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Sample records for radionuclides cesium strontium

  1. Magnetite effect in radionuclide retention : cesium, strontium, molybdenum and selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, M.; Casas, I.; Gimenez, J.; Clarens, F.; Pablo, J. de

    2004-01-01

    In this work we have investigated the interaction of magnetite with cesium, strontium, molybdenum and selenium, in the frame of radionuclide retention by canister corrosion products. For each radionuclide, the retention on magnetite has been studied as a function of pH and the mass/ volume ratio. The experimental results have been modeled by means of Surface Complexation Models (SCM), that constitute a tool that allows an approach to sorption mechanisms in a wide range of experimental conditions taking into account electrostatic interactions at the mineral-water interface.(Author)

  2. Radionuclide ratios of cesium and strontium in Tarapur marine environment, west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, A.; Rao, D.D.; Chandramouli, S.; Iyer, R.S.; Hegde, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Marine environment of Tarapur located 100 km north of Mumbai on the west coast, receives low level liquid waste from Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) and Fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP). Radionuclide ratios of cesium and strontium were obtained in source term (the quantum of radioactive liquid waste available for discharge) and different marine samples viz, seawater, sediment, seaweed and marine organisms. A constant ratio of 137 Cs: 134 Cs was observed in seawater and source term. But the ratio of 137 Cs: 90 Sr had wide variation due to selective scavenging of 137 Cs by sedimentary particles at the discharge location. Among the other matrices, sediment showed a higher value of 137 Cs: 134 Cs and 137 Cs: 90 Sr reflecting the cumulative effects of releases from TAPS and FRP and higher distribution coefficient of radiocesium from seawater to sediment. Marine algae indicate a discrimination against sorption of 90 Sr due to the isotopic dilution by stable strontium present in seawater (8mg/l). The marine organisms preying on sediment containing microflora and fauna exhibited radionuclide ratios similar to seawater as the sediment sorbed cesium is not available for assimilation due to the mineral nature of the sediment. The matrices other than sediment indicated the equilibrated activity ratio of radionuclides in seawater which is the recipient medium and reflected the influence of continuous discharge. The sedimentary radionuclide ratio is largely dependent on sorption characteristics of radionuclides and their retention. (author)

  3. Strontium and cesium radionuclide leak detection alternatives in a capsule storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Crawford, T.W.; Joyce, S.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study was performed to assess radionuclide leak-detection systems for use in locating a capsule leaking strontium-90 or cesium-137 into a water-filled pool. Each storage pool contains about 35,000 L of water and up to 715 capsules, each of which contains up to 150 kCi strontium-90 or 80 kCi cesium-137. Potential systems assessed included instrumental chemical analyses, radionuclide detection, visual examination, and other nondestructive nuclear-fuel examination techniques. Factors considered in the assessment include: cost, simplicity of maintenance and operation, technology availability, reliability, remote operation, sensitivity, and ability to locate an individual leaking capsule in its storage location. The study concluded that an adaption of the spent nuclear-fuel examination technique of wet sipping be considered for adaption. In the suggested approoch, samples would be taken continuously from pool water adjacent to the capsule(s) being examined for remote radiation detection. In-place capsule isolation and subsequent water sampling would confirm that a capsule was leaking radionuclides. Additional studies are needed before implementing this option. Two other techniques that show promise are ultrasonic testing and eddy-current testing

  4. Adsorption of Cesium, Strontium, and Rubidium radionuclides in the Mag-molecular process: The influence of important factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Tangestani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption of cesium, strontium, and rubidium radionuclides by ferritin magmolecules in a batch system was investigated under different experimental conditions. The experiments were conducted in a pilot plant that involved the contactor unit and the magnetic separator unit. The impact of the pollutant concentrations, adsorbent concentration, and pH on the efficiency of the process were investigated thoroughly. The maximum recovery of radionuclides in the studied domain were 57.05%, 85.42% and 71.82% for Cs+, Sr2+ and Rb+ ,respectively, in which the pollutant concentration was 363.63 mg/l, the adsorbent concentration was 0.011 g/l, and the pH was 7.5. The results showed that the ferritin adsorbent in the magmolecular process manifested a higher efficiency in adsorbing the bivalent ions of strontium compared to the univalent ions of cesium and rubidium. Furthermore, the results were statistically analyzed and the model and residual plots of each radionuclide were presented. The results also signified  relationships between the independent variables and recovery.

  5. Distribution and migration of cesium and strontium radionuclides in Estonian scots pine stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.; Tekko, S.; Aaspollu, J.; Martin, J.; Vilde, R.; Nifontova, M.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive pollution from the Chernobyl NPS reactor accident in 1986 has wide scale impact through radionuclides fallout over large areas. We used mushrooms, macrolichenes, mosses and pine needles, forest litter and soil for the investigaton of 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation and migration in pine ecosystems. Systematic collections were made on 63 field sites, total amount of samples analyzed is 350. Highest concentrations of radiocaesium were determined in mushrooms (41.8 kBq/kg) in north-east of Estonia, in macrolichens at the Lahemaa National Park (6.2 kBq/kg). At the Rumpo Botanical Reserve the level of radiocaesium exceeded background concentration (1985) 1.3-1.8 times and at the Koljaku 4.0-4.4 times. During five years of observations (1986-1991) decrease of radionuclides pollution revealed 15 times the Rumpo and Koljaku. Radiostrontium concentrations in different ecosystem compartments all over the territory did not exeed harmful levels. (author). 2 tabs

  6. Measurements of cesium and strontium diffusion in biotite gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Neretnieks, I.

    1988-01-01

    A significant retardation of radionuclides transported by flowing water from an underground repository can be expected if the nuclides are able to diffuse into the water filled micropores in the rock. This diffusion into the pores will also increase the surface available to interactions between the nuclides in the ground water and the rock material, such as sorption. To calculate the retardation, it is necessary to know the sorption properties and the diffusivities in the rock matrix for the radionuclides. Diffusion experiments with cesium and strontium in biotite gneiss samples have been performed. Both the transport of strontium and cesium through rock samples and the concentration profiles of cesium and strontium inside rock samples have been determined. The result shows that diffusion of cesium and strontium occurs in the rock material. A diffusion model has been used to evaluate the diffusivity. Both pore diffusion and surface diffusion had to be included in the model to give good agreement with the experimental data. If surface diffusion is not included in the model, the effective pore diffusivity that gives the best fit to the experimental data is found to be higher than expected from earlier measurement of iodide diffusion in the same type of rock material. This indicates that the diffusion of cesium and strontium (sorbing components) in rock material is caused by both pore diffusion and surface diffusion acting in parallel

  7. Diffusion measurements of cesium and strontium in biotite gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Neretnieks, I.

    1985-01-01

    A significant retardation of radionuclides transported by flowing water from an underground repository can be expected if the nuclides are able to diffuse into the water filled micropores in the rock. This diffusion into the pores will also increase the surface available to interaction between the nuclides in the groundwater and the rock material, such as sorption. To calculate the retardation it is necessary to know the sorption properties and the diffusivities in the rock matrix for the radionuclides. Diffusion experiments with cesium and strontium in biotite gneiss samples have been performed. Both the transport of strontium and cesium through rock samples and the concentration profiles of cesium and strontium inside rock samples have been determined. The result show that diffusion of cesium and strontium occurs in the rock material. A diffusion model has been used to evaluate the diffusivity. Both pore diffusion and surface diffusion had to be included in the model to give good agreement with the experimental data. If surface diffusion is not included in the model, the effective pore diffusivity that gives the best fit to the experimental data is found to be higher than expected from earlier measurements of iodide diffusion in the same type of rock material. This indicates that the diffusion of cesium and strontium (sorbing components) in rock material is caused by both pore diffusion and surface diffusion acting in parallel. (author)

  8. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and Cesium-137 contents in fresh water from 7 prefectures in Japan by the commission of Science and Technology Agency of Japanese Government. The method described in ''Radioactivity Survey Data in Japan No. 43 (NIRS-RSD-43, 1977) was applied to the analysis of these two radionuclides in samples. (author)

  9. Separation of cesium and strontium with zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, T; Hashimoto, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy

    1976-06-01

    The basic studies of separation of cesium and strontium were made with specimens of zeolite, which are synthetic zeolites A, X and Y; synthetic mordenite; natural mordenite; and clinoptilolite. Ammonium chloride was used as eluent, because it was considered to be a most appropriate eluent in alkaline chlorides. Cesium was easily eluted from the zeolites A and X by ammonium chloride solution, but it was difficult to elute from the synthetic mordenite, natural mordenite and clinoptilolite by ammonium chloride solution, but it was difficult to elute from the zeolites A and X. The zeolite Y is the only one zeolite among these zeolites from which both of cesium and strontium were easily eluted by ammonium chloride solution. Strontium could be separated from cesium with zeolites by formation of Sr-EDTA chelate at pH above 11. In this process, cesium was only exchanged in zeolite column, but strontium flow out from it.

  10. Separation of cesium and strontium with zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takuji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1976-01-01

    The basic studies of separation of cesium and strontium were made with specimens of zeolite, which are synthetic zeolites A, X and Y; synthetic mordenite; natural mordenite; and clinoptilolite. Ammonium chloride was used as eluent, because it was considered to be a most appropriate eluent in alkaline chlorides. Cesium was easily eluted from the zeolites A and X by ammonium chloride solution, but it was difficult to elute from the synthetic mordenite, natural mordenite and clinoptilolite by ammonium chloride solution, but it was difficult to elute from the zeolites A and X. The zeolite Y is the only one zeolite among these zeolites from which both of cesium and strontium were easily eluted by ammonium chloride solution. Strontium could be separated from cesium with zeolites by formation of Sr-EDTA chelate at pH above 11. In this process, cesium was only exchanged in zeolite column, but strontium flow out from it. (auth.)

  11. Accumulation of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in some hydrobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, A.; Keslev, D.; Kerteva, A.; Novakova, E.

    1974-01-01

    Factors responsible for the accumulation of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in some plant organisms, characteristic for fishes in Bulgarian fresh-water reservoirs and in Black Seawater, were examined. The investigated samples were taken during spring, summer and autumn-winter seasons 1967/1968. Each sample burnt to ashes at 450 0 C was examined for strontium 90 and cesium 137 content as well as stable isotopes of calcuim and potassium. Accumulation factors for strontium 90 and cesium 137 were significantly higher in freshwater hydrobionts than in seawater hydrobionts. This could be explained by variations in the concentration of stable isotopes of calcium and potassium from freshwater reservoirs and from seawater. Potassium and calcium concentrations were relatively constant in seawater while in freshwater they were significantly variable. Accumulation factors for these radionuclides increased according to the amount of rain and the altitude above sea level. Strontium 90 was deposited mostly in fins, less in scales and least in the meat of fishes; cesium 137 was mainly deposited in the meat and less in the other parts of fishes. The highest accumulation factors for strontium 90 were determined in fishes and for cesium 137 in plant organisms. The most convenient plant and fish species for tracing radioactive contamination of freshwater reservoirs and in the Black Sea were indicated. (A.B.)

  12. The role of microorganisms in the mobility of radionuclides in soil. I. Examination of resistance to strontium, cesium, cobalt and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyi, J.; Koska, P.; Berzsenyi, G.; Gazso, L.G.; Appanna, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    132 microorganisms were isolated from cultivated soils sampled near a nuclear power plant. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was made concerning the macro-morphology, micro-morphology and Gram staining. Resistance of microorganisms to strontium, cesium, cobalt and zinc was determined using agar plates containing metals. Cobalt and zinc proved to be toxic at a concentration of 100 mg/l, but strontium and cesium did not inhibit the growth even at the concentration up to 200 mg/l. Results of analyses of mechanisms of zinc resistance by photometry and spectral analysis also presented. (author)

  13. Hanford waste encapsulation: strontium and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.R.

    1976-06-01

    The strontium and cesium fractions separated from high radiation level wastes at Hanford are converted to the solid strontium fluoride and cesium chloride salts, doubly encapsulated, and stored underwater in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). A capsule contains approximately 70,000 Ci of 137 Cs or 70,000 to 140,000 Ci of 90 Sr. Materials for fabrication of process equipment and capsules must withstand a combination of corrosive chemicals, high radiation dosages and frequently, elevated temperatures. The two metals selected for capsules, Hastelloy C-276 for strontium fluoride and 316-L stainless steel for cesium chloride, are adequate for prolonged containment. Additional materials studies are being done both for licensing strontium fluoride as source material and for second generation process equipment

  14. Magnetite effect in radionuclide retention : cesium, strontium, molybdenum and selenium; Efecto de la magnetita en la retencion de los radionucleidos en el campo proximo: cesio, estroncio, molibdeno y selenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, M.; Casas, I.; Gimenez, J.; Clarens, F.; Pablo, J. de

    2004-07-01

    In this work we have investigated the interaction of magnetite with cesium, strontium, molybdenum and selenium, in the frame of radionuclide retention by canister corrosion products. For each radionuclide, the retention on magnetite has been studied as a function of pH and the mass/ volume ratio. The experimental results have been modeled by means of Surface Complexation Models (SCM), that constitute a tool that allows an approach to sorption mechanisms in a wide range of experimental conditions taking into account electrostatic interactions at the mineral-water interface.(Author)

  15. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  16. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  17. A distribution of adsorbed forms of cesium 137 and strontium 90 in flood-plain formations of Sozh river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.A.; Generalova, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of strontium 90 and cesium 137 forms in flood-plain geochemical system 'alluvial deposits - flood-plain turf - humus horizon - soil-source rock', where sorption and colloidal processes play main role in the isotopes migration, was studied. The bulk amount of strontium 90 is presented in adsorbed form in all investigated objects, whereas only 6% of cesium 137 amount in alluvial deposits, flood-plain turf and humus horizon is in adsorbed form. The content of exchange forms of cesium 137 and strontium 90 increases with the depth of the layer. The race of this increase for strontium 90 is large than for cesium 137. The distribution of radionuclides through the different parts of flood-plain of Sozh river has some distinctions due to more lability of adsorbed strontium 90 forms in comparison with cesium 137 ones

  18. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and cesium-137 content in powdered milk. The samples were purchased on the open market in Tokyo from the powdered milk producers. The analysis of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 content was carried out using the method recommended by Science and Technology Agency. (author)

  19. Uptake behavior of titanium molybdophosphate for cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavari, R.; Ahmadi, S.J.; Huang, Y.D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates uptake of cesium and strontium from aqueous solution similar to nuclear waste on three samples of titanium molybdophosphate (TMP) synthesized under various conditions. Effects of concentration of sodium nitrate, pH and contact time on the uptake of cesium and strontium have been studied by bath method. The results showed that TMP has high affinity toward cesium and strontium at pH > 2 and relatively low concentration of sodium nitrate. Kinetic data indicated that cesium uptake process to achieve equilibrium was faster than strontium. Cesium and strontium breakthrough curves were examined at 25 deg C using column packed with H 3 O + form of TMP and breakthrough curves showed symmetrical S-shaped profiles. At the same time, the calculated breakthrough capacity for cesium was higher than strontium. The results of desorption studies showed that over 99% of cesium and strontium was washed out of column by using 4 M NH 4 Cl solution. This study suggests that TMP can have great potential applications for the removal of strontium and specially cesium from nuclear waste solution. (author)

  20. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Jensen, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100' (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually

  1. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea sediments (from May 1984 to Sep 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 monitoring results are presented for sea sediment samples of 12 sampling points located all over Japan from Tomari, Hokkaido to Kinnakagusuku Bay, Okinawa. The samples were collected by considering of enough sea water depth, no significant sedimental movement and sediment characteristics, and by employing a conventional sampling device. Approximately 4 kg-wet sample was dried and was passed through a 20 cm mesh sieve. After adding of strontium and cesium carriers, strontium-90 and cesium-137 were leached with a hot hydrochloric acid solution. The leachate was treated by ion exchange and coprecipitation to concentrate and isolate strontium-90 or cesium-137. Radiation counting was carried out by employing a low background beta counter usually for 60 minutes for the samples of strontium carbonate or cesium chloroplatinate. Determined strontium-90 contents in sea sediment were distributed from 0 +- 2.7 pCi/kg-dry (Mutsu Bay, Aomori, Yamaguchi Bay, Yamaguchi) to 14 +- 3.2 pCi/kg-dry (Mutsu Bay), and those of cesium-137 were from 9 +- 3.5 pCi/kg-dry (Mutsu Bay) to 250 +- 9 pCi/kg-dry (Off-Niigata Port, Niigata). Local variation of the contents of these radionuclides was very large, and for seasonal variation, it was also found large for the both nuclides content in the Mutsu Bay samples of May, 1984 and August 1984, as for strontium-90, 0 +- 2.7 pCi/kg and 14 +- 3.2 pCi/kg, for cesium-137, 9 +- 3.5 pCi/kg and 200 +- 8 pCi/kg, respectively. (Takagi, S.)

  2. Studies of cesium and strontium migration in unconsolidated Canadian geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillham, R.W.; Lindsay, L.E.; Reynolds, W.D.; Kewen, T.J.; Cherry, J.A.; Reddy, M.R.

    1981-06-01

    Distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) were measured for cesium and strontium in 16 samples of Canadian unconsolidated geological materials. The samples were collected to cover a wide range of grain size, clay-mineral composition, cation exchange capacity and carbonate mineral content. Distribution coefficients ranged between 10 2 and 2.0 x 10 4 ml/g for cesium and between 2.5 and 10 2 ml/g for strontium, indicating that most unconsolidated geological materials have a substantial ability to retard the migration of cesium, while strontium could generally be expected to be somewhat more mobile. The measured K values were not significantly correlated with the measured soil properties, but appeared to be significantly affected by the background concentration of stable isotopes of the respective radionuclides

  3. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea) were determined. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in Japan. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Radiochemical determination of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in waters of the Pacific Ocean and its neighboring seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, G.S.; Kandinskii, P.A.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Petrov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Depending on the salinity of the water, two versions of strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentration from water samples are presented. Cesium-137 was concentrated by precipitating sparingly soluble mixed hexacyanoferrates (II), and strontium-90 by precipitating carbonates together with calcium. A scheme has been given for radiochemical analysis of the concentrates. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 contents in the waters of the Pacific Ocean and its neighboring seas have been determined by the radiochemical method described. The levels of radionuclide content in the water and atmospheric precipitations have been shown to be inter-related. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 contents in the surface water of the northwestern Pacific were found to be much lower in 1980 than in the early seventies. The area of technogenic radioactive pollution was found to persist in the region of the Columbia mouth into the Pacific Ocean

  5. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 migration in trophic chain of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotov, V.G.; Sirotkin, A.N.; Isamov, N.N.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for determination of factors of radionuclide migration in cattle trophic chain, which can be used for forecasting probable contamination of food and cattle breeding products Under Uzbekistan conditions is suggested. It is shown that the factor of biological absorption (FBA) of strontiUm 90 by plants from grey desert soils is 3.7 times higher, than of cesium 137. Mentioned differences in soil-plants migration link are leveled and their FBA in food-milk, food-bone, food-mUscles links remain practically the same during radionuclide migration from food to milk and meat. During radionuclide migration in trophic chain of cattle in food-bone and food-muscles chains the concentration of strontium 90 in bone tissUe and cesium 137 in muscle tissue takes place

  6. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater from May 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater measured in May 1984 are given in pCi/l. The sampling point is 1, Kasumigaura-Lake (Ibaraki). Collection and pretreatment of samples, preparation of samples for analysis, separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and counting are described. The sample was passed through a cation exchange column. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using low background beta counters normally for 60 minutes. (Mori, K.)

  7. Study of strontium and cesium migration in fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, E.; Klockars, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation has been to study the retardation and dilution of non-active strontium and cesium relative to a non-absorbing substance (iodide) in a well-defined fracture zone in the Finnsjoen field research area. The investigation was carried out in a previously tracer-tested fracture zone. The study has encompassed two separate test runs with prolonged injection of strontium and iodide and of cesium and iodide. The test have shown that: - Strontium is not retarded, but rather absorbed to about 40% at equilibrium. - At injection stop, 36.3% of the injected mass of strontium has been absorbed and there is no deabsorption. -Cesium is retarded a factor of 2-3 and absorbed to about 30% at equilibrium. - At injection stop, 39.4% of the injected mass of cesium has been absorbed. Cesium is deabsorbed after injection stop (400h) and after 1300 hours, only 22% of the injected mass of cesium is absorbed. (author)

  8. Physical barrier effect of geopolymeric waste form on diffusivity of cesium and strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.G.; Park, S.M.; Lee, H.K., E-mail: haengki@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Physical immobilization of radionuclides in geopolymer was quantitatively assessed. • Fly ash-based geopolymer showed excellent immobilization performance. • Diffusivity of soluble Cs and Sr was highly correlated with critical pore diameter. - Abstract: The present study investigates the physical barrier effect of geopolymeric waste form on leaching behavior of cesium and strontium. Fly ash-based geopolymers and slag-blended geopolymers were used as solidification agents. The leaching behavior of cesium and strontium from geopolymers was evaluated in accordance with ANSI/ANS-16.1. The diffusivity of cesium and strontium in a fly ash-based geopolymer was lower than that in Portland cement by a factor of 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4}, respectively, showing significantly improved immobilization performance. The leaching resistance of fly ash-based geopolymer was relatively constant regardless of the type of fly ash. The diffusivity of water-soluble cesium and strontium ions were highly correlated with the critical pore diameter of the binder. The critical pore diameter of the fly ash-based geopolymer was remarkably smaller than those of Portland cement and slag-blended geopolymer; consequently, its ability physically to retard the diffusion of nuclides (physical barrier effect) was superior.

  9. Application of crown-ethers to cesium and strontium removal from Marcoule reprocessing concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Casas I Garcia, J.

    1990-01-01

    The liquid wastes arising from reprocessing plants are treated by evaporation, the distillate is discharged into environment and the concentrate containing all the active and inactive salts must be stored in geological formation, after embedding, due to the activity of long life radionuclides (actinides, Cs, Sr). The objective of this work, is after removal actinides, to remove cesium/strontium from high sodium content acidic concentrates in order to sharply decrease the volume of wastes to be stored in geological formation

  10. Preliminary experiments for measuring Kd values for cesium and strontium. To be used in site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benischek, I.; Hess, V.; Metzker, E.

    1992-03-01

    In an underground dump not only technolgical barriers but also the natural geological formations are efficient in withholding radionuclides. Sites are to be chosen where the rocks have good sorption properties and where transportation due to various chemical interactions should be minimal. Minerals obtained from deep drilling - granodiorite, mylonite and granit gneis - were investigated. The liquid phase (cement leaching water) contained different amounts of cesium 137 and strontium 85. Details of the experiments and results are given

  11. Membrane-based separation technologies for cesium, strontium, and technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, T.

    1996-01-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota, working in cooperation with IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah

  12. The study of selective accumulation of radionuclides cesium 137, strontium 90 and cerium 144 in the cellular compartments of charophyta algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchyulenene, D.P.; Moteyunene, E.B.; Gudavichene, N.A.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1976-01-01

    The study of the accumulation of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 144 Ce in separate compartments of Chara algae (cellular wall, protoplasm, vacuoles), testifies to the fact that the entrance and accumulation level of the radionuclides depend upon the selective permeability of the cellular wall and plasmalemma, which is regulated both by the ratio of the chemical analogues of the radionuclides in the medium, and by the level of cellular metabolism [fr

  13. Representation of a model of radionuclide transfer in food chains following deposition of strontium-90, cesium-137 and iodine-131 on areas for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.

    1990-09-01

    The 'SINK' model (contaminants in food chains - FORTRAN 77) was used in an attempt to predict the amounts of radioactivity building up in animal and vegetable foods after one single deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137 and I-131. The model is described in detail. The input quantities include such factors as time-integrated concentration of activity in the air just above the ground, physicochemical form of the radionuclides, activity deposited with precipitation and amount of rain to fall in any particular case. The model was so designed as to take account of 18 different plants, 11 animal products and 14 kinds of processed nutrients. The radionuclide contents of vegetable foods were calculated with reference to the season of the year, at which deposition took place. The estimations of the activity concentrations in animal foods were in each case based on different fudder rations. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Prefectural public health laboratories and institutes and Japan Chemical Analysis Center have analysed the contents of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water under the commission of Science and Technology Agency. At each prefectural public health laboratories and institutes, 100 literes of service water (8 prefectures, water from the intake of each station of water works) and tap water (32 prefectures) were collected as sample twice a year. The samples were filtrated with large filter papers after addition and mixture of both some carries. The filtration was then applied on a column filled the sodium cation exchange resin, and all the cations were absorbed on it. These resin and filter papers were collected at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. At Japan Chemical Analysis Center, these collected samples were radiochemically analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 using the method applied for the analysis of rain and dry fallout materials. (author)

  15. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in total diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Under the commission of Science and Technology Agency, Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed total diet samples collected from 30 prefectures (2 times per year), and determined to content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in these samples. Each Prefectural public health laboratories and institutes have collected all the daily regular diet consumed for five persons, namely three meals and other eating between meals, for radiochemical analysis in polyethylene containers. These samples were collected to Japan Chemical Analysis Center after carbonization without smoke rising in the large stainless dish. At Japan Chemical Analysis Center, these samples were asked in an electric muffle furnance. And the ask to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The nuclides were dissolved into hydrochloric acid and filtrated, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrates was analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 using the method recommended by Science and Technology Agency. (author)

  16. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jr., Milton W.; Bowers, Jr., Charles B.

    1988-01-01

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5') [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution.

  17. Decorporation of mixture of strontium and cesium isotopes with domestic mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, S.; Filev, G.; Kiradzhiev, G.

    1990-01-01

    The possibilities of Bulgarian mineral waters to decorporate mixtures of strontium and cesium radioisotopes, simultaneous entering the body, were studied. A modified effect in respect to radioactive strontium was found. Modification of the effect of mixing two diferent types of mineral waters was not proven. No effect was found of potassium-containing mineral water on radioactive cesium kinetics. 1 tab., 7 refs

  18. Water purification from cesium-137 and strontium-90 using natural and activated laminar and laminar-band silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornilovich, B.Yu.; Pshinko, G.N.; Kosorukov, A.A.; Mas'ko, A.N.; Spasenova, L.N.; Dregval', T.N.

    1991-01-01

    Cesium-137 and strontium-90 radionuclides are studied for the process of their sorption from natural waters by basic representatives of disperse silicates: kaolinites of Glukhovetskoe and Glukhovskoe deposits (Ukraine), montmorillonites of the Cherkassy (Ukraine) and Oglanlin (Turkmenia) deposits, palygorskite and natural mixture of montmorillonite and palygorskite of the Cherkassy deposit. The best sorption properties are revealed for laminated silicates with a swelling structure (montmorillonites) and high-dispersive laminar-band silicates (palygorskite). It proved possible to improve sorption properties of silicate minerals for radionuclides by means of their mechanochemical activation

  19. Redistribution of strontium and cesium during alteration of smectite to illite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Murakami, Takashi; Sato, Tsutomu; Isobe, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    The redistribution of strontium and cesium during the alteration of smectite to illite has been studied under hydrothermal conditions at 200 C using solutions of 1x10 -4 M Sr and Cs. Two different sorption conditions were applied for the hydrothermal experiments. One was the condition in which strontium and cesium were sorbed by smectite before the hydrothermal experiments (dynamic condition). The other was the condition in which strontium and cesium were sorbed by the alteration products, illite/smectite (I/S) interstratified minerals after the hydrothermal experiments (static condition). The sorption characteristics of strontium and cesium by smectite, I/S interstratified minerals were examined by a sequential extraction method. Most of the strontium was desorbed from smectite and the I/S interstratified minerals with a 1 M KCl solution under both the dynamic and static conditions. Less than 1% of cesium was desorbed from the I/S interstratified minerals with any solution of a 1 M KCl, a 1 M HCl and a 6 M HCl under the dynamic condition, while most of cesium was desorbed with either solution of a 1 M KCl and 1 M HCl from smectite and from the I/S interstratified minerals under the static condition. These suggest that cesium sorbed by smectite changes its sorption characteristic during the alteration process, but strontium does not. Possible sites for more strongly bounded cesium to the I/S interstratified minerals may be at the 'ditrigonal cavity' of adjacent tetrahedral layers. (orig.)

  20. Effects of mineralogy on sorption of strontium and cesium onto Calico Hills Tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Land, J.F.

    1990-04-01

    The sorption properties of tuff formations at the proposed site for the high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been extensively studied. Sorption and desorption measurements were made of strontium and cesium onto clinoptilolite and Calico Hills Tuff. The object was to see whether there was a correlation between sorption of strontium and cesium onto Calico Hills Tuff and the sorption of strontium and cesium onto clinoptilolite based on the content of clinoptilolite in the Calico Hills Tuff. 13 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Sorption and desorption of cesium and strontium on TA-2 and TA-41 soils and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, K. Stephen; Li, Benjamin W.; Longmire, P.A.; Fowler, M.M.

    1996-04-01

    Current environmental monitoring has detected radioactive contaminants in alluvial groundwater, soils, and sediments in the TA-2 and TA-41 areas along the north central edge of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Because of this contamination, this study was initiated. The objective of this study is to quantify the sorptivity of cesium and strontium onto TA-2 and TA-41 site specific soil samples under a controlled environment in the laboratory. The purposes of this work are to determine cesium and strontium sorption coefficient for these sit specific soils and to evaluate the potential transport of cesium and strontium. Based on this information, a risk assessment and remediation strategy can be developed

  2. Derivation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, University of California, Davis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1993-04-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for strontium-90 and cesium-137 were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; this code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site will be utilized without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded within 1,000 years for either strontium-90 or cesium-137, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the following levels: 71,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 91 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario A (researcher: the expected scenario); 160,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 220 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario); and 37 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 32 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the contaminated area: a plausible scenario). The derived guidelines are single-radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual strontium-90 and cesium-137 guidelines for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate

  3. Uptake and transport of radioactive cesium and strontium into grapevines after leaf contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, H. J.; Kopp, P.; Eikenberg, J.; Feller, U.; Oertli, J. J.

    1995-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993 the foliar uptake of radioactive strontium (Sr-85) and cesium (Cs-134) by selected leaves of grapevine plants and the subsequent redistribution within the plants was examined under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. The radionuclides were applied as chlorides. These plants were grown in large pots containing a mixture of local soil and peat. Plant and soil samples were analyzed throughout the growing season and also during the following vegetation period. Only traces of the applied radiostrontium were taken up by the leaves. This element was essentially not redistributed within the plants. In contrast, radiocesium was easily taken up through the leaf surface, transported to other plant parts and to some extent released from the roots into the soil. Cesium reaching the soil may interact with clay particles causing a very reduced availability for plants. Therefore the soil may act as a long-term sink for radiocesium. On the other hand, grape berries represent transient sinks. The cesium levels in the berries decreased again in a late phase of maturation, but the mechanisms causing this loss are not yet identified. During the second vegetation period, only a very minor proportion of the radiocesium taken up previously by the plants was present in the above ground parts.

  4. Trade study for the disposition of cesium and strontium capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    This trade study analyzes alternatives for the eventual disposal of cesium and strontium capsules currently stored at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility as by-product. However, for purposes of this study, it is assumed that at some time in the future, the capsules will be declared high-level waste and therefore will require disposal at an offsite geologic repository. The study considered numerous alternatives and selected three for detailed analysis: (1) overpack and storage at high-level waste canister storage building, (2) overpack at the high-level waste vitrification facility followed by storage at a high-level waste canister storage building, and (3) blend capsule contents with other high-level waste feed streams and vitrify at the high-level waste vitrification facility

  5. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (consuming districts) (from May. 1982 to Mar. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (consuming districts from May 1982 to Mar. 1983) were determined. Commercial milk was purchased in 25 consuming districts. The results are shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  6. Ability of phytoremediation for absorption of strontium and cesium from soils using Cannabis sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Seyed Hoseini

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that strontium can be absorbed by Cannabis sativa, with the highest absorption by the roots, stems, and leaves. However, cesium does not reach the plant because of its single capacity and inactive complex formation.

  7. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (consuming districts) (from May 1982 to Aug. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (consuming districts from May to Aug. 1982) were determined. Commercial milk was purchased in 20 consuming districts. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maginn, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the Notre Dame component of the project was computational in nature. The goal was to provide a design tool for the synthesis of optimized sorbents for the removal of cesium, strontium and actinides from nuclear waste solutions. Molecular modeling enables us to observe and better understand the molecular level interactions that govern the selectivity of specific radionuclides in a particular sorbent. The research focused on the development and validation of a suitable and transferable model for all the cations and ion exchangers of interest, nd then subsequent simulations which determined the siting and mobility of water and cations. Speciic accomplishments include: (1) improving existing intermolecular force fields to accurately model the sorbents of interest; (2) utilizing energy-minimizations and molecular dynamics simulations for structural prediction of CST and niobium-substituted CST materials; (3) determining Na+/water positions in polyoxoniobate materials using molecular dynamics simulations; and (4) developing Hybrid Monte Carlo methods for improved structural prediction.

  9. The diffusivity of cesium, strontium, carbon and nickel in concrete and mixtures of sodium bentonite and crushed rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Penttilae-Hiltunen, P.; Rantanen, J.

    1986-07-01

    The engineering barriers suggested to be used for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes in Finland are concrete and crushed rock or mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite. In the repository the barriers are saturated by groundwater and radionuclides may be released by diffusion through the barries. For safety analysis, the mechanisms by which the nuclides migrate and corresponding parameters should be known. In this study diffusion measurements on different types of concrete and mixtures of sodium bentonite and crushed rock were carried out. Radioactive isotopes of cesium, strontium, carbon and nickel were used as tracers. The apparent diffusivities (Dsub(a)) were evaluated on the basis of the measurements. The apparent diffusivity of cesium in concretes was 10 -14 ...10 -15 m 2 /s. Strontium was mainly sorbed on cement where it diffuses slowly. Part of strontium propably penetrates in the rock ballast by diffusion. The diffusivities of carbon and nickel in the concrete was low. The upper limit was evaluated to be Dsub(a) -14 m 2 /s. The diffusivity of cesium in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite varies between 0.5x10 -12 and 7x10 -12 m 2 /s. Cesium was mainly sorbed on the rock. The diffusivity of strontium was 2x10 -11 ...2x10 -12 m 2 /s. Strontium was mainly sorbed on bentonite. The diffusion of the sorbed ions (surface diffusion) seems to be a additional migration mechanism in the case of cesium and strontium in the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. The diffusivity of carbon in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite was 6x10 -11 ...4x10 -12 m 2 /s. No sorption was found in the case of carbon. The measured Dsub(a) of nickel in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite was 4x10 -14 ...2x10 -15 m 2 /s. The experimental arrangement was not, however, in the stationary state and the more correct values would propably be 10 -13 ...10 -14 m 2 /s. No surface diffusion was found in the case of nickel. (author)

  10. Innovative Highly Selective Removal of Cesium and Strontium Utilizing a Newly Developed Class of Inorganic Ion Specific Media - 16221

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, Mark S.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2009-01-01

    Highly selective removal of Cesium and Strontium is critical for waste treatment and environmental remediation. Cesium-137 is a beta-gamma emitter and Strontium-90 is a beta emitter with respective half-lives of 30 and 29 years. Both elements are present at many nuclear sites. Cesium and Strontium can be found in wastewaters at Washington State's Hanford Site, as well as in waste streams of many Magnox reactor sites. Cesium and Strontium are found in the Reactor Coolant System of light water reactors at nuclear power plants. Both elements are also found in spent nuclear fuel and in high-level waste (HLW) at DOE sites. Cesium and Strontium are further major contributors to the activity and the heat load. Therefore, technologies to extract Cesium and Strontium are critical for environmental remediation waste treatment and dose minimization. Radionuclides such as Cesium-137 and Strontium-90 are key drivers of liquid waste classification at light water reactors and within the DOE tank farm complexes. The treatment, storage, and disposal of these wastes represents a major cost for nuclear power plant operators, and comprises one of the most challenging technology-driven projects for the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. Extraction technologies to remove Cesium and Strontium have been an active field of research. Four notable extraction technologies have been developed so far for HLW: solvent extraction, prussian blue, crystalline silico-titanate (CST) and organic ion-exchangers (e.g., resorcinol formaldehyde and SuperLig). The use of one technology over another depends on the specific application. For example, the waste treatment plant (WTP) at Hanford is planning on using a highly-selective organic ion-exchange resin to remove Cesium and Strontium. Such organic ion-exchangers use molecular recognition to selectively bind to Cesium and Strontium. However, these organic ion-exchangers are synthesized using multi-step organic synthesis. The associated cost to

  11. Water-Mediated Differential Binding of Strontium and Cesium Cations in Fulvic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Biswajit; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar

    2015-08-27

    The migration of potentially harmful radionuclides, such as cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium ((90)Sr), in soil is governed by the chemical and biological reactivity of soil components. Soil organic matter (SOM) that can be modeled through fulvic acid (FA) is known to alter the mobility of radionuclide cations, Cs(+) and Sr(2+). Shedding light on the possible interaction mechanisms at the atomic level of these two ions with FA is thus vital to explain their transport behavior and for the design of new ligands for the efficient extraction of radionuclides. Here we have performed molecular dynamics, metadynamics simulations, and density-functional-theory-based calculations to understand the binding mechanism of Sr(2+) and Cs(+) cations with FA. Our studies predict that interaction of Cs(+) to FA is very weak as compared with Sr(2+). While the water-FA interaction is largely responsible for the weak binding of Cs(+) to FA, leading to the outer sphere complexation of the ion with FA, the interaction between Sr(2+) and FA is stronger and thus can surpass the existing secondary nonbonding interaction between coordinated waters and FA, leading to inner sphere complexation of the ion with FA. We also find that entropy plays a dominant role for Cs(+) binding to FA, whereas Sr(2+) binding is an enthalpy-driven process. Our predicted results are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data on complexation of Cs(+) and Sr(2+) with SOM.

  12. Ion-exchange properties of cesium and strontium into zeolites from sodium salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takuji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohtani, Tozo.

    1978-01-01

    The ion-exchange properties of cesium and strontium into zeolite from sodium salt solution has been studied in zeolite A, zeolite X, zeolite Y, mordenite and clinoptilolite. The distribution of cesium into mordenite from about 1 -- 2 M sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide solutions is considerably larger than that into zeolite A. The distribution coefficient for 2 M solution of sodium salts was about 300. Therefore, the separation of cesium from sodium salt solution is possible by using mordenite. The distribution of strontium into zeolites form 1 -- 2 M solutions of sodium chloride and sodium nitrate were in the order of zeolite A>zeolite X>zeolite Y asymptoticaly equals mordenite. The distribution coefficient of 230 was obtained for 1 M solutions of sodium salts. The anion in solutions had no effect on the distribution of cesium and strontium into zeolite from sodium salt solution. (author)

  13. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at

  14. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue

  15. Sorptive removal of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from water by unconventional sorbents. 2. Usage of coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apak, R.; Atun, G.; Gueclue, K.; Tuetem, E.

    1996-01-01

    It has been shown that coal fly ash is a good adsorbent for both radionuclides of 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Radiocesium adsorption is maximal around the neutral region whereas radiostrontium adsorption increases with pH, especially above pH 8. Cesium retention sharply drops with ionic strength while strontium adsorption increases sharply and steadily at low and moderate concentrations of the inert electrolyte, respectively. The suggested mechanisms of radionuclide retention by fly ash is specific adsorption of Cs + and irreversible ion-exchange uptake of Sr 2+ . The isotherm of adsorption is a Langmuir approximation of the B.E.T. multi-layered sorption. Acid pretreatment of fly ash, though not increasing radionuclide sorption capacity, may be useful in preventing the leach-out of other contaminants from the sorbent into water during the adsorption process. (author)

  16. Sorptive removal of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from water by unconventional sorbents. 2. Usage of coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apak, R.; Atun, G.; Gueclue, K.; Tuetem, E. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    It has been shown that coal fly ash is a good adsorbent for both radionuclides of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Radiocesium adsorption is maximal around the neutral region whereas radiostrontium adsorption increases with pH, especially above pH 8. Cesium retention sharply drops with ionic strength while strontium adsorption increases sharply and steadily at low and moderate concentrations of the inert electrolyte, respectively. The suggested mechanisms of radionuclide retention by fly ash is specific adsorption of Cs{sup +} and irreversible ion-exchange uptake of Sr{sup 2+}. The isotherm of adsorption is a Langmuir approximation of the B.E.T. multi-layered sorption. Acid pretreatment of fly ash, though not increasing radionuclide sorption capacity, may be useful in preventing the leach-out of other contaminants from the sorbent into water during the adsorption process. (author).

  17. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater (from Sept. 1983 to Dec. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Fresh water, 100 l each, was collected, and to which the carriers of strontium and cesium were added immediately after the sampling. The sample was vigorously stirred and filtered, and passed through a cation exchange column. Strontium and cesium were eluted with hydrochloric acid from the cation exchange column. The eluate was used for radiochemical analysis. The chemical separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 was carried out, and the chemical yields were determined. The precipitates were counted for the activity using low background beta counters normally for 60 min. The net sample counting rate was corrected for the counter efficiency, recovery, self-absorption and decay, to obtain the radioactivity per sample aliquot, and the concentrations of these nuclides in the original samples were calculated. The data at six sampling locations in Japan from September to December, 1983, on fresh water are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Effect of K-fertilization, liming and placement on crop uptake of cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haak, E.

    1985-01-01

    remedial measures to reduce crop uptake of cesium and strontium under Swedish field conditions have been investigated in micro plot experiments. For cesium the effect of K-fertilization was studied on three soils with oats, peas and mustard and, in combination with placement, on two other soils with wheat, barley and rape. For strontium the effect of liming was studied on three soils with oats, barley and peas and, in combination with placement, on two other soils with wheat, oats, barley and peas. In this paper results are summarized for the grain products. Deep placement of nuclides in combination with K-fertilization and liming reduced the crop uptake of cesium and strontium by a factor of 10 and 4, respectively. On the basis of the experimental results, the practical advantages of K-fertilization and liming, as well as deep ploughing of surface contaminated land are discussed

  19. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea water (from Jul 1984 to Sep 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Monitoring results are presented on strontium-90 and cesium-137 contents in sea water of 11 sampling points all over Japan from Hokkaido to Okinawa coast. Sampling points were selected by the criterion that the effect of terrestrial fresh water and atmospheric precipitation was expected to be ignorable. Sample collection was carried out in the Period from July to September, 1984. With a special care for prevention of any contamination. The collected sea water samples were acidified immediately and they were served for radiochemical separation and purification of strontium-90 and cesium-137. Radiation counting was made for yttrium-90 hydroxide sample and cesium chloroplatinate sample with a low background beta counter normally for 60 minutes. As for strontium-90 contents in sea water, they were ranged from 0.07 +- 0.010 pCi/l (Mutsu Bay, Aomori) to 0.11 +- 0.012 pCi/l (Off Niigata Port, Niigata) and the average value was 0.09 pCi/l. As for cesium-137 contents, they were ranged from 0.08 +- 0.011 pCi/l (Ise Bay, Aichi) to 0.14 +- 0.012 pCi/l (Yamaguchi Bay, Yamaguchi) and the average value was 0.106 pCi/l. It is clarified that no abnormal values were determined for strontium-90 or cesium-137 contents in coastal sea water around Japan from a fallout origin. (Takagi, S.)

  20. Development of an improved ion-exchange process for removing cesium and strontium from high-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.M.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1980-11-01

    Processes are being developed to solidify and isolate the biologically hazardous radionuclides from approximately 23 million gallons of alkaline high-level waste accumulated at the Savannah River Plant. The waste consists mainly of a liquid supernate, a damp salt cake, and a gelatinous, insoluble sludge. The reference solidification process involves separation of the water soluble fraction (supernate) from the insoluble fraction, removal of cesium and traces of strontium from the supernate, incorporation of the sludge and the radionuclides from the supernate in glass, and incorporation of the residual salt in concrete. A new process, now being developed, involves sorbing cesium on phenolic resins that contain no strongly acidic sulfonate groups. These resins can then be eluted with formic acid which is not possible with Duolite ARC-359. Duolite CS-100, a phenol-carboxylate resin, was chosen for further development because of its greater breakthrough capacity and because it also sorbs strontium to some extent. Strontium sorption by CS-100 was not sufficient to eliminate the need for Amberlite IRC-718. However, the latter resin can also be eluted with formic acid because its functional groups are weakly acidic. Formic acid elution permits several options to be considered. The preferred option consists simply of mixing the eluate with sludge prior to calcination. Sodium formate, which is formed when the resins in the sodium form are eluted, decomposes rapidly between 450 0 C and 500 0 C and will be destroyed in either the calciner or the melter. The resulting sodium oxide would be incorporated into glass. The principal advantage of the new process is the elimination of a number of process steps

  1. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, C.D.

    1981-03-01

    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10 -11 to 10 -5 M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10 -8 to 10 -5 M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week

  2. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Oct. 1981 to Jun. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fishes (from Oct. 1981 to Jun. 1982) were determined. Fish was collected from eight sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Jun. 1982 to Dec. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Jun. to Dec. 1982) were determined. Fish was collected from 22 sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results are sown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Evaluation of distribution coefficients for the prediction of strontium and cesium migration in a uniform sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, W.D.; Gillham, R.W.; Cherry, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The validity of using a distribution coefficient (Ksub(d)) in the mathematical prediction of strontium and cesium transport through uniform saturated sand was investigated by comparing measured breakthrough curves with curves of simulations using the advection-dispersion and the advection equations. Values for Ksub(d) were determined by batch equilibration tests and, indirectly, by fitting the mathematical model to breakthrough data from column experiments. Although the advection-dispersion equation accurately represented the breakthrough curves for two nonreactive solutes (chloride and tritium), neither it nor the advection equation provided close representations of the strontium and cesium curves. The simulated breakthrough curves for strontium and cesium were nearly symmetrical, whereas the data curves were very asymmetrical, with long tails. Column experiments with different pore-water velocities indicated that the shape of the normalized breakthrough curves was not sensitive to velocity. This suggests that the asymmetry of the measured curves was the result of nonlinear partitioning of the cations between the solid and liquid phases, rather than nonequilibrium effects. The results indicate that the distribution coefficient, when used in advection-dispersion models for prediction of the migration of strontium and cesium in field situations, can result in significant error

  5. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater (from September, 1982, to December, 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water measured at 4 locations across Japan from September to December, 1982, are given in pCi/l, respectively. The methods of the collection and pretreatment of samples, the preparation of samples for analysis, the separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, and the counting are also described. The sample was passed through a cation exchange column. Strontium and cesium were eluted with hydrochloric acid from the cation exchange column. The sample solution prepared was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. After sodium carbonate was added, the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitate was counted for activity using a low background beta counter normally for 60 min. The radioactivity ranged 0.08 to 0.22 pCi/l for Sr-90 and 0.003 to 0.020 pCi/l for Cs-137 in the freshwater. (J.P.N.)

  6. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water (from June, 1982, to December, 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water measured at 19 locations across Japan from June to December, 1982, are given in pCi/l, respectively. The methods of the collection and pretreatment of samples, the preparation of samples for analysis, the separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, and the counting are also described. Service water was collected at an intake of the water-treatment plant and at the tap. The sample was then passed through a cation exchange column. Strontium and cesium were eluted with hydrochloric acid from the cation exchange column. The sample solution prepared was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. After sodium carbonate was added, the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitate was counted for activity using a low background beta counter normally for 60 min. The radioactivity ranged 0.01 to 0.10 pCi/l for Sr-90 and 0.001 to 0.010 pCi/l for Cs-137 in the service water. (J.P.N.)

  7. Physical barrier effect of geopolymeric waste form on diffusivity of cesium and strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J G; Park, S M; Lee, H K

    2016-11-15

    The present study investigates the physical barrier effect of geopolymeric waste form on leaching behavior of cesium and strontium. Fly ash-based geopolymers and slag-blended geopolymers were used as solidification agents. The leaching behavior of cesium and strontium from geopolymers was evaluated in accordance with ANSI/ANS-16.1. The diffusivity of cesium and strontium in a fly ash-based geopolymer was lower than that in Portland cement by a factor of 10(3) and 10(4), respectively, showing significantly improved immobilization performance. The leaching resistance of fly ash-based geopolymer was relatively constant regardless of the type of fly ash. The diffusivity of water-soluble cesium and strontium ions were highly correlated with the critical pore diameter of the binder. The critical pore diameter of the fly ash-based geopolymer was remarkably smaller than those of Portland cement and slag-blended geopolymer; consequently, its ability physically to retard the diffusion of nuclides (physical barrier effect) was superior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Removal of cesium and strontium from low active waste solutions by zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Savita; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Ion exchange, crystallographic and thermal characteristics of sodium, cesium and strontium forms of locally available synthetic zeolites have been investigated. X-ray and differential thermal analyses have confirmed that the synthetic materials AR1 and 4A belonged to the mordenite and A type families of zeolites respectively. Equilibrium uptake of cesium and strontium ions by sodium forms of zeolite was studied as a function of time, pH and sodium concentration. It was found that the rate of sorption by AR1 was higher than that by 4A. In regard to pH, distribution of nuclides on zeolites was found to pass through maxima at a pH value of around 9. Sodium ion interfered with the sorption of cesium and strontium by zeolites. However, at sodium concentration ≤ 0.01 M, distribution coefficient values for these nuclides were sufficiently high to merit consideration of these zeolites for low level waste treatment. Lab-scale column runs using 5 ml beds of materials showed that the zeolites AR1 and 4A were very effective in removing cesium and strontium nuclides respectively from large volumes (a decontamination factor of 50 for a throughput of 6000 bed volumes) of actual low level waste solutions. Thus, the zeolite system has a potential future for large scale application in the treatment of low level wastes. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Nov. 1982 to Jun. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Nov. 1982 to Jun. 1983) were determined. Fishes were collected from eight sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results are shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  10. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in total diet (from Jun. 1982 to Dec. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in total diet (from Jun. to Dec. 1982) were determined. A full one day ordinary diet including three meals, water, tea and other in-between snacks for five persons was collected as a sample of ''total diet'' from 22 sampling locations. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in total diet (from Nov. 1982 to Jun. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in total diet (from Nov. 1982 to Jun. 1983) were determined. A full one day ordinary diet including three meals, water, tea and other in-between snacks for five persons was collected as a sample of ''total diet'' from 26 sampling locations. The results are shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  12. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in total diet (from Oct. 1981 to Jul. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in total diet (from Oct. 1981 to Jul. 1982) were determined. A full one day ordinary diet including three meals, water, tea and other in-between snacks for five persons was collected as a sample of ''total diet'' from 26 sampling locations. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in rice (consuming districts) (from Nov. 1982 to Jan. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in rice (consuming districts from Nov. 1982 to Jan. 1983) were determined. Polished rice was collected in eight consuming areas when new crops were first put on sale. The results are shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  14. Equilibrium sorption of cobalt, cesium, and strontium on Bandelier Tuff: analysis of alternative mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Essington, E.H.; Roensch, F.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sorption isotherms are derived from batch equilibrium data for cobalt, cesium and strontium on Bandelier Tuff. Experiments were conducted at an average temperature of 23 0 C and equilibrium was defined at 48 hours. The solute concentrations ranged from 0 to 500 mg/L. The radioactive isotopes 60 Co, 137 Cs, and 85 Sr were used to trace the sorption of the stable solutes. The Linear, Langmuir, Freundlich and a Modified Freundlich isotherm equations are evaluated. The Modified Freundlich isotherm equation is validated as a preferred general mathematical tool for representing the sorption of the three solutes. The empirical constants derived from the Modified Freundlich isotherm equation indicate that under dynamic flow conditions strontium will move most rapidly and cobalt least rapidly. On the other hand, chemical dispersion will be greatest for cesium and least for strontium. Hill Plots of the sorption data suggest that in the region of low saturation sorption of all three solutes is impeded by interactions among sorption sites; cobalt exhibits the greatest effect of interactions and strontium shows only a minimal effect. In the saturation region of 50% or more, sorption of cobalt is enhanced slightly by interactions among sorption sites whereas sorption of cesium and strontium appears to be independent of site interactions. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  15. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove 137 Cs and 90 Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing

  16. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil from May 1984 to July 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil measured throughout Japan from May to July 1984 are given in pCi/kg and mCi/km 2 . Sampling points are total of 8 from Kawabe-gun (Akita) to Ibasuki-gun (Kagoshima). Collection and pretreatment of samples, preparation of samples for analysis, separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and counting are described. Soil was collected from the location in the spacious and flat area without past disturbance on the surface. Soil was taken from two layers of different depths, 0 aproximately 5 cm and 5 approximately 20 cm. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using low background beta counters normally for 60 minutes. (Mori, K.)

