface re-suspended material dominates the exports from this catchment. These results confirmed the utility of coupling continuous river monitoring and fallout radionuclide measurements on sediment collected in both tropical and temperate rivers to better understand sediment dynamics in these endangered habitats. The main challenges

  12. Behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water (Crouzille, Limousin). Geochemical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, J.

    2008-06-01

    Understanding natural radionuclides behaviour in surface water is a required step to achieve uranium mine rehabilitation and preserve water quality. The first objective of this thesis is to determine which are the radionuclides sources in a drinking water reservoir. The second objective is to improve the knowledge about the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides, especially actinium. The investigated site is a brook (Sagnes, Limousin, France) which floods a peat bog contaminated by a former uranium mine and which empties into the Crouzille lake. It allows studying radionuclides transport in surface water and radionuclides retention through organic substance or water reservoir. Radionuclides distribution in particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases is determined thanks to ultra-filtrations. Gamma spectrometry allows measuring almost all natural radionuclides with only two counting stages. However, low activities of 235 U series radionuclides impose the use of very low background well-type Ge detectors, such as those of the Underground Laboratory of Modane (France). Firstly, this study shows that no or few radionuclides are released by the Sagnes peat bog, although its radioactivity is important. Secondly, it provides details on the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water. More specifically, it provides the first indications of actinium solubility in surface water. Actinium's behaviour is very close to uranium's even if it is a little less soluble. (author)

  13. Tracing sediment sources in upstream agricultural catchments: contribution of elemental geochemistry, 87Sr/86Sr ratio and radionuclides measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Gall, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is recognized as one of the main processes of land degradation in agricultural environments. This study develops an original fingerprinting method to examine sediment source contributions in two contrasted agricultural catchments. Several properties were used to trace sediment lithological sources ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, elemental concentrations), soil surface and subsurface sources ( 137 Cs) and to quantify their temporal dynamics ( 7 Be, 210 Pb xs ). In the Louroux catchment (24 km 2 , France), representative of drained areas of Northwestern Europe, results showed the dominant contribution of very fine particles (≤2 μm) transiting through the tile drainage system to suspended sediment. Sediment accumulated in the river channel was mainly exported during the two first floods investigated in 2013 whereas the next event was characterized by the transport of sediment eroded from the cultivated soil surface. Mixing models were used, and results indicated that surface sources contributed the majority of sediment deposited in the pond, at the outlet of the catchment. The two lithological sources, discriminated using 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, contributed in similar proportions to downstream pond sediment. In contrast, significant variations were observed since the 1950's. These changes may be related to the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes within the catchment. Results obtained in the Louroux catchment revealed the potential of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios to trace sediment lithological sources. The methodology was then applied to the larger and steeper Guapore catchment (2000 km 2 , Brazil), exposed to a more erosive climate and characterized by contrasted laterite soils. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and elements that discriminated the five soil types found in the catchment were incorporated in mixing models. Results showed that the major part of sediment was supplied by soils located in lower catchment parts. This result suggests the higher

  14. Benchmarking the New RESRAD-OFFSITE Source Term Model with DUST-MS and GoldSim - 13377

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    RESRAD-OFFSITE is a computer code developed by Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is designed on the basis of RESRAD (onsite) code, a computer code designated by DOE and NRC for evaluating soil-contaminated sites for compliance with human health protection requirements pertaining to license termination or environmental remediation. RESRAD-OFFSITE has enhanced capabilities of modeling radionuclide transport to offsite locations and calculating potential radiation exposure to offsite receptors. Recently, a new source term model was incorporated into RESRAD-OFFSITE to enhance its capability further. This new source term model allows simulation of radionuclide releases from different waste forms, in addition to the soil sources originally considered in RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes. With this new source term model, a variety of applications can be achieved by using RESRAD-OFFSITE, including but not limited to, assessing the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. This paper presents the comparison of radionuclide release rates calculated by the new source term model of RESRAD-OFFSITE versus those calculated by DUST-MS and GoldSim, respectively. The focus of comparison is on the release rates of radionuclides from the bottom of the contaminated zone that was assumed to contain radioactive source materials buried in soil. The transport of released contaminants outside of the primary contaminated zone is beyond the scope of this paper. Overall, the agreement between the RESRAD-OFFSITE results and the DUST-MS and GoldSim results is fairly good, with all three codes predicting identical or similar radionuclide release profiles over time. Numerical dispersion in the DUST-MS and GoldSim results was identified as potentially contributing to the disagreement in the release rates. In general, greater discrepancy in the release rates was found for short

  15. Benchmarking the New RESRAD-OFFSITE Source Term Model with DUST-MS and GoldSim - 13377

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C.

    2013-01-01

    RESRAD-OFFSITE is a computer code developed by Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is designed on the basis of RESRAD (onsite) code, a computer code designated by DOE and NRC for evaluating soil-contaminated sites for compliance with human health protection requirements pertaining to license termination or environmental remediation. RESRAD-OFFSITE has enhanced capabilities of modeling radionuclide transport to offsite locations and calculating potential radiation exposure to offsite receptors. Recently, a new source term model was incorporated into RESRAD-OFFSITE to enhance its capability further. This new source term model allows simulation of radionuclide releases from different waste forms, in addition to the soil sources originally considered in RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes. With this new source term model, a variety of applications can be achieved by using RESRAD-OFFSITE, including but not limited to, assessing the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. This paper presents the comparison of radionuclide release rates calculated by the new source term model of RESRAD-OFFSITE versus those calculated by DUST-MS and GoldSim, respectively. The focus of comparison is on the release rates of radionuclides from the bottom of the contaminated zone that was assumed to contain radioactive source materials buried in soil. The transport of released contaminants outside of the primary contaminated zone is beyond the scope of this paper. Overall, the agreement between the RESRAD-OFFSITE results and the DUST-MS and GoldSim results is fairly good, with all three codes predicting identical or similar radionuclide release profiles over time. Numerical dispersion in the DUST-MS and GoldSim results was identified as potentially contributing to the disagreement in the release rates. In general, greater discrepancy in the release rates was found for short

  16. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  17. Prediction of radionuclide inventory for the low-and intermediated-level radioactive waste disposal facility the radioactive waste classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kang Il; Jeong, Noh Gyeom; Moon, Young Pyo; Jeong, Mi Seon; Park, Jin Beak

    2016-01-01

    To meet nuclear regulatory requirements, more than 95% individual radionuclides in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste inventory have to be identified. In this study, the radionuclide inventory has been estimated by taking the long-term radioactive waste generation, the development plan of disposal facility, and the new radioactive waste classification into account. The state of radioactive waste cumulated from 2014 was analyzed for various radioactive sources and future prospects for predicting the long-term radioactive waste generation. The predicted radionuclide inventory results are expected to contribute to secure the development of waste disposal facility and to deploy the safety case for its long-term safety assessment

  18. Potential for radionuclide immobilization in the EBS/NFE: solubility limiting phases for neptunium, plutonium, and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rard, J. A., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    Retardation and dispersion in the far field of radionuclides released from the engineered barrier system/near field environment (EBS/NFE) may not be sufficient to prevent regulatory limits being exceeded at the accessible environment. Hence, a greater emphasis must be placed on retardation and/or immobilization of radionuclides in the EBS/NFE. The present document represents a survey of radionuclide-bearing solid phases that could potentially form in the EBS/NFE and immobilize radionuclides released from the waste package and significantly reduce the source term. A detailed literature search was undertaken for experimental solubilities of the oxides, hydroxides, and various salts of neptunium, plutonium, and uranium in aqueous solutions as functions of pH, temperature, and the concentrations of added electrolytes. Numerous solubility studies and reviews were identified and copies of most of the articles were acquired. However, this project was only two months in duration, and copies of some the identified solubility studies could not be obtained at short notice. The results of this survey are intended to be used to assess whether a more detailed study of identified low- solubility phase(s) is warranted, and not as a data base suitable for predicting radionuclide solubility. The results of this survey may also prove useful in a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of incorporating chemical additives to the EBS/NFE that will enhance radionuclide immobilization.

  19. Measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere with a radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    A worldwide radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests has detected the anthropogenic radioactive materials released in the atmosphere due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant impacted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. After four months have passed since the accident occurred, most overseas stations do not detect the radionuclides of Fukushima origin any more. The Takasaki station in Japan, however, is still detecting them every day. This paper describes radionuclide monitoring stations and the network of them as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as the measurement results of radionuclide particulates and radioactive isotopes of xenon released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with the monitoring network. (J.P.N.)

  20. Environmental distribution of long-lived radionuclides /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csupka, S [Krajska Hygienicka Stanica, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1977-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1974 the content was investigated of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in various parts of human environment. From food chains milk and dairy products, flour and flour products were chosen being the main sources of radioactivity produced by the above mentioned radionuclides to which the human population is exposed. In 1972 /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in the daily intake of food were responsible for 60 to 70% of total radioactivity in milk and flour products. On a world scale radioactive fallout continues to be the primary source of radioactive contamination with the soil in which radionuclides are accumulated being the secondary source.

  1. Attenuation of photon beams from radionuclides. Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, R.; Vogt, H.G.

    1982-04-01

    Point kernel shielding calculations have been performed for water for the photons of radioactive nuclides, comprising gamma rays, characteristic X-rays, annihilation photons as well as internal and external bremsstrahlung. The calculations refer to an isotropic point source and an infinite homogeneous medium. The results are presented for 137 radionuclides by tables of dose rate constants and sets of figures of the reciprocal attenuation factor S -1 . The shielding curves cover the range of 10 -8 -1 <1 and water thicknesses up to 340 cm. (orig./HP)

  2. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  3. In-Situ Assay Of Transuranic Radionuclides In The Vadose Zone Using High-Resolution Spectral Gamma Logging - A Hanford Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.; Henwood, P.; McCain, R.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution spectral gamma logging in steel-cased boreholes is used to detect and quantify transuranic radionuclides in the subsurface. Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-241, and Np-237 are identified based on characteristic decay gammas. Typical minimum detectable levels are on the order of 20 to 40 nCi/g. In intervals of high transuranic concentrations, gamma rays from other sources may complicate analysis and interpretation. Gamma rays detected in the borehole may originate from three sources: decay of the parent transuranic radionuclide or a daughter; alpha interactions; and interactions with neutrons resulting from either spontaneous fission or alpha particle interactions.

  4. A new simplified allometric approach for predicting the biological half-life of radionuclides in reptiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Wood, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    A major source of uncertainty in the estimation of radiation dose to wildlife is the prediction of internal radionuclide activity concentrations. Allometric (mass-dependent) relationships describing biological half-life (T 1/2b ) of radionuclides in organisms can be used to predict organism activity concentrations. The establishment of allometric expressions requires experimental data which are often lacking. An approach to predict the T 1/2b in homeothermic vertebrates has recently been proposed. In this paper we have adapted this to be applicable to reptiles. For Cs, Ra and Sr, over a mass range of 0.02–1.5 kg, resultant predictions were generally within a factor of 6 of reported values demonstrating that the approach can be used when measured T 1/2b data are lacking. However, the effect of mass on reptilian radionuclide T 1/2b is minimal. If sufficient measured data are available for a given radionuclide then it is likely that these would give a reasonable estimate of T 1/2b in any reptile species. - Highlights: • An allometric approach to predict radionuclide T 1/2b values in reptiles is derived. • Predictions are generally within a factor of six of measured values. • Radionuclide biological half-life is in-effect mass independent

  5. The distribution and abundance of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, R.S.

    1985-03-01

    The distribution of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments was investigated. Samples were collected using a systematic design in the vicinity of Pickering and Darlington, and supplemented by lakewide offshore samples. Naturally occurring 40 K was the predominant source of gamma activity. 60 Co was the only potentially CANDU released radionuclide which showed a distributional association with the Pickering 'A' NGS discharge

  6. Analysis of radionuclide behavior in a BWR Mark-II containment under severe accident management condition in low pressure sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, Kyoko; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Tanaka, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    In the Level 2 PSA program at INS/NUPEC, MELCOR1.8.3 is extensively applied to analyze radionuclide behavior of dominant sequences. In addition, the revised source terms provided in the NUREG-1465 report have been also discussed to examine the potential of the radionuclides release to the environment in the conventional siting criteria. In the present study, characteristics of source terms to the environment were examined comparing with results by the Hypothetical Accident (LOCA), NUREG-1465 and MELCOR1.8.3. calculation for a typical BWR with a Mark-II containment in order to assure conservatives of the Hypothetical Accident in Japan. Release fractions of iodine to the environment for the Hypothetical Accident and NUREG-1465, which used engineering models for predicting radionuclide behaviors, were about 10 -4 and 10 -6 of core inventory, respectively, while the best estimate MELCOR1.8.3 code predicted 10 -9 of iodine to the environment. The present study showed that the engineering models in the Hypothetical Accident or NUREG-1465 have large conservatives to estimate source term of iodine to the environment. (author)

  7. Study of radionuclides distribution mechanism at the territory of ''Qum Adasi'' OGPD and in layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmudov, H.M; Musayeva, Sh.Z.; Asgarova, V.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Its for several yeras that Inistitute of Radiation Problems ANAS has already started fundamental researches of radiation background state and radionuclide composition at the territories of oil and gas production departments. Base labaratories equipped with modern measurement units were established and strong specialists group was trained for fulfillment of these works and also for comprehensive analysis of obtained results. Over a long perios of time oil and gas production is realized at the territory of Q um Adasi O PGD. This territory with 3000 ha covers B ahar , h ovsan a nd Q um Adasi o il near the trestle and H ovsan o il-fields wells are located on-shore. These wells take their sources from different dephts and layers, thats why study of these layers radionuclide composition excites great interest. It has mainly two reasons: Study of dependence of produced crude oils radionuclide composition on oil layers;Dependence of oil-polluted areas and local radionuclide centers on natural layers.In order to protect environment and provide radiation safety of people working in oil-gas industry and the population living there, radiation background of these areas must be regularly kept under monitoring and the dependence of radionuclides creating this background on layers must be studied on the level of researches and practical result must be obtained. According to analysis results of the samples taken from local areas of oil-gas producing departments having high radiation background, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are the main natural radionuclides that create radiation background at the territory of Q um Adasi O GPD. According to the results of the conducted analysis, though in the areas having 5-8 mkR/h radiation background the effective activity of natural radionuclides is 38-40 Bk/kg, at the areas having 50-200 mkR/h radiation background effective activity increases to 1000-6500. And it shows that effective activity of radionuclides exceeds the norm for several

  8. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  9. Radionuclide mass transfer rates from a pinhole in a waste container for an inventory-limited and a constant concentration source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeNeveu, D.M.

    1996-03-01

    Analytical solutions for transient and steady state diffusive mass transfer rates from a pinhole in a waste container are developed for constant concentration and inventory-limited source conditions. Mass transport in three media are considered, inside the pinhole (medium 2), outside the container (medium 3) and inside the container (medium 1). Simple equations are developed for radionuclide mass transfer rates from a pinhole. It is shown that the medium with the largest mass transfer resistance need only be considered to provide a conservative estimate of mass transfer rates. (author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  10. Confinement and migration of radionuclides in deep geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.

    2007-07-01

    Disposing high level nuclear waste in deep disposal repository requires to understand and to model the evolution of the different repository components as well as radionuclides migration on time-frame which are well beyond the time accessible to experiments. In particular, robust and predictive models are a key element to assess the long term safety and their reliability must rely on a accurate description of the actual processes. Within this framework, this report synthesizes the work performed by Ch. Poinssot and has been prepared for the defense of his HDR (French university degree to Manage Research). These works are focused on two main areas which are (i) the long term evolution of spent nuclear fuel and the development of radionuclide source terms models, and (ii) the migration of radionuclides in natural environment. (author)

  11. CASCADER: An M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.; Donahue, M.E.

    1993-02-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and diffusion. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. CASCADER is a gas-phase, one-space dimensional transport and fate model for M-chain radionuclides in very dry homogeneous or heterogeneous soil. This model contains barometric pressure-induced advection and diffusion together with linear irreversible and linear reversible sorption for each radionuclide. The advection velocity is derived from an embedded air-pumping submodel. The air-pumping submodel is based on an assumption of isothermal conditions, which is driven by barometric pressure. CASCADER allows the concentration of source radionuclides to decay via the classical Bateman chain of simple, first-order kinetic processes. The transported radionuclides also decay via first-order processes while in the soil. A mass conserving, flux-type inlet and exit set of boundary conditions are used. The user must supply the initial distribution for the parent radionuclide in the soil. The initial daughter distribution is found using equilibrium rules. The model is user friendly as it uses a prompt-driven, free-form input. The code is ANSI standard Fortran 77

  12. CASCADER: An m-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.; Donahue, M.E.

    1992-06-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes as they are advected and/or dispersed. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. CASCADER is a gas-phase, one space dimensional transport and fate model for an m-chain of radionuclides in very dry soil. This model contains barometric pressure-induced advection and diffusion together with linear irreversible and linear reversible sorption for each radionuclide. The advocation velocity is derived from an embedded air-pumping submodel. The airpumping submodel is based on an assumption of isothermal conditions and is barometric pressure driven. CASCADER allows the concentration of source radionuclides to decay via the classical Bateman chain of simple, first-order kinetic processes. The transported radionuclides also decay via first-order processes while in the soil. A mass conserving, flux-type inlet and exit set of boundary conditions is used. The user must supply the initial distribution for the parent radionuclide in the soil. The initial daughter distribution is found using equilibrium rules. The model is user friendly as it uses a prompt-driven, free-form input. The code is ANSI standard Fortran 77

  13. CASCADER: An M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and/or dispersion. Additionally during the transport of parent and daughter radionuclides in soil, radionuclide decay may occur. This version of CASCADER called CASCADR9 starts with the concepts presented in volumes one and three of this series. For a proper understanding of how the model works, the reader should read volume one first. Also presented in this volume is a set of realistic scenarios for buried sources of radon gas, and the input and output file structure for CASCADER9

  14. Water, soil, crops and radionuclides. Studies on the behavior of radionuclides in the terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    In order to predict the migration of artificially-produced radionuclides into a human body and its radiation dose rates of human body and to decrease the exposed radiation doses of human body, the behavior of radionuclides in the environment must be elucidated. In National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the environmental radioecological research group of Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology has progressed the survey and research on the behavior of artificially-produced radionuclides in the terrestrial environment. This article describes the research results (the radioactivity of water, soil, and crops) made so far at Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology. (M.H.)

  15. Transfer of radionuclides to animal products following ingestion or inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Contamination of animal products forms an important pathway in the transfer of radionuclides from source to man. Simulation of radionuclide transfer via animal products requires an understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in absorption, distribution, turnover and excretion of radionuclides and related elements in animals as well as knowledge of animal grazing habits and husbandry. This paper provides a summary of the metabolism of important radionuclides in typical domestic animals and of the mathematical approaches that have been used to simulate transfer from diet to animal product. The equilibrium transfer factor approach has been used widely but suffers a number of disadvantages when releases or intakes are variable with time or when intakes are short relative to the lifetime of the animal of interest. Dynamic models, especially those of the compartmental type, have been developed and used widely. Both approaches have benefited from experiences obtained after the Chernobyl accident but a number of uncertainties still exist. Whereas there is now extensive knowledge on the behaviour of radiocaesium in both domestic and wild animals, knowledge of the behaviour of other potentially important radionuclides remains limited. Further experimental and metabolic studies will be required to reduce uncertainties associated with the transfer of radionuclides other than radiocaesium and thereby produce a sound basis for radiological assessments. (author)

  16. Radiation protection aspects of the trafficking radionuclides contaminated metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouza, Z.

