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Sample records for radionuclide ventriculographic study

  1. Exercise radionuclide ventriculographic study of mitral stenosis before and after percutaneous mirtal valvuloplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do Yun; Shim, Won Heum; Cho, Seung Yun; Kim, Sung Soon; Lee, Woong Ku; Kim, Myeong Jin; Choe, Kyu Ok [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Jung [Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    We performed radionuclide ventriculography before and within 1 week after percutaneous mirtal valvuloplasty (PMV) to evaluate left ventricular (LV) function in 20 patients (2 meals and 17 females, mean age of 38 {+-} 10 years) who were pure mitral stenosis before PMV and less than grade 1 mirtal regurgitation developed after PMV. 9 out of 20 patients had atrial fibrillation and 3 patients developed a small left-to-right shunt (Qp/Qs < 1.5) after PMV. PMV using double-balloon technique resulted in a increase in mitral valve area (0.9 {+-} 0.3 to 2.1 {+-} 0.8cm{sup 2}, {rho} < 0.001) and in rest cardiac output (4.2 {+-} 1.0 to 4.8 {+-} 1.4 L/min, {rho} < 0.005). And also a decrease in mean mitral gradient (16.2 {+-} 7.0 to 5.2 {+-} 3.0 mmHg, {rho} < 0.001) was noted. Comparisons of LV function by supine bicycle exercise radionuclide ventriculography before and after PMV showed no significant changes in rest LV ejection fraction (LVEF, 55.2 {+-} 9.7 to 56.1 {+-} 11.0%, {rho} > 0.05), maximal exercise LVEF (60.9 {+-} 10.3 to 59.3 {+-} 11.1%, {rho} > 0.05), peak ejection rate (2.02 {+-} 0.58 to 2.15 {+-} 0.60 EDV/ses, {rho} > 0.05), and peak filling rate (1.04 {+-} 0.55 to 1.52 {+-} 0.49 EDV/ses, {rho} > 0.05). However, LV end diastolic volume (LVEDV, -29.3 {+-} 19.0 to +3.3 {+-} 32.9%, {rho} < 0.001), stroke volume (SV,-22.0 {+-} 22.0 to +11.2 {+-} 40.0%, {rho} < 0.001), and cardiac output (CO, 64.6 {+-} 54.0 to 100.4 {+-} 69.7%, {rho} < 0.05) with exercise compared to resting values were significantly increased. We conclude that PMV resulted in a significant increase in LVEDV, SV, and CO with exercise, but decreased LV systolic performance and no improvement in diastolic filling.

  2. Exercise radionuclide ventriculographic responses in hypertensive patients with chest pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, A.G.; Katz, R.J.; Varghese, P.J.; Leiboff, R.H.; Bren, G.G.; Schlesselman, S.; Varma, V.M.; Reba, R.C.; Ross, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effectiveness of exercise-treadmill testing in diagnosing coronary-artery disease in hypertensive patients is limited by a high rate of false positivity. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography, however, relies on different criteria (ejection fraction and wall motion), and we have evaluated this procedure in 37 hypertensive and 109 normotensive patients with chest pain, using coronary arteriography as an indicator of coronary disease. In the hypertensive cohort there was no difference in the ejection fraction at rest between the 17 patients with coronary disease and the 20 without it. Neither group had a significant mean (+/- S.E.M.) change in ejection fraction from rest to exercise (-1.9 +/- 2 and 1.4 +/- 1%, respectively). A wall-motion abnormality developed during exercise in 5 of the 17 hypertensive patients with coronary disease (29%) and in 4 of the 20 without it (20%) (P = not significant). In the normotensive cohort, however, the peak-exercise ejection fractions were significantly different. The 71 patients with coronary disease had a mean decrease of 3.6 +/- 1%, in contrast to the patients without coronary disease, who had an increase of +/- 1% (P < 0.001). An exercise-induced wall-motion abnormality was seen in 35 of the 71 patients with coronary disease (48%), as compared with 3 of the 38 without it (8%) (P < 0.001). We conclude that exercise radionuclide ventriculography is inadequate as a screening test for coronary atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients with chest pain. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  3. Radionuclide ventriculographic evaluation of exercised left ventricular performance in asymptomatic diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yusuke; Hara, Fumio

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclide ventriculography was made in 49 asymptomatic diabetic patients, aged 30∼70 years, to investigate cardiac function. Comparisons were made with 33 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls. Radionuclide ventriculography was performed at rest and during dynamic exercise by multigraded, supine bicycle ergometer. The resting left ventricular ejection fractions were similar between the diabetic patients and control subjects. No significant rise in the left ventricular ejection fractions during dynamic exercise was observed in the diabetic patients [58.4±9.8% (mean±SD) to 60.3±9.9]. In the control subjects, the left ventricular ejection fractions increased during dynamic exercise [59.3±8.4 to 63.0±11.4 (p -1 ) vs -2.66±0.52] and during dynamic exercise [-3.25±0.74 vs -3.23±0.90]. Time to end-systole were similar in both groups at rest [315±42 (ms) vs 309±42] and during dynamic exercise [258±37 vs 262±37]. The resting peak filling rates were similar in both groups [2.27±0.62 (s -1 ) vs 2.45±0.58], and the peak filling rates increased (p 1c in the diabetic patients. These results suggest that diabetic patients have less cardiac reserved performance. (author)

  4. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  5. Gut-related radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project is concerned with the behavior of radioactive materials that may be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain. Current emphasis is directed toward evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. Recent observations indicate that the influence of chemical form on plutonium absorption observed at high mass levels does not occur at low mass concentrations. For example, at doses of 0.6 μg/kg there was no difference between absorption of the carbonate, citrate or nitrate forms of plutonium. However, at 1.5 mg/kg, the citrate was absorbed in quantities 30 times higher than the nitrate. The opposite effect occurred for neptunium GI absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that materials such as citrus fruit juices and calcium, as well as drugs that affect GI function (such as aspirin and DTPA), markedly influence GI absorption of plutonium. Such studies provide evidence that diet and nutritional state should be considered in establishing safe limits for radionuclides that may be ingested

  6. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author) [pt

  7. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily 210 Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report

  8. Laboratory studies of radionuclide migration in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    The movement of selected radionuclides has been observed in crushed tuff, intact tuff, and fractured tuff columns. Retardation factors and dispersivities were determined from the elution profiles. Retardation factors have been compared with those predicted on the basis of batch sorption studies. This comparison forms a basis for either validating distribution coefficients or providing evidence of speciation, including colloid formation. Dispersivities measured as a function of velocity provide a means of determining the effect of sorption kinetics or mass transfer on radionuclide migration. Dispersion is also being studied in the context of scaling symmetry to develop a basis for extrapolating from the laboratory scale to the field. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Radionuclide methods application in cardiac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotina, E.D.; Ploskikh, V.A.; Babin, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide methods are one of the most modern methods of functional diagnostics of diseases of the cardio-vascular system that requires the use of mathematical methods of processing and analysis of data obtained during the investigation. Study is carried out by means of one-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Mathematical methods and software for SPECT data processing are developed. This software allows defining physiologically meaningful indicators for cardiac studies