  17. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Rais, J.

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate

  18. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil (from Jun. 1983 to Sept. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for the determination of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soils in Japan. Twenty-seven sampling points were selected all over Japan from Hokkaido to Okinawa by the criteria that the points were spacious and flat without past disturbance and those located in a forest, in a stony area or inside of river banks should be avoided. Soils were taken from two layers of depth, 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 20 cm. After drying, soils were passed through a 2 mm sieve and were employed for radiochemical leaching, separation, and purification of strontium-90 or cesium-137. Radioactivity of strontium-90 or cesium-137 was determined with a low background beta counter normally for 60 minutes. Determined values are presented as pCi/kg and mCi/km 2 for two different depth layers. As for strontium-90 contents, they were ranged from 13.0 +- 3.3 pCi/kg-dry (Aomori, 5 to 20 cm) to 1300 +- 20 pCi/kg-dry (Oota, Shimane Pref., 0 to 5 cm), or from 1.1 +- 0.14 mCi/km 2 (Tsuyama, Okayama Pref., 0 to 5 cm) to 50.0 +- 1.7 mCi/km 2 (Sapporo, 5 to 20 cm). As for cesium-137 contents, they were ranged from 0.5 +- 2.2 pCi/kg-dry (Saga, 5 to 20 cm) to 4700 +- 40 pCi/kg-dry (Oota, Shimane Pref., 0 to 5 cm) or from 0.1 +- 0.42 mCi/km 2 (Saga, 5 to 20 cm) to 120.0 +- 2.0 mCi/km 2 (Oota, Shimane Pref., 5 to 20 cm), and the variance for cesium-137 values were larger than those for strontium-90. Seasonal or local tendency for the contents of the two nuclides were not clarified. (Takagi, S.)

  19. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil (from May, 1982, to September, 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil measured at 29 locations across Japan from May to September, 1982, are given in pCi/kg and mCi/km 2 , respectively. The methods of the collection and pretreatment of samples, the preparation of samples for analysis, the separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, the determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and the counting are also described. Soil was collected in the spacious and flat area without past disturbance on the surface. Soil was taken from two layers of different depths, 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 20 cm. The sample solution was prepared and was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. After sodium carbonate was added, the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitate was counted for activity using a low background beta counter normally for 60 min. The radioactivity ranged 6 to 1300 pCi/Kg for Sr-90 and 1 to 5000 pCi/Kg for Cs-137 in the sampling depth of 0 to 5 cm. (J.P.N.)

  20. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil from May to July 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The measured values in soil of strontium-90 and cesium-137 at a total of 4 locations throughout Japan from May to July, 1983 are given in pCi/kg and mCi/km 2 in the tables. The method of measurement is also described: collection and pretreatment of samples, preparation of the samples for analysis, separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and counting. Soil was collected from the location in the spacious and flat area without any past disturbance. Soil was taken from two layers having different depths: 0--5 cm and 5--20 cm. The sample solution was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. After sodium carbonate was added, the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using a low background beta counter normally for 60 min. The maximum values were 690 pCi/kg for Sr-90 and 1300 pCi/kg for Cs-137, which were obtained from the samples in the 5-to-20 cm depth, in June 1983, at Akita-ken,Japan. (Mori, K.)

  1. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil (from May 1985 to Jul. 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report is aimed at listing measurements of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil made at eight places across Japan during the period from May to July in 1985. Collection and pretreatment methods are described for samples of rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water, sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, as well as fish, shellfish and seaweeds. The methods for the preparation of these samples for analysis are also outlined. Sample solutions were neutralized with sodium hydroxide, and the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated after sodium carbonate was added. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After being precipitated as oxalates, strontium and calcium were separated by successive fuming nitric acid separations. For the determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, soil and sediment were treated with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid for extraction while other samples were ashed and digested. Calcium, separated as oxalate, was determined by titration while stable strontium and potassium were determined by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy, respectively. Couting for activity was carried out using low background beta counters normally for 60 min. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water Volume 3 Assessment for Radionuclides IncludingTritium, Radon, Strontium, Technetium, Uranium, Iodine, Radium, Thorium, Cesium, and Plutonium-Americium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current document represents the third volume of a set of three volumes that address the technical basis and requirements for assessing the potential applicability of MNA as part of a ground-water remedy for plumes with nonradionuclide and/or radionuclide inorganic contamina...

  3. Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebra, Martha A.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs.sup.+ and Sr.sup.2+ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  4. Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1982-05-05

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  5. Decontamination of cesium, strontium, and cobalt from aqueous solutions by bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M.A. [Univ. of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Khan, S.A. [Government F.C. College, Lahore (Pakistan)

    1996-12-31

    Sorption studies of cesium, strontium, and cobalt (Cs, Sr, and Co) on bentonite under various experimental conditions, such as contact time, pH, sorbent and sorbate concentration, and temperature, have been performed. The sorption data for all these metals have been interpreted in terms of Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations. Thermodynamics parameters, such as heat of sorption {Delta}H{degrees}, free energy change {Delta}G{degrees}, and entropy change {Delta}S{degrees}, for the sorption of these metals on bentonite have been calculated. The value of {Delta}H{degrees} shows that the sorption of Cs was exothermic, while the sorption of Sr and Co on bentonite were endothermic in nature. The value of {Delta}G{degrees} for their sorption was negative, showing the spontaneity of the process. The maximum loading capacity of Cs, Sr, and Co were 75.5, 22, and 27.5 meq, respectively, for 100 g of bentonite. The mean free energy E of Cs, Sr, and Co sorption on bentonite was 14.5, 9, and 7.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The value of E indicates that ion exchange may be the predominant mode of sorption for these radionuclides. The desorption studies with 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} and groundwater at low-metal loading on bentonite showed that about 95% of Cs, 85-90% of Sr, and 97% of Co were irreversibly sorbed. Bentonite could be effectively used for the decontamination of wastewater effluent containing low concentrations of radioactive nuclides of Cs, Sr, and Co. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water from June to December, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Service water, 100 l each, was collected at an intake of a water treatment plant and at a tap after water was left running for five minutes. The carriers of strontium and cesium were added to water immediately after sampling, and the sample was vigorously stirred and filtered. Then it was passed through a cation exchange column at a rate of 80 ml/min. Strontium and cesium were eluted with hydrochloric acid from the cation exchange column, and separated. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using low background beta counters normally for 60 min. Net sample counting rates were corrected for counter efficiency, recovery, self absorption and decay to obtain the content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 radioactivity per sample aliquot. From the results, concentrations of these nuclides in the original sample were calculated. The maximum values obtained were 0.29 pCi/l of Sr-90 in Kyoto in August, 1981, and 0.02 pCi/l of Cs-137 in Kyoto in August and in Inuyama in December, 1981, in case of source water. In case of tap water, they were 0.18 pCi/l of Sr-90 in Kobe in December, 1981, and 0.02 pCi/l of Cs-137 in Kyoto in August, 1981. (Kako, I.)

  7. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea water (from July, 1982, to September, 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea water collected at 11 locations across Japan from July to September, 1982, are given in pCi/l, respectively. The methods of the collection and pretreatment of samples, the preparation of samples for analysis, the separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, and the counting are also described. Sea water was collected at the fixed station where the effect of the terrestrial fresh water from rivers was negligibly small. The sampling was carried out when there was no rainfall for the last few days. The sample solution was prepared and was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. After sodium carbonate was added, the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitate was counted for activity using a low background beta counter normally for 60 min. The radioactivity ranged 0.09 to 0.13 pCi/l for Sr-90 and 0.05 to 0.13 pCi/l for Cs-137 in the sea water. (Mori, K.)

  8. Sintered bentonite ceramics for the immobilization of cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Luis Humberto

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is a Department of Energy (DOE) program, that has been investigating technologies to improve fuel cycle sustainability and proliferation resistance. One of the program's goals is to reduce the amount of radioactive waste requiring repository disposal. Cesium and strontium are two primary heat sources during the first 300 years of spent nuclear fuel's decay, specifically isotopes Cs-137 and Sr-90. Removal of these isotopes from spent nuclear fuel will reduce the activity of the bulk spent fuel, reducing the heat given off by the waste. Once the cesium and strontium are separated from the bulk of the spent nuclear fuel, the isotopes must be immobilized. This study is focused on a method to immobilize a cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive liquid waste stream. While there are various schemes to remove these isotopes from spent fuel, this study has focused on a nitric acid based liquid waste. The waste liquid was mixed with the bentonite, dried then sintered. To be effective sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1200°C were required, and waste concentrations must be at least 25 wt%. The product is a leach resistant ceramic solid with the waste elements embedded within alumino-silicates and a silicon rich phase. The cesium is primarily incorporated into pollucite and the strontium into a monoclinic feldspar. The simulated waste was prepared from nitrate salts of stable ions. These ions were limited to cesium, strontium, barium and rubidium. Barium and rubidium will be co-extracted during separation due to similar chemical properties to cesium and strontium. The waste liquid was added to the bentonite clay incrementally with drying steps between each addition. The dry powder was pressed and then sintered at various temperatures. The maximum loading tested is 32 wt. percent waste, which refers to 13.9 wt. percent cesium, 12.2 wt. percent barium, 4.1 wt. percent strontium, and 2.0 wt. percent rubidium. Lower loadings of waste

  9. Strontium 90 and cesium 137 content in the daily diet of two groups of people in Plovdiv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babakova, I.; Trendafilov, I.; Todorov, D.

    1975-01-01

    The contents of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in the daily diet of children, 7-11 years old, and teenagers, 14-18 years old, living under boarding house conditions is determined. The daily strontium 90 intake in the organism of children and teenagers amounts to 9,78 pCi, respectively 17,96 pCi and the daily intake of cesium 137 - to 13,21 pCi, respectively 21,33 pCi. The bigger part of the strontium 90 and cesium 137 intake comes from the bread, accounting for 4,85 pCi stroncium 90 and 5,08 to 7,0 pCi cesium 137. (author)

  10. Comparison of inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium, strontium, and transuranic elements from K-basin water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.; DesChane, J.R.

    1997-10-01

    The work presented in this report was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the Efficient Separations and Crosscutting Program (ESP), Office of Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this work was to investigate radionuclide uptake by several newly produced ion exchange materials under actual waste conditions, and to compare the performance of those materials with that of commercially available ion exchangers. The equilibrium uptake data presented in this report are useful for identifying potential materials that are capable of removing cesium and strontium from 105-KE Basin water. The data show the relative selectivities of the ion exchange materials under similar operating conditions. Additional flow studies are needed to predict material capacities and to develop complete ion exchange process flow sheets. The materials investigated in this study include commercially available ion exchangers such as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 (manufactured by UOP), clinoptilolite (a naturally occurring zeolite), and materials produced on an experimental basis by AlliedSignal (biotites and nonatitanates), 3M (hexacyanoferrates), Selion Technologies, Inc. (hexacyanoferrates and titanates), and Texas A&M University (pharmacosiderites, biotites, and nonatitanates). In all, the performance of 14 ion exchange materials was evaluated at two solution-to-exchanger mass ratios (i.e., 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5}) using actual 105-KE Basin water. Evaluation consisted of determining cesium and strontium batch distribution coefficients, loading, and decontamination factors. Actual 105-KE Basin water was obtained from a sample collected during the sludge dissolution work conducted by PNNL in FY 1996. This sample was taken from the bottom of the basin and contained significantly higher concentrations of the radioactive constituents than do samples taken from the top of the basin.

  11. Comparison of inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium, strontium, and transuranic elements from K-basin water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.; DesChane, J.R.

    1997-10-01

    The work presented in this report was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the Efficient Separations and Crosscutting Program (ESP), Office of Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this work was to investigate radionuclide uptake by several newly produced ion exchange materials under actual waste conditions, and to compare the performance of those materials with that of commercially available ion exchangers. The equilibrium uptake data presented in this report are useful for identifying potential materials that are capable of removing cesium and strontium from 105-KE Basin water. The data show the relative selectivities of the ion exchange materials under similar operating conditions. Additional flow studies are needed to predict material capacities and to develop complete ion exchange process flow sheets. The materials investigated in this study include commercially available ion exchangers such as IONSIV reg-sign IE-911 (manufactured by UOP), clinoptilolite (a naturally occurring zeolite), and materials produced on an experimental basis by AlliedSignal (biotites and nonatitanates), 3M (hexacyanoferrates), Selion Technologies, Inc. (hexacyanoferrates and titanates), and Texas A ampersand M University (pharmacosiderites, biotites, and nonatitanates). In all, the performance of 14 ion exchange materials was evaluated at two solution-to-exchanger mass ratios (i.e., 10 4 and 10 5 ) using actual 105-KE Basin water. Evaluation consisted of determining cesium and strontium batch distribution coefficients, loading, and decontamination factors. Actual 105-KE Basin water was obtained from a sample collected during the sludge dissolution work conducted by PNNL in FY 1996. This sample was taken from the bottom of the basin and contained significantly higher concentrations of the radioactive constituents than do samples taken from the top of the basin

  12. Removal of cesium and separation of strontium the analysis of the leachate of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2002-01-01

    The selective removal of cesium by ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) was studied in order to reduce an interference by high radioactivity of cesium on the determination of low radioactive elements in leachate of spent fuel. The removal of Cs, U, Ce, La, Co, Na Sr and K was investigated for the leachate and the bentonite in contact with a spent fuel. More than 90% of cesium was removed by AMP and Ca, Na, Co and Sr was remained in 0.1M HNO 3 . However, three valence elements such as La and Ce were also removed by AMP. Though a little of potassium of the bentonite components was adsorbed on AMP, the potassium in the bentonite solution diluted to its concentration in a real sample would not affect the capacity of AMP greatly. From another experiment for the separation of strontium as a leaching indicator of spent fuel, the recovery of strontium in 8.0 M HNO 3 solution by using Sr-resin (Eichrom, P/N SR-B50-A) was more than 95% by eluting with 0.05 M HNO 3

  13. Investigations into the transfer of cesium 137 and strontium 90 in selected exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemmelt, R.; Hiersche, L.; Wirth, E.

    1991-12-01

    This research project investigates the behaviour of radiocesium and strontium 90 in natural conifer forest sites and derives corresponding transfer factors for radioecological calculations. As a point of particular interest the question was investigated in how far the requirements of the different mushroom species and the properties of the forest soil bear on the dynamics and transfer rate of radiocesium and strontium 90. To complement the investigations, autotrophic plants were included. The results of these studies are compared with the behaviour of the same radionuclides on farmland. The differences are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Dynamic modeling of the cesium, strontium, and ruthenium transfer to grass and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, P.; Real, J.; Maubert, H.; Roussel-Debet, S.

    1999-01-01

    From 1988 to 1993, the Nuclear Safety and Protection Institute (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire -- IPSN) conducted experimental programs focused on transfers to vegetation following accidental localized deposits of radioactive aerosols. In relation to vegetable crops (fruit, leaves, and root vegetables) and meadow grass these experiments have enabled a determination of the factors involved in the transfer of cesium, strontium, and ruthenium at successive harvests, or cuttings, in respect of various time lags after contamination. The dynamic modeling given by these results allows an evaluation of changes in the mass activity of vegetables and grass during the months following deposit. It constitutes part of the ASTRAL post-accident radioecology model

  15. Cesium-134 and strontium-85 turnover rates in the centipede Scolopocryptops nigridia McNeill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, L.R.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1979-07-01

    Radioactive tracers are providing significant information about the ecology of food chains, including such phenomena as accumulation of radioactive fission products, movement of materials along food chains, assimilation and ingestion rates, and nutrient accumulation and turnover. In this study the ingestion, assimilation and turnover to two radioactive tracers were investigated for Scolopocryptops nigridia, an abundant species in forests of the southeastern United States. The two tracers utilized, cesium-134 and strontium-85, are metabolic analogs of potassium and calcium, respectively. The research was performed as part of a larger investigation on the population ecology of the centipede species, emphasizing its relations to nutrient cycling and energy flow in a forest floor system

  16. Immobilization of strontium and cesium in intermediate-level liquid wastes by solidification in cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, G.; Koester, R.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerated leach test at elevated temperature has been developed which gives intercomparable results within one day. It is very useful for product quality control at large throughputs. Using this test, it has been shown that cesium leachabilities from cement products containing a simulated waste typical of fuel reprocessing plants can be reduced by addition of a bentonite. Addition of barium silicate hydrate retards strontium leaching in these cements. Leach rates in tap water and in salt brine are lower than in distilled water and sodium chloride solution

  17. Behavior of strontium-90 and cesium-137 released into the pond of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milintawisamai, Mesak; Panyathipsakul, Yureeporn

    1989-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in liquid waste released from the waste disposal plant of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace(OAEP) have been followed since 1984. The concentration of both nuclides in surface water outside OAEP boundary is 2 to 30 times less than in the OAEP pond, the reservoir of liquid waste. This indicates that most of the nuclides are effectively absorbed by clay in the bottom of the pond. The nuclide concentration in fresh-water organisms in the pond such as fish, prawn and snail is also investigated to elucidate the behavior of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a static fresh-water ecological system

  18. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in raw milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Under the commission of Science and Technology Agency, prefectural public health laboratories and institutes and Japan Chemical Analysis Center have measured the levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk samples. Sampling was done as follows: 4 times of raw milk samples a year in 10 prefectures for the report to WHO, 2 times of raw milk samples a year in 4 prefectures; and 2 times of city milk samples a year in 29 prefectures. Three litters of fresh milk were collected and carbonated in the prefectural public health laboratories and institutes of each prefecture, and the carbonated samples were collected at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. At Japan Chemical Analysis Center, these collected samples were radiochemically analysed for 90 Sr and 137 Cs using the method applied for the analysis of the radionuclides contents in total diet materials. (author)

  19. Dynamics of cesium and strontium radionuclides in macrolichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Martin, L.; Nifontova, M.

    1994-04-01

    To investigate 137C s and 90S r fallout and migration in the system plant-soil macrolichens belonging to the Cetraria and Cladina genera were used. Systematic field collections were made in the Rumpo Botanical Sanctuary on Vormsi Island (West-Estonia n Archipelago Biosphere Reserve, WEABR) and in the Koljaku Reserve (Lahemaa National Park, LNP) during 1986-90. (author). 2 figs

  20. Sorption and diffusion of cobalt, strontium, cesium and americium in natural fissure surfaces and drill core cups studied by autoradiography, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnioja, S.; Kaemaeraeinen, E.L.; Jaakkola, T.; Siitari, M.; Muuronen, S.; Lindberg, A.

    1985-06-01

    A method based on autoradiography was developed to determine the diffusion of radionuclides into the rock matrix. To investigate the diffusion the samples, which has been in contact with radioactive tracer solution up to 6 months, were splitted by sawing. From the autoradiograms of the cross sections the penetration depths of radionuclides were determined and the apparent diffusion coefficient Dsup(a) calculated. The filled and unfilled natural fissure surfaces chosen to this study were bars of drilling cores and drill core cups of tonalite, mica gneiss and rapakivi granite. After contact time of 3 months the highest penetration depths of cesium were observed for natural fissure surface sample of rapakivi granite up to 2.5 mm and of mica gneiss up to 3.7 mm. For strontium the penetration depths of 6 mm and 11 mm for unfilled and filled natural fissure samples of rapakivi granite were found. Dsup(a)-values for cesium varied between 1.5 x 10 -15 and 3.2 x 10 -14 , for strontium between 3.5 x 10 -14 and 2.1 x 10 -13 m 2 /s. D-value obtained for cobalt (drill core cup sample, tonalite) was 5.4 x 10 -17 m 2 /s. 241 Am was only sorbed on the surface of the sample and thus no apparent diffusion coefficient could be calculated. Filling materials, chlorite and secondary minerals in tonalite and rapakivi granite increased diffusion into the mother rock. Radionuclides were sorbed both into the filling material and through fillers into the rock matrix. Cs and Sr penetrated though calcite filling material in mica gneiss into the mother rock. Calcite didn't influence on diffusion of radionuclides. Penetration depths of Cs and Sr were about the same for filled and unfilled samples

  1. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in total diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Under the commission of Science and Technology Agency, prefectural public health laboratories and institutes and Japan Chemical Analysis Center have collected total diet samples, and determined the contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in these samples. Thirty-two prefectural public health laboratories and institutes have collected 2 times a year all the daily regular diet consumed for five persons, namely three meals and other eating between them. These samples were collected at Japan Chemical Analysis Center after carbonization without smoke rising. At Japan Chemical Analysis Center, these samples were ashed in an electric muffle furnace. And the ash to which both some carriers were added were destroyed with hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. The nuclides were dissolved into hydrochloric acid and filtrated, after it was added with nitric acid. The nuclides were dissolved into hydrochloric acid and filtrated, after it was added with nitric acid. The samples solution including radionuclides was extracted with hydrochloric acid and water, and 90 Y which reached radioactive equivallence to 90 Sr, and 137 Cs were chemically separated from it. And the radioactivity was measured with low back ground beta-ray spectrometer. (author)

  2. Decontamination of evaporator concentrated for cesium, strontium and transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Eymard, S.; Gambade, R.; La Rosa, G.; Casas i Garcia, J.

    1992-01-01

    Reprocessing produces medium activity liquid wastes. These wastes are evaporated, the distillate is discharged into the environment and all active and inactive salts are concentrated, leading to an important volume of wastes. The objective of this work is to separate long-lived radionuclides into a small volume addressed to a geological formation from the large volume of the concentrate, this concentrate after embedding is disposed on surface site. Supported liquid membranes (S.L.M.s) are used because they enable us to use low inventory of organic phase, hence to use very sophisticated and expensive extractants. To confirm the results obtained with simulated wastes, tests were carried out with genuine concentrate using two S.L.M.s: the first one with CMPO/TBP diluted in decalin, the second one impregnated by the mixture DC18-C-6/decanol/hexylbenzene. The decontamination factor (DF) achieved for actinides is about 100 with the CMPO/TBP SLM. The DF is increased by the second membrane: after treatment with crown ether SLM, the total DF is higher than 400

  3. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea water from July, 1981, to January, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Sea water was collected at fixed stations where the effect of terrestrial fresh water from rivers was expected to be negligibly small. Weather conditions were also considered, and the sampling was carried out after a few days in which rain did not fall. Attention was paid to avoid the contamination in sampling and storing. The sample was stored in 20 l polyethylene containers in the acidified state of pH lower than 3. 200 ml of sea water was also collected at the same stations for the determination of chlorinity. The radiochemical separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 was performed, and the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using low background beta counters normally for 60 min. Net sample counting rates were corrected to obtain the content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 radioactivity per sample aliquot, and concentrations of these nuclides in the original sample were calculated. The maximum values obtained were 0.16 pCi/l of Sr-90 in Osaka-bay and 0.17 pCi/l of Cs-137 in Mutsu-bay in August, 1981. (Kako, I.)

  4. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water from December, 1981, to July, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Service water, 100 liters each, was collected at an intake of a water-treatment plant and at a tap after water was left running for five minutes. Water, to which the carriers of strontium and cesium were added immediately after sampling, was vigorously stirred and filtered. The sample was then passed through a cation exchange column. After radiochemical separation, the precipitates were counted for the activity using a low-background beta counter, normally for 60 min. The measuring techniques are first described; i.e. the collection and pretreatment of samples, the preparation of samples for analysis, the separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, and the counting. The measured results are given in a table for the following locations: source water - Tokyo, Osaka, Hokkaido, Kyoto, Kanagawa, Aichi, Fukuoka; tap water - Hokkaido, Akita, Fukushima, Tokyo, Fukui, Shizuoka, Shimane, Okayama, Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kyoto, Wakayama, Okinawa, Hiroshima, Aomori, Yamagata, Ibaraki, Kanagawa, Niigata, Ishikawa, Nagano, Aichi, Osaka, Hyogo, Tottori, Yamaguchi, Ehime, Kochi, Kagoshima. (Mori, K.)

  5. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea sediments from July, 1981, to January, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Sediment was collected in the same area as that of sea water sampling, taking the following criteria into account: the depth of water exceeds 1 m at low tide, no significant sedimental movement is observed in the vicinity of concern, mud, silt and fine sand are preferable. A conventional sediment sampling device was used for collecting a top few cm of surface sediment. Approximately 4 kg of the sample in wet weight was spread on a large porcelain dish and dried in an electric oven to a constant weight. After removal of pebbles, shells and other foreign matters, the sediment sample was dried in a hot air oven, and ground finely with a mortar. The sample was passed through a 20 mesh sieve, and heated in the presence of strontium and cesium carriers with sodium hydroxide. Then it was heated with hydrochloric acid, and the radiochemical separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 was performed. The mounted precipitates were counted for activity, and after the correction of net counting rates, concentrations of these nuclides were calculated. The maximum values obtained were 22 pCi/kg of Sr-90 and 220 pCi/kg of Sc-137 in Mutsu-bay in August, 1981. (Kako, I.)

  6. Study of cesium and strontium adsorption on slovak bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.

    2010-01-01

    Bentonite is a natural clay and one of the most promising candidates for use as a buffer material in the geological disposal systems for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. It is intended to isolate metal canisters with highly radioactive waste products from the surrounding rocks because of its ability to retard the movement of radionuclides by adsorption. Slovak Republic avails of many significant deposits of bentonite. Adsorption of Cs and Sr on five Slovak bentonite of deposits (Jelsovy potok, Kopernica, Lieskovec, Lastovce and Dolna Ves) and montmorillonite K10 (Sigma-Aldrich) has been studied with the using batch of radiometric techniques. Natural, irradiated and natrified samples, in three different kinds of grain size: 15, 45 and 250 μm have been used in the experiments. The adsorptions of Cs and Sr on bentonite under various experimental conditions, such as contact time, adsorbent and adsorbate concentrations, pH after adsorption and effect of pH change, chemical modification, competitive ions and organic agents on the adsorption have been studied. The K d have been determined for adsorbent-Cs/Sr solution system as a function of contact time and adsorbate and adsorbent concentration. The data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption of Cs and Sr has increased with increasing metal concentrations. Adsorption of Cs and Sr has been suppressed by presence of organic agents; and of bivalent cations more than univalent cations. By adsorption on natrified samples colloidal particles and pH value increase have been formed. Adsorption experiments carried out show that the most suitable materials intended for use as barriers surrounding a canister of spent nuclear fuel are bentonite of the Jelsovy potok and Kopernica deposits. (author)

  7. Feasibility study for the processing of Hanford Site cesium and strontium isotopic sources in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Watrous, R.A.; Nelson, J.L.; Perez, J.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1991-09-01

    The final environmental impact statement for the disposal of defense-related wastes at the Hanford Site (Final Environmental Impact Statement: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes [HDW-EIS] [DOE 1987]) states that the preferred alternative for disposal of cesium and strontium wastes at the Hanford Site will be to package and ship these wastes to the commercial high-level waste repository. The Record of Decision for this EIS states that before shipment to a geologic repository, these wastes will be packaged in accordance with repository waste acceptance criteria. However, the high cost per canister for repository disposal and uncertainty about the acceptability of overpacked capsules by the repository suggest that additional alternative means of disposal be considered. Vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) has been identified as a possible alternative to overpacking. Subsequently, Westinghouse Hanford Company's (Westinghouse Hanford) Projects Technical Support Office undertook a feasibility study to determine if any significant technical issues preclude the vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts. Based on the information presented in this report, it is considered technically feasible to blend the cesium chloride and strontium fluoride salts with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and/or complexant concentrate (CC) waste feedstreams, or to blend the salts with fresh frit and process the waste through the HWVP

  8. Removal efficiency of water purifier and adsorbent for iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Kudo, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    The severe incident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has caused radioactive contamination of environment including drinking water. Radioactive iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium are hazardous fission products because of the high yield and/or relatively long half-life. In the present study, 4 pot-type water purifiers and several adsorbents were examined for the removal effects on these elements from drinking water. Iodide, iodate, cesium and barium were removed by all water purifiers with efficiencies about 85%, 40%, 75-90% and higher than 85%, respectively. These efficiencies lasted for 200 l, which is near the recommended limits for use of filter cartridges, without decay. Strontium was removed with initial efficiencies from 70% to 100%, but the efficiencies were slightly decreased by use. Zirconium was removed by two models, but hardly removed by the other models. Synthetic zeolite A4 efficiently removed cesium, strontium and barium, but had no effect on iodine and zirconium. Natural zeolite, mordenite, removed cesium with an efficiency as high as zeolite A4, but the removal efficiencies for strontium and barium were far less than those of zeolite A4. Activated carbon had little removal effects on these elements. In case of radioactive contamination of tap water, water purifiers may be available for convenient decontamination of drinking water in the home.

  9. Transfer of some artificial (strontium 85 and caesium 137) and natural (potasium 40 and radium 226) radionuclides from milk to its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2004-12-01

    Transfer of some artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 85 Sr) and natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra and 40 K) from milk (cheep and cows) to its products processed according to local manufacturing procedures (home made cheese, kashkawan cheese, shelal cheese, haloom cheese, kareshah cheese, sharkasiah cheese, liquid cheese, yogurt, butter and keshdah) has been studied. The results showed that the retention percent of radium 226 in milk products has reached %100 in the home made cheese and %72 for strontium 85 in the shelal cheese and %40 for cesium 137 in yogurt and %46 for potassium 40 also in yogurt. In addition, most of the retention percent ratios of the studied radionuclides in yogurt were relatively low (about %25 and % 40 in the yogurt processed from the milk of the cows and cheep respectively) with a high processing efficiency, so that making yogurt from the contaminated milk is the best way to reduce the contamination ratio and to make use of the contaminated milk. Furthermore, home made cheese was processed with salty solutions of different concentrations and the results showed that about %90 of cesium and potassium has transferred to the salty solution of %5 soaked for 48 hours, while %40 of the radium and %80 of strontium were removed from the contaminated cheese after 48 hours soaking in a salty solution of %2.5. However, the results of the present work can be used for processing of contaminated milk with artificial radionuclides in order to be utilized. (Authors)

  10. Column studies of strontium and cesium migration in a granular geologic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, W.D.; Gilham, R.W.; Cherry, J.A.

    1981-06-01

    Infinite-pulse, miscible-displacement experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of batch Ksub(d) values in the prediction of reactive solute transport during dynamic flow through porous media. Non-reactive tracers (chloride, tritium and oxygen-18), and the reactive tracers (strontium-85 and cesium-137) were passed through a column 5.0 cm long and 6.5 cm in diameter packed with a medium to fine sand. The effluent concentrations of the nonreactive solutes were accurately predicted using the advection-dispersion equation; however, there were large discrepancies between the measured and predicted effluent concentrations for both reactive species. Good agreement was obtained between the measured and computed results by incorporating an empirical isotherm into the advection-dispersion model

  11. Selective removal of cesium and strontium using porous frameworks from high level nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Briana; Banerjee, Debasis; Nie, Zimin; Shin, Yongsoon; Ma, Shengqian; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2016-05-01

    Efficient and cost-effective removal of radioactive (137)Cs and (90)Sr found in spent fuel is an important step for safe, long-term storage of nuclear waste. Solid-state materials such as resins and titanosilicate zeolites have been assessed for the removal of Cs and Sr from aqueous solutions, but there is room for improvement in terms of capacity and selectivity. Herein, we report the Cs(+) and Sr(2+) exchange potential of an ultra stable MOF, namely, MIL-101-SO3H, as a function of different contact times, concentrations, pH levels, and in the presence of competing ions. Our preliminary results suggest that MOFs with suitable ion exchange groups can be promising alternate materials for cesium and strontium removal.

  12. Development of cementitious grouts for the incorporation of radioactive wastes. Part 2. Continuation of cesium and strontium leach studies. [Hydrofracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.G.

    1976-09-01

    Additional leach studies were completed on the leachability of cesium and strontium from simulated hydrofracture grout. These studies followed the test method proposed by IAEA or a modification which exposed smaller specimens with a higher surface-to-volume ratio to a larger volume of leachant. Results showed that the amount of cesium or strontium leached from the grout varied directly with the degree of drying during curing and inversely with the time of curing. The leachability also depends on the composition of the leachant and varies in the order: distilled water greater than tap water greater than grout water. The total waste concentration had little effect on the leachability of either cesium or strontium. The credibility of the laboratory results was substantiated by a short-term continuous leach test made on a fragment of a core sample of actual hydrofracture grout. The modified effective diffusivities (10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -10/ cm/sup 2//s) calculated from these limited data were comparable to those obtained from laboratory studies containing Grundite clay. These tests also confirmed the effect of various clays on the leachability of cesium and the importance of leachant renewal frequency on the leach rate.

  13. Selective cesium and strontium removal for TRU-liquid waste including fission products and concentrated nitric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimori, T.; Miyajima, K.; Kozeki, M.; Kubota, T.; Tusa, E.; Keskinen, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nuclide removal system was designed for treatment of liquid radioactive waste at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) Tokai site. Total system will include removal of plutonium, cesium and strontium. Removal of plutonium will be carried out by a method developed by JAERI. Removal of cesium and strontium will be carried out by the methods developed in Finland. The whole project will be implemented for JAERI in cooperation between Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding and IVO International. This project has been carried out under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan. The liquid to be treated includes 7.4x10 9 Bq/L of cesium and 7.4x10 9 Bq/L of strontium. The amount of alpha nuclides is 3.7x10 6 Bq/L. Nitric acid concentration is 1.74 mol/L. The volume of 11,000 liters had to be treated in 200 batches of operation. Removal of cesium and strontium is based on the use of new ion exchange materials developed in Finland. These inorganic ion exchange materials have extremely good properties to separate cesium and strontium from even very difficult liquids. Ion exchange material will be used in columns, where there are materials both for cesium and strontium. According to column tests with simulated waste, one 2 liter column will effectively reach the required DF during 10 batches of operation. Purified liquid can be led to further liquid treatment at the site. After treatment of liquids, both used particle filters and used ion exchange columns will be drained and stored to wait for final treatment and disposal. The designed treatment system has a special beneficial feature as it does not produce secondary waste. Final waste is in the form of particle filters or ion exchange columns with material. Used ion exchange columns and filters will be replaced with new ones by means of remote handling. Construction of the treatment system will be scheduled to commence in FY1995 and assemblying at the site in FY1996. (J.P.N.)

  14. Prognostication of the radioactive contamination with iodine 131, strontium 90 and cesium 137 of the air and soil after commissioning the ''Kozloduj'' nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, M; Paskalev, Z [Nauchno-Izsledovatelski Inst. po Radiologiya i Radiatsionna Khigiena, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1975-01-01

    The content of iodine 131, strontium 90 and cesium 137 in the air (curie/l) and soil (curie/m/sup 2/ sec) in the area of the Kozloduj atomic power station (at a distance from 3 to 75 km from the chimney-stack of the power station) was determined. The concentrations of these radionuclides are determined under different meteorologic conditions: air temperature from -20/sup 0/C to +20/sup 0/C and a wind speed from 2 m/sec to 30 m/sec. The data show that at -20/sup 0/C radionuclide concentrations in the air decrease with increasing distance from the chimney-stack, regardless of the speed of the wind. At +20/sup 0/C radionuclide concentrations in the air increase with the distance from the chimney-stack, peak at a definite distance and then decrease. At 2 m/sec and speed this maximum is at a distance of 50 km from station. As the speed of the air increases, the peak moves nearer and remains about 30 km from the power station. Results on ground surface concentrations show that a trend is observed toward persistent decrease with distance from the power station. In rainy weather they are almost four times higher than in dry weather. The radionuclide concentrations on the ground surface will be comparable to their global deposits.

  15. Recent developments in nanostructured inorganic materials for sorption of cesium and strontium: Synthesis and shaping, sorption capacity, mechanisms, and selectivity-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alby, Delhia; Charnay, Clarence; Heran, Marc; Prelot, Bénédicte; Zajac, Jerzy

    2018-02-15

    Liquid wastes containing non-ferrous heavy metal ions and some radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 Sr in particular, represent one of the most dangerous sources of environmental contamination. The remediation of wastewater containing such pollutants continue to be among the biggest challenges of Sustainable Development and Environmental Safety. Sorption-based technologies have proven their efficiency also in reducing the radionuclide content in aqueous streams to low-level residual activity, with the concomitant decrease in the amount of ultimate solid waste generated. Although sorption of cesium and strontium by resins, clays, and zeolites has been investigated intensively and even used in real applications, there is still considerable scope for improvement in terms of retention capacity and selectivity. Recent progress in design and preparation of nanostructured inorganic materials has attracted growing interest based on the potential for improving the retention performance when coupling such functionalities as ion exchange capacity, structural flexibility that may result in steric retention effects, as well as the propensity to interact specifically with the target metal cations. Titanate, vanadate, and tungsten based materials, manganese oxides, hexacyanoferrates, metal sulfides, ammonium molybdophosphates, or hydroxyapatite, characterized by various structures and morphologies, are reviewed with the emphasis being put on synthesis and shaping of such materials, their structure in relationship with the capacity and selectivity of trapping cesium and strontium from either single or multi-component aqueous solutions, as well as the possible retention mechanism. The potential candidates for remediation uses are selected with regard to their sorption capacity and distribution coefficient towards target cations, and also the pH window for an optimum cation capture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of Cesium and Strontium sorption in Brazilian clays for their use as a barrier in repositories of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Carolina Braccini

    2007-01-01

    Wastes in general should be properly treated and stored. Then the radioactive wastes also require suitable and safe management beginning in their generation until the storage in repository. The main purpose of the radioactive waste management is to preserve the human beings and the environment. The objective of this research was to characterize some Brazilian clays in order to evaluate the viability of their use in the backfill layer, one of the radioactive waste repository barriers. The main function of this barrier is to contribute in the delay of the radionuclides movement, and to prevent their release into the environment. Four clays provided by national suppliers were selected for the research: Ca-Montmorillonite (Dol 01), Na-Montmorillonite (Dol 02), Kaolinite (Ind 01) and Vermiculite (Ubm 04). Their physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics were determined, and also their sorption potential of Cesium and Strontium cations. It was confirmed through these results a direct relationship among their specific surface (SS), the capacity of cationic exchange (CCE) and pH. The CCE results followed this increasing order: Ind 01, Dol 01, and Dol 02. In accordance with the models of Freundlich (KJ) and Langmuir (M), the clays Dol 01 and Dol 02 were the best sorbers of Sr 2+ . The Ind 01 and Ubm 04 were the best ones in the case of Cs + . The Gibbs free energy change (ΔG deg) was calculated for the sorption reactions between the clays and the cations, and it was negative for all clays, confirming the sorption reaction spontaneity. (author)

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE TITANATE ION EXCHANGE LOADED MEMBRANES FOR STRONTIUM, CESIUM AND ACTINIDE DECONTAMINATION FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L; Keisha Martin, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    We have successfully incorporated high surface area particles of titanate ion exchange materials (monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate) with acceptable particle size distribution into porous and inert support membrane fibrils consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon{reg_sign}), polyethylene and cellulose materials. The resulting membrane sheets, under laboratory conditions, were used to evaluate the removal of surrogate radioactive materials for cesium-137 and strontium-90 from high caustic nuclear waste simulants. These membrane supports met the nominal requirement for nonchemical interaction with the embedded ion exchange materials and were porous enough to allow sufficient liquid flow. Some of this 47-mm size stamped out prototype titanium impregnated ion exchange membrane discs was found to remove more than 96% of dissolved cesium-133 and strontium-88 from a caustic nuclear waste salt simulants. Since in traditional ion exchange based column technology monosodium titanate (MST) is known to have great affinity for the sorbing of other actinides like plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, we expect that the MST-based membranes developed here, although not directly evaluated for uptake of these three actinides because of costs associated with working with actinides which do not have 'true' experimental surrogates, would also show significant affinity for these actinides in aqueous media. It was also observed that crystalline silicotitanate impregnated polytetrafluoroethylene or polyethylene membranes became less selective and sorbed both cesium and strontium from the caustic aqueous salt simulants.

  18. Bentonite-Clay Waste Form for the Immobilization of Cesium and Strontium from Fuel Processing Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mertz, Carol J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The physical properties of a surrogate waste form containing cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium sintered into bentonite clay were evaluated for several simulant feed streams: chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol (CCD-PEG) strip solution, nitrate salt, and chloride salt feeds. We sintered bentonite clay samples with a loading of 30 mass% of cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium to a density of approximately 3 g/cm3. Sintering temperatures of up to 1000°C did not result in volatility of cesium. Instead, there was an increase in crystallinity of the waste form upon sintering to 1000ºC for chloride- and nitrate-salt loaded clays. The nitrate salt feed produced various cesium pollucite phases, while the chloride salt feed did not produce these familiar phases. In fact, many of the x-ray diffraction peaks could not be matched to known phases. Assemblages of silicates were formed that incorporated the Sr, Rb, and Ba ions. Gas evolution during sintering to 1000°C was significant (35% weight loss for the CCD-PEG waste-loaded clay), with significant water being evolved at approximately 600°C.

  19. Quantitative analysis on dose to humans as a result of consuming tuna fish contaminated by cesium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khani, J.; Donev, J.M.K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative empirical data is presented on the dose exposure to North Americans consuming tuna fish that have accumulated concentrations of radioactive isotopes. The two particular radioactive isotopes of interest are cesium-137 and cesium-134. Though biological effects of radiation are a widely debatable topic, the consumption of tuna fish does not support significant increased risk of cancer to humans. An important comparison is made between the elevated levels of radioactive cesium concentrations to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely potassium-40 and polonium-210. It is calculated that naturally occurring radioactive isotopes are in the orders of magnitude greater than the cesium radionuclides in tuna fish. (author)

  20. Quantitative analysis on dose to humans as a result of consuming tuna fish contaminated by cesium radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khani, J.; Donev, J.M.K.C., E-mail: jykhani@ucalgary.ca, E-mail: jason.donev@ucalgary.ca [Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative empirical data is presented on the dose exposure to North Americans consuming tuna fish that have accumulated concentrations of radioactive isotopes. The two particular radioactive isotopes of interest are cesium-137 and cesium-134. Though biological effects of radiation are a widely debatable topic, the consumption of tuna fish does not support significant increased risk of cancer to humans. An important comparison is made between the elevated levels of radioactive cesium concentrations to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely potassium-40 and polonium-210. It is calculated that naturally occurring radioactive isotopes are in the orders of magnitude greater than the cesium radionuclides in tuna fish. (author)

  1. Alginate enhances excretion and reduces absorption of strontium and cesium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idota, Yoko; Harada, Hitomi; Tomono, Takumi; Morimoto, Kaori; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Ogihara, Takuo; Kobayashi, Shoko; Miyajima, Chihiro; Kasahara, Fumiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Alginate (ALA), which is an intercellular polysaccharide associated with brown algae, is used as a food additive, a health food and a medicine. Here, we first examined the adsorption of strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs) by ALA in vitro, and then evaluated the effects of ALA on absorption and excretion of Sr and Cs in rats, in order to evaluate its potential usefulness for minimizing radiation damage from materials released after a nuclear accident. Both Sr and Cs were concentration-dependently adsorbed by sodium alginate (ALA-Na) in vitro. In rats given diet containing either ALA-Na or calcium alginate (ALA-Ca) for two weeks, the plasma concentration of Sr gradually decreased compared with the controls (normal diet); however, in the case of Cs, the plasma concentration was decreased only in the ALA-Ca group, but not the ALA-Na group. Moreover, we examined the effect of preadministration of diet containing either ALA-Na or ALA-Ca on absorption of Sr and Cs administered orally as the chloride salts to rats. Absorption of both Sr and Cs was reduced in the ALA-Ca group, while absorption of only Sr was reduced in the ALA-Na group. Safety assessments indicated that ALA-Ca is safer than ALA-Na. These results indicate that ALA-Ca reduces absorption and promotes excretion of both Sr and Cs, while ALA-Na does so only for Sr. (author)

  2. Leachability and thermal properties of ceramic solid forms immobilizing cesium and/or strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, H.; Hirabayashi, T.; Ozawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    Solid forms immobilizing nuclides were prepared from Cs-mordenite and Sr-A zeolite by calcination at 1.200 deg C for 1 h. Cesium and strontium were fixed in the crystal phases of pollucite (CsAlSi 2 O 6 ) and Sr-feldspar (SrAl 2 Si 2 O 8 ), respectively. The leachability of Cs andSr was rather high in 0.1 M HNO 3 leachant, while the leached percentage was lowered in 0.1 M NaOH, 0.1 M NaCl and deionized water. The recrystallized phases formed on the surface after leaching in 0.1 M NaOH resulted in the lowering of the leachability of Cs and Sr. The thermal conductivities (κ) of solid forms of Cs-MOR, Sr-A, (Cs,Sr)-A and Al-matrix (calcined Cs-mordenite dispersed in Al metal matrix) were determined to be 0.83-1.00, 0.55-0.64, 0.83-1.01 and 47 W/(m·K), respectively. The central temperature of solid forms with the same diameter was in the order of Sr-A > Cs-MOR > Al-matrix. (author)

  3. Simultaneous solid phase extraction of cobalt, strontium and cesium from liquid radioactive waste using microcrystalline naphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, Mostafa Mohamed; Attallah, Mohamed Fathy; Metwally, Sayed Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Most of the procedures developed for the extraction of cobalt, strontium and cesium by solid phase extraction do not employ simultaneous extraction of them. In this study, rapid simultaneous removal of Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + on microcrystalline naphthalene as solid-phase extractant was investigated. These ions were allowed to form chelates with oxine and then adsorbed on freshly microcrystalline naphthalene from aqueous solutions. The solid phase extraction procedure (SPE) was optimized by using model solution containing Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + in batch system. The effects of different parameters such as variation in pH, reagent concentration, standing time, naphthalene solution concentration and contact time on the simultaneous removal of these ions was studied. The obtained results indicated that, sorption was found to be rapid, and the percentage removal of Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + was found to be 98, 79 and 68% within 10 min, respectively. The kinetics of the sorption process was investigated to understand the kinetic characteristics of sorption of metal chelates onto microcrystalline naphthalene. The developed procedure has been successfully applied to the removal and recovery of 60 Co and 134 Cs from liquid radioactive waste. The parameters can be used for designing a plant for treatment of wastewater economically.

  4. Determination of stable cesium and strontium in rice samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinuttrakul, W.; Yoshida, S.

    2017-06-01

    For long-term radiation dose assessment models, food ingestion is one of the major exposure pathways to human. In general, the stable isotopes can serve as analogues of radioisotopes. In this study, rice samples were collected from 30 paddy fields in Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et in the northeast of Thailand in November 2014. The concentrations of stable cesium (Cs-133) and strontium (Sr-88) in polished rice were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The standard reference material of rice flour (NIST 1568a) with spiked Cs and Sr was used to validate the analytical method. The concentration of Cs in polished rice from Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et was 0.158 ± 0.167 mg kg-1, 0.090 ± 0.117 mg kg-1 and 0.054 ± 0.031 mg kg-1, respectively. The concentration of Sr in polished rice from Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et was 0.351 ± 0.108 mg kg-1, 0.364 ± 0.215 mg kg-1 and 0.287 ± 0.102 mg kg-1, respectively. Comparison of the results with Japanese data before the Fukushima Di-ichi nuclear power plant accident showed that the concentrations of both Cs and Sr for Thai rice were higher than those for Japanese rice.

  5. Determination of stable cesium and strontium in rice samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, W; Yoshida, S

    2017-01-01

    For long-term radiation dose assessment models, food ingestion is one of the major exposure pathways to human. In general, the stable isotopes can serve as analogues of radioisotopes. In this study, rice samples were collected from 30 paddy fields in Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et in the northeast of Thailand in November 2014. The concentrations of stable cesium (Cs-133) and strontium (Sr-88) in polished rice were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The standard reference material of rice flour (NIST 1568a) with spiked Cs and Sr was used to validate the analytical method. The concentration of Cs in polished rice from Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et was 0.158 ± 0.167 mg kg -1 , 0.090 ± 0.117 mg kg -1 and 0.054 ± 0.031 mg kg -1 , respectively. The concentration of Sr in polished rice from Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et was 0.351 ± 0.108 mg kg -1 , 0.364 ± 0.215 mg kg -1 and 0.287 ± 0.102 mg kg -1 , respectively. Comparison of the results with Japanese data before the Fukushima Di-ichi nuclear power plant accident showed that the concentrations of both Cs and Sr for Thai rice were higher than those for Japanese rice. (paper)

  6. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  7. Co-extraction of Strontium and Cesium by Dicyclohexano-18 Crown-6/25, 27-Bis(2- Propyloxy)Calix[4]-26, 28-Crown-6{sup ..}Cn-Octanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, W.L.; Wang, J.CH.; He, Q.G. [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, P.O. Box 1021, Beijing 102201 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The partitioning of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from high-level liquid waste(HLLW) is one of the important problems for the high-level waste volume reduction and the management of HLLW. The crown ether and calix-crown have the good extracting ability and selectivity to strontium and cesium respectively. Dicyclohexano-18Crown-6 (DCH18C-6) and 25, 27-Bis(2-propyloxy) Calix[4] -26, 28- Crown-6(IPR-C[4]C-6) were selected as extractants and n-octanol was selected as the common diluent to separate strontium and cesium from high-level liquid waste respectively in INET's Tsinghua University, China. But DCH18C- 6 and IPR-C[4]C-6 were used respectively in their processes to separate strontium and cesium. The strontium and cesium processes could be simplified if DCH18C-6 and IPR-C[4]C-6 processes are combined into one process to separate strontium and cesium together. In this paper, the co-extraction performance of strontium and cesium from nitric acid medium was studied by DCH18C-6 /IPR-C[4]C-6 and n-octanol as an diluent. Effects of extractant concentration, nitric concentration and temperature etc. on the extraction performance of strontium and cesium were studied. The results show that DCH18C-6 and IRP-C[4]C-6 in n-octanol has no synergistic extraction ability each other to strontium and cesium. Strontium and cesium were extracted independently by above two extractants. 0.1 mol/L DCH18C-6 and 0.025 mol/L /IPR-C[4]C-6 as extractants and n-octanol as a diluent were selected to separate strontium and cesium from HLLW. The cascade test in which was 10 stages for extraction, 2 stages for scrubbing and 8 stages for stripping was carried out on the miniature centrifugal contactor set. The results are the following: the removing ratios for strontium and cesium in the simulated HLLW were 98.93% and 99.93%, respectively; the stripping ratios of them were 99.80% and 99.79%, respectively. So the mixing extractants could be used to co-extract strontium and cesium from HLLW and

  8. Placental transfer of calcium and strontium and of their radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griessl, I.; Stieve, F.E.