    1999-01-01

    This paper covers the legal base of the release in the environment of radionuclides containing materials and the radiation protection aspects of trafficking in radionuclides contaminated materials. Materials, substance and objects containing radionuclides or contaminated by them may be released into the environment, if they do not exceed values authorized by SONS (State Office of Nuclear Safety). Legislative measures should be taken against illicit trafficking of the nuclear material in all the areas. The creation of a sophisticated system for the control and regulation of all important radionuclides released into the environment should be based on the radiation protection limits, constraints, reference and exemption levels which are introduced in the legislative documents; the strong supervision of producers and users of the sealed sources by SONS side, in addition to the requirements of the licensing process of their sources; a complete data-base and information exchange system related to illicit trafficking in contaminated material; in this system all the authorities with jurisdiction should be involved. The responsibilities of the persons involved in metal scrap trafficking should include arrangement of appropriate monitoring, rules for transport of the metal scrap, an adequate measuring system to monitor metal scrap including monitoring to prevent processing or smelting of the radioactive material, control measures, etc. All of the above items of legislation are an important challenge for the Czech Republic. (author)

  17. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  18. Radionuclide inventory and source terms for the surplus production reactors at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Steffes, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide inventories have been estimated for the eight surplus production reactors at Hanford. The inventories listed represent more than 95% of the total curie burden; the remaining 5% is distributed in piping, tunnels, and various other locations within the reactor building and unaccounted for inventories within the reactors or fuel storage basins. Estimates are conservative as the methodology was designed to overestimate the radionuclide inventories in the facilities. The estimated inventory per reactor facility ranges from 13,000 curies to 58,000 curies. The majority of the present inventory consists of tritium, carbon-14, cobalt-60, and nickel-63. The information in this document combines data from past characterization efforts and introduces adjustments for added information and refinement. The inventory of hazardous materials in the reactor facilities is also addressed. This document has been revised to include new reduced inventory figures for chlorine-36. The new figures were derived from recent analysis of irradiated graphite from the 105-kW reactor

  19. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 2, Methods and Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part two of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. Part one reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Assumptions about equilibrium with long-lived parents are made for the 28 other radionuclides in these series lacking data. This paper describes the methods developed to group the collected data into source regions described in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) dosimetric methodology. Methods for converting the various units of data published over 50 years into a standard form are developed and described. Often, meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements were not published so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. A description of the methods developed to estimate variability is included in this paper. The data described in part one are grouped by gender and age to match the RADAR dosimetric phantoms. Within these phantoms, concentration values are grouped into source tissue regions by radionuclide, and they are imputed for source regions lacking tissue data. Radionuclide concentrations are then imputed for other phantoms source regions with missing concentration values, and the uncertainties of the imputed values are increased. The content concentrations of hollow organs are calculated, and activities are apportioned to the bone source regions using assumptions about each radionuclide's bone-seeking behavior. The data sets are then ready to be

  20. An improved in situ method for determining depth distributions of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, R.R.; Kearfott, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    In situ gamma-ray spectrometry determines the quantities of radionuclides in some medium with a portable detector. The main limitation of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry lies in determining the depth distribution of radionuclides. This limitation is addressed by developing an improved in situ method for determining the depth distributions of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in large area sources. This paper implements a unique collimator design with conventional radiation detection equipment. Cylindrically symmetric collimators were fabricated to allow only those gamma-rays emitted from a selected range of polar angles (measured off the detector axis) to be detected. Positioned with its axis normal to surface of the media, each collimator enables the detection of gamma-rays emitted from a different range of polar angles and preferential depths. Previous in situ methods require a priori knowledge of the depth distribution shape. However, the absolute method presented in this paper determines the depth distribution as a histogram and does not rely on such assumptions. Other advantages over previous in situ methods are that this method only requires a single gamma-ray emission, provides more detailed depth information, and offers a superior ability for characterizing complex depth distributions. Collimated spectrometer measurements of buried area sources demonstrated the ability of the method to yield accurate depth information. Based on the results of actual measurements, this method increases the potential of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry as an independent characterization tool in situations with unknown radionuclide depth distributions

  1. Activity measurements of {sup 18}F and {sup 90}Y with commercial radionuclide calibrators for nuclear medicine in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffari, Yvan, E-mail: Yvan.Caffari@chuv.c [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Spring, Philippe; Bailat, Claude; Nedjadi, Youcef; Bochud, Francois [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    The activity of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine is measured before patient injection with radionuclide calibrators. In Switzerland, the general requirements for quality controls are defined in a federal ordinance and a directive of the Federal Office of Metrology (METAS) which require each instrument to be verified. A set of three gamma sources (Co-57, Cs-137 and Co-60) is used to verify the response of radionuclide calibrators in the gamma energy range of their use. A beta source, a mixture of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 90}Y in secular equilibrium, is used as well. Manufacturers are responsible for the calibration factors. The main goal of the study was to monitor the validity of the calibration factors by using two sources: a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source and a {sup 18}F source. The three types of commercial radionuclide calibrators tested do not have a calibration factor for the mixture but only for {sup 90}Y. Activity measurements of a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source with the {sup 90}Y calibration factor are performed in order to correct for the extra-contribution of {sup 90}Sr. The value of the correction factor was found to be 1.113 whereas Monte Carlo simulations of the radionuclide calibrators estimate the correction factor to be 1.117. Measurements with {sup 18}F sources in a specific geometry are also performed. Since this radionuclide is widely used in Swiss hospitals equipped with PET and PET-CT, the metrology of the {sup 18}F is very important. The {sup 18}F response normalized to the {sup 137}Cs response shows that the difference with a reference value does not exceed 3% for the three types of radionuclide calibrators.

  2. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  3. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  4. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, John

    2004-08-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 101 and 102.

  5. Radiation sources and technical services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonek, K.; Satorie, Z.; Vyskocil, I.

    1981-01-01

    Work is briefly described of the department for sealed sources production of the Institute, including leak testing and surface contamination of sealed sources. The department also provides technical services including the inspections of sealed sources used in medicine and geology and repair of damaged sources. It carries out research of the mechanical and thermal strength of sealed sources and of the possibility of reprocessing used 226 Ra sources. The despatch department is responsible for supplying the entire country with home and imported radionuclides. The department of technical services is responsible for testing imported radionuclides, assembling materials testing, industrial and medical irradiation devices, and for the collection and storage of low-level wastes on a national scale. (M.D.)

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  7. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, T J; Giitter, J

    1987-07-01

    The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. The goal is to present a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. (author)

  8. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Giitter, J.

    1987-01-01

    The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. The goal is to present a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. (author)

  9. Stochastic analysis of radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Moto

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, LLRW (low level radioactive wastes) generated from nuclear power plants shall be started to store concentrically in the Shimokita site from 1990, and those could be transformed into land disposal if the positive safety is confirmed. Therefore, it is hoped that the safety assessment method shall be successed for the land disposal of LLRW. In this study, a stochastic model to analyze the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils was constructed. The principal results are summarized as follows. 1) We presented a generalized idea for the modeling of the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils as an advective-dispersion phenomena followed by the decay of radionuclides and those adsorption/desorption in soils. 2) Based on the radionuclide migration model mentioned above, we developed a stochastic analysis model on radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. 3) From the comparison between the simulated results and the exact solution on a few simple one-dimensional advective-dispersion problems of radionuclides, the good validity of this model was confirmed. 4) From the comparison between the simulated results by this model and the experimental results of radionuclide migration in a one-dimensional unsaturated soil column with rainfall, the good applicability was shown. 5) As the stochastic model such as this has several advantages that it is easily able to represent the image of physical phenomena and has basically no numerical dissipation, this model should be more applicable to the analysis of the complicated radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. (author)

  10. Interpretation of biological-rate coefficients derived from radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Rigorous expressions are derived for the biological-rate coefficients (BRCs) determined from time-dependent measurements of three different dependent variables of radionuclide tracer experiments. These variables, which apply to a single organism, are radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity. The BRCs derived from these variables have different mathematical expressions and, for high growth rates, their numerical values can be quite different. The precise mathematical expressions for the BRCs are presented here to aid modelers in selecting the correct parameters for their models and to aid experiments in interpreting their results. The usefulness of these three variables in quantifying elemental uptakes and losses by organisms is discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Natural radionuclides in an eucalyptus forest located in the south of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaca, F.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    2001-01-01

    Eucalyptus forests can be considered as the main source of raw material for the pulp industry of Spain. This environment was selected for a radioactivity study because natural and artificial radionuclides can be transferred into the pulp mills, associated with raw material, wood and barks, where they are concentrated by industrial processes, becoming a cause of doses. Radionuclide concentration of natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 234 U, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th) were determined by alpha- and gamma-spectrometry. Well-established radiochemical procedures were applied to environmental samples in order to isolate these radionuclides. A comparison between 228 Th activity, determined by gamma-spectrometry, and 232 Th activity, determined by alpha-spectrometry, was used as quality control parameter for analyses. The concentration factors were finally evaluated from experimental data.

  12. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  13. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  14. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Glitter, J.G.

    1988-10-01

    This document presents a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. 39 refs., 48 figs., 19 tabs

  15. Special aerosol sources for certification and test of aerosol radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Y.E.; Kuznetsov, Y.V.; Rizin, A.I.; Fertman, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the development and practical application of new radionuclide source types (Special Aerosol Sources (SAS)), that meet the international standard recommendations, which are used for certification and test of aerosol radiometers (monitors) using model aerosols of plutonium-239, strontium-yttrium-90 or uranium of natural isotope composition and certified against Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR national radioactive aerosol standard or by means of a reference radiometer. The original technology for source production allows the particular features of sampling to be taken into account as well as geometry and conditions of radionuclides radiation registration in the sample for the given type of radiometer. (author)

  16. Special aerosol sources for certification and test of aerosol radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Y.E.; Kuznetsov, Y.V.; Rizin, A.I.; Fertman, D.E. (Union Research Institute of Instrumentation, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the development and practical application of new radionuclide source types (Special Aerosol Sources (SAS)), that meet the international standard recommendations, which are used for certification and test of aerosol radiometers (monitors) using model aerosols of plutonium-239, strontium-yttrium-90 or uranium of natural isotope composition and certified against Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR national radioactive aerosol standard or by means of a reference radiometer. The original technology for source production allows the particular features of sampling to be taken into account as well as geometry and conditions of radionuclides radiation registration in the sample for the given type of radiometer. (author).

  17. Radionuclide release rates from spent fuel for performance assessment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    In a scenario of aqueous transport from a high-level radioactive waste repository, the concentration of radionuclides in water in contact with the waste constitutes the source term for transport models, and as such represents a fundamental component of all performance assessment models. Many laboratory experiments have been done to characterize release rates and understand processes influencing radionuclide release rates from irradiated nuclear fuel. Natural analogues of these waste forms have been studied to obtain information regarding the long-term stability of potential waste forms in complex natural systems. This information from diverse sources must be brought together to develop and defend methods used to define source terms for performance assessment models. In this manuscript examples of measures of radionuclide release rates from spent nuclear fuel or analogues of nuclear fuel are presented. Each example represents a very different approach to obtaining a numerical measure and each has its limitations. There is no way to obtain an unambiguous measure of this or any parameter used in performance assessment codes for evaluating the effects of processes operative over many millennia. The examples are intended to suggest by example that in the absence of the ability to evaluate accuracy and precision, consistency of a broadly based set of data can be used as circumstantial evidence to defend the choice of parameters used in performance assessments

  18. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  19. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  20. Instructions for use of radioactive sources; Notices d'utilisation des sources radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-15

    In the industrial and research domain, article L.1333-4, R.1333-26 and R.1333-27 of the public health code submit to authorization of the minister of health the 'nuclear following activities ': the manufacturing of radionuclides; the manufacturing of products or devices by containing; the import, the export of radionuclides, products or devices that contain some; the distribution of radionuclides, of products or devices that contain some; the use of devices emitting X-rays or radioactive sources and the use of accelerators others than electron microscopes; the irradiation of products whatever nature it is, including food products. The activity bringing to plan the manufacturing or the use of radionuclides (in the form of sealed or not sealed sources) there is, in the terms of the public health code (C.S.P.) and except in the cases of exemption which are mentioned there, the obligation to obtain an authorization to hold and to make or to use these radionuclides. The regulations in radioprotection being in full evolution, one will find in these notices the main evolutions relative to the regime of authorizations. (N.C.)

  1. The transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environments. Recent research results in monsoon tropical condition of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Y, Truong; Sieu, Le Nhu; Ngo, Nguyen Trong; Phuc, Nguyen Van; Huong, Mai Thi; Quang, Nguyen Hao; Nhan, Dang Duc

    2003-01-01

    The data on Radionuclide transfer parameters in the environments, which are used in radioecological models, are very necessary for setting release limits of radioactive effluent and assessing the radiation dose to Man related to the releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. They strongly depend on climatic, geographic, environmental and pedological conditions. For temperate environments, they are abundant and have been established fairly well. Meanwhile the literature data are still scare and dispersal for Tropical and Sub-tropical zones. Besides, the improvement of Environmental Transfer Models and Parameters is an important problem so that they may be adapted for Southeast Asian countries including Japan as environmental conditions and foodstuffs in this Region are significantly different from those in Europe and North America. The paper presents measurements results of the dry deposition velocities of atmospheric aerosols carrying 7 Be, 137 Cs radionuclides and measurements results of soil to plant transfer factors (TF) for 60 Co, 65 Zn, 85 ASr and 134 Cs resulted from the out door radiotracer experiments with large pots. The selected soil types (Podzolic, Ferralitic, Ferralic Acrisols, Eutric Fluvisols and Orthi-thionic Fluvisols soil) and the plants (rice, black bean, cabbage, lettuce, tomato, cucumber, carrot, white radish, potato) used for the research are the most common in Vietnam. The measured Vg values (cm/s) are in the range of 0.01 - 1.84 for 7 Be and 1.95 - 49.77 for 137 Cs. An analysis of the associated meteorological parameters showed some correlations between 7 Be Vg with humidity and 137 Cs Vg with wind velocity. More than 400 TF (edible part) values were determined and their dependences on some soil parameters have been shown. (author)

  2. Derived release limits for radionuclides in airborne and liquid effluents for the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and errata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, A.E.

    1989-08-01

    Radionuclides released to the environment may cause external and internal radiation exposure to man via a number of potential pathways. The resulting radiation dose due to such releases from any operating facility must be kept below dose limits specified in the regulations issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. At the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE), there is one primary source of liquid effluent to the Winnipeg River via the process water outfall. There are five sources of gaseous effluents: the WR-1 stack; the incinerator stack in the waste management area; the active laboratories building (including the hot cells); the Active-Liquid Waste Treatment Centre; and the compactor-baler in the Waste Management Area. This report presents the methodology and models used to calculate the maximum permissible release rates of radionuclides for each of these sources

  3. SFACTOR: a computer code for calculating dose equivalent to a target organ per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in a source organ - supplementary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, Jr, D E; Pleasant, J C; Killough, G G

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe revisions in the SFACTOR computer code and to provide useful documentation for that program. The SFACTOR computer code has been developed to implement current methodologies for computing the average dose equivalent rate S(X reverse arrow Y) to specified target organs in man due to 1 ..mu..Ci of a given radionuclide uniformly distributed in designated source orrgans. The SFACTOR methodology is largely based upon that of Snyder, however, it has been expanded to include components of S from alpha and spontaneous fission decay, in addition to electron and photon radiations. With this methodology, S-factors can be computed for any radionuclide for which decay data are available. The tabulations in Appendix II provide a reference compilation of S-factors for several dosimetrically important radionuclides which are not available elsewhere in the literature. These S-factors are calculated for an adult with characteristics similar to those of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Reference Man. Corrections to tabulations from Dunning are presented in Appendix III, based upon the methods described in Section 2.3. 10 refs.

  4. Association of radionuclides with streambed sediments in White Oak Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Cerling, T.E.

    1979-09-01

    Radionuclides are found in much higher concentrations on streambed sediment than in the water of White Oak Creek. Selective extraction of sediments demonstrates that 60 Co is immobilized in a nonexchangeable form in the ferromanganese hydrous oxide coatings on the sediments; 90 Sr occurs predominantly in an exchangeable form on clay, iron oxides, and ferromanganese hydrous oxides; 137 Cs occurs in a nonexchangeable and strongly bound form on clays which compose the dominant rock (Conasauga shale) in the watershed. The fine-gravel to coarse-sand size fraction of streambed sediments is the most suitable fraction for radionuclide analysis because of its abundance in the sediment and its high concentration of radionuclides compared to larger and smaller size fractions. A preliminary survey of all major tributes in White Oak Creek shows that radionuclide analysis of streambed sediments is a very useful technique to locate sources of radioactive contamination

  5. Implantation of a 4πγ, with well type Nal(Tl) detector, for calibration of gamma emitters radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Douglas Cisneiros de

    2001-04-01

    Among the absolute calibration methods for activity quantity of radionuclides the most used in the metrology laboratories are: the 4πβγ coincidence counting), defined solid angle counting, sum-peak (or γ-γ coincidence) and 4π γ method. The 4πγ method is appropriate to measure the activity of radionuclides with complex decay scheme and its implementation at Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, commissioned by INMETRO from 1989, will provide to the expansion of the jobs to supply the users by standard radioactive sources. The determination of activity can be made using calibration factor and/or the efficiency curve. For the implantation of this calibration method at LNMRI, after the selection of the detector and the electronic instrumentation, the attainment of the efficiency curve in function of gamma rays energy, standard sources with one or two peaks each were used. The method is based in ε Τ = Πι (1 - ε ΤΕ ι) where ΕΤ is the total efficiency for each radionuclide and eTi is the efficiency for each gamma transition of this radionuclide. The detector selected was a 8 x 8'' well type Nal(Tl), with well dimensions 6'' deep and 3'' of diameter, from Harshaw The standards sources used are: Am-241, Pb- 210, Mn-54, Co-57, Cd-109, Ce-139, Co-60, Na-22, Y-88 and Zn-65. The preliminary results are consistent with the literature. (author)

  6. Remediation of radionuclide pollutants through biosorption - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nilanjana [Environmental Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2012-01-15

    The development of nuclear science and technology has led to the increase of nuclear wastes containing radionuclides to be released and disposed in the environment. Pollution caused by radionuclides is a serious problem throughout the world. To solve the problem, substantial research efforts have been directed worldwide to adopt sustainable technologies for the treatment of radionuclide containing wastes. Biosorption represents a technological innovation as well as a cost effective excellent remediation technology for cleaning up radionuclides from aqueous environment. A variety of biomaterials viz. algae, fungi, bacteria, plant biomass, etc. have been reported for radionuclide remediation with encouraging results. This paper reviews the achievements and current status of radionuclide remediation through biosorption which will provide insights into this research frontier. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Requirements for the protection of people from the harmful consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation, for the safety of radiation sources and for the protection of the environment are established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. GSR Part 3 requires that the regulatory body or other relevant authority establish specific reference levels for exposure due to radionuclides in commodities, including food and drinking water. The reference level is based on an annual effective dose to the representative person that generally does not exceed a value of about 1 mSv. International standards have been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission for levels of radionuclides contained in food traded internationally that contains, or could potentially contain, radioactive substances as a consequence of a nuclear or radiological emergency. International standards have also been developed by the WHO for radionuclides contained in drinking water, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. These international standards provide guidance and criteria in terms of levels of individual radiation dose, levels of activity concentration of specific radionuclides, or both. The criteria derived in terms of levels of activity concentration in the various international standards differ owing to a number of factors and assumptions underlying the common objective of protecting public health in different circumstances. This publication considers the various international standards to be applied at the national level for the assessment of levels of radionuclides in food and in drinking water in different circumstances for the purposes of control, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. It collates and provides an overview of the different criteria used in assessing and

  8. Production of the sealed gamma-radiation sources of with iridium-192 radionuclide at the WWR-K research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V.K.; Chernayev, V.P.; Chabeyev, N.T.; Ermakov, E.L.; Chakrov, P.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Conversion orientation of the WWR-K research reactor activity was established after renewal of its operation in 1997. A priority in reactor works was determined in the decision of tasks of practical use of nuclear technologies in a national economy in the next directions: in an industry, public health services and agriculture. The items of prime tasks: development and introduction of radiation technologies and manufacturing of radioisotopes for industry. This task included both scientific and technical program in the list of works of the Republican goals. At the WWR-K reactor within the framework of the this task solution the works on pilot production of the sealed sources of radioactive radiations (SSRR) with Ir-192 radionuclide for an industry of Republic of Kazakhstan were made. Organizational questions related to the Kazakhstan authority body and the regulating documentation were solved the first of all. The second stage was the development of the techniques of creating of devices providing an samples irradiation in reactor, control of sources sealing, measurements of the equivalent radiation doze from sources and high-quality support of SSRR manufacture over all technological way. At the third stage was made a little quantity SSRR with Ir-192 radionuclide, such as GIID-A1 (G6), for 'TEKOPS-660' Gammaray Projectors. This work served as experimental check of the decisions correctness, and has allowed to remove those lacks, to find out which it was possible only during direct manufacturing of radioactive sources. During performance of all these works the following was carried out: development and release of the documents and specifications regulating work on SSRR manufacture at the Institute of Nuclear Physics; personnel preparation and certification; preparation and equipment providing of reactor hot chambers by additional devices for work with irradiated iridium samples; development and manufacturing of the devices for iridium samples irradiation in

  9. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 240 Pu, and 3 H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  10. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M and O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types

  11. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently

  12. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme: results for UK for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; McAllister, G.; Welham, D.; Orr, D.

    1984-11-01

    The fourth report of a series giving the results of the NRPB's environmental radioactivity surveillance programme is presented. Samples of airborne dust, rainwater and milk are collected routinely throughout the UK; the concentrations of various radionuclides are measured and the resulting exposure of the population is evaluated. The radionuclides detected result predominantly from nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, although the programme would also be sensitive to other sources of environmental contamination. The annual average concentrations and depositions of radionuclides from fallout are now at the lowest levels since the inception of the Board's monitoring programme. The average annual effective dose equivalent from fallout is evaluated and compared with that from natural background radiation. (author)

  13. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  14. As assessment of the flux of radionuclide contamination through the Ob and Yenisei rivers and estuaries to the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauluszkiewicz, T.; Hibler, L.F.; Richmond, M.C.; Bradley, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent data indicate that there are potentially large sources of radionuclide contamination on the Ob River system. To quantify the existing radionuclide contamination from a possible catastrophic event data and models have been used to quantify scenarios. Using a compilation of Russian data on the radionuclide contamination, hydrologic data and studies on the sediment transport process a conceptual model has been developed of the Ob system, and a numerical model has been applied to estimate the radionuclide flux to the Kara Sea. The initial results of the river modeling in the Mayak region show how important watershed flow from the marshes are to the hydrologic budget of the area. The preliminary analysis of the sediment flux indicates the need to consider the depositional (storage) regions such as the Asanow Marsh. 31 refs., 5 figs

  15. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  16. Transfer of radionuclides to man through environmental pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.