  10. Radionuclide blood cell survival studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.A.; Miller, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Platelet and red cell survival studies are reviewed. The use of 51 Cr and di-isopropylfluoridate labelled with tritium or 32 P is discussed for red cell survival study and 51 Cr and 111 In-oxine are considered as platelet labels. (UK)

  11. The glass block site radionuclide migration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killey, R.W.D.; Champ, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    In 1960 25 nepheline syenite glass blocks containing 14 TBq of mixed fission products in 50 kg of glass were placed below the water table in a shallow sand aquifer at Chalk River Laboratories. Experimental studies undertaken at the site since 1960 have included detailed mapping of the plume of 90 Sr in 1963, 1966 and 1971. Mathematical modeling studies have employed the radiostrontium plume data in determining the split between ion exchange and chemisorption of 90 Sr, and in obtaining reaction rate data for chemisorption. The distribution of 137 Cs on downgradient soils was mapped in 1963 and 1979. An extended plume of low-level 137 Cs contamination observed in the 1979 study prompted an investigation of the role of particulate materials in radionuclide transport. IN 1983, large volume groundwater sampling and separation of cationic, anionic, and neutral dissolved species, as well as particulates, detected anionic and cationic dissolved europium isotopes (154 and 155), and again encountered particulate 137 Cs. A variety of investigations of cesium and strontium sorption have provided a data base on sediment mineralogy, particle surface features, and information on sorption sites and processes. The year 1990 saw the inauguration of a three-year program to update investigations of radionuclide release, transport, and sorption at the glass block site. The first stage of the program has been a detailed definition and simulation of the hydrogeologic setting. Plume mapping and aqueous speciation studies are in progress. This paper summarizes past investigations, reviews the status of the current program, and discusses components of future studies, including investigations of sediment sorption mechanisms. (Author) (17 refs., 8 figs.)

  12. Radionuclide renal dynamic and function study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Liang

    1991-01-01

    The radionuclide dynamic and function study, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were reported in 14 cases of renal and ureteral calculi patients before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). In 12 cases with normal renal blood flow, within 3 months after ESWL, the GFR of shock and non-shock side decreased with different extent, while the individual ERPF had little change. In 5 cases followed up 1 year after ESWL, the individual GFR and ERPF were normal. In 2 cases of severe renal function insufficiency, there was no improvement in renal function in shock side, after 5 months and 1 year, the renal function was still at low level. Thereby it is considered that ESWL is not suitable for the renal calculi patients with severe renal function insufficiency

  13. Generalized skeletal pathology: Results of radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueger, G.F.; Aigner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Generalized pathological changes may involve the skeleton systematically (bone tissue, bone marrow) or at multiple sites involving destruction or infiltration. Appropriate radionuclide studies include total-body bone or bone marrow scintigraphy, absorptiometry (osteodensitometry) and the 24 h whole-body retention measurement. Established radioindicators are 99m-Tc-(hydroxy)methylendiphosphonate (HMDP or MDP) and 99m-Tc-human serumalbumin-nanocolloid. Absorptiometry of the forearm, extended by computer-assisted transaxial tomography, may be expected to prove as the most efficient method of bone density measurement. The 24 h whole-body retention measurement is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of metabolic and endocrine osteopathies, if the very same osteotropic 99m-Tc-chelate is used. Whole-body bone scintigraphy today is one of the most important radionuclide studies for diagnosis and follow-up of skeletal metastases. Scintigraphy provides evidence of skeletal metastases several months earlier than radiological examinations. In about 40 percent of patients with cancer of the prostate, scintigraphy provided positive findings of skeletal metastases in the absence of both pain and increased levels of phosphatase. In patients with a history of malignancy, 60 percent of solitary findings on skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy ranges from 2 to 4%. Compared to skeletal scintigraphy, bone marrow scintigraphy frequently yields significant additional findings in cases of plasmocytoma, histiocytoma, lymphoma and haemoblastoses. (orig.) [de

  14. Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

  15. Preliminary study on the establishment of the radionuclide declaration methods for radionuclides in LILW radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. H.; Lee, K. J.; Jung, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The preliminary study on declaration methods has been done for each radionuclide in LILW radwaste drum in Korean NPPs. View from the preliminary establishment of radio nuclide declaration methods, The selection of assessment target nuclide through the qualitative method and preliminary criteria for routine declaration methods in each radio nuclide was derived. First of all, selection criteria and preliminary assessment method for each target radionuclide was surveyed and investigated. And, the selection criteria and selected the target radio nuclides from the basis on criteria was derived. And the preliminary suggestion about the declaration methods for each target radio nuclide was established

  16. National Survey of Radionuclide Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A House

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was mailed to all institutions in Canada licensed to use radiopharmaceuticals. Questions addressed meal type; mode of preparation; and means, ranges and SD of emptying times. Seventy-eight per cent of 222 facilities responded, including all 55 teaching centres. Eighty-five per cent of teaching and 56% of nonteaching centres perform solid phase gastric emptying studies (GES. The majority use 99mTc sulphur colloid (Tc-SC added to eggs before cooking as the standard meal. Twenty-five per cent of teaching and 21% of nonteaching centres perform liquid phase GES. Most use a watery solution of 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Gastric emptying for solid phase GES, expressed as time for 50% emptying (mean t½, varied from 42 to 105 mins for centres using the Tc-SC egg meal. Twenty-eight per cent of teaching centres used ±2 SD to define their normal range, 26% used ±1 SD, 6% used ±1.5 SD, and 40% did not know the number of SD used. Twenty per cent of non-teaching centres used ±2 SD, 12% used ±1 SD and 68% did not know how many SD were used. For liquid phase GES, mean t½ varied from 20 to 60 mins. Eighteen per cent of centres used healthy volunteers to establish or validate normal ranges. There is substantial variability among the normal ranges for radionuclide solid and liquid phase GES in both teaching and nonteaching centres across Canada. A minority of facilities have established or validated their own normal ranges in healthy volunteers. There is a need for a more standardized protocol and range of normal, with internal validation by each institution.

  17. Study of test methods for radionuclide migration in aerated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shushen; Guo Zede; Wang Zhiming

    1993-01-01

    Aerated zone is an important natural barrier against transport of radionuclides released from disposal facilities of LLRW. This paper introduces study methods for radionuclide migration in aerated zone, including determination of water movement, laboratory simulation test, and field tracing test. For one purpose, results obtained with different methods are compared. These methods have been used in a five-year cooperative research project between CIRP and JAERI for an establishment of methodology for safety assessment on shallow land disposal of LLRW

  18. Limitations of radionuclide flow studies in bilateral carotid thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messert, B.; Tyson, I.B.; Barron, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide angiography as a noninvasive procedure has become an important tool in the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. Determinations of arm-to-brain circulation times complemented by the transit times of the radionuclide bolus through the brain afford insight into the functional status of the vascular system of the brain. Delays in perfusion, asymmetries in appearance, and washout of the radionuclide material can be correlated with disease entities. However, as with many procedures elevated to the status of a screening test, the possibility of false-positive and false-negative results exists. Two cases of bilateral carotid occlusion are presented, showing normal or only delayed, fairly symmetrical brain perfusion. The appearance of the radionuclide flow in the neck in AP and lateral views gave no suggestion of the involved deficits. Even multiple-projection imaging might fail to demonstrate major vascular obstructions. However, attentive study of these projections might yield interesting evidence of unexpected collateral flow systems. (U.S.)