    1987-11-01

    The first part of the report deals with the occurrence and the chemistry of strontium and its radioisotopes, and the second part discusses the calcium and the strontium metabolism in man. General information on the biology and physiology of the human skeleton is given in part 3, whereas part 4 again discusses the calcium and strontium metabolism in man, however with particular emphasis on the conditions during pregnancy and lactation. Part 5 presents an evaluation of the literature in this subject field, concentrating on results obtained with experimental animals such as cows, swine, dogs, guinea pigs, rats, and mice, and discusses the applicability of these findings to the conditions in man. An annex presents data on the yttrium metabolism in man and animal. (MG) [de

  9. Decontamination of spent ion-exchangers contaminated with cesium radionuclides using resorcinol-formaldehyde resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, Marina; Egorin, Andrey; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Marinin, Dmitry; Avramenko, Valentin

    2017-01-05

    The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The method of decontamination of spent ion-exchange resins and zeolites contaminated with cesium radionuclides employing selective resorcinol-formaldehyde resins has been suggested. Good prospects of such an approach in deep decontamination of spent ion exchangers have been demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of cesium and selenium in cultivated mushrooms using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, L.; Bumbalova, A.; Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.; Tomecek, O.

    2000-01-01

    Cesium and selenium intake of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), with these elements previously added to culture medium, has been examined from the viewpoint of health- and environmental protection. The process of measuring has been carried out by the radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique. Treatments of the elementary substance with Se salt appears to influence the Se content of the mushrooms to a significant extent. Cs intake is of considerable importance, as this element is accumulated by mushrooms. (author)

  11. Crystalline silicotitanates--new ion exchanger for selective removal of cesium and strontium from radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.; Klavetter, E.A.; Stephens, H.P.; Brown, N.E.; Anthony, R.G.

    1996-08-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchange material called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed for radioactive waste treatment in a collaborative effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University. The Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development program provided the initial funding for this effort and this report summarizes the rapid progress that was achieved. A wide range of compositions were synthesized, evaluated for cesium (Cs) removal efficiency, and a composition called TAM-5 was developed that exhibits high selectivity and affinity for Cs and strontium (Sr). Tests show it can remove parts per million concentrations of Cs + from highly alkaline, high-sodium, simulated radioactive waste solutions modeled after those at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. In experiments with solutions that simulate highly alkaline Hanford defense wastes, the crystalline silicotitanates exhibit distribution coefficients for Cs + of greater than 2,000 ml/g, and distribution coefficients greater than 10,000 ml/g for solutions adjusted to a pH between 1 and 10. In addition, the CSTs were found to exhibit distribution coefficients for Sr + greater than 100,000 ml/g and for plutonium of 2,000 ml/g from simulated Hanford waste. The CST crystal structure was determined and positions of individual atoms identified using x-ray and neutron diffraction. The structural information has permitted identification of the ion exchange sites and provided insights into the strong effect of pH on Cs ion exchange. Information on the synthesis, composition, and structure of CST is considered proprietary and is not discussed in this report

  12. Diffusion mechanisms of strontium, cesium and cobalt in compacted sodium bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Rantanen, J.; Penttilae-Hiltunen, P.

    1986-01-01

    For a porous water-saturated material where diffusion in the porewater, sorption on the solid material and diffusion of the sorbed ions (surface diffusion) occur, a diffusion equation can be derived where the apparent diffusivity includes two terms. One represents diffusion in the pore-water, the other surface diffusion. In this research diffusion mechanisms were studied. The apparent diffusivities of strontium, cesium and cobalt in compacted sodium bentonite were measured by a non-steady state method. The sorption factors were adjusted using different sodium chloride solutions, groundwater and addition of EDTA for saturation of the bentonite samples. The corresponding sorption factors were measured by a batch method. The results suggest that cations diffuse also while being sorbed. A combined pore diffusion-surface diffusion model has been used to explain the transport and the corresponding diffusivities have been evaluated. The surface diffusivities (D/sub s/) of Sr and Cs were 8-9 x 10 -12 m 2 /s and 4-7 x 10 -13 m 2 /s respectively. The pore diffusivity epsilon D/sub p/ of Cs was 3.5 x 10 -11 m 2 /s which has been used also for Sr. The sorption mechanisms of Co seems to be different from that of Sr or Cs and the results allow no specific conclusions of the diffusion mechanisms of Co. The apparent diffusivity of Co ranged from 2 x 10 -14 to 7 x 10 -14 m 2 /s. The anionic Co-EDTA seems to follow some other diffusion mechanism than the cations

  13. Identification of efficient chelating acids responsible for Cesium, Strontium and Barium complexes solubilization in mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borai, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper is focused to characterize the available multi dentate ligand species and their metal ion complexes of cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) formed with the parent chelators, complexing agents and its fragment products in mixed waste filtrate. The developed separation programs of different ligands by different mobile phases were based on the decrease of the effective charge of the anionic species in a differentiated way hence, the retention times on the stationary phases (AS-4A and AS-12A) are changed. Ion chromatographic (IC) analysis of the metal complexes showed that the carboxylic acids that are responsible for solubilizing Cs, Sr and Ba in the waste filtrate are NTA, Citrate and PDCA, respectively. Therefore, the predominant metal complexes in the filtrate at high ph are Cs (I)-NTA, Sr (IT)-Citrate and Ba (IT)-PDCA. Identification of the metal ion complexes responsible for solubilizing Cs, Sr and Ba was applied on the fresh and aged waste filtrates, to monitor their chemical behavior, which leads to increased control of the waste treatment process. Although, concentration measurements of both fresh and aged filtrates confirmed that the degradation process has occurred mainly due to a harsh chemical environment, the concentration of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Ba(II) increased slightly in the aged filterate compared with the fresh filtrate. This is due to the decomposition and/or degradation of their metal complexes and hence leads to free metal ion species in the filtrate. These observations indicate that the organic content of mixed waste filtrate is dynamic and need continuous analytical monitoring

  14. Cesium and strontium fractionation from HLW for thermal-stress reduction in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.

    1983-02-01

    Results are described for a study to assess the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic repository thermal stresses. System costs are developed for a broad range of conditions comparing the Cs/Sr fractionation concept with disposal of 10-year old vitrified HLW and vitrified HLW aged to achieve (through decay) the same heat output as the fractionated high-level waste (FHLW). All comparisons are based on a 50,000 metric ton equivalent (MTE) system. The FHLW and the Cs/Sr waste are both disposed of a vitrified waste but emplaced in separate areas of a basalt repository. The FHLW is emplaced in high-integrity packages at relatively high waste loading but low heat loading, while the Cs/Sr waste is emplaced in minimum integrity packages at relatively high heat loading. System cost comparisons are based on minimum cost combinations of canister diameter, waste concentration, and canister spacing in a basalt repository for each waste type. The effects on both long- and near-term safety considerations are also addressed. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers, potentially, a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However, there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or loser costs

  15. Effect of Temperature on the Removal of Cesium and Strontium Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Zeolite A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kamash, A.M.; El-Naggar, M.R.; El-Dessouky, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Ion exchange experiments between synthetic zeolite A and aqueous solutions of cesium and strontium ions were conducted at constant total ion concentrations of 0.1 N and at different temperatures in the range from 25 to 60 degree C. Thermodynamic equilibrium constants, calculated from the corresponding Kielland's plots, were used for the calculation of . δG degree δH degree and δS degree. The obtained data indicated that zeolite A exhibits higher affinity for Cs + and Sr +2 ions from solution than host Na + ions

  16. Web technology in the separation of strontium and cesium from INEL-ICPP radioactive acid waste (WM-185)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Brown, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium and cesium were successfully removed from radioactive acidic waste (WM-185) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), with web technology from 3M and IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. (IBC). A technical team from Pacific Northwest Laboratory, ICPP, 3M and IBC conducted a very successful series of experiments from August 15 through 18, 1994. The ICPP, Remote Analytical Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, provided the hot cell facilities and staff to complete these milestone experiments. The actual waste experiments duplicated the initial 'cold' simulated waste results and confirmed the selective removal provided by ligand-particle web technology

  17. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for removal of cesium and strontium from simulated and actual Hanford 241-AW-101 DSSF tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.

    1996-04-01

    A number of organic and inorganic exchangers are being developed and evaluated for cesium removal from Hanford tank wastes. The exchangers of interest that are investigated in this work include powdered (IONSIV reg-sign IE-910; referred to as IE-910) and engineered (IONSIV reg-sign IE-911; referred to as IE-911) forms of the crystalline silico-titanate (CST) inorganic sorbent developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/Texas A and M and prepared by UOP; a phenol-formaldehyde (CS-100) resin developed by Rohm and Haas; a resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) polymer developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and produced by Boulder Scientific; an inorganic zeolite exchanger produced by UOP (IONSIV reg-sign TIE-96; referred to as TIE-96); an inorganic sodium titanate produced by Allied Signal/Texas A and M (NaTi); and a macrocyclic organic resin developed and produced by IBC Advanced Technologies (SuperLig reg-sign 644; referred to as SL-644). Several of these materials are still under development and may not be in the optimal form. The work described in this report involves the direct comparison of the ion exchange materials for the pretreatment of actual and simulated Hanford tank waste. Data on the performance of all of the exchangers with simulated and actual double shell slurry feed (DSSF) is included. The DSSF waste is a mixture of the supernate from tanks 101-AW (70%), 106-AP (20%) and 102-AP (10%). The comparative parameters include radionuclide removal efficiency under a variety of conditions and material properties (e.g., bed density and percent removable water). Cesium and strontium distribution (K d ), lambda (λ = K d x ρ b ), and decontamination factors (DF) are compared as a function of exchanger contact duration, solution composition (Na and Cs concentration), exchanger/waste phase ratio, and multiple sequential contacts

  18. New composite fibres for natural and waste waters decontamination from cesium radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Bondar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available New composite adsorbent based on modified polyacrylonitrile fibers is synthesized by in situ deposition of potassium-nickel ferrocyanide layer on the fibers’ surface. It is shown that the ferrocyanide phase forms a compact homogeneous layer on the fibers’ surface consisted of rounded nanoaggregates (∼ 40 - 50 nm. Composite fibers are chemically stable in both acidic and alkaline solutions. Sorption experiments have demonstrated that synthesized fibers are high-selective adsorbents and can be used for the purification of natural waters and high-salt solutions from cesium radionuclides.

  19. Foliar uptake of cesium, iodine and strontium and their transfer to the edible parts of beans, potatoes and radishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, P.; Oestling, O.; Burkart, W.

    1988-01-01

    In the case of a nuclear fall-out the uptake of radionuclides via the leaves and the transfer to the edible parts is an important pathway in food contamination. After the Chernobyl accident cesium-activity was measured in fruits and nuts in Wuerenlingen. Considering the short time between fall-out and harvest, the activity which was found in some of these could hardly be explained by root-uptake in the amounts that they were present. Neither could the high content be explained by direct contamination since the fall-out occurred before development of the edible parts. Therefore it was concluded that the cesium has been taken up through the leaves

  20. [Distribution of rubidium, cesium, beryllium, strontium, and barium in blood and urine in general Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunguang; Pan, Yajuan; Zhang, Aihua; Zhu, Chun; Liu, Deye; Xu, Guang; Zheng, Yuxin; Yan, Huifang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), beryllium (Be), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba) in blood and urine in general Chinese population. A total of 18 120 subjects aged 6~60 years were enrolled from 24 regions in 8 provinces in Eastern, Central, and Western China from 2009 to 2010 based on the method of cluster random sampling. Questionnaire survey was conducted to collect the data on living environment and health status. Blood and urine samples were collected from these subjects, and the levels of Rb, Cs, Be, Sr, and Ba in these samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distribution of these elements in blood and urine in male or female subjects living in different regions was analyzed statistically. In the general Chinese population, the concentration of Be in the whole blood was below the detection limit (0.06 μg/L); the geometric mean (GM) of Ba in the whole blood was below the detection limit (0.45 μg/L), with the 95th percentile (P95)of 1.37 μg/L; the GMs (95% CI)of Rb, Cs, and Sr in the whole blood were 2 374(2 357~2 392) μg/L, 2.01 (1.98~2.05) μg/L, and 23.5 (23.3~23.7) μg/L, respectively; in males and females, the GMs (95%CI)of blood Rb, Cs, and Sr were 2 506 (2 478~2 533) μg/L and 2 248 (2 227~2 270) μg/L, 1.88 (1.83~1.94) μg/L and 2.16 (2.11~2.20) μg/L, and 23.4 (23.1~23.7) μg/L and 23.6 (23.3~23.9) μg/L, respectively(P0.05, and P>0.05). In the general Chinese population, the GM of urine Be was below the detection limit (0.06 μg/L), while the GMs (95%CI)of urine Rb, Cs, Sr, and Ba were 854 (836~873) μg/L, 3.65 (3.56~3.74) μg/L, 39.5 (38.4~40.6) μg/L, and 1.10 (1.07~1.12) μg/L, respectively; in males and females, the GMs (95%CI)of urine Rb, Cs, Sr, and Ba were 876 (849~904) μg/L and 832 (807~858) μg/L, 3.83 (3.70~3.96) μg/L and 3.47 (3.35~3.60) μg/L, 42.5 (40.9~44.2) μg/L and 36.6 (35.1~38.0) μg/L, and 1.15 (1.12~1.19) μg/L and 1.04 (1.01~1.07) μg/L, respectively (all P< 0

  1. Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Boris N.; Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M.; Lazarev, Leonard N.; Dzekun, Evgeniy G.; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.; Herbst, Ronald S.; Law, Jack D.

    2001-01-01

    Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

  2. Effects of experimental parameters on the sorption of cesium, strontium, and uranium from saline groundwaters onto shales: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.; O'Kelley, G.D.

    1988-11-01

    This report concerns an extension of the first series of experiments on the sorption properties of shales and their clay mineral components reported earlier. Studies on the sorption of cesium and strontium were carried out on samples of Chattanooga (Upper Dowelltown), Pierre, Green River Formation, Nolichucky, and Pumpkin Valley Shales that had been heated to 120/degree/C in a 0.1-mol/L NaCl solution for periods up to several months and on samples of the same shales which had been heated to 250/degree/C in air for six months, to simulate limiting scenarios in a HLW repository. To investigate the kinetics of the sorption process in shale/groundwater systems, strontium sorption experiments were done on unheated Pierre, Green River Formation, Nolichucky, and Pumpkin Valley Shales in a diluted, saline groundwater and in 0.03-mol/L NaHCO 3 , for periods of 0.25 to 28 days. Cesium sorption kinetics tests were performed on the same shales in a concentrated brine for the same time periods. The effect of the water/rock (W/R) ratio on sorption for the same combinations of unheated shales, nuclides, and groundwaters used in the kinetics experiments was investigated for a range of W/R ratios of 3 to 20 mL/g. Because of the complexity of the shale/groundwater interaction, a series of tests was conducted on the effects of contact time and W/R ratio on the pH of a 0.03-mol/L NaHCO 3 simulated groundwater in contact with shales. 8 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs

  3. Rapid determination of strontium radionuclides in plants, fodder and foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, D.; Haase, G.; Hartmann, R.; Jelinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The fission yield, the transfer factors in the food chain and the dose coefficient are large for the nuclear fission product Sr-90. The surveillance of Sr-90 in the food chain is therefore important in precautionary radiation protection and in assessing the radiation dose to the public especially after a nuclear incident. Prior to analysis, as it is a pure β-emitter, Sr must be separated from the sample by procedures which, for complex organic samples, are lengthy, laborious and dependent on operator skill. Ubiquitous natural radionuclides and short-lived fission products in samples contaminated with fresh fallout may interfere. Here we describe a fast, reproducible and efficient method for extracting Sr from grass, clover, maize, whole meal rye, baby food, and total diet. The method depends on obtaining an ash free of traces of organic interferences. Sr may be separated from a dilute nitric acid leachate of such ash with a solution of dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 in chloroform. Interfering radionuclides are removed with a special manganese (IV) oxide (active, precipitated from Merck). Sr is precipitated as carbonate then dispersed in a cocktail for liquid scintillation spectrometry. This allows simultaneous counting of Sr-89 (a short-lived β-emitter in fresh fallout) and Sr-90. The chemical yields of Sr determined with the gamma-emitting Sr-85 tracer are reproducible and greater than 75% in all cases. The sample ashing requires 18 h and the extraction 4.0 to 4.5 h. Thus, a duplicate analysis may be completed within 2 days of receipt of the sample. (orig.)

  4. A study of the properties of hexacyanoferrate sorbents and their use for sorption of caesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kareta, V.I.; Grivkova, A.I.; Artemova, T.N.; Mizina, L.I.; Krasavina, E.P.

    1997-01-01

    A method of deposition of zinc, copper, and nickel hexacyanaferrates on silica-containing substrate (clinoptilolite) has been developed to produce mechanically strong sorbents for cesium and strontium separation from solutions of different compositions. The modification of clinoptilolite increases its sorption capacity for both cesium and strontium. Sorption behaviour of radionuclides was studied both in static and kinetic conditions. (author). 21 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  5. Radiation from Radioactive Cesium (137 Cs) and Strontium (90Sr) Contaminated soil during the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Triggers Rice Immune Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, S.; Rakwal, R.; Agrawal, G. K.; Tamogami, S.; Kim, Y.H.; Shibato, J.; Sahoo, S. K.; Shiraishi, K.; Los, I. P.; Shevachuk, V. E.; Yonekura, M.; Iwahashi, H.

    2004-01-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 that exposed most of the population of the Northern hemisphere to various degrees of radiation, the public's perception of nuclear risk was completely changed. other than the obvious and much studied health impact, the agriculture and environmental impacts still pose a serious problem. Cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30.1 years, is the most important radionuclide left from Chernobyl's catastrophic explosion, and is present at high concentrations (activity, gamma-and beta-emitter) in the 0-5 cm soil layer. Strontium-90 (beta.emitter), which has a half-life of 29.1 years also constitutes a problem for plants. The effect of these radionuclides, and importantly show the radiation released therein affects plants has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that leaves of two-week-old rice (japonica-type c, Nipponbare) seedlings (that constitutes a well-established in-vitro assay system) would respond to radiation (from the contaminated soil from Masany. Belarus, with major radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 sr) by inducing various biochemical/molecular changes associated with the defense/stress response, including those involving mechanisms affecting the inactivation of damaging reactive oxygen specie. Rice (oryza sativa L.) is an enormously important food and monocot cereal crop research model whose draft genome sequence has recently been released. A molecular (northern analysis which provides a picture of the transcriptional changes of a particular gene), proteomics (two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is a powerful tool in understanding which proteins are present in particular tissue under given condition), and metabolomic (determining the metabolic profiles of metabolites induced during stress) approach was employed to monitor the changes in defense(stress-related (D/S-.r) genes, proteins (using 2-DE coupled with amino acid sequencing and immunoblotting) and metabolites (in particular

  6. Performance evaluation of 24 ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated N-Reactor storage basin water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the evaluation of 24 organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated waters from the 100 Area 105 N-Reactor fuel storage basin. The data described in this report can be applied for developing and evaluating ion exchange pre-treatment process flowsheets. Cesium and strontium batch distribution ratios (K{sub d}`s), decontamination factors (DF), and material loadings (mmol g{sup -1}) are compared as a function of ion exchange material and initial cesium concentration. The actual and simulated N-Basin waters contain relatively low levels of aluminum, barium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium (ranging from 8.33E-04 to 6.40E-05 M), with slightly higher levels of boron (6.63E-03 M) and sodium (1.62E-03 M). The {sup 137}Cs level is 1.74E-06 Ci L-{sup 1} which corresponds to approximately 4.87E-10 M Cs. The initial Na/Cs ratio was 3.33E+06. The concentration of total strontium is 4.45E-06 M, while the {sup 90}Sr radioactive component was measured to be 6.13E-06 Ci L{sup -1}. Simulant tests were conducted by contacting 0.067 g or each ion exchange material with approximately 100 mL of either the actual or simulated N-Basin water. The simulants contained variable initial cesium concentrations ranging from 1.00E-04 to 2.57E- 10 M Cs while all other components were held constant. For all materials, the average cesium K{sub d} was independent of cesium concentration below approximately 1.0E-06 M. Above this level, the average cesium K{sub d} values decreased significantly. Cesium K{sub d} values exceeding 1.0E+07 mL g{sup -1} were measured in the simulated N-Basin water. However, when measured in the actual N-Basin water the values were several orders of magnitude lower, with a maximum of 1.24E+05 mL g{sup -1} observed.

  7. Research of decreasing of the cesium radionuclides discharge in the course pouring of the liquid glass from furnace EhP-500/1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadovskij, B.F.; Borisov, N.B.; Dzekun, E.G.; Skobtsov, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    Cesium radionuclides discharge from the furnace liquid-glass discharge unit are studied and estimates of cesium emission from the glass melt by the stream flow-out and filling the waste storage capacity are performed. The ways for decreasing cesium discharges are indicated and new additional aerosol protection system for high-active glass discharge, providing for high protection efficiency is proposed. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Possible measures for stimulating the elimination of radioactive strontium and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volf, V.

    1987-01-01

    This review presents therapeutic methods which have been tested in man and can be recommended for clinical use. Oral administration of adsorptive substances such as barium sulfate, aluminum phosphate or alginate proved effective as a first aid means to block intestinal * Sr absorption, while dilution therapy with stable calcium or strontium may stimulate * Sr excretion. Oral administration of ferrihexacyanoferrate (Prussian Blue) represents the treatment of choice after incorporation of * Cs. Practical recommendations for Germany are concerned with the choice of a suitable preparation and its dosage as well as with the indications for treatment. (orig.) [de

  9. separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon N. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl and strontium chloride (SrCl2 from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8–5 mm/h and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl2 separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  10. Separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ammon n.; Pack, Michael [Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States); Phongikaroon, Spathorn [Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl) and strontium chloride (SrCl{sub 2}) from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8-5 mm/h) and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl{sub 2} separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  11. Water hyacinth for phytoremediation of radioactive waste simulate contaminated with cesium and cobalt radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phytoremediation of radioactive wastes containing 137 Cs and 60 Co radionuclides. ► Using water hyacinth for radioactive waste treatment. ► Bioaccumulation of radionuclides from radioactive waste streams. ► Factors affecting bioaccumulation of 137 Cs and 60 Co using floating plants. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is based on the capability of plants to remove hazardous contaminants present in the environment. This study aimed to demonstrate some factors controlling the phytoremediation efficiency of live floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), towards the effluents contaminated with 137 Cs and/or 60 Co. Cesium has unknown vital biological role for plant while cobalt is one of the essential trace elements required for plant. The main idea of this work i.e. using undesirable species, water hyacinth, in purification of radiocontaminated aqueous solutions has been receiving much attention. The controlling factors such as radioactivity concentration, pH values, the amount of biomass and the light were studied. The uptake rate of radiocesium from the simulated waste solution is inversely proportional to the initial activity content and directly proportional to the increase in mass of plant and sunlight exposure. A spiked solution of pH ≈ 4.9 was found to be the suitable medium for the treatment process. The uptake efficiency of 137 Cs present with 60 Co in mixed solution was higher than if it was present separately. On the contrary, uptake of 60 Co is affected negatively by the presence of 137 Cs in their mixed solution. Sunlight is the most required factor for the plant vitality and radiation resistance. The results of the present study indicated that water hyacinth may be a potential candidate plant of high concentration ratios (CR) for phytoremediation of radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 60 Co.

  12. Water hyacinth for phytoremediation of radioactive waste simulate contaminated with cesium and cobalt radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phytoremediation of radioactive wastes containing {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using water hyacinth for radioactive waste treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of radionuclides from radioactive waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co using floating plants. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is based on the capability of plants to remove hazardous contaminants present in the environment. This study aimed to demonstrate some factors controlling the phytoremediation efficiency of live floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), towards the effluents contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and/or {sup 60}Co. Cesium has unknown vital biological role for plant while cobalt is one of the essential trace elements required for plant. The main idea of this work i.e. using undesirable species, water hyacinth, in purification of radiocontaminated aqueous solutions has been receiving much attention. The controlling factors such as radioactivity concentration, pH values, the amount of biomass and the light were studied. The uptake rate of radiocesium from the simulated waste solution is inversely proportional to the initial activity content and directly proportional to the increase in mass of plant and sunlight exposure. A spiked solution of pH Almost-Equal-To 4.9 was found to be the suitable medium for the treatment process. The uptake efficiency of {sup 137}Cs present with {sup 60}Co in mixed solution was higher than if it was present separately. On the contrary, uptake of {sup 60}Co is affected negatively by the presence of {sup 137}Cs in their mixed solution. Sunlight is the most required factor for the plant vitality and radiation resistance. The results of the present study indicated that water hyacinth may be a potential candidate plant of high concentration ratios (CR) for phytoremediation of radionuclides

  13. Reduction of cesium levels in the diet through management of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Several processes influence the radionuclide concentration of food products during processing: dilution, losses, concentration. Boiling of leaf vegetables yields a decontamination effect of up to 80% in the case of radioiodine. Peeling of potato tubers results in a reduction of the cesium concentration of 30%. The cesium and strontium concentration of flour is a factor of two lower as compared to the corresponding cereal grain due to the milling process. Significant discrimination occurs during the milk processing. The skimmed milk is significantly richer in cesium, iodine and especially in strontium than the cream. It follows that butter is depleted in its radionuclide contents as compared to other milk produce. Strontium is concentrated in the casein. Pressurized cooking in combination with salting or a treatment with acetic acid results in an Cs-activity loss of beef, veal and lamb meat of 50 to 90%. (Author) 3 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs

  14. Fate of cesium, strontium, iodine and some transuranium elements in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Brunecker, G.

    1982-11-01

    Domestic animals may take up Cs, I, Sr and the most important transuranium elements by contaminated food, inhalation and cutaneous resorption. The resorption takes place (with differing percentage distribution) via gastrointestinal tract, lungs, skin and with wounds via injured skin areas. With chronical exposure and after resorption of radionuclides a distribution balance develops in the blood; with a single incorporation the activity concentration in the blood one increases and decreases again. According to the affinity of the radionuclide its major part is transported to one particular organ or tissue system, where depending on the degree of specific activity the most different damages may be provoked. Considerable amounts of the radionuclide quantities are discharged with urine, feces or milk. The amount discharged into the milk is of particular radioecologic interest. The portion of the radionuclides, which is discharged into the muscles and the milk of animals for slaughter is indicated by transmission factors, which have to be subjected to revision. The transmission factors given in literature are classified according to the animal species and discussed in the corresponding chapters. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Upward migration of radio-cesium and strontium in a sand-filled lysimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, W.E.; Larsen, I.L.; McConnell, J.W.; Rogers, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The upward migration of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr was observed in a silica sand-filled lysimeter at the Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low Level Waste Data Base Development experiment site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The source of the radionuclides first observed on the surface was identified from isotopic analysis as being from the buried waste. Cores of the sand were collected and analyzed for the vertical distribution of the radionuclides. Results of analyses revealed that pulses (elevated levels) in the activity of the Cs and Sr radioisotopes occurred at the same depths. During the sectioning of the sand core collected from directly above the buried waste form it was discovered that a fine root from an unidentified plant was present throughout all but the upper few centimeters of the core. Because the upward migration was unexpected, information that may lead to the determination of a definitive mechanism of migration was not preserved. The distribution of the radionuclides coupled with the presence of the root suggest that Cs and Sr migrated upward in the evapotranspiration stream of the root. Further study must be undertaken to confirm this phenomenon. Upward migration of radionuclides as observed here could result in direct exposures and offsite releases from underground storage facilities. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Accumulation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a number of hydrobionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadzhiev, A; Keslev, D; Kerteva, A; Novakova, E

    1975-01-01

    Accumulation factors for Sr-90 and Cs-137 are given for a number of plants and fish taken from fresh-water bodies and from the Black Sea. The best indicators for following radioactive, Sr-90 contamination in fresh-water bodies are: Lemna minor and Subularia aquatica among the plants, while Tinca tinca L, Cyprinus carpio L and Cavassius carassius L are the most suitable among the fish for Sr-90. With respect to cesium-137 the most suitable as indicators are Sparganum affine and Subularia aquatica from the plants and Salmo trutta morpha fario L and Cyprinus carpio L. from the fishes. Among the saltwater hydrobionts as indicators of Sr-90 and Cs-137 water contamination the fish Sarda sarda L takes first place, and the plants Cystoseira barbata and Zostera marina take second place. 1 table, 6 refs. (SJR)

  17. Accumulation of strontium and cesium by kale as a function of age of plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.M.; Harris, N.D.; Fox, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    The accumulation of Sr and Cs throughout the growth cycle of a hydroponically grown vegetable crop (Brassica oleracea var. acephala D.C. Blue Curl) was studied. The cumulative effect of supplying the radionuclides through the nutrient solution to kale throughout the growth cycle, simulating a continuous discharge, was compared to exposure at each stage of the growth cycle to a single dose of radioactivity, simulating an accidental release. The time course of accumulation of 137 Cs supplied continuously through the nutrient solution resembled the sigmoidal dry weight growth curve of the vegetable. Accumulation of this nuclide after exposure of kale to radioactivity for 48 hours at each stage of growth decreased with age of the plant. The time course of 90 Sr supplied continuously resembled the pattern of the periodic 48-hour accumulation for this radionuclide, although there was a 1- to 2-week lag period between the two uptake patterns

  18. Radiochemical speciation of strontium and cesium in soils and influence of the zeolite on its migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipakova, A.

    1998-01-01

    The dissertation deals with sorption and desorption characteristics of two significant radionuclides Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples as well as from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce which were examined. The dissertation consists from next chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Present state of knowledge; (3) Materials and methods; (4) Results and discussion; (5) Conclusions; (6) Particular conclusions for the realisation in practice and for next development of the science

  19. Relationships between physical forms of cesium or strontium and their behavior in a sewage treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nao; Umita, Teruyuki; Hatanaka, Takuma; Ito, Ayumi

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the release of radionuclides to the environment. Accident-derived radionuclides have been detected in sewage sludge produced in northern east of Japan. We observed the fate of stable Cs and Sr in sewage treatment process in order to know a fate of radionuclide such as "1"3"4Cs, "1"3"7Cs, and "9"0Sr in the process. For both of Cs and Sr, their transfer ratios to primary sludge from the influent sewage were similar levels of the ratios to excess activated sludge to the influent sewage. Transfer ratios to dewatered sludge from influent were 20% for Cs and 9.1% for Sr, respectively. Additionally, it was suggested that particulate Cs and Sr which were sorbed by mineral solids could be transferred to the primary sludge in the primary settling tank, then in the following treatment system; aeration tank, Sr sorbed by organic materials such as activated sludge could be transferred to the excessive sludge. (author)

  20. Thermal change and ion exchange properties of zeolite L with cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Hitoshi; Akiba, Kenichi

    1986-01-01

    Thermal change and ion exchange properties of Cs and Sr have been studied for zeolite L. The zeolite structure is stable below 900 deg C and converts to the amorphous phase above 1000 deg C. The cesium form of zeolite L recrystallized to pollucite (CsAlSi 2 O 6 ) by calcination at 1400 deg C for 1 h or under hydrothermal condition (300 deg C, 290 atm, 24 h). Hydrogen-form zeolites were prepared by the acid treatment in 10 -2 ∼ 10 -1 M HNO 3 solutions or thermal decomposition of NH 4 form zeolites at 460 ∼ 500 deg C. The distribution of Cs and Sr was dependent on equilibrium pH and the distribution coefficient (K d ) was about 10 4 (ml/g) at pH 5 ∼ 7. The exchange capacity of Cs and Sr was 0.89 (meq./g zeolite) and exchanging ratio was 68 % at D sites in main channel. These cations in zeolite were completely eluted with 10 -1 M HNO 3 solution. (author)

  1. Cesium and strontium behaviors in wastewater collected by different sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Nao K.; Hatanaka, Takuma; Umita, Teruyuki [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Iwate University, 020-8551, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Ito, Ayumi [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Iwate University, 020-8551, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka, Iwate (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the release of radionuclides such as {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 90}Sr into the environment. Some of these radionuclides have been entering sewage treatment plants through sewer systems and then being transferred to sewage sludge. There are two types of sewer systems, e.g. a combined sewer system (CSS) and a separated sewer system (SSS). The CSS transfers rainwater runoff and domestic wastewater to the treatment plants in a single pipe. The SSS has independent pipes; one pipe transfers domestic wastewater to the treatment plant and the other pipe transfers rainwater runoff to river or sea. Since most of the radionuclides released into the atmosphere by the nuclear accident fell onto the land surface by precipitation, the CSS should collect more radionuclides than the SSS. However, there is little information about behavior differences of radionuclides in wastewater between the two types of sewer systems. The objective of the present study was to clarify the differences of radionuclide behavior in wastewater between the CSS and SSS. Behaviors of stable Cs and Sr in wastewater were observed as a means to predict radiocesium and radiostrontium. Two types of wastewater were collected in Morioka city, Japan: wastewater in a CSS in a rain event (WC) and wastewater in a SSS (WS). The WC was taken at a high rate filtration plant every 20 minutes from the beginning of the rain event for several hours in 2013. The WS was collected at a sewage treatment plant once a month from June to October 2013; sometimes the collection was at the time of a rain event. Suspended solid (SS) in each sample was measured as a physicochemical property. The element concentrations in total, dissolved, and particulate fractions were determined. While the SS in the WS taken on rainy day was 0.11 g/L, the SS in the WC was 0.36 g/L in the beginning of the rainfall and then decreased with time. Total Cs concentration

  2. Prediction of cesium-134 and strontium-85 crop uptake based on soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.C.; Vallejo, V.R.; Roig, M.; Tent, J.; Vidal, M.; Rauret, G.

    1997-01-01

    Nowadays, there is still the need to improve the quantification of parameters that affect radionuclide mobility. With this aim, radiocesium and radiostrontium soil-to-plant transfer was measured in lysimeters in a Calcic Luvisol, loamy soil and in a Fluvisol, loam-sandy soil, using lettuce [Lactuca sativa L. cv. Kinemontepas] and pea plants [Pisum sativum L. cv. Kelvedon Wonder]. Weighted Concentration Ratios (WCR), expressed as kg soil/kg plant, were calculated for different growth stages. Weighted Concentration Ratios were in general higher for 85Sr than for 134Cs, and also higher in the loam-sandy than in the loamy soil. To predict plant uptake, we evaluated a set of soil properties to define a prediction factor for the relative transfer in the two soils using cation exchange capacity (CEC) and radionuclide available fraction (fav) for radiostrontium, and soil solution composition, solid-liquid distribution coefficient, and radionuclide available fraction for radiocesium. The ratios of WCR in the loam-sandy and loamy soil were compared with the prediction factor. There was good agreement in lettuce for 85Sr (ratio of WCR was 5.4 for seedling and 3.9 for commercial samples, whereas prediction factor was 3.1) and for 134Cs (ratio of WCR was 5.1 for seedling and 5.5 for commercial samples, the prediction factor being 5.1), although for pea only the relative root uptake of radiocesium in seedling pea was well predicted (the ratio of WCR was 8.8, the prediction factor being 9.1). These soil parameters improved former predictions based solely on the fav, although factors depending on plant physiology should be better evaluated

  3. Comparison or organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from Hanford waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP-CP task to develop and evaluate high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for the uptake of cesium, strontium, and technetium (Cs, Sr, and Tc) from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff, in collaboration with researchers from industry, academia, and national laboratories are investigating these and other novel and commercial ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation of groundwater, HLW, and LLW. Since FY 1995, experimental work at PNNL has focused on small-scale batch distribution (K{sub d}) testing of numerous solid sorbents with actual and simulated Hanford wastes, chemical and radiolytic stability of various organic ion exchanger resins, bench-scale column ion exchange testing in actual and simulated Complexant Concentrate (CC) and Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW), and Tc and Sr removal from groundwater and LLW. In addition, PNNL has continued to support various site demonstrations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, West Valley Nuclear Services, Hanford N-Springs, and Hanford N-Basin using technologies developed by their industrial partners. This summary will focus on batch distribution results from the actual waste tests. The data collected in these development and testing tasks provide a rational basis for the selection and direct comparison of various ion exchange materials in simulated and actual HLW, LLW, and groundwater. In addition, prediction of large-scale column loading performance for the materials tested is possible using smaller volumes of actual waste solution. The method maximizes information while minimizing experimental expense, time, and laboratory and process wastes.

  4. Migration of strontium, cesium, and europium from poly(butyl acrylate)/phosphate/composites prepared using gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhassanieh, O., E-mail: cscientific@aec.org.s [Nuclear and Radiochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Ajji, Z. [Polymer Technology Division, Radiation Technology Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Alkourdi, H.; Haloum, D. [Nuclear and Radiochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2011-02-15

    Composites based on natural phosphate powder and the monomer N-butyl acrylate have been prepared by means of gamma irradiation. The conversion of polymerization was followed up with respect to the irradiation dose using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). A total polymerization conversion was achieved by exposure of the samples to a dose of 10 kGy. A thermomechanical analyzer (TMA) was used to locate the region of the glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) using the mode with alternative variable force; the mode with constant force was used to determine the T{sub g} of the pure polymer and the composite prepared at the same irradiation dose. The T{sub g} of the pure poly(butyl acrylate) is -51.41 {sup o}C, and the T{sub g} of poly(butyl acrylate)/phosphate/composites is -46.54 {sup o}C. The distribution of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 85}Sr in a solid-aqueous system, a composite of phosphate-polybutyl acrylate in contact with groundwater, was investigated using {gamma}-spectrometry. The effect of contact time, pH, and the concentration of concurrent elements (Na, Ca, and La) were studied. The results were compared with earlier results with phosphate alone in the solid phase. The ability of the produced composites to keep the studied radioisotopes in the solid phase is much higher than mineral phosphate. This improvement is more remarkable by strontium and cesium than europium, due to its high element ratio in the solid phase in phosphate experiments.

  5. Analytical procedures for the determination of strontium radionuclides in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, B.R.; Ibbett, R.D.; Lovett, M.B.; Williams, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    As part of its statutory role in the authorisation, monitoring and research relating to radioactive wastes discharged into the aquatic environment, the Aquatic Environment Protection Division of the Directorate of Fisheries Research (DFR), Lowestoft routinely carries out analyses for a substantial number of radionuclides in a wide range of environmental materials. The Ministry of a Agriculture, Fisheries and Food has for many years required information about the concentrations of strontium radionuclides in waters, sediments and biological materials. There are not absolute standard methods for such radiochemical analysis; indeed none are required because methodology is continually developing. A very considerable amount of expertise has been developed in the analysis of radiostrontium at the Laboratory since the late 1950s, when detailed analysis first commenced, and the procedures described in this report have been developed and tested over a long period of time with a view to achieving the highest analytical quality. Full details of the practical, analytical and computational procedures, as currently used, are given in the Appendix. (author)

  6. Sorption of carbon, cobalt, nickel, strontium, iodine, cesium, americium and neptumium in rocks and minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnoja, S.; Jaakkola, T.; Kaemaeraeinen, E.L.; Koskinen, A.; Lindberg, A.

    1984-09-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides C-14, Co-58, Ni-63, I-125, Sr-85, Cs-134, Am-241 and Np-237, which are important in nuclear waste, were studied in rock by autoradiographic method. Samples were selected to represent common rocks and minerals in Finnish bedrock: rapakivi granite, tonalite, mica gneiss, granodiorite, biotite, quartz, plagioclase, K feldspar and hornblende. Polished thin sections were used to determine the contributions of different minerals to the sorption of the radionuclides. Sawn rock pieces (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.6 cm) were used to determine the Ksub(a)-values for rough rock surfaces where penetration into the rock matrix was found. The sorption order of the elements determined with the rock pieces was Ksub(a)sup(Cs)>Ksub(a)sup(Ni)>Ksub(a)sup(Co)>Ksub(a)sup(Sr)>Ksub(a)sup(C)>Ksub(a)sup(I). The same order of sorption was determined with thin sections for all nuclides except carbon, which was not sorbed on thin sections. Wide differences in the Ksub(a)-values for different minerals were found for Cs and Sr. The sorption mechanism for these elements is presumed to be ion exchange. The Ksub(a)-values of Cs varied between 0.1 x 10 -4 and 600 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 and those for Sr between 0.01 x 10 -4 and 10 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 . The lowest values were determined for quartz and the highest for biotite. Radionuclides having a tendency to form pseudocolloids and hydroxide precipitates (Am, Np, Ni) were sorbed on thin sections with only small variation in Ksub(a)-values: all values were between 1 x 10 -4 and 10 x 10 -4 and 100 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 . A very good agreement was found between experimental and calculated Ksub(a)-values for rock thin sections. Ksub(a)-values were calculated by multiplying the percentages of individual minerals in the rock by the Ksub(a)-values of the corresponding pure minerals and summing the results. Calculated Ksub(a)-values were occasionally up to 50% smaller than the experimental ones, owing to the low contents of some high adsorbing minerals

  7. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  8. Effects of feed solution chemistry on low pressure reverse osmosis filtration of cesium and strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shiyuan, E-mail: dingshiyuan@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Yang, Yu, E-mail: yangyu@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Haiou, E-mail: huanghaiou@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Liu, Hengchen, E-mail: 799599501@qq.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Hou, Li-an, E-mail: houlian678@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Xi’an High-Tech Institute, No. 2, Tongxin Street, Baqiao District, Xi’an 710025 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • A low pressure spiral wound RO membrane can reject Cs and Sr efficiently. • The rejection of Cs and Sr is dependent on feed pH and co-existing ions. • Donnan exclusion and electrostatic interaction govern the rejection of Cs and Sr. • The differences of filtration mechanism were influenced by the size of ions. • Sr could strengthen the irreversible membrane fouling resistance with HA. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify the removal mechanisms of radionuclides by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes under conditions relevant to full-scale water treatment. For this purpose, the effects of feed solution chemistry on the removal of Cs and Sr by a low pressure RO system was investigated by systematically varying membrane surface charge, ionic composition, and organic matter concentrations. The results showed that the effects of solution chemistry on the filtration of Cs and Sr were related to their hydrated ionic radius, resulting in the predominance of the Donnan’s effect and electrostatic interactions, respectively. Consequently, the rejection of Cs increased more pronouncedly than Sr with the increases of feed concentration. Due to the Donnan’s effect, different anions decreased the rejection of Cs to different extents in accordance to the order of anions’ radii as SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} > Cl{sup −} > NO{sub 3}{sup −} > F{sup −}. The variations in Sr rejection were influenced by the electrostatic interactions between Sr{sup 2+} and the membrane. In addition, humic acid (HA) lowered the rejection of Cs and caused significant membrane flux decline, but did not change the rejection of Sr. Sr also aggravated HA fouling of the membrane.

  9. Hydrothermal interactions of cesium and strontium phases from spent unreprocessed fuel with basalt phases and basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarneni, S.; Scheetz, B.E.; McCarthy, G.J.; Coons, W.E.

    1980-03-01

    This investigation is a segment of an extensive research program aimed at investigating the feasibility of long-term, subsurface storage of commercial nuclear waste. Specifically, it is anticipated that the waste will be housed in a repository mined from the basalt formations which lie beneath the Hanford Site. The elements monitored during the present experiments were Cs and Sr. These two elements represent significant biohazards if released from a repository and are the major heat producing radionuclides present in commercial radioactive waste. Several Cs phases and/or solutions were reacted with either isolated basalt phases or bulk-rock basalt, and the resulting solids and solutions were analyzed. The hydrothermal reactivity of SrZrO 3 , which is believed to be a probable host for Sr in SFE was investigated. While so far no evidence exists which indicates that Sr is present in a water soluble phase in spent fuel elements (SFE), detailed investigation of a potential hazard is warranted. This investigation has determined that some Cs compounds likely to be stable components of spent fuel (i.e., CsOH, Cs 2 MoO 4 , Cs 2 U 2 O 7 ) have significant hydrothermal solubilities. These solubilities are greatly decreased in the presence of basalt and/or basalt minerals. The decrease in the amount of Cs in solution results from reactions which form pollucite and/or CsAlSiO 4 , with the production of pollucite exceeding that of CsAlSiO 4 . Dissolution of β-Cs 2 U 2 O 7 implies solubilizing a uranium species to an undetermined extent. The production of schoepite (UO 3 .3H 2 O) during some experiments containing basalt phases, indicates a tendency to oxidize U 4+ to U 6+ . When diopside (nominally CaMgSi 2 O 6 ) and β-Cs 2 U 2 O 7 were hydrothermally reacted, at 300 0 C both UO 2 and UO 3 .3H 2 O were produced. Experiments on SrZrO 3 show it to be an unreactive phase

  10. Hydrothermal interactions of cesium and strontium phases from spent unreprocessed fuel with basalt phases and basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarneni, S.; Scheetz, B.E.; McCarthy, G.J.; Coons, W.E.

    1980-03-01

    This investigation is a segment of an extensive research program aimed at investigating the feasibility of long-term, subsurface storage of commercial nuclear waste. Specifically, it is anticipated that the waste will be housed in a repository mined from the basalt formations which lie beneath the Hanford Site. The elements monitored during the present experiments were Cs and Sr. These two elements represent significant biohazards if released from a repository and are the major heat producing radionuclides present in commercial radioactive waste. Several Cs phases and/or solutions were reacted with either isolated basalt phases or bulk-rock basalt, and the resulting solids and solutions were analyzed. The hydrothermal reactivity of SrZrO/sub 3/, which is believed to be a probable host for Sr in SFE was investigated. While so far no evidence exists which indicates that Sr is present in a water soluble phase in spent fuel elements (SFE), detailed investigation of a potential hazard is warranted. This investigation has determined that some Cs compounds likely to be stable components of spent fuel (i.e., CsOH, Cs/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/, Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/) have significant hydrothermal solubilities. These solubilities are greatly decreased in the presence of basalt and/or basalt minerals. The decrease in the amount of Cs in solution results from reactions which form pollucite and/or CsAlSiO/sub 4/, with the production of pollucite exceeding that of CsAlSiO/sub 4/. Dissolution of ..beta..-Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ implies solubilizing a uranium species to an undetermined extent. The production of schoepite (UO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O) during some experiments containing basalt phases, indicates a tendency to oxidize U/sup 4 +/ to U/sup 6 +/. When diopside (nominally CaMgSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) and ..beta..-Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ were hydrothermally reacted, at 300/sup 0/C both UO/sub 2/ and UO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O were produced. Results of experiments on SrZrO/sub 3/ show it to be

  11. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  12. Clean-up of liquid radiation wastes with elevated mineralization from cesium and cobalt radionuclides by the modified clinoptilolite of the Chankanaj deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.I.; Tuleushev, A.Zh.; Zhabykbaev, G.T.; Kostsov, S.V.; Medvedeva, Z.V.; Plotnikova, O.M.; Chakrova, E.T.; Idrisova, U.R.; Idrisova, D.Zh.

    2003-01-01

    On the base of laboratory studies and semi-industrial testing the possibility of liquid radioactive wastes clean-up from cesium and cobalt radionuclides in elevated mineralization conditions with help of modified clinoptilolite is shown. In the work the synthesized thin-layer inorganic sorbent (TIS) with conventional name MC-2 (modified clinoptilolite) was used. The Chankanaj deposit's zeolite in the crushed form was base for the TIS production. The copper ferrocyanides serves as the modifier. This sorbent is selective one in relationship to cesium and cobalt radionuclides

  13. Cesium removal flow studies using ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cesium and strontium radionuclides are a small fraction of the mainly sodium and potassium salts in underground storage tank supernatant at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites at Hanford, Oak Ridge, Savannah River, and Idaho that DOE must remediate. Cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) is the primary gamma radiation source in the dissolved tank waste at these sites, and its removal from the supernatant can reduce the hazard and waste classification of the treated waste reducing the further treatment and disposal costs. Several cesium removal sorbents have been developed by private industry and the US DOE's Office of Science and Technology. Several of these removal technologies have been previously tested in small batch and column tests using simulated and a few actual supernatant under DOE's Environmental Management (EM) programs including the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) and the Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Cross-Cutting Program

  14. Effects of radionuclides (uranium et cesium 137) on the metabolism of vitamin D in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissandie, Emilie

    2007-01-01

    Uranium and Cesium 137 ( 137 Cs) are both radionuclides found in the environment as a result of their accidental dispersion and/or natural presence. Consequently, some human populations are exposed to these radioelements mainly through chronic ingestion. Chemical and/or radiological toxicity of uranium and 13 7 Cs has been reported in kidney, liver and brain that play key-roles in vitamin D metabolism. Beside, alterations of both bone and phospho-calcium homeostasis have been reported after an acute or chronic contamination with uranium or 137 Cs. However, vitamin D, the major regulator of mineral homeostasis has never been studied up to now. The aim of this work was to investigate in vivo the effects of depleted (DU) or enriched uranium (EU) and of 137 Cs on vitamin D3 biosynthetic pathway in liver, kidney and brain. An experimental animal model was used for the first time to demonstrate that chronic exposure with environmental doses of 137 Cs and uranium could decrease the vitamin D active form level (1,25(OH)2D3) and lead to molecular modifications of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) enzymes involved in this metabolism and associated nuclear receptors. We demonstrated that both UA and UE contamination affected VDR (vitamin D receptor) and RXRa (retinoid X receptor alpha) expression, and consequently could modulate the expression of vitamin D target genes involved in calcium homeostasis in kidney. These results suggest that these effects could be due to the chemical toxicity of uranium. On the contrary, the main molecular targets of 137 Cs are CYPs involved in Vitamin D3 biosynthesis (CYP2R1, CYP27B1) in liver and brain. In this adult rat model such perturbations were not associated with a dys-regulation of mineral homeostasis. Conversely, chronic exposure with 137 Cs during postnatal development induce alterations of vitamin D metabolism associated with modifications of bone and phospho-calcium homeostasis, suggesting a greater susceptibility of the growing organism to

  15. Use to titanium-treated zeolite for plutonium, strontium, and cesium removal from West Valley alkaline wastes and sludge wash wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Hara, F.T.

    1993-01-01

    Zeolite (IONSIV IE-96) treated with a titanium (Ti) solution will extract traces of plutonium (Pu), strontium (Sr), and cesium (Cs) found in the West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS) alkaline supernatant and alkaline sludge water washes. Small ion exchange columns containing Ti-treated zeolite have been successfully tested at WVNS and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the removal of Pu. Full-scale ion exchange processing of sludge wash solution is now being developed at WVNS for use in FY 1992. Commercial manufacturing options for the production of the Ti-treated zeolite were investigated. The Ti-treated zeolite may have application at Hanford and at other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for the removal of low-level concentrations of Cs, Sr, and Pu from alkaline waste streams

  16. Impact of a chronic ingestion of radionuclides on cholesterol metabolism in the rat: example of depleted uranium and cesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, Radjini

    2009-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) and cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) are radionuclides spread in the environment due to industrial activities, incidents or accidents. This pollution sets a risk of human exposure to low levels of radiations through contaminated foodstuff. The impact of a chronic ingestion of DU or 137 Cs on cholesterol metabolism in the liver and the brain has been studied. Indeed, cholesterol is crucial in physiology, being a component of cell membranes and a precursor to numerous molecules (bile acids...). Disruption of its metabolism is associated to many pathologies such as atherosclerosis or Alzheimer disease. Rats daily ingested a low level of DU or 137 Cs over 9 months. For each radionuclide, a reference model (rats contaminated since adulthood) and a more sensitive model (hypercholesterolemic or contaminated since fetal life) were studied. The effects mainly consist of changes in gene expression or enzymatic activity of various actors of cholesterol metabolism. DU mainly affects one catabolism enzyme in both models, as well as membrane transporters and regulation factors. 137 Cs mainly affects the storage enzyme in both models as well as catabolism enzymes, apolipoproteins, and regulation factors. No change in the plasma profile or in the tissue concentration of cholesterol (hepatic/cerebral) is recorded, whatever the model and the radionuclide. Thus, a chronic internal contamination with DU or 137 Cs induces molecular modifications in cholesterol metabolism in the rat, without affecting its homeostasis or the general health status in all of our experimental models. (author)

  17. Uranium and Cesium sorption to bentonite colloids in high salinity and carbonate-rich environments: Implications for radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, E. L.; Teutsch, N.; Klein-BenDavid, O.; Weisbrod, N.