    1974-01-01

    The most widely accepted method in current use for the evaluation of environmental impact from releases of radioactivity that may cause human radiation exposure used an environmental pathway model. The more important aspects of the model involve the use of critical pathway techniques to set controls on the releases of radioactive material to the environment and to assess the human radiation exposure arising as a consequence. The basic concepts of the environmental pathway model and its application are discussed. The model depends on achieving an understanding of radionuclide behavior in the environment, from the moment of release up to the time when contamination results in radiation exposure to the public. Exposure may be as a result of contaminated material entering the body-as air, water or a foodstuff; alternatively, it may be due to radiation whose source is external to the body. For each of these types of exposure pathway the sequence of events can be divided up into a number of compartments, between which transfer takes place. Transfer along the pathway is a dynamic process and can be described mathematically in terms of transfer functions between interacting compartments. Alternatively, for the situation of a regular discharge resulting in a steady-state condition the relationship between compartments can be expressed as a 'concentration factor'. The derivation of both of these terms is described and some aspects of their use are discussed. The paper then goes on to discuss the types of environmental pathway that are encountered as a result of release of radionuclides to the atmospheric and aquatic environments. Disposal to the ground is regarded as a special case of release to the aquatic environment. Some ot the literature on the subject is reviewed in discussingthe better known pathways showing what, to date, have been the most important mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides to man. (author)

  17. Assessing radiation doses to the public from radionuclides in timber and wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident involving the release of radionuclides to the biosphere the radioactive contamination of forests can become a significant potential source of public radiation exposure. Two of these accidents - the Kyshtim accident, Urals, USSR (now Russian Federation) in 1957 and the Chernobyl accident, USSR (now Ukraine), in 1986 - resulted in significant contamination of thousands of square kilometres of forested areas with mixtures of radionuclides including long lived fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Measurements and modelling of forest ecosystems after both accidents have shown that, following initial contamination, the activity concentration of long lived radionuclides in wood gradually increases over one to two decades and then slowly decreases in the subsequent period. The longevity of the contamination is due to the slow migration and persistent bioavailability of radionuclides in the forest soil profile, which results in long term transfer into wood through the root system of the trees. Another source of contamination is from global radioactive fallout after nuclear weapons tests, but the level of contamination is much lower than that from, for example, the Chernobyl accident. For instance, the level of {sup 137}Cs in wood in Sweden is about 2-5 Bq kg{sup -1} from global fallout. Global values are very similar to the Swedish levels. In contrast, the level of {sup 137}Cs in Swedish wood due to Chernobyl is around 50 Bq kg{sup -1}. Levels in wood from some contaminated areas located in countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are about one to two orders of magnitude higher than this. The data on {sup 137}Cs soil contamination within European territories, originating mainly from the Chernobyl accident, illustrate the scale of the problem. For comparison, residual {sup 137}Cs soil deposition in Europe from global radioactive fallout was in the range 1-4 kBq m{sup -2}. There is concern in several countries about the

  18. Radionuclide field lysimeter experiment (RadFLEx): geochemical and hydrological data for SRS performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Powell, B. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Barber, K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Devol, T. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Dixon, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Erdmann, B. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Maloubier, M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Martinez, N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Montgomery, D. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Peruski, K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Roberts, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Witmer, M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2017-12-12

    The SRNL Radiological Field Lysimeter Experiment (RadFLEx) is a one-of-a-kind test bed facility designed to study radionuclide geochemical processes in the Savannah River Site (SRS) vadose zone at a larger spatial scale (from grams to tens of kilograms of sediment) and temporal scale (from months to decade) than is readily afforded through laboratory studies. RadFLEx is a decade-long project that was initiated on July 5, 2012 and is funded by six different sources. The objective of this status report is as follows: 1) to report findings to date that have an impact on SRS performance assessment (PA) calculations, and 2) to provide performance metrics of the RadFLEx program. The PA results are focused on measurements of transport parameters, such as distribution coefficients (Kd values), solubility, and unsaturated flow values. As this is an interim report, additional information from subsequent research may influence our interpretation of current results. Research related to basic understanding of radionuclide geochemistry in these vadose zone soils and other source terms are not described here but are referenced for the interested reader.

  19. Effect of retardation coefficient for radionuclide migration on assessment results of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming

    2004-01-01

    Environmental impact report is an important content in enforcing environmental impact assessment system. Effect of retardation coefficient used in models of radionuclide migration in geological media on the calculated results of maximum concentration of calculated points at the lower reaches is discussed in this paper. It is shown from experimental results that the retardation coefficient is not a constant. And it is shown from calculated results that retardation coefficient obviously affect the calculated results of maximum concentration of calculated point at the lower reaches. Conservation level of the assessment results would considerably be affected, and hence confidence level of results would be affected if the aspects are not paid enough attention and solved. The paper suggests that retardation coefficient used in migration models should directly be obtained by measurement in the field or in column, rather than using the result derived from distribution coefficients according to some formula in order to prevent the nonconservative results

  20. Reports of 5. International scientific-practical conference 'Heavy metals and radionuclides in the environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    To the collection, consisting of 3 chapters, are included more 185 reports of plenary and sectional meetings of the conference, reflecting biogeochemical problems of heavy metals and radionuclides, modeling of processes of their migration and accumulation in natural and anthropogenic landscapes; physiology-biochemical aspects of metabolism and the participation of heavy metals and radionuclides in ecology-tropic system; the sources of entering of heavy metals and radionuclides to the natural components, ecological regulation of their loadings and the organization of environment monitoring; new methods of defining of heavy metals and radionuclides in the natural objects; of top-soil and natural water polluted by heavy metals and radionuclides; bio indicational methods of evaluation the condition of natural and anthropogenic landscapes, the problems of heavy metals and radionuclides in the context of education of higher educational establishments. The materials are made for the specialists, who work in the sphere of protection of environment, biogeochemists, ecologists, hydro chemists, biologists, pedologists, scientists, teachers and students of educational institutions

  1. TYBO/BENHAM: Model Analysis of Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration from Underground Nuclear Tests in Southwestern Pahute Mesa, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Wolfsberg; Lee Glascoe; Guoping Lu; Alyssa Olson; Peter Lichtner; Maureen McGraw; Terry Cherry; Guy Roemer

    2002-09-01

    Recent field studies have led to the discovery of trace quantities of plutonium originating from the BENHAM underground nuclear test in two groundwater observation wells on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. These observation wells are located 1.3 km from the BENHAM underground nuclear test and approximately 300 m from the TYBO underground nuclear test. In addition to plutonium, several other conservative (e.g. tritium) and reactive (e.g. cesium) radionuclides were found in both observation wells. The highest radionuclide concentrations were found in a well sampling a welded tuff aquifer more than 500m above the BENHAM emplacement depth. These measurements have prompted additional investigations to ascertain the mechanisms, processes, and conditions affecting subsurface radionuclide transport in Pahute Mesa groundwater. This report describes an integrated modeling approach used to simulate groundwater flow, radionuclide source release, and radionuclide transport near the BENHAM and TYBO underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. The components of the model include a flow model at a scale large enough to encompass many wells for calibration, a source-term model capable of predicting radionuclide releases to aquifers following complex processes associated with nonisothermal flow and glass dissolution, and site-scale transport models that consider migration of solutes and colloids in fractured volcanic rock. Although multiple modeling components contribute to the methodology presented in this report, they are coupled and yield results consistent with laboratory and field observations. Additionally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to provide insight into the relative importance of uncertainty ranges in the transport parameters.

  2. A study on distribution of natural radionuclide polonium-210 in a pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Shaheed, K.; Somasundaram, S.S.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the distribution of 210 Po in Mutharasanallur pond ecosystem. It has been demonstrated that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within the ecosystem. The results of the study show a dissolved 210 Po concentration in pond water of 1.4mBql -1 . The sediment sample recorded a 210 Po activity of 59.9 Bqkg -1 . The aquatic organism showed differential accumulation of the radionuclide with enhanced bioaccumulation in soft tissues and muscle. The 210 Po activity in the biota fell within the range of 1.2-53.3 Bqkg -1 (wet weight). The bivalve mussel, Lamellidens marginalis was identified to accumulate higher concentration of 210 Po in soft tissues, suggesting that these organisms could serve as a bio-monitor of 210 Po radionuclide in a freshwater system. The concentration factors of 210 Po for the biotic components ranged from ∼ 10 2 - ∼ 10 4 . Analyses of the results indicate that prawn and fish represent an important source of supply of 210 Po to humans via dietary intake. Results of 210 Po activity in the abiotic and biotic components of the pond ecosystem were higher when compared with those of Cauvery river system, the primary water source of the pond. (author)

  3. Results of calculations of external gamma radiation exposure rates from fallout and the related radionuclide compositions. Operation Tumbler-Snapper, 1952

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-07-01

    This report presents data on calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from Events that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex

  4. Inventory and application of artificial radionuclides in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.P.; Hoorelbeke, A.

    1998-01-01

    A number of regulations were completed with the aim to ensure safe storage and application of radionuclides in France, especially taking into account radiation protection. CIREA guarantees their unanimity by its judgement on the general questions arising from application of regulations. It has a regulatory role since it requires special conditions for particular practices. Authorisation for induction of radioactive sources or equipment containing sources, their application, storage, etc. are directly given by CIREA or after having obtained its premises

  5. Fukushima radionuclides in the NW Pacific, and assessment of doses for Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Variations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs) in seawater and biota offshore Fukushima and in the NW Pacific Ocean were investigated and radiation doses to the Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood contaminated by Fukushima radionuclides were estimated and compared with those from other sources of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. The total effective dose commitment from ingestion of radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweed caught in coasta...

  6. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  7. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  8. The influence of transverse diffusion/dispersion on the migration of radionuclides in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmocker, U.

    1980-07-01

    Repositories in geological formations are planned for the final disposal of radioactive wastes produced by nuclear power. Generally, water entry leading to leaching of the waste matrix is considered as the critical process which can result in release of radionuclides from a waste repository. Consequently, radionuclide transport through the geosphere is of crucial importance, because the geological medium acts as the last barrier to the biosphere. The influence of the transverse diffusion/dispersion effect on the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere is dealt with. Migration in porous media only is considered which is the standard approach of most existing transport models. The present study shows that it is only for homogeneous-isotropic media that the three-dimensional time-dependent transport equation can be solved analytically - provided that only simple source geometries and leach processes are taken into account. For heterogeneous layered media only the two-dimensional quasi-stationary transport equation can be solved; the only time dependent process which can be handled is simple radioactive decay excluding extended decay chains. The study shows moreover that only for an idealized three-layer geology can analytical solutions be found. In particular the solutions for multi-layered media cannot be derived from single-layer solutions; each problem with special source and boundary conditions has to be solved directly. The numerical results from the present study show a relatively strong influence of the transverse dispersion effect in the case of homogeneous-isotropic media. (Auth.)

  9. Artificial radionuclides in the atmosphere over Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Sapolaite, J.; Remeikis, V.; Lujanas, V.; Aninkevicius, V.

    2006-01-01

    %). Accuracy and precision of analysis were tested using NIST SRM No 4350B and 4357 as well as in intercomparison runs, organized by the Riso National Laboratory, Denmark. Precision of 1 37Cs measurements by gamma spectrometry was ≤ 7% at 2σ, Pu ≤ 8 %, Am ≤ 10 %. 2 40Pu/ 2 39Pu ratio was determined by ICP-MS. For determination of chemical association of radionuclides with aerosol particles the sequential extraction methods were used. Measurements performed in Vilnius and Preila indicated transfer of resuspention and combustion products after the forest and peat bog fires in the Ukraine and Belarus when activity concentrations of 1 37Cs in the atmosphere increased up to 200μBq/m 3 . The measurements carried out on aerosol samples collected in Vilnius in 1997-1999 indicated the presence of alpha emitting radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 2 39, 2 40Pu and 2 41Am ranged from 0.4 to 18 and from 0.3 to 9.7 nBq/m 3 , respectively. The origin of contamination source was identified using meteorological data of backward trajectories, characteristic speciation, activity and atom ratio of radionuclides. For comparison measurements were performed on aerosol samples collected during the Chernobyl accident and the contaminated Chernobyl soil. In some samples the high activity ratio of 2 38Pu/ 2 39, 2 40Pu up to 0.5 was observed. The presence of the Chernobyl derived plutonium was confirmed by ICPMS (atom ratio 2 40Pu/ 2 39Pu up to 0.40 was found). Thus, the Chernobyl accident resulted in contamination of large areas of the Earth's surface and forests by radioactive substances. The redistribution of radionuclides mainly of Cs, from these regions to less contaminated areas takes place during the forest fires, because the aerosol particles generated in a different phase of fire have predominantly a submicronic size and are enriched by the volatile Cs due to its evaporation and condensation on condensation nuclei in the atmosphere (the increase of Cs/Sr and Cs/Pu ratio

  10. Programmes and Systems for Source and Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The discharge of radionuclides to the atmosphere and aquatic environments is a legitimate practice in the nuclear and other industries, hospitals and research. Where appropriate, monitoring of the discharges and of relevant environmental media is an essential regulatory requirement in order to ensure appropriate radiation protection of the public. Such monitoring provides information on the actual amounts of radioactive material discharged and the radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and is needed to demonstrate compliance with authorized limits, to assess the radiation exposure of members of the public and to provide data to aid in the optimization of radiation protection. Uncontrolled releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere and aquatic environments may occur as a result of a nuclear or radiological accident. Again, monitoring at the source of the release and of the environment is necessary. In this case, monitoring is used both to assess the radiation exposure of members of the public and to determine the actions necessary for public protection, including longer term countermeasures. Source and environmental monitoring associated with the release of radionuclides to the environment is the subject of a number of IAEA Safety Standards, particularly IAEA Safety Standard RS-G-1.8 (Environmental and Source Monitoring for Purposes of Radiation Protection). This publication is intended to complement this Safety Guide and, by so doing, replaces Safety Series No. 41 (Objectives and Design of Environmental Monitoring Programmes for Radioactive Contaminants) and Safety Series No. 46 (Monitoring of Airborne and Liquid Radioactive Releases from Nuclear Facilities to the Environment). Like Safety Standard RS-G-1.8, this Safety Report deals with monitoring at the source and in the environment associated with authorized releases of radionuclides to the environment. It also deals with the general issues of emergency monitoring during and in the aftermath of an

  11. Remanent radiation fields around medical linear accelerators due to the induced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.; Khalifa, O.; Berka, Z.; Stankus, P.; Frencl, L.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation fields around two linear accelerators, Saturn 43 and a Saturn 2 Plus, installed at radiotherapy department is Prague, were measured and interpreted. The measurements included the determination of the dose equivalent rate resulting from photons emitted by induced radionuclides produced in reactions of high-energy photons with certain elements present in air and accelerator components as well as in the shielding and building materials in the treatment rooms, which are irradiated by high-energy X-rays, and due to radionuclides formed by capture of photoneutrons. While scattered photons and photoneutrons are only present during the accelerator operation, residual radioactivity creates a remanent radiation field persisting for some time after the instrument shutdown. The activity induced in the accessories is also an important source of exposure. (P.A.)

  12. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  13. Radiation monitoring for radionuclide release in water system resulted from nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vintsukevich, N.V.; Tomilin, Yu.A.

    1983-01-01

    Pre-operational investigation into environmental radioactivity in the vicinity of Yuzhno-Ukrainskaya NPP with reverse- direct flow cooling scheme of circulating water was conducted. Considering that reservoir-coolant of NPP will be connected constantly with water reservoirs located on the Yuzhnyj Bug river possibilities of radionuclide accumulation in different river components - 5ilt, algae, river water-were investigated. It was established that increase of pH and salt concentration in water of river undercurrent create the conditions for formation of radionuclide sedimentary forms, increase their accumulation in bottom sediments and aqquatic vegetation. The conclusion on the necessity of constant radiation monitoring for relase of liquid coastes of Yuzhno-Ukrainskaya NPP in the Yuzhnyj Bug river is drawn

  14. Airborne anthropogenic radioactivity measurements from an international radionuclide monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, J.D.; Williams, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Anthropogenic radioactivity is being measured in near-real time by an international monitoring system designed to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Airborne radioactivity measurements are conducted in-situ by stations that are linked to a central data processing and analysis facility. Aerosols are separated by high-volume air sampling with high-efficiency particulate filters. Radio-xenon is separated from other gases through cryogenic methods. Gamma-spectrometry is performed by high purity germanium detectors and the raw spectral data is immediately transmitted to the central facility via Internet, satellite, or modem. These highly sensitive sensors, combined with the automated data processing at the central facility, result in a system capable of measuring environmental radioactivity on the microbecquerel scale where the data is available to scientists within minutes of the field measurement. During the past year, anthropogenic radioactivity has been measured at approximately half of the stations in the current network. Sources of these measured radionuclides include nuclear power plant emissions, Chernobyl resuspension, and isotope production facilities. The ability to thoroughly characterize site-specific radionuclides, which contribute to the radioactivity of the ambient environment, will be necessary to reduce the number of false positive events. This is especially true of anthropogenic radionuclides that could lead to ambiguous analysis. (author)

  15. A method for determining the analytical form of a radionuclide depth distribution using multiple gamma spectrometry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Steven Clifford, E-mail: sdewey001@gmail.com [United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Environmental Health Division, Health Physics Branch, Radiation Analysis Laboratories, 2350 Gillingham Drive, Brooks City-Base, TX 78235 (United States); Whetstone, Zachary David, E-mail: zacwhets@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Kearfott, Kimberlee Jane, E-mail: kearfott@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    When characterizing environmental radioactivity, whether in the soil or within concrete building structures undergoing remediation or decommissioning, it is highly desirable to know the radionuclide depth distribution. This is typically modeled using continuous analytical expressions, whose forms are believed to best represent the true source distributions. In situ gamma ray spectroscopic measurements are combined with these models to fully describe the source. Currently, the choice of analytical expressions is based upon prior experimental core sampling results at similar locations, any known site history, or radionuclide transport models. This paper presents a method, employing multiple in situ measurements at a single site, for determining the analytical form that best represents the true depth distribution present. The measurements can be made using a variety of geometries, each of which has a different sensitivity variation with source spatial distribution. Using non-linear least squares numerical optimization methods, the results can be fit to a collection of analytical models and the parameters of each model determined. The analytical expression that results in the fit with the lowest residual is selected as the most accurate representation. A cursory examination is made of the effects of measurement errors on the method. - Highlights: > A new method for determining radionuclide distribution as a function of depth is presented. > Multiple measurements are used, with enough measurements to determine the unknowns in analytical functions that might describe the distribution. > The measurements must be as independent as possible, which is achieved through special collimation of the detector. > Although the effects of measurements errors may be significant on the results, an improvement over other methods is anticipated.

  16. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Brazilian commercial dog food: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    spigot. These samples, after resting for 30 days to ensure secular equilibrium, were placed in an extended range high-purity germanium detector with 40% relative efficiency, and the acquired spectra are analyzed using the InterWinner 6.0 software. The results have shown no concentrations of artificial radionuclides, such as Cs-137, Co-60, Ru-106, Ru-103, I-131 and Am-241, whilst the concentrations of natural radionuclides varied from 1.17 ± 0.31 up to 5.01 ± 0.38 Bq/kg for Ra-226; from 1.20 ± 0.50 up to 8.07 ± 0.96 for Th-232 and from 212.90 ± 10.80 up to 377.00 ± 17.78 for K-40. Further, the study will be extended to a larger number of dog food brands and also to cat food brands available in Brazil and eventual radiological consequences of absorbed dose will be assessed. (authors)

  17. Gamma radiation dose from radionuclides in Kong Kong soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    Calculations have been made of the γ dose rate at one metre above ground from the results of measurements of radionuclide concentrations in soil at various locations in Hong Kong and prior to the Chernobyl accident. The average dose rate is found to be 0.076 μGy h -1 , or 0.67 mGy year -1 . The contribution from fallout nuclides to the annual dose is shown to be small, at about 0.4% of the total. The calculated dose rate in this work is about 80% higher than the world average given by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, in Ionizing Radiation: Sources and Biological Effects, Annex B (Exposure to natural radiation sources). A United Nations Publication, 1982. (author)

  18. The behaviour of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclides in soil are of natural as well as of artificial origin. Their migration in the soil and their availability for ecological processes depend considerably on the extent at which they are sorbed. The methods for the determination of the vertical rate of migration are described. For most radionuclides this transport is very slow (a few cm per year). Cs-137 is of especial interest. It is sorbed strongly by most soils and, as a consequence, its root uptake is small. However, as a result of the sorption, this radionuclide is eluted from the root zone only very slowly and its thus available for the root uptake for many years. The Cs-137 concentrations in plants to be expected in the coming years as a result of the fallout from Chernobyl are small. (orig.) [de

  19. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  20. An international database of radionuclide concentration ratios for wildlife: development and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.; Beresford, N.A.; Brown, J.E.; Yankovich, T.