  19. Gut-related studies of radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of radioactive materials that may be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain is investigated. Current emphasis is on evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. The authors are also concerned with the behavior of actinides that are inhaled and pass through the gastro-intestinal tract after clearance from the lungs. The radionuclides being investigated are 238 Pu, 241 Am, 244 Cm, 147 Pm, 109 Cd, and 210 Pb. 2 tables

  20. Radionuclide studies in paediatric nephro-urology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy E-mail: amypiepsz@yahoo.com

    2002-08-01

    The main tool of radionuclide techniques applied to paediatric uro-nephrology is the quantitation of function, which is an information not easily obtained by other diagnostic modalities. The radiation burden is low. Drug sedation is only rarely needed, whatever the age of the patient. Accurate determination of glomerular filtration rate can be obtained by means of an intravenous injection of Cr-51 EDTA and one or two blood samples. Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy is an accurate method for evaluation of regional cortical impairment during acute pyelonephritis and later on, for detection of permanent scarring. Tc-99m MAG3 renography is nowadays a well-standardized method for accurate estimation of the split renal function and of renal drainage with or without furosemide challenge. This technique is particularly indicated in uni- or bilateral uropathies with or without renal and/or ureteral dilatation. Direct and indirect radionuclide cystography are two alternative modalities for X-ray MCUG. Their relative place in the strategy of management of vesicoureteral reflux is discussed.

  1. Present status and problems of radionuclide studies in emergency cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kiyoshi

    1983-01-01

    Scintigraphy is just right for diagnosing emergency cases due to its noninvasive and simple method, but emergency radionuclide studies have not become practical as a result of difficulty problems. Recently, nuclear medical devices have become easier to use in operations. It is become of this, that I have submitted this report regarding the problems of radionuclide studies in emergency cases. There were 101 cases (1.4 %) out of 7,310 cases for the year period Sept. 1981 - Aug. 1982. The studies consisted of 12 brain imaging cases, 9 plumonary imaging cases, 22 cardiac study cases (cardio-angiography cases 8, 99m-Tc-PYP myocardium imaging cases 12, 201-Tl myocardium imaging cases 2), 12 renal study cases, 11 G.I. blood loss cases, 35 peripheral angiography cases. In the near future, we will have to be ready to perform emergency radionuclide studies if the need arises. (author)

  2. Principles of radionuclide studies of the genitourinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Pjura, G.A.; Lowry, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical assessment of renal diseases with radionuclide procedures is discussed. It has achieved general recognition only during the last decade. The proper assessment of renal function with radionuclides provides useful information for the management of patients with renal disease and renal transplant recipients. Renal imaging with radionuclides gives some information on morphology and the integrity of the urinary collecting system, but more importantly it provides functional information that may include renal blood flow or effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the quantitation of differential renal function, the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux, the quantitation of postvoiding residual urine volume, and the differential diagnosis of testicular disease. Acute renal failure resulting from acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephirits, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized by radionuclide studies. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy also may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may reveal such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis, or infiltrative renal disease. Finally, nuclear study in transplant recipients is useful to help differentiate rejection from acute tubular necrosis and other causes of reduced renal function

  3. Radionuclide solubilities at elevated temperatures. A literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, T.; Vuorinen, U.

    1997-07-01

    This literature study contains experimental data and modelling data collected in order to illustrate how temperature affects radionuclide solubilities under conditions similar to those expected in the vicinity of a planned repository for spent nuclear fuel. The elements considered were Ni, Se, Zr, Tc, Pd, Sn, Ra, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu and Am. The temperatures of main interest are restricted to the interval between room temperature and 100 deg C. The study showed that the literature on radionuclide solubility at temperatures above room temperature is scarce. Therefore, also work that refers to conditions slightly varying from the expected repository conditions has been considered. A minor modelling exercise was done in this study in order to show the effect of temperature on the solubilities of Ni, Np and U under various conditions. The results from the literature survey and our modelling demonstrate the complexity of groundwater systems and the difficulty in finding simple and general relationships between temperature and radionuclide solubilities. Often an increase in temperature (below 100 deg C) leads to a reduction of the radionuclide solubility or leaves it roughly unchanged. However, examples are also found where the rise in temperature increases the radionuclide solubility by several orders of magnitude. (orig.)

  4. Radionuclide solubilities at elevated temperatures. A literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, T.; Vuorinen, U. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-07-01

    This literature study contains experimental data and modelling data collected in order to illustrate how temperature affects radionuclide solubilities under conditions similar to those expected in the vicinity of a planned repository for spent nuclear fuel. The elements considered were Ni, Se, Zr, Tc, Pd, Sn, Ra, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu and Am. The temperatures of main interest are restricted to the interval between room temperature and 100 deg C. The study showed that the literature on radionuclide solubility at temperatures above room temperature is scarce. Therefore, also work that refers to conditions slightly varying from the expected repository conditions has been considered. A minor modelling exercise was done in this study in order to show the effect of temperature on the solubilities of Ni, Np and U under various conditions. The results from the literature survey and our modelling demonstrate the complexity of groundwater systems and the difficulty in finding simple and general relationships between temperature and radionuclide solubilities. Often an increase in temperature (below 100 deg C) leads to a reduction of the radionuclide solubility or leaves it roughly unchanged. However, examples are also found where the rise in temperature increases the radionuclide solubility by several orders of magnitude. (orig.). 54 refs.

  5. Tricuspid insufficiency detected by equilibrium gated radionuclide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, B.; Pavel, D.G.; Lam, W.; Byrom, E.; Swiryn, S.; Pietras, R.; Rosen, K.M.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a gated radionuclide cardiac study are reported in a patient with biventricular failure and tricuspid insufficiency demonstrated by clinical evaluation, M-mode and 2-D sector echocardiography, and cardia catheterization. The processed gated radionuclide cardiac study showed a left ventricular/right ventricular stroke volume ratio of 0.5; expansion of the hepatic blood pool demonstrated by hepatic time activity curve and calculation of an '''expansion fraction''; and synchronous changes of count rate of the atrial and hepatic regions detected by phase analysis

  6. Nopal I uranium deposit: A study of radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, V.; Anthony, E.; Goodell, P.