    2017-12-01

    When radionuclides are leaked into the subsurface due to engineered waste disposal container failure, the ultimate barrier to migration of radionuclides into local aquifers is sorption to the surrounding rock matrix and sediments, which often includes a bentonite backfill. The extent of this sorption is dependent on pH, ionic strength, surface area availability, radionuclide concentration, surface mineral composition, and solution chemistry. Colloidal-sized bentonite particles eroded from the backfill have been shown to facilitate the transport of radionuclides sorbed to them away from their source. Thus, sorption of radionuclides such as uranium and cesium to bentonite surfaces can be both a mobilization or retardation factor. Though numerous studies have been conducted to-date on sorption of radionuclides under low ionic strength and carbonate-poor conditions, there has been little research conducted on the behavior of radionuclides in high salinities and carbonate rich conditions typical of aquifers in the vicinity of some potential nuclear repositories. This study attempts to characterize the sorption properties of U(VI) and Cs to bentonite colloids under these conditions using controlled batch experiments. Results indicated that U(VI) undergoes little to no sorption to bentonite colloids in a high-salinity (TDS= 9000 mg/L) artificial groundwater. This lack of sorption was attributed to the formation of CaUO2(CO3)22- and Ca2UO2(CO3)3 aqueous ions which stabilize the UO22+ ions in solution. In contrast, Cs exhibited greater sorption, the extent to which was influenced greatly by the matrix water's ionic strength and the colloid concentration used. Surprisingly, when both U and Cs were together, the presence of U(VI) in solution decreased Cs sorption, possibly due to the formation of stabilizing CaUO2(CO3)22- anions. The implications of this research are that rather than undergoing colloid-facilitated transport, U(VI) is expected to migrate similarly to a

  18. Decreasing of transfer of caesium and strontium radionuclides from soil to vegetation - Use of modified aluminosilicates for decreasing of transfer of caesium and strontium radionuclides from soil to vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronina, Anna V.; Blinova, Marina O.; Semenischev, Vladimir S.; Kutergin, Andrey S. [Ural federal university, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The method of addition of sorbents to soils is seemed to be the most efficient for decreasing of transfer of radionuclides from soil to vegetation. Using sorbents should possess affinity to natural systems, high specificity and selectivity and also irreversibility of sorption of radionuclides for effective retention of radionuclides as well as to prevent their migration into vegetation and further movement through food chains. Specificity, selectivity and reversibility of sorption of caesium and strontium radionuclides by natural aluminosilicates (glauconite, clinoptilolite) and modified ferrocyanide sorbents based on them was studied in this work. It was shown that the natural glauconite sorbs caesium from tap water with distribution coefficient K{sub d} = 10{sup (3.5±0.1)} mL/g, static exchange capacity of Cs is 11.0 mg/g; it shows lower specificity to strontium: K{sub d} = 10(2.5±0.1) mL/g, static exchange capacity = 9 mg/g. For clinoptilolite these parameters are for caesium K{sub d} = 10(4.4±0.5) mL/g, static exchange capacity 210 mg/g; for strontium K{sub d} = 10(3.5±0.1) mL/g, capacity = 12 mg/g. Ferrocyanide sorbents concentrate caesium radionuclides more effectively: distribution coefficient of Cs from tap water by mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on glauconite is 10(5.9±1.6) mL/g, static exchange capacity of Cs is (63.0±2.0) mg/g; for mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on clinoptilolite these characteristics are respectively 10(7.4±1.3) mL/g, 500 mg/g. In case of modified sorbents specificity to strontium remains the same as for natural aluminosilicates. Reversibility of sorption of caesium by natural glauconite and ferrocyanide sorbent was determined as caesium leaching degree from saturated samples. High caesium leaching rates and degrees are typical for natural glauconite irrespective of leachant salinity: total degree of leaching after 35 days of leaching was: mineral water = 63.4%, tap water = 41.6% and rain water = 28.8%. For

  19. Comparative study of the radionuclide uptake and distribution within plants for barley and maize varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, O.

    1998-01-01

    Differences in the Cs-134 and Sr-85 uptake by three barley and two maize varieties were investigated in a water culture experiment. In barley, the maximum differences were about 30% for cesium and 50% for strontium. The differences between the maize varieties were negligible. The maximum difference between the varieties of the two species of crops was approximately 30% for cesium and 1 70% for strontium with higher radionuclide uptake by maize. All barley varieties accumulated cesium nearly 3.5 times more effectively than strontium, whereas for the maize varieties, cesium was accumulated about 2 times more effectively. There is a large difference in the radionuclide distribution within the plants: the amount of radiocesium in the green part of plants of both species was approximately 30% of the total, while for radiostrontium it was about 80%. As a result, approximately the same amount of the radionuclides were present in the green part of plants, despite the large difference in the uptake of the radionuclides by the whole plants. It is concluded that crop selection as a provision to reduce radionuclide contamination of the food chain should only be applied taking into account the different radionuclide distributions within the plants

  20. Transport of fallout and reactor radionuclides in the drainage basin of the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Linsalata, P.; Olsen, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    The transport and fate of Strontium 90, Cesium 137 and Plutonium 239, 240 in the Hudson River Estuary is discussed. Rates of radionuclide deposition and accumulation over time and space are calculated for the Hudson River watershed, estuary, and continental shelf offshore. 37 references, 7 figures, 15 tables

  1. Study of Cesium and Strontium sorption in Brazilian clays for their use as a barrier in repositories of radioactive wastes; Estudo de sorcao de cesio e estroncio em argilas nacionais para sua utilizacao como barreira em repositorios de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Carolina Braccini

    2007-07-01

    Wastes in general should be properly treated and stored. Then the radioactive wastes also require suitable and safe management beginning in their generation until the storage in repository. The main purpose of the radioactive waste management is to preserve the human beings and the environment. The objective of this research was to characterize some Brazilian clays in order to evaluate the viability of their use in the backfill layer, one of the radioactive waste repository barriers. The main function of this barrier is to contribute in the delay of the radionuclides movement, and to prevent their release into the environment. Four clays provided by national suppliers were selected for the research: Ca-Montmorillonite (Dol 01), Na-Montmorillonite (Dol 02), Kaolinite (Ind 01) and Vermiculite (Ubm 04). Their physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics were determined, and also their sorption potential of Cesium and Strontium cations. It was confirmed through these results a direct relationship among their specific surface (SS), the capacity of cationic exchange (CCE) and pH. The CCE results followed this increasing order: Ind 01, Dol 01, and Dol 02. In accordance with the models of Freundlich (KJ) and Langmuir (M), the clays Dol 01 and Dol 02 were the best sorbers of Sr{sup 2+}. The Ind 01 and Ubm 04 were the best ones in the case of Cs{sup +}. The Gibbs free energy change ({delta}G deg) was calculated for the sorption reactions between the clays and the cations, and it was negative for all clays, confirming the sorption reaction spontaneity. (author)

  2. Method for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes using a solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  3. Solvent for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  4. Optimization of operational conditions in continuous electrodeionization method for maximizing Strontium and Cesium removal from aqueous solutions using artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahakifar, Fazel; Keshtkar, Alireza; Nazemi, Ehsan; Zaheri, Adib [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-09-01

    Strontium (Sr) and Cesium (Cs) are two important nuclear fission products which are present in the radioactive wastewater resulting from nuclear power plants. They should be treated by considering environmental and economic aspects. In this study, artificial neural network (ANN) was implemented to evaluate the optimal experimental conditions in continuous electrodeionization method in order to achieve the highest removal percentage of Sr and Ce from aqueous solutions. Three control factors at three levels were tested in experiments for Sr and Cs: Feed concentration (10, 50 and 100 mg/L), flow rate (2.5, 3.75 and 5 mL/min) and voltage (5, 7.5 and 10 V). The obtained data from the experiments were used to train two ANNs. The three control factors were utilized as the inputs of ANNs and two quality responses were used as the outputs, separately (each ANN for one quality response). After training the ANNs, 1024 different control factor levels with various quality responses were predicted and finally the optimum control factor levels were obtained. Results demonstrated that the optimum levels of the control factors for maximum removing of Sr (97.6%) had an applied voltage of 10 V, a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min and a feed concentration of 10 mg/L. As for Cs (67.8%) they were 10 V, 2.55 mL/min and 50 mg/L, respectively.

  5. Sorption behavior of cesium, cobalt and europium radionuclides onto hydroxyl magnesium silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamed, Mostafa M.; Holiel, M.; Ahmed, I.M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center

    2016-07-01

    The radioactive wastes from different activities have to be safely disposed of and isolated from the human environment. The retardation of radioactive materials by designed barriers is originally controlled by the sorption ability of the mineral compositions. In this work, a naturally available mineral composite, a hydroxyl magnesium silicate (HMS) was investigated as potential natural inorganic sorbent for the retention of long-lived radionuclides ({sup 134}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 152+154}Eu) from aqueous solutions. The factors affecting the sorption process, such as contact time and pH were evaluated. Furthermore X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal and thermogravimetry analyses (DTA/TGA) measurements were examined in order to assess the physicochemical properties of the magnesium silicate mineral. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms fitted the result s substantially better than the Flory-Huggins isotherm and the sorption was found to follow pseudo-first order kinetic model. The proposed mineral has been successfully applied for the sorption of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 152+154}Eu radionuclides from real radioactive waste. The results indicated that about 97.4-99% of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 152+154}Eu radionuclides were efficiently retained onto the HMS mineral. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the HMS mineral is an economic and efficient retaining material for environmental hazardous migration and/or leakage of some radionuclides such as {sup 134}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 152+154}Eu and trivalent actinide ({sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am) ions. Therefore, this study could be used as a starting point to establish and consider that mineral as an engineered barrier around the disposal facilities at the nuclear activity centres.

  6. Uptake of cesium and cobalt radionuclides from simulated radioactive wastewater by Ludwigia stolonifera aquatic plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt); Bayoumi, T.A. [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt); Mahmoud, H.H. [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt); Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Aglan, R.F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 13759 (Egypt)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Radioactive contamination is a serious environmental problem. • Phytoremediation is a proper technique for soil and water decontamination. • Aquatic plant, Ludwigia stolonifera, for bioaccumulation of radionuclides. • Factors affecting uptake efficiency of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides. - Abstract: The article reported herein was conducted as part of comprehensive study considered to evaluate the efficiency of Ludwigia stolonifera as a local aquatic plant located in the Egyptian environment for phytoremediation of hazardous toxic and radioactive elements dissolved in aqueous wastes dispersed from industrial and urban applications through the human activities. Ludwigia stolonifera was immersed in single and binary solution of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. The specific uptake rate of plant was determined at various activity contents of radionuclides, multiplied masses of plant, lighting exposure and different pH values. Accumulation of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in mixture was more than 95% and 65% respectively. pH was less effective than the other evaluated parameters.

  7. Model for transfer of cesium and strontium to domestic animal products as a consequence of accidental deposition on ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suolanen, V.

    1994-02-01

    In the study the contamination of domestic animal products (milk, beef, pork) and grain is predicted applying a compartment model approach to simulate the dynamic behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere after an accidental atmospheric deposition. Further, the radionuclide intakes into human body by consumption of the contaminated domestic animal products and the arising internal doses, are studied. The contamination of domestic animal products and grain are predicted by considering three representative deposition cases. The considered deposition timepoints are: spring (1st of May), summer (1st of July) and autumn (1st of September). The nuclides considered are 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 90 Sr. (18 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.)

  8. Assessment of Cesium, Iodine, Strontium and Ruthenium isotopes behaviour in urban areas, after contamination from accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetere, Maria Ines de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    The exposures of urban populations to the radiation derived from the deposition, after accidental atmospheric releases, of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 129 I, 131 I, 133 I, 89 Sr, 103 Ru and 106 Ru were assessed, using the integrated system for the evaluation of environmental radiological impact in emergency situations, developed by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). These radionuclide are fission products likely to be emitted in the occurrence of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Their environmental behaviour in urban areas, due to their deposition in soil, in urban surfaces and in vegetable-garden food products, such as leafy and non-leafy vegetables, were analyzed, and dose assessments at the short, medium and long terms were performed, with an without the application of protective measures for reduction of doses. Simulations of unitary initial deposition for each radionuclide and of two different potential accidents involving water reactors (PWR), with different source terms and distinct deposition for each radionuclide, were performed. Results were analyzed on the basis of relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure of members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release. It was also performed an assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures as a function of the moment of their implementation. (author)

  9. Fast determination of strontium radionuclides in milk with the aid of the cryptand 2.2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, D.; Haase, G.; Hartmann, R.

    2004-01-01

    A rapid method for separating strontium (Sr) radionuclides from liquid milk has been improved and tested for the determination of Sr-90 in milk. The method is based on the specific extraction of Sr from the milk with cryptand 2.2.2 on a cation exchange resin (Dowex Marathon C). Decontamination from other radionuclides such as those of caesium and from chemically similar elements such as calcium and barium is efficient. At least 6 samples can be treated in one day by one person. Tests were carried out on series of six 1.0 and 0.10 litre milk samples representing respectively routine milk samples and samples for fast analysis i.e milk contaminated with fresh fallout, including Ba-140, and requiring barium separation. For the 1.0 litre samples Sr recoveries ranged from 75-85% while for 0.10 liter samples the range was 65-80%. Conditions for the use of Sr-85 as yield tracer to correct for the losses were established. The method minimizes the handling of hazardous reagents. (orig.)

  10. Natural depuration rate and concentration of cesium-137 radionuclide in black SEA macro algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Kuecuekcezzar, R.; Kut, D.; Esen, N.; Gueven, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    Cesium-137 concentrations in red, brown and green algae have been studied for the calculation of natural depuration rates. The algae species were collected from the same population of the Black Sea stations during the period of 1986-1995. The natural depuration rates are estimated as biological half-lives. The pattern of depuration results represented by a single component for each algae division. The biological half-lives of 137 Cs in red (Phyllophora nervosa), green (Chaetomorpha linum) and brown (cystoceira barbata) algae are estimated to be 18.5, 21.6 and 29.3 months, respectively. 137 Cs and 40 K activity levels and their ratios in algae species in two stations in Black Sea region of Turkey have been determined during the period of 1990-1995. The results showed that the Sinop region was more contaminated than the Sile region on the Black Sea coast of Turkey from the Chernobyl accident. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. A dosing method in the same time of the radiocesium and the radiostrontium in natural waters; Dosage simultane du cesium 137 et des strontium 89 et 90 dans les eaux naturelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidhauer, J; Messainguiral, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Prior a concentration and an unselective elution are effected by the way of an exchange resin. The cesium is absorbed on ammonium molybdophosphate precipitated with hydrofluoric acid after radium elimination. The strontium is stripped in concentrated nitric acid, precipitated in the form of strontium carbonate and then counted near the radioactive balance. At last the yttrium is separated by the thenoyltrifluoroacetone and counted on a counting device. From the outset of this paper, an analysis of the method is explained. (author) [French] On opere d'abord une concentration sur resine et une elution non selective. Le cesium est absorbe sur un precipite de phosphomolybdate d'ammonium en presence d'acide fluorhydrique, apres separation du radium. Le strontium est traite a l'acide nitrique concentre, precipite sous forme de carbonate et compte au voisinage de l'equilibre radioactif ({sup 90}Sr {sup 9O}y ). L'yttrium 90 est ensuite separe a la thenoyltrifluoracetone et compte. Une etude de la methode est presentee au debut de ce memoire. (auteur)

  12. Transfer of radio-cesium and radio-strontium from typical soil to some crops in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassine, T.; Al-Oudat, M.; Othman, I.; Sharanek, A.

    1999-01-01

    Transfer factors of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from contaminated soil to some common crops were investigated under field conditions for a period of three years. The results showed large variations in transfer factor values from one crop to another. The highest values for both radionuclides were found in green vegetables, whereas cereal grains had the lowest values. The transfer factor values of Sr-90 were generally much higher than those of Cs-137 for the same crop by factors ranged up to 263. The values for both radionuclides were found to be in the lower limits of those obtained in other areas. This was attributed to the effect of several factors such as high pH, low organic matter and high exchangeable potassium and calcium in the soil (author)

  13. Radionuclide kinetics and biological effects from strontium-89 and cerium-144 at combined inocculation with the phosphorganic pesticide ''Agria-1060'' (Fazolon) in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyankov, I.Ya.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetics of 89 strontium and 144 cerium in the rat were studied for the case of single intake of either radionuclide combined with an organophosphorus pesticide, Agria-1060, and for chronic intake of 89 strontium with the same pesticide. After treatments involving minimal effective activities and concentrations, some hematological parameters were monitored, as well as biochemical (SGOT, SGPT, serum cholinesterase) and phagocytic activity of neutrophils. Unfavorable changes in RBC counts were attributable to the chemical factor, while those in WBC counts resulted from radiation exposure. Serum cholinesterase activity underwent shifts distinctly showing a phasic pattern and related in the main to the chemical agent. SGOT and SGPT activities were more markedly affected by 144 cerium combined with pesticide than by sole agent treatments. Phagocytic index response was observed to change according to radionuclide organotropism. As for chronic treatments, neutrophil phagocytic activity proved most susceptible, suggesting occurrence of changes in the immune system under such exposure conditions

  14. Application of crown-ethers to caesium and strontium removal from Marcoule reprocessing concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Garcia, J.C.i; Sastre, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The liquid wastes arising from reprocessing plants are treated by evaporation, the distillate is discharged into environment and the concentrate containing all the active and inactive salts must be stored in geological formation, after embedding, due to the activity of long life radionuclides (actinides, Cs, Sr). The object of the work is to remove actinides and cesium/strontium from high sodium content acidic concentrated in order to sharply decrease the volume of wastes to be stored in geological formation. (author)

  15. SORPTION AND DISPERSION OF STRONTIUM RADIONUCLIDE IN THE BENTONITE-QUARTZ-CLAY AS BACKFILL MATERIAL CANDIDATE ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Poernomo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment of sorption and dispersion characteristics of strontium in the mixture of bentonite-quartz, clay-quartz, bentonite-clay-quartz as candidate of raw material for backfill material in the radioactive waste repository has been performed. The objective of this research is to know the grain size effect of bentonite, clay, and quartz on the weight percent ratio of bentonite to quartz, clay to quartz, bentonite to clay to-quartz can be gives physical characteristics of best such as bulk density (rb, effective porosity (e, permeability (K, best sorption characteristic such as distribution coefficient (Kd, and best dispersion characteristics such as dispersivity (a and effective dispersion coefficient (De of strontium in the backfill material candidate. The experiment was carried out in the column filled by the mixture of bentonite-quartz, clay-quartz, bentonite-clay-quartz with the weight percent ratio of bentonite to quartz, clay to quartz, bentonite to clay to quartz of 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80, 0/100 respectively at saturated condition of water, then flowed 0.1 N Sr(NO32 as buffer solution with tracer of 0.05 Ci/cm3 90Sr as strontium radionuclide simulation was leached from immobilized radioactive waste in the radioactive waste repository. The concentration of 90Sr in the effluents represented as Ct were analyzed by Ortec b counter every 30 min, then by using profile concentration of Co and Ct, values of Kd, a and De of 90Sr in the backfill material was determined. The experiment data showed that the best results were -80+120 mesh grain size of bentonite, clay, quartz respectively on the weight percent ratio of bentonite to clay to quartz of 70/10/20 with physical characteristics of rb = 0.658 g/cm3, e = 0.666 cm3/cm3, and K = 1.680x10-2 cm/sec, sorption characteristic of Kd = 46.108 cm3/g, dispersion characteristics of a = 5.443 cm, and De = 1.808x10-03 cm2/sec can be proposed as candidate of raw material of backfill material

  16. Sorptive removal of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from water by unconventional sorbents. 1. Usage of bauxite wastes (red muds)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apak, R.; Atun, G.; Gueclue, K.; Tuetem, E.; Keskin, G. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-10-01

    Bauxite wastes of alumina manufacture, i.e., red muds, have been tested for radiocesium and strontium removal from water. The red muds were water-washed, acid-, and heat-treated before usage to produce hydrous oxide like sorbents. Surface treatment of the sorbent was beneficial for {sup 137}Cs uptake, while heat-treatment was detrimental to the -SOH surface sites responsible for high {sup 90}Sr affinity. Fractionation of the sorbent with respect to apparent grain size did not produce significant differences in the sorption efficiency. The distribution coefficients vs. equilibrium activity in solution showed a maximum with Cs, and a gradual decrease trend with Sr. The solution activity vs. adsorption data were fitted to B.E.T. (essentially types IV-V) isotherms for Cs and B.E.T.-Langmuir isotherms for Sr. Desorption, temperature-, pH-, and ionic strength-dependence tests revealed that the primary mode of sorption for both cations is specific adsorption while the secondary mode is ion exchange. A rise in pH favours the ion-exchange sorption of Sr while the specific adsorption of Cs is negatively affected. Competitive adsorption of an inert electrolyte, i.e., NaCl, severely hinders Cs sorption, while Sr sorption on water-washed red mud is not significantly affected. (author).

  17. Sorptive removal of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from water by unconventional sorbents. 1. Usage of bauxite wastes (red muds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apak, R.; Atun, G.; Gueclue, K.; Tuetem, E.; Keskin, G.

    1995-01-01

    Bauxite wastes of alumina manufacture, i.e., red muds, have been tested for radiocesium and strontium removal from water. The red muds were water-washed, acid-, and heat-treated before usage to produce hydrous oxide like sorbents. Surface treatment of the sorbent was beneficial for 137 Cs uptake, while heat-treatment was detrimental to the -SOH surface sites responsible for high 90 Sr affinity. Fractionation of the sorbent with respect to apparent grain size did not produce significant differences in the sorption efficiency. The distribution coefficients vs. equilibrium activity in solution showed a maximum with Cs, and a gradual decrease trend with Sr. The solution activity vs. adsorption data were fitted to B.E.T. (essentially types IV-V) isotherms for Cs and B.E.T.-Langmuir isotherms for Sr. Desorption, temperature-, pH-, and ionic strength-dependence tests revealed that the primary mode of sorption for both cations is specific adsorption while the secondary mode is ion exchange. A rise in pH favours the ion-exchange sorption of Sr while the specific adsorption of Cs is negatively affected. Competitive adsorption of an inert electrolyte, i.e., NaCl, severely hinders Cs sorption, while Sr sorption on water-washed red mud is not significantly affected. (author)

  18. Environmental levels of strontium 90 and cesium 137 from the fall-out in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciallella, Hugo E.; Fernandez, Jorge A.; Lewis, Esther C.; Quintana, Eduardo E.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1960 collection and measurement of environmental samples from Buenos Aires city and surroundings was periodically carried out. The contamination levels from radioactive fall out was determinated. This paper use a test procedure to analyse statistically the variation of the environmental levels of Sr 90 and Cs 137 in deposition, milk and aerosol samples. The analysed data have two different groups, one of them corresponding to the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests period and the other without explosions in the southern hemisphere. Moreover, integrated concentration of both radionuclides is presented and the received dose was compared with the natural radiation dose. (author)

  19. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, March 1, 1977--June 1, 1977. [Air pollution in environs of Cu smelter and fallout radionuclides in food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1977-07-01

    This report presents current information from the HASL environmental programs, The Technical University of Wroclaw, Poland, and the Radiological and Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes on environmental levels of lead and mercury in the area of a copper smelter, radionuclide uptake by cultivated dusts in crops, and fallout strontium-90 in diet through 1976. Subsequent sections include tabulations of radionuclide concentrations in stratospheric air, radionuclide and stable lead concentrations in surface air, strontium-90 in deposition, milk, diet, and tapwater and cesium-137 in diet and tapwater. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented.

  20. Method of grass samples preparation for strontium-90 and cesium-137 analysis with the exception of ashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, V.A.; Prokof'ev, O.N.; Khazina, M.A.; Bajkovskaya, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for the preparation of grass samples in the analysis for 90 Sr and 137 Cs, in which radionuclides are removed into solution as a result of the thermal treatment of samples in 0.01N solution of hydrochloric acid. A grass sample 0.8 kg in weight is covered with 8-10 l of 0.01 N solution of hydrochloric acid and boiled for 30 min, while being constantly stirred. The solution is filtered through cheese cloth, carriers for 90 Y and 137 Cs are introduced, and then oxalates are precipitated at pH=4. After the oxalates have been separated from the filtrate the 137 Cs content is determined using the antimonium-iodide technique. The oxalate precipitate is calcined, dissolved in 2N hydrochloric acid, while boiling, and precipitated by ammonia. The precipitate of hydrooxides is filtered. The solution is acidified by 2N hydrochloric acid up to pH 2-3, and the carrier for 90 Y is introduced. The 90 Sr content is determined by a conventional technique. The percentage of the transition of radionuclides from the grass samples into solution ammounts to: 88+-6% for 90 Sr, and 81+-7% for 137 Cs

  1. Burning radionuclide question. What happens to iodine, cesium and chlorine in biomass fires?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Sheppard, S.C.; Johnston, F.L.; Evenden, W.G.; Harris, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Fires can mobilize radionuclides from contaminated biomass through suspension of gases and particles in the atmosphere or solubilization and enrichment of the ash. Field and laboratory burns were conducted to determine the fate of I, Cs and Cl in biomass fires. Straw, wood, peat, dulse (seaweed) and radish plants were combusted with temperatures varying from 160 to 1000C, representing the normal range of field fire temperatures. Loss to the atmosphere increased with fire temperature and during a typical field fire, 80 - 90% of the I and Cl, and 40 - 70% of the Cs was lost to the atmosphere. The remainder was left behind in the ash and was soluble. Typically, the ash was enriched in I by a factor of two to three, with higher enrichments of Cs and lower enrichments of Cl, when compared to the initial fuel concentration during field burns. Most of the I was lost to the atmosphere as a gas. If the elements were radioactive isotopes, such as 129 I, 137 Cs and 36 Cl, fires could cause an increased radiological dose to people through inhalation, exposure to ash, or ingestion of plants because of increased uptake of ash leachate

  2. Model for prognostication of population irradiation dose at the soil way of long-living radionuclides including in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Vinogradskaya, V.D.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of modern pictures of cesium and strontium ion absorption mechanisms a soil taking complex was build the kinetic model of radionuclide migration from soil to plants. Model parameter association with the agricultural chemistry properties of soil, represented by complex estimation of soil properties S e f. The example of model application for prognostication of population internal irradiation dose due to consumption of milk at the soil way of long-living radionuclides including in food chains

  3. PROBLEMS OF PROTECTION OF URBAN AREAS FROM RADIONUCLIDES STRONTIUM-90 AND CAESIUM-137 AFTER TECHNOLOGICAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cheremisina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The methods of decontamination of radionuclides from soils are considered. The literature focuses on fixing radionuclides in soils and creating geochemical barriers that it is prevent the spread of pollution. The main disadvantage of these methods is exclude the possibility of building a territory. It is need to clean up the area to the sanitary and hygienic requirements for further use and then it is desirable to fix the residual activity. Carried out an analysis of forms of radionuclides fixation in soils and mechanics of this fixation, therewith revealed that Cs-137 fixed more strongly on mineral component of soil, than Sr-90, which is mainly in the acid-soluble and exchangeable form, and, as a consequence, passes into the liquid phase during soil deactivation more easily. Contaminated soil deactivation in the urbanized territory is possible by washing it by ferric chloride solution at a concentration 0.02-0.05 M and with an equimolar addition of an ammonium chloride. Therewith most efficient methods, which used in-situ conditions, are heap and convection leaching technologies with treatment degree, which not less than 80%. At the same time, the most efficient methods which used in-situ conditions are heap and the convection leaching. The hardware-technological scheme of a convection leaching is presented. Noted that ammonium salts additions slightly rising coefficient of treatment from Sr-90. Because ammonium salts aren’t expensive, their additions allow to obtain significant economic benefits due to decreasing of ferric chloride consumption, which is more valuable, and waste water volume reduction.

  4. Selected radionuclides. Tritium, carbon-14, krypton-85, strontium-90, iodine, caesium 137, radon, plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The release of radioactive materials to the environment potentially exposes populations to ionizing radiation and increases the risk of incurring deleterious health effects. The associations of released amounts to effects establish the health criteria for radionuclides. This report provides background information in establishing such health criteria for 14 C, 85 Kr, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, Radon, Plutonium, Iodine and Tritium, including environmental behaviour, sources, transport to man and dosimetry. A brief summary of the general aspects of radiation effects and of radiation protection considerations is presented

  5. Surveillance of Strontium-90 in Foods after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, various radionuclides were released into the environment. In this study, we surveyed strontium-90 ((90)Sr) concentrations in several foodstuffs. Strontium-90 is thought to be the third most important residual radionuclide in food collected after the Fukushima Daiichi, NPP accident after following cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and cesium-134 ((134)Cs). Results of (90)Sr analyses indicated that (90)Sr was detect in 25 of the 40 radioactive cesium (r-Cs) positive samples collected in areas around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, ranging in distance from 50 to 250 km. R-Cs positive samples were defined as containing both (134)Cs and (137)Cs which are considered to be indicators of the after-effects of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. We also detected (90)Sr in 8 of 13 r-Cs negative samples, in which (134)Cs was not detected. Strontium-90 concentrations in the r-Cs positive samples did not significantly exceed the (90)Sr concentrations in r-Cs negative samples or the (90)Sr concentration ranges in comparable food groups found in previous surveys before the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. Thus, (90)Sr concentrations in r-Cs positive samples were indistinguishable from the background (90)Sr concentrations arising from global fallout prior to the Fukushima accident, suggesting that no marked increase of (90)Sr concentrations has occurred in r-Cs positive samples as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.

  6. Strontium-82/rubidium-82 generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennaro, G.P.; Haney, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Hydroxylapatite, a compound having the formula: M 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 wherein M is calcium, strontium, barium, lead, iron, sodium, potassium, zinc, cadmium, magnesium, aluminium or a rare earth metal, is provided as a support medium for strontium-82 in a strontium-82/rubidium-82 parent-daughter radionuclide generator

  7. Trace Metals in Groundwater and the Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment and Stabilization of Strontium-90 and Other Divalent Metals and Radionuclides at Arid West DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants such as strontium-90 are present beneath U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands in both the groundwater (e.g., 100-N area at Hanford, WA) and vadose zone (e.g., Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants is a cost-effective treatment strategy. However, implementing in situ containment and stabilization approaches requires definition of the mechanisms that control contaminant sequestration. We are investigating the in situ immobilization of radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., strontium-90) by their facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Our facilitated approach, shown schematically in Figure 1, relies upon the hydrolysis of introduced urea to cause the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity. Subsurface urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which may be either introduced with the urea or produced in situ by ubiquitous subsurface urea hydrolyzing microorganisms. Because the precipitation process tends to be irreversible and many western aquifers are saturated with respect to calcite, the co-precipitated metals and radionuclides will be effectively removed from the aqueous phase over the long-term. Another advantage of the ureolysis approach is that the ammonium ions produced by the reaction can exchange with radionuclides sorbed to subsurface minerals, thereby enhancing the availability of the radionuclides for re-capture in a more stable solid phase (co-precipitation rather than adsorption)

  8. Sorption of strontium on uranyl peroxide: implications for a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Rosa; Martínez-Lladó, Xavier; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan; Casas, Ignasi; Giménez, Javier

    2010-09-15

    Strontium-90 is considered the most important radioactive isotope in the environment and one of the most frequently occurring radionuclides in groundwaters at nuclear facilities. The uranyl peroxide studtite (UO2O2 . 4H2O) has been observed to be formed in spent nuclear fuel leaching experiments and seems to have a relatively high sorption capacity for some radionuclides. In this work, the sorption of strontium onto studtite is studied as a function of time, strontium concentration in solution and pH. The main results obtained are (a) sorption is relatively fast although slower than for cesium; (b) strontium seems to be sorbed via a monolayer coverage of the studtite surface, (c) sorption has a strong dependence on ionic strength, is negligible at acidic pH, and increases at neutral to alkaline pH (almost 100% of the strontium in solution is sorbed above pH 10). These results point to uranium secondary solid phase formation on the spent nuclear fuel as an important mechanism for strontium retention in a high-level nuclear waste repository (HLNW). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A new simulation model for calculating the internal exposure of some radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrous Ayman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model based on a series of mathematical functions for estimating excretion rates following the intake of nine different radionuclides is presented in this work. The radionuclides under investigation are: cobalt, iodine, cesium, strontium, ruthenium, radium, thorium, plutonium, and uranium. The committed effective dose has been calculated by our model so as to obtain the urinary and faecal excretion rates for each radionuclide. The said model is further validated by a comparison with the widely spread Mondal software and a simulation program. The results obtained show a harmony between the Mondal package and the model we have constructed.

  10. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  11. Incorporation of cesium into phosphates of apatitic and rhabdophane lattices. Application to the conditioning of separated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campayo, L.

    2003-04-01

    Two phosphate-based materials were investigated for cesium immobilization after its partitioning from spent nuclear fuel: apatites and rhabdophanes. The incorporation of cesium into the apatitic lattice creates steric stresses. These stresses induce the formation of secondary phases which are rapidly leached. The effectiveness of the cesium immobilization in this material is not therefore validated. A second phosphate CsCaNd(PO 4 ) 2 was consistently found at the end of the leach test and its properties were further characterized. The structure of CsCaNd(PO 4 ) 2 , which is rhabdophane-like, is made of large channels which enable the incorporation of the largest alkaline cations. The synthesis involves two intermediates: the monazite, NdPO 4 , and a soluble phosphate, CsCaPO 4 . The study of a rhabdophane with 10 wt.% of cesium reveals satisfactory intrinsic properties: a thermal stability up to 1100 C and a leach rate of 10 -2 g/(m 2 .d). The next step will be to improve the reaction yield. (author)

  12. The study of sorption of cesium radionuclides by 'T-55' ferrocyanide sorbent from various types of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenischev, V.S.; Voronina, A.V.; Bykov, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of caesium by T-55 sorbent from different types of liquid radioactive wastes is studied. It is shown that the sorbent can be used for extraction of cesium from high level acidic and saline solutions and also for decontamination of caesium contaminated waters containing surfactants and EDTA. (author)

  13. Radionuclides in Tissues of Marine Birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, N.; Matishov, D.

    2004-01-01

    The birds are higher links of trophic nets of marine ecosystems and are capable to store in organs and tissues radionuclides. We can inspect radionuclides contents in marine ecosystems on a their contents of in birds. Objects of our research were marine birds, including seagull (the Herring gull Larus aregentatus, the Great Blackback Larus marinus), the Black guillemot Cepphus grylle, the Eider Somateria mollissima, the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and the Arctic Stercorarius parasiticus. Researches were conducted in August 2000 and 2001 near to the biological station of Murmansk Marine Biological Institute in a point Dalnije Zelentsy on the cost of the Sea Barents. Contents of plutonium-239, 240, cesium-137 and strontium-90 in bones, skin and fatherless and muscles of birds were researched. The contents of cesium - 137 varied from 0,99 Bq/kg in a skin and feathers of the Herring gull up to 177 Bq/kg in muscles of the Great Blackback, the contents strontium-90 varied from 25 mBq/kg in a skin and feathers of the Cormorant up to 7140 mBq/kg in bones the Eider. The contents of plutonium-239,240 varied from 1,8 mBq/kg in muscles of the Eider up to 23 mBq/kg in skeleton of the Great Blackback. The content of this radionuclide was higher for adult, i.e. was enlarged with age. Higher concentrations in tissues are founded for the Eider and the Great Blackback. So, the average concentrations of cesium - 137 in muscles the Eider have constituted 1,5 Bq/kg, the Great Blackback -73,5 Bq/kg, the Black guillemot -16 Bq/kg, the Arctic scua - 1,3 Bq/kg, the Herring gull - 8,7 Bq/kg. Average concentrations of cesium - 137 in bones of the Eider were1,6 Bq/kg, the Great Blackback - 19,8Bq/kg, the Herring gull - 2,2 Bq/kg. The average concentrations strontium-90 in a skin and feathers of the Cormorant were 20 mBq/kg, the Great Blackback - 1288 mBq/kg, the Herring gull - 690 mBq/kg. It is founded that distribution the contents of strontium-90 in bones significantly varies from species

  14. Leachability of radionuclides from cement solidified waste forms produced at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croney, S.T.

    1985-03-01

    This study determined the leachability indexes of radionuclides contained in solidified liquid wastes from operating nuclear power plants. Different sizes of samples of cement-solidified liquid wastes were collected from two nuclear power plants - a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor - to correlate radionuclide leaching from small- and full-sized (55-gallon) waste forms. Diffusion-based model analysis (ANS 16.1) of measured radionuclide leach data from both small- and full-sized samples was performed and indicate that leach data from small samples can be used to determine leachability indexes for full-sizes waste forms. The leachability indexes for cesium, strontium, and cobalt isotopes were determined for waste samples from both plants according to the models used for ANS 16.1. The leachability indexes for the pressurized water reactor samples were 6.4 for cesium, 7.1 for strontium, and 10.4 for cobalt. Leachability indexes for the boiling water reactor samples were 6.5 for cesium, 8.6 for strontium, and 11.1 for cobalt

  15. Use of extraction chromatography, ion chromatography and liquid scintillation spectrometry for rapid determination of strontium-89 and strontium-90 in food in cases of increased release of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilgeist, M.

    2000-01-01

    For rapid determination of 89 Sr and 90 Sr in food, isocratic ion chromatography used for Sr isolation and purification is integrated in a complete analytical system comprising sample preparation, incineration, dissolution, phosphate precipitation for alkali/alkaline earth separation, and Sr specific extraction chromatography on crown ether basis for Ca/Sr separation. Strontium-89 and 90 Sr are determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry after carbonate precipitation. The components of the mixed spectra obtained are calculated by the computerized spectra subtraction method. Two days plus measuring time are required for single, three for double analysis. The limit of detection for 89 Sr and 90 Sr is ca. 0.1 Bq x kg -1 , related to the fresh produce. (author)

  16. Selective decontamination for cesium and strontium in evaporation concentrates from reprocessing plants with crown ethers by transport through supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas i Garcia, J.

    1991-01-01

    Reprocessing operations lead to the production of radioactive medium activity liquid waste which is treated by evaporation. The concentrates from reprocessing plant evaporators have to be stored in geological storage sites in view of their strong caesium, strontium and actinides activity. These elements, contained in acid and high sodium nitrate content liquid waste, are removed by means of selective extractants, using the supported liquid membrane technique (SLM), which allows them to be stored in surface sites, the actinides and long-life fission products being respectively recycled and concentrated into reduced volumes. The removal of the actinides is done by means of an Octyl N.N Diisobutyl Carbamoyl Methyl Phosphine Oxyde (C.M.P.O.) based liquid membrane, whereas the removal of the caesium and strontium involves crown ethers. Supported liquid membranes (S.L.M.s) have the advantage of implementing very small quantities of extractant, but, they generally have poor stability. The extractant, the diluent and the phase modifier that constitute the organic phase impregnating the membrane play a vital role in SLM stability; the support also affects stability by its nature and geometry. For the extraction of strontium, DtBu 18 C6 enables higher strontium transfer kinetics to be attained than with DC18 C6. As regards caesium, nDec B21 C7 is the most efficient. Unlike strontium, caesium cannot be quantitatively removed, due to the competition of sodium ions in the concentrate. Stable membranes are obtained with DC18 C6 or DtBu18 C6 diluted in alkylbenzene with an added phase modifier such as decanol or isotridecanol. The highest strontium transfer kinetics were obtained with the DC18 C6/hexylbenzene/isotridecanol mixture

  17. LOW CONTENT OF RADIONUCLIDES IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTION AS A RATIONALE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RECREATIONAL POTENTIAL OF NORTHERN BUKOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia OMEL’CHENKO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on food products contamination by Cesium-137 and Strontium-90, detection of content of natural radionuclides (Radium-226, Thorium-232, Potassium-40 in raw materials and finished products of building industry, monitoring of some radionuclides content in soils of mountainous area of Northern Bukovina was carried out. All the results were analyzed and discussed in view of the life safety position. Data on radionuclides content in surrounding natural environment as well as in building and food industry production confirm Northern Bukovina territory’s attractiveness and safety for recreation areas development.

  18. Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-06-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Cesium-137

  19. Applicability and reliability of the 'observed ratio' model as a means of describing the strontium and the cesium transfer from soil to plant. Eignung und Zuverlaessigkeit des 'observed ratio' Modells fuer die Beschreibung des Strontium- und Caesium-Transfers vom Boden in die Pflanze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leising, C.

    1986-12-01

    The report examines the suitability of the observed ratio, (OR), model as a means of describing the soil-to-plant transfer of cesium and strontium, and the reliability of results determined by this model. Literature studies have been made and are reported in order to show the discrimination between Sr and Ca, or Cs and K, respectively, and in order to show the magnitude of the OR value and the range of values it may cover. For the evaluation of results, care has been taken that only the physiologically relevant constituents of Sr, Ca, Cs, and K concentrations in the soil are taken into account, which are the water-soluble and the adsorptively bound forms. Non-mobile forms cannot be taken up by the plant and therefore are not considered in the model. In accordance with the literature reviewed, the report also differentiates between two experimental approaches: (1) hydroponics, and (2) greenhouse or field experiments.

  20. Behavior of radionuclides and related elements in plants. Screening and characterization of cesium requirement mutants from mutagenized arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Mutsumi; Yanai, Masumi; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Inaba, Jiro [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of climate on the metabolic behavior of various elements in a specific plant. The following items have been examined: the effect of climate conditions including Yamase (prevailing windows from the Pacific Ocean side area of Aomori Prefecture) on the elemental transfer factor of rice, the effect of light conditions on metabolism of elements in a plant, the effect of environmental factors on elemental movements at a cell level, and establishment of a mutant plant strain to obtain elemental requirement. This paper describes the development of a method for screening and characterizing cesium resistance mutants from Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small herbaceous plant which is used for experimental molecular botany. To isolate mutant in cesium uptake or accumulation, we have devised a screening method using energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX) of mutagenized Arabidopsis leaves. The seeds for the selection were M{sub 2} seeds derived from ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-treated plants. A double screening method was used to isolate about 50 Cs-resistant mutants. In the first screening experiment, EMS-mutagenized seeds were grown in medium containing 3 mM Cs. The wild type Arabidopsis usually died, but Cs-resistant mutants survived. These were transferred into soil for harvest of first-screening-seeds. In the successive experiment, first-screening-seeds were grown in medium containing 1 mM Cs, and Cs of the leaves was analyzed by EDX. We identified about 50 mutants in Cs uptake or accumulation after screening over 100,000 seedlings. These mutants showed either excessive accumulation of Cs in leaves or an inability to accumulate Cs at a normal concentration. The uptake rates of Cs in those mutants were also examined by using {sup 134}Cs radioactive tracer. (author)

  1. Spatial distribution of radionuclides in soil around a coal-fired power plant: lead 210, polonium 210, radium 226, thorium 232, kalium 40 emitted with the fly ash and cesium 137 from the worldwide weapon testing fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1984-09-01

    To determine the effect of airborne emissions of radionuclides from coal-fired power plants on the environment, the concentrations of the most important radionuclides were measured in soil samples from the local environments (0.4-5.2 km) as well as in fly ash. The spatial distribution of the radionuclides in the soil did not indicate any significantly increased concentrations in the area downwind of the plant compared to other areas; the ratios lead 210/radium 226 and polonium 210/radium 226 were within the range observed for unaffected soils. The emissions from the plant, though present, are obviously too small to significantly change the natural local distribution pattern of the radionuclides in the soil. A highly significant correlation between potassium 40 and thorium 232 was observed which was independent of the different types of soils found in this area. The concentration of cesium 137 in topsoil, which is the result of worldwide fallout from nuclear weapons testing, varied at some places even within a small distance (approx. 2 km) by up to one order of magnitude. Furthermore, it was observed that the concentration of cesium 137 in soils from cropland was on average a factor of 2 less than in those from grassland. This variability has to be considered in planning monitoring programs around nuclear power plants, which may also release this radionuclide. (A.V.)

  2. Selective decontamination of cesium and strontium from evaporation concentrates of spent fuel reprocessing plants with crown ethers by transport through supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas i Garcia, J.

    1993-01-01

    Reprocessing operations lead to the production of radioactive medium activity liquid waste which is treated by evaporation and solutions of very high salinity are thus formed. The concentrates from reprocessing plant evaporators have to be stored in geological storage sites in view of their strong caesium, strontium and actinides activity. These elements, contained in acid and high sodium nitrate content liquid waste, are removed by means of selective extractants, using the supported liquid membrane technique (SLM), which allows them to be stored in surface sites, the actinides and long-life fission products being respectively recycled and concentrated into reduced volumes. The removal of the actinides is done by means of an Octyl N.N Diisobutyl Carbamoyl Methyl Phosphine Oxide (C.M.P.O.) based liquid membrane, whereas the removal of the caesium and strontium involves crown ethers. Supported liquid membranes (S.L.M.s) have the advantage of implementing very small quantities of extractant, but they generally have poor stability. The extractant, the diluent and the phase modifier impregnating the membrane play a vital role in SLM stability; the support also affects stability by its nature and geometry. For the extraction of strontium, the most lipophilic extractant, DtBu 18 C 6, enables higher strontium transfer kinetics to be attained. As regards caesium, the extremely lipophilic nDec B21 C7 is the most efficient. Caesium cannot be quantitatively removed, due to the competition of the very high content of sodium ions in the concentrate. Stable membranes are obtained with DC18 C6 or DtBu18 C6 diluted in alkylbenzenes with an added phase modifier such as decanol or especially isotridecanol

  3. Cesium-137 and natural radionuclides in soils from southern Brazil and soils and others environmental samples from Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.

    1993-04-01

    This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples form Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 which is a 30.1 year half-life man-made radionuclide produced in the past by atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Natural radioactivity was determined by measuring some radionuclides belonging to Th-232 and U-238 natural radioactive families, and of K-40 concentrations. Several types of soils from Southern Brazil; and soil samples, marine sediments, lichens, mosses and algae collected at King George and other nearby islands (South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica) were analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to measure radioactivity levels of the collected samples and its overall characteristics are analyzed in this work. (author)

  4. Decorporation of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Fleche, Ph.; Destombe, C.; Grasseau, A.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.; Mestries, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, 137 Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe β, γirradiations and contaminations. 137 Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the 137 Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  5. Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Koji; Atsumi, Mika; Yokoyama, Akiko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Inouye, Isao; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 released an enormously high level of radionuclides into the environment, a total estimation of 6.3 × 10¹⁷ Bq represented by mainly radioactive Cs, Sr, and I. Because these radionuclides are biophilic, an urgent risk has arisen due to biological intake and subsequent food web contamination in the ecosystem. Thus, urgent elimination of radionuclides from the environment is necessary to prevent substantial radiopollution of organisms. In this study, we selected microalgae and aquatic plants that can efficiently eliminate these radionuclides from the environment. The ability of aquatic plants and algae was assessed by determining the elimination rate of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from culture medium and the accumulation capacity of radionuclides into single cells or whole bodies. Among 188 strains examined from microalgae, aquatic plants and unidentified algal species, we identified six, three and eight strains that can accumulate high levels of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from the medium, respectively. Notably, a novel eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, showed the highest ability to eliminate radioactive Cs from the medium by cellular accumulation. Our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollution in Fukushima area.

  6. Estimating the transfer of radionuclides from foodstuff into animals (meat)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, B.; Hopfner, U.

    1978-10-01

    Eating contaminated animal food represents a considerable contribution to human irradiation loading from radioactive emission. When estimating the irradiation loading, a precondition is a knowledge of the radio-nuclide transfer from the feedstuff into the meat of the domestic animal. The radio-ecology importance of this exposure path requires a precise examination of the origin of the values given by SSK with the data in the international literature. The transfer of radio-cesium, radio-strontium, radio-iodine and plutonium from feedstuff into meat/milk are especially considered. (DG) [de

  7. Metabolic behaviour of some radionuclides in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, B.

    1978-01-01

    The author has taken up the difficult task of reviewing the literature on the metabolic behaviour of some radioactive substances in different animal species, especially in domestic animals. Scope and amount of the material available on this subject field very soon induced the author to restrict herself to the more 'classical' radionuclides of iodine, cesium and strontium, as well as to a rather topical group of radioactive substances, the transuranium elements. With a total of about 800 titles cited from the literature, and by means of numerous examples of experiments, skilfully selected and analyzed, various essential differences in the metabolic behaviour of the radionuclides in the different animal species are shown. The extraordinary difficulties arising in comparing the different relevant results and possible methods for a unified approach are presented. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Crystalline silicotitanates -- novel commercial cesium ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.; Dangieri, T.J.; Fennelly, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na + . The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. These CST properties made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia and UOP, under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), developed CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by Sandia and Texas A ampersand M consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications such as batch waste processing. Data are also presented confirming the excellent stability of the commercial CSTs over a broad pH range and the high radiation stability of the exchangers. In addition, data are provided that demonstrate the high physical strength and attrition resistance of IONSIV reg-sign IE-911, critical properties for column ion exchange applications

  9. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237

  10. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  11. Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides 85 strontium and 197 cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Distribution of radionuclides in leaf-stem biomass of lupine and clover under production of protein concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, Yu.F.; Lobach, G.A.; Buzenko, T.A.; Zaretskaya, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    The basic regularities of radionuclide distribution between the obtained products have been studied using the fractionation of lupine and clover phytomass as an example. The content of radionuclides in protein concentrates has been shown to be strongly related to the crop species. A scheme and a regime of the fractionation of leaf-stem lupine biomass contaminated with cesium radioisotopes and strontium-90 which ensured the minimizing of their residual content in protein-vitaminic and protein concentrates have been selected with due accout of experimental data

  13. Report on intercomparison A-14 of the determination of some mineral components and radionuclides in milk powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicki, L.; Hanna, A.N.; Suschny, O.

    1984-01-01

    To enable those laboratories to control their analytical performance the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service organizes periodic international comparisons of the determination of radionuclides or of inorganic components in liquid or in powdered milk. The comparison reported here is one in this series. The analytical results, provided by the laboratories which have participated in the intercomparison, allow the certification of concentration values for three mineral components, viz. calcium, potassium, and sodium and for two radionuclides, viz. cesium-137 and strontium-90, in Milk Powder IAEA/A-14

  14. ''Crown molecules'' for separating cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Lamare, V.