    2013-01-01

    A key element of most systems for assessing the impact of radionuclides on the environment is a means to estimate the transfer of radionuclides to organisms. To facilitate this, an international wildlife transfer database has been developed to provide an online, searchable compilation of transfer parameters in the form of equilibrium-based whole-organism to media concentration ratios. This paper describes the derivation of the wildlife transfer database, the key data sources it contains and highlights the applications for the data. -- Highlights: • An online database containing wildlife radionuclide transfer parameters is described. • Database underpins recent ICRP and IAEA data wildlife transfer compilations. • Database contains equilibrium based whole organism to media concentration ratios

  1. Assessment of atmospherically-released radionuclides using the computerized radiological risk investigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.B.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Miller, C.W.; Baes, C.F. III.

    1986-01-01

    For radionuclides, the standards are in terms of an annual dose, and the regulations require assurance that no member of the general public receives a dose in excess of that standard. Thus, spatial variations in the population around an emission source must be considered. Furthermore, for most chemical pollutants the standards are written in terms of an air concentration while for radionuclides other pathways of exposure, e.g., uptake of the airborne emissions by terrestrial food chains must also be considered. The remainder of this paper discusses the computer codes that make up the CRRIS and how they are used to perform an assessment of the health impacts on man of radionuclides released to the atmosphere

  2. Behaviors and chemical forms of radionuclides in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Yoshihide

    1981-01-01

    Although the radionuclides introduced into the marine environment from various sources and routes are finally distributed among the components of the marine ecosystem, the residence time is one of the most useful measures of the reactivity of an element in the oceanic chemical system. Heavy metals such as Mn, Fe, Co and Zn which have shorter residence times, reveal more complicated behaviours in relation to marine radioecological interest than alkaline earth element such as Sr which has a longer residence time. The possible physico-chemical forms of radionuclides in the oceans are usually classified into three categories, that is, species in true solution, colloidal species, and particulate forms. The modeling to study the dispersion of radionuclides introduced into the marine environment can be approached with the aid of the knowledge of behaviors of their stable counterparts in seawater. The different physico-chemical forms between stable and radioactive nuclides in seawater may cause different biological concentration of the element. To realize the chemical speciation of radionuclides in the marine environment, it is also important in thermodynamical calculation to consider heterogeneous interfaces where cause raising the concentration of reactants in seawater, especially in the coastal waters. In the discussion on the primary factors that can affect the elemental distribution in the marine environment, primary productivity and bacterial activity are emphasized for the transformation of physicochemical states of radionuclides in the marine environment. Finally, the radioecological differences between radiocobalt in organic complexed and ionic forms were demonstrated in the experiments on the uptake and elimination of radiocobalt by mussels. (J.P.N.)

  3. Online estimation of radionuclide transportation in water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Jing Zhang; Li-Sheng Hu

    2017-01-01

    Transportation evaluation of the radionuclide waste discharged from nuclear power plants is an essential licensing issue, especially for inland sites. Basically, the dynamics of radionuclide transportation are nonlinear and time-varying. Motivated by its time-consuming computation, the work proposed an online estimation method for the radionuclide waste in water surface. After extracting the nonlinearity of factors influencing radionuclide transportation, the method utilizes transfer function and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models to perform deterministic and probabilistic estimations. It turns out that, the resulting predictions show high accuracy and can optimize the online discharge management of radioactive waste for nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Low-level radioactive waste performance assessments: Source term modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icenhour, A.S.; Godbee, H.W.; Miller, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by government and commercial operations need to be isolated from the environment for at least 300 to 500 yr. Most existing sites for the storage or disposal of LLW employ the shallow-land burial approach. However, the U.S. Department of Energy currently emphasizes the use of engineered systems (e.g., packaging, concrete and metal barriers, and water collection systems). Future commercial LLW disposal sites may include such systems to mitigate radionuclide transport through the biosphere. Performance assessments must be conducted for LUW disposal facilities. These studies include comprehensive evaluations of radionuclide migration from the waste package, through the vadose zone, and within the water table. Atmospheric transport mechanisms are also studied. Figure I illustrates the performance assessment process. Estimates of the release of radionuclides from the waste packages (i.e., source terms) are used for subsequent hydrogeologic calculations required by a performance assessment. Computer models are typically used to describe the complex interactions of water with LLW and to determine the transport of radionuclides. Several commonly used computer programs for evaluating source terms include GWSCREEN, BLT (Breach-Leach-Transport), DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term), BARRIER (Ref. 5), as well as SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 (which are used in this study). The SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 codes were prepared by Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SOURCE1 is designed for tumulus-type facilities, and SOURCE2 is tailored for silo, well-in-silo, and trench-type disposal facilities. This paper focuses on the source term for ORNL disposal facilities, and it describes improved computational methods for determining radionuclide transport from waste packages

  5. Modeling of release of radionuclides from an engineered disposal facility for shallow-land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, H.; Suzuki, A.

    1989-01-01

    The computer code, ENBAR-1, for the simulation of radionuclide releases from an engineered disposal facility has been developed to evaluate the source term for subsequent migration of radionuclides in and through a natural barrier. The system considered here is that a waste package (waste form and container) is placed, together with backfill materials, into a concrete pit as a disposal unit for shallow-land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The code developed includes the following modules: water penetration into a concrete pit, corrosion of a drum as a container, leaching of radionuclides from a waste form, migration of radionuclides in backfill materials, release of radionuclides from the pit. The code has the advantage of its simplicity of operation and presentation while still allowing comprehensive evaluation of each element of an engineered disposal facility to be treated. The performance and source term of the facility might be readily estimated with a few key parameters to define the problem

  6. The cross sections of reactions resulting in transmutation of long-lived radionuclides of exhausted nuclear fuel exposed to fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konodeev, A.Yu.; Korovin, Yu.A.; Erview, K.

    1993-01-01

    Research is at present concerned with the possible transmutation of long-lived radionuclides of spent nuclear fuel in the flux of fast neutrons from neutron generators which are distinguished by their energy spectrum and density of the flux generated. For this purpose one must know the cross sections of the nuclear reactions resulting in the transmutation and formation of new long-lived radionuclides due to the irradiation. The transmutation rate of radioisotope irradiated with neutrons have a known energy spectrum is determined by calculating the transmutation cross section which is equal to the sum of the cross sections of neutron reactions causing conversion of a particular isotope into another after the decay of short-lived residual nuclei. The presently available neutron cross section data of long-lived radionuclides, i.e., the products of the fission of nuclear fuel, are insufficient for research on these effects as transmutations occur in a flux of high-energy neutrons. This paper presents the cross sections of reactions accounting for the transmutation of the most important long-lived radionuclides of exhausted nuclear fuel during its irradiation with neutron having energies of up to 100 MeV. The neutron cross sections were calculated for 79 Se, 90 Sr, 93 Zr, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 126 Sn, 129 I, 135 Cs and 137 Cs with a half-life ≥30 years

  7. Organic liquid scintillation detectors for on-the-fly neutron/gamma alarming and radionuclide identification in a pedestrian radiation portal monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit; Ruch, Marc L.; Poitrasson-Riviere, Alexis; Sagadevan, Athena; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara

    2015-07-01

    We present new experimental results from a radiation portal monitor based on the use of organic liquid scintillators. The system was tested as part of a 3He-free radiation portal monitor testing campaign at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy, in February 2014. The radiation portal monitor was subjected to a wide range of test conditions described in ANSI N42.35, including a variety of gamma-ray sources and a 20,000 n/s 252Cf source. A false alarm test tested whether radiation portal monitors ever alarmed in the presence of only natural background. The University of Michigan Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Group's system triggered zero false alarms in 2739 trials. It consistently alarmed on a variety of gamma-ray sources travelling at 1.2 m/s at a 70 cm source to detector distance. The neutron source was detected at speeds up to 3 m/s and in configurations with up to 8 cm of high density polyethylene shielding. The success of on-the-fly radionuclide identification varied with the gamma-ray source measured as well as with which of two radionuclide identification methods was used. Both methods used a least squares comparison between the measured pulse height distributions to library spectra to pick the best match. The methods varied in how the pulse height distributions were modified prior to the least squares comparison. Correct identification rates were as high as 100% for highly enriched uranium, but as low as 50% for 241Am. Both radionuclide identification algorithms produced mixed results, but the concept of using liquid scintillation detectors for gamma-ray and neutron alarming in radiation portal monitor was validated.

  8. Interaction of radionuclides with diluvium loams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyanov, V.V.; Guskov, A.V.; Tkachenko, A.V.; Prozorov, L.B.; Karlina, O.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Primary goal of this research was to study the interaction of radioactive liquid waste with diluvium loams. A geology-hydro-geological characterisation of the RADON-site facility, located in the Southern Region of Russia, is given. According to the results of laboratory and field studies, the hydro-geological parameters of diluvium loams were designed, and their mineral and grain structures were investigated. It was established, that loams have low filtration properties. Definition of filtration coefficients (Kf) under laboratory conditions has shown low values (hydraulic gradient J=10, Kf = 8.10 -4 m/day). But the field experiment has shown, that Kf values vary from 0.1 up to 0.04 m/day with a gradient of J=1! (It is important to point at the selection of the initial data for modelling migration). Mineral structure: quartz - 43 %, montmorillonite - 28 %, hydro-micas - 17 %, iron hydroxides - 5 %, feldspar - 3,7 %, kaolinite - 2 %, carbonates - 1 %, organics - 0,3 %. The content of minerals known as good sorbents, makes up to 52 %. Laboratory experiments dedicated to the determination of sorption isotherms for various radionuclides were carried out. As a result, distribution coefficients (Kd) for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 238 Pu were determined. Geology-hydro-geological and radiochemical data were used for the schematization of the system. Then, the mathematical modelling and forecasting of radionuclide migration was carried out. Two conservative scenarios were considered - full destruction of the waste matrices + water flow (lateral and vertical direction). As migrating components 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 238 Pu were considered. 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 238 Pu have different mobility due to their Kd ranging from tens and hundreds up to thousand ml/g depending on the properties of the diluvium loams. Initial radionuclide concentrations were as follow: 137 Cs -1.32.10 8 Bq/l, 60 Co - 2.52.10 7 Bq/l, 90 Sr - 1.81.10 7 Bq/l, 238 Pu - 7.78.10 6

  9. Holmium-166m: multi-gamma standard to determine the activity of radionuclides in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, Estela Maria de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency and calibration curves as function of gamma-ray energy for a germanium detector are usually established by using many standard gamma ray sources of radionuclides decaying with few gamma rays or radionuclides having complex decay scheme, as 152 Eu or 133 Ba. But these radionuclides cannot be used alone, because they have a few gamma lines with high intensity and these lines have a irregular distribution in the energy spectrum. 166m Ho is found to be a convenient single source for such calibration, because it decays by β - with subsequent emission of about 40 strong and well distributed gamma lines between 80 and 1500 keV. Moreover, its long half - life (1200 years) and X-rays characteristics between 40 and 50 keV makes it a good standard for calibration of germanium detectors. However, it is necessary to know with accuracy and precision the gamma ray intensities of their main lines, due to the fact that literature has showed discrepant values. Then, a methodology to determine the emission probability of its main lines is proposed by means of combined use of gamma spectrometry and coincidence 4πβ -γ techniques. The experimental results show consistence to the others authors, with lower or compatible uncertainties. (author)

  10. CRITICAL RADIONUCLIDE AND PATHWAY ANALYSIS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2011-08-30

    This report is an update to the analysis, Assessment of SRS Radiological Liquid and Airborne Contaminants and Pathways, that was performed in 1997. An electronic version of this large original report is included in the attached CD to this report. During the operational history (1954 to the present) of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the various production facilities. However, as will be shown by this updated radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to offsite people. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface waters, the principal media that carry contaminants offsite. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. The groundwater monitoring performed at the site shows that an estimated 5 to 10% of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, no evidence exists from the extensive monitoring performed that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated off the site (SRS 2011). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people. In addition, in response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Order 435.1, several Performance Assessments (WSRC 2008; LWO 2009; SRR 2010; SRR 2011) and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis (SRNO 2010) have recently been completed at SRS. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in these extensive reports are discussed and, where applicable, included in this analysis.

  11. Choice of radionuclide for antibody labelling: new perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, D.K.; Dass, S.

    1983-01-01

    The expanding horizons of labelled antibody techniques in diagnostic imaging or assay, therapy and research and the availabilities of monoclonal antibodies is resulting in a demand for suitable radionuclides as antibody labels. An outline is given of the different criteria for choosing an appropriate radionuclide for labelling an antibody depending on its particular field of use. The requirements of procedures for firmly linking radionuclides to antibodies are also given. (U.K.)

  12. Surface diffusion of sorbed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Surface diffusion has in the past been invoked to explain rates of radionuclide migration which were greater than those predicted. Results were generally open to interpretation but the possible existence of surface diffusion, whereby sorbed radionuclides could potentially migrate at much enhanced rates, necessitated investigation. In this work through-diffusion experiments have shown that although surface diffusion does exist for some nuclides, the magnitude of the phenomenon is not sufficient to affect repository safety assessment modelling. (author)

  13. Reference Material IAEA 434: Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is generated as a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry. The discharge of phosphogypsum on earth surface deposits is a potential source of enhanced natural radiation and heavy metals, and the resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. In addition, phosphogypsum can be used to make several building materials and it is used in agriculture as a conditioner to maintain soil productivity in areas where soils are poor and erode easily. A reliable determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA-434 will assist laboratories in the IAEA Member States in validating their analytical methods for the determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum and to control the quality of the produced analytical results. Reference values for the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties were established for: Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238. During sample production and certification, the requirements for reference material production and certification as stated in ISO guides 34 and 35 were taken into account. This report summarizes the preparation and certification process

  14. Radionuclides in the marine environment near the Farallon Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Isolated sediment areas containing plutonium and cesium radionuclide concentrations exceeding Pacific Ocean global radionuclide fallout levels have been reported in the Farallon Islands radioactive waste disposal area, west of San Francisco. We find the total 239+240 Pu and 137 Cs inventory of Farallon water columns to be within global fallout levels. The quantity of these radionuclides from nonfallout sources contaminating the sedimentary environment is unknown, but their contribution to the total water column inventory is insignificant compared with present fallout levels. Fish and invertebrates from the disposal region contain body burdens of 239+240 Pu and 137 Cs no greater than similar species exposed to global fallout. Within deep (2000 m) Farallon sediments, we do find that 238 Pu concentrations exceeding anticipated fallout levels are being remobilized to bottom waters. Fallout plutonium appears to be displaced laterally from the continental shelf down the slope into deeper offshore waters. Remobilized waste from the disposal site probably is displaced in the same manner

  15. Atmospheric deposition of long-lived Beta radionuclides over the territory of Bulgaria during the last decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleva, B. [National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    The sources of atmospheric radioactivity are discussed and compared. Radon isotopes and their daughters' dominate the natural background of beta activity in the surface air. The man-made radionuclides, much of them beta emitters, started to contaminate regionally and globally the environment after 1940's due to the atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. Additional significant sources of technogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere were nuclear accidents with pronounced examples of Chernobyl and Fukushima. The Bulgarian network for atmospheric radioactivity monitoring has been developing since 1959 in the frame of the state Hydro-meteorological service, now National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology. It includes daily measurements of aerosol beta activity and deposition immediately and 120h after the sampling. The time and space variations of deposited beta activity, based on long term data records are presented and impact assessment of the different sources is given. The role of precipitation in deposition of radionuclides is evaluated. (author)

  16. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ( 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 210 Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of 238 U and 232 Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  17. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  18. The radionuclide content of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the radionuclide content of stocks and arisings of radioactive wastes in the United Kingdom. Operational and decommissioning wastes are considered for both committed and prospective plant. Arisings are from power reactors, commercial reprocessing, fuel manufacture, medical and industrial sources and research and development. Data is included from Amersham International, British Nuclear Fuels, Central Electricity Generating Board, South of Scotland Electricity Board, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and minor waste producers. (author)

  19. Radionuclide withdrawal from animal and human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A.S.; Sidorova, T.F.

    1995-01-01

    The authors review the history of the problem of radionuclide withdrawal from animal and human body and discuss methodological approaches to it. Results of studies of radionuclide elimination by means of chemical and bioactive substances are analyzed. Special attention is paid to decorporation of radioactive elements which are the most hazardous as regards intoxication in connection with the Chernobyl accident: 131 I, 89 St and 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, and 241 Am. The authors analyze the results of studies of radionuclide withdrawal based on the dissolution effect, ionic antagonism, and by means of complexons, carried out in humans and animals. Efficacies of alimentary fibers and other adsorbents, foodstuffs and drinks are demonstrated. 48 refs

  20. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  1. The RADionuclide Transport, Removal, and Dose (RADTRAD) code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Chanin, D.I.; Lee, J.

    1993-01-01

    The RADionuclide Transport, Removal, And Dose (RADTRAD) code is designed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) use to calculate the radiological consequences to the offsite population and to control room operators following a design-basis accident at Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This code utilizes updated reactor accident source terms published in draft NUREG-1465, ''Accident Source Terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants.'' The code will track the transport of radionuclides as they are released from the reactor pressure vessel, travel through the primary containment and other buildings, and are released to the environment. As the radioactive material is transported through the primary containment and other buildings, credit for several removal mechanisms may be taken including sprays, suppression pools, overlying pools, filters, and natural deposition. Simple models are available for these different removal mechanisms that use, as input, information about the conditions in the plant and predict either a removal coefficient (λ) or decontamination factor. The user may elect to use these models or input a single value for a removal coefficient or decontamination factor

  2. Geochemical effects on the behavior of LLW radionuclides in soil/groundwater environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, K.M.; Sterne, R.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Assessing the migration potential of radionuclides leached from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and decommissioning sites necessitates information on the effects of sorption and precipitation on the concentrations of dissolved radionuclides. Such an assessment requires that the geochemical processes of aqueous speciation, complexation, oxidation/reduction, and ion exchange be taken into account. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing technical support to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for defining the solubility and sorption behavior of radionuclides in soil/ground-water environments associated with engineered cementitious LLW disposal systems and decommissioning sites. Geochemical modeling is being used to predict solubility limits for radionuclides under geochemical conditions associated with these environments. The solubility limits are being used as maximum concentration limits in performance assessment calculations describing the release of contaminants from waste sources. Available data were compiled regarding the sorption potential of radionuclides onto {open_quotes}fresh{close_quotes} cement/concrete where the expected pH of the cement pore waters will equal to or exceed 10. Based on information gleaned from the literature, a list of preferred minimum distribution coefficients (Kd`s) was developed for these radionuclides. The K{sub d} values are specific to the chemical environments associated with the evolution of the compositions of cement/concrete pore waters.

  3. Assessing radiation doses to the public from radionuclides in timber and wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident involving the release of radionuclides to the biosphere the radioactive contamination of forests can become a significant potential source of public radiation exposure. Two of these accidents - the Kyshtim accident, Urals, USSR (now Russian Federation) in 1957 and the Chernobyl accident, USSR (now Ukraine), in 1986 - resulted in significant contamination of thousands of square kilometres of forested areas with mixtures of radionuclides including long lived fission products such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Measurements and modelling of forest ecosystems after both accidents have shown that, following initial contamination, the activity concentration of long lived radionuclides in wood gradually increases over one to two decades and then slowly decreases in the subsequent period. The longevity of the contamination is due to the slow migration and persistent bioavailability of radionuclides in the forest soil profile, which results in long term transfer into wood through the root system of the trees. Another source of contamination is from global radioactive fallout after nuclear weapons tests, but the level of contamination is much lower than that from, for example, the Chernobyl accident. For instance, the level of 137 Cs in wood in Sweden is about 2-5 Bq kg -1 from global fallout. Global values are very similar to the Swedish levels. In contrast, the level of 137 Cs in Swedish wood due to Chernobyl is around 50 Bq kg -1 . Levels in wood from some contaminated areas located in countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are about one to two orders of magnitude higher than this. The data on 137 Cs soil contamination within European territories, originating mainly from the Chernobyl accident, illustrate the scale of the problem. For comparison, residual 137 Cs soil deposition in Europe from global radioactive fallout was in the range 1-4 kBq m -2 . There is concern in several countries about the potential radiation exposure of people from

  4. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Zhao Jingyong; Hong Chengjiao; Lao Qinhua; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  5. Reconstruction of the size of nuclear fuel particle aerosol by the investigation of a radionuclide behaviour in body of the Chernobyl accident witnesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP) accident aerosol particles of dispersed nuclear fuel were released to the atmosphere. Inhalation of those aerosol became the source of internal exposure for witnesses of the Chernobyl accident. To assess correctly internal doses from a mixture of radionuclides present in air in the form of aerosol particles one mast assign each radionuclide to a certain inhalation class by its chemical speciation in aerosol and define the airborne characteristics (the activity median aerodynamic diameter, AMAD and the standard geometric deviation, fig) of that particular aerosol. Moreover, information on any particular radionuclide is useless for other components since, in such a mixture, the radionuclides are generally independent and may belong to different particles. On the contrary, all nuclear fuel particle (NFP) radionuclides belong to the same particle, being matrix-bound. The collective behaviour of the matrix-bound radionuclides in the environment and in the human barrier organs makes it possible to spread to the aerosol of NFP any estimates of AMAD and β g obtained for any particular NFP radionuclide. This is principal feature of NFP aerosol as distinguished from a mere mixture of aerosol particles carry different radionuclides. (author)

  6. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  7. Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Program and related research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents the results of technical studies conducted under the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the period of October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986. The HRMP was initiated in 1973 as the Radionuclide Migration Program to study and better understand the hydrologic systems of the NTS and potential movement and rates of movement of radionuclides and other contaminants injected into these systems by underground nuclear testing

  8. Natural decay series radionuclide studies at the Needle's Eye Natural Analogue Site, II, 1989-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, A.B.; Whitton, A.M.; Shimmield, T.M.; Jemielita, R.A.; Scott, R.D.; Hooker, P.J.