    1996-01-01

    This summary reports on activities of naturally-occurring radionuclides for the Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Pena Blanca Uranium District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Activities were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. In addition, data reduction procedures and sample preparation (for Rn retention) will be discussed here. Nopal I uranium deposit has been identified as one of the most promising sites for analogue studies to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of this research is to study the potential for radionuclide migration by testing whether any portion of the deposit is in secular equilibrium

  7. Nopal I uranium deposit: A study of radionuclide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, V.; Anthony, E.; Goodell, P. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This summary reports on activities of naturally-occurring radionuclides for the Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Pena Blanca Uranium District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Activities were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. In addition, data reduction procedures and sample preparation (for Rn retention) will be discussed here. Nopal I uranium deposit has been identified as one of the most promising sites for analogue studies to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of this research is to study the potential for radionuclide migration by testing whether any portion of the deposit is in secular equilibrium.

  8. Field studies of radionuclide transport at the Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors summarize the results of: in situ field column experiments to study the transport behaviour of several long-lived radionuclides, 4 natural gradient non-reactive radiotracer injection experiments at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) Twin Lake Tracer Test Site, and a model validation study that used data for 90 Sr from two well-defined contaminated groundwater flow systems at CRL. The paper also describes a current re-evaluation of radionuclide release and transport from a 1960 experimental burial (in a CRL sand aquifer) of glass blocks containing fission and activation products. (J.P.N.)

  9. Radionuclide sorption studies on abyssal red clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, K.L.

    1979-01-01

    The radionuclide sorption properties of a widely distributed abyssal red clay are being experimentally investigated using batch equilibration techniques. This paper summarizes sorption equilibrium data obtained when 0.68 N NaCl solutions containing either Tc, U, Pu, Am or Cm were contacted with samples of the red clay and also summarizes some initial results from experiments designed to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for various nuclides. Under mildly oxidizing conditions, the sorption equilibrium distribution coefficients for technetium were essentially zero. At solution-phase nuclide concentrations on the order of 10 -6 M and less and at solution pH values of about 6.9, the distribution coefficients for plutonium were about 3 x 10 3 m1/gm and for uranium, americium, and curium were about 10 5 ml/gm or greater. However, at solution pH values of about 2.7, the distribution coefficients for each of the nuclides were greatly diminished. Initial experiments conducted in order to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for cesium, barium, and cerium, indicated that the silicate phases in the clay were selective for cesium over barium and cerium. These experiments also indicated that the hydrous oxide phases were selective for cerium over barium and for barium over cesium

  10. The use of radionuclide skeleton visualization method in hygienic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likutova, I.V.; Bobkova, T.E.; Belova, E.A.; Bogomazov, M.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    Inhalation, intragastric and combined effect of two cadmium compounds on rats is studied. Investigations are performed by biochemical methods and the method of radionuclide visualization of the skeleton which was performed delta hours after RPP introduction in gamma-chamber with computer tape recording for the following mathematical treatment of the image. Using the method of radionuclide skeleton visualization pronounced quantitative characteristics of changes in the bone tissue are obtained, it is found that dose dependence of these changes is especially important when estimating the complex effect. Biochemical methods, are used to find alterations, however they have not been assessed quantitatively

  11. Toxicity studies of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides - Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F F; Boeker, B B; Gillett, N A; Griffith, W C; Lundgren, D L; McClellan, R O; Muggenburg, B A; Snipes, M B

    1988-12-01

    The effects of beta-emitting radionuclides inhaled in either a relatively soluble form ({sup 90}SrCl{sub 2}, {sup 144}CeCl{sub 3}, {sup 91}yl{sub 3}, or {sup 137}CsCl) or in a relatively insoluble form ({sup 90}Y, {sup 91}Y, {sup 144}Ce or {sup 90}Sr in fused aluminosilicate particles [FAP]) have been studied in laboratory animals. The results showed that the total beta dose and the dose-rate pattern can modify both the neoplastic and non-neoplastic effects of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides. In addition, the solubility and chemical characteristics of the radionuclides influence which organs are affected. Effects are seen primarily in organs where the radionuclide is ultimately accumulated, e.g., lung, bone, liver, or tracheobronchial lymph nodes. In addition, effects may be seen in organs where there is little accumulation, but where the radiation dose may still be high, e.g., nasal epithelium and heart. Studies of inhaled {sup 144}Ce-FAP in four different species showed that, compared to mice and dogs, lung tumor risk factors are very low for Syrian hamsters and high for rats. Studies of mice, Syrian hamsters, rats, and dogs repeatedly exposed to aerosols of {sup 144}Ce-FAP showed that lung tumor incidence correlates better with cumulative dose to the lung than with dose rate. Most of the studies in this program are nearing completion and full analyses are in progress. (author)

  12. About methodology to study plant uptake of radionuclides from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Ptitskaya, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents methodology for studying particular features of radionuclides uptake by plants from contaminated soil as applied to the use of the former Semipalatinsk tet site territory, which are dependent upon physical-chemical and physical-mechanical properties of soil and biological peculiarities of meadow-pasture vegetation. (author)

  13. Nuclear reactions and radionuclides in the study of fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, H.; Sueki, K.; Sato, W.; Akiyama, K.

    2000-01-01

    Radiochemical techniques have been applied in various ways to the study of fullerenes and metallofullerenes for the past several years, and they have provided invaluable information pertaining to the stability, structures, and formation of the novel carbon material. This paper reviews those experimental results that have fully shown the usefullness and uniqueness of radionuclides demonstrated in the field of fullerene science. (author)

  14. Experimental and modelling studies of radionuclide migration from contaminated groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, J. A.; Butler, A. P.; Wheater, H. S.; Shaw, G.; Wadey, P.; Bell, J. N. B.

    1994-01-01

    Lysimeter-based studies of radionuclide uptake by winter wheat are being undertaken to investigate soil-to-plant transfer processes. A five year multi-disciplinary research project has concentrated on the upward migration of contaminants from near surface water-tables and their subsequent uptake by a winter wheat crop. A weighted transfer factor approach and a physically based modelling methodology, for the simulation and prediction of radionuclide uptake, have been developed which offer alternatives to the traditional transfer factor approach. Integrated hydrological and solute transport models are used to simulate contaminant movement and subsequent root uptake. This approach enables prediction of radionuclide transport for a wide range of soil, plant and radionuclide types. This paper presents simulated results of 22 Na plant uptake and soil activity profiles, which are verified with respect to lysimeter data. The results demonstrate that a simple modelling approach can describe the variability in radioactivity in both the harvested crop and the soil profile, without recourse to a large number of empirical parameters. The proposed modelling technique should be readily applicable to a range of scales and conditions, since it embodies an understanding of the underlying physical processes of the system. This work constitutes part of an ongoing research programme being undertaken by UK Nirex Ltd., to assess the long term safety of a deep level repository for low and intermediate level nuclear waste. (author)

  15. The role of radionuclide studies in emergency cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Hayashida, Kohei; Uehara, Toshiisa