    2002-01-01

    After the minor actinides, the second category of radionuclides that must be isolated to optimize nuclear waste management concerns fission products, especially two cesium isotopes. If the cesium-135 isotope could be extracted, it could subsequently be transmuted or conditioned using a tailor-made process. Eliminating the 137 isotope from reprocessing and nuclear facility-dismantling waste would allow to dispose of most of this waste in near-surface facilities, and simply process the small remaining quantity containing long-lived elements. CEA research teams and their international partners have thought up crown molecules that could be used to pick out the cesium and meet these objectives. (authors)

  15. Results of several years experiments on the absorption of radioactive strontium and caesium by cultivated plants (1962); Compte rendu d'experiences de plusieurs annees sur l'absorption du strontium et du cesium radioactifs par des plantes cultivees (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michon, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dept. de Protection Sanitaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Benard, M; Flanzy, M [Station Centrale de Technologie des Produits Vegetaux, 11 - Narbonne (France); Fioramonti, M; Marty, M [Station Agronomique de Toulouse, 31 (France); Barbier, M; Le Blaye, M; Brossard, M [Societe Centrale d' Agronomie, 78 - Versailles (France)

    1962-07-01

    This report follows on to the report number CEA 1860 and uses results obtained in 1960 to give more precise details concerning the data presented in the preceding report. First results obtained on the vine are given. The Sr absorption coefficient has varied very little from one year to the next and that of caesium has slightly diminished. The values obtained suggest that the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in irrigation water should not exceed 1/5 of the maximum permissible concentration in drinking water. (authors) [French] Ce rapport fait suite au rapport CEA 1860 et precise grace aux resultats acquis en 1960 les donnees exprimees dans le precedent rapport. Il y est fait mention des premiers resultats obtenus pour la vigne. Le coefficient d'absorption du Sr a peu varie d'une annee sur l'autre et celui du cesium legerement diminue. Les valeurs obtenues permettent de penser qu'il serait souhaitable que la concentration en {sup 90}Sr et en {sup 137}Cs dans l'eau d'irrigation ne depasse pas le 1/5 de la concentration maxima admissible pour l'eau de boisson. (auteurs)

  16. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author).

  17. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1994-01-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  18. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for removal of cesium and strontium from simulated and actual Hanford 241-AW-101 DSSF tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Northwest National Laboratory) conducted this study as a joint effort between the ''Develop and Test Sorbents'' task for the Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program (ESP) and the ''Batch Testing of Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs)'' subtask, which is part of the Northwest National Laboratory Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project. The objective of the study is to investigate radionuclide uptake of the newly produced CST materials under a variety of solution conditions and to compare the results obtained for this material with those obtained for other commercial and experimental exchangers

  19. Simulating the Transfer of Strontium-90 from Soil to Leafy Vegetables by Using Strontium-88

    OpenAIRE

    Kuke, Ding; Shujuan, Liu; Yingxue, He; Dong, Yan; Fengshou, Zhang; Shuifeng, Wang; Jinghua, Guo; Wei, Zhang; Xin, Wang; Xiaoyan, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 (88Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 (90Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water co...

  20. Removal of Radionuclides from Waste Water at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Desalination and Adsorption Methods - 13126

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kani, Yuko; Kamosida, Mamoru; Watanabe, Daisuke [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 7-2-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 319-1221 (Japan); Asano, Takashi; Tamata, Shin [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Waste water containing high levels of radionuclides due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, has been treated by the adsorption removal and reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination to allow water re-use for cooling the reactors. Radionuclides in the waste water are collected in the adsorbent medium and the RO concentrate (RO brine) in the water treatment system currently operated at the Fukushima Daiichi site. In this paper, we have studied the behavior of radionuclides in the presently applied RO desalination system and the removal of radionuclides in possible additional adsorption systems for the Fukushima Daiichi waste water treatment. Regarding the RO desalination system, decontamination factors (DFs) of the elements present in the waste water were obtained by lab-scale testing using an RO unit and simulated waste water with non-radioactive elements. The results of the lab-scale testing using representative elements showed that the DF for each element depended on its hydrated ionic radius: the larger the hydrated ionic radius of the element, the higher its DF is. Thus, the DF of each element in the waste water could be estimated based on its hydrated ionic radius. For the adsorption system to remove radionuclides more effectively, we studied adsorption behavior of typical elements, such as radioactive cesium and strontium, by various kinds of adsorbents using batch and column testing. We used batch testing to measure distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s) for cesium and strontium onto adsorbents under different brine concentrations that simulated waste water conditions at the Fukushima Daiichi site. For cesium adsorbents, K{sub d}s with different dependency on the brine concentration were observed based on the mechanism of cesium adsorption. As for strontium, K{sub d}s decreased as the brine concentration increased for any adsorbents which adsorbed strontium by intercalation and by ion exchange. The adsorbent titanium oxide had higher K{sub d}s and it

  1. Removal of Radionuclides from Waste Water at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Desalination and Adsorption Methods - 13126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Yuko; Kamosida, Mamoru; Watanabe, Daisuke; Asano, Takashi; Tamata, Shin

    2013-01-01

    Waste water containing high levels of radionuclides due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, has been treated by the adsorption removal and reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination to allow water re-use for cooling the reactors. Radionuclides in the waste water are collected in the adsorbent medium and the RO concentrate (RO brine) in the water treatment system currently operated at the Fukushima Daiichi site. In this paper, we have studied the behavior of radionuclides in the presently applied RO desalination system and the removal of radionuclides in possible additional adsorption systems for the Fukushima Daiichi waste water treatment. Regarding the RO desalination system, decontamination factors (DFs) of the elements present in the waste water were obtained by lab-scale testing using an RO unit and simulated waste water with non-radioactive elements. The results of the lab-scale testing using representative elements showed that the DF for each element depended on its hydrated ionic radius: the larger the hydrated ionic radius of the element, the higher its DF is. Thus, the DF of each element in the waste water could be estimated based on its hydrated ionic radius. For the adsorption system to remove radionuclides more effectively, we studied adsorption behavior of typical elements, such as radioactive cesium and strontium, by various kinds of adsorbents using batch and column testing. We used batch testing to measure distribution coefficients (K d s) for cesium and strontium onto adsorbents under different brine concentrations that simulated waste water conditions at the Fukushima Daiichi site. For cesium adsorbents, K d s with different dependency on the brine concentration were observed based on the mechanism of cesium adsorption. As for strontium, K d s decreased as the brine concentration increased for any adsorbents which adsorbed strontium by intercalation and by ion exchange. The adsorbent titanium oxide had higher K d s and it was used for

  2. Incorporation of cesium into phosphates of apatitic and rhabdophane lattices. Application to the conditioning of separated radionuclides; Incorporation du cesium dans des phosphates de structure apatitique et rhabdophane. Application au conditionnement des radionucleides separes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campayo, L

    2003-04-01

    Two phosphate-based materials were investigated for cesium immobilization after its partitioning from spent nuclear fuel: apatites and rhabdophanes. The incorporation of cesium into the apatitic lattice creates steric stresses. These stresses induce the formation of secondary phases which are rapidly leached. The effectiveness of the cesium immobilization in this material is not therefore validated. A second phosphate CsCaNd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} was consistently found at the end of the leach test and its properties were further characterized. The structure of CsCaNd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, which is rhabdophane-like, is made of large channels which enable the incorporation of the largest alkaline cations. The synthesis involves two intermediates: the monazite, NdPO{sub 4}, and a soluble phosphate, CsCaPO{sub 4}. The study of a rhabdophane with 10 wt.% of cesium reveals satisfactory intrinsic properties: a thermal stability up to 1100 C and a leach rate of 10{sup -2} g/(m{sup 2}.d). The next step will be to improve the reaction yield. (author)

  3. Vertical transfer of radionuclides in soils of different genesis after Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakarykava, Zh.; Shagalova, E.; Zhukova, O.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a vertical transfer of radionuclides in soils of different genesis after Chernobyl NPP accident was studied. Analysis of obtained data revealed that the main content of cesium-137 is located in 0-5 cm layer of turf-podsolic, sandy-loam and loamy soil provided the lack of their humidification, and of light un-bogged (automorphous) soil as well. Cesium-137 penetration into light un-bogged soils with that sings of surplus humidification is approximately 10 cm deep. Strontium-90 as global birth so Chernobyl origin migrates more rapidly than cesium-137 because of less strong bond with soil absorbing complex. Cesium-137 migration coefficients amounted (0.03-0.46)·10 -7 cm 2 /s for a slow component, and for the fast one (0.39-0.67)·10 -7 cm 2 /s. Strontium-90 migration coefficients in the experimented sites, amounted (0.07-0.58)·10 -7 cm 2 /s for a slow component, and for the fast one (0.64-1.28)·10 -7 cm 2 /s. (authors)

  4. Absorption of radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear accident by a novel algal strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Shimura

    Full Text Available Large quantities of radionuclides have leaked from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant into the surrounding environment. Effective prevention of health hazards resulting from radiation exposure will require the development of efficient and economical methods for decontaminating radioactive wastewater and aquatic ecosystems. Here we describe the accumulation of water-soluble radionuclides released by nuclear reactors by a novel strain of alga. The newly discovered green microalgae, Parachlorella sp. binos (Binos has a thick alginate-containing extracellular matrix and abundant chloroplasts. When this strain was cultured with radioiodine, a light-dependent uptake of radioiodine was observed. In dark conditions, radioiodine uptake was induced by addition of hydrogen superoxide. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS showed a localization of accumulated iodine in the cytosol. This alga also exhibited highly efficient incorporation of the radioactive isotopes strontium and cesium in a light-independent manner. SIMS analysis showed that strontium was distributed in the extracellular matrix of Binos. Finally we also showed the ability of this strain to accumulate radioactive nuclides from water and soil samples collected from a heavily contaminated area in Fukushima. Our results demonstrate that Binos could be applied to the decontamination of iodine, strontium and cesium radioisotopes, which are most commonly encountered after nuclear reactor accidents.

  5. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  6. Modelling of long-term behaviour of caesium and strontium radionuclides in the Arctic environment and human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, Vladislav; Logacheva, Irina; Bruk, Gennadi; Shutov, Vladimir; Balonov, Mikhail; Strand, Per; Borghuis, Sander; Howard, Brenda; Wright, Simon

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a compartment model of the highly vulnerable Arctic terrestrial food chain 'lichen-reindeer-man' is outlined. Based upon an analysis of measured 137 Cs and 90 Sr contents in lichen and reindeer meat from 1961 up to 2001, site specific model parameters for two regions in north-western Arctic Russia and for Kautokeino municipality in Arctic Norway have been determined. The dynamics of radionuclide activity concentrations in the 'lichen-reindeer-man' food chain for all areas was satisfactorily described by a double exponential function with short-term and long-term effective ecological half-lives between 1-2 and 10-12 years, respectively, for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Using parameter values derived from the model, life-time internal effective doses due to consumption of reindeer meat by reindeer-breeders after an assumed single pulse deposit of 1 kBq m -2 of 137 Cs were estimated to be 11.4 mSv (Kola Peninsula), 5 mSv (Nenets Autonomous Area), and 2 mSv (Kautokeino, Norway). Differences in vulnerability to radiocaesium deposition were due to differences in transfer between lichen and reindeer and in diet between the three regions

  7. Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ''Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program'' (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels

  8. Estimated radiological doses to the maximumly exposed individual and downstream populations from releases of tritium, strontium-90, ruthenium-106, and cesium-137 from White Oak Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of tritium, 90 Sr, 106 Ru, and 137 Cs in the Clinch River for 1978 were estimated by using the known 1978 releases of these nuclides from the White Oak Dam and diluting them by the integrated annual flow rate of the Clinch River. Estimates of 50-year dose commitment to a maximumly exposed individual were calculated for both aquatic and terestrial pathways of exposure. The maximumly exposed individual was assumed to reside at the mouth of White Oak Creek where it enters the Clinch River and obtain all foodstuffs and drinking water at that location. The estimated total-body dose from all pathways to the maximumly exposed individual as a result of 1978 releases was less than 1% of the dose expected from natural background. Using appropriate concentrations of to subject radionuclides diluted downstream, the doses to populations residing at Harriman, Kingston, Rockwood, Spring City, Soddy-Daisy, and Chattanooga were calculated for aquatic exposure pathways. The total-body dose estimated for aquatic pathways for the six cities was about 0.0002 times the expected dose from natural background. For the pathways considered in this report, the nuclide which contributed the largest fraction of dose was 90 Sr. The largest dose delivered by 90 Sr was to the bone of the subject individual or community

  9. Exchange of certain radionuclides between environment and freshwater algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchyulenene, E. D.P.

    1978-01-01

    Data on the dynamics and levels of accumulation of strontium, cesium, cerium and ruthenium radionuclides by Charophyta and Cladophora fresh-water algae are presented. An attempt has been made to investigate some processes that accompany the accumulation of radionuclides by plants. Under experimental conditions, the intensity and levels of radionuclide accumulation can be presented in the following order: 144 Ce> 106 Ru> 90 Sr> 137 Cs. The dynamics of radionuclide accumulation varied greatly with the radionuclide and the algae species studied. The 144 Ce accumulation coefficients (AC) in the course of experiment (from 3 hours to 16 days) increased 8-, 9-, 23.4-, 27-, 14.3- and 20.4-fold for Cladophora glomerata, Nitella syncarpa, Nitellopsis obtusa, Chara vulgaris, Ch. rudis, and Ch. aspera, respectively. In the case of 106 Ru, AC for C.glomerata, N. syncarapa, Ch. vulgaris and Ch. rudis increased 34-, 18-,24- and 23-fold, respectively. In all algae species studied the equilibrium of radionuclide accumulation was attained after 2-4 days of experiment. Levels of accumulated 90 Sr and 137 Cs in most species depended on the season while that of 144 Cs and 106 Ru remained constant throughout the vegetation period. The levels of radionuclide elimination, like the accumulation levels, are shown to depend on both isotopes and algae species

  10. Radionuclides in forest biogeocenose elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavik, I.M.; Zhuchenko, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 year investigations are made on a studying of the radionuclide distribution (CS-137 and Sr-90) through the main forest biogeocenose elements (a litter a mineral soil layer, overground trees parts) on 5 experimental objects of Gomel' region with a various contamination. Radiation characters of the objects are done. As compared with 1989 year cesium and strontium migration from tress into the litter and from the litter to the soil is shown. In the litter and upper soil layer (5 m) contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are 95 and 80% accordingly. The Sr-90 concentration in the wood and the isotope concentration change through yearly layers (1986-1991 years) are studied. Wood layers formed to the accident have a lesser cesium concentration, especially in the oax-tree. The highest Cs and Se translocation, into the wood is noted in the pine the lesse one in the oax-tree. Among all elements of the biogeocenose the highest Cs-137 concentration the litter has and then one-year-old shoots, needles, lives, the bark and the wood go on. Even on the sixth year after the accident Cs concentration in the wood was 20-30 times less, than the one in needes and one-year-old shoot of this year. 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  11. Interaction of radionuclides in severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrale, Dhanesh B.; Bera, Subrata; Deo, Anuj Kumar; Paul, U.K.; Prasad, M.; Gaikwad, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are designed with inherent engineering safety systems and associated operational procedures that provide an in-depth defence against accidents. Radionuclides such as Iodine, Cesium, Tellurium, Barium, Strontium, Rubidium, Molybdenum and many others may get released during a severe accident. Among these, Iodine, one of the fission products, behaviour is significant for the analysis of severe accident consequences because iodine is a chemically more active to the potential components released to the environment. During severe accident, Iodine is released and transported in aqueous, organic and inorganic forms. Iodine release from fuel, iodine transport in primary coolant system, containment, and reaction with control rods are some of the important phases in a severe accident scenario. The behaviour of iodine is governed by aerosol physics, depletion mechanisms gravitational settling, diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. The presence of gaseous organic compounds and oxidizing compounds on iodine, reactions of aerosol iodine with boron and formation of cesium iodide which results in more volatile iodine release in containment play significant roles. Water radiolysis products due to presence of dissolved impurities, chloride ions, organic impurities should be considered while calculating iodine release. Containment filtered venting system (CFVS) consists of venturi scrubber and a scrubber tank which is dosed with NaOH and NaS_2O_3 in water where iodine will react with the chemicals and convert into NaI and Na_2SO_4. This paper elaborates the issues with respect to interaction of radionuclides and its consideration in modeling of severe accident. (author)

  12. Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failor, R.; Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Vandergraaf, T.

    1982-06-01

    This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, 85 Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas 137 Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less 137 Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 μm and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10 -3 m/s were calculated from the core measurements

  13. Retention of Radionuclides in Halite and Anhydrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Platz, O.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction between a series of radionuclides, comprising **1**3**4Cs** plus , **8**5Sr**2** plus , **6**0Co**2** plus , **1**5**4Eu**3** plus , **2**4**1Am**3** plus , and **9**9Tc (as TcO//4** minus ) and halite (NaCl) and anhydrite (CaSO//4), respectively, has been investigated. It appears...... for europium and americium, respectively. Impuritites in the halite, such as hematite or anhydrite strongly increase the sorption efficiency. In these cases also cobalt, and to a minor extent cesium and strontium, was found to be sorbed. Anhydrite was found to sorb all metal cations studied. The sorption...

  14. Bioaccumulation factors for radionuclides in freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Parzyck, D.C.; Wilcox, W.H.; Kercher, J.R.; Kaye, S.V.

    1975-11-01

    This report analyzes over 200 carefully selected papers to provide concise data sets and methodology for estimation of bioaccumulation factors for tritium and isotopes of strontium, cesium, iodine, manganese, and cobalt in major biotic components of freshwater environments. Bioaccumulation factors of different tissues are distinguished where significant differences occur. Since conditions in the laboratory are often unnatural in terms of chemical and ecological relationships, this review was restricted as far as possible to bioaccumulation factors determined for natural systems. Because bioaccumulation factors were not available for some shorter-lived radionuclides, a methodology for converting bioaccumulation factors of stable isotopes to those of shorter-lived radionuclides was derived and utilized. The bioaccumulation factor for a radionuclide in a given organism or tissue may exhibit wide variations among bodies of water that are related to differences in ambient concentrations of stable-element and carrier-element analogues. To account for these variations, simple models are presented that relate bioaccumulation factors to stable-element and carrier-element concentrations in water. The effects of physicochemical form and other factors in causing deviations from these models are discussed. Bioaccumulation factor data are examined in the context of these models, and bioaccumulation factor relations for the selected radionuclides are presented

  15. Transport and accumulation of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frissel, M.J.; Jakubick, A.T.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H.

    1979-01-01

    The movement of radioactive isotopes through the water phase of soils is by far the most important. Most of the water-transported radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) occur via their dissolved salts, while the rest is carried by small soil particles to which the radionuclides are adsorbed. In the case of many chemicals, it is possible to calculate the movement or migration through soil from adsorption measurements made in the laboratory and from knowledge of the flow pattern of soil water. With increasing complexity of the chemical-soil-water system predictions become more uncertain. In the case of radionuclides the amounts expressed in units of weight are extremely small. This renders terms such as 'soluble' or 'insoluble' inapplicable. In these cases transport of 'radiocolloids' and adsorbed particles as 'insoluble' compounds may be more significant. For fallout strontium and cesium reliable predictive models have been developed. For fallout plutonium such models are under development. For calculations or predictions of the migration of radioactive material from deep soil layers to the soil surface fewer mathematical models are available. Many laboratory studies cannot yet be made due to lack of suitable soil samples from the sites under study. Nevertheless safety studies already carried out in a preliminary way are reliable, since factos such as adsorption of radionuclides on soils are neglected; consequently most safety studies overestimate possible risks. Further studies are required to ascertain how 'pessimistic' are the present safety criteriy. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Behavior of radionuclides in sanitary landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K C; Chian, E S; Pohland, F G; Cross, W H; Roland, L; Kahn, B

    1984-01-01

    his study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of disposing low-level radioactive waste in sanitary landfills with leachate containment to prevent environmental releases. To meet this objective, two simulated landfills, each 200 l. in volume and containing 55 kg of municipal refuse, were operated in the laboratory with simulated rainfall additions for a 9-month period to observe the extent to which radio-cobalt, -cesium, -strontium and tritium were leached into the liquid phase. One of the units was operated with leachate recycle, the other as a single pass control. Liquid samples were analyzed weekly for 3H, 58Co, 85Sr and 134Cs tracers. Weekly analyses were also performed for approximately 30 parameters to define the degree of stabilization of the waste. Major parameters included BOD, COD, pH and concentrations of specific organics, metals and gases. Concentrations of stable cobalt, strontium and cesium were also measured periodically. Soluble radioactivity levels in both systems were reduced by factors of 50 for 58Co, 5 for 85Sr and 7 for 134Cs, taking radioactive decay and dilution into account. Some radionuclide removal from the liquid phase was associated with major chemical changes in the landfills that occurred within 80 days for the control system and within 130 days for the recycle unit. Observed acid, sulfide, and CO2 concentrations suggested mechanisms for removing some of the radionuclides from leachate. Detection of 3H in the off-gas indicated that less than 1% of tritiated waste became airborne. The waste in the leachate recycle unit was more completely stabilized than in the control unit.

  17. Importance of biota in radionuclide transport at the SL-1 radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, W.J.; Grant, J.C.; Markham, O.D.

    1983-01-01

    During summer 1981 and 1982, radioecological research was conducted at the Stationary Low Power Reactor-1 radioactive waste disposal area to: (1) identify vegetation, wildlife, and invertebrate species occurring at or using the area; (2) determine radionuclide concentrations in these various ecosystem components; and (3) to evaluate their respective roles in radionuclide uptake and transport through the surrounding environment. Cesium-137 concentrations detected in surface soils, small mammal excavated soils and small mammal tissues collected at the waste disposal site were significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) greater than control area samples. Strontium-90 and 235 U analyses of SL-1 and control area samples and projections of total mass of ecosystem components in SL-1 area will be completed in summer of 1983 at which time estimates will be made on the total quantity of fission and activation radionuclides occurring in ecological media at the SL-1 waste disposal area

  18. Cesium-137. Environment. Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of all main sourses of cerium-137 formation and intake into the external medium is given. Special attention is paid to the estimation of possible influence of rapidly developing nuclear power industry on contamination of the external medium by the radionuclide. Levels of contamination of the external medium by cerium-137, main regularities of its migration through food chains, levels of its intake and accumulation in population's organisms in USSR and its separate regions, are considered. Great attention is paid to the control methods of external environmental contamination by cesium-137 and to its measurements in human body

  19. On the role of water and forage in penetration of some radionuclides into the Limnaea organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchyulenene, D.P.; Polikarpov, G.G.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Sevastopol. Inst. Biologii Yuzhnykh Morej)

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study under laboratory conditions the significance of elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich.) and aqueous medium in accumulation of strontium-90, cesium-137, cerium-144 and ruthenium-106 by limnetic gastropods (Limnaea Stagnalis L.). The study revealed that only 2 and 5% of strontium-90 and cerium-144 respectively were accumulated in molluscs shell from radioactive food, and 4 and 26% - in the body. The authors believed that higher accumulation levels of cerium-144 and ruthenium-106 in mollusca body when the molluscs are fed with radioactive elodea were caused by high accumulation coefficients (AC) of radionuclides in food, i.e. elodea, and their accumulation in the gastrointestinal tracts of molluscs. To appreciates the significance of elodea and water as sources of radionuclide accumulation by mollusca, strontium-90 and cerium-144 AC in molluscs were estimated in relation to water and elodea. The results obtained indicated that AC of these radionuclides in mollusca was much lower in relation to food than to water

  20. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  1. Investigation of the unusual behavior of cesium-137 and other radionuclides in the Florida environment. Progress report, September 1, 1975--August 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The most significant development in the contract year was the documentation of the presence of endomycorrhizal, vesicular arbuscular (V-A) mycorrhizae in the pasture systems of south Florida that have the elevated levels of cesium-137 activity. In all samples the V-A hyphal network was well developed and growing throughout the particles of organic matter. The organic particles are held in a loose, aggregate structure by the hyphal network. In improved pastures of Digitaria decumbens (pangola) and Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass) the root infection ranged from 24 to 95 percent. The principle association was Gigaspora and Glomus sp. In the unimproved pastures of mostly Aristida stricta (wiregrass) and Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) the infection was 70 percent and only Acaulospora laevis was found. Experiments are in progress to show whether there are differences in cesium uptake between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal grass plants. The test grass is pangola. Greenhouse tests involve V-A mycorrhizal control using a fungicide, the infection of grass cuttings with mycorrhizal strains found in the test area. These pot experiments will serve as pilot programs for field experiments. The effects of ectomycorrhizal associations on uptake of cesium in pine seedlings is also being studied. Analysis of the dynamics of organic matter cycling in a mesic hardwood forest shows that the rates of organic matter flow are similar to tropical systems although the plant species are warm temperate. The increased tempo of organic turnover probably contributes to the observed higher-than-expected levels of cesium-137 activity in Florida biosystems

  2. Investigation of the unusual behavior of cesium-137 and other radionuclides in the Florida environment. Progress report, September 1, 1976--November 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    A pangola digitgrass experiment with treatments inoculated with endomycorrhizal species has been planted in meter-square plots in a fumigated soil in south-central Florida. The first harvest was made after two months growth. Yield differences were minimal between treatments, the non-mycorrhizal control plots were slightly higher. Cesium-137 activity levels were ten times that of pangolagrass in the area. Yields after the second harvest, one month later, were similar and cesium-137 activity was four times that of established fields. The established fields of pangolagrass range from 35 to 75% mycorrhizal infection of their roots. After four months, mycorrhizal control in the check plots continued to be nearly complete. A greenhouse experiment utilizing a fungicide for mycorrhizal control in a field soil failed to limit development of endophyte infection on pangolagrass. Another greenhouse study using inoculations of two indigenous species of V.A. mycorrhizae did not show any differences in growth or uptake of radiotracer cesium-134 between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. In both experiments, the non-mycorrhizal pangola in sterilized soil grew as well or slightly better than inoculated pangola or pangola growing in naturally V.A. mycorrhizal soil. Neither were there any growth differences between treatments as the plants depleted the soil nutrients in the pots and died after six months. A low level of nitrogen was the only nutrient added to the pots

  3. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    To determine the total deposits of fallout, Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analyzed surface soil samples collected from 30 prefectures (30 locations) by the commission of Science and Technology Agency of Japanese Government. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0 -- 5 and 5 -- 20 cm on grassland or bare surface at each sampling location. Radiochemical analysis of these samples was carried out using the method recommended by Science and Technology Agency. One-hundred gram of soil was used as one sample for analysis. Results obtained during the period from July 1974 to March 1975 are shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  4. Extension of Studies with 3M Empore TM and Selentec MAG *SEP SM Technologies for Improved Radionuclide Field Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beals, D.M.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center is evaluating new field sampling methodologies to more easily determine concentrations of radionuclides in aqueous systems. One methodology studied makes use of 3M EmporeTM disks. The disks are composed of selective resins embedded in a Teflon support. The disks remove the ion of interest from aqueous solutions when the solution is passed through the disk. The disk can then be counted directly to quantify the isotope of interest. Four types of disks were studied during this work: for the extraction of technetium (two types), cesium, plutonium, and strontium. A sampler has been developed for automated, unattended, in situ use of the EmporeTM disks

  5. Elimination of man-made radionuclides from natural waters by applying a standard coagulation-flocculation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A.; Miro, C.; Salas, A.; Fernandez, M.; Herranz, M.; Legarda, F.

    2004-01-01

    Effectiveness of potable water treatment processes that consist of the stages of coagulation-flocculation-decantation, using iron-based coagulants, in eliminating gamma-emitting man-made radioisotopes of cesium, strontium, and americium from two natural waters with different degrees of mineralization was studied. The resulting decontamination was found to depend on the chemical behavior of each of the radionuclides considered, on the pH at which the process of coagulation is carried out, and on the concentration of the other stable cations present. (author)

  6. Extension of Studies with 3M Empore TM and Selentec MAG *SEP SM Technologies for Improved Radionuclide Field Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beals, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-07-10

    The Savannah River Technology Center is evaluating new field sampling methodologies to more easily determine concentrations of radionuclides in aqueous systems. One methodology studied makes use of 3M EmporeTM disks. The disks are composed of selective resins embedded in a Teflon support. The disks remove the ion of interest from aqueous solutions when the solution is passed through the disk. The disk can then be counted directly to quantify the isotope of interest. Four types of disks were studied during this work: for the extraction of technetium (two types), cesium, plutonium, and strontium. A sampler has been developed for automated, unattended, in situ use of the EmporeTM disks.

  7. Transfer of some artificial (226Sr and 137Cs) and natural (40K and 226Ra) radionuclides from milk to its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2005-01-01

    Transfer of some artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 85 Sr) and natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra and 40 K) from milk (cheep and cows) to its products processed according to local manufacturing procedures (home made cheese, kashkawan cheese, shelal cheese, haloom cheese, kareshah cheese, sharkasiah cheese, liquid cheese, yogurt, butter and keshdah) has been studied. The results showed that the retention percent of radium 226 in milk products has reached %100 in the home made cheese and %72 for strontium 85 in the shelal cheese and %40 for cesium 137 in yogurt and %46 for potassium 40 also in yogurt. In addition, most of the retention percent ratios of the studied radionuclides in yogurt were relatively low (about %25 and % 40 in the yogurt processed from the milk of the cows and cheep respectively) with a high processing efficiency, so that making yogurt from the contaminated milk is the best way to reduce the contamination ratio and to make use of the contaminated milk. Furthermore, home made cheese was processed with salty solutions of different concentrations and the results showed that about %90 of cesium and potassium has transferred to the salty solution of %5 soaked for 48 hours, while %40 of the radium and %80 of strontium were removed from the contaminated cheese after 48 hours soaking in a salty solution of %2.5. However, the results of the present work can be used for processing of contaminated milk with artificial radionuclides in order to be utilized. (Authors)

  8. Investigation of the unusual behavior of cesium-137 and other radionuclides in the Florida environment. Progress report, September 1, 1972--September 1, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, J.F.; Ewel, K.C.; Lugo, A.E.

    1975-01-01

    Levels of fallout 137 Co in southeastern Florida milk indicate milk drinkers in the area have ingested 17 mrem in excess of the national average in the period 1963 to 1973. Analysis of feed in dairy rations in the area show a transfer of seven percent of activity from feed to milk. Range cattle had five times the cesium activity as meat from dairy animals. The increased amount of hay in the ration, plus higher activity levels in the unimproved pasture, account for the increase. Eighty percent of the original fallout is still active in the southeastern Florida biosystem

  9. Simulating the Transfer of Strontium-90 from Soil to Leafy Vegetables by Using Strontium-88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuke, Ding; Shujuan, Liu; Yingxue, He; Dong, Yan; Fengshou, Zhang; Shuifeng, Wang; Jinghua, Guo; Wei, Zhang; Xin, Wang; Xiaoyan, Jiang

    The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 ( 88 Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water containing known quantities of strontium. Based on the strontium content of that water, the plants were divided into five groups (treatments) and strontium content of the soil, and 30-day-old plants were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy instrument (ICP-AES). Data on the strontium content of soil and plants enabled the development of a model using MATLAB, a mathematical software package, which included curve fitting and problem solving using regression equations and differential equations. Although strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of Chinese cabbage were not exactly the same, all showed a non-linear increase when compared with the increase in the content of strontium in soil. Strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of spinach were very similar and showed an initial increase followed by a decrease. Strontium concentrations in both Chinese cabbage and spinach were initially related to the concentrations of sodium and sulfur, the next two relevant nuclides being calcium and magnesium. The relationship between calcium and strontium in Chinese cabbage was different from that in spinach. By using 88 Sr to simulate the transfer of radionuclide 90 Sr from soil to a crop, the relevant data required to deal with accidental release of strontium can be obtained using a fitting curve and regression equations, thereby providing some experimental basis for evaluating the potential hazards posed by such accidents to the food chain.

  10. Radionuclide transfer from soil to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, D.; Steinhilber-Schwab, B.; Hoepfner, U.; Ratka, R.; Sand, H. van de; Franke, B.

    1979-01-01

    The planned nuclear reprocessing plant (NEZ) Gorleben will fundamentally differ from actually operating nuclear power plants with regard to its radioactive emissions because relatively long-life isotopes will play a greater role in the emissions. The longevity of the radionuclides emitted in the planned NEZ implies that there will be an accumulation of radionuclides in the surroundings of the plant and long-term effects of the plant on the environment will get higher significance. As radionuclides mainly reach milk and meat via the food of farm animals the transfer of cesium and strontium from the ground into plants was amply investigated. The results show that the correlation calculations are suitable to describe the effect of different parameters on the transfer factor. They are not suited for a forecast of the transfer conditions on a certain location for the reasons explained before. Location-specific measurements seem to be indispensable for these purposes. Besides the greenhouse tests open air measurements of fall-out nuclides with and without elimination of external contamination seem to represent a realistic possibility for the determination of transfer factors. Great attention has to be paid in this kind of tests to the growth conditions (especially fertilization) which have to be accurately registered. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1980-01-01

    Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock

  12. Development and testing of inorganic sorbents made by the internal gelation process for radionuclide and heavy metal separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, B.Z.; Collins, J.L.; Anderson, K.K.; Chase, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop, prepare, and test microspheres and granular forms of inorganic ion exchangers to remove radionuclides and heavy metals from waste streams occurring at various sites. Several inorganic materials, such as hexacyanoferrates, titanates, phosphates, and oxides have high selectivities and efficiencies for separating and removing radionuclides such as uranium, technetium, cesium, and strontium, and metals such as cobalt, silver, zinc, and zirconium from aqueous waste streams. However, these sorbents frequently exist only as powders and consequently are not readily adaptable to continuous processing such as column chromatography. Making these inorganic ion exchangers as microspheres or granular forms improves the flow dynamics for column operations and expands their practical applications. Microspheres of several materials have been prepared at ORNL, and the effectiveness of zirconium monohydrogen phosphate and hydrous titanium oxide microspheres for removing radionuclides from hot cell waste solutions has been demonstrated

  13. Radioactive cesium removal from seawater using adsorptive fibers prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shota; Kawai-Noma, Shigeko; Umeno, Daisuke; Saito, Kyoichi; Fujiwara, Kunio; Sugo, Takanobu; Kikuchi, Takahiro; Morimoto, Yasutomi

    2015-01-01

    The meltdown of three reactors of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS) caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11th 2011 resulted in the emission of radionuclides such as cesium-137 and strontium-90 to the environment. For example, radioactive cesium exceeding the legal discharge limit (90 Bq/L, 2×10 -13 M) was detected in the seawater of the seawater-intake area of the NPS at the end of September 2014. Adsorbents with a high selectivity for cesium ions over other alkali metal ions such as sodium and potassium ions are required for cesium removal from seawater because sodium and potassium ions dissolve respectively at much higher concentrations of 5×10 -1 and 1×10 -2 M than cesium ions (2×10 -9 M). In addition, the simple operations of the immersion in seawater and the recovery of the adsorbents from seawater are desirable at decontamination sites. We prepared a cobalt-ferrocyanide-impregnated fiber capable of specifically capturing cesium ions in seawater by radiation-induced graft polymerization and chemical modifications. First, a commercially available 6-nylon fiber was irradiated with γ-rays. Second, an epoxy-group-containing vinyl monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, was graft-polymerized onto the γ-ray-irradiated nylon fiber. Third, the epoxy ring of the grafted polymer chain was reacted with triethylenediamine to obtain an anion-exchange fiber. Fourth, ferrocyanide ions, [Fe(CN) 6 ] 4 - , were bound to the anion-exchange group of the polymer chains. Finally, the ferrocyanide-ion-bound-fiber was placed in contact with cobalt chloride to precipitate insoluble cobalt ferrocyanide onto the polymer chains. Insoluble cobalt ferrocyanide was immobilized at the periphery of the fiber. However, the impregnation structure remains unclear. Here, we clarified the structure of insoluble cobalt ferrocyanide impregnated onto the polymer chain grafted onto the fiber to ensure the chemical and physical stability of the adsorptive fiber in

  14. Preparation of modified polymer- Alumino silicate composite and their application in removal of some radionuclides from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El- Masry, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Ion exchange is one of the most common and effective treatment methods for radioactive liquid waste. This technique is well developed and has been employed for many years in both the nuclear industry and in other industries. In this thesis polyacrylamide- zeolite and polyacrylamide- bentonite composites were prepared and characterized using advanced analytical techniques. The prepared materials were used as composite ion exchangers for removal of Cesium, Cobalt and Strontium ions from simulated waste solution. Effect of ph of the medium on the removal of aforementioned ions was investigated. The sorption kinetic was studied and the data were analyzed by different kinetic models which rivaled that the mechanism of the sorption processes is mainly controlled by pseudo-second order reaction, and particle diffusion might be involved in the sorption processes. The values of diffusion coefficient of the three metal ions were calculated and suggested that chemisorption was the predominated sorption mechanism. Several isotherm models were applied for the sorption, and thermodynamic parameters were determined. The positive values of enthalpy change, δH, for the three metal ions confirmed the endothermic nature of the sorption processes. The results indicated that the prepared materials can be used as efficient ion exchange materials for the removal of cesium, cobalt and strontium ions from simulated waste solution. In the present study, immobilization of polyacrylamide- zeolite and/ or polyacrylamide- bentonite composites loaded with cesium, cobalt and/or strontium radionuclides with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has been carried out. Several factors affecting the characteristics of the final solidified waste product towards safe disposal such as mechanical strength and leaching behavior of the radioisotopes have been studied. The obtained results showed that the presence of polyacrylamide- zeolite and/ or polyacrylamide- bentonite composites in the cemented wastes

  15. Influence of selected factors on strontium sorption on bentonites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.; Kufcakova, J.; Rajec, P.

    2007-01-01

    Sorption on bentonite will play an important role in retarding the migration of radionuclides from a waste repository. Bentonite is a natural clay and one of the most promising candidates for use as a buffer material in the geological disposal systems for high-level nuclear waste. It is intended to isolate metal canisters with highly radioactive waste products from the surrounding rocks because of its ability to retard the movement of radionuclides by sorption. Bentonite is characterized by low permeability, water swelling capability and excellent sorption potential for cationic radionuclides. To correctly assess the sorption potential of radionuclides on bentonite is essential for the development of predictive migration models. The sorption of strontium on bentonite from different Slovak deposits - Jelsovy potok, Kopernica and Lieskovec has been investigated under various experimental conditions, such as contact time, sorbate concentrations, presence of complementary cation. Sorption was studied using the batch technique. The uptake of Sr was rapid and equilibrium was reached almost instantaneously. The instantaneous uptake may be due to adsorption and/or exchange of the metal with some ions on the surface of the adsorbent. The best sorption characteristics distinguish bentonite Kopernica, sorption capacity for Sr of the fraction under 45 mm is 0,48 mmol·g -1 for Sr. The highest values of distribution coefficient were reached for the bentonite Jelsovy potok. Radiation stability has been investigated, the higher sorption parameters were observed for the irradiated bentonites, which can be explained by the increase of specific surface of the bentonite samples. The presence of complementary cations depresses the sorption of Sr on bentonite. Cations Ca 2+ exhibit higher effect on cesium sorption than the Na 2+ ions. Results indicate that the sorption of Sr 2+ on bentonite will be affected by the presence of high concentrations of various salts in the waste water

  16. Special foodstuffs rich in anticarcinogens and antioxidants as means of protecting the population at territories polluted by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Shandala, N.K.; Komleva, V.A.; Rudintseva, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of diets including foodstuffs rich in special additives on the metabolism of ecologically important radionuclides strontium-90 and cesium-137 and to assess the resistance of exposed and intact animals from changes in body weight and hemopoietic status. Three types of special meat products containing additives made of sea alga laminaria. Normalization of the ration for mineral and protein composition owing to the above foodstuffs has a favorable impact on the time course of body weight and peripheral hemopoietic system. Radiometry of bone tissue showed that accumulation of strontium 90 was reduced by half in animals fed nutritive additives of meat preserves with routine diet. Refs. 6, tabs. 5

  17. The contamination of the oceans by anthropogenic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Cunha, Ieda I.L.

    1998-01-01

    Several hundreds of artificial of artificial radionuclides are produced as the result of human activities, such as the applications of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, testing of nuclear weapons and nuclear accidents. Many of these radionuclides are short-lived and decay quickly after their production, but some of them are longer-lived and are released into the environment. From the radiological point of view the most important radionuclides are cesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium-239, due to their chemical and nuclear characteristics. The two first radioisotopes present long half life (30 and 28 years), high fission yields and chemical behaviour similar to potassium and calcium, respectively. No stable element exists for plutonium-239, that presents high radiotoxity, longh half-life (24000 years) and some marine organisms accumulate plutonium at high levels. The radionuclides introduced into marine environment undergo various physical, chemical and biological processes taking place in the sea. These processes may be due to physical, dispersion or complicated chemical and biological interactions of the radionuclides with inorganic and organic suspend matter, variety of living organism, bottom sediments, etc. The behaviour of radionuclides in the sea depends primarily on their chemical properties, but it may also be influenced by properties of interacting matrices and other environmental factors. The major route of radiation exposure of man to artificial radionuclides occuring in the marine environment is through ingestion of radiologically contamined marine organisms. This paper summarizes the main sources of contamination in the marine environment and presents an overview covering the oceanic distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in the FAO regions. A great number of measurements of artificial radioclides have been carried out on various marine environmental samples in different oceans over the world, being cesium-137 the most widely measured

  18. Conceptual and Numerical Modeling of Radionuclide Transport and Retention in Near-Surface Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pique, Angels; Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Berglund, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Scenarios of barrier failure and radionuclide release to the near-surface environment are important to consider within performance and safety assessments of repositories for nuclear waste. A geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is planned at Forsmark, Sweden. Conceptual and numerical reactive transport models were developed in order to assess the retention capacity of the Quaternary till and clay deposits for selected radionuclides, in the event of an activity release from the repository. The elements considered were carbon (C), chlorine (Cl), cesium (Cs), iodine (I), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), radium (Ra), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), technetium (Tc), thorium (Th), and uranium (U). According to the numerical predictions, the repository-derived nuclides that would be most significantly retained are Th, Ni, and Cs, mainly through sorption onto clays, followed by U, C, Sr, and Ra, trapped by sorption and/or incorporation into mineral phases

  19. Use of synthetic zeolites and other inorganic sorbents for the removal of radionuclides from aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samantha, S.K.; Singh, I.J.; Jain, S.; Sathi, S.; Venkatesan, K.; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Siddiqui, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Several synthetic zeolites and inorganic sorbents were tested in the laboratory for the sorption of various radionuclides present in radioactive aqueous waste streams originating from nuclear installations. The sorption of the critical radionuclides like 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 60 Co from level waste solutions was studied using the synthetic zeolites 4A, 13X and AR1 of Indian origin. Granulated forms of ammonium molybdophosphate and CaSO 4 -BaSO 4 eutectoid were tested for the sorption of cesium and strontium respectively, from acidic solutions. The removal of radiostrontium from alkaline salt-loaded intermediate level reprocessing wastes was studied using hydrous ferric oxide-activated carbon composite sorbent, hydrous titania and hydrous manganese dioxide.. The results of these investigations are expected to be of value in formulating radioactive waste treatment schemes for achieving high decontamination and volume reduction factors. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs, 18 tabs

  20. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1980-30 November 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 60 Co, 239 240 Pu, and 238 Pu indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu reaching the Hudson is almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 80 to 90% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout is exported to the coastal waters in solution. Depth profiles of radionuclides in Hudson sediments are not significantly altered by physical mixing processes in the sediments in areas accumulating particles at greater than 1 cm/yr. Measurements of fallout 239 2 xperimental quantities

  1. Development of a non-conservative radionuclides dispersion model in the ocean and its application to surface cesium-137 dispersion in the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Togawa, Orihiko; Hayashi, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    A numerical simulation model system that consists of an ocean current model, Princeton Ocean Model (POM), and a particle random-walk model, SEA-GEARN, has been developed to describe the migration behavior of non-conservative radionuclides in a shallow water region. Radionuclides in the ocean are modeled in three phases, i.e., the dissolved phase in seawater, the adsorbed with large particulate matter (LPM) and the adsorbed with active bottom sediment. The adsorption and desorption processes between the dissolved and solid phases are solved by the stochastic method with the kinetic transfer coefficients. Deposition of the LPM and re-suspension from bottom sediment are also considered. The system was applied to simulate the long-term (24-year) dispersion of 137 Cs actually released from the BNFL spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in United Kingdom. The calculation well reproduced the main characteristics of migration of dissolved 137 Cs concentration in the Irish Sea. (author)

  2. Ecological processes in the cycling of radionuclides within arctic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    Worldwide fallout radionuclides in arctic ecosystems was investigated ecologically by circumpolar nations during 1959-80. Several of the radionuclides are isotopes of elements which currently contribute to arctic haze; they thus serve as effective tracers of biogeochemical processes. Investigations demonstrated the effective concentration of several radionuclides, particularly strontium-90 (an alkaline earth metal) and cesium-137 (a light alkali metal) which are chemical analogs of calcium and potassium, two very important stable elements in biotic systems. Transfer of 137 Cs through the lichen-cariboureindeer-man food chain characteristic of circumpolar nations, resulted in body burdens in Inuit that were 20 to 200 times greater than those in human populations of temperature latitudes. Radiation exposures from 90 Sr, 137 Cs and other natural and worldwide fallout radionuclides, were two to three times greater than for most other world populations. These results demonstrate the concentration capabilities of arctic ecosystems for several groups of chemical elements that have counterparts in arctic haze. These elements, therefore, provide the basis for considering the ecological implications of current situations

  3. Population dose commitment associated with various radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Robert E.; Baratta, Edmond J.; Tanner, James T.

    1978-01-01

    The radionuclides in foods monitoring program initiated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1973 was expanded in 1975 to include the analysis for hydrogen-3 in selected foods originating from the vicinity of nuclear power stations. Also, in 1975 the analysis for radium-226 was initiated in food samples from areas adjacent to the phosphate mines in Florida. In October 1976 a special survey of milk was performed to determine the levels of fission product contamination from the fallout produced by the detonation of a nuclear device by the People's Republic of China. Results from the analysis of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in the general foods survey for the years 1973 through 1977 indicated intake levels well within range I of the Radiation Protection Guides (RPG) [FRC 1: Range I at 0.1xRPG dose, periodic surveillance; Range II at the RPG dose, quantitative surveillance and routine control; Range III 10xRPG dose, evaluation and additional controls]. The levels of hydrogen-3 in foods from nuclear power station areas were slightly above the tritium background. The radium-226 levels in foods from Florida phosphate mining areas were about double that of the controls. In both cases, however, the radium-226 intake from the total diet was in range II of the RPGs. The iodine-131 levels in the special milk survey in HEW regions I and III were in range III of the RPGs. The levels of barium-lanthanum-140, cesium-137 and strontium-89-90 were all within range I. The clearance half-time from milk for these radionuclides was about 5, 7 and 9 days respectively. (author)

  4. Sorption of radionuclides from spent fuel in crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, A.

    1982-10-01

    The safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel or reprocessed waste is an essential element in the expansion of the nuclear power industry. Stable rock formations e.g. granite are considered to be potential sites for disposal. A major factor in evaluating the degree of safety of the disposal is the sorption of radionuclides in rock, which affects their retardation. The report considers the chemical forms of the hazardous radionuclides of spent nuclear fuel in groundwater and the effects of the water's properties on them. In the groundwater near the Olkiluoto power plant site cesium, strontium and radium are in cationic form, iodine as I - . Technetium would occur as TcO +2 , but the pertechnetate form is also possible. Uranium most probably would be as U(VI) plutonium and neptunium as Np(IV) or Np(V). The valences for thorium, americium and curium are not changed in this groundwater and would be +4, +3 and +3, respectively. The actinides in groundwater are all in hydrated or complex form. An increase on the ionic stregth of the groundwater in most instances causes a decrease in the sorption of nuclides since the ion exchange capacity of the rock is limited. Anionic ligands also decrease sorption of cations by complex formation. In some case, on the other hand, high salt concentrations may cause formation of radiocolloids of lanthanides and neptunium and thus increase sorption. In all cases the degree of sorption described by the distribution ratio Ksub(d) was influenced by the pH of the groundwater. Sorption of cesium and strontium increased with growing pH. The sorption behaviour of actinides was in positive correlation with formation of hydroxide complexes at different pH values. The Ksub(d) values of Cs, Sr, Co, Ni and Am for Olkiluoto granites were found to agree with Swedish values, also determined at ambient atmospheric conditions

  5. Plutonium, cesium, uranium and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1984-30 November 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    We have measured radionuclide activities in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239,240/Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in /sup 239,240/Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout /sup 239,240/Pu moving downstream in the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported from the tidal Hudson to coastal waters. Some significant movement of dissolved plutonium into the estuary from the adjacent coastal waters may well be occurring. Depth profiles of radionuclides in Hudson sediments do not appear to be significantly altered by physical mixing processes in the sediment in areas accumulating particles at greater than 1 cm/y. Transport of fallout radionuclides from the drainage basin to the tidal Hudson appears to have decreased much faster than would be calculated from continuous removal from a well-mixed soil reservoir, indicating that sequestering of a substantial portion of the soil fallout burden has occurred in the watershed soils over the past two decades. Activities of 60 Co in New York harbor sediments in 1984 averaged considerably higher than in 1979 and 1981, suggesting releases of this nuclide to the Hudson comparable to the first five years of reactor operations. 12 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Plutonium, cesium, uranium and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1983-November 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in sediment cores and suspended particle samples from the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 60 Co, 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu indicate rapid accumulation in marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations of more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu moving downstream appears to be retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported. Significant movement of dissolved plutonium into the estuary from adjacent coastal waters may be occurring. Depth profiles of radionuclides are not significantly altered by physical mixing processes in areas accumulating particles at greater than 1 cm/yr. Transport of fallout radionuclides appears to have decreased faster than would be calculated from continuous removal from a well-mixed soil reservoir, indicating that sequestering of a substantial portion of the soil fallout burden has occurred in the watershed soils over the past two decades. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities two orders of magnitude greater than that found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ions are likely to be important in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. 45 references, 17 figures, 14 tables

  7. Adsorption behavior of radionuclide in water containing sea salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Yuko; Kamoshida, Mamoru; Asano, Takashi; Tamata, Shin

    2012-01-01

    Waste water caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactor accident contains high level radioactive material with impurities of sea water origin, such as chloride, sodium and magnesium. These impurities have the potential to inhibit the adsorption reaction of radioactive cesium and strontium to adsorbents. We have studied adsorption behavior of radioactive cesium and strontium to adsorbents to measure distribution coefficients (Kd) in the condition of different sea water concentrations. For cesium adsorption, the dependence of Kd on the sea water concentration was affected by the adsorption mechanism of adsorbent; the adsorbents which adsorbed cesium by intercalation showed less dependence of Kd on the sea water concentration, while those adsorbed cesium by ion exchange had smaller Kd with increasing the sea water concentration. For strontium adsorption, Kd decreased as the sea water concentration increased for both adsorbents which adsorbed strontium by intercalation and by ion exchange. The inhibition of intercalation and ion exchange reaction of strontium by calcium ion, that exists high concentration in sea water (400 ppm) and similar hydrated ionic radius with strontium, will cause the decrease of Kd for strontium in the sea water with higher concentration. (author)

  8. Process for recovering cesium from cesium alum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from cesium alum, CsAl(SO 4 ) 2 , by a two-reaction sequence in which the cesium alum is first dissolved in an aqueous hydroxide solution to form cesium alum hydroxide, CsAl(OH) 3 , and potassium sulfate, K 2 SO 4 . Part of the K 2 SO 4 precipitates and is separated from the supernatant solution. In the second reaction, a water-soluble permanganate, such as potassium permanganate, KMnO 4 , is added to the supernatant. This reaction forms a precipitate of cesium permanganate, CsMnO 4 . This precipitate may be separated from the residual solution to obtain cesium permanganate of high purity, which can be sold as a product or converted into other cesium compounds

  9. Decorporation of cesium-137; Decorporation du cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fleche, Ph; Destombe, C; Grasseau, A; Mathieu, J; Chancerelle, Y; Mestries, J C [GMR, Direction des Recherches, Etudes et Techniques, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1998-12-31

    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, {sup 137}Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe {beta}, {gamma}irradiations and contaminations. {sup 137}Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the {sup 137}Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  10. Decorporation of cesium-137; Decorporation du cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fleche, Ph.; Destombe, C.; Grasseau, A.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.; Mestries, J.C. [GMR, Direction des Recherches, Etudes et Techniques, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, {sup 137}Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe {beta}, {gamma}irradiations and contaminations. {sup 137}Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the {sup 137}Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  11. A preliminary investigation of radiation level and some radionuclides in imported food and food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinakhom, F.; Mongkolphantha, S.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary study of gross beta activity and content of some long-lived radionuclides associated with fission products in various types of imported food and food-products was carried out. Food samples were purchased monthly during 1976-1977 from general well-known supermarkets and local grocery stores up to a total of 89 samples. The gamma spectrum of long-lived radionuclides was searched using a 128 channel analyzer coupled with 3'' x 3'' NaI (T1) crystal detector. Two radionuclides were frequently found to be present in these food samples, viz. potassium-40 and cesium-137 and their concentrations were subsequently determined. The limits of detection under the conditions used for potassium-40 and cesium-137 were 0.04 and 0.03 pCi/g-wet weight, respectively. Samples were dry-ashed and counted for gross beta activity utilizing a low background anti-coincidence G.M. counter. The content of strontium-90 was also investigated concurrently by solvent extraction technique employing tri-n-butyl phosphate as an extractant. Results of the study are tabulated. (author)

  12. Characteristics of radionuclide accumulation in benthic organisms and fish of the Barents and Kara Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matishov, G.G.; Matishov, D.G.; Rissanen, C.