    1991-12-01

    HMIP has a research programme investigating some naturally radioactive sites as geochemical analogues of radionuclide migration. The objective is to test thermodynamic databases and computer codes used for modelling radionuclide migration under environmental conditions. This report describes the study of transport and retardation processes affecting natural radionuclides, mainly uranium (U), in the vicinity of pitchblende veins in the cliff at Needle's Eye on the Solway Coast, SW Scotland. The natural decay series results from this study have been used to develop a well constrained geochemical model within which the codes can be tested. A conceptual geochemical model for the behaviour of U at the site was developed in stage I of the study; work in stage II is concerned with improving the information available on the U source term, groundwater chemistry, U aqueous phase specification, U retardation by fracture-lining minerals during fissure flow of groundwater, U-organic associations and loss of U from the site by stream drainage. (author)

  9. Determination of radionuclide solubility limits to be used in SR 97. Uncertainties associated to calculated solubilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, J.; Cera, E.; Duro, L.; Jordana, S. [QuantiSci S.L., Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, J. de [DEQ-UPC, Barcelona (Spain); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-01

    The thermochemical behaviour of 24 critical radionuclides for the forthcoming SR97 PA exercise is discussed. The available databases are reviewed and updated with new data and an extended database for aqueous and solid species of the radionuclides of interest is proposed. We have calculated solubility limits for the radionuclides of interest under different groundwater compositions. A sensitivity analysis of the calculated solubilities with the composition of the groundwater is presented. Besides selecting the most likely solubility limiting phases, in this work we have used coprecipitation approaches in order to calculate more realistic solubility limits for minor radionuclides, such as Ra, Am and Cm. The comparison between the calculated solubilities and the concentrations measured in relevant natural systems (NA) and in spent fuel leaching experiments helps to assess the validity of the methodology used and to derive source term concentrations for the radionuclides studied. The uncertainties associated to the solubilities of the main radionuclides involved in the spent nuclear fuel have also been discussed in this work. The variability of the groundwater chemistry; redox conditions and temperature of the system have been considered the main factors affecting the solubilities. In this case, a sensitivity analysis has been performed in order to study solubility changes as a function of these parameters. The uncertainties have been calculated by including the values found in a major extent in typical granitic groundwaters. The results obtained from this analysis indicate that there are some radionuclides which are not affected by these parameters, i.e. Ag, Cm, Ho, Nb, Ni, Np, Pu, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc and U

  10. Permissible annual depositions and radionuclide concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.A.; Golovko, M.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    It is established that it necessary to take into account the other ways of radionuclide intake apart from the inhalation one when determining the standards for radionuclide contamination of the atmospheric air. Whereby it is proposed to standardize annual depositions rather than permissible concentration in the atmospheric air for the ways related to radionuclide releases on the ground surface, which is explained by ambiguity of their dry deposition rate from the air. Formulae and results of calculation of standard characteristics are presented. The permissible radionuclide depositions, related to the intake through food chains are calculated with account for diet diversity, agroclimatic and phenological parameters in different regions of the country

  11. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  12. Monitoring radionuclides in subsurface drinking water sources near unconventional drilling operations: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Andrew W.; Knight, Andrew W.; Eitrheim, Eric S.; Schultz, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional drilling (the combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) to extract oil and natural gas is expanding rapidly around the world. The rate of expansion challenges scientists and regulators to assess the risks of the new technologies on drinking water resources. One concern is the potential for subsurface drinking water resource contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials co-extracted during unconventional drilling activities. Given the rate of expansion, opportunities to test drinking water resources in the pre- and post-fracturing setting are rare. This pilot study investigated the levels of natural uranium, lead-210, and polonium-210 in private drinking wells within 2000 m of a large-volume hydraulic fracturing operation – before and approximately one-year following the fracturing activities. Observed radionuclide concentrations in well waters tested did not exceed maximum contaminant levels recommended by state and federal agencies. No statistically-significant differences in radionuclide concentrations were observed in well-water samples collected before and after the hydraulic fracturing activities. Expanded monitoring of private drinking wells before and after hydraulic fracturing activities is needed to develop understanding of the potential for drinking water resource contamination from unconventional drilling and gas extraction activities. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in ground water near unconventional drilling operations were investigated. • Natural uranium ( nat U), lead-210 ( 210 Pb), and polonium-210 ( 210 Po) levels are described. • No statistically significant increases in natural radioactivity post-drilling were observed

  13. Results of about a seven years lysimeter study to the quantification of the mobility of radionuclides into the system soil-water-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Strebl, F.; Temmel, B.

    1999-04-01

    The result of seven years lysimeter experiments (twelve soil monoliths, four soil types) to determine the uptake of 60 Co, 137 Cs and 226 Ra into agricultural crops and the leaching behaviour are presented. The mobility of the artificial radionuclides in soil profiles decreased in the following order: 60 Co ≥ 22 6Ra > 137 Cs. Total median values of soil-plant transfer factors (dry matter basis) for the three radionuclides decreased from 226 Ra (0.068 kg kg -1 ) to 137 Cs (0.043 kg kg -1 ) and 60 Co (0.018 kg kg -1 ). The physical and chemical properties of the experimental soils resulted in significant differences in transfer factors or fluxes between the investigated soils for 137 Cs and 226 Ra, but not for 60 Co. Differences in transfer between plant species and plant parts are distinct, with graminaceous species showing 5.8 and 15 times lower values for 137 Cs and 60 Co than dicodyle-donean species. In model calculations radionuclide losses through the different pathways (physical decay, leaching plant uptake and removal) were quantified. (author)

  14. Effects of the variation of samples geometry on radionuclide calibrator response for radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Fragoso, Maria Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the nuclear medicine practice, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radiopharmaceuticals which will be administered to the subjects is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The instrument used for this purpose is the radionuclide calibrator. The radiopharmaceuticals are usually contained on glass vials or syringes. However, the radionuclide calibrators response is sensitive to the measurement geometry. In addition, the calibration factors supplied by manufactures are valid only for single sample geometry. To minimize the uncertainty associated with the activity measurements, it is important to use the appropriate corrections factors for the each radionuclide in the specific geometry in which the measurement is to be made. The aims of this work were to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators varying the geometry of radioactive sources and to determine experimentally the correction factors for different volumes and containers types commonly used in nuclear medicine practice. The measurements were made in two ionization chambers of different manufacturers (Capintec and Biodex), using four radionuclides with different photon energies: {sup 18}F, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl. The results confirm the significant dependence of radionuclide calibrators reading on the sample geometry, showing the need of use correction factors in order to minimize the errors which affect the activity measurements. (author)

  15. Dry deposition and fate of radionuclides within spruce canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Z.; Shaw, G.; Kinnersley, R.P.; Minski, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The assessment of radiation dose to human populations from the release of radionuclides into the atmosphere following a nuclear accident relies on the use of simulation models. These need to be calibrated and tested using experimental data. In this study, the deposition and resuspension of radionuclides within a forest environment was investigated. Forests were identified in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident as a specific type of semi-natural ecosystem for which radiological data were lacking within the countries of the European Union. Wind tunnel and field data have been collected for small model canopies of Norwegian spruce saplings using uranium and silica aerosol particles. These have provided quantitative estimates of the potential of a tree canopy to constitute an airborne inhalation hazard and a secondary source of airborne contamination after the initial deposition. Using these results, a multi-layer compartmental model of aerosol flux (CANDEP) has been developed and calibrated. It combines the processes of dry deposition, resuspension and field loss in individual layers of the model canopy. (5 figures; 4 tables; 15 references). (UK)

  16. Validation of the ORIGEN-S code for predicting radionuclide inventories in used CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, J.C.; Gauld, I.; Kerr, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    The safety assessment being conducted by AECL Research for the concept of deep geological disposal of used CANDU UO 2 fuel requires the calculation of radionuclide inventories in the fuel to provide source terms for radionuclide release. This report discusses the validation of selected actinide and fission-product inventories calculated using the ORIGEN-S code coupled with the WIMS-AECL lattice code, using data from analytical measurements of radioisotope inventories in Pickering CANDU reactor fuel. The recent processing of new ENDF/B-VI cross-section data has allowed the ORIGEN-S calculations to be performed using the most up-to-date nuclear data available. The results indicate that the code is reliably predicting actinide and the majority of fission-product inventories to within the analytical uncertainty. ((orig.))

  17. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  18. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr

  19. Stochastic approach for radionuclides quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, A.; Saurel, N.; Perrin, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is a passive non-destructive assay used to quantify radionuclides present in more or less complex objects. Basic methods using empirical calibration with a standard in order to quantify the activity of nuclear materials by determining the calibration coefficient are useless on non-reproducible, complex and single nuclear objects such as waste packages. Package specifications as composition or geometry change from one package to another and involve a high variability of objects. Current quantification process uses numerical modelling of the measured scene with few available data such as geometry or composition. These data are density, material, screen, geometric shape, matrix composition, matrix and source distribution. Some of them are strongly dependent on package data knowledge and operator backgrounds. The French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing a new methodology to quantify nuclear materials in waste packages and waste drums without operator adjustment and internal package configuration knowledge. This method suggests combining a global stochastic approach which uses, among others, surrogate models available to simulate the gamma attenuation behaviour, a Bayesian approach which considers conditional probability densities of problem inputs, and Markov Chains Monte Carlo algorithms (MCMC) which solve inverse problems, with gamma ray emission radionuclide spectrum, and outside dimensions of interest objects. The methodology is testing to quantify actinide activity in different kind of matrix, composition, and configuration of sources standard in terms of actinide masses, locations and distributions. Activity uncertainties are taken into account by this adjustment methodology.

  20. Calculated dose factors for the radiosensitive tissues in bone irradiated by surface-deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiers, F.W.; Whitwell, J.R.; Beddoe, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    The method of calculating dose factors for the haemopoietic marrow and endosteal tissues in human trabecular bone, used by Whitwell and Spiers for volume-seeking radionuclides, has been developed for the case of radionuclides which are deposited as very thin layers on bone surfaces. The Monte Carlo method is again used, but modifications to the computer program are made to allow for a surface rather than a volume source of particle emission. The principal change is the introduction of a surface-orientation factor which is shown to have a value of approximately 2, varying slightly with bone structure. Results are given for β-emitting radionuclides ranging from 171 Tm(anti Esub(β) = 0.025 MeV) to 90 Y(anti Esub(β) = 0.93 MeV), and also for the α-emitter 239 Pu. It is shown that where the particle ranges are short compared with the dimensions of the bone structures the dose factors for the surface seekers are much greater than those for the volume seekers. For long range particles the dose factors for surface- and volume-seeking radionuclides converge. Comparisons are given relating the dose factors calculated in this paper on the basis of measured bone structures to those of other workers based on single plane geometry. (author)

  1. Bioavailability of anthropogenic radionuclides in mussels along the french mediterranean coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, H.; Arnaud, M.; Charmasson, S.; Andral, B.; Dimeglio, Y.; Barker, E.

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the Water Management Master-plan, a bio-indicator network (RINBIO) was deployed all along the French Mediterranean coast (1,800 km), using man-made cages containing mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to assess contamination by heavy metals, persistent organic products and radionuclides. The caging technique compensated for the scarcity of natural shellfish stocks in significant parts of the coast and enable comparison between sites regardless of their physicochemical and trophic characteristics. Among the 103 stations of the entire program, 40 were selected for the measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides by high-efficiency gamma-spectrometry. Biometrics parameters of the each mussel samples, including 'condition index' as an indicator of soft part growth, will be correlated with radionuclides activities, allowing to correct raw data from differences in bioaccumulation between the various sites in relation to their trophic levels. A comprehensive picture of the distribution of radionuclides at a such a large spatial scale will be provided and the contribution of the Rhone river input, so far the main source for the coastal zone, will be investigated. (author)

  2. Bioavailability of anthropogenic radionuclides in mussels along the french mediterranean coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, H.; Arnaud, M.; Charmasson, S.; Andral, B.; Dimeglio, Y.; Barker, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire. IFREMER, Laboratoire d' Etudes Radioecologiques Continentales et de la Mediterranee, 83 - La Seyne-sur-Mer (France)

    2004-07-01

    Within the framework of the Water Management Master-plan, a bio-indicator network (RINBIO) was deployed all along the French Mediterranean coast (1,800 km), using man-made cages containing mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to assess contamination by heavy metals, persistent organic products and radionuclides. The caging technique compensated for the scarcity of natural shellfish stocks in significant parts of the coast and enable comparison between sites regardless of their physicochemical and trophic characteristics. Among the 103 stations of the entire program, 40 were selected for the measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides by high-efficiency gamma-spectrometry. Biometrics parameters of the each mussel samples, including 'condition index' as an indicator of soft part growth, will be correlated with radionuclides activities, allowing to correct raw data from differences in bioaccumulation between the various sites in relation to their trophic levels. A comprehensive picture of the distribution of radionuclides at a such a large spatial scale will be provided and the contribution of the Rhone river input, so far the main source for the coastal zone, will be investigated. (author)

  3. Estimate of S-values for children due to six positron emitting radionuclides used in PET examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinato, Walmir; Santos, William S.; Perini, Ana P.; Neves, Lucio P.; Caldas, Linda V. E.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2017-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has revolutionized the diagnosis of cancer since its conception. When combined with computed tomography (CT), PET/CT performed in children produces highly accurate diagnoses from images of regions affected by malignant tumors. Considering the high risk to children when exposed to ionizing radiation, a dosimetric study for PET/CT procedures is necessary. Specific absorbed fractions (SAF) were determined for monoenergetic photons and positrons, as well as the S-values for six positron emitting radionuclides (11C, 13N, 18F, 68Ga, 82Rb, 15O), and 22 source organs. The study was performed for six pediatric anthropomorphic hybrid models, including the newborn and 1 year hermaphrodite, 5 and 10-year-old male and female, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code (MCNPX, version 2.7.0). The results of the SAF in source organs and S-values for all organs showed to be inversely related to the age of the phantoms, which includes the variation of body weight. The results also showed that radionuclides with higher energy peak emission produces larger auto absorbed S-values due to local dose deposition by positron decay. The S-values for the source organs are considerably larger due to the interaction of tissue with non-penetrating particles (electrons and positrons) and present a linear relationship with the phantom body masses. The results of the S-values determined for positron-emitting radionuclides can be used to assess the radiation dose delivered to pediatric patients subjected to PET examination in clinical settings. The novelty of this work is associated with the determination of auto absorbed S-values, in six new pediatric virtual anthropomorphic phantoms, for six emitting positrons, commonly employed in PET exams.

  4. ESTIMATION OF ROUTINE DISCHARGE OF RADIONUCLIDES ON POWER REACTOR EXPERIMENTAL RDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Udiyani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental power reactor (RDE which is planned to be constructed by BATAN is a kind of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR with 10 MWth power. HTGR is a helium gas-cooled reactor with TRISO-coated fuel that is able to confine fission products remained in the core. Although the fission products released into the environment are very small, in order to comply the regulations the study about environmental radiation on normal or routine operation condition need to be performed. Estimation of radiology in the environment involves the source term released into the environment under routine operation condition. The purpose of this study is to estimate the source term released into the environment based on postulation of normal or routine operations of RDE. The research approach starts with an assumption that there are defects and impurities in the TRISO fuel because of limitation during the fabrication. Mechanism of fission products release from the fuel to the environment was created based on the safety features design of RDE. Radionuclides inventories in the reactor were calculated using ORIGEN-2 whose library has been modified for HTGR type, and the assumptions of defects of the TRISO fuel and release fraction for each compartment of RDE safety system used a reference parameter. The results showed that the important source terms of RDE are group of noble gases (Kr and Xe, halogen (I, Sr, Cs, H-3, and Ag. Activities of RDE source terms for routine operations have no significant difference with the HTGR source terms with the same power. Keywords: routine discharge, radionuclide, source term, RDE, HTGR

  5. The activity of selected gamma radionuclides in the Tatra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubica Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cesium is naturally occurring active metal, represented by one stable isotope 133Cs, and number of artificial, unstable, isotopes. The most common artificial isotope of cesium is 137Cs, present in the environment of the Tatra Mountains due to nuclear weapon testing in late `50, and nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl in 1986. However in recent years the growth in biofuels use for power generation can be the next source of 137Cs emission. Burning wood cultivated on grounds contaminated by 137Cs can introduce secondary emission of this isotope to the atmosphere.This paper presents the results of determination of gamma emitting radionuclides artificial 137Cs and natural 40K in soil samples from the Tatra Mountains. Results show some differences in the vertical distribution of examined radionuclides. It was found that the change of activity of 137Cs in the soil samples depends mostly on the soil density and on the concentration of organic material. The state of “zero” 137Cs activity was developed in the form of maps.

  6. Human radiation dose resulting from forests contaminated by radionuclides: generic model and applications to the Chernobyl ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkov, I.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA; Schell, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    Forest ecosystems have been found to contribute significantly to the human radiation dose in the intermediate and long teens following radionuclide releases. Evaluation of the internal and external radiation dose for these critical population groups requires knowledge of radionuclide transport processes in forest ecosystems, as well as the extent of forest utilization by these populations. The high complexity of the problem requires the use of models to define and analyze the properties of the forest as well as to evaluate the ecosystem response to possible human intervention. A generic FORESTPATH model is used to calculate the internal and external radiation doses for different critical groups of consumers at different times following radionuclide release. The model is tested using the information available for contaminated forests in Belarus. Uncertainty of the model predictions are estimated by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. (author)

  7. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  8. Production of medical short-lived radionuclides in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    The production of radionuclides for medical and biomedical research in Canada has been reviewed with respect to the national geographic and demographic characteristics which influence their use. The types of facilities available for the production of short-lived radionuclides have been summarized, and a tabulation of the radionuclides that are produced has been presented. In broad terms production facilities can be classified as belonging to one of two groups, nuclear reactor or charged-particle accelerators. The charged-particle accelerators produce the more neutron-deficient and (because of the resultant decay properties) the more useful radionuclides for medical application. The nuclear reactor facilities for radionuclide production range in size and capacity from the high-flux research reactors of AECL to the six SLOWPOKE reactors, five of which are located on university campuses across the country. The McMaster University reactor is used to produce curie quantities of fluorine-18 weekly. Millicurie amounts of a large number of radionuclides, most of which have half-lives ranging from 2 to 50 hr, are produced in the low-flux reactors, in support of basic medical research

  9. Radionuclide ratios of cesium and strontium in Tarapur marine environment, west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, A.; Rao, D.D.; Chandramouli, S.; Iyer, R.S.; Hegde, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Marine environment of Tarapur located 100 km north of Mumbai on the west coast, receives low level liquid waste from Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) and Fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP). Radionuclide ratios of cesium and strontium were obtained in source term (the quantum of radioactive liquid waste available for discharge) and different marine samples viz, seawater, sediment, seaweed and marine organisms. A constant ratio of 137 Cs: 134 Cs was observed in seawater and source term. But the ratio of 137 Cs: 90 Sr had wide variation due to selective scavenging of 137 Cs by sedimentary particles at the discharge location. Among the other matrices, sediment showed a higher value of 137 Cs: 134 Cs and 137 Cs: 90 Sr reflecting the cumulative effects of releases from TAPS and FRP and higher distribution coefficient of radiocesium from seawater to sediment. Marine algae indicate a discrimination against sorption of 90 Sr due to the isotopic dilution by stable strontium present in seawater (8mg/l). The marine organisms preying on sediment containing microflora and fauna exhibited radionuclide ratios similar to seawater as the sediment sorbed cesium is not available for assimilation due to the mineral nature of the sediment. The matrices other than sediment indicated the equilibrated activity ratio of radionuclides in seawater which is the recipient medium and reflected the influence of continuous discharge. The sedimentary radionuclide ratio is largely dependent on sorption characteristics of radionuclides and their retention. (author)

  10. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    solution conditions. Particularly for temperature extremes, the backfill material should be able to withstand elevated temperatures resulting from the heat generating high-radiation fluxes of solidified high-level nuclear wastes. The barrier materials are most commonly synthetic or natural inorganic materials that selectively adsorb radionuclide and metallic contaminants. In here, both natural and synthetic barrier materials are discussed to increase our understanding of potential retardation of radionuclide transport in the repository

  11. Fluxes of radionuclides in the agricultural production after a nuclear accident: countermeasures and decontamination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis deals with the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident through the radioactive contamination of the food chain and the subsequent countermeasures for decreasing the fluxes of radionuclides and decontaminating agricultural lands. After a brief summary of the radioprotection ground and context in case of a nuclear accident, this work surveys existing data on the fluxes of radionuclides in soils and from soil to plants. The research work focuses on both the prediction of the fluxes of radionuclides and possible countermeasures: the measurement of the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution, its use in a mathematical expression to quantify the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium and strontium, and the perspectives of an innovative technique of soil decontamination. The obtained results show that based on 4 coefficients, it is possible to predict crop contamination within a 3 % confidence interval: the fluid solid distribution coefficient of radionuclides kd, the amount of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium, i.e. potassium and calcium, respectively, soil pH and a constant characterising the plant species that is concerned. However, it generally appears from soil to plant transfer studies that the reduction of the fluxes of radionuclides is not a promising way of radiological exposure mitigation after a nuclear accident. The work performed shows that it is more efficient to tackle the source of the contamination, i.e. decontaminate the soil. The proposed technique of soil scraping using a turf harvester appears to be the most advantageous among the tested options, for the decontamination of peat-bog meadows. (author)

  12. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  13. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  14. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  15. Photon sources for absorptiometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, R.M.; Sandrik, J.M.; Cameron, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Photon absorptiometry is defined and the requirements of photon sources for these measurements are described. Both x-ray tubes and radionuclide sources are discussed, including the advantages of each in absorptiometric systems

  16. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. (Ebasco Services, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V.