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide studies have been performed popularly because of its noninvasive and simple method recently. In this study, we applied this technique for the evaluation of emergency cases in cardiovascular diseases. There were 93 cases (1.5%) out of 6163 cases, done during 1981. The subjects were 34 cases of cardiac studies (9 cases of sup(99m)Tc-PYP myocardial imaging, 12 cases of thallium myocardial imaging, 13 cases of cardioangiography), 23 cases of peripheral diseases (12 cases of peripheral angiography, 11 cases of venography), 16 cases of pulmonary imaging, 10 cases of renal studies (6 cases of renal angiography, 9 cases of renal imaging) and 5 cases of brain angiography. These studies were proven to be useful clinically for the evaluation of emergency cases and follow-up studies. In the near future, ''emergency radionuclide studies'' would be benefit for the high-risk patients noninvasively. (author)

  16. Studies on uptake and loss of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Suzuki, Hamaji; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Ishii, Toshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Uptake and loss of 137 Cs, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 59 fe by marine fishes were observed by the radio-isotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors and biological half-lives for these radionuclides by the fishes were estimated. Concentration factors of 137 Cs by fish muscles calculated at 200th day as 17.5 - 27.5 were lower than the values obtained by the field survey on stable or radioactive cesium suggesting slow turnover in fish muscles and contribution of food to the accumulation of the nuclide. Transfer of radionuclides associated with sediment to marine benthic organisms was examined by rearing the organisms in contaminated sediment or administering the sediment orally to the organisms. The transfer ratios of the nuclides from sediment to organisms were less than the concentration factors based on seawater by the factors ranging from around 100 to about 5,000 depending on the species of organisms or radionuclides. Accumulation of radionuclides through food chain in marine ecosystem was studied by feeding shellfishes with labelled phytoplankton and seaweeds by feeding fishes with assorted feeds labelled by radioisotopes. Absorption of 60 Co by abalones was affected by the species of the seaweeds as food and 47% of the administered dose was retained through Laminaria japonica, whereas 31% through Undaria and 26% through Eisenia. Absorption of the radionuclides by the fishes fed with labelled feeds was most significant in the case of 137 Cs and 65 Zn and transfer rate showed the maximum values at 48 hours after feeding as 100 and 24%, respectively. About 45% of the former distributed in muscle and 52% of the latter in digestive tract and blood of the fishes. (author)

  17. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Study in the Esophageal Motility Disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Gol; Lee, Min Jae; Song, Chi Wook [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Esophageal motility was evaluated from the analysis of 10 consecutive swallows using liquid bolus containing 0.5 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc tin colloid. We have reviewed our experience of esophageal transit study in the 20 normal volunteers and 55 patients with dysphagia that was not related to mechanical obstruction. The purpose of this study is to measure the esophageal transit in normal subjects and in patients with various esophageal motility disorders. The overall sensitivity and specificity of radionuclide esophageal transit study in detecting esophageal motor abnormality were compared with manometric results as a gold standard, which were 80% and 100% respectively. Radionuclide transit study is a safe, rapid, noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  18. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Study in the Esophageal Motility Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Gol; Lee, Min Jae; Song, Chi Wook

    1993-01-01

    Esophageal motility was evaluated from the analysis of 10 consecutive swallows using liquid bolus containing 0.5 mCi of 99m Tc tin colloid. We have reviewed our experience of esophageal transit study in the 20 normal volunteers and 55 patients with dysphagia that was not related to mechanical obstruction. The purpose of this study is to measure the esophageal transit in normal subjects and in patients with various esophageal motility disorders. The overall sensitivity and specificity of radionuclide esophageal transit study in detecting esophageal motor abnormality were compared with manometric results as a gold standard, which were 80% and 100% respectively. Radionuclide transit study is a safe, rapid, noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  19. Multigated radionuclide study of the total artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datz, F L; Christian, P E; Taylor, A Jr; Hastings, W L; De Vries, W C

    1987-07-01

    A permanent total artificial heart, the Jarvik-7, was implanted into a 61-year-old male with a severe cardiomyopathy. Gated radionuclide studies were performed in the patient both prior to surgery and following implantation. Preoperative gated radionuclide cardiac studies revealed marked left ventricular enlargement, severe hypokinesis and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 10%. The right ventricle was moderately enlarged with a 27% ejection fraction. Following implantation of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart, gated cardiac studies were performed with a computer gated by a signal from the heart controller. The left ventricular ejection fraction was 69% and the right ventricular ejection fraction was 62%. This compared to a theoretical ejection fraction of 74% for each ventricle based on chamber anatomy. There was excellent ventricular emptying. Phase analysis showed uniform diaphragm motion. The use of gated cardiac studies in humans may prove helpful in evaluating mechanical problems with the artificial heart, such as manlfunction of the diaphragm, before they become clinically apparent.

  20. Radionuclide study of the liver macrophage system in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.M.; Savich, O.A.; Markov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The functional state of the liver macrophage system (MS) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and to analyze the functional disturbances depending of the type of DM, presence of complications, duration of the disease and the age of the patients was studied. The obtained data suggest the necessity of radionuclide study of the liver MS with the purpose to reveal pre-clinical disturbances and administer timely treatment

  1. Radionuclide study of the joints in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonnikov, A.I.; Drozdovskij, B.Ya.; Ivanov, Yu.N.; Romagin, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic opportunities of scintigraphy with sup(113m)In- eluate in 49 rheumatoid arthritis patients with prevalent knee joint affections at the exudative-proliferative period of the disease have been studied. Selective accumulation of radionuclide in the inflammatory tissue forms the basis of the method. It is shown that the scintigraphic study (scintiscanning) with sup(113m)In allows to differentiate between the exudative ad exudative-proliferative stages of rheumatoid arthritis and to assess the results of medicamentary treatment

  2. Technical considerations in radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, P.E.; Datz, F.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1987-12-01

    This is the final article in a four-part Continuing Education series on quantitative imaging techniques. After studying this article, the reader should be able to: 1) identify proper use of radiopharmaceuticals and meal composition for gastric emptying studies; 2) discuss appropriate imaging techniques; and 3) discuss methods of data analysis.

  3. The physiological basis and application of renal radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A knowledge of the basic physiology of the kidney is essential for an understanding of the application of radionuclide studies in clinical practice. A knowledge of the physiology of the kidney allows one to develop physiological models that are isomorphic and then apply the appropriate type of data analysis in relationship to these models. In this way mistakes in the type of analysis can be avoided and a strong basis for the interpretation of renal radionuclide studies in health and disease is thereby provided. Methods for measuring total renal function, the contribution of each kidney to total renal function, the presence or absence of obstructive nephropathy and the determination of the relative flows to the cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons are given as examples of this approach. (author)

  4. Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failor, R.; Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Vandergraaf, T.

    1982-06-01

    This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, 85 Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas 137 Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less 137 Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 μm and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10 -3 m/s were calculated from the core measurements

  5. Water, soil, crops and radionuclides. Studies on the behavior of radionuclides in the terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    In order to predict the migration of artificially-produced radionuclides into a human body and its radiation dose rates of human body and to decrease the exposed radiation doses of human body, the behavior of radionuclides in the environment must be elucidated. In National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the environmental radioecological research group of Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology has progressed the survey and research on the behavior of artificially-produced radionuclides in the terrestrial environment. This article describes the research results (the radioactivity of water, soil, and crops) made so far at Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology. (M.H.)