    1995-01-01

    Artificial radionuclides play a specific role in the hydrochemical, geochemical, and hydrobiological processes that are currently occurring in the western Arctic. The existing data on radioactive contamination of different plant and animal species inhabiting the sea shelf are fragmentary. Hence, it was difficult to follow the transformation of radionuclides during their transmission along food chains, from phyto- and zoo-plankton to benthos, fish, birds, and marine mammals. In 1990-1994, the Murmansk Institute of Marine Biology organized expeditions to collect samples of residues on the sea floor and also of benthos, benthic fish, macrophytes, and other organisms inhabiting the shelf of the Barents and Kara Seas. These samples were tested for cesium-137, cesium-134, strontium-90, plutonium-239, plutonium-240, americium-241, and cobalt-60 in Rovaniemi (Finland) by the regional radiation administration of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Over 1000 tests were made. Their results provided new data on the content and distribution of these radionuclides among different components of marine ecosystems. 7 refs

  13. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River Estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1977--30 November 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 , 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. General distributions of 137 Cs and 239 , 240 Pu are similar in surface sediments and with depth in cores, but there are deviations from the fallout ratio due to (1) addition of reactor 137 Cs and (2) loss of 137 Cs from the particle phases at higher salinities. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs and 60 Co are found in nearly all sediment samples containing appreciable 137 Cs between 15 Km upstream of Indian Point and 70 Km south of the reactor. Accumulations of 239 , 240 Pu in New York harbor sediments are more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Depth profiles of radionuclides and variations of activities with particle size at low salinities in the Hudson indicate the importance of organic phases, including large flocculent particles greater than 180μ, in binding plutonium, and no evidence of significant chemical migration within the sediments. Measurements of water column fallout 239 , 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments

  14. Radionuclides at the Hudson Canyon disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Nevissi, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    A sampling and analytical program was initiated in June 1978 to measure radionuclides in water, sediments, and biota collected at the deepwater (4000 m) radioactive waste disposal site at the mouth of the Hudson Canyon 350km off New York Harbor in the western Atlantic Ocean. Plutonium, americium, cesium, strontium, and uranium series isotopes were measured in selected samples; the /sup 210/Pb data were used to give sedimentation and mixing rates in the upper sediment layers. The results showed that /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, and /sup 238/Pu were found at low concentrations in the skin, viscera, and stomach contents for some of the fish collected. Significant concentrations of /sup 241/Am were found in tissues of the common rattail Coryphaenoides (Macrouridae) collected at the disposal site, suggesting a local source for this radionuclide and biological accumulation. The edible muscle of this fish contained less than 2.6 x 10/sup -5/ Bq g/sup -1/ (dry wt) of /sup 239,240/Pu. Radionuclides measured in sediment-core profiles showed that mixing occurred to depths of 16 cm and that variable sedimentation or mixing rates, or both, exist at 4000 m deep. Radionuclide deposition near the canisters was not found to be significantly higher than the expected fallout levels at 4000 m deep. At the mouth of the Hudson Canyon variable sedimentation and mixing rates were found using the natural unsupported /sup 210/Pb tracer values; these variable rates were attributed to sediment transport by the currents and to bioturbation

  15. Ion exchange flowsheet for recovery of cesium from purex sludge supernatant at B Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Purex Sludge Supernatant (PSS) contains significant amounts of 137 Cs left after removal of strontium from fission product bearing Purex wastes. To remove cesium from PSS, an Ion Exchange Recovery system has been set up in Cells 17-21 at B Plant. The cesium that is recovered is stored within B Plant for eventual purification through the Cesium Purification process in Cell 38 and eventual encapsulation and storage in a powdered form at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility. Cesium depleted waste streams from the Ion Exchange processes are transferred to underground storage

  16. Plutonium, cesium, uranium, and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1982-November 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured radionuclide activities in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu moving downstream in the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported from the tidal Hudson to coastal waters. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion is likely to be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. 5 references

  17. Comparison of radionuclide levels in soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    Soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogam, and small mammal samples were collected and analyzed for cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium 239/240, technetium-99, and iodine-129 from 1981 to 1986 at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State as part of site characterization and environmental monitoring activities. Samples were collected on the 200 Areas Plateau, downwind from ongoing waste management activities. Plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals are media that are not routinely utilized in monitoring or characterization efforts for determination of radionuclide concentrations. Studies at Hanford, other US Department of Energy sites, and in eastern Europe have indicated that plant litter and cryptogams may serve as effective ''natural'' monitors of air quality. Plant litter in this study consists of fallen leaves from sagebrush and ''cryptogams'' describes that portion of the soil crust composed of mosses, lichens, algae, and fungi. Comparisons of cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations in the soil, sagebrush, litter, and cryptogams revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) levels in plant litter and cryptogams. Technetium-99 values were the highest in sagebrush and litter. Plutonium-238 and 239/40 and iodine-129 concentrations never exceeded 0.8 pCi/gm in all media. No evidence of any significant amounts of any radionuclides being incorporated into the small mammal community was discovered. The data indicate that plant litter and cryptogams may be better, indicators of environmental quality than soil or vegetation samples. Augmenting a monitoring program with samples of litter and cryptogams may provide a more accurate representation of radionuclide environmental uptake and/or contamination levels in surrounding ecosystems. The results of this study may be applied directly to other radioecological monitoring conducted at other nuclear sites and to the monitoring of other pollutants

  18. Process for recovering cesium from cesium alum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from cesium alum, CsAl(SO 4 ) 2 , by an aqueous conversion and precipitation reaction using a critical stoichiometric excess of a water-soluble permanganate to form solid cesium permanganate (CsMnO 4 ) free from cesium alum. The other metal salts remain in solution, providing the final pH does not cause hydroxides of aluminium or iron to form. The precipitate is separated from the residual solution to obtain CsMnO 4 of high purity

  19. Variability of the strontium-90 and caesium-137 burden of native plants and animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L L

    1946-10-17

    Cesium-137 and /sup 90/Sr body burdens were determined in plants and animals at selected sites in Alaska, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, California, and Maryland, and coefficients of variations were derived. Coefficients of variation for burdens of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs were suprisingly consistent over a wide range of plants and animals. Values for /sup 90/Sr ranged from about 0.30 to 0.45 while those for /sup 137/Cs appeared somewhat lower, ranging roughly from 0.25 to 0.35. Various factors possibly affecting individual sets of data were indicated. With one exception (Maryland white-tailed deer), the bone-strontium-90 values were calculated in terms of picocuries (10/sup -12/c) per g calcium (strontium units). Analysis of the Alaskan caribou data in terms of picocuries per g standard dry weight yields virtually the same coefficient of variation. The plant data were calculated on the standard dry weight basis, while soil-levels were on a unit area basis. All /sup 137/Cs values were expressed in units per g dry weight. Results reported here should not be interpreted as meaning that the coefficient of variation for levels of these two radionuclides is everywhere roughly constant.

  20. Evaluation of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in TEMAS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claver, F.; Vazquez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The applicability study of the best countermeasures for the restoration of environments contaminated by the accidental liberation of radionuclides, requires the assessment of the space and the temporal flow of radionuclides. The objective of the multinational project TEMAS (Techniques and Management Strategies for environmental restoration and their ecological consequences), that is carried out under EU-CIEMAT contract n. TI4-CT95-0021, is the development of management tool that provides the necessary support in the selection of the best strategies of environmental restoration after a nuclear accident, considering all the possible affected environments (urban, agricultural, semi natural and forest). In the forest environment,CIEMAT is working with the University of Lund (Sweden) and the Physical Science Faculty of the University of Seville in the prognosis of the distribution of Cesium and Strontium in forest ecosystems and through the associated production systems. This paper summarizes the study of the response of two different models, FORM and FORESTPATH to predict the radionuclides flow in the event of an accidental contamination of a forest. The comparison of results has been carried out over a period of 100 years after deposition on a coniferous forest. Although the approaches are different, the results obtained (using generic parameters) indicate that either model could to be selected for the analysis of the intervention in TEMAS. (Author) 14 refs

  1. Plutonium, cesium, uranium, and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1981-November 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu moving downstream in the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the system by particle deposition, while 80 to 90% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion is likely to be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. Activities of several other nuclides of interest in radioactive waste management ( 238 U, 234 U, 232 Th, 230 Th, 228 Th, 231 Pa) were also found to be orders of magnitude greater in high carbonate waters than in other natural waters

  2. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. General distributions of 137 Cs and 239 240 Pu are similar in surface sediments and with depth in cores, but there are deviations from the fallout ratio due to addition of reactor 137 Cs and loss of 137 Cs from the particle phases at higher salinities. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs and 60 Co are found in nearly all sediment samples containing appreciable 137 Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Accumulations of 239 240 Pu in New York harbor sediments are more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate, probably primarily due to the accumulation of fine particles containing fallout plutonium in the harbor which have been transported from upstream areas of the Hudson. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulatory plutonium solubility

  3. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Olsen, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs and 60 Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable 137 Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout 239 240 Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of 239 240 Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of 239 240 Pu. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility

  4. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, H. J.; Trier, R. M.; Olsen, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable /sup 137/Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the /sup 137/Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu. Measurements of fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility.

  5. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, H. J.; Trier, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. General distributions of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu are similar in surface sediments and with depth in cores, but there are deviations from the fallout ratio due to addition of reactor /sup 137/Cs and loss of /sup 137/Cs from the particle phases at higher salinities. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co are found in nearly all sediment samples containing appreciable /sup 137/Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Accumulations of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in New York harbor sediments are more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate, probably primarily due to the accumulation of fine particles containing fallout plutonium in the harbor which have been transported from upstream areas of the Hudson. Measurements of fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulatory plutonium solubility.

  6. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, J.D.

    1997-04-01

    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. A case study for the KE Basin on the Hanford Site was conducted based on the results of the development testing. Engineering design baseline parameters for film deposition, film regeneration, cesium loading, and cesium elution were used for developing a conceptual system. Order of magnitude cost estimates were developed to compare with conventional ion exchange. This case study demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal secondary waste and reduced associated disposal costs, as well as lower capital and labor expenditures

  7. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.

    1999-01-01

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs

  8. Estimating the transfer of radionuclides from foodstuff into animals (meat). Contribution to the partial study 26 of the model study 'Radioecology Biblis'. Zur Abschaetzung des Transfers von Radionukliden aus dem Futter in tierische Nahrungsmittel (Fleisch). Beitrag zur Teilstudie 26 der Modellstudie 'Radiooekologie Biblis'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, B; Hopfner, U

    1978-01-01

    Eating contaminated animal food represents a considerable contribution to human irradiation loading from radioactive emission. When estimating the irradiation loading, a precondition is a knowledge of the radio-nuclide transfer from the feedstuff into the meat of the domestic animal. The radio-ecology importance of this exposure path requires a precise examination of the origin of the values given by SSK with the data in the international literature. The transfer of radio-cesium, radio-strontium, radio-iodine and plutonium from feedstuff into meat/milk are especially considered.

  9. Applicability of sodium alginate in decorporation therapy of strontium radioisotopes in human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Aloisio Cordilha

    1999-10-01

    The increasing release of fission products from nuclear weapon tests in the environment has been rising the levels of radioactive contamination of food chains caused by the fall-out of these elements. In cases of accidental exposure, human subjects could be submitted to an internal contamination, which is likely to include several radionuclides. Special concern must be given, however, to the radioactive isotopes of strontium, cesium and iodine, along with the highly radio toxic transuranium elements like cerium. It was found that sodium alginate, a polyelectrolyte commonly used in food industry and obtained from brown algae (Phaeophyceae), provides the selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium presented in the ingested food material with no disturbance of the electrolyte balance nor undesirable side effects, even for a long term treatment. Moreover, these patterns were maintained when alginate was associated to other decontamination additives, specially those related to the other radioisotopes mentioned above, as, in this case, losses in the effectiveness, mutual interference or adverse health effects were not detected. These conclusions ground the discussion about the present trend in the usual choice of EDTA/DTPA complex therapy rather than of alginate therapy for medical assistance of radiocontaminated patients, although they corroborate the efficiency and usefulness of alginate salts in situations related to extensive intakes of strontium radioisotopes alone or associated to other fission products. The purpose of the present work is to make a general review of the alginate therapy as well as to discuss its present and future therapeutic importance from the scientific and institutional points of view. (author)

  10. Speciation of radionuclides in natural poly-electrolytes of milk and soils. Author-review of dissertation submitted for fulfillment of the scientific degree 'Philosophiae doctor' (Ph.D.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhart, P.

    1999-01-01

    The object of this research was to follow the chemical speciation of added radionuclides Sr-85 or Sr-90, Tc-99, Cs-137, Eu-152, and native cations in cow milk, as well as Pb-212 as a radioactive indicator of lead. The possibility of decontamination of milk from the contaminants was investigated. Speciation of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the humic acids (HA) was studied as well. Skimmed milk pectin was prepared, which was used to follow the speciation of added radionuclides in the milk. The process of membrane-less dialysis from milk to the pectin phase was rapid and associated with the 3.5 to 4.7 times preconcentration of the non-diffusible in the milk phase in 15 minutes. From the fresh skim bovine milk spiked with respective radionuclides dissolved in the Jenness-Koops buffer (simulating milk serum) and agitated with 4% w/w water solution of apple pectin, about 80% of cesium, 22% of strontium and less than 1.5% of europium was recovered with the pectin. The results indicated that pectin and milk behave according poly-electrolytes. Thus, distribution does not depend on the degree of esterification pectin within the uncertainty of the results. The kinetics of radionuclide distribution was sufficiently rapid even though the viscosity of milk strongly increased during the contact. The recovery of radionuclides into the pectin phase using the milk-pectin membrane-less dialysis allowed the determination of the fractions of diffusible species of radionuclides, depending upon the model of evaluation employed. The sorption of strontium with the simulated milk serum was 31% and that of cesium and europium 58% and 40% respectively. The behaviour of Pb-212 recalls that of trivalent elements. Speciation of fission products Sr-90, Tc-99, Cs-137 and Eu-152 in raw cow milk was studied using the high-performance size exclusion radio-chromatography. The technique of HP-SEC and HP-RSEC by Micro-aqua-gel column was used for identification of radiocesium and radiostrontium interaction with

  11. Microbial Mineral Transformations at the Fe(II)/Fe(III) Redox Boundary for Solid Phase Capture of Strontium and Other Metal/Radionuclide Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, F.G.; Roden, E.E.

    2000-01-01

    The migration of 90 Sr in groundwater is a significant environmental concern at former nuclear weapons production sites in the US and abroad. Although retardation of 90 Sr transport relative to mean groundwater velocity is known to occur in contaminated aquifers, Sr 2+ does not sorb as strongly to iron oxides and other mineral phases as do other metal-radionuclides contaminants. Thus, some potential exists for extensive 90 Sr migration from sources of contamination. Chemical or biological processes capable of retarding or immobilizing Sr 2+ in groundwater environments are of interest from the standpoint of understanding controls on subsurface Sr 2+ migration. In addition, it may be possible to exploit such processes for remediation of subsurface Sr contamination. In this study the authors examined the potential for the solid phase sorption and incorporation of Sr 2+ into carbonate minerals formed during microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction as a first step toward evaluating whether this process could be used to promote retardation of 90 Sr migrations in anaerobic subsurface environments. The demonstration of Sr 2+ capture in carbonate mineral phases formed during bacterial HFO reduction and urea hydrolysis suggests that microbial carbonate mineral formation could contribute to Sr 2+ retardation in groundwater environments. This process may also provide a mechanism for subsurface remediation of Sr 2+ and other divalent metal contaminants that form insoluble carbonate precipitates

  12. Comparative placental transfer, localization, and effects of radionuclides in experimental animal and human pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Traub, R.J.; Meznarich, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Estimating radiation doses to the human embryo/fetus from radionuclides and predicting effects requires extrapolation of data from studies of laboratory species with scaling for species-specific developmental stage and gestational time relationships and maturities at birth. Combinations of fetal-to-maternal ratios of concentrations, patterns of deposition, transfer kinetics, and compartmental and physiologic models are used to predict radioactivity levels and radiation doses to the conceptus. There is agreement between values expressing fractional transfer across the placenta with values for fractional absorption from gastrointestinal tract or lung for most substances. Information about three elements - cesium, strontium, and iodine - serve to present comparative approaches to predicting radiation dose and effect. 25 refs., 11 figs., tab

  13. Sorption of radionuclides on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajec, P.; Matel, L.

    1995-01-01

    The sorption of cesium, strontium, plutonium and americium from water solution on natural zeolite, clay minerals, synthetic zeolites and ferrocyanides in silica gel matrix was studied. The same experiments but with synthetic zeolites irradiated by the dose 100 kGy proved no change in sorption properties. 1 tab., 4 refs

  14. Methodology for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's radionuclides in foods program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratta, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for the wholesomeness of the nation's food supply. The FDA modified its food monitoring program in January, 1973, to include radioactive isotopes. The methodology used to perform analyses on these food products are taken from the standard setting societies such as the AOAC International, American Society for Testing Materials and American Public Health Association Standard Methods. In addition, methods not tested by these societies are taken from the literature or from Department of Energy manuals such as the Health and Safety Laboratory and also from Environmental Protection Agency, Public Health Service, and Food and Agricultural Organization manuals. These include the methods for long-lived radionuclides such as tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137 and plutonium. Also, the short-lived radionuclides such as iodine-131, radiocesium, radiocerium and radioruthenium. In addition, they include the natural occurring radionuclides such as radium and uranium isotopes. The activity concentrations of gamma-emitters such as radiocesium, iodine-131 and radioruthenium are determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. This is done using intrinsic germanium detectors with the appropriate hardware and software. The alpha and 'pure' beta-emitters are determined by various radiochemical methods and techniques. The radiochemical methodology and equipment used in analyzing these radionuclides are described and discussed. Also, the methodology and equipment for the gamma-emitters are described in more detail in this paper. In addition, the limits of detection for the methods used will be discussed. (author)

  15. Cesium migration experiments in different media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, C.C.O. de

    1992-01-01

    The environmental impact caused by the radioactive waste disposal depends on many factors, mainly on the release pathways of the radionuclides from the waste product to the environment. The migration of the radioelements through the different barriers, which compose the disposal system, is considered the main via for this release. This paper describes the experiments carried out to improve the cemented waste quality, as well to assess the cesium migration in different media. (author)

  16. Final report on a field study of soil-to-plant transfer radioactive caesium, strontium and zinc in Tropical Northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twining, J.; Payne, T.; Russell, R.; Wilde, K; McOrist, G.; Wong, H.; Shotton, P.; Tagami, K.; Itakura, T.

    2003-01-01

    Soil-to-plant radionuclide transfer factors for cesium ( 134 Cs), strontium ( 85 Sr) and zinc ( 65 Zn) into sorghum and mung plants grown in tropical Australia have been determined over a four-year study period. The crops were grown on two types of red earth soils. Transfer factors for Cs and Sr are not substantially different from the expected values based on previous studies, reported in the general literature and compiled in the IUR database, mainly performed within temperate climates. In contrast, the values for zinc (Zn) are more than an order of magnitude greater than anticipated. Most of the radioactivity added to the soils has been retained in the top 5 cm of both soils. There has been a general decline in soil-to-plant transfer of Cs and Zn as time has increased

  17. Utilization of cesium-137 environmental contamination from fallout in erosion and sedimentation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, M.F. da; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Freire, O.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactivity of cesium-137 from fallout in different soils profiles for erosion and sedimentation studies are described. The potential of this technique for hydrographic basin in Piracicaba/Sao Paulo is evaluated. Due to the existence of natural radionuclides in soil, with energy near to cesium-137, the soil samples are determined by a high-purity Ge detectors. (author)

  18. The glass block site radionuclide migration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killey, R.W.D.; Champ, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    In 1960 25 nepheline syenite glass blocks containing 14 TBq of mixed fission products in 50 kg of glass were placed below the water table in a shallow sand aquifer at Chalk River Laboratories. Experimental studies undertaken at the site since 1960 have included detailed mapping of the plume of 90 Sr in 1963, 1966 and 1971. Mathematical modeling studies have employed the radiostrontium plume data in determining the split between ion exchange and chemisorption of 90 Sr, and in obtaining reaction rate data for chemisorption. The distribution of 137 Cs on downgradient soils was mapped in 1963 and 1979. An extended plume of low-level 137 Cs contamination observed in the 1979 study prompted an investigation of the role of particulate materials in radionuclide transport. IN 1983, large volume groundwater sampling and separation of cationic, anionic, and neutral dissolved species, as well as particulates, detected anionic and cationic dissolved europium isotopes (154 and 155), and again encountered particulate 137 Cs. A variety of investigations of cesium and strontium sorption have provided a data base on sediment mineralogy, particle surface features, and information on sorption sites and processes. The year 1990 saw the inauguration of a three-year program to update investigations of radionuclide release, transport, and sorption at the glass block site. The first stage of the program has been a detailed definition and simulation of the hydrogeologic setting. Plume mapping and aqueous speciation studies are in progress. This paper summarizes past investigations, reviews the status of the current program, and discusses components of future studies, including investigations of sediment sorption mechanisms. (Author) (17 refs., 8 figs.)

  19. Results of several years experiments on the absorption of radioactive strontium and caesium by cultivated plants (1962); Compte rendu d'experiences de plusieurs annees sur l'absorption du strontium et du cesium radioactifs par des plantes cultivees (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michon, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dept. de Protection Sanitaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Benard, M.; Flanzy, M. [Station Centrale de Technologie des Produits Vegetaux, 11 - Narbonne (France); Fioramonti, M.; Marty, M. [Station Agronomique de Toulouse, 31 (France); Barbier, M.; Le Blaye, M.; Brossard, M. [Societe Centrale d' Agronomie, 78 - Versailles (France)

    1962-07-01

    This report follows on to the report number CEA 1860 and uses results obtained in 1960 to give more precise details concerning the data presented in the preceding report. First results obtained on the vine are given. The Sr absorption coefficient has varied very little from one year to the next and that of caesium has slightly diminished. The values obtained suggest that the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in irrigation water should not exceed 1/5 of the maximum permissible concentration in drinking water. (authors) [French] Ce rapport fait suite au rapport CEA 1860 et precise grace aux resultats acquis en 1960 les donnees exprimees dans le precedent rapport. Il y est fait mention des premiers resultats obtenus pour la vigne. Le coefficient d'absorption du Sr a peu varie d'une annee sur l'autre et celui du cesium legerement diminue. Les valeurs obtenues permettent de penser qu'il serait souhaitable que la concentration en {sup 90}Sr et en {sup 137}Cs dans l'eau d'irrigation ne depasse pas le 1/5 de la concentration maxima admissible pour l'eau de boisson. (auteurs)

  20. Removal of cesium from red deer meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, J.; Novosad, J.; Francova, J.; Prochazka, H.

    1989-01-01

    The effect was studied of marinading on the reduction of cesium radionuclide activity in red deer meat contaminated by ingestion of feed containing 134 Cs+ 137 Cs from radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. Two types of marinade were studied, viz., a vinegar infusion and a vinegar infusion with an addition of vegetables and spices. The meat was chopped to cubes of about 1.5 cm in size and the marinading process took place at temperatures of 5 and 11 degC. The drop of cesium content in the meat was determined by gamma spectrometry at given time intervals. The replacement of the marinade and the duration of the process were found to maximally affect efficiency. If the solution was not replaced, about 80% of cesium radionuclides were removed after seven hours of marinading. With one replacement of the infusion the drop in 134 Cs+ 137 Cs radioactivity amounted to up to 90% after seven hours of marinading. No effects were shown of vegetable additions to the vinegar infusion and of the change in temperature from 5 to 11 degC on the efficiency of the process. (author). 3 tabs., 6 refs

  1. Distribution of radionuclides in soils in surroundings of Bratislava, capital of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.; Svec, V.

    2000-01-01

    The actual distribution of the concentration natural and man-made radionuclides in the soil from the area of Podunajske Biskupice, locality from outer part of Bratislava, Capital of Slovakia is presented. Documentation is based on the collection of soil and analysed for cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-239,240, and americium-241. Occurrence of natural potassium-40 as well as radionuclides from decay series of uranium and thorium in chosen soil profile are in accordance with the average concentration of those radionuclides in dominant type of soils in the monitored area. The soils were analysed using gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector with relative efficiencies 28 %, Cs-137, Ortec). Analytical procedure involve total dissolution of the samples, followed by radiochemical separation and purification using solvent extraction (Aliquat-336 - Pu-239,240; TBP - Sr-90), calcium oxalate precipitation and extraction chromatography an Eichrom TRU Resin - Am-241, UTEVA Resin - uranium and thorium.The intervals of specific activities of Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-239,240 and Am-241 are 14.1-83.8; 3.8-29.2; 0.130-2.904, and 0.804-0.580 Bq/kg. The average values of specific activity of potassium, uranium and thorium are 481 ± 159; 270.3 ± 4.5, and 29.2 ± 4.6 Bq/kg. (authors)

  2. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Rulison Underground Nuclear Test Site, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earman, S.; Chapman, J.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations that were used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater from these sites is an important part of the preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations are undertaken to allow prioritization of the test areas in terms of risk, provide a quantitative basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work at the sites, and provide a framework for assessing data needs to be filled by site characterization. The Rulison site in west-central Colorado was the location of an underground detonation of a 40-kiloton nuclear device in 1969. The test took place 2,568 m below ground surface in the Mesaverde Formation. Though located below the regional water table, none of the bedrock formations at the site yielded water during hydraulic tests, indicating extremely low permeability conditions. The scenario evaluated was the migration of radionuclides from the blast-created cavity through the Mesaverde Formation. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides from the test are contained entirely within the area currently administered by DOE. The transport calculations are most sensitive to changes in the mean groundwater velocity and the correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity, with transport of strontium and cesium also sensitive to the sorption coefficient

  3. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 in honey bees and cheese samples collected in the U. S. after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, B C; Jester, W A; Griffith, S M; Morse, R A; Zall, R R; Lisk, D J; Burgett, D M; Bodyfelt, F W

    1988-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident on April 25, 1986, possible radioactive contamination of honey bees and cheese sampled in several areas of the United States were measured. Of bees collected in May and June of 1986 in both Oregon and New York, only those from Oregon showed detectable levels of cesium-134 (T1/2 = 2.05 years), a radionuclide which would have originated from the Chernobyl incident. Cheese produced in Oregon and New York before the accident showed only cesium-137 (T1/2 = 30.23 years) but cheese produced afterwards (May and September, 1986) in Oregon contained cesium-134. Cheese produced in Ohio and California at the time of the accident and thereafter contained only cesium-137. In general, the levels of radioactivity were higher in the West coast samples as compared to those taken in the East. The levels of radioactivity detected were considered to be toxicologically of no consequence.

  4. Strontium, cessium, and cerium radioisotope concentration in water of superficial reservoirs as determined by their accumulation in alga Cladophora glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunov, L.I.; Gushchin, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    An indirect method of measuring concentrations of strontium-90,cesium-137 and cerium-144 in water is considered. The method is bsed on the accumulation of the nuclides in Cladophora glomerata Kutz, a fresh-water alga. During 10 days in the end of July, 1975, water samples (20 l) and alga samples (about 1 kg) were taken at 14 locations more or less evenly distributed along the bank of reservoir. Some locations were in coves or issues of small rivers so that almost all morphometric features of the reservoir were taken into account. The samples were processed and radiochemically analyzed, including the radiometry of standard techniques. The counting time was so selected that the statistical error did not exceed 10 %. The radionuclide concentration was calculated per unit weight of sample (pCi/l or pCi/kg of natural alga biomass). The method may be of particular importance for those radionuclides that are rapidly absorbed by bottom sediments and at the same time intensively accumulated by the hydrobios (radioisotopes of iron, cobalt, zinc, yttrium, zirconium and some others)

  5. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  6. Sequential determination of natural ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U) and anthropogenic ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239+240}Pu) radionuclides in environmental matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, H.; Levent, D.; Barci, V.; Barci-Funel, G.; Hurel, C. [Laboratoire de Radiochimie, Sciences Analytiques et Environnement (LRSAE), Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis 06108 Nice Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    A new sequential method for the determination of both natural (U, Th) and anthropogenic (Sr, Cs, Pu, Am) radionuclides has been developed for application to soil and sediment samples. The procedure was optimised using a reference sediment (IAEA-368) and reference soils (IAEA-375 and IAEA-326). Reference materials were first digested using acids (leaching), 'total' acids on hot plate, and acids in microwave in order to compare the different digestion technique. Then, the separation and purification were made by anion exchange resin and selective extraction chromatography: Transuranic (TRU) and Strontium (SR) resins. Natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides were separated by Uranium and Tetravalent Actinide (UTEVA) resin, considering different acid elution medium. Finally, alpha and gamma semiconductor spectrometer and liquid scintillation spectrometer were used to measure radionuclide activities. The results obtained for strontium-90, cesium-137, thorium-232, uranium- 238, plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 isotopes by the proposed method for the reference materials provided excellent agreement with the recommended values and good chemical recoveries. (authors)

  7. Equilibrium concentration of radionuclides in cement/groundwater/carbon steel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, D. K.; Cho, W. J.; Hahn, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    Equilibrium concentration of major elements in an underground repository with a capacity of 100,000 drums have been simulated using the geochemical computer code (EQMOD). The simulation has been carried out at the conditions of pH 12 to 13.5, and Eh 520 and -520 mV. Solubilities of magnesium and calcium decrease with the increase of pH. The solubility of iron increases with pH at Eh -520 mV of reducing environment, while it almost entirely exists as the precipitate of Fe(OH) 3 (s) at Eh 520 mV of oxidizing environment. All of cobalt and nickel are predicted to be dissolved in the liquid phase regardless of pH since the solubility limit is greater than the total concentration. In the case of cesium and strontium, all forms of both ions are present in the liquid phase because they have negligible sorption capacity on cement and large solubility under disposal atmosphere. And thus the total concentration determines the equilibrium concentration. Adsorbed amounts of iodide and carbonate are dependent on adsorption capacity and adsorption equilibrium constant. Especially, the calcite turns out to be a solubility-limiting phase on the carbonate system. In order to validate the model, the equilibrium concentrations measured for a number of systems which consist of iron, cement, synthetic groundwater and radionuclides are compared with those predicted by the model. The concentrations between the model and the experiment of nonadsorptive elements - cesium, strontium, cobalt, nickel and iron, are well agreed. It indicates that the assumptions and the thermodynamic data in this work are valid. Using the adsorption equilibrium constant as a free parameter, the experimental data of iodide and carbonate have been fitted to the model. The model is in a good agreement with the experimental data of the iodide system. (author)

  8. Cesium-137: A physiological disruptor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souidi, Maamar; Grison, Stephane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Today, radiation protection is a major issue for the nuclear industry throughout the world, particularly in France. The 2011 disaster of Fukushima Dai-ichi has brought back to public attention questions about the risks associated with nuclear power for civilian purposes. The risk of accidental release of radioactive molecules, including cesium-137 ( 137 Cs), from these facilities cannot be completely eliminated. The non-cancer-related health consequences of chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain poorly understood. After absorption, cesium is distributed throughout the body. The toxicity of 137 Cs is due mainly to its radiological properties. Studies in humans report that 137 Cs impairs the immune system and induces neurological disorders. Children appear more susceptible than adults to its toxic effects. In animals, and most particularly in rodents, low-dose internal contamination disrupts the sleep-wake cycle, but without behavioural disorders. Impairment of the cardiovascular system has also been observed. Physiologic systems such as the metabolism of vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones are altered, although without leading to the emergence of diseases with clinical symptoms. Recently, a metabolomics study based on contamination levels comparable to those around Chernobyl after the accident showed that it is possible to identify individual rats chronically exposed to low doses of 137 Cs, even though the exposure was too low to affect the standard clinical markers. In conclusion, the scientific evidence currently available, particularly that from experimental animal models exposed to chronic contamination, suggests that 137 Cs is likely to affect many physiologic and metabolic functions. Thus, it could contribute, with other artificial substances in the environment, to increasing the risk of developing non-cancer diseases in some regions. (authors)

  9. Review of the sorption of radionuclides on the bedrock of Haestholmen and on construction and backfill materials of a final repository for reactor wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulmala, S.; Hakanen, M.

    1992-10-01

    Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has plans to build a final repository for reactor wastes in the bedrock of the nuclear power plant site at Haestholmen, Loviisa. This report summarizes the sorption studies of radionuclides in Finnish bedrock performed at the Department of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki. The values of mass distribution ratios, K d , and surface distribution ratios, K a ; of carbon, calsium, Zirconium, niobium, cobalt, nickel, strontium, cesium, uranium, plutonium, americium, thorium, chlorine, iodine and technetium are surveyed. Special attention is paid to the sorption data for construction and backfill materials of rector waste repository and the bedrock of Haestholmen. Safety assessment of a repository includes calculations of migration of the waste element in construction materials and backfill in the nearfield and in bedrock. Retardation by sorption of waste nuclides compared to groundwater flow is described by using distribution ratios between solid materials and water. (orig.)

  10. Studies on the synthesis and characterization of cesium-containing iron phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Kitheri; Govindan Kutty, K. V.; Chandramohan, P.; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.

    2009-02-01

    Isotopes of cesium and strontium can be utilized as radiation source for various industrial and medical applications after their separation from high level nuclear waste. However, these elements need to be immobilized in a suitable matrix. In the present work, a systematic approach has been made to immobilize inactive cesium into iron phosphate glass. Up to 36 mol% of Cs 2O has been loaded successfully without crystallization. The glass transition temperature of the cesium loaded glass was found to increase initially and then decrease as a function of Cs 2O content. Mössbauer studies show that the concentration of Fe 3+ ions in the cesium loaded glasses is >95%. Volatilization experiments at 1263 K show that the weight loss is >0.5% for a period of 4 h. The 36 mol% of Cs 2O loaded iron phosphate glass with high Fe 3+ content described in this paper is reported for the first time.

  11. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites. Annual report of research investigations on the distribution, migration and containment of radionuclides at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, L.J.

    1982-07-01

    Subsurface waters at Maxey Flats are anoxic systems with high alkalinity and high concentrations of dissolved ferrous ion. Americium and cobalt in these trench waters are made more soluble by the presence of EDTA, while strontium and cesium are unaffected under the same conditions. EDTA is the major organic complexing component in waste trench 27 leachate, but other polar, water-soluble organics are also present. Evidence points to the migration of plutonium between waste trench 27 and inert atmosphere wells as an EDTA complex. Polar organic compounds may influence the migration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs. The primary pathway of water entry into the waste burial trenches is through the trench caps, but major increases in water level have occurred in an experimental trench by subsurface flow. The areal distribution of radionuclides at Maxey Flats has been influenced by surface runoff, deposition from the evaporator plume, subsurface flow and the actions of burrowing animals or deep-rooted trees. Vegetal and surface contamination on site and near site are quite low, and only 60 Co exceeds commonly observed fallout levels. Radionuclide concentrations in surface soil at Maxey Flats are comparable to concentrations resulting from normal fallout in other areas of high rainfall

  12. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Japanese tea were determined using radiochemical analysis. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in June 1983, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 250 +- 6.0 pCi/kg and 88.0 +- 3.2 pCi/kg, respectively, in tea collected from Tagata-gun, Shizuoka. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Sorption characteristics of radioactive cesium and strontium on smectite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozai, Naofumi

    1994-01-01

    Sorption of 137 Cs and 85 Sr on smectite has been studied by combining sorption and desorption experiments. In the desorption experiments, the 137 Cs and 85 Sr were desorbed from the smectite by 0.1 N different desorption reagents solution of Li + , Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and Ba 2+ . The effects of Cs and Sr concentrations on sorption were examined by desorption experiments using 1 N KCl as a desorption reagent over a Cs and Sr concentrations range from 10 -8 to 1 N (saturated). All of Sr sorbed was desorbed with a 1 N KCl solution over Sr concentrations range of 10 -8 and 1 M. Approximately 50% of the 137 Cs sorbed at a concentration of 10 -8 M was desorbed with a 1 N KCl solution, and the fraction desorbed increased with increasing a Cs concentration. These results show that all Sr was reversibly sorbed on smectite, and a fraction of Cs was irreversibly sorbed on smectite. Thus, smectite has reversible sorption sites for Sr and both reversible and irreversible sorption sites for Cs. The fractions of Sr desorbed were related to the products of an ionic radius and charge of a desorption reagent, and those of Cs were related to the hydration energy. These results suggest that sorbed Sr and Cs reversibly on smectite form hydrated and dehydrated ions, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (powdered milk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in powdered milk were determined using radiochemical analysis. Six brands of commercial milk were purchased as samples in consuming districts in December 1984. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 33 +- 1.0 pCi/kg and 140 +- 2 pCi/kg, respectively, in skim milk manufactured by Meiji. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (powdered milk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in powdered milk were determined using radiochemical analysis. Four brands of commercial milk were purchased as samples in consuming districts in June and July 1985. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 31 +- 1.2 pCi/kg and 62 +- 1.5 pCi/kg, respectively, in skim milk manufactured by Meiji. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Japanese tea were determined using radiochemical analysis. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in June 1984, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 88+-3.7 pCi/kg in tea collected from Kyoto; the maximum value of Cs-137 was 99.0+-3.60 pCi/kg collected from Kagoshima. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in freshwater fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Three species of fish (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, and Hypomesus transpacificus nipponensis) were collected during the fishing season from seven sampling locations. Only edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 49.0 +- 1.30 pCi/kg and 8.5 +- 0.64 pCi/kg in Carassius auratus collected from Kyoto and Fukui, respectively, in December 1983. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Characterizing radionuclides in the B Plant HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    B Plant was built during World War II to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from reactor fuel. Later, the plant was re-equipped and used to separate radioactive fission products from the Hanford Site's nuclear processing waste tanks. The facility is now being deactivated: eliminating, stabilizing, and documenting existing hazards to allow safe surveillance and maintenance pending a final disposition which is yet to be determined. The processing areas of the plant, including process cells and exhaust air system, are heavily contaminated with radioactive cesium and strontium from the tank waste separation process. However, detailed characterization is difficult because many of these areas are inaccessible because of physical barriers and high radiological dose rates. The five existing canyon high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters were thought to contain a significant fraction of the inventory, but estimates were highly uncertain. This paper describes the process used to inspect and characterize the radionuclide content in one of these filters. The investigation required a collaborative effort among field and technical personnel. Sophisticated computer modeling and detector technologies were employed in conjunction with sound radiological control and field work practices. The outcome of the effort was a considerable reduction in the filter inventory estimate, accompanied by a greatly improved level of confidence in the data. The information derived from this project will provide a sound basis for future decisions regarding filter disposition

  19. Trace Metals in Groundwater and Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment and Stabilization of Strontium-90 and Other Divalent Metals and Radionuclides at Arid Western DOE Sites: Final Report for Award Number DE-FG07-02ER63486 to the University of Idaho (RW Smith) Environmental Management Science Program Project Number 87016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert W.; Fujita, Yoshiko

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants are present in the vadose zone and groundwater throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) energy research and weapons complex. In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants represents a cost-effective treatment strategy that minimizes workers exposure to hazardous substances, does not require removal or transport of contaminants, and generally does not generate a secondary waste stream. We have investigated an in situ bioremediation approach that immobilizes radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., strontium-90) by their microbially facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Calcite, a common mineral in many aquifers and vadose zones in the arid west, can incorporate divalent metals such as strontium, cadmium, lead, and cobalt into its crystal structure by the formation of a solid solution. Collaborative research undertaken by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), University of Idaho, and University of Toronto as part of this Environmental Management Science Program project has focused on in situ microbially-catalyzed urea hydrolysis, which results in an increase in pH, carbonate alkalinity, ammonium, calcite precipitation, and co-precipitation of divalent cations. In calcite-saturated aquifers, microbially facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate represents a potential long-term contaminant sequestration mechanism. Key results of the project include: **Demonstrating the linkage between urea hydrolysis and calcite precipitation in field and laboratory experiments **Observing strontium incorporation into calcite precipitate by urea hydrolyzers with higher distribution coefficient than in abiotic **Developing and applying molecular methods for characterizing microbial urease activity in groundwater including a quantitative PCR method for enumerating ureolytic bacteria **Applying the suite of developed molecular methods to assess the feasibility of the

  20. Determination of distribution coefficient (Kd's) of some artificial and naturally occurring radionuclide in fresh and marine coastal water sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S; Haleem, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    Distribution coefficients of artificial and natural radionuclides in fresh and marine water sediment are used in modeling radionuclide dispersion in water system, and the radiation risk and environmental investigating of impact of radioactive emissions, due to routine operations of nuclear plants or disposal and burial of radioactive waste in the environment. In the present work, distribution coefficient of uranium, lead, polonium, radium (naturally occurring radionuclides that may be emitted into the Syrian environment by the phosphate and oil industry with relatively high concentrations) and caesium 137 and strontium 85, in fresh water sediment (Euphrates River, Orantos River and Mzzerib Lake) and marine coastal water (Lattakia, Tartous and Banias). Distribution coefficients were found to vary between (5.8-17.18)*10 3 , (2.2-8.11)*10 3 , (0.22-2.08)*10 3 , (0.16-0.19)*10 3 , (0.38-0.69)*10 3 and 49-312 for polonium, lead, uranium, radium, cesium and strontium respectively. Results have indicated that most measurement distribution coefficients in the present study were lower than those values reported in IAEA documents for marine coastal sediment. In addition, variations of Kd's with aqueous phase composition and sediment elemental and mineralogical composition and its total organic materials content have been studied, where liner correlation coefficients for each isotope with different parameters have been determined. The obtained data reported in this study can be used for radioactive contaminants dispersion and transfer in Syrian river, lake and coast to assess risks to public due to discharges of the phosphate and oil industry into the Syrian environment. (Authors)

  1. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise 'RESUME 95' in August 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I.; Arntsing, R.

    1997-01-01

    In the exercise called 'RESUME 95' the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au)

  2. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise `RESUME 95` in August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I.; Arntsing, R. [National Defence Research Establisment, Nuclear Detection Group, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    In the exercise called `RESUME 95` the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au).

  3. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise `RESUME 95` in August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I; Arntsing, R [National Defence Research Establisment, Nuclear Detection Group, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In the exercise called `RESUME 95` the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au).

  4. Modelling the transport of radioactive cesium released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP with sediments through the hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, T.; Omata, T.; Wei, L.; Liu, T.; Araya, M.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides including Cesium-134 and Cesium-137 was deposited over the main island of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, resulting in further transfer and diffusion of Cesium through the atmospheric flow, watershed hydrological processes, and terrestrial ecosystem. Particularly, for the transfer of Cesium-134 and Cesium-137, sediments eroded and transported by the rainfall-runoff processes play an important role as Cesium tends to be strongly adsorbed to soil particles such as clay and silt. In this study, we focus on the transport of sediment and adsorbed Cesium in the watershed-scale hydrologic system to predict the long-term change of distribution of Cesium and its discharge to rivers and ocean. We coupled a physically-based distributed hydrological model with the modules of erosion and transport of sediments and adsorbed Cesium, and applied the coupled model to the Abukuma River watershed, which is located over the area of higher deposition of Cesium. In the model, complex land use and land cover distributions, and the effect of human activities such as irrigation, dam control and urban drainage system are taken into accounts. Simulation was conducted for the period of March 2011 until August 2012, with initial spatial distribution of Cesium-134 and Cesium-137 obtained by the airborne survey. Simulated flow rates and sediment concentrations agreed well with observed, and found that since the accident, two major storms in July and September 2011 transported about 50% of total sediments transported during the simulated periods. Cesium concentration in the sediment was reproduced well except for the difference in the initial periods. This difference is attributable to the uncertainty arisen from the initial distribution of Cesium in the soil and the transfer of Cesium from the forest canopy.

  5. Methods of producing cesium-131

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  6. Cesium 137 in oils and plants from Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, R.E.; Perez, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1990 the project of radioactive and environmental contamination started in Guatemala. Studies about the radioactive contamination levels are made within the framework of this project. Cesium-137 has been an interest radionuclide, because it is a fission product released to the environment by the use of nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants accidents. The sampling consisted in collection of soil and grass in 20 provinces of Guatemala, one point by province, and it was made in 1990. The cesium-137 concentration in the samples, was determined by gamma spectrometry, using an hyper pure germanium detector. The results show the presence of radioactive contamination in soil and grass due to cesium-137, at levels that might be considered as normal. The levels found are not harmful for human health, and its importance is the fact that can be used as reference levels for the environmental radioactivity monitoring in Guatemala

  7. Tracing Fukushima Radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere -An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Punam; Ballard, Sally; Nelson, Roger

    2013-04-01

    A massive 9.0 earthquake and ensuing tsunami struck the northern coast of the Honshu-island, Japan on March 11, 2011 and severely damaged the electric system of the Fukushima- Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The structural damage to the plant disabled the reactor's cooling systems. Subsequent fires, a hydrogen explosion and possible partial core meltdowns released radioactive fission products into the atmosphere. The atmospheric release from the crippled Fukushima NPP started on March 12, 2011 with a maximum release phase from March 14 to 17. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases xenon (Xe-133) and krypton (Kr-85); iodine (I-131,I-132); cesium (Cs-134,Cs-136,Cs-137); and tellurium (Te-132). The non-volatile radionuclides such as isotopes of strontium and plutonium are believed to have remained largely inside the reactor, although there is evidence of plutonium release into the environment. Global air monitoring across the northern hemisphere was increased following the first reports of atmospheric releases. According to the source term, declared by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) of Japan), approximately 160 PBq (1 PBq (Peta Becquerel = 10^15 Bq)) of I-131 and 15 PBq of Cs-137 (or 770 PBq "iodine-131 equivalent"), were released into the atmosphere. The 770 PBq figure is about 15% of the Chernobyl release of 5200 PBq of "iodine-131 equivalent". For the assessment of contamination after the accident and to track the transport time of the contaminated air mass released from the Fukushima NPP across the globe, several model calculations were performed by various research groups. All model calculations suggested long-range transport of radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima NPP towards the North American Continent to Europe and to Central Asia. As a result, an elevated level of Fukushima radionuclides were detected in air, rain, milk, and vegetation samples across the northern

  8. Distribution of plutonium and cesium in alluvial soils of the Los Alamos environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Miera, F.R. Jr.; Peters, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The alluvial soils of three liquid waste disposal areas at Los Alamos were sampled to determine plutonium and cesium distributional relationships and correlations with soil physical-chemical properties. Radionuclide concentrations were determined for soil samples as a function of soil depth and distance from the waste outfall. The cesium-plutonium data were correlated with levels of organic carbon, carbonates, exchangeable and water-soluble cations, pH, cation exchange capacity, bulk density, surface area and geometric particle size of these soils. The distribution patterns of soil plutonium and cesium were also compared to the waste use history of the three study areas

  9. Rubidium-strontium method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubansky, A.

    1980-01-01

    The rubidium-strontium geological dating method is based on the determination of the Rb and Sr isotope ratio in rocks, mainly using mass spectrometry. The method is only practical for silicate minerals and rocks, potassium feldspars and slates. Also described is the rubidium-strontium isochrone method. This, however, requires a significant amount of experimental data and an analysis of large quantities of samples, often of the order of tons. The results are tabulated of rubidium-strontium dating of geological formations in the Czech Socialist Republic. (M.S.)

  10. The uptake of radionuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Turner, G.S.

    1982-02-01

    A review of the literature, since 1970, on the research into the uptake of radionuclides by plants, with references to earlier soil and plant studies on the fate of nuclear weapons fallout. Experimental data on the uptake of plutonium isotopes, americium 241, cesium 137, radium 226, curium 244 and neptunium 237 and details of the chemical form of the radionuclide, soil type and plant growth period are tabulated. (U.K.)

  11. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  12. Photostriction of strontium ruthenate

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Liu, Heng-Jui; Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Ke, Jr-Jian; Wu, Chung-Lun; Yin, Yu-Peng; Zhan, Qian; Lin, Gong-Ru; Chu, Ying-Hao; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal oxides with a perovskite crystal structure exhibit a variety of physical properties associated with the lattice. Among these materials, strontium ruthenate (SrRuO3) displays unusually strong coupling of charge, spin and lattice

  13. Biogeochemical cycling of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livens, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of radionuclides with other components such as nutrients around ecosystems is discussed. In particular the behaviour of cesium in freshwater ecosystems since the Chernobyl accident and the behaviour of technetium in the form of pertechnetate anions, TcO 4 , in marine ecosystems is considered. (UK)

  14. Strontium-90 and promethium-147 recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisington, J.E.; McDonell, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and promethium-147 are fission product radionuclides with potential for use as heat source materials in high reliability, non-interruptible power supplies. Interest has recently been expressed in their utilization for Department of Defense (DOD) applications. This memorandum summarizes the current inventories, the annual production rates, and the possible recovery of Sr-90 and Pm-147 from nuclear materials production operations at Hanford and Savannah River. Recovery of these isotopes from LWR spend fuel utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) is also considered. Unit recovery costs at each site are provided

  15. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos R., E-mail: acandrello@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Araujo, Ednaldo S. [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Thomaz, Edivaldo L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste - UNICENTRO, Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geografia; Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Augusto [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Macedo, Iris L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental

    2009-07-01

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 +- 15 Bq.m{sup -2} for South region to 15 +- 2 Bq.m{sup -2} for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  16. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Thomaz, Edivaldo L.; Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Augusto; Macedo, Iris L.