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs

  18. Polymer tribology by combining ion implantation and radionuclide tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmers, Heiko; Gladkis, Laura G.; Warner, Jacob A.; Byrne, Aidan P.; Grosso, Mariela F. del; Arbeitman, Claudia R.; Garcia-Bermudez, Gerardo; Geruschke, Thomas; Vianden, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    Radionuclide tracers were ion implanted with three different techniques into the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene polymer. Tracer nuclei of 7 Be were produced with inverse kinematics via the reaction p( 7 Li, 7 Be)n and caught by polymer samples at a forward scattering angle with a maximum implantation energy of 16 MeV. For the first time, 97 Ru, 100 Pd, and, independently, 111 In have been used as radionuclide tracers in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. 97 Ru and 100 Pd were recoil-implanted following the fusion evaporation reactions 92 Zr( 12 C,α3n) 97 Ru and 92 Zr( 12 C,4n) 100 Pd with a maximum implantation energy of 8 MeV. 111 In ions were produced in an ion source, mass-separated and implanted at 160 keV. The tribology of implanted polymer samples was studied by tracing the radionuclide during mechanical wear. Uni-directional and bi-directional sliding apparatus with stainless steel actuators were used. Results suggest a debris exchange process as the characteristic feature of the wear-in phase. This process can establish the steady state required for a subsequently constant wear rate in agreement with Archard's equation. The nano-scale implantation of mass-separated 111 In appears best suited to the study of non-linear tribological processes during wear-in. Such non-linear processes may be expected to be important in micro- and nanomachines.

  19. Results for the second quarter 2014 tank 50 WAC slurry sample chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.

    2014-01-01

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System

  20. Results for the Third Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC slurry sample: Chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-08

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time.1 Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  1. Results For The Fourth Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2014 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  2. Results For The Second Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-07-31

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Saltstone Facility Engineering (SFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  3. Radionuclide characterization of environmental air around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gede Sutresna Wijaya; Anung Muharini

    2015-01-01

    Air is an important environmental component in human life. Presence of air pollutants or contaminants will have a negative impact on human health. According to the existence of a nuclear facility in Yogyakarta, the characterization of radionuclides in the air is absolutely necessary to ensure the safety of people and the environment and also to supervise the safe operation of the facility. In this research the characterization of radionuclides in the air was carried through the air sampling by using High Volume Air Sampler equipped with filter TFA 2133, followed by analysis using combination of a gamma and alpha spectrometers. The concentration of radioactivity in the air fluctuates depending on the time and duration of sampling. Characterization of gamma emitting radionuclides in the air is dominated by radon progeny radionuclides such as 214 Pb, 214 Bi with activity 20.09 ± 1.23 until 32.91 ± 4.87 Bq/m 3 and 31.22 ± 1.76 until 44.25 ± 4.91 Bq/m 3 . Alpha emitter radionuclide was dominated by 214 Po (7.69 MeV) which is also radon progeny and a primordial radionuclides. It can be concluded that the presence of radionuclides in the environmental air not as a product resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities in Yogyakarta. (author)

  4. Information on biological health effects of ionizing radiation and radionuclides: the rule of a web site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, A.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.; Flury-Herard, A.; Ourly, F.; Hemidy, P.; Lallemand, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a source of information on biological and health effects of radionuclides and ionizing radiation in an easy to use format. Reported work is made up of two distinct parts: data sheets for selected radionuclides and a web file. Data sheets: Specific radiation data sheets provide an overview of the properties, the environmental behaviour, the different pathways of human exposure and the biological and health consequences of selected radionuclides. Radionuclides that have been selected are those commonly dealt with in nuclear industry (and in other areas such as medicine) and released to the environment or naturally occurring (plutonium, tritium, carbon 14). Data sheets corresponding to the different radionuclides are based on the main sources of scientific information in dosimetry, epidemiology, radiobiology and radiation protection. These data sheets are intended for radiation protection specialists and physicians. They include: main physical and chemical characteristics, main radiation protection data: dose coefficients (public, workers), dose limits sources, total released estimate (nuclear industry, atmospheric tests, main pathway of human exposure and biological behaviour, biological and health effects, medical supervision, treatment a list of the main references, appendix providing accurate information. Web file: http://www-dsv.cea.fr/doc/carmin_ext/fond.php This web file provides a source of information on biological and health effects of ionizing radiation and biological basic knowledge of radiation protection. Available for consultation via Internet, compiled information provides, in a same file, subjects as varied as biological mechanisms, ionizing radiations action, biological and health effects, risk assessment This file is mainly intended to assist in informing and training of non-specialist readership (students, teaching on radiation protection basic knowledge. This electronic document is divided in three

  5. Regulatory Technology Development Plan Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, David S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, Acacia Joann [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bucknor, Matthew D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-02-28

    containment. Radionuclides released from a primary sodium fire are also considered as potential sources. Any available experimental data and pertinent results relevant to the aforementioned phenomena are discussed, and operating incidents at domestically operated facilities are also examined. Considering the extensive range of phenomena affecting the release of radionuclides, the existing state of knowledge generally appears to be substantial, and may be sufficient in most areas. For core damage accidents, high retention rates should be expected within the fuel matrix and primary sodium coolant for all radionuclides other than the noble gases. These factors greatly reduce the magnitude of possible radionuclide release to the environment. Several possible gaps within the knowledgebase were identified during this effort. First, there are uncertainties with regard to radionuclide release from metal fuel in the molten state. Another knowledge gap appears in the available thermodynamic data regarding the behavior of lanthanides and actinides in liquid sodium. While not necessarily a phenomenological knowledge gap, a determination of the data requirements for MST development should be formally made prior to the expenditure of significant future research efforts. That is, if additional experimentation is performed in support of MST development, it is important to identify the proper quality assurance requirements for licensing

  6. Radionuclides in groundwater flow system understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erőss, Anita; Csondor, Katalin; Horváth, Ákos; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Surbeck, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Using radionuclides is a novel approach to characterize fluids of groundwater flow systems and understand their mixing. Particularly, in regional discharge areas, where different order flow systems convey waters with different temperature, composition and redox-state to the discharge zone. Radium and uranium are redox-sensitive parameters, which causes fractionation along groundwater flow paths. Discharging waters of regional flow systems are characterized by elevated total dissolved solid content (TDS), temperature and by reducing conditions, and therefore with negligible uranium content, whereas local flow systems have lower TDS and temperature and represent oxidizing environments, and therefore their radium content is low. Due to the short transit time, radon may appear in local systems' discharge, where its source is the soil zone. However, our studies revealed the importance of FeOOH precipitates as local radon sources throughout the adsorption of radium transported by the thermal waters of regional flow systems. These precipitates can form either by direct oxidizing of thermal waters at discharge, or by mixing of waters with different redox state. Therefore elevated radon content often occurs in regional discharge areas as well. This study compares the results of geochemical studies in three thermal karst areas in Hungary, focusing on radionuclides as natural tracers. In the Buda Thermal Karst, the waters of the distinct discharge areas are characterized by different temperature and chemical composition. In the central discharge area both lukewarm (20-35°C, 770-980 mg/l TDS) and thermal waters (40-65°C, 800-1350 mg/l TDS), in the South only thermal water discharge (33-43°C, 1450-1700 mg/l TDS) occur. Radionuclides helped to identify mixing of fluids and to infer the temperature and chemical composition of the end members for the central discharge area. For the southern discharge zone mixing components could not be identified, which suggests different cave

  7. Introduction [Nuclear data for the production of therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactivity plays an important role in medical science in terms of beneficial applications in both diagnosis and therapy. The former entails the introduction of a short lived radionuclide attached to a suitable pharmaceutical into the patient, and measurement of the accumulation and movement of activity from outside. This process is called emission tomography and involves the measurement of either a single low energy γ ray (i.e. single photon computed emission tomography) or coincidences between the two 511 keV photons formed in the annihilation of a positron (i.e. positron emission tomography (PET)). The major governing principle in all diagnostic studies is that the radiation dose to the patient is as low as possible. Two modalities exist in the therapeutic use of radioactivity. The first and most commonly followed procedure involves the use of external beams of electrons, X rays and γ rays from radioactive sources (e.g. 60 Co), high energy γ rays from accelerators, and hadrons (e.g. neutrons, protons and heavy ions). The second modality involves the introduction of certain radionuclides to a given part of the body (e.g. joints, organ and tumour) either mechanically or via a biochemical pathway. Mechanical introduction is called brachytherapy, whereas the biochemical pathway is known as endoradiotherapy. External radiation therapy is outside the scope of the present studies. The concerted and collaborative efforts described here deal specifically with the production and use of radionuclides. An earlier coordinated research project (CRP) of the IAEA was devoted to diagnostic radionuclides. The present effort is related to therapeutic radionuclides.

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  11. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  13. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  14. The biological transport of radionuclides in grassland and freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, S.A.

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examines the biological transport of radionuclides through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with particular reference to radiocaesium. The semi-natural grassland habitat was located at Drigg, W. Cumbria, contaminated primarily by radioactive fallout, from several sources over the past decade. Advantage was made of the deposition of radionuclides from the Chernobyl reactor incident, which occurred during the early stages of the investigation. The study examined the distribution of radiocaesium for the major components of the grassland ecosystem, within the soil-plant-invertebrate-small mammal food chain. Data concerning temporal fluctuation of radionuclide transfer factors between food chain components are presented. The final section examines the spatial distribution of radiocaesium in sediment and the freshwater eel (Anguilla anguilla) in a small stream contaminated by radioactive effluent. The relationship between activity levels in eels and the sediments in which they rest and forage was investigated. Factors influencing uptake of radiocaesium in freshwater fish were also examined. (author)

  15. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  16. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with the section 26 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91) the safety requirements to be taken into account in planning laboratories and other premises, which affect safety in the use of radioactive materials, are confirmed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The guide specifies the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive materials are used or stored as unsealed sources. There are also some general instructions concerning work procedures in a radionuclide laboratory

  17. Property of a CZT semiconductor detector for radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Sung-Dae; Park, Se-Hwan; Ha, Jang Ho; Kang, Sang Mook; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Yong Kyun; Cho, Yun Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung; Hong, Duk-Geun

    2008-01-01

    Compound semiconductors of high Z value material have been studied intensively for X-ray and γ-ray spectroscopy at room temperature. CdZnTe has wide band gap energy as 1.6 eV and can provide high quantum efficiency with reasonably good energy resolution at room temperature. This study is aimed at determining radionuclide analysis ability by measuring energy resolution of CZT detector which will be applied at nuclear material identification purpose. For experiment we used a CZT detector (5 x 5 x 5 mm 3 ) which is manufactured by eV Products. We have performed our measurement at varied temperatures similar to the outdoor environment for the investigation about temperature dependence of energy resolution and peak centroid fluctuation of CZT detector by using gas cooling and Peltier cooling methods. In order to test radionuclide identification we used various radionuclide samples; plutonium, europium and other standard sources. Pulse height spectra were obtained by standard electronics which consists of a preamplifier, a shaping amplifier, and a multi-channel analyzer. (author)

  18. Contents of natural and anthropological radionuclides in uncultivated soils in the eastern part of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, P.; Georgieva, D.; Yaneva, B.

    2006-01-01

    Bulgaria is a country which is located in the Eastern part of Europe. The lay shape of Bulgaria is very various, regarding to the lay shape, rock types and some human activities it defines content of radionuclides in uncultivated soils. Natural radionuclides in these soils are: U 238, Ra 226, Th 232 and K 40. The main anthropological source of radionuclides in these soils is Cs 137. There are no normative documents about limit concentrations of these radionuclides in uncultivated soils. So the actual concentrations are compared with some background concentrations, as a result from a lot of studies in the past. Valuation of natural and anthropological radionuclides is made by determination of their special activity in soil samples from the 0 - 20 cm layer by using the nondestructive gamma spectro metrological analysis. Specific activity of U 238 is defined by its daughter product - Th 234, specific activity of Ra 226 by Pb 214 and Bi 214, of Th 232 by Ac 228 and Pb 212, and specific activity of K-40 and Cs 137 by gamma spectro metrological analysis. In the last years there was made a systematic and valuation of concentrations of these radionuclides. There were examined more than 500 samples each year in the investigated area. Concentrations for U 238 vary from 4 to 64 Bq/kg, for Ra 226 from 7 to 54 Bq/kg, for Th 232 from 12 to 67 Bq/kg, for K 40 from 72 to 1106 Bq/kg. For Cs 137, the concentrations vary from 2 to 234 Bq/kg. During this analysis there were no indices of natural radionuclides above the limit concentrations - background concentrations typical for the different regions

  19. An international database of radionuclide concentration ratios for wildlife: development and uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copplestone, D; Beresford, N A; Brown, J E; Yankovich, T

    2013-12-01

    A key element of most systems for assessing the impact of radionuclides on the environment is a means to estimate the transfer of radionuclides to organisms. To facilitate this, an international wildlife transfer database has been developed to provide an online, searchable compilation of transfer parameters in the form of equilibrium-based whole-organism to media concentration ratios. This paper describes the derivation of the wildlife transfer database, the key data sources it contains and highlights the applications for the data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of radionuclide and element characterization of Angola marine sediment using low background gamma spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.C.P.; Vuong Huu Tan; Truong Y; Ho Manh Dung; Le Nhu Sieu; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of radionuclides and chemical elements in Angola marine sediment samples were determined by using low background gamma (LBG) spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The combination of radionuclide and elemental concentration values yielded synergy in the validation of analytical data and identification of sediment sources modeled by multivariate factor analysis. Varimax rotation factor analysis based on the elemental concentrations revealed five sources contributed to the sediment composition, i.e. crustal, sea-salt, industrial, coal-related and Se-related sources. (author)

  1. Transuranium radionuclide pollution in the waters of the La Maddalena National Marine Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumento, F.; Le Donne, K.; Eroe, K.

    2005-01-01

    Following the grounding and subsequent explosion, in October 2003, of a nuclear submarine in the waters of the La Maddalena National Marine Park, fears arose of possible radioactive leakages. However, isotopic analyses on algae showed that the gamma-ray emitting artificial radionuclides that one might expect to leak from a damaged nuclear reactor (such as U-235, I-131, Cs-137) were absent, and that U-238/U-234 activities were in equilibrium with values typical of sea water; this excluded any direct anthropogenic contamination as a result of the accident. We used alpha autoradiographic techniques to detect possible traces of transuranium radionuclides; 160 samples of algae, granites, sea urchins, gastropods, limpets, cuttlefish and jellyfish were collected from the area, as well as from other Mediterranean coastlines and the Baltic Sea. All samples were autoradiographed, and selected samples further analysed by alpha spectrometry. There were no alpha track concentrations above background levels in our control Mediterranean specimens. In the samples from the La Maddalena and Baltic areas two different track distributions were observed:-those homogeneously distributed over the surfaces examined; -groups (10 to over 500) of radially distributed alpha tracks (forming 'star' bursts, or 'hot spots') emanating from point sources. By comparing radionuclide activities measured by alpha spectroscopy with alpha track densities, we extrapolated Pu activities for all samples. About 74% of algae had Pu activities of less than 1Bq/kg and 0.25Bq/kg, 16% had accumulated Pu to levels between 1 and 2Bq/kg, and a very few specimens had concentrations between 2 and 6Bq/kg. Plots showed that alpha tracks and stars concentrate around the northern and eastern margins of the Rada (Basin) di Santo Stefano, sites facing the nuclear submarine base on the eastern shore of the island of Santo Stefano. What is the source of these nuclides: last century's atmospheric nuclear testing, Chernobyl or

  2. Validation of the ORIGEN-S code for predicting radionuclide inventories in used CANDU Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, J.C.; Gauld, I.; Kerr, A.H.

    1994-10-01

    The safety assessment being conducted by AECL Research for the concept of deep geological disposal of used CANDU UO 2 fuel requires the calculation of radionuclide inventories in the fuel to provide source terms for radionuclide release. This report discusses the validation of selected actinide and fission-product inventories calculated using the ORIGEN-S code coupled with the WIMS-AECL lattice code, using data from analytical measurements of radioisotope inventories in Pickering CANDU reactor fuel. The recent processing of new ENDF/B-VI cross-section data has allowed the ORIGEN-S calculations to be performed using the most up-to-date nuclear data available. The results indicate that the code is reliably predicting actinide and the majority of fission-product inventories to within the analytical uncertainty. 38 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Baumgartner, A.; Rechberger, F.; Seidel, C.; Stietka, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. - Highlights: • Dose models for indoor radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials. • Strategies and methods in radionuclide metrology, activity measurement and dose modelling. • Selection of appropriate parameters in radiation protection standards for building materials. • Scientific-based limitations of indoor exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials

  4. Metals, Metalloids and Radionuclides in the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szefer, P.

    2002-01-01

    The state of knowledge of the distribution, bioavailability, biomagnification, discrimination, fate and sources of chemical pollutants (metals, metalloids, radionuclides and nutrients) in all compartments (atmosphere, water, deposits, biota) of the Baltic environment is presented. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. Budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea in the past, present and future are presented. Estimates of health risks to man in respect to some toxic metals and radionuclides in fish and seafood are briefly discussed. The content of the book makes possible the identification of gaps in our environmental knowledge of the Baltic Sea, with certain sections establishing possible priorities, key areas or strategies for future research

  5. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  6. Distribution and speciation of radionuclides in the environment: their implication in radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Following the discovery of X-ray and radioactivity, radioecological researches were initiated all over the world. But only after the 2nd World War the knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiations on the organisms and the processes of the diffusion of radionuclides in the environment achieved an outstanding level. On account of the great sensitivity of the radioactivity measurements, negligible amounts of radionuclides could be easily identified and measured in different environmental compartments without any slight interference with the metabolisms of living organisms. Many processes and phenomena could then be detected and studied. Ecology took advantage from such studies and its growth in a few years was probably greater than in the whole of the previous century. As a result a great interest in the determination of concentration factors in any organism spread widely in many laboratories, a large number of values were available in a few years time. Further it appeared that the transfer of the radionuclides from the environment to man could be better evaluated and monitored through the definition of some 'critical' quantity: a critical group, a critical radionuclide, a critical pathway, etc. The fallout dispersed by the experimental detonation of nuclear weapons and, more recently, the contamination due to the Chernobyl accident, were the most important sources of radionuclides in most of the environmental compartments. Undoubtedly in the post Chernobyl situation radioecology is in a better position because the description of the environment is presently much closer to reality and its conclusions much more reliable. But, as it is usual in science development, new problems appeared and new questions were asked. Speciation of radionuclides and other pollutants is considered and some of the effects on the diffusion and consequences are discussed. Finally, the application of the great amount of knowledge obtained by the radioecological research to a better

  7. Distribution of natural radionuclides in sediment around Sultan Azlan Shah coal-fired power plant coastal water area in Manjung, Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Anisa Abdullah; Abdul Khalik Wood; Ahmad Saat

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: A rapid and simple analytical method for the determination of the natural radionuclides in sediment around Sultan Azlan Shah Coal-Fired Power Plant coastal water area in Manjung, Perak of Malaysia was carried out by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The concentration of radionuclides contents in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health and the environment when exposed through food chain. Furthermore, radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus and they are naturally origin undergoes radioactive decay and emits a gamma ray or subatomic particles radiated from a coal fired power plant activity that contained in raw coal, fly ash and bottom ash, where a potential risk exposed into the atmosphere. However, coal is a heat source for electric power generation and operation of a coal burning power plant is one of the sources radiation contaminations and leads to a distributes of natural radionuclides. Sediment particle is a common pollutant that settles at the bottom of body water can be degrades water quality and demanding of oxygen in the marine ecosystem. Ten points of sediment cores will be taken along the coastal area in the study. The results of present study showed the concentration of natural radionuclides 238 U and 232 Th in surface sediment samples were in the ranged between 2.47 to 3.80 mg/ kg and 8.84 to 12.49 mg/ kg respectively. Thus, based on the concentration value obtained it can be determines assessment of potential hazard and radioactivity level in the future. (author)