  6. Leaching studies of radionuclides from solidified wastes with thermosetting resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Kuribayashi, H.; Morimitsu, W.; Ono, I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports on studies of the leachability of Co-60 and Cs-137 from simulated LWR radwastes solidified with thermosetting resin and evaluates the effects of chemical fixation on leachability. It is concluded that insolubilization by a nickel-ferrocyanide compound offers an effective chemical fixation of these radionuclides and is a recommended pretreating method for radwastes that are to be solidified. 2 figures

  7. Radiation dose to the patient in radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedler, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    In medical radionuclide studies, the radiation risk has to be considered in addition to the general risk of administering a pharmaceutical. As radiation exposure is an essential factor in radiation risk estimation, some aspects of internal dose calculation, including radiation risk assessments, are treated. The formalism of current internal dose calculation is presented. The input data, especially the residence time and the absorbed dose per transformation, their origin and accuracy are discussed. Results of internal dose calculations for the ten most frequently used radionuclide studies are presented as somatically effective dose equivalents. The accuracy of internal dose calculation is treated in detail by considering the biokinetics of the radiopharmaceutical, the phantoms used for dose calculations, the absorbed dose per transformation, the administered activity, and the transfer of the dose, calculated for a phantom, to the patient. The internal dose calculated for a reference phantom may be assumed to be in accordance with the actual patient dose within a range described by a factor of about two to three. Finally, risk estimates for nuclear medicine procedures are quantified, being generally of sixth order. The radiation risk from the radioiodine test is comparably higher, but probably lower than calculated according to the UNSCEAR risk coefficients. However, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results and to improve the quantification of the radiation risk from the medical use of radionuclides. (author)

  8. Radionuclide study for the interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Kenji; Mori, Yutaka; Ujita, Masuo

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of pulmonary nuclear medicine was evaluated in 105 patients with interstitial pulmonary diseases (IPD). Ventilation study (V) with 81m Kr, distribution of compliance in thoraco-pulmonary system (C) by 81m Kr gas bolus inhalation method, perfusion study (Q) with 99m Tc-MAA, 67 Ga scintigraphy and an assessment of pulmonary epithelial permeability with 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol were performed as nuclear medicine procedures. Pulmonary function test (%DLco, vital capacity and functional residual capacity) and blood gas analysis were also examined. Abnormalities in V were larger than that in Q which was high V/Q mismatch finding, in the interstitial pneumonia. Correlation between V/Q mismatch and PaO 2 was, therefore, not significant. %DLco was decreased in cases with larger V/Q mismatches. 67 Ga accumulated in the early stage of interstitial pneumonia when CT or chest X-ray did not show any finding. %DLco was decreased in cases with strong accumulation of 67 Ga. 67 Ga might be useful to evaluate activity of the diseases. Pulmonary epithelial permeability was assessed by 99m Tc-DTPA inhalation study. This permeability accelerated in idiopathic interstitial fibrosis and sarcoidosis. Pulmonary epithelial permeability may be useful as an indicator for epithelial cell injury. (author)

  9. Radionuclide study for the interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Kenji; Mori, Yutaka; Ujita, Masuo (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-07-01

    The contribution of pulmonary nuclear medicine was evaluated in 105 patients with interstitial pulmonary diseases (IPD). Ventilation study (V) with {sup 81m}Kr, distribution of compliance in thoraco-pulmonary system (C) by {sup 81m}Kr gas bolus inhalation method, perfusion study (Q) with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA, {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy and an assessment of pulmonary epithelial permeability with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA aerosol were performed as nuclear medicine procedures. Pulmonary function test (%DLco, vital capacity and functional residual capacity) and blood gas analysis were also examined. Abnormalities in V were larger than that in Q which was high V/Q mismatch finding, in the interstitial pneumonia. Correlation between V/Q mismatch and PaO{sub 2} was, therefore, not significant. %DLco was decreased in cases with larger V/Q mismatches. {sup 67}Ga accumulated in the early stage of interstitial pneumonia when CT or chest X-ray did not show any finding. %DLco was decreased in cases with strong accumulation of {sup 67}Ga. {sup 67}Ga might be useful to evaluate activity of the diseases. Pulmonary epithelial permeability was assessed by {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA inhalation study. This permeability accelerated in idiopathic interstitial fibrosis and sarcoidosis. Pulmonary epithelial permeability may be useful as an indicator for epithelial cell injury. (author).

  10. Radionuclide studies for malignant hepatic and splenic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.E.; Royal, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    For many years radionuclide studies have afforded an invaluable aid to clinicians for the detection and management of malignant tumors of the liver. Alternative methods for producing images of the liver are now available to the radiologist, and each technique has exhibited a variety of useful and limiting features. In an effort to clarify and guide choices about applications of all radiological techniques, our department recently developed a monograph describing algorithms for optimal use of all imaging modalities by referring physicians. The approach to detection of hepatic metastases illustrates in a correlative way applications of radioisotope imaging in such patients. As presented, the algorithm is neither identical to nor unlike those recommended or published elsewhere. This chapter reviews the major applications of radionuclide imaging for metastatic cancer of liver with close attention to the clinician's point of view

  11. Study of radionuclide migration in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonioli, F.; Bocola, W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports the studies on the migration of Cs, Sr and I in clay formations, which are presently considered for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The distribution and diffusion coefficients were evaluated by means of experimental techniques and computer procedures, which are presented in this report. The natural clays tested in the laboratory experiments were sampled from the most representative italian basins and from the zone of Mol (Belgium). In addition tests were performed on monomineral clays artificially remade in edometer. The experimental results are in accordance with data found in the literature and show the existence of a good correlation between the observed migration properties and the granulometric and mineralogic characteristics of the natural clays

  12. Studies on influence of biological factors on concentration of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Biological factors influencing the concentration of radionuclides were studied from the points of uptake through digestive tract, food as pathways, and metabolic activities. The uptake of radionuclides by marine fishes through digestive tract was determined by whole body counter. 137 Cs, 65 Zn, 131 I, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr, and 144 Ce were used as tracers and was given with solid feed. The feed given was excreated 24 to 48 hours later in small of middle sized fishes, and 20 to 48 hours later in large sized fishes. The uptake rate of 137 Cs and 65 Zn was high absorption of 20 to 80 per cent, that of 131 I, 60 Co and 54 Mn was not remarkable, and that of 85 Sr and 144 Ce was low absorption. The biological concentration of 137 Cs through pathways of food. In fishes taking up radionuclides through contaminated food, concentration factor increased in accordance with contamination level. In addition, radionuclides with small uptake but delayed excretion and those with high concentration rate could be the factors to decide the concentration factors of marine organisms. In order to study the relationship between metabolic activities and concentration, the uptake of one-year old fishes and adult fishes, and fishes fed and those non-fed were compared. One-year fishes took up large amount of 85 Sr during short period, however, concentration by metabolism in adult fishes was slow. Comparing feeding group and non-feeding group, the former showed 85 Sr concentration factor of 1.5 to 2 times that of the later, and the later showed 137 Cs concentration factor of 2 to 4 times that of the former. However, both uptake and excretion were rapid suggesting that taking food activated the metabolism of substances. (Kanao, N.)