    2009-01-01

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 ± 15 Bq.m -2 for South region to 15 ± 2 Bq.m -2 for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  17. Cesium glass irradiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The precipitation process for the decontamination of soluble SRP wastes produces a material whose radioactivity is dominated by 137 Cs. Potentially, this material could be vitrified to produce irradiation sources similar to the Hanford CsCl sources. In this report, process steps necessary for the production of cesium glass irradiation sources (CGS), and the nature of the sources produced, are examined. Three options are considered in detail: direct vitrification of precipitation process waste; direct vitrification of this waste after organic destruction; and vitrification of cesium separated from the precipitation process waste. Direct vitrification is compatible with DWPF equipment, but process rates may be limited by high levels of combustible materials in the off-gas. Organic destruction would allow more rapid processing. In both cases, the source produced has a dose rate of 2 x 10 4 rads/hr at the surface. Cesium separation produces a source with a dose rate of 4 x 10 5 at the surface, which is nearer that of the Hanford sources (2 x 10 6 rads/hr). Additional processing steps would be required, as well as R and D to demonstrate that DWPF equipment is compatible with this intensely radioactive material

  18. Recovery of cesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izatt, Reed M.; Christensen, James J.; Hawkins, Richard T.

    1984-01-01

    A process of recovering cesium ions from mixtures of ions containing them and other ions, e.g., a solution of nuclear waste materials, which comprises establishing a separate source phase containing such a mixture of ions, establishing a separate recipient phase, establishing a liquid membrane phase in interfacial contact with said source and recipient phases, said membrane phase containing a ligand, preferably a selected calixarene as depicted in the drawing, maintaining said interfacial contact for a period of time long enough to transport by said ligand a substantial portion of the cesium ion from the source phase to the recipient phase, and recovering the cesium ion from the recipient phase. The separation of the source and recipient phases may be by the membrane phase only, e.g., where these aqueous phases are emulsified as dispersed phases in a continuous membrane phase, or may include a physical barrier as well, e.g., an open-top outer container with an inner open-ended container of smaller cross-section mounted in the outer container with its open bottom end spaced from and above the closed bottom of the outer container so that the membrane phase may fill the outer container to a level above the bottom of the inner container and have floating on its upper surface a source phase and a recipient phase separated by the wall of the inner container as a physical barrier. A preferred solvent for the ligand is a mixture of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride.

  19. Sorption of cesium in intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puukko, E.

    2014-04-01

    The mass distribution coefficient K d is used in performance assessment (PA) to describe sorption of a radionuclide on rock. The R d is determined using crushed rock which causes uncertainty in converting the R d values to K d values for intact rock. This work describes a method to determine the equilibrium of sorption on intact rock. The rock types of the planned Olkiluoto waste disposal site were T-series mica gneiss (T-MGN), T-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (T-TGG), P-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (P-TGG) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). These rocks contain different amount of biotite which is the main sorbing mineral. The sorption of cesium on intact rock slices was studied by applying an electrical field to speed up migration of cesium into the rock. Cesium is in the solution as a noncomplex cation Cs + and it is sorbed by ion exchange. The tracer used in the experiments was 134 Cs. The experimental sorption on the intact rock is compared with values calculated using the in house cation exchange sorption model (HYRL model) in PHREEQC program. The observed sorption on T-MGN and T-TGG rocks was close to the calculated values. Two PGR samples were from a depth of 70 m and three samples were from a depth of 150 m. Cesium sorbed more than predicted on the two 70 m PGR samples. The sorption of Cs on the three 150 m PGR samples was small which was consistent with the calculations. The pegmatitic granite PGR has the smallest content of biotite of the four rock types. In the case of P-TGG rock the observed values of sorption were only half of the calculated values. Two kind of slices were cut from P-TGG drill core. The slices were against and to the direction of the foliation of the biotite rims. The sorption of cesium on P-TGG rock was same in both cases. The results indicated that there was no effect of the directions of the electric field and the foliation of biotite in the P-TGG rock. (orig.)

  20. Sorption of iodine, chlorine, technetium and cesium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederlund, M.; Lusa, M.; Lehto, J.; Hakanen, M.; Vaaramaa, K.

    2011-01-01

    The safety assessment of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel will include an estimate for the behavior of waste nuclides in the biosphere. As a part of this estimate also the sorption of radioactive iodine, chlorine, technetium and cesium in soil is to be considered. The chemistry and the sorption of these radionuclides in soils are described in this literature survey. Behavior of I-129, Cl-36 and Tc-99 in the environment is of great interest because of their long half-lives and relatively high mobilities. The importance of Cs-135 arises from its high content in spent nuclear fuel and long physical half-life, even though it is considered relatively immobile in soil. Factors affecting the migration and sorption of radionuclides in soils can be divided into elemental and soil specific parameters. The most important elemental factor is the speciation of the element, which is influenced by the soil redox potential, pH and complex forming ligands. Soil micro-organisms can either serve as sorbents for radionuclides or affect their speciation by altering the prevailing soil redox conditions. Soil organic matter content and mineral properties have a marked influence on the retention of radionuclides. The sorption of anionic radionuclides such as I-, Cl- and TcO 4 - is pronounced in the presence of organic matter. Clay minerals are known to bound cesium effectively. The effect of speciation of radioactive iodine, chlorine, technetium and cesium in soil is considered in this study, as well as the effect of soil micro-organisms, organic matter and mineral properties. (orig.)

  1. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir

  2. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  3. Feasibility Assessment of Cesium Removal using Microaglae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ilgook; Ryu, Byung-Gon; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this work is to assess the feasibility of selected one of microalgae in the uptake of Cs+. The obtained results showed the maximum Cs+ removal by D. armatus SCK was 280μM indicating 70% removal efficiency. Also, D. armatus SCK could uptake Cs+ in the presence of K+, is particularly known to be transported into cells as an analog of Cs+ in freshwater condition. Recently, increased attention has been directed on the use of biological technologies for the removal of radionuclides as the cheap and eco-friendly alternative to the non-biological methods. Metal including radioactive compounds uptake by microorganisms can be occurred by metabolism –independent and/or -dependent processes. One involves biosorption based on the ability of microbial cells to bind dissolved metals; on the other involves bioaccumulation, which depends on the metabolic ability of cells to transport metals into the cytoplasm. The purpose of this work is to investigate the feasibility of microalgae in bioaccumulation system to remove cesium from solution. The effect of different environmental parameters on cesium removal was also examined.

  4. Biosorption of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Some fundamental aspects of the biosorption of metals by microbial cells were investigated. These studies were carried out in conjunction with efforts to develop a process to utilize microbial cells as biosorbents for the removal of radionuclides from waste streams generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. It was felt that an understanding of the mechanism(s) of metal uptake would potentially enable the enhancement of the metal uptake phenomenon through environmental or genetic manipulation of the microorganisms. Also presented are the results of a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of 137 cesium and 226 radium from existing waste solutions. The studies were directed primarily at a characterization of uranium uptake by the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  5. Kinetics and reversibility of radionuclide sorption reactions with rocks. Progress report for fiscal year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Brown, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Sorption-desorption reactions of cesium, strontium, neptunium, americium, and plutonium on basalt, granite, and argillite were observed for 218 days. Equilibrium in batch experiments was not reached for most radionuclides even after this long time. Reactions of the crushed rock with ground waters (dissolution, hydrolysis, precipitation, etc.) also did not reach equilibrium after 150 days. The dissolution of basalt is accompanied by the formation of colloidal particles which contain Si, Fe, Ca, and Al. These colloids sorb Cs, Sr, Am, and Pu during equilibration. Some of the colloids pass through 0.3-μm flters, are not retained even on 0.01-μm filters and, therefore, cause calculated K/sub d/ values to be too low. Samples of crushed basalt, granite, and argillite were artificially weathered by continuous leaching with distilled water for 6 months both in air and in an oxygen-free stream of nitrogen gas. The weathered rock was then characterized for surface area, surface structure, cation exchange capacity, and composition of weathered surface on the rock. Comparisons were made of radionuclide sorption (after 14 days) on fresh rock, rock weathered in air, and rock weathered in N 2 . Sorption on rocks weathered in N 2 generally is less than on rock weathered in air. This is possibly due to the lack of an Fe(OH) 3 coating on the rock weathered in N 2 . The Fe(OH) 3 is known to scavenge cations and silica from solution. Sorption of Cs, Si, Am, and Pu is strongly affected by weathering basalt and argillite. However, the cation exchange capacity is changed very little, suggesting that ion exchange plays a minor role in sorption of these radionuclides

  6. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of rodents at a waste burial site, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.R.; Bennett, K.D.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (Sites 1 and 2) at Area G, TA-54, and a control site outside Area G (Site 3) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for americium ( 241 Am), strontium ( 90 Sr), plutonium ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu), total uranium (U), and examined by gamma spectroscopy (including cesium [ 137 Cs]). Significantly higher (parametric t-test at p = 0.05) levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu, and potassium ( 40 K) were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. The results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, P = 0.0095) total U concentrations in carcasses than Sites 2 and 3. Site 2 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, P = 0.0195) 239 Pu concentrations in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 3

  7. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  8. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnesen, P.; Sachleben, R.; Moyer, B.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process to remove the fission products 99 Tc, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs from alkaline tank waste, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands on FY 1995's successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from alkaline tank-waste solutions. This process now includes the capability of removing both technetium and strontium simultaneously. In this form, the process has been named SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing technetium, strontium, and cesium

  9. Background concentrations of selected radionuclides, organic compounds, and chemical constituents in ground water in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, B.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    Background concentrations of radionuclides, organic compounds, and other chemical constituents in water in the Snake River Plain aquifer in Idaho were estimated from groundwater sample analyses. Detectable concentrations of transuranic elements should not be present in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer. Background concentrations of tritium generally range from 75 to 150 pCi/L. Strontium-90 and iodine-129 concentrations generally are 0 and from 0.05 pCi/L, respectively. At the INEL, comparison of the mean and median concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and iodine-129 indicates that operations locally have affected concentrations in groundwater. Gross alpha-particle and beta-particle radioactivity in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer ranges from 0 to 5 pCi/L and 0 to 8 pCi/L, respectively. Background gamma radiation in groundwater is attributed to cesium-137, cobalt-60, and potassium-40. Cesium-137 and cobalt-60 concentrations generally are zero in groundwater at the INEL. Naturally occurring concentrations of potassium-40 probably are about 300 pCi/L. Background concentrations of organic compounds in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer generally are less than 0.2 microg/L. Background arsenic and chromium concentrations both are about 2 to 3 microg/L. Barium concentrations are from about 50 to about 70 microg/L. Lead and mercury concentrations generally are less than 5 microg/L and 0.1 microg/L, respectively. Cadmium, selenium, and silver concentrations generally are less than 1 microg/L. Nitrate concentrations range from 0 to about 1.4 mg/L

  10. Applicability of sodium alginate in decorporation therapy of strontium radioisotopes in human being; Aplicabilidade do alginato de sodio na terapia de decorporacao de radioisotopos de estroncio em seres humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Aloisio Cordilha

    1999-10-01

    The increasing release of fission products from nuclear weapon tests in the environment has been rising the levels of radioactive contamination of food chains caused by the fall-out of these elements. In cases of accidental exposure, human subjects could be submitted to an internal contamination, which is likely to include several radionuclides. Special concern must be given, however, to the radioactive isotopes of strontium, cesium and iodine, along with the highly radio toxic transuranium elements like cerium. It was found that sodium alginate, a polyelectrolyte commonly used in food industry and obtained from brown algae (Phaeophyceae), provides the selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium presented in the ingested food material with no disturbance of the electrolyte balance nor undesirable side effects, even for a long term treatment. Moreover, these patterns were maintained when alginate was associated to other decontamination additives, specially those related to the other radioisotopes mentioned above, as, in this case, losses in the effectiveness, mutual interference or adverse health effects were not detected. These conclusions ground the discussion about the present trend in the usual choice of EDTA/DTPA complex therapy rather than of alginate therapy for medical assistance of radiocontaminated patients, although they corroborate the efficiency and usefulness of alginate salts in situations related to extensive intakes of strontium radioisotopes alone or associated to other fission products. The purpose of the present work is to make a general review of the alginate therapy as well as to discuss its present and future therapeutic importance from the scientific and institutional points of view. (author)

  11. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  12. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of 137 Cs are important to understand because 137 Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy

  13. Cesium-137 inventory of the undisturbed soil areas in the Londrina Region, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Cesium-137 is an artificial radionuclide introduced in the environment through the radioactive fallout of the superficial tests of nuclear weapons. The cesium-137 deposition occurred to middles of the 1980-decade and, due to the Chernobyl accident, great part of Europe had a additional fallout of cesium-137. The contaminations of this accident do not have reached Southern Hemisphere. Cesium-137 is an alkaline metal, high electropositive, that in contact with the soil is strongly adsorbed to the clay in the FES (Frayed Edge Sites) and RES (Regular Edge Sites) positions, and it movement by chemical processes in the soil is insignificant. Because of this, cesium-137 became a good soil marker, and its movement is related to the soil movement particles, so that the cesium-137 have been used in the study of the soil redistribution processes, as a tool of quantifying the rates of soil losses and gain. To use this methodology, it is necessary the knowledge of the reference inventory of cesium-137, that is given as function of the total concentration of cesium-137 deposited in an area by the radioactive fallout. If a sampling point presents less cesium-137 than the reference inventory, this point is considered a point with soil loss; otherwise, the point is considered a point with soil deposition. To evaluate the cesium-137 inventory in the Londrina region, four areas of the undisturbed soil were sampling in grid of 3x3, with a distance of 9 meters among the points. Of these four sampling areas, three areas were of native forest (labeled Mata1, Mata2 and Mata UEL), and one was a pasture area. Cesium-137 inventory was 223 ± 41 Bq m -2 , 240 ± 65 Bq m -2 and 305 ± 36 Bq m -2 for Mata UEL, Mata1 and Mata2, respectively, and of 211 ± 28 Bq m -2 for the native pasture. Considering the deviation in each value, it is not possible to conclude that there are differences among the values of cesium-137 inventory, so that the average reference inventory of cesium-137 for the

  14. Fast concentration of dissolved forms of cesium radioisotopes from large seawater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan Kamenik; Henrieta Dulaiova; Ferdinand Sebesta; Kamila St'astna; Czech Technical University, Prague

    2013-01-01

    The method developed for cesium concentration from large freshwater samples was tested and adapted for analysis of cesium radionuclides in seawater. Concentration of dissolved forms of cesium in large seawater samples (about 100 L) was performed using composite absorbers AMP-PAN and KNiFC-PAN with ammonium molybdophosphate and potassium–nickel hexacyanoferrate(II) as active components, respectively, and polyacrylonitrile as a binding polymer. A specially designed chromatography column with bed volume (BV) 25 mL allowed fast flow rates of seawater (up to 1,200 BV h -1 ). The recovery yields were determined by ICP-MS analysis of stable cesium added to seawater sample. Both absorbers proved usability for cesium concentration from large seawater samples. KNiFC-PAN material was slightly more effective in cesium concentration from acidified seawater (recovery yield around 93 % for 700 BV h -1 ). This material showed similar efficiency in cesium concentration also from natural seawater. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs determined in seawater from the central Pacific Ocean were 1.5 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.1 Bq m -3 for an offshore (January 2012) and a coastal (February 2012) locality, respectively, 134 Cs activities were below detection limit ( -3 ). (author)

  15. Spectroscopy and Laser-SNMS on stable and radioactive strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, Hauke; Walther, Clemens [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Franzmann, Michael [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Kron, Tobias; Wendt, Klaus [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear accidents as experienced e.g. in Chernobyl or Fukushima and nuclear weapon tests released considerable activity levels and a variety of medium to long-lived radionuclides into the environment. Strontium-90 appears as a significant share of the fission products in spent nuclear fuel and correspondingly in any possible release. Due to its chemical properties it is subject to long range transport through the environment and can cause considerable dose to man when entering the food chain. Correspondingly, the investigation of speciation and migration channels is of major relevance. A radioanalytical approach is severely hampered by the low beta energy of the strontium-90 decay and the need to separate strontium-90 from the secular equilibrated daughter yttrium-90. Hence, application of a mass spectrometric method without chemical separation of the elements is a promising alternative for low-level investigation of strontium-90. Application of the new Laser-SNMS system at IRS Hannover could well suit those needs. It applies three Ti:Sa lasers for resonant ionization of neutral atoms produced by primary ion sputtering in a SIMS together with a time-of-flight mass analysis which provides high spatial resolution. The analytical measurements are preceded by spectroscopic studies on the level structure of strontium to develop a most efficient ionization scheme.

  16. Determination of strontium-90 in the environmental samples at PINSTECH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, N.; Aziz, A.

    1979-01-01

    Strontium-90 a bone seeking radionuclide and a long lived beta emitter is one of the toxic radionuclides detected in the environment arising mainly from the fall out from nuclear detonations. Its concentration in various environmental media such as air, precipitation, surface water, vegetables and other items of diet was measured. This report describes the method of collection, treatment and radiochemical analyses of environmental samples for the determination of Sr-90. The levels of Sr-90 concentration in these media are also recorded. (authors)

  17. Thermoluminescence of strontium tetraborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, M.; Caselli, E.; Lester, M.

    1999-01-01

    The thermoluminescent properties of crystalline strontium tetraborate are reported. Without activators it has an efficiency comparable to that of TLD-700 powder. Its fading after 40 days amount to less than 2%. The isometric plot shows that most of the emitted light is concentrated at wavelengths ranging from 350 to 450 nm, which accounts partially for the high efficiency. (author)

  18. Adsorption of Some Hazardous Radionuclides on Cerium(IV) Antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.; Zakaria, E.S.; Shady, S.A.; El-Naggar, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Cerium(IV) antimonate had been prepared by the dropwise addition of 0.6 M antimony pentachloride and 0.6 M cerium ammonium nitrate solutions by a molar radio of Ce/Sb 0.75. Exchange isotherms for H +/ Co 2+ , H +/ Cs +, H +/ Zn 2+ , H +/ Sr 2+ and H +/ Eu 3+ have been determined at 25, 40 and 60 degree. Besides it was proved that europium is physically adsorbed while zinc, strontium, cobalt and cesium are chemically adsorbed. Moreover, the heat of adsorption of zinc, strontium, cobalt and cesium on cerium(IV) antimonate had been calculated and indicated that cerium(IV) antimonate is of endothermic behaviour towards these ions. Also the distribution coefficients of these ions were determined and it was found that the selectivity in the order: Eu 3+ >Sr 2+ > Cs +> Na +

  19. Mineral resource of the month: cesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The article offers information on cesium, a golden alkali metal derived from the Latin word caesium which means bluish gray. It mentions that cesium is the first element discovered with the use of spectroscopy. It adds that the leading producer and supplier of cesium is Canada and there are 50,000 kilograms of cesium consumed of the world in a year. Moreover, it states that only 85% of the cesium formate can be retrieved and recycled.

  20. Hydrogeochemical processes affecting the migration of radionuclides in a fluvial sand aquifer at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.E.; Inch, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the mid-1950's two experimental disposals of liquid radioactive waste containing about 700 curries of strontium-90 and cesium-137 were made into pits in sandy ground at one of the disposal areas at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Since then, the wastes have migrated into two nearby aquifers and have chromatographically separated into strontium-90 and cesium-137 plumes moving at velocities less than that of the transporting groundwater. Analysis of radioactively contaminated aquifer sediments showed that most of the strontium-90 is exchangeably adsorbed, primarily to feldspars and layer silicates (mainly biotite); the rest is either specifically adsorbed to iron (III) and perhaps manganese (IV) oxhydroxides or fixed to unknown sinks. Less than one half of adsorbed cesium-137 is exchangeable with 0.5 m calcium chloride; the high levels of cesium-137 adsorption and fixation are probably due to its reaction with micaceous minerals. Complexation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 does not appear to be an important factor affecting their transport or adsorption. In studies of groundwater quality or pollution, dissolved oxygen and sulfide should be measured in addition to the redox potential since it allows independent assessment of the redox levels. The latter were found to affect the mobility of multivalent transition metals and nonmetals. (DN)

  1. Factors affecting the leachability of caesium and strontium from cemented simulant evaporator wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.J.; Brown, D.J.

    1981-08-01

    Leach rates of stable cesium and strontium from a range of simulated evaporator waste/cement formulations have been determined. Important factors in plant operation are assessed for their effect on leach rates. Increasing the curing time and lowering the water/cement ratio has been shown to reduce leach rates by up to a factor of four. Incorporation of additives such as clays and supplementary cementatious materials can reduce leach rates by up to three orders magnitude, and coating the surface of the waste form with a neat cement grout can reduce the cesium leach rate by up to four orders of magnitude. The effects of permeability of the matrix and its cesium absorption capacity on the leach rates have been analysed qualitatively. (U.K.)

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1994 growing season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Biggs, J.B.; Bennett, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation samples were collected within and around selected points at Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-for the analysis of tritium ( 3 H), strontium ( 90 Sr), plutonium ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu), cesium ( 137 Cs), americium ( 241 Am), and total uranium. In general, most vegetation samples collected within and around Area G contained radionuclide levels in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 5,800 pCi/mL in overstory vegetation collected outside the fence just west of the tritium shafts; this suggests that tritium is migrating from this waste repository through subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the transuranic (TRU) pads (outside the fence of Area G) contained the highest values of 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 137 Cs, and 241 Am, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, or disposal activities

  3. Alimentary tract absorption (f1 values) for radionuclides in local and regional fallout from nuclear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shawki A; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g., local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (e.g., iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively). The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout.

  4. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of 137 Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of 137 Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000 0 C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ΔE of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon) 0 exp [-ΔE/RT] are about 4 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively

  5. Radionuclide sorption behavior in particulate matter in near coastal marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.M.; Ortega-Lara, V.; Leckie, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: In order to evaluate the migration behavior of radioactive cesium and strontium while transported from continental aquatic systems to marine environments, the sorption behaviors for these metals were evaluated in several different environments. Laboratory experiments using radioactive tracers, and equilibrium as well as time dependent modeling were used to evaluate and quantify the distribution of the two elements as a function of element chemistry, solid substrate characteristics and solution composition. The experimental conditions reflected salinities ranging from those found in rivers and lakes through estuaries to the ocean. Adsorption constants were obtained for strontium in natural sediments from these aquatic environments. The strontium specification was evaluated in solution as well as in the adsorbed state. Sorption of strontium occurred mainly as outer sphere complexes. Major cations, ligands (soluble and particulate), ionic strength, and pH were among parameters that affected the distribution of cesium and strontium between adsorbed and dissolved forms. Time-dependent sorption behaviors were observed under study dissolved salt and suspended sediment conditions. Desorption occurred to some degree for all sediment types. Cesium was exchanged with potassium and sodium in clay minerals and was therefore less desorbed than would be expected. The results allowed the description of migration behaviors of two important pollutants from the atomic energy industry

  6. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  7. EORTC QLQ-BM22 and QLQ-C30 quality of life scores in patients with painful bone metastases of prostate cancer treated with strontium-89 radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaka, Shinji; Satoh, Takefumi; Chow, E.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80% of patients with prostate cancer will develop bone metastases, which often lead to bone pain and skeletal-related events. Sr-89 is an established alternative for the palliation of bone pain in prostate cancer. We aimed to assess the effect of Sr-89 radionuclide therapy on quality of life (QOL) in prostate cancer patients with painful bone metastases. Thirteen patients received a single intravenous injection of Sr-89 at a dose of 2.0 MBq/kg. All patients underwent QOL evaluation prior to Sr-89 treatment and 1, 2, and 3 months afterward using the Japanese version of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer developed a Quality of Life questionnaire for Patients with Bone Metastases 22(EORTC QLQ-BM22), EORTC Quality of Life Group core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), a visual analog scale (VAS), and face scale. We also evaluated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) response and toxicity of the Sr-89 therapy. The pain characteristics subscale of the EORTC QLQ-BM22 was significantly reduced from 1 month onward compared with the baseline. The functional interference and psychosocial aspects subscales were significantly higher than baseline from 2 months onward. At 2 months, VAS indicated a significant reduction in pain as compared to the baseline. Sr-89 therapy caused a nonsignificant reduction in PSA and ALP levels. No patients had leukocyte toxicity, and one patient had grade 3 platelet toxicity. Sr-89 radionuclide therapy can provide not only reduced pain characteristics but also better psychosocial aspects and functional interference in patients with painful bone metastases of prostate cancer. (author)

  8. Process for recovering cesium from pollucite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from a cesium-bearing mineral such as pollucite by extraction with hydrochloric acid to obtain an extract of cesium chloride and other alkali metal and polyvalent metal chlorides. The iron and aluminum chlorides can be precipitated as the hydroxides and separated from the solution of the alkali metal chlorides to which is added potassium permanganate or other water-soluble permanganate to selectively precipitate cesium permanganate. The cesium precipitate is then separated from the residual solution containing the metal chlorides. The cesium permanganate, which is in a very pure form, can be converted to other cesium compounds by reaction with a reducing agent to obtain cesium carbonate and cesium delta manganese dioxide

  9. The cycling of transuranic radionuclides in the Columbia River, its estuary and the northeast Pacific Ocean: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    This review summarizes work during 1985 to 1986 on the radioecology of plutonium, americium and cesium in the Columbia River sediments; radionuclide kinetics of technetium in fish, and radioactivity in the Pacific Ocean

  10. A thermoelectric-conversion power supply system using a strontium heat source of high-level radioactive nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka

    2011-01-01

    A thermoelectric-conversion power supply system with radioactive strontium in high-level radioactive waste has been proposed. A combination of Alkali Metal Thermo-Electric Conversion (AMTEC) and a strontium fluoride heat source can provide a compact and long-lived power supply system. A heat source design with strontium fluoride pin bundles with Hastelloy cladding and intermediate copper has been proposed. This design has taken heat transportation into consideration, and, in this regard, the feasibility has been confirmed by a three-dimensional thermal analysis using Star-CD code. This power supply system with an electric output of 1 MW can be arranged in a space of 50 m 2 and approximately 1.1 m height and can be operated for 15 years without refueling. This compact and long-lived power supply is suitable for powering sources for remote places and middle-sized ships. From the viewpoint of geological disposal of high-level waste, the proposed power supply system provides a financial base for strontium-cesium partitioning. That is, a combination of minor-actinide recycling and strontium-cesium partitioning can eliminate a large part of decay heat in high-level waste and thus can save much space for geological disposal. (author)

  11. Cesium fixation in mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1990-01-01

    It has been found that the various mushroom species accumulate Cs-137 in very different quantities. Whereas specimens of the species Xeromus badius always contained high amounts of Cs-137, analyses of specimens of the related species Boletus edulis showed only weak accumulation of the radionuclide. It is assumed that this general difference in accumulation of Cs-137 is due to a difference in the organic constituents of the mushrooms. (orig.) [de

  12. Analysis of radioactive strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In environmental radiation survey, radioactive strontium has been analyzed in compliance with the manual ''Analyzing methods for radioactive strontium'' published in 1960 by the Science and Technology Agency, Japan, and revised in 1963. However, in a past decade, progress and development in analyzing methods and measuring equipments have been significant, therefore the manual was revised in 1974. Major revisions are as follows. (1) Analysis of 90 Sr with long half life was changed to the main theme and that of 89 Sr with short half life became a subordinate one. (2) Measuring criteria and sampling volume were revised. (3) Sample collection method was unified. (4) Analyzing method for soil was improved to NaOH-HCl method which has good recovery rate. (5) 90 Y separation method of simple operation was added for sea water analysis besides EDTA and fuming nitric acid methods. (6) Flame spectrometry for quantitative analysis of stable strontium was revised to atomic absorption spectrometry. The contents of the manual comprises 11 chapters describing introduction, measuring criteria for 90 Sr ( 89 Sr), rain and dust, land water, sea water, soil, sea bottom and river bottom sediments (changed from human urine and human bones), crops, milk (the previous one chapter was divided into two), marine organisms, and everyday foods, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Radionuclide transport modelling for a buried near surface low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzi, R.

    2004-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste, which is the last step of any radioactive waste management policy, has not yet been developed in Turkey. The existing legislation states only the discharge limits for the radioactive wastes to be discharged to the environment. The objective of this modelling study is to assist in safety assessment and selecting disposal site for gradually increasing non-nuclear radioactive wastes. This mathematical model has been developed for the environmental radiological assessment of near surface disposal sites for the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The model comprised of three main components: source term, geosphere transport and radiological assessment. Radiation dose for the babies (1 years age) and adults (≥17 years age) have been computed for the radionuclides Cesium 137 (Cs-137) and Strontium 90 (Sr-90), having the activity of 1.10 12 Becquerel(Bq), in radioactive waste through transport of radionuclide in liquid phase with the various pathways. The model consisted of first order ordinary differential equations was coded as a TCODE file in MATLAB program. The radiation dose to man for the realist case and low probability case have been calculated by using Runge-Kutta solution method in MATLAB programme for radionuclide transport from repository to soil layer and then to the ground water(saturated zone) through drinking water directly and consuming agricultural and animal products pathways in one year period. Also, the fatal cancer risk assessment has been made by taking into account the annual dose received by people. Various dose values for both radionuclides have been found which depended on distribution coefficient, retardation factor and dose conversion factors. The most important critical parameters on radiological safety assessment are the distribution coefficient in soil layer, seepage velocity in unsaturated zone and thickness of the unsaturated zone (soil zone). The highest radiation dose and average dose to

  14. Selective extraction of cesium: from compound to process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.; Dozol, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    Under the French law of 30 December 1991 on nuclear waste management, research is conducted to recover long-lived fission products from high-level radioactive effluents generated by spent fuel reprocessing, in order to destroy them by transmutation or encapsulate them in specific matrices. Cesium extraction with mono and bis-crown calix(4)arenes (Frame 1) is a candidate for process development. These extractants remove cesium from highly acidic or basic pH media even with high salinity. A real raffinate was treated in 1994 in a hot cell to extract cesium with a calix-crown extractant. The success of this one batch experiment confirmed the feasibility of cesium decontamination from high-level liquid waste. It was then decided to develop a process flowchart to extract cesium selectively from high-level raffinate, to be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was accordingly decided to develop a process based on liquid-liquid extraction and hence optimize a calixarene/diluent solvent according to: - hydraulic properties: density, viscosity, interfacial tension, - chemical criteria: sufficient cesium extraction (depending on the diluent), kinetics, third phase elimination... New mono-crown-calixarenes branched with long aliphatic groups (Frame 2) were designed to be soluble in aliphatic diluents. To prevent third phase formation associated with nitric acid extraction, the addition of modifiers (alcohol, phosphate and amide) in the organic phase was tested (Frame 3). Table 1 shows examples of calixarene/diluent systems suitable for a process flowchart, and Figure 2 provides data on cesium extraction with these new systems. Alongside these improvements, a system based on a modified 1,3-di(n-octyl-oxy)2,4-calix[4]arene crown and a modified diluent was also developed, considering a mixed TPH/NPHE system as the diluent, where TPH (hydrogenated tetra propylene) is a common aliphatic industrial solvent and NPHE is nitrophenyl

  15. Radiolysis of dilute aqueous solutions of cesium iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbovitskaya, T.I.; Galinkin, D.L.; Kants, L.K.; Tiliks, Yu.E.; Kotelkin, I.M.; Luzanova, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    Study of physical-chemical processes in the NPP containment by severe accident is carried out. Radiolysis of reactor cooling water containing iodine and cesium radionuclides penetrated therein in the course of accident is considered as of such processes. Role of ionizing radiation in the process of formation and release of ecologically hazardous volatile forms of radioiodine from reactor water into environment is studied. Experiments on radiolysis of CsI diluted water solutions are carried out. The data obtained were used for clarification of radiolysis mechanism for iodine-containing water system, enabling forecast of iodine behaviour in the course of the accident. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Caspian Sea water balance and dynamics studies using anthropogenic radionuclides: Implications for environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oregioni, B.; Gastaud, J.; Pham, M.K.; Povinec, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Environmental changes in the Caspian Sea have recently become of great interest in connection with fluctuations in sea level changes. Radioactive and stable isotopes have been used as powerful tracers to investigate water balance and dynamics and have contributed significantly to understanding climatically driven environmental changes in the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea is the world largest inland water body with a surface area of about 386000 km 2 and a volume of about 67000 km 3 , located in a large continental depression about 28 m below sea level. With no surface outlet, the Caspian Sea is particularly sensitive to climatic variations. The drainage area of the Caspian Sea is approximately 3.7 million square kilometers. The Volga, Ural and Terek empty into the North Caspian, with their combined annual flow accounting for 88% of all water entering the sea. The Sulak, Samur, Kura and a number of small rivers contribute about 7% of the inflow, the remainder comes from the rivers of the Iranian shore. The Caspian Sea is divided into three basins with approximately the same surface. The North Caspian Basin, maximum depth 15 m, average depth 5 m, contains 1% of the total water. The Middle Caspian (or Central) Basin has a maximum depth of 800 m and contains 22% of the total water. The South Caspian Basin, maximum depth 1024 m, average depth 330 m, contains 77% of the total Caspian Sea water. Recently there have been concerns over the environmental conditions of the Caspian Sea, especially over observed sea level changes, which have had a strong impact on the region. Anthropogenic radionuclides like 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239 , 240 Pu are particularly useful tracers for the investigation of water dynamics. Two research-training cruises were carried out in September 1995 and August-September 1996. At every station, 60-70 liters samples of seawater from different depths were processed for sequential separation of plutonium, cesium and strontium isotopes. This was

  17. Laboratory studies of radionuclide distributions between selected groundwaters and geologic media. Progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    During FY-1980, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory contributions to the Waste/Rock Interactions Technology program were primarily in the areas of migration-rate studies using crushed rock, whole core, and fractured core columns; parametric studies of variables which may influence radionuclide sorption-desorption behavior; and initial studies of actinide chemistry in near-neutral solutions and Eh control. Batch experiments in both air and a controlled atmosphere (nitrogen, less than or equal to 0.2 ppM oxygen, less than or equal to 20 ppM carbon dioxide) for the sorption of several radionuclides on granite and argillite were completed. These data also provided informaton on the effects of other parameters, such as particle size and contact time. All nine elements studied had different sorption ratios for argillite when measured under the controlled atmosphere than when measured in air, except possibly for americium where any effect was smaller than the standard deviations. As expected, strontium, cesium, and barium are least affected by the presence or absence of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Columns of crushed rock and solid and cracked cores were used to study the migration of radionuclides through such materials. In general, sorption ratios measured by batch techniques are 2 to 3 times greater than those for columns; however, a wide variation in behavior was observed, depending upon the element and the mineralogy. Work has begun on a system wherein traced groundwater is circulated through a crushed rock column; this should provide a link between the usual, single-pass, crushed rock columns and the batch experiments. Materials characterization has continued, and techniques for the determination of Fe(II) in silicate rocks and groundwater have been made operational. Work on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has been started

  18. Application of dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 to selective extraction of radioactive strontium from waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakshin, V.V.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Vilkova, O.M.; Tuzova, A.M.; Fedorova, A.T.; Rodionova, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Influence of various factors on strontium extraction in the system nitric acid-dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 was studied to develop the technique for determining 89 Sr and 90 Sr content in natural waters and aqueous salt solutions. Conditions for selective strontium extraction from complex salt systems containing Ba, Cs, Ru, Ce and other radionuclides were found. It is shown that coefficient of strontium distribution is sufficiently higher, as compared to coefficients of Cs, Ru, Ce distribution. Extraction performance under chosen conditions enables to elevate sufficiently the distribution coefficient of these substances. The scheme of radiochemical analysis is given. Strontium content in natural waters and salt solutions was determined with the use of described radiochemical method

  19. Toxicity of strontium-90 depending on the way of its administration to animal organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedov, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    Toxicity of strontium-90 administered orally is almost thrice lower than that after parenteral administration. The values of the doses absorbed in the critical organ of rats, corresponding to LDsub(50/30), were 2400 to 2600 rad irrespective of the route of the radionuclide administration

  20. Radionuclide transfer from forage plants into milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeschen, W

    1987-06-09

    There is a lot of information regarding the transfer of radionuclides (iodine, caesium, strontium) which allows the transfer factor being calculated with high certainty. The transfer coefficients (forage-)plant/milk laid down in Paragraph 45 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlenschutzverordnung) amount to 1.0x10/sup -2/ for iodine-131, 1.2x10/sup -2/ for caesium-137 and 2.0x10/sup -3/ for strontium-90. More recent calculated factors are markedly lower at the average. During milk processing, the greatest amount of radionuclides gets access to the whey or into the permeate after ultrafiltration of whey. In butter and cheese only minute amounts of caesium can be expected.

  1. Occurrence and retention of radionuclides in the sediments of White Oak Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenick, T F; Gardiner, D A

    1965-06-01

    As a result of the discharges of large volumes of low-level radioactive liquid wastes to surface streams at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, large quantities of radionuclides have accumulated in the bottom sediments of White Oak Lake. Ruthenium-106 (1038 C) and cesium-137 (704 C) account for more than 90% of the total activity now present at the site, while /sup 60/Co(152 C), the rare earths (17 C, exclusive of /sup 90/Y), and /sup 90/Sr(15 C) make up the remainder. More than half of the activity is associated with the upper 6-in. sediment layer, while progressively smaller quantities of activity are found with depth. The ruthenium, which is restricted to a small area in the now dry upper lake bed, is partially water soluble; however, its rate of movement through the soil is slow enough so that radioactive decay reduces the concentration of that reaching surface streams to insignificant levels. Most of the /sup 137/Cs occupies highly selective exchange sites on the illitic fraction of the clay in the sediment and can be desorbed only by disruption of the lattice structure. Only a small fraction of the /sup 60/Co in the soil was found to be exchangeable. It is, therefore, unlikely that any large fraction of the /sup 137/Cs or /sup 60/Co would move from the area except through erosion of the sediment. About one-half of the /sup 90/Sr and the rare earths in the sediment appears to be exchangeable, while the other half is in the form of slightly soluble salts. Through leaching by ground water, a slow depletion of strontium from the dry part of the lake bed occurs. The accumulation of radionuclides in the sediments of White Oak Lake illustrates the effectiveness of relatively quiescent bodies of water in concentrating activity in stream beds and in retarding the downstream movement of these materials.

  2. Cesium Concentration in MCU Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D

    2006-01-01

    During Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) operations, Cs-137 concentrations in product streams will vary depending on the location in the process and on the recent process conditions. Calculations of cesium concentrations under a variety of operating conditions reveal the following: (1) Under nominal operations with salt solution feed containing 1.1 Ci Cs-137 per gallon, the maximum Cs-137 concentration in the process will occur in the strip effluent (SE) and equal 15-16.5 Ci/gal. (2) Under these conditions, the majority of the solvent will contain 0.005 to 0.01 Ci/gal, with a limited portion of the solvent in the contactor stages containing ∼4 Ci/gal. (3) When operating conditions yield product near 0.1 Ci Cs-137/gal in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS), the SE cesium concentration will be the same or lower than in nominal operations, but majority of the stripped solvent will increase to ∼2-3 Ci/gal. (4) Deviations in strip and waste stream flow rates cause the largest variations in cesium content: (a) If strip flow rates deviate by -30% of nominal, the SE will contain ∼23 Ci/gal, although the cesium content of the solvent will increase to only 0.03 Ci/gal; (b) If strip flow rate deviates by -77% (i.e., 23% of nominal), the SE will contain 54 Ci/gal and solvent will contain 1.65 Ci/gal. At this point, the product DSS will just reach the limit of 0.1 Ci/gal, causing the DSS gamma monitors to alarm; and (c) Moderate (+10 to +30%) deviations in waste flow rate cause approximately proportional increases in the SE and solvent cesium concentrations. Recovery from a process failure due to poor cesium stripping can achieve any low cesium concentration required. Passing the solvent back through the contactors while recycling DSS product will produce a ∼70% reduction during one pass through the contactors (assuming the stripping D value is no worse than 0.36). If the solvent is returned to the solvent hold tank (containing additional

  3. Effect of selected foodstuffs on strontium 89 metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keslev, D.; Jotov, M.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of a variety of food products used in human nutrition on strontium-89 cumulation in rat organism is studied. To this end the animals were fed for a week with meat, beans, maize, white and brown bread, cabbage, milk or potatoes prepared so as to be edible by man. Then for additional 15 days the animals were fed the same diet + a daily oral dose of 2 μCi strontium-89. On the 16th day radionuclide activity in the thigh bone was measured. Beans was the food product exerting optimal limiting effect on strontium deposition (reduction factor (RF) 17), milk and ranking next (RF 13, resp. 6.5). All other products showed approximately equal efforts (RF 1.4 - 1.8). The different calcium content of each of these food products is responsible for their different effectiveness. Together with the discrimination which the living organism displays in the presence of calcium, other constituents of the food products which form complexes with strontium and prevent its deposition in the bones are equally essential. (Ch.K.)

  4. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were

  5. Cesium removal and kinetics equilibrium: Precipitation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    This task consisted of both non-radioactive and radioactive (tracer) tests examining the influence of potentially significant variables on cesium tetraphenylborate precipitation kinetics. The work investigated the time required to reach cesium decontamination and the conditions that affect the cesium precipitation kinetics

  6. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarneni, Sridhar; Roy, Rustum

    1989-01-01

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time.

  7. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, R.

    1988-04-25

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of 137 Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of 137 Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope 137 Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports

  9. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of [sup 137]Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of [sup 137]Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope [sup 137]Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  10. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of {sup 137}Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope {sup 137}Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  11. High-resolution stratigraphy with strontium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaolo, D J; Ingram, B L

    1985-02-22

    The isotopic ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 shows no detectable variation in present-day ocean water but changes slowly over millions of years. The strontium contained in carbonate shells of marine organisms records the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 of the oceans at the time that the shells form. Sedimentary rocks composed of accumulated fossil carbonate shells can be dated and correlated with the use of high precision measurements of the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 with a resolution that is similar to that of other techniques used in age correlation. This method may prove valuable for many geological, paleontological, paleooceanographic, and geochemical problems.

  12. Cesium in the nutrient cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    1992-01-01

    Most radioactive cesium in forests is deposited in soil, from which it passes into berries and mushrooms, and further to game. The cesium contents of Finnish berries and mushrooms vary depending on the intensity of Chernobyl fallout. Northern Haeme, Pirkanmaa and parts of central Finland received the most fallout. Weather conditions and the environmental factors, and other circumstances during the growth period, also affect the contents. However, consumption of wild berries, mushrooms and game need not be restricted because of radioactivity anywhere in Finland

  13. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  14. Strontium-90 - ED 4309

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.; Frot, P.; Gambini, D.; Gauron, C.; Moureaux, P.; Herbelet, G.; Lahaye, T.; Le Guen, B.; Pihet, P.; Rannou, A.; Vidal, E.

    2012-12-01

    This sheet presents the characteristics of strontium-90, its origin, and its radio-physical and biological properties. It briefly describes its use in nuclear medicine. It indicates its dosimetric parameters for external exposure, cutaneous contamination, and internal exposure due to acute contamination or to chronic contamination. It indicates and comments the various exposure control techniques: ambient dose rate measurement, surface contamination measurement, atmosphere contamination. It addresses the means of protection: premise design, protection against external exposure and against internal exposure. It describes how areas are delimited and controlled within the premises: regulatory areas, controls to be performed. It addresses the personnel classification, training and medical survey. It addresses the issue of wastes and effluents. It briefly recalls the administrative procedures related to the authorization and declaration of possession and use of sealed and unsealed sources. It indicates regulatory aspects related to the transport of strontium-90, describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (for the different types of contamination or exposure)

  15. Radioprotection technical entries for the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    These entries are devoted to responsible persons and employees of various laboratories or medical, pharmaceutical, university and industrial departments where radionuclides are handled as well as all the persons who attend to safety in this field. They contain the essential radiation protection data for the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources. This new series includes the following radionuclides: nickel 63; gallium 68; selenium 75; krypton 85; indium 111; cesium 137; barium 137m; iridium 192 and gold 198. (O.M.)

  16. Cesium transport data for HTGR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, B.F.; Bell, W.E.

    1979-09-01

    Cesium transport data on the release of cesium from HTGR fuel elements are reviewed and discussed. The data available through 1976 are treated. Equations, parameters, and associated variances describing the data are presented. The equations and parameters are in forms suitable for use in computer codes used to calculate the release of metallic fission products from HTGR fuel elements into the primary circuit. The data cover the following processes: (1) diffusion of cesium in fuel kernels and pyrocarbon, (2) sorption of cesium on fuel rod matrix material and on graphite, and (3) migration of cesium in graphite. The data are being confirmed and extended through work in progress

  17. Use of cesium-137 methodology in the evaluation of superficial erosive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Guimaraes, Maria de Fatima; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do

    2003-01-01

    Superficial erosion is one of the main soil degradation agents and erosion rates estimations for different edaphic climate conditions for the conventional models, as USLE and RUSLE, are expensive and time-consuming. The use of cesium- 137 anthropogenic radionuclide is a new methodology that has been much studied and its application in the erosion soil evaluation has grown in countries as USA, UK, Australia and others. A brief narration of this methodology is being presented, as the development of the equations utilized for the erosion rates quantification through the cesium- 137 measurements. Two watersheds studied in Brazil have shown that the cesium- 137 methodology was practicable and coherent with the survey in field for applications in erosion studies. (author)

  18. Sorption of cesium and uranium to Feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijland, G.C.; Pennders, R.M.J.

    1990-07-01

    Within safety assessment studies, for nuclear waste disposal in deep geologic formations, calculation for the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere are often carried out with models taking sorption into account. In the past 8 years the insight grew that other physico-chemical processes, besides sorption, could affect migration behaviour. While the currently used transport models were being improved taking either linear or non-linear sorption into account, the coupling of geochemical and transport models came into scope. In spite of these developments models which are still based on the sorption theory are frequently applied in studying migration behaviour of radionuclides. This is caused by the necessity of making preliminary pronouncements, while coupled models are still in stage of development and thermodynamic data are very limited available. Therefore one has to obtain insight in the reliability of the models based on the sorption theory. within the sorption database there is a lack of knowledge about mineralogy, composition of the fluid and the experimental conditions underlying the data. Therefore the Expert Group on geochemical Modelling supported by the Finnish proposal in order to obtain insight in the possible deviation of the sorption coefficients that can be estimated from experiments performed with standard samples, fluid composition and experimental conditions. Nine laboratories from OECD membership countries took part in this intercalibration study. In the framework of the Dutch safety assessment studies the Dutch National Institute of Public health and Environmental protection (RIVM) has decided to participate in this exercise. In this report the results are presented of sorption experiments for cesium and natural Uranium to Feldspar. (H.W.). 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 7 tabs

  19. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) separation technology being developed as an alternative to ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. Progress in FY 1997 for specific applications of ESIX is also outlined. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution can be controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. Based on the ferrocyanide film capacity, stability, rate of uptake, and selectivity shown during performance testing, it appears possible to retain a consistent rate of removal and elute cesium into the same elution solution over several load/unload cycles. In batch experiments, metal hexacyanoferrate films showed high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. Cesium uptake was unaffected by Na/Cs molar ratios of up to 2 x 10 4 , and reached equilibrium within 18 hours. During engineering design tests using 60 pores per inch, high surface area nickel electrodes, nickel ferrocyanide films displayed continued durability. losing less than 20% of their capacity after 1500 load/unload cycles. Bench-scale flow system studies showed no change in capacity or performance of the ESIX films at a flow rate up to 13 BV/h, the maximum flow rate tested, and breakthrough curves further supported once-through waste processing. 9 refs., 24 figs

  20. Cesium in the nutrient cycle. Cesium metsaen ravinnekierrossa marjojen ja sienten cesium ei vaehene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A

    1992-01-01

    Most radioactive cesium in forests is deposited in soil, from which it passes into berries and mushrooms, and further to game. The cesium contents of Finnish berries and mushrooms vary depending on the intensity of Chernobyl fallout. Northern Haeme, Pirkanmaa and parts of central Finland received the most fallout. Weather conditions and the environmental factors, and other circumstances during the growth period, also affect the contents. However, consumption of wild berries, mushrooms and game need not be restricted because of radioactivity anywhere in Finland.

  1. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  2. Dosimetry of a Cesium 137 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres R, J.G.; Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    It was carried out a dosimetric study of a source of Cesium 137 used in investigations of Radiobiology. This radionuclide has a half life of 30.07 years and it emits photons of 661.657 keV with a probability of 85.2%. The source has been used in a series of experiments trending to observe the cellular response before the gamma rays, as well as for the calibration of equipment of radiological protection. For such reason it is important to determine the dosimetric properties. In this work it was determined the absorbed dose that this source takes when being placed in the center from a methylmethacrylate badge to three distances, 5, 10 and 15 cm. The dose was measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters and it was calculated by means of Monte Carlo method, also was derived an expression that allows to determine the dose starting from the information of the activity of the source and of the distance regarding the same one. (Author)

  3. Effect of cooking on radionuclide concentrations in waterfowl tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four commercially raised mallar ducks (Anas platyrhyncos) were released at the Test Reactor Area radioactive leaching ponds, and subsequently collected 56 to 188 days later. Liver, gizzard, and carcass were analyzed for radionuclide concentrations before and after cooking. Significant decreases (P 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 60 Co, 140 La and /sup 110m/Ag concentrations in carcass and liver samples occurred after cooking. Radionuclide concentrations in gizzard showed no significant change in radionuclide concentrations after cooking. Cesium-134 and 137 Cs concentrations decreased by 27% in carcass after cooking and reduced the dose commitment to man by that amount

  4. Double photoionization of strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokell, Emma; Grimm, Michael; Sheridan, Paul, E-mail: emma.sokell@ucd.i [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-02-01

    Resonant triple-differential cross-section (TDCS) measurements have been used to study the double photoionization process in strontium. Two sets of measurements were made at the photon energy of the 4p {yields} 4d resonance. The coplanar geometry was used and the fixed analyser, positioned at -90{sup 0} to the main axis of polarization of the photons, detected electrons with {approx}65% of the available excess energy. The mutual angle between the two electrons had a range just short of 90 {yields} 270{sup 0}. The TDCS exhibit unexpected lobes at a mutual angle of 180{sup 0}. Comparison with other measurements made with the same geometry but with different sharings of the available energy indicate that these TDCS all show the unexpected lobe. Some possible explanations for the lobe are considered.