  8. Radionuclides incorporation in activated natural nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Parra

    2016-01-01

    Natural palygorskite nanotubes show suitable physical and chemical properties and characteristics to be use as potential nanosorbent and immobilization matrix for the concentration and solidification of radionuclides present in nuclear wastes. In the development process of materials with sorption properties for the incorporation and subsequent immobilization of radionuclides, the most important steps are related with the generation of active sites simultaneously to the increase of the specific surface area and suitable heat treatment to producing the structural folding. This study evaluated the determining parameters and conditions for the activation process of the natural palygorskite nanotubes aiming at the sorption of radionuclides in the nanotubes structure and subsequent evaluation of the parameters involve in the structural folding by heat treatments. The optimized results about the maximum sorption capacity of nickel in activated natural nanotubes show that these structures are apt and suitable for incorporation of radionuclides similar to nickel. By this study is verified that the optimization of the acid activation process is fundamental to improve the sorption capacities for specifics radionuclides by activated natural nanotubes. Acid activation condition optimized maintaining structural integrity was able to remove around 33.3 wt.% of magnesium cations, equivalent to 6.30·10 -4 g·mol -1 , increasing in 42.8% the specific surface area and incorporating the same molar concentration of nickel present in the liquid radioactive waste at 80 min. (author)

  9. Development of radionuclide parameter database on internal contamination in nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Li; Xu Cuihua; Li Wenhong; Su Xu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a radionuclide parameter database on internal contamination in nuclear emergencies. Methods: By researching the radionuclides composition discharged from different nuclear emergencies, the radionuclide parameters were achieved on physical decay, absorption and metabolism in the body from ICRP publications and some other publications. The database on internal contamination for nuclear incidents was developed by using MS Visual Studio 2005 C and MS Access programming language. Results: The radionuclide parameter database on internal contamination in nuclear emergency was established. Conclusions: The database may be very convenient for searching radionuclides and radionuclide parameter data discharged from different nuclear emergencies, which would be helpful to the monitoring and assessment and assessment of internal contamination in nuclear emergencies. (authors)

  10. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-321 radionuclides in milk powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachnov, V.; Burns, K.; Dekner, R.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the results of the intercomparison IAEA-321 on the determination of radionuclides in milk powder. Initially participants were requested to determine the levels of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr and invited to provide data for other radionuclides. The participants included 61 laboratories located in 29 countries, and statistical evaluation of their data yield recommended values for these four radionuclides. Additional radionuclides reported were 226 Ra and 232 Th, however insufficient data exists to statistically determine recommended values for these radionuclides. The recommended values for radionuclide determination are: 134 Cs: 15.5 Bq/kg; 137 Cs: 72.6 Bq/Kg; 40 K: 552 Bq/kg; 90 Sr: 3.3 Bq/kg. Tabs

  11. Partitioning behaviour of natural radionuclides during combustion of coal in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Tiwari, M.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    All fossil fuels contain low levels of naturally occurring radioactive substances. The environmental impact of radionuclide-containing waste products from coal combustion is an important issue. These radionuclides vaporize in the hot portions of the coal combustor and then return to the solid phase in cooler downstream zones. Indian coal used in power plants generally has high ash yield (35-45%) and is of low quality. In the burning process of coal, minerals undergo thermal decomposition, fusion, disintegration, and agglomeration. A major portion of elements in the boiler enter into slag or bottom ash, and the rest of the inorganic materials find their way into the flue gas, in fly ash or vapor. Fly and bottom ash are significant sources of exposure to these radionuclides. In the present study, coal and ash samples collected from six thermal power stations were analyzed to determine their natural radioactivity content and the partitioning behavior of these radionuclides was carried out by tracing their activities in fly and bottom ashes. The partitioning of radionuclides is strongly dependent on the size of associated ash particle. Polonium-210 was mostly associated with the finest fraction and showed large variation with particle size whereas 232 Th showed least dependence on the particle size. The high activities of all radionuclides in fly ashes than that of bottom ashes thus may be due to strong affinity of the nuclides towards the finer particle fractions. All the radionuclide distribution favored small particle sizes

  12. Sedimentary Processes. Quantification Using Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Lerche, I.

    2003-01-01

    The advent of radionuclide methods in geochronology has revolutionized our understanding of modern sedimentary processes in aquatic systems. This book examines the principles of the method and its use as a quantitative tool in marine geology, with emphasis on the Pb-210 method. The assumptions and consequences of models and their behaviour are described providing the necessary background to assess the advantages and trade-offs involved when choosing a particular model for application. One of the purposes of this volume is to disentangle the influences of complicating factors, such as sediment flux variations, post-depositional diffusion of radionuclides, and bio-irrigation of sediments, to arrive at sediment ages and to properly assess the attendant data uncertainty. Environmental impacts of chemical, nuclear, or other waste material are of concern in a variety of areas around the world today. A number of relevant examples are included, demonstrating how dating models are useful for determining sources of contaminants and interpreting their influence on the environment. The book is set at a level so that an able student or professional should have no difficulty in following the procedures and methods developed. Each chapter includes case histories showing the strengths and weaknesses of a given procedure with respect to a data example. Included with this volume is the computer source code of a new generation of modelling tools based on inverse numerical analysis techniques. This first generation of the modelling tool is included, along with detailed instructions and examples for its use, in an appendix

  13. Determination of long-lived radionuclides in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Riki

    2001-01-01

    This review summarized the recent papers published after 1985, because Higuchi had written 'Radiometry in Environment' for Advanced Review in this journal, 1985. Separation, purification and measurement method of long-lived radionuclide without light elements are reported. To determine radionuclide in the environment, a pretreatment of sample such as enrichment and separation is need. An extraction chromatography and adsorbents, for example, active carbon and AMP, were developed for the above objects. For analysis of low level radionuclide, background was decreased. ICP-MS, RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy) and AMS were used to determine mass of long-lived ones. ICP-MS can measure 93 Zr, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 129 I and 135 Cs in the radioactive waste without a chemical analysis. RIMS determined 41 Ca, 236-244 Pu, 90 Sr and 237 Np. AMS showed good results for pure beta emitter nuclides ad trace long-lived radionuclide, for example, 14 C, 10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 129 I and 236 U. Measurement method and results of 14 C, 10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 41 Ca, 63 Ni, 79 Se, 85 Kr, 99 Tc, 129 I, 237 Np and Pu were explained. (S.Y.)

  14. Evaluation of metals and radionuclides in water treatment system for drinking in Pernambuco state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Adriana Muniz de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    The metals and radionuclides are naturally incorporated into natural waters, and may be present at levels that condition the health of the population. In view of this, health agencies regulate standards which determine maximum concentration values for these elements in water intended for human consumption. However, the water sources do not have the required quality and the application of treatment technologies is necessary. These technologies remove the impurities initially incorporated into the waters of the fountains from the application of physical and chemical processes. The impurities are retained and concentrated in the treatment systems giving rise to a residue which may contain appreciable concentrations of metals and radionuclides, and this residue is included among the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). In the present study, the investigation of raw, treated and wastewater samples from 19 Water Treatment Stations located in the state of Pernambuco, in relation to the behavior of Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and radionuclides 226 Ra and 228 Ra, alpha and beta total and gamma emitters in the treatment systems, from the analysis of the concentrations of these in the waters and residues, evaluating the suitability of the waters in accordance with established in the norms in force, as well as the associated with the disposal of wastes that are commonly released into the environment. The results obtained for the metals indicated that the treatment systems must have their processes optimized to ensure the adequacy of the water supplied to the population to the potability parameters and for the residues levels that could generate environmental risk were observed. For the radionuclides the levels found in the waters were low, indicating a low contribution of these to the sources undergoing treatment, and in the residues the levels were low, but within the range described in the literature, corroborating its classification as a TENORM

  15. Fluxes of radionuclides in agricultural environments: main results and still unsolved problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexakhin, R.; Firsakova, S.; Rauret, G.; Arkhipov, N.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Ivanov, Y.; Fesenkow, S.; Sanzharova, N.

    1996-01-01

    Agricultural products originating from the areas subjected to high radioactive deposit after the Chernobyl accident are a main contributor to the radiological dose to local populations. The transfer fluxes of radionuclides through agricultural food chains, to food products consumed by humans, depend on the characteristics of t = = = = = = 37 Cs fluxes in the main agricultural ecosystems of the Chernobyl accident zone are quantitatively determined and the main topics, where further investigation is needed, are identified

  16. Identification of petroleum pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begak, O.Yu.; Syroezhko, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A possibility of preliminary identification of petroleum pollution sources was investigated on specimens of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district six deposits and specimens of soil and water polluted by these petroleums. Investigations were conducted using IR Fourier spectroscopy and gamma spectrometry, as well as methods of chromato-mass spectrometry and capillary gas liquid chromatography. Every of studied samples of petroleum from different deposits have an individual radiation impression. Insignificant total content of radionuclides in samples is specific to the Khanty-Mansi petroleum region. Gamma spectrometry admits to identify potential source of petroleum pollution using radionuclides of uranium and thorium series [ru

  17. The determination of radionuclides and heavy metals in the phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, M. B.; Markovic, M.; Vladisavljevic, G. T.; Stevanovic, R.

    1999-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a waste product in phosphoric acid production using dihydrate wet phosphoric process. The radioactivity of the phosphogypsum is a consequence of the presence of radionuclides resulting from uranium radioactive decay. Presence of uranium in some phosphorites and its concentration depend on their source and variety whether they are primary or secondary can be 10-400 ppm. Radioactivity determined for phosphogypsum confirmed the presence of radionuclides U and 226 Ra. For this reason the methods of purification of raw phosphogypsum have been developed. An aqueous sulfuric acid solution having a concentration of 28 percent was admixed with a concentrated sulfuric acid solutions containing dissolved therein of barium sulfate at the temperature of 105 0 C, the slurry was cooled at a temperature of 30 0 C-35 0 C and then filtered. This purified phosphogypsum can be used independently, as a substitute for natural gypsum, or mixed with the natural gypsum. The consideration of the phosphogypsum is necessary because of the removal (or at least the reducing) of the enormous spoil areas of phosphogypsum and the diminution of the pollution. (author)

  18. Selection of models to calculate the LLW source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.

    1991-10-01

    Performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the source term). The focus of this work is to develop a methodology for calculating the source term. In general, the source term is influenced by the radionuclide inventory, the wasteforms and containers used to dispose of the inventory, and the physical processes that lead to release from the facility (fluid flow, container degradation, wasteform leaching, and radionuclide transport). In turn, many of these physical processes are influenced by the design of the disposal facility (e.g., infiltration of water). The complexity of the problem and the absence of appropriate data prevent development of an entirely mechanistic representation of radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Typically, a number of assumptions, based on knowledge of the disposal system, are used to simplify the problem. This document provides a brief overview of disposal practices and reviews existing source term models as background for selecting appropriate models for estimating the source term. The selection rationale and the mathematical details of the models are presented. Finally, guidance is presented for combining the inventory data with appropriate mechanisms describing release from the disposal facility. 44 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  20. Relation of forms of compounds of heavy natural radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Fedorova, T.A.; Fevraleva, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    Results of studying forms of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Po, 210 Pb compounds in nonfertilized soils (under control) and in soils fertilized with ammophos containing increased amount of the mentioned radionuclides are given. The study was performed in main-year field experiment with sandy ashen gray soil and leached chernozemic soil. It is shown that a main share of radionuclides in nonfertilized soils is presened with tightly bound compounds and compounds bound with sesquioxide compounds. After 5 years labelled natural radionuclides introduced into the ammophos composition are in a more mobile state as compared with radionuclides in nonfertilized soil and they are presented with acid-soluble and bound with humus compound forms. Systematical application of fertilizers during along-term period results in the concentration increase of heavy natural radionuclides in soil

  1. Isolation of uranium mill tailings and their component radionuclides from the biosphere; some earth science perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling is an expanding activity in the. Western United States. Although the milling process yields a uranium concentrate, the large volume of tailings remaining contains about 85 percent of the radioactivity originally associated with the ore. By virtue of the physical and chemical processing of the ore and the redistribution of the contained radionuclides at the Earth's surface, these tailings constitute a technologically enhanced source of natural radiation exposure. Sources of potential human radiation exposure from uranium mill tailings include the emanation of radon gas, the transport of particles by wind and water, and the transport of soluble radionuclides, seeping from disposal areas, by ground water. Due to the 77,000 year half-life of thorium-230, the parent of radium-226, the environmental effects associated with radionuclides contained in these railings must be conceived of within the framework of geologic processes operating over geologic time. The magnitude of erosion of cover materials and tailings and the extent of geochemical mobilization of the contained radionuclides to the atmosphere and hydrosphere should be considered in the evaluation of the potential, long-term consequences of all proposed uranium mill tailings management plans.

  2. Radionuclides in waters and soil near the Lagoa Real uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Susana Oliveira de; Freire, Fabinara Dantas; Dias, Dario M.; Veiga, Artur Jose Pires

    2015-01-01

    Uranium mining generates fuel for the nuclear power plants and it is the main source of income for the region of Caetite-BA. However, Non-Governmental Organizations claim that mining pollutes the environment and jeopardizes human health and safety. Besides uranium, the ground contains significant concentrations of thorium and of all radionuclides of its family, such as radium isotopes. In this framework, we carried out an independent study analyzing the concentration of the radionuclides activities 226, 228 Ra and 234,238 U in water samples and radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil samples using different techniques of nuclear spectrometry. The selection criteria for the collection points were their proximity to the uranium processing plant and to affluent rivers. The soil samples presented very low concentration of activity for radionuclides investigated, compared to the limits established of the exclusion, exemption and impartiality for radiation protection requirement given by the Regulator Position established by CNEN. The amount of radioisotopes appears consistent with a natural origin, thus it is not possible to state that the mining process in Caetite increases pollution or radiation exposure in a significant way. (author)

  3. Radionuclides in waters and soil near the Lagoa Real uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Susana Oliveira de; Freire, Fabinara Dantas, E-mail: sosouza@ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Kozlowska, Beata; Walencik-Lata, Agata, E-mail: beata.kozlowska@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Dias, Dario M., E-mail: engenheirodario@gmail.com [Secretaria Municipal de Meio Ambiente e Turismo, Andarai, BA (Brazil); Veiga, Artur Jose Pires, E-mail: tk1@ibest.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2015-07-01

    Uranium mining generates fuel for the nuclear power plants and it is the main source of income for the region of Caetite-BA. However, Non-Governmental Organizations claim that mining pollutes the environment and jeopardizes human health and safety. Besides uranium, the ground contains significant concentrations of thorium and of all radionuclides of its family, such as radium isotopes. In this framework, we carried out an independent study analyzing the concentration of the radionuclides activities {sup 226,} {sup 228}Ra and {sup 234,238}U in water samples and radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in soil samples using different techniques of nuclear spectrometry. The selection criteria for the collection points were their proximity to the uranium processing plant and to affluent rivers. The soil samples presented very low concentration of activity for radionuclides investigated, compared to the limits established of the exclusion, exemption and impartiality for radiation protection requirement given by the Regulator Position established by CNEN. The amount of radioisotopes appears consistent with a natural origin, thus it is not possible to state that the mining process in Caetite increases pollution or radiation exposure in a significant way. (author)

  4. Effects of water treatment processes used at waterworks on natural radionuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemaelaeinen, K.; Vesterbacka, P.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Arvela, H.

    2004-08-01

    The occurrence of uranium and other natural radionuclides in waters of waterworks and the effects of the conventional water treatment processes on radionuclide concentrations were investigated. Water samples were collected from 17 waterworks. Radionuclide concentrations of the collected samples were compared to the currently valid concentrations according to the Finnish regulation, ST guide 12.3. Similarly the measured concentrations were compared to the values presented in the 98/83/EC directive and in the Commission recommendation, 2001/928/Euratom. The guidelines based on chemical toxicity of uranium were also considered. This report presents a summary of the radionuclide concentrations in waters distributed by waterworks. Short-term and logn-term temporal variation of radionuclide levels in raw water were also investigated. Waterworks selected to this study used different kinds of raw water sources and a variety of water treatment processes. Water samples were collected from 46 water catchments which used groundwater in soil, artificial groundwater or groundwater in bedrock as a source of raw water. The most common water treatment used in these catchments was alkalization. Other treatment processes used were various types of filtrations (sand, anthracite, slow sand and membrane filtration) and aeration. Four of the catchments distributed water without treatment. Sampling was carried out in co-operation with local health inspectors and waterworks staff in spring 2002. Later that autumn, monitoring samples were collected from eight catchments. The maximum value for radon, presented in ST guide 12.3, was exceeded in three water catchments that used groundwater in bedrock as a source of raw water. No exceedings were found in those water catchments that use groundwater in soil or artificial groundwater. The limits of uranium and radium calculated from the total indicative dose (98/83/EC) were not exceeded but the guidelines for lead and polonium, given in the

  5. Uniform sources of ionizing radiation of extended area from radiotoned photographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackray, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technique of toning photographic films, that have been uniformly exposed and developed, with radionuclides to provide uniform sources of ionizing radiation of extended area and their uses in radiography are discussed. The suitability of various radionuclides for uniform-plane sources is considered. (U.K.)

  6. Estimate of radionuclide release characteristics into containment under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1993-11-01

    A detailed review of the available light water reactor source term information is presented as a technical basis for development of updated source terms into the containment under severe accident conditions. Simplified estimates of radionuclide release and transport characteristics are specified for each unique combination of the reactor coolant and containment system combinations. A quantitative uncertainty analysis in the release to the containment using NUREG-1150 methodology is also presented

  7. Radionuclide inventory and heat generation analysis in disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclide inventory and heat generation analysis on spent nuclear fuel were done in order to study the potential radionuclides contributing radiological impact to human being caused by spent fuel disposal. The study was carried out using the Bateman equation of radionuclide decay chains for fission products and actinides. the results showed that Cs-137, Sr-90 and Pu-239 dominated inventory of spent fuel, in which Pu-238 and Pu-240 dominated heat generation during disposal. Accordingly, the above radionuclides could be considered as the reference radionuclides for safety analysis of spent nuclear fuel disposal (author)

  8. Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

  9. MASCOT user's guide--Version 2.0: Analytical solutions for multidimensional transport of a four-member radionuclide decay chain in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureghian, A.B.

    1988-07-01

    The MASCOT code computes the two- and three-dimensional space-time dependent convective-dispersive transport of a four-member radionuclide decay chain in unbounded homogeneous porous media, for constant and radionuclide-dependent release, and assuming steady- state isothermal ground-water flow and parallel streamlines. The model can handle a single or multiple finite line source or a Gaussian distributed source in the two-dimensional case, and a single or multiple patch source or bivariate-normal distributed source in the three-dimensional case. The differential equations are solved by Laplace and Fourier transforms and a Gauss-Legendre integration scheme. 33 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Reference material for radionuclides in sediment IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon sediment)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povinec, P.P.; Pham, M.K.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    A reference material designed for the determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon sediment), is described and the results of certification are presented. The material has been certified for 8 radionuclides (K-40, Co-60, Eu-155, Th-230, U-238, ...... management of radioanalytical laboratories engaged in the analysis of radionuclides in the environment, as well as for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available from IAEA in 100 g units.......A reference material designed for the determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon sediment), is described and the results of certification are presented. The material has been certified for 8 radionuclides (K-40, Co-60, Eu-155, Th-230, U-238, Pu......-238, Pu239+240 and Am-241). Information values are given for 12 radionuclides (Sr-90, Cs-137, Pb-210 (Po-210), Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-232, U-234, U-235, Pu-239, Pu-240 and Pu-241). Less reported radionuclides include Th-228, U-236, Np-239 and Pu-242. The reference material may be used for quality...

  11. Radionuclides in plants in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a long-term study (from 2002 to 2008) on the concentrations of natural ( 7 Be, 210 Pb, 40 K) and fission ( 137 Cs) radionuclides in leaves of higher plants (linden and chestnut) in an urban area (city of Belgrade) are presented. The activity of the radionuclides was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The study is a part of the ongoing air quality monitoring programme in urban areas in the Republic of Serbia. (author) [sr

  12. Regulatory Technology Development Plan - Sodium Fast Reactor: Mechanistic Source Term - Trial Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabaskas, David

    2016-01-01

    The potential release of radioactive material during a plant incident, referred to as the source term, is a vital design metric and will be a major focus of advanced reactor licensing. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has stated an expectation for advanced reactor vendors to present a mechanistic assessment of the potential source term in their license applications. The mechanistic source term presents an opportunity for vendors to realistically assess the radiological consequences of an incident, and may allow reduced emergency planning zones and smaller plant sites. However, the development of a mechanistic source term for advanced reactors is not without challenges, as there are often numerous phenomena impacting the transportation and retention of radionuclides. This project sought to evaluate U.S. capabilities regarding the mechanistic assessment of radionuclide release from core damage incidents at metal fueled, pool-type sodium fast reactors (SFRs). The purpose of the analysis was to identify, and prioritize, any gaps regarding computational tools or data necessary for the modeling of radionuclide transport and retention phenomena. To accomplish this task, a parallel-path analysis approach was utilized. One path, led by Argonne and Sandia National Laboratories, sought to perform a mechanistic source term assessment using available codes, data, and models, with the goal to identify gaps in the current knowledge base. The second path, performed by an independent contractor, performed sensitivity analyses to determine the importance of particular radionuclides and transport phenomena in regards to offsite consequences. The results of the two pathways were combined to prioritize gaps in current capabilities.