  13. Gut-related studies of radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    This project is concerned with the behavior of radioactive materials that mayu be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain. Current emphasis is on evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. We are also concerned with the behavior of actinides that are inhaled and pass through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after clearance from the lungs. Recent experiments showed that adult swine absorbed more 238 Pu nitrate than had previously been indicated in studies with 239 Pu nitrate, three times more than is absorbed by rats. Absorption of 238 Pu by rats on a vitamin-D-deficient diet was about 10 times higher than absorption by rats on a balanced diet. Studies on the effect of chemical form on actinide absorption showed that the citrate forms of 238 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm were transported in higher quantities than the nitrate forms across the intestine. Citrate had no effect on the 237 Np transport, but the mass of isotope administered was found to be important. Absorption by neonates was inversely related to the mass of neptunium gavaged, in contrast to the effect of mass on neptunium absorption by adult rats. Organic binding of 238 Pu in liver tissue, in situ, resulted in decreased absorption by adult or neonatal rats. These results demonstrate that animal age, species and nutritional state are important factors in determining GI absorption of actinide compounds. Chemical form and oxidation state also influence transport. These effects vary with animal age and with the actinide in question

  14. A statistical study on scaling factors for radionuclide assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Myun

    1993-02-01

    To comply with the classification requirements listed in 10 CFR 61, operators of nuclear power plants are recommended to identify and quantify the concentration of several nuclids in low-level radioactive wastes(LLWs). Much of the specified radionuclides can not be easily measured in routine plant analyses. Many indirect methods has been suggested to determine the radionuclide concentrations upon which the waste classification is based. Such indirect methods include the use of scaling factors which infer the concentration of one radionuclide from another which can be measured easily. In this study, correlation analysis is performed to find out the important variables. Regression equations are attempted to provide a means of indirectly determining the concentration of the difficult-to-measure nuclides based on the result of the correlation analysis. Then residual analysis and the corresponding stepwise procedure are followed to check the regression model and select the best regression equation. The regression equation whose log mean dispersion is smaller than 10 is suggested as the appropriate correlation formula. Most of the quadratic regression equations are turned out to be able to use as a correlation formula. But, TRUs show log mean dispersions which are much larger than 10. It is concluded that the mechanisms of their formation and disappearance are much more complex. And it is also difficult to select the key nuclide. In the case of TRUs, further study is required to find out the relevant correlation formula

  15. Radionuclide migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The United States government routinely tests nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. A significant amount of radioactive material exists underground at the NTS with no containers or engineered barriers to inhibit its subsequent migration. The Department of Energy has sponsored for many years a research program on radionuclide movement in the geologic media at this location. Goals of this research program are to measure the extent of movement of radionuclides away from underground explosion sites and to determine the mechanisms by which such movement occurs. This program has acquired significance in another aspect of nuclear waste management because of the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain at the NTS is being intensively studied as the possible site for a mined repository for high level nuclear waste. The NTS provides a unique setting for field studies concerning radionuclide migration; there is the potential for greatly increasing our knowledge of the behavior of radioactive materials in volcanogenic media. This review summarizes some of the significant findings made under this research program at the NTS and identifies reports in which the details of the research may be found. 36 refs., 4 figs

  16. Korean experimental studies on the radionuclide transfer in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.H.; Lim, K.M.; Choi, G.S.; Choi, H.J.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, C.W.

    2003-01-01

    In Korea, data on the radionuclide transfer in crop plants have been produced almost exclusively at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), where experimental studies have been carried out for last about 20 years. These works are briefly outlined in this paper which shows results with emphasis on rice data. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of radionuclides including radiocesium and radiostrontium were measured through greenhouse experiments for various crop species. Not only conventional transfer factors but also those based on the activity applied to unit area of the soil surface were investigated. Field studies on the transfer of fallout 137 Cs were carried out for rice and Chinese cabbage. As for parameters in relation to direct plant contamination, interception factors and translocation factors were obtained through greenhouse experiments. Plants were sprayed with radioactive solutions containing 54 Mn, 57 Co, 85 Sr, 103 Ru and 134 Cs at different growth stages. Experiments on the plant exposure to airborne HTO and I 2 vapor were also carried out. The transfer parameters generally showed great variations with soils, crops, radionuclides and isotope application times. Most experiments were designed for acute releases of radioactivity but some results are applicable to steady-state conditions, too. Many of the produced data would be of use also in other countries including Japan. (author)

  17. The value of radionuclide cystography in the study of reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechi, G.; Vichi, G.F.; Franchini, F.; La Cava, G.; Moretti, A.; Taddei, I.; Bartolozzi, G.

    1980-01-01

    Reduction of the risk connected with widespread and repeated radiological examinations in children is a purpose to be pursued. Children with urinary tract infection or suspected uropathy have been submitted also to radionuclide cystography (which has the advantage of a minimal radiation dose) to obtain a comparison with micturition cysto-urethrography. The authors' experience is based on 80 examinations performed in 65 children. Results obtained by the combined use of both techniques have revealed a substantial agreement in the evaluation of reflux, but also some important limitations of radionuclide cystography: the technique does not reveal the aspects of pelvis and ureter, of the uretero-vesical junction, of the bladder wall and, lastly, does not allow the study of morphology of function of cervico-uretral structures. On the basis of these limitations, radionuclide cystography can replace the micturition cysto-urethrography only in certain phases of the diagnosis and mostly of the follow-up of reflux in children; for this purpose a diagnostic protocol is proposed [fr

  18. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses three case studies of greatly different types of discharges of anthropogenic radionuclides to the marine environment. The SNAP 9A satellite burnup dispersed almost pure 238 Pu into the atmosphere over the Mozambique channel at about 25 deg. S latitude in 1964. A much more heterogeneous mixture of liquids and solids containing a variety of radionuclides of low activity levels were packaged in steel drums and sunk to the sea floor near the Farallon Islands off San Francisco, California, USA between 1994 and 1964. An extensive series of tests of nuclear and thermonuclear devices with a total yield of many megatons was conducted by the U.S. at the remote coral atolls of the Marshall Islands at 110 deg. N and 160-165 deg. E, making them the most radioactively contaminated parts of the marine environment. The chapter briefly summarizes each of these cases, and stresses the major points learned about radionuclide cycling and about environmental processes from each of them. (author)

  19. Malrotation discovered during routine radionuclide gastric emptying study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovanlikaya, A. [Div. of Nuclear Radiology, Children`s Hospital of Los Angeles, Univ. of Southern California (United States); Miller, J.H. [Div. of Nuclear Radiology, Children`s Hospital of Los Angeles, Univ. of Southern California (United States); Williams, H.T. [Div. of Nuclear Radiology, Children`s Hospital of Los Angeles, Univ. of Southern California (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In infants with recurrent vomiting, and especially bilious vomiting, the algorithmic approaches is to perform conventional barium upper gastrointestinal radiography to rule out malrotation and midgut volvulus, which are surgical emergencies. However, children with protracted vomiting and failure to thrive are candidates for medical treatment. These children are often evaluated by radionuclide gastric emptying studies to assess gastric emptying. Three patients are presented in whom the radionclude gastric emptying study revealed the presence of a malrotation anomaly which had been undetected by antecedent barium gastrointestinal radiographic studies. (orig.)