  5. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  6. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors are operating in 31 countries around the world. Along with reactor operations, activities like mining, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and military operations are the major contributors to the nuclear waste. The presence of a large number of fission products along with multiple oxidation state long-lived radionuclides such as neptunium ((237)Np), plutonium ((239)Pu), americium ((241/243)Am) and curium ((245)Cm) make the waste streams a potential radiological threat to the environment. Commonly high concentrations of cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium ((90)Sr) are found in a nuclear waste. These radionuclides are capable enough to produce potential health threat due to their long half-lives and effortless translocation into the human body. Besides the radionuclides, heavy metal contamination is also a serious issue. Heavy metals occur naturally in the earth crust and in low concentration, are also essential for the metabolism of living beings. Bioaccumulation of these heavy metals causes hazardous effects. These pollutants enter the human body directly via contaminated drinking water or through the food chain. This issue has drawn the attention of scientists throughout the world to device eco-friendly treatments to remediate the soil and water resources. Various physical and chemical treatments are being applied to clean the waste, but these techniques are quite expensive, complicated and comprise various side effects. One of the promising techniques, which has been pursued vigorously to overcome these demerits, is phytoremediation. The process is very effective, eco-friendly, easy and affordable. This technique utilizes the plants and its associated microbes to decontaminate the low and moderately contaminated sites efficiently. Many plant species are successfully used for remediation of contaminated soil and water systems. Remediation of these systems turns into a serious problem due to various anthropogenic activities that have

  7. Strontium and calcium determination in sea fishes in neighborhood of Angra nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Strontium-90 is an important radionuclide present in the liquid effluents of the Angra Nuclear Power Plant, located in the coastline of Rio de Janeiro State. It has a long effective half-life, easy entry into food chain due to its chemical similarity to calcium and stays for a long time in solution. With the aim of calculating the concentration factor (CF) for 90 Sr and observed ratio (OR) in the most abundant local fish, it was determined the strontium and calcium content in the edible fraction of nine species and in sea water by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. (author)

  8. The effect of organic amendment on mobility of cesium in tropical soils - The effect of organic amendment on sorption mechanisms for cesium and cobalt in tropical soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, M.A.V.; Santos-Oliveira, R. [Instituto de Engenharia nuclear/CNEN. Rua Helio de Almeida, 75. Cidade Universitaria - Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. CEP 21941-906 (Brazil); Garcia, R.J.L.; Ferreira, A.C.M.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Sobrinho, G.A.N. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN. Av. Salvador Allende s /no. Rio de Janeiro, RJ. CEP: 22780-160 (Brazil); Perez, D.V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos/EMBRAPA. R. Jardim Botanico, 1024.Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP: 22460-000 (Brazil); Wasserman, J.C. [dUFF Network of Environment and Sustainable Development (REMADS-UFF), University Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the sorption of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co as a function of the physico-chemical properties of some types of Brazilian soils and the changes on the behavior of these radionuclides due to changes in soil properties promoted by organic amendment. The experimental study was conducted in a controlled area, where pots containing different types of soils (Ferralsol, Nitisol and Histosol) and different doses of organic amendment (no amendment; 2 kg.m{sup -2} and 4 kg.m{sup -2}) were spiked with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The organic amendment used in this experiment was obtained in the Unit of Compost of the Organic Material of Pinheiral (RJ, Brazil), where the compost is made up from the leaves swept from the streets of the Pinheiral city. The mobility of these radionuclides in the soil was assessed through sequential chemical extraction and desorption studies as a function of pH. The bioavailability was evaluated through the effective absorption of radionuclide by root crops (Raphanus sativus, L). This study evidenced that the organic amendment plays an important role in the desorption processes of cobalt and cesium, reducing desorption of both nuclides beneath higher organic amendment dose. This behavior was observed in acid conditions as well in alkaline. However extreme acid conditions may mobilize both radionuclides, although cobalt mobility was shown to be more sensitive to low pH than cesium. (authors)

  9. Study of methods for removing strontium, plutonium, and ruthenium from Savannah River Plant waste supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.R.

    1976-06-01

    As a part of long-term waste management studies at the Savannah River Laboratory, tests were made to study removal of strontium, plutonium, and ruthenium from simulated and actual waste supernates. Plutonium was sorbed by Duolite ARC-359 ion exchange resin, the same resin that is used to remove cesium from waste supernate. Strontium was removed from supernate by sorption on a chelating resin Chelex 100, or by precipitation as Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 . Activities of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 238-241 Pu remaining in processed waste supernate should be 1-10 nanocuries of each element per gram of salt. Of the methods that were tested, none was adequate for plant-scale removal of ruthenium

  10. Method for primary containment of cesium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, P.; Arnold, W.D.; Blanco, R.E.; Bond, W.D.; Lackey, W.J.; Stinton, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    A method for producing a cesium-retentive waste form, characterized by a high degree of compositional stability and mechanical integrity, is provided by subjecting a cesium-loaded zeolite to heat under conditions suitable for stabilizing the zeolite and immobilizing the cesium, and coating said zeolite for sufficient duration within a suitable environment with at least one dense layer of pyrolytic carbon to seal therein said cesium to produce a final, cesium-bearing waste form. Typically, the zeolite is stabilized and the cesium immobilized in less than four hours by confinement within an air environment maintained at about 600 0 C. Coatings are thereafter applied by confining the calcined zeolite within a coating environment comprising inert fluidizing and carbon donor gases maintained at 1,000* C. For a suitable duration

  11. Cesium-137, a drama recounted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Suzane de Alencar

    2013-01-01

    The radiological accident with Cesium-137, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. Cesium-137, a drama recounted is a textual experimentation based on real events and characters picked out from statements reported in various narratives about the radiological accident. (author)

  12. An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamponnet, C.; Martin-Garin, A.; Gonze, M.-A.; Parekh, N.; Vallejo, R.; Sauras-Yera, T.; Casadesus, J.; Plassard, C.; Staunton, S.; Norden, M.; Avila, R.; Shaw, G.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K d for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance its

  13. An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamponnet, C. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SECRE, CADARACHE, B.P. 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France)], E-mail: christian.tamponnet@irsn.fr; Martin-Garin, A.; Gonze, M.-A. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SECRE, CADARACHE, B.P. 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Parekh, N. [Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Vallejo, R.; Sauras-Yera, T.; Casadesus, J. [Department of Plant Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Plassard, C.; Staunton, S. [INRA, UMR Rhizosphere and Symbiosis, Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier (France); Norden, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, 171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Avila, R. [Facilia AB, Valsgaerdevaegen 12, 168 53 Bromma, Stockholm (Sweden); Shaw, G. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K{sub d} for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance

  14. Myocardial imaging with cesium-130

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.V.; Resnekov, L.; Stark, V.; Odeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Recently comparative studies using nitrogen-13 ammonia and cesium-130 have shown strikingly different myocardial localization patterns in the same subjects with ischemic heart disease. Initial localization of ammonia, an avidly extracted agent, reflects the perfusion pattern in viable myocardial tissue. The myocardial localization of cesium ion, taking place more slowly over 15 to 20 minutes, is apparently much less flow dependent, causing uptake defects shown with ammonia to be largely filled in. Cesium thus appears to provide information on the extent of the viable myocardial mass, apart from perfusion. Cesium-130 (t1/2 30 m) decays by positron emission and electron capture. The whole body radiation absorbed dose, assuming uniform distribution, is 24 mrad/mCi. While abundant production of Cs-130 results from proton bombardment of natural xenon [Xe-130(rho,n)Cs-130] at 15 MeV, small amounts of Cs-129, -131, and -132 are also produced, and enriched Xe-130 is not available. Alternatively almost completely uncontaminated Cs-130 is available by alpha bombardment of natural I-127. Anhydrous sodium iodide is dissolved in acetone and a thin layer (≅20 mg per centimeter squared) is evaporated onto the gold plated tip of the internal target backing which is oscillated vertically to spread out the area upon which the beam is incident. The target surface is inclined 2.5 degrees to the beam giving a power density of about 400 watts per centimeter squared at 100μA which is adequately handled by water cooling. A 30-minute bombardment yields 4 to 5 mCi of Cs-130 which is dissolved directly from the target. This approach appears to offer a new and helpful method for evaluating ischemic heart disease by permitting evaluation of viable myocardial mass

  15. Isotope exchange of strontium and molybdate ions in strontium polymolybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The heterogeneous isotopic exchange reactions in strontium polymolybdates of Sr 2+ and MoO 4 2- ions in the strontium nitrate and sodium molybdate solutions have been studied using 90 Sr and 99 Mo as tracers. Electrometric methods have been used to study the compositions of strontium molybdates obtained by adding strontium chloride to a progressively acidified solution of sodium molybdate. It has been found that the exchange fraction increases with increasing chain length of strontium polymolybdate. The exchange equilibrium constant (K ex ) has been calculated between 298 and 348 K as well as ΔG deg, ΔH deg and ΔS deg. The results indicate that Sr 2+ cations have a much higher affinity for exchangers than MoO 4 2- anions. By fitting the data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm it has been shown that the exchange capacity (X m ) for both ions is affected by the ion adsorption process at low temperatures and by the ion exchange process at high temperatures. At high concentrations, the recrystallization process contributes to on the cation exchange but is ineffective on the anion exchange mechanism. (author)

  16. Investigation of strontium sorption on Kula volcanites treated with HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuetahyali, C.; Cetinkaya, B.; Acar, M. B.; Isik, N. O.; Cireli, I.

    2009-01-01

    In planning the disposal of radioactive waste in a deep geologic repository, consideration must be given to the ways in which radionuclides might leave the repository and migrate through the geosphere. In performance assessment studies the uptake of the radioactive elements by rock formations play an important role in retarding their aqueous phase migration. Sorption studies of radionuclides have been conducted to obtain data on the distribution coefficient (K d ) that is as an input parameter in the performance assessment of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. In many studies, the sorption experiments employed natural soils and rocks as sorbents. Adsorption experiments were studied in a batch adsorption system using Sr(NO 3 ) 2 (Merck) solution. Strontium sorption on Kula Volcanites treated with HCl was investigated. Central Composite Design Method was used in the experiments. Sr adsorption was studied as a function of pH, contact time, concentration of adsorbate, and temperature.

  17. Cesium migration in LMFBR fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnesky, R.A.; Jost, J.W.; Stone, I.Z.

    1978-10-01

    The factors affecting the axial migration of cesium in mixed oxide fuel pins and the effects of cesium migration on fuel pin performance are examined. The development and application of a correlated model which will predict the occurrence of cesium migration in a mixed oxide (75 w/o UO 2 + 25 w/o PuO 2 ) fuel pins over a wide range of fabrication and irradiation conditions are described

  18. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  19. Selection of distribution coefficients for contaminant fate and transport calculations: Strontium as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    As part of an ongoing project funded by a cooperative effort involving the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) of the Department of Energy (DOE), and the Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRC), distribution coefficient (K d ) values are being compiled from the literature to develop provisional tables for cadmium, cesium, chromium, lead, plutonium, strontium, thorium, and uranium. The tables are organized according to important aqueous- and solid-phase parameters affecting the sorption of these contaminants. These parameters, which vary with contaminant, include pH and redox conditions; cation exchange capacity (CEC); presence of iron-oxide, aluminum-oxide, clay, and mica minerals; organic matter content; and solution concentrations of contaminants, competing ions, and complexing ligands. Sorption information compiled for strontium is used to illustrate our approach. The strontium data show how selected geochemical parameters (i.e., CEC, pH, and clay content) affect Strontium K d values and the selection of open-quote default close-quote K d values needed for modeling contaminant transport and risks at sites for which site specific data are lacking. Results of our evaluation may be used by site management and technical staff to assess contaminant fate, migration, and risk calculations in support of site remediation and waste management decisions

  20. Cesium heat-pipe thermostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, F.; Song, D.; Sheng, K.; Wu, J. [Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement, 100095, Beijing (China); Yi, X. [China National South Aviation industry CO., LTD., 412002, Hunan (China); Yu, Z. [Dalian Jinzhou Institute of Measurement and Testing, 116100, Liaoning (China)

    2013-09-11

    In this paper the authors report a newly developed Cesium Heat-Pipe Thermostat (Cs HPT) with the operation range of 400 °C to 800 °C. The working medium is cesium (Cs) of 99.98% purity and contains no radioisotope. A Cs filing device is developed which can prevent Cs being in contact with air. The structural material is stainless steel. A 5000 h test has been made to confirm the compatibility between cesium and stainless steel. The Cs HPT has several thermometer wells of 220mm depth with different diameters for different sizes of thermometers. The temperature uniformity of the Cs HPT is 0.06 °C to 0.20 °C. A precise temperature controller is used to ensure the temperature fluctuation within ±0.03 °C. The size of Cs HPT is 380mm×320mm×280mm with foot wheels for easy moving. The thermostat has been successfully used for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers and thermocouples.

  1. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  2. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  3. Tracing cohesive sediment transportation at river mouths around Tokyo, Japan by Cesium originated from Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    koibuchi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment transport at river mouths, which consists of suspended-load and bed-load, has not been fully understood, since bed-load transport of cohesive sand is difficult to observe. Especially, the impact of sediment transport on the total amount of fine-grained cohesive sediment has not been elucidated. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 were spread from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) after the earthquake of March 11 of 2011, and attached to the fine-grained sand on the land. The contaminated sand flowed into the river mouths through the rivers possibly due to the complex physical processes in estuarine areas. To evaluate the fine-grained sediment transport around Tokyo and Tokyo Bay, field observations were carried out utilizing radionuclide originated from FDNPP as an effective tracer. The cohesive sediment transport at three different river mouths around Tokyo was successfully quantified. The cohesive sediment transport deposited in the estuary was found to be greatly dependent on the land use, geometry, river discharge and salinity. In addition,the transport driven by the rainfall was minute, and its behavior was quite different from suspended solids. Although further field observations of radionuclide are necessary, it is clear that fine-grained sediment in the bay from rivers already settled on the river mouth by aggregation. The settled sand will not move even in rainfall events. Consequently, the transport of radionuclide to the Pacific Ocean may not occur.; Cesium distribution around Tokyo Bay ; Cesium Concentration in Edogawa river

  4. The Usage of Natural Zeolites for the Adsorption of Radionuclides, particularly in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitbauer, Franz

    2012-09-01

    Specific natural zeolites have proven their capability to bind nuclear radiation During the last decades, numerous research work has proven the potential of natural zeolites to adsorb nuclear radiation through their cation exchange properties. Zeolites have been used successfully in Chernobyl, and are used in Fukushima and in nuclear waste repositories today. Within the various kinds of zeolites the special type clinoptilolite particularly binds 137-cesium as well as 90- strontium ions. Therefore zeolites with high contents of clinoptilolite are the first choice for this purpose. High contents of clinoptilolite can be defined as being above 90 %. Such zeolites are typically capable of binding some 2,50 meq/g of cesium ions and some 1,40 meq/g of strontium ions. (authors)

  5. A study of the wet deposit and foliar uptake of iodine and strontium on rye-grass and clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio; Levi, Emilio; Commission of the European Communities, Ispra

    1977-12-01

    Foliar uptake of iodine and strontium by rye-grass and clover was studied as a function of aspersion intensities. At the same time, the contribution of root sorption to foliar uptake was measured. The effective half-lives of radionuclides of standing and harvested grass were also determined together with their uptake under the action of demineralized water aspersion [fr

  6. Polymeric strontium ranelate nonahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Stahl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, poly[[μ-aqua-tetraaqua{μ-5-[bis(carboxylatomethylamino]-3-carboxylatomethyl-4-cyanothiophene-2-carboxylato}distrontium(II] tetrahydrate], [Sr2(C12H6N2O8S(H2O5]·3.79H2O, crystallizes with nine- and eight-coordinated Sr2+ cations. They are bound to seven of the eight ranelate O atoms and five of the water molecules. The SrO8 and SrO9 polyhedra are interconnected by edge-sharing, forming hollow layers parallel to (011. The layers are, in turn, interconnected by ranelate anions, forming a metal–organic framework (MOF structure with channels along the a axis. The four water molecules not coordinated to strontium are located in these channels and hydrogen bonded to each other and to the ranelates. Part of the water H atoms are disordered. The compound dehydrates very easily and 0.210 (4 water molecules out of nine were lost during crystal mounting causing additional disorder in the water structure.

  7. Photostriction of strontium ruthenate

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao

    2017-04-24

    Transition metal oxides with a perovskite crystal structure exhibit a variety of physical properties associated with the lattice. Among these materials, strontium ruthenate (SrRuO3) displays unusually strong coupling of charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom that can give rise to the photostriction, that is, changes in the dimensions of material due to the absorption of light. In this study, we observe a photon-induced strain as high as 1.12% in single domain SrRuO3, which we attribute to a nonequilibrium of phonons that are a result of the strong interaction between the crystalline lattice and electrons excited by light. In addition, these light-induced changes in the SrRuO3 lattice affect its electrical resistance. The observation of both photostriction and photoresistance in SrRuO3 suggests the possibility of utilizing the mechanical and optical functionalities of the material for next-generation optoelectronics, such as remote switches, light-controlled elastic micromotors, microactuators and other optomechanical systems.

  8. Decontamination of radionuclides on construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuleev, P.V.; Andrews, W.S.; Creber, K.A.M.; Velicogna, D.

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of materials can become contaminated by radionuclides, either from a terrorist attack or an industrial or nuclear accident. The final disposition of these materials depends, in large part, on the effectiveness of decontamination measures. This study reports on investigations into the decontamination of a selection of building materials. The aim has been to find an effective, easy-to-use and inexpensive decontamination system for radionuclides of cesium and cobalt, considering both the chemical and physical nature of these potential contaminants. The basic method investigated was surface washing, due to its ease and simplicity. In the present study, a basic decontamination formulation was modified by adding isotope-specific sequestering agents, to enhance the removal of cesium(I) and cobalt(II) from such construction materials as concrete, marble, aluminum and painted steel. Spiking solutions contained 134 Cs or 60 Co, which were prepared by neutron activation in the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor facility at the Royal Military College of Canada. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the decontamination efficiency. The results showed that the addition of sequestering agents generally improved the radiological decontamination. Although the washing of both cesium and cobalt from non-porous materials, such as aluminum and painted steel, achieved a 90-95 % removal, the decontamination of concrete and marble was more challenging, due to the porous nature of the materials. Nevertheless, the removal efficiency from 6-year-old concrete increased from 10 % to approximately 50 % for cobalt(II), and from 18 to 55 % for cesium(I), with the use of isotope binding agents, as opposed to a simple water wash. (author)

  9. A procedure for preferential trapping of cesium cations from aqueous solutions and their separation from other inorganic cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesek, J.; Hermanek, S.; Selucky, P.; Williams, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The title procedure is as follows. Deltahedral heteroborane anions are added to the aqueous solution containing cesium ions, precipitate (if any) is separated off, and the cesium salts involving the deltahedral heteroborane anions are trapped on activated carbon. The cobaltocarborane anion [3-Co-(1,2-C 2 B 9 H 11 ) 2 ] and/or its substitution derivatives are particularly well suited to this purpose. The process can find use in the separation of radionuclides present in waste solutions arising from spent nuclear fuel treatment. (P.A.). 1 fig

  10. Studies of mechanism of radioactive cesium-134 adsorption from water solutions onto tri ammonium dodecamolybdenophosphate(V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choma, J.; Stasiuk, J.

    1992-01-01

    A mechanism of radioactive cesium-134 adsorption from water solutions on new, inorganic adsorbent composed from 85% of tri ammonium dodecamolibdophosphate(V) and 15% of urea resin is presented. A migration is found of Cs cations into the adsorbent grains. The absorption of Cs-134 beta radiation is studied as a function of WMF-15 tablet thickness. The penetration depth of radionuclide was found to be function of the process duration and the adsorbent density. Diffusion of cesium into the adsorbent grains explains the effect of ''recreation'' of its adsorption capacitance. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs

  11. Research advances in adsorption treatment of cesium and cobalt in waste liquid of nuclear power plants by ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dan; Wang Xin; Liu Jiean; Zhu Laiye; Chen Bin; Weng Minghui

    2014-01-01

    Liquid radwaste is unavoidably produced during the operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). With the development of China's nuclear power, much more attention will be paid to the impact of NPP construction on water environment. Radionuclides are the main targets for adsorption treatment of NPP liquid radwaste. Thereinto, cesium and cobalt are typical cationic ones. Currently, ion exchange process is widely used in liquid radwaste treatment system (WLS) of NPP, wherein resin plays a key role. The paper reviewed the research progress on adsorption of cesium and cobalt existed in NPP liquid radwaste using ion exchange resin. (authors)

  12. Removal of radionuclides from radioactive effluents of Purex origin using biomass banana pith as sorbant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Kannan, R.; Das, S.K.; Naik, P.W.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Kansra, V.P.; Balu, K.

    1998-06-01

    Investigations have been carried out on the applicability of dried banana pith (inner stem) for the sorption of various radionuclides viz. U, Pu, 241 Am, 144 Ce, 147 Pm, 152+154 Eu and 137 Cs which are generally present at trace level in Purex process waste effluents. The sorption of trivalent radionuclides as well as tetravalent plutonium was found to be high at pH 2, whereas sorption of uranium was found to be maximum at pH 6. Cesium was not found to be sorbed. 241 Am sorption was investigated in detail as a representative element of trivalent actinides and fission products to study the general trend. Though its sorption was kinetically slow, near-quantitative sorption was observed on prolonged contact. 241 Am sorption was studied in presence of NaNO 3 (up to 1 M) and Nd(III) up to 500 mg/l. Whereas no significant change in distribution ratios (D) was observed in the presence of NaNO 3 , it increased with neodymium concentration in the range tested. This indicates the effectiveness of the biomass as sorbent even in presence of sodium salts. Sorbed metal ions could be recovered by leaching with 2 M nitric acid. The dried biomass samples prepared from different sources were found to be stable for months and gave similar results on testing. The biomass was tested for its applicability for sorbing radionuclides present in Purex evaporator condensate and diluted high level waste solution on once through basis. The sorption capacity of banana pith for trivalent actinide-lanthanide is in the range of 60 mg/g banana pith. The results indicate that the biomass can be used effectively for the treatment of Purex Waste effluents for the removal of strontium, tri- and tetravalent actinides and fission products. The biomass was also tested for the sorption of toxic metal ions viz. Sr, Hg, Pb, Cr, Cd, and As from a nitrate solution at pH 2 and 4. D values followed the order Hg>Sr>Cd>Pb at pH 2, with Cr and As showing no uptake. These results indicate the potential of this

  13. Sorption of radionuclides on London clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bourke, P.J.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1989-02-01

    Techniques for studying the sorption of radionuclides on London clay have been investigated. This work involved the use of through-diffusion, in-diffusion, high-pressure convection and batch methods to study the sorption of iodide, strontium, caesium and americium. Through-diffusion and high-pressure convection methods were found to be most useful for investigating weakly and moderately sorbing nuclides and give realistic values for sorptivity. The batch technique remains the most practical method of obtaining large quantities of data within a relatively short timescale but gives very high sorptivity values. It is however very useful for intercomparisons of nuclides or geological media. The in-diffusion method requires further refinement for use with strongly sorbing nuclides. Good agreement between through-diffusion and high-pressure convection methods was obtained for the sorptivity of strontium, whilst trends observed for caesium by through-diffusion were confirmed by batch measurements. (author)

  14. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for 13 radionuclides present in Operable Unit IV at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faillace, E.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1994-12-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for 13 radionuclides (americium-241; cobalt-60; cesium-137; europium-152, -154, and -155; plutonium-238, -239, and -240; strontium-90; and uranium-234, -235, and -238) were derived for Operable Unit (OU) IV at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Single-nuclide guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of OU IV should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and plausible future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr for plausible but less likely future use scenarios. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for determining residual radioactive material guidelines. Four potential scenarios were considered; each assumed that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The four scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed

  15. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  16. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  17. Ion exchange of radionuclides on natural and modified micaceous minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojvula, R.; Lekhto, Yu.

    1998-01-01

    Interaction of 134 Cs, 85 Sr and 60 Co with three micaceous minerals: muscovites, biotites and phlogopite is studied. Two types of micaceous minerals: natural ones, wherein potassium is an exchange cation, and samples, converted into sodium form, are studied/ It is found that biotite and phlogopite in the sodium form are specified by high selectivity to cobalt with distribution coefficient above 10 5 ml/g, whereas the muscovite potassium form is characterized by high selectivity to cesium. Neither of the micaceous minerals is characterized by selectivity to strontium. Distribution coefficients strongly depend on pH of the medium

  18. Deposition of caesium and strontium substances on growing crops: Effects and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: To investigate how the two radionuclides caesium ( 134 Cs) and strontium ( 85 Sr) are taken up and transported to the harvested parts (the seeds) by fallout in a growing crop. Further on how this is related to the size and time of the fallout. From the information collected recommendation of suitable countermeasures at different scenarios to prevent further spreading to food stuff can be suggested. In the project a number of field trials where artificial deposited by the two radionuclides 134 Cs and 85 Sr in a contaminated rainfall, on the two agricultural crops Brassica napus L. (spring rape) and Triticum aestivum L. (spring wheat). The trial contained different treatments where the radionuclides where deposited by a rainfall simulator at different growing stages of the crops. The field trial continues for two more years and the reason for that is due to the variation of the climate for the different years. The radionuclides were applied in the form of a wet deposition and the rainfall was about 1 mm m -1 with a concentration of 20 kBq m -1 for each radionuclide. Samples were taken from the plots at the day(s) after the treatment of contaminated rainfall, both from the latest treated plots and from the earlier treated plots. The hypotheses are: 1. That the size of the deposition and the time in relation to the development stages of the crop will steer how much caesium and strontium that are coughed, detained and transferred to the harvested parts. 2. That the levels of caesium and strontium in the harvested parts of the crops are related to the insensitivity of the rainfall after a deposition and also how long time the first intensive rain will occur. 3. That the size of caesium and strontium in harvested plant parts are related to the size of uptake throw the leaves. 4. If the deposition of caesium and strontium will be the same, the levels of caesium will be much higher than strontium in the harvested parts. (author)

  19. Strontium 90 fallout prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Gwinn, E.

    1986-01-01

    An empirical formula is developed for predicting monthly sea level strontium 90 fallout (F) in the northern hemisphere as a function of time (t), precipitation rate (P), latitude (phi), longitude (lambda), and the sea level concentration of stronium 90 in air (C): F(lambda, phi, t) = C(t, phi)[v /sub d/(phi) + v/sub w/(lambda, phi, t)], where v/sub w/(lambda, phi, t) = a(phi)[P(lambda, phi, t)/P/sub o/]/sup b//sup (//sup phi//sup )/ is the wet removal, v/sub d/(phi) is the dry removal and P 0 is 1 cm/month. The constants v/sub d/, a, and b are determined as functions of latitude by fitting land based observations. The concentration of 90 Sr in air is calculated as a function of the deseasonalized concentration at a reference latitude (C-bar/sub r//sub e//sub f/), the ratio of the observations at the latitude of interest to the reference latitude (R), and a function representing the seasonal trend in the air concentration (1 + g): C-bar(t, phi) = C/sub r//sub e//sub f/(t)R(phi)[1 + g(m, phi)]; m is the month. Zonal trends in C are shown to be relatively small. This formula can be used in conjuction with precipitation observations and/or estimates to predict fallout in the northern hemisphere for any month in the years 1954 to 1974. Error estimates are given; they do not include uncertainty due to errors in precipitation data

  20. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.

    1987-09-01

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  1. Cesium residue leachate migration in the tailings management area of a mine site : predicted vs. actual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solylo, P.; Ramsey, D. [Wardrop Engineering, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Mining and Minerals Section

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a study at a cesium products facility (CPF) that manufactures a non-toxic cesium-formate drilling fluid. The facility operates adjacent to a pollucite/tantalum/spodumene mine. The CPF was developed as a closed system, with the residue tailings slurry from the CPF process discharged to doublelined containment cells. Groundwater monitoring has shown that leachate has affected near-surface porewater quality within the tailings management area (TMA). Elevated concentrations of calcium, sulphate, strontium, cesium, and rubidium were used to identify the leachate. Porewater at the base of the tailings and in the overburden beneath the tailings has not been affected. A geochemical investigation was initiated to determine how the leachate behaves in the groundwater/tailings porewater system. Over the past 7 years of residue placement in the TMA, the footprint of the residue placement area has changed, making the comparison of predicted versus actual rate of leachate migration very subjective and difficult to quantify. Based solely on the analytical data, the source of the leachate is unknown, either from the original residue pile or the 2007 residue placement area. For purposes of long term residue management, an investigation of the geochemical behaviour of residue leachate in the groundwater/tailings system of the TMA is currently underway. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low and high activity waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The cesium (Cs-137) and technetium (Tc-99) ion exchange removal is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as anionic pertechnetate ) from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Tech nology Center2 demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with an Envelope C sample from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107. Those experiments also included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc

  3. Radiochemical determination of cesium-137 in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.I.L.; Munita, C.S.; Paiva, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Seawater samples were collected from the Atlantic Ocean, in the vicinity of Ubatuba (Sao Paulo State - Brazil), acidified to pH 1 and stored in polyethylene containers. Cesium was precipitated with ammonium phospho molybdate (AMP), synthesized in our laboratory. The elements potassium and rubidium present in the seawater are also coprecipitated by AMP and adequate decontamination of the cesium is made by preparing a column by mixing Cs-137 AMP precipitate and asbestos. The interfering elements were eluted with 1.0 M ammonium nitrate solution whereas cesium was eluted with 1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution. Cesium was reprecipitated by acidifying the solution with concentrated hydrochloric acid. The overall chemical yield of cesium was of 75%. (author)

  4. Iotech cesium capsule recovery abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.; Higgins, D.

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to detail the project operations performed by OHM Remediation Services Corp. (OHM) under contract to the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the removal and transfer of 309 cesium sources from the lotech Inc. Facility in Northglenn, Colorado, to the Department of Energy Site in Hanford, Washington. The activities covered by this report were performed between October of 1993 and August of 1995. The report includes the following major sections: (1) Project Description, (2) Project Organization, (3) Major Project Tasks, (4) Industrial and Radiological Safety, (5) Personnel Exposures, (6) Quality Assurance, (7) Scheduling/Costs, and (8) Lessons Learned

  5. Re-suspension of Cesium-134/137 into the Canadian Environment and the Contribution Stemming from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Jean-Francois; Zhang, Weihua; Loignon-Houle, Francis; Cooke, Michael W.; Ungar, Kurt R.; Pellerin, Eric R.

    2013-04-01

    Cesium-137 (t1/2 = 30 yr) and cesium-134 (t1/2 = 2yr) constitute major fission by-products observed as the result of a nuclear incident. Such radioisotopes become integrated into the soil and biomass, and can therefore undergo re-suspension into the environment via activities such as forest fires. The Canadian Radiological Monitoring Network (CRMN), which consists of 26 environmental monitoring stations spread across the country, commonly observes cesium-137 in air filters due to re-suspension of material originating from long-past weapons testing. Cesium-134 is not observed owing to its relatively short half-life. The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant incident of March 2011 caused a major release of radioactive materials into the environment. In Canada, small quantities of both cesium-137 and cesium-134 fallout were detected with great frequency in the weeks which followed, falling off rapidly beginning in July 2011. Since September 2011, the CRMN has detected both cesium-137 and cesium-134 from air filters collected at Yellowknife, Resolute, and Quebec City locations. Using the known initial cesium-134/cesium-137 ratio stemming from this incident, along with a statistical assessment of the normality of the data distribution, we herein present evidence that strongly suggests that these activity spikes are due to re-suspended hot particles originating from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant incident. Moreover, we have evidence to suggest that this re-suspension is localized in nature. This study provided empirical insight into the transport and uptake of radionuclides over vast distances, and it demonstrates that the CRMN was able to detect evidence of a re-suspension of Fukushima-Daiichi related isotopes.

  6. Application of TREECS (trademark) to Strontium 90 for Borschi Watershed near Chernobyl, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    near Chernobyl , Ukraine by Mark S. Dortch PURPOSE: The Training Range Environmental Evaluation and Characterization System (TREECS™) (http... Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Ukraine. At this site, TREECS™ was used as a modeling tool to predict the fate of radionuclides. This application also...Web site noted above. Borschi watershed is located 3 km south of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Figure 1). Radio- strontium-90, 90Sr, which is a

  7. Levels of strontium 90 in the environment at PINSTECH (Period 1979-1980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, N.; Aziz, A.

    1981-01-01

    Strontium 90, a most toxic among the beta emitting radionuclides, is found in the environment originating mostly from the global fallout from nuclear tests. Radioactive concentration of this radionuclide was measured in air-borne particulates, precipitation, surface water, seasonal vegetables and other items of diet. The report describes a radiochemical procedure for the separation of Y 90 by solvent extraction leading to the determination of Sr 90 content in the environmental and biological samples. The report also presents data on the concentration of Sr 90 in the biomedia at PINSTECH during 1979-80. The values of these concentrations are fairly comparable to those published in the current literature. (author)

  8. On the behaviour of artificial radionuclides at the Baltic sea coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styro, D.B.; Astrauskene, N.P.; Kadzhene, G.I.; Lukinskene, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    The measured results of the 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 144 Ce radionuclide concentrations near the settlement of Juodkrante at the Baltic Sea coast have been considered. The instability of the mean values of the radionuclide concentrations, especially that of strontium-90, has been determined. A certain increase of the radionuclide concentration near the sea coast as compared to that in the open sea has been noted, as well as the influence of the stormy weather on the absolute values of the radionuclide concentration at the coastal zone. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  10. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the PATHWAY radionuclide transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otis, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures were developed for the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a dynamic model of radionuclide transport through human food chains. Uncertainty in model predictions was estimated by propagation of parameter uncertainties using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. Sensitivity of model predictions to individual parameters was investigated using the partial correlation coefficient of each parameter with model output. Random values produced for the uncertainty analysis were used in the correlation analysis for sensitivity. These procedures were applied to the PATHWAY model which predicts concentrations of radionuclides in foods grown in Nevada and Utah and exposed to fallout during the period of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in Nevada. Concentrations and time-integrated concentrations of iodine-131, cesium-136, and cesium-137 in milk and other foods were investigated. 9 figs., 13 tabs

  11. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Multiphoton ionization of atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Klots, C.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.; Cooper, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    We describe experimental studies of resonantly enhanced multi-photon ionization (MPI) of cesium atoms in the presence and absence of an external electric field. In the zero-field studies, photo-electron angular distributions for one- and two-photon resonantly enhanced MPI are compared with the theory of Tang and Lambropoulos. Deviations of experiment from theory are attributed to hyperfine coupling effects in the resonant intermediate state. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In the absence of an external electric field, signal due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of cesium via np states is undetectable. Application of an electric field mixes nearby nd and ns levels, thereby inducing excitation and subsequent ionization. Signal due to two-photon excitation of ns levels in field-free experiments is weak due to their small photoionization cross section. An electric field mixes nearby np levels which again allows detectable photo-ionization signal. For both ns and np states the ''field induced'' MPI signal increases as the square of the electric field for a given principal quantum number and increases rapidly with n for a given field strength

  13. Multiphoton ionization of atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Klots, C.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.; Cooper, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    We describe experimental studies of resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (MPI) of cesium atoms in the presence and absence of an external electric field. In the zero-field studies, photoelectron angular distributions for one- and two-photon resonantly enhanced MPI are compared with the theory of Tang and Lambropoulos. Deviations of experiment from theory are attributed to hyperfine coupling effects in the resonant intermediate state. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In the absence of an external electric field, signal due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of cesium via np states is undetectable. Application of an electric field mixes nearby nd and ns levels, thereby inducing excitation and subsequent ionization. Signal due to two-photon excitation of ns levels in field-free experiments is weak due to their small photoionization cross section. An electric field mixes nearby np levels which again allows detectable photoionization signal. For both ns and np states the field induced MPI signal increases as the square of the electric field for a given principal quantum number and increases rapidly with n for a given field strength. Finally, we note that the classical two-photon field-ionization threshold is lower for the case in which the laser polarization and the electric field are parallel than it is when they are perpendicular. 22 references, 11 figures

  14. Thermal properties of cesium molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Fukuda, Kousaku; Takano, Masahide; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    Cesium is one of the most important fission products to aid in the understanding and prediction of the behavior of oxide nuclear fuels because of its high mobility, chemical reactivity, and large yield. In postirradiation examinations of the Phoenix reactor fuel pins, the accumulation of cesium and molybdenum between the fuel pellet and cladding was observed, though the chemical form was not determined. In the thermodynamic analyses of chemical states of fission products, Cs 2 MoO 4 was often predicted to exist as a stable compound in oxide fuels. The Cs 2 MoO 4 compound is thermodynamically stable under the conditions of light water reactors, fast breeder reactors, and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. In the Cs-Mo-O system several phases have been found, and the structural and thermodynamic properties were studied. At room temperature, Cs 2 MoO 4 has an orthorhombic structure and a phase transition occurs at 841 K to a hexagonal structure. Both structures are expected to exist in the fuel, depending on the fuel temperature. However, no data has been available on the thermal properties of CS 2 MoO 4 . In the current work, the thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of Cs 2 MoO 4 were determined, which are the basic data needed to understand and predict the fuel/clad mechanical interaction and fuel temperature

  15. Ion exchange removal of cesium from simulated and actual supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carlson, C.D.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in conjunction with the Process Chemistry and Statistics Section of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), conducted this study as part of the Supernatant Treatment Development Task for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Applied Engineering Project. The study assesses the performance of the CS-100 ion exchange material for removing cesium from simulated and actual alkaline supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103. The objective of these experiments is to compare the cesium ion exchange loading and elution profiles of actual and simulated wastes. Specific experimental objectives include (1) demonstration of decontamination factors (DF) for cesium removal, 92) verification of simulant performance, (3) investigation of waste/exchanger chemistry, and (4) determination of the radionuclide content of the regenerated CS-100 resin prior to disposal

  16. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite trademark CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration

  17. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

  18. Measurements of cesium-137 in residents of Seascale and its environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Sumerling, T J

    1984-07-01

    Measurements of the body content of cesium-137 have been made on almost 300 members of the public residing in or near Seascale, a community in west Cumbria close to the nuclear installation at Sellafield operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc. The major objective of this study was to compare the levels found in the population with those predicted from environmental measurements. No artificially-produced radionuclides were detected in the overwhelming majority of those measured. Cesium-137 was detected in about 7% of the measured population but, in general, the levels were much lower than those expected. The highest body content found was comparable with the average predicted from environmental measurements and estimates of food consumption rates; this body content corresponds to intake of cesium-137 at a rate of somewhat less than 2% of the appropriate annual limit on intake for members of the public. From this study, it is concluded that contamination of foodstuffs with cesium-137 leads to exposure of the local population at levels that are of low radiological significance, and that estimates of intake obtained from environmental monitoring data are cautious for most of the population.

  19. Studies of soils erosion in Protected Areas of Cienfuegos, Cuba, using Cesium - 137 as radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibello Hernandez, Rita Y.; Febles Gonzalez, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    The large-scale nuclear explosions that had taken place due to the nuclear weapons tests or as a result of nuclear accidents are the main causes of the great dispersion of artificial radionuclides around the world. One of these radionuclides is Cesium-137, which is strongly fixed to the fine soils particles. This fact, together with its half-life of 30 years and its easy detection by gamma spectrometry have converted Cesium-137, in a good radiotracer of the soils movement. This technique has been widely used and validated in different landscapes throughout the world. Its effectiveness was also previously validated and proved in Cienfuegos province too. This research was aimed at using the Cesium-137 technique to study soil redistribution and quantify erosion in the called Protected Areas in Cienfuegos province, where soil loss and sediment transport are the main causes of deterioration of these ecosystems with the consequent economic and / or environmental losses. The results were represented in a map using the software gvSIG by kriging, achieving greater visibility of the soil redistribution in the plot studied. The methodology used in this study can be used in other places wherever it is necessary to know the magnitude of the erosion problems and to know the soil redistribution pattern in the landscape which can be very useful to draw the plans for reorganization of land use.(author)

  20. Use of Cesium-137 Fallout in Soil Erosion Investigations in Protected Areas in Cienfuegos Province, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibello Hernandez, Rita Y.

    2011-01-01

    The large-scale nuclear explosions that had taken place due to the nuclear weapons tests or as a result of nuclear accidents are the main causes of the great dispersion of artificial radionuclides around the world. One of these radionuclides is Cesium-137, which is strongly fixed to the fine soils particles. This fact, together with its half-life of 30 years and its easy detection by gamma spectrometry have converted Cesium-137, in a good radiotracer of the soils movement. This technique has been widely used and validated in different landscapes throughout the world. Its effectiveness was also previously validated and proved in Cienfuegos province too. This research was aimed at using the Cesium-137 technique to study soil redistribution and quantify erosion in the called Protected Areas in Cienfuegos province, where soil loss and sediment transport are the main causes of deterioration of these ecosystems with the consequent economic and / or environmental losses. The results were represented in a map using the software SURFER 8.0, achieving greater visibility of the soil redistribution in the plot studied. The methodology used in this study can be used in other places wherever it is necessary to know the magnitude of the erosion problems and to know the soil redistribution pattern in the landscape which can be very useful to draw the plans for reorganization of land use. (Author)

  1. Uptake of radionuclides caesium and cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, P.; Foldesova, M.

    1995-01-01

    By means of chemical treatment ammonium, potassium, sodium and H-form of zeolite were prepared. The chemical modifications of zeolite were carried out with: 2M solution of NaNO 3 , NH 4 NO 3 , KNO 3 ; 0,1M solution of HCl; NaOH solution of different concentration. The method of model radioactive solution was used to find the sorption ability for cesium and cobalt every modified zeolite. The model solution were 0.05M solution of cobalt labelled by 60 Co or cesium labelled by 137 Cs. The highest sorption ability was observed for zeolite modified by NaOH. The influence of pH on uptake of cesium and cobalt by modified zeolite was searched as well. The experimental data (leaching tests, compressive strength measurement and porosity) were measured for the case the Cs and Cs from model water solution and radioactive waste water were up taken on chemically modified zeolite and were subsequently incorporated into cement casts on blast furnace cement slags basis. The leachability was tested in water, in basis solution and in acid solution. The leachability in water and basic solution was negligible, in acid solution it was less than 4% which is inside of value of applied measure method. The compressive strength, porosity and leaching experiment are hopefully and show good mechanical stability and good retention of observed radionuclides in samples exposed in leaching solutions. (J.K.)

  2. Radionuclide sorption studies on abyssal red clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, K.L.

    1979-01-01

    The radionuclide sorption properties of a widely distributed abyssal red clay are being experimentally investigated using batch equilibration techniques. This paper summarizes sorption equilibrium data obtained when 0.68 N NaCl solutions containing either Tc, U, Pu, Am or Cm were contacted with samples of the red clay and also summarizes some initial results from experiments designed to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for various nuclides. Under mildly oxidizing conditions, the sorption equilibrium distribution coefficients for technetium were essentially zero. At solution-phase nuclide concentrations on the order of 10 -6 M and less and at solution pH values of about 6.9, the distribution coefficients for plutonium were about 3 x 10 3 m1/gm and for uranium, americium, and curium were about 10 5 ml/gm or greater. However, at solution pH values of about 2.7, the distribution coefficients for each of the nuclides were greatly diminished. Initial experiments conducted in order to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for cesium, barium, and cerium, indicated that the silicate phases in the clay were selective for cesium over barium and cerium. These experiments also indicated that the hydrous oxide phases were selective for cerium over barium and for barium over cesium

  3. Uptake of radionuclides caesium and cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukac, P; Foldesova, M [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    By means of chemical treatment ammonium, potassium, sodium and H-form of zeolite were prepared. The chemical modifications of zeolite were carried out with: 2M solution of NaNO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}; 0,1M solution of HCl; NaOH solution of different concentration. The method of model radioactive solution was used to find the sorption ability for cesium and cobalt every modified zeolite. The model solution were 0.05M solution of cobalt labelled by {sup 60}Co or cesium labelled by {sup 137}Cs. The highest sorption ability was observed for zeolite modified by NaOH. The influence of pH on uptake of cesium and cobalt by modified zeolite was searched as well. The experimental data (leaching tests, compressive strength measurement and porosity) were measured for the case the Cs and Cs from model water solution and radioactive waste water were up taken on chemically modified zeolite and were subsequently incorporated into cement casts on blast furnace cement slags basis. The leachability was tested in water, in basis solution and in acid solution. The leachability in water and basic solution was negligible, in acid solution it was less than 4% which is inside of value of applied measure method. The compressive strength, porosity and leaching experiment are hopefully and show good mechanical stability and good retention of observed radionuclides in samples exposed in leaching solutions. (J.K.).

  4. Application of Cesium isotopes in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordao, B.O.; Quaresma, D.S.; Carvalho, R.J.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2014-01-01

    In the world of science, the desire of the scientific community to discover new chemical elements is crucial for the development of new technologies in various fields of knowledge. And the main chemical element addressed by this article is Cesium, but specifically 133 Cesium isotope and radioisotope 137 Cesium, exemplifying their physical and chemical characteristics, and their applications. This article will also show how these isotopes have provided researchers a breakthrough in the field of radiological medicine and in time and frequency metrology. (author)

  5. Radionuclide containment in soil by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Francis, C.W.; Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Radionuclide transport from a contaminant source to groundwater and surface water is a common problem faced by most US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Containment of the radionuclide plume, including strontium-90 and uranium, is possible using phosphate treatment as a chemical stabilizer. Such a chemical process occurs in soils under natural environmental conditions. Therefore, the concept of phosphate amendment for radiostrontium and uranium immobilization is already a proven principle. In this presentation, results of bench-scale experiments and the concept of a field-scale demonstration are discussed. The phosphate treatment is possible at the source or near the advancing contaminant plume. Cleanup is still the ideal concept; however, containment through stabilization is a more practical and costeffective concept that should be examined by DOE Environmental Restoration programs

  6. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  7. Cesium transport across flat sheet supported liquid membrane containing CCD in NPOE-dodecane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandwal, P.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    137 Cs is an important fission product of concern for separation scientists working in the area of radioactive waste management. Removal of this long lived heat and gamma ray emitting radionuclides (t 1/2 = 30.2 y) from radioactive waste would drastically bring down the MANREM problem. In addition to this, the recovered cesium can find applications in irradiators for sterilization of foods, medical accessories, sewage sludge treatment, etc. Chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in nitrobenzene and xylene mixture as the diluent has been used for the extraction of radio-cesium from acidic wastes. Other studies have used phenyl trifluoromethylsulfone (FS-13) as the diluent and have been used for supported liquid membrane (SLM) based separation methods which not only have the advantage of simultaneous extraction and stripping, but also drastically cut down the VOC inventory which is welcome from environmental concern point of view

  8. Cesium Eluate Analytical Data Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is using IBC Company's SuperLigand ion exchange resins to separate Cs and Tc from low-activity waste (LAW) solutions (IBC-1996). Cesium is removed using the SuperLig(R) 644 resin. The resin is then eluted after each use cycle with 0.5M nitric acid solution. BNI is planning to evaporate the Cs eluate solution to reduce the storage volume and recover eluate for re-use. The primary issue associated with evaporation is end point, or salt matrix solubility. To preclude formation of solids during the storage of evaporator products, an additional criteria has been set that limits the concentration of the evaporator bottoms to 80 percent of saturation at 25 degrees C. As a result, an understanding of the effects of constituent species on the bulk solubility must be developed prior to effective evaporator operations

  9. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  10. Ion exchange of strontium on synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Adsorption of strontium ions on synthetic hydroxyapatite was examined using both batch and column methods. The apatite was prepared from aqueous solutions and characterized by standard analytical methods. The sample obtained had characteristics of well crystallized stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The experimental data for sorption of strontium can be very well fitted with Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. It was found that sorption occurs by an ion exchange reaction between strontium ions in solution and calcium ions in apatite. (author) 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Kinetics of strontium sorption in calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacic, S.; Komarov, V.F.; Vukovic, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Kinetics of strontium sorption by highly dispersed solids: tricalcium phosphate (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , TCP) and hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 )H, HAP) were investigated. Analysis of sorption data was made taking into consideration composition and morphology of ultra micro particles. Conclusion is that the isomorphous strontium impurity is structurally sensitive element for calcium phosphate. It was determined that the beginning of strontium desorption corresponds to the beginning of transformation of the TCP - HAP (author)

  12. Cement materials for cesium and iodine confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, G.; Lequeux, N.; Boch, P.; Prene, S.

    2001-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: radioactive waste storage, cement materials reacting with radioactive cesium and iodine, chemical barrier formation against radioactive pollution, ceramization, long term stability, XRD, PIXE analysis

  13. Cesium levels in foodstuffs fall slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    1994-01-01

    Since spring 1986, radioactive decay has reduced the total amount of radioactive cesium 137 in the Finnish environment, originating in Chernobyl, by 17 per cent. The cesium content in fish keeps falling at a diminishing rate, depending on the species of fish and environmental factors. The use of fish from lakes need not be restricted anymore. The cesium contents of game, mushrooms and wild berries have remained steady for some years now. The same is true for agricultural produce. The contents in milk and meat still keep falling slowly. Most of the cesium ingested by finns comes from fish, then from game, reindeer and gathered foods; the lowest amounts are received from agricultural products. (orig.)

  14. Method of processing radioactive cesium liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Hiroaki; Asaoka, Sachio; Kondo, Tadami; Suzuki, Isao.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To convert and settle cesium, mainly, Cs-137 in liquid wastes in the form of pollucites, that is, cesium-containing ores. Constitution: Water, silica, alumina and alkali metal source are mixed with radioactive liquid wastes containing cesium as the main metal element ingredient, to which an onium compound is further added and they are brought into reaction till pollucite ores (Cs 16 (Al 16 Si 32 O 96 )) are formed. Since most portion of cesium is thus settled in the form of pollucites, storage safety can be attained. Further, the addition of the onium compound can moderate the condition and shorten the time till the pollucite ores are formed. The onium compound usable herein includes tetramethyl ammonium. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Strontium sorption on Savannah River Plant soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffner, S.L.

    1984-12-01

    A laboratory study of strontium-85 sorption was conducted using Savannah River Plant soil and groundwater from the low-level waste burial ground. Systematic variation of soil and water composition indicates that strontium sorption is most strongly a function of pH. Changes in clay content and in K + , Ca 2+ , or Mg 2+ concentrations influence strontium sorption indirectly through the slight pH changes which result. The ions Na + , Cl - , and NO 3 - have no effect. Ferrous ion, added to groundwater to simulate the conditions of water at the bottom of waste trenches, did not account for low strontium sorption observed with some trench waters

  16. Optimization of a Strontium Aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bone, Alexandria N. [Maryville College, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Strontium aluminate with Eu2+ and Dy3+ has been at the forefront of emerging applications for storage phosphors since its discovery in 1996. In this study, the emission intensity and luminescence lifetime of SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ were enhanced by partial substitution of Ca2+ into Sr2+ sites in the matrix.

  17. Extraction of cesium from acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katykhin, G.S.; Simonov, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The extraction of cesium from acidic solutions is studied. Halogen-substituted carboxylic acids were chosen for the aqueous phase and nitrobenzene the diluent. The distribution coefficients are determined by the use of radioactive tracers 134 Cs and 137 Cs. It is believed that large singly charged anions of strong acids are necessary for the extraction of cesium. Metal halide acids are selected for supplying the anions

  18. Cesium ion bombardment of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompa, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The steady state cesium coverage due to cesium ion bombardment of molybdenum and tungsten was studied for the incident energy range below 500 eV. When a sample is exposed to a positive ion beam, the work function decreases until steady state is reached with a total dose of less than ≅10 16 ions/cm 2 , for both tungsten and molybdenum. A steady state minimum work function surface is produced at an incident energy of ≅100 eV for molybdenum and at an incident energy of ≅45 eV for tungsten. Increasing the incident energy results in an increase in the work function corresponding to a decrease in the surface coverage of cesium. At incident energies less than that giving the minimum work function, the work function approaches that of cesium metal. At a given bombarding energy the cesium coverage of tungsten is uniformly less than that of molybdenum. Effects of hydrogen gas coadsorption were also examined. Hydrogen coadsorption does not have a large effect on the steady state work functions. The largest shifts in the work function due to the coadsorption of hydrogen occur on the samples when there is no cesium present. A theory describing the steady-state coverage was developed is used to make predictions for other materials. A simple sticking and sputtering relationship, not including implantation, cannot account for the steady state coverage. At low concentrations, cesium coverage of a target is proportional to the ratio of (1 - β)/γ where β is the reflection coefficient and γ is the sputter yield. High coverages are produced on molybdenum due to implantation and low backscattering, because molybdenum is lighter than cesium. For tungsten the high backscattering and low implantation result in low coverages

  19. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identified in the finished water. (iii) Annual monitoring for strontium-90 and tritium shall be conducted by... requirements for radionuclides in community water systems. 141.26 Section 141.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER...

  20. Radionuclides distribution in internal organs of wild animals in alienation zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatova, T.A.; Kudryashov, V.P.; Mironov, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Activities of caesium 137, strontium 90, plutonium isotopes and americium 241 are experimentally defined in the internal organs of bearer and wolf alienation zone of Chernobyl NPP. Radionuclides distribution in the internal organs of wild animals is defined by destruction of nuclear fuel particles