  13. Modelling interaction of deep groundwaters with bentonite and radionuclide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, H.

    1986-04-01

    In the safety analysis recently reported for a potential Swiss high-level waste repository, radionuclide speciation and solubility limits are calculated for expected granitic groundwater conditions. With the objective of deriving a more realistic description of radionuclide release from the near-field, an investigation has been initiated to quantitatively specify the chemistry of the near-field. In the Swiss case, the main components of the near-field are the glass waste-matrix, a thick steel canister horizontally emplaced in a drift, and a backfill of highly compacted sodium bentonite. This report describes a thermodynamic model which is used to estimate the chemical composition of the pore water in compacted sodium bentonite. Solubility limits and speciation of important actinides and the fission product technetium in the bentonite pore water are then calculated. The model is based on available experimental data on the interaction of sodium bentonite and groundwater and represents means of extrapolation from laboratory data to repository conditions. The modelled composition of the pore water of compacted sodium bentonite, as well as the various compositions resulting from the long-term extrapolation, are used to estimate radionuclide solubilities in the near-field of a deep repository. From the chemical point of view, calcium bentonite seems to be more stable than sodium bentonite in the presence of Swiss Reference Groundwater. Since the effect of calcium bentonite on the groundwater chemical composition will be considerably less marked than that of sodium bentonite, especially with respect to key parameters for the nuclide speciation like carbonate concentration and pH, the use of calcium bentonite instead of sodium bentonite will improve the reliability in the prediction of source terms for radionuclide transport in the geosphere. (author)

  14. Natural radionuclides by gammaspectrometry in region of West-south Serbia, for 1998, 1997 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaskovic, I.; Vukovic, D.M. [Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health, Deligradska 29, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Markovic, D. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2000-05-01

    Region of West Serbia, known as Uzicki region, as a agriculture and industry region, with cities: Uzice, Cacak, Kraljevo and Valjevo is important part of Yugoslavia for development. Radioactivity comes mostly from natural radionuclides and partly from long-lived radionuclides from non natural sources as a consequence of Chernobyl accident. Monitoring of environment has proceeded by vertical methodology. We analyzed: aerosol, soil, fallout (wet and dry deposition), rivers, lakes, drinking water, human and animal food. Results from analyze of samples of environment contains very low activity, actually activity of changes of basic signal. Results for 1998, 1997 and 1996 are: 1. Gamma dose was measure in Belgrade with median years values: 0.103 {mu}G/h (1998), 0.077 {mu}G/h (1997) and 0.0722 {mu}G/h (1996). 2. By gammaspectrometry analyze of air of months samples for each year, results shows activity of changes of basic signal. The signals are coming from natural radionuclides. 3. {sup 137}Cs, as a long lived radionuclide, with remarkable activity in soil analyzed from Zlatibor and result are :32.3-173 Bq/kg (1998), -Bq/kg (1997) and 33-122.7 Bq/kg (1996). 4. Activity in the rivers for these region not analyzed. 5. Activity of drinking waters, from city network shows low level of activity which comes from {sup 40}K, for both places. 6. Activity in human food, measured in yogurt, meats, bread and agricultural products comes from {sup 40}K Uzice 32.4-168 Bq/kg (1998), Bq/kg (1997) and 55.2-164 Bq/kg (1996). Activities of {sup 137}Cs are 1 Bq/kg. Results of analyze of animal food shows same results. The samples were collected according to methods determined by the Regulations. (author)

  15. Natural radionuclides by gammaspectrometry in region of West-south Serbia, for 1998, 1997 and 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, I.; Vukovic, D.M.; Markovic, D.

    2000-01-01

    Region of West Serbia, known as Uzicki region, as a agriculture and industry region, with cities: Uzice, Cacak, Kraljevo and Valjevo is important part of Yugoslavia for development. Radioactivity comes mostly from natural radionuclides and partly from long-lived radionuclides from non natural sources as a consequence of Chernobyl accident. Monitoring of environment has proceeded by vertical methodology. We analyzed: aerosol, soil, fallout (wet and dry deposition), rivers, lakes, drinking water, human and animal food. Results from analyze of samples of environment contains very low activity, actually activity of changes of basic signal. Results for 1998, 1997 and 1996 are: 1. Gamma dose was measure in Belgrade with median years values: 0.103 μG/h (1998), 0.077 μG/h (1997) and 0.0722 μG/h (1996). 2. By gammaspectrometry analyze of air of months samples for each year, results shows activity of changes of basic signal. The signals are coming from natural radionuclides. 3. 137 Cs, as a long lived radionuclide, with remarkable activity in soil analyzed from Zlatibor and result are :32.3-173 Bq/kg (1998), -Bq/kg (1997) and 33-122.7 Bq/kg (1996). 4. Activity in the rivers for these region not analyzed. 5. Activity of drinking waters, from city network shows low level of activity which comes from 40 K, for both places. 6. Activity in human food, measured in yogurt, meats, bread and agricultural products comes from 40 K Uzice 32.4-168 Bq/kg (1998), Bq/kg (1997) and 55.2-164 Bq/kg (1996). Activities of 137 Cs are 1 Bq/kg. Results of analyze of animal food shows same results. The samples were collected according to methods determined by the Regulations. (author)

  16. Bioavailability pf radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb present in Brazilian phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Ana Carolina; Saueia, Catia H.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of phosphate fertilizers industries. The USEPA classified PG as a - Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM). Its worldwide production on 2006 was estimated in 150 million tons. Annually the three main phosphate industries in Brazil are responsible for 5.5x106 tons of phosphogypsum, which is stored in stacks. The level of radionuclides present in phosphogypsum is well-known and makes its disposal or reutilization an environmental concern. Part of this byproduct can be reused, for example, to improve fertility of agricultural soils. To assess the long term environmental impact of radioactive contamination of ecosystems, information on source term including radionuclide speciation, mobility and biological uptakes have high importance. This paper intends to evaluate the bioavailability of the radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb to the environment by following a procedure established by the EC (European Community), which includes a single EDTA-NH 4 0.05M extraction at pH 7.0 prior to the analyses. These results is compared with the total activity concentration of these radionuclides in Brazilian PG and the most used phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP). This procedure intends to represent on a more realistic way the leaching of radionuclides from PG and fertilizers to soil and agricultural products. (author)

  17. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  18. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b, E-mail: kapo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil); Siqueira, Maria Celia, E-mail: mc.ufscar@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires, E-mail: eleonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.b [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente (FEAM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Gestao de Residuos Solidos; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de, E-mail: davidf.agro@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos

    2009-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific {sup 226}Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  19. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes; Siqueira, Maria Celia; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific 226 Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg -1 ) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg -1 for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  20. Natural radionuclides in Brazilian underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Rock, soil and water contain "2"3"8U and "2"3"2Th and their decay products. The distribution of these radionuclides differs in terms of activity concentration depending on the mineral type and origin. All ore processing releases long and short half-life radionuclides, mainly radon and its progeny. It is important to monitor this gas and its decay products in underground mines in order to assess the radiological hazards of the exposed workers. On this concern, the present work outlines the characterization of brazilian underground mines with relation to natural radionuclides, specially radon and its progeny. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber (Radelec), AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and CR-39 (Landauer) track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. The equilibrium state between radon and its progeny was calculated. Based on these data, the total effective dose for miners was estimated. Moreover, the contribution from the main sources to the radon level inside mines was evaluated. For this, the following detectors were used: measurements of radon concentrations in soil gas were carried out by using AlphaGUARD detector; "2"2"6Ra ("2"1"4Bi), "2"3"2Th e "4"0K specific activity in ore and soil samples were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector (Canberra); and radon concentration in groundwater samples was performed by using RAD7 (Durridge Inc.). The radon concentration ranged from 113 to 8171 Bq.m"-"3 and the Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration varied from 76 to 1174 Bq.m"-"3. The equilibrium factor mean value was 0.4 (0.2 -0.7). The workers estimated total effective dose ranged from 1 to 22 mSv.a"-"1 (mean 10 mSv.a"-"1). Therefore, results show the importance to assess continually and permanently the radon and its progeny behavior and the need to adopt safety measurements against natural radiation in underground mines environment. (author)

  1. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-156 radionuclides in clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachnov, V.; Valkovic, V.; Dekner, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains the results of the intercomparison IAEA-156 on the determination of radionuclides in clover. Initially participants were requested to determine the levels of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr and invited to provide data for other radionuclides. The participants included 46 laboratories located in 25 countries, and statistical evaluation of their data yield recommended values for these four radionuclides. Additional radionuclides reported were 210 Pb, 239 Pu and 125 Sb; however, insufficient data exists to statistically determine recommended values for these radionuclides. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides (reference date: 1 August 1986): 134 Cs 132.1 Bq/kg (126.4-137.7); 137 Cs 264 Bq/kg (254-274); 40 K 657 Bq/kg (637-676); 90 Sr 14.8 Bq/kg (13.4-16.3). Figs and tabs

  2. CASCADER: An m-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Been, K.B.; Emer, D.F.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-06-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and/or diffusion. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. This is volume two to the CASCADER series, titled CASCADR8. It embodies the concepts presented in volume one of this series. To properly understand how the CASCADR8 model works, the reader should read volume one first. This volume presents the input and output file structure for CASCADR8, and a set of realistic scenarios for buried sources of radon gas

  3. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  4. Radionuclide cisternographic findings in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Jae Seung; Ryu, Jin Sook; Shin, Jung Woo; Im, Joo Hyuk; Lee, Myoung Chong; Jung, Sung Joo; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography may be helpful in understanding pathophysiology of postural headache and low CSF pressure in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The purpose of this study was to characterize radionuclide cisternogrpahic findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The study population consists of 15 patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Diagnosis was based on their clinical symptoms and results of lumbar puncture. All patients underwent radionuclide cisternography following injection of 111 to 222 MBq of Tc-99m DTPA into the lumbar subarachnoid space. Sequential images were obtained between 1/2 hour and 24 hour after the injection of Tc-99m DTPA. Radioactivity of the bladder, soft tissue uptake, migration of radionuclide in the subarachnoid space, and extradural leakage of radionuclide were evaluated according to the scan time. Radionuclide cisternogram showed delayed migration of radionuclide into the cerebral convexity (14/15), increased soft tissue uptake (11/15), and early visualization of bladder activity at 30 min (6/10) and 2 hr (13/13). Cisternography also demonstrated leakage site of CSF in 4 cases and 2 of these were depicted at 30min. Epidural blood patch was done in 11 patients and headache was improved in all cases. The characteristics findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension were delayed migration of radionuclide and early visualization of the soft tissue and bladder activity. These scintigraphic findings suggest that CSF leakage rather than increased CSF absorption or decreased production may be the main pathophysiology of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Early and multiple imaging including the bladder and soft tissue is required to observe the entire dynamics of radionuclide migration

  5. Uptake of uranium and thorium series radionuclides by the waterlily, Nymphaea violacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.B.L.

    1993-01-01

    The waterlily Nymphaea violacea is a major aquatic macrophyte in the waters of the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia. It is also a traditional Aboriginal diet item, and is considered to be potentially one of the main contributors to the effective dose equivalent arising from consumption of so called bush food in the region. Because of the proximity of the Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM), the activity concentrations of the U and Th series radionuclides have been studied in water, sediment and waterlily during different seasons at five sites downstream of the mine site. The objectives of the study are: 1. To identify the major source of radionuclide uptake by the plant; i.e. water or sediment; 2. To assess the concentration factors/ratios needed for predicting the radiation exposure of the critical group resulting from any discharge of water to the aquatic environment from the Ranger uranium mine; 3. To estimate the natural radiation exposure of the public arising from consumption of waterlilies. (Author)

  6. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in ecosystems (historical aspect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the most important results of the study on the radionuclides' behaviour in natural and model biogeocenoses(ecosystems) obtained by N.W.Timofeev-Ressovskij and co-workers during the period 1947-1968. As early as at that period, radionuclides were classified according to the types of distribution, accumulation and migration within the surface and freshwater ecosystems, and the methods of biological purification of radioactive sewage were proposed

  7. Source Location of Noble Gas Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, I.; Ungar, K.; Bourgouin, P.; Yee, E.; Wotawa, G.

    2015-01-01

    In radionuclide monitoring, one of the most significant challenges from a verification or surveillance perspective is the source location problem. Modern monitoring/surveillance systems employ meteorological source reconstruction — for example, the Fukushima accident, CRL emissions analysis and even radon risk mapping. These studies usually take weeks to months to conduct, involving multidisciplinary teams representing meteorology; dispersion modelling; radionuclide sampling and metrology; and, when relevant, proper representation of source characteristics (e.g., reactor engineering expertise). Several different approaches have been tried in an attempt to determine useful techniques to apply to the source location problem and to develop rigorous methods that combine all potentially relevant observations and models to identify a most probable source location and size with uncertainties. The ultimate goal is to understand the utility and limitations of these techniques so they can transition from R&D to operational tools. (author)

  8. Natural radioactivity in groundwater sources in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Mcginnity, P.; Ciara, M. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (Ireland); Craig, M. [Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland)

    2014-07-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in collaboration with the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) undertook a national survey of radioactivity in groundwater sources for compliance with parameters set out in the European Communities Drinking Water Directive. The Directive outlines the minimum requirements for the quality of drinking water and water intended for human consumption. Over two hundred samples were screened for radioactivity. Where indicated, analysis for individual radionuclide activity was undertaken and the radiation dose arising calculated. Furthermore, samples were analysed for radon concentration. This survey is the first comprehensive national survey of radioactivity in groundwater sources in Ireland. Approximately 18 per cent of drinking water in Ireland originates from groundwater and springs with the remainder from surface water. Between 2007 and 2011, water samples from a representative network of groundwater sources were analysed and assessed for compliance with the radioactivity parameters set out in the Drinking Water Directive. The assessment was carried out using the methodology for screening drinking water set out by the WHO. For practical purposes the WHO recommended screening levels for drinking water below which no further action is required of 100 mBq/l for gross alpha activity and 1000 mBq/l for gross beta activity were applied. Of the 203 groundwater sources screened for gross alpha and gross beta all met the gross beta activity criteria of less than 1000 mBq/l and 175 supplies had gross alpha activity concentrations of less than 100 mBq/l. For these sources no further analysis was required. The remaining 28 sources required further (radionuclide-specific) analysis from an alpha activity perspective. Results on ranges and distributions of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater as well as ingestion doses estimated for consumers of these water supplies will be presented. Document available in abstract

  9. Radionuclide adsorption characteristics around coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Il; Chung, Yang Geun; Hong, Sung Yul; Lee, Gab Bock

    1999-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of radionuclides onto suspended sediment was experimented on each of the coastal seawater sampled around the Kori and the Wolsung nuclear power plant. During the experiment the quantity and size fraction of suspended sediment were adjusted and the seawater and sediment chemistry is approximated to the expected field condition. Because the sorption capacity depends on the specific minerals, ocean chemistry and radionuclide involved, it is necessary to analyze sediment mineralogy. Clay mineral is dominant in seabed mineral and suspended sediment as the result of x-ray diffraction. Radionuclide sorbed to silty-clay mineral can be rather transported to ocean than scavenged to seabed because of low quantity and fine grained suspended sediment in the coast around the Kori and the Wolsung. The result of adsorption examinations shows that 139 Ce and 51 Cr and 110m Ag are strongly sorbed to suspended particle, while 137 Cs is less sorbed and 60 Co uptake is varied with experiment condition, which can be inferred from various biological factors. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  10. MARFA version 3.2.2 user's manual: migration analysis of radionuclides in the far field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, Scott; Mancillas, James

    2009-12-01

    The computer code Migration Analysis of Radionuclides in the Far Field (MARFA) uses a particle-based Monte Carlo method to simulate the transport of radionuclides in a sparsely fractured geological medium. Transport in sparsely fractured rock is of interest because this medium may serve as a barrier to migration of radionuclides to the accessible environment. The physical processes represented in MARFA include advection, longitudinal dispersion, Fickian diffusion into an infinite or finite rock matrix, equilibrium sorption, decay, and in-growth. Multiple non-branching decay chains of arbitrary length are supported. This document describes the technical basis and input requirements for MARFA Version 3.2.2. MARFA Version 3.2 included new capabilities to accommodate transient flow velocities and sorption parameters, which are assumed to be piecewise constant in time. Version 3.2.1 was a minor change from Version 3.2 to allow a more convenient input format for sorption information. New capabilities in Version 3.2.2 include an option to specify a non-zero start time for the simulation, an optional input parameter that decreases the amount of retention within a single fracture because of flow channeling, and an alternative method for sampling the radionuclide source. MARFA uses the particle on random streamline segment algorithm /Painter et al. 2006/, a Monte Carlo algorithm combining time-domain random walk methods with pathway stochastic simulation. The algorithm uses non-interacting particles to represent packets of radionuclide mass. These particles are moved through the system according to rules that mimic the underlying physical transport and retention processes. The set of times required for particles to pass through the geological barrier are then used to reconstruct discharge rates (mass or activity basis). Because the algorithm uses non-interacting particles, the transport and retention processes are limited to those that depend linearly on radionuclide

  11. Application of radionuclide imaging in hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yumin; Yan Jue

    2011-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormone. Excessive parathyroid hormone secretion may be due to problems in the glands themselves, or may be secondary HPT. The diagnosis is mainly based on the patient's medical history and biochemical tests. The best treatment nowadays is surgical removal of the overactive parathyroid glands or adenoma. The imaging methods for the preoperative localization diagnosis include radionuclide imaging,ultrasonography, CT, MRI, etc. This article was a summary of HPT radionuclide imaging. (authors)

  12. Critical level of radionuclides pollution estimation for different soil type of Ukrainian Polessye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, A.; Pavlenko, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The successive development and adaptation of general algorithm of calculation of doses from intake 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a function of pollution level and a type of soil as a source of the human trophycal chains and its use in solution of reverse problem, namely- estimation of the critical level of radionuclides pollution for the main type of soil of Ukrainian Polessye has been proposed. Calculation was realized as a combination of dynamic model of migration of radionuclides in soil and spreadsheet form with Quattro Pro, version 4.0. (author)

  13. Identification of some heavy metals and natural radionuclides levels in Mzerib lake environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nimeh, M.; Al-Rayyes, A.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Some trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn) and natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 210 Po, 210 Pb) were measured in environmental samples from Mzerib lake during 1998. This will help in evaluating the water quality and the effects of agricultural and humanitarian activities on the lake environment. Results showed that the lake water is of a good quality. Trace metals levels in water, sediments, freshwater clam (Unio terminals), and fish (cyprinus Cario) fall within the accepted range, although they were higher in some sites due to the presence of a potential source for pollution (e.g. the restaurant). The clam soft tissue samples showed the highest levels of Cd. Carp fish gonads and gills also showed high levels of cadmium, while Carp fish samples showed the highest levels of zinc. radionuclides levels were low and in agreement with levels reported in previous local and international studies. (authors)

  14. Radiochemical Procedures Used at Iaea-Ilmr Monaco for Measuring Artificial Radionuclides Resulting from the Chernobyl Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J. J.

    The Chernobyl accident which occurred on 26 April 1986 resulted in relatively high levels of radioactive fallout over the major part of Europe. Air filter and precipitation samples enabled us to follow the contamination from the accident. In addition contamination was also monitored in selected environmental samples such as seaweeds, sea water, sediment, soil, suspended matter and biological material from the Mediterranean. All samples were counted on Ge(Li) or Ge(HP) detectors to determine the type and quantity of gamma emitting radionuclides and plutonium, americium and curium isotopes were separated and measured using radiochemical techniques and alpha counting. Increased atmospheric radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident was first detected by observing increased activity levels on air filters taken on April 30, 1986, with maximum activities occurring during 1-3 May. Most of the radionuclides initially measured were short-lived fission products. Cs-137 was one of the predominant isotope in the fallout debris and its deposition at Monaco due to Chernobyl was estimated to be around 1400 Bq m-2, which represents 25-40% of the integrated fallout at this latitude. The deposition of Pu-239+240 was much smaller and was estimated to be around 10 mBq m-2 or only 0.1% of the total deposition from nuclear weapon testing.

  15. Evaluation of radionuclide calibrators and scintigraphic cameras used in nuclear medicine in the Sergipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Ferreira, F.C.; Nascimento Souza, D. do

    2008-01-01

    A quality control program to nuclear medicine services concerns the verification of the efficiency of equipment used to diagnosis and treatment, allow the professional improvement. In this study were assessed the performance of two radionuclide calibrators (activimeters) and of two scintigraphic cameras employed in nuclear medicine in the state of Sergipe, Brazil, according to regulation CNEN -NN-3.05. Additionally, to the radionuclide calibrators it was established a nd characterized an intercomparison of activities measured by different practitioners from standard samples of sealed radioactive sources of 133 Ba and 57 Co. The evaluation of this manufacture object was made thought quality control tests on scintigraphic cameras, such as: test of spatial resol