  20. Malrotation discovered during routine radionuclide gastric emptying study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanlikaya, A.; Miller, J.H.; Williams, H.T.

    1996-01-01

    In infants with recurrent vomiting, and especially bilious vomiting, the algorithmic approaches is to perform conventional barium upper gastrointestinal radiography to rule out malrotation and midgut volvulus, which are surgical emergencies. However, children with protracted vomiting and failure to thrive are candidates for medical treatment. These children are often evaluated by radionuclide gastric emptying studies to assess gastric emptying. Three patients are presented in whom the radionclude gastric emptying study revealed the presence of a malrotation anomaly which had been undetected by antecedent barium gastrointestinal radiographic studies. (orig.)

  1. Study of monitoring protection of radionuclides contamination in organism by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Kang Baoan; He Guangren

    1987-01-01

    In view of the exceptionally important role of the medical radiation protection in human health, the authors try to study on the monitoring of internal contamination of radionuclides in organism by different autoradiographic methods, such as: monitoring of the body retention of isolated or combined radionuclides by freezing microautoradiography; monitoring of blood, bone marrow and excreta radioactive samples by smear autoradiography; differentiation of two radionuclides contamination by double radionuclide autoradiography; especially, monitoring of low level of radionuclides contamination by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography. The sensitivity of autoradiographic formation was increased by the scintillator by 10 times

  2. Role of radionuclide studies in cases of enlarged prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhvi, S.D.; Shrimali, R.; Singhal, N.C.

    1985-01-01

    The present study of radionuclide 131 I hyppuran in 30 positive cases of enlarged prostate and 10 normal subjects has been found effective in giving information about functional status of the kidneys and presence of obstructive unropathy by renography, enlargement of the prostate causing bladder base contour deformity in bladder scan and the presence of residual urine by external counting method over bladder. It is a non-invasive method of investigation and can be undertaken safely in cases sensitive iodine-containing contrast medium. It is also cheap, easy to perform and does not require any pre-examination preparation and can be repeated frequently. (author)

  3. Subseabed radionuclide migration studies and preliminary repository design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    Geochemical research carried out by the US Subseabed Disposal Program is described. Data from studies of high-temperature interactions between sediments and pore water (seawater) and from studies of sorption and diffusion of radionuclides in oxidized, deep-sea sediments are used, along with results from heat transfer studies, to predict migration rates of raionuclides in a subseabed repository. Preliminary results for most radionuclides in oxidized sediments are very encouraging. Fission products with moderate K/sub D/ values (10 2 to 10 5 ml/g) and actinides with high K/sub D/ values (10 3 to 10 6 ml/g) would not migrate significant distances before decaying to innocuous concentrations. Among this group are 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 239 Pu. The results for anionic species in oxidized sediments are less encouraging. Planning for field verification of these laboratory and modeling studies is currently under way. Conceptual repository designs and emplacement options are also described. 33 references, 15 figures, 1 table

  4. Multigated radionuclide study of the total artificial heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.; Christian, P.E.; Taylor, A. Jr.; Hastings, W.L.; De Vries, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    A permanent total artificial heart, the Jarvik-7, was implanted into a 61-year-old male with a severe cardiomyopathy. Gated radionuclide studies were performed in the patient both prior to surgery and following implantation. Preoperative gated radionuclide cardiac studies revealed marked left ventricular enlargement, severe hypokinesis and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 10%. The right ventricle was moderately enlarged with a 27% ejection fraction. Following implantation of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart, gated cardiac studies were performed with a computer gated by a signal from the heart controller. The left ventricular ejection fraction was 69% and the right ventricular ejection fraction was 62%. This compared to a theoretical ejection fraction of 74% for each ventricle based on chamber anatomy. There was excellent ventricular emptying. Phase analysis showed uniform diaphragm motion. The use of gated cardiac studies in humans may prove helpful in evaluating mechanical problems with the artificial heart, such as manlfunction of the diaphragm, before they become clinically apparent. (orig.)

  5. Quantitative aspects of transuranic and other radionuclide field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to identify, develop, and communicate statistical methodology for environmental actinide studies. Significant accomplishments for FY 1981 included continued publication of TRAN-STAT (a periodical specializing in the statistical aspects of environmental contaminant studies), continued work on our computer simulation study for evaluating ratios, and review of statistical methodology applicable to environmental radionuclides. Related work for the DOE Division Office of Operational Safety included writing the statistical portion of a decommissioning and decontamination guide, expanding our expertise in Kriging and other spatial pattern statistical methodology applicable to the evaluation of potential environmental hazards, continuing statistical support for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG), and providing statistical assistance to PNL's environmental radiological monitoring effort

  6. Characterisation study of radionuclides in Hot Cell Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghare, P.T.; Rath, D.P.; Govalkar, Atul; Mukherjee, Govinda; AniIKumar, S.; Yadav, R.K.B.; Mallik, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    Examination of different types of experimental as well as power reactor irradiated fuels and validation of fuel modeling codes is carried out in general Hot cell facility. The Hot cell facility has six concrete shielded hot cells, capable of handling radioactivity varying from 3.7 TBQ to 3700 TBq gamma activity. The facility was augmented with two hot cells having designed capacity to handle radioactivity of 9250 TBQ of equivalent activity of 60 Co. The study of characterization of various radionuclides present inside the hot cell of PIE facility was taken up. This study will help in providing valuable inputs for various radiological safety parameters to keep personnel exposure to ALARA level as per the mandate of radiation safety program

  7. Fallout Radionuclides as Tracers in Southern Alps Sediment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, A. E.; Karanovic, Z.; Dibb, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    The primary geologic processes shaping the landscape are physical and chemical weathering and the transport of solids by erosion. As part of our studies on the coupling between physical erosion and chemical weathering, we have determined depositional and erosional processes in New Zealand's tectonically active, rapidly uplifting Southern Alps, specifically focusing on the Hokitika River watershed. The South Island watersheds we are studying are subject to extreme orographic precipitation (as high as 7-12 m annually) and high landslide frequency, but have modest topography due to the rapid erosion. In concert with our studies of chemical weathering and physical erosion, we have used the atmospherically-delivered radionuclides of 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pbexcess to determine the relative magnitude of particle residence time in the high elevation Cropp and Whitcombe subwatersheds and the rates of sedimentation. One- and two-box modeling with 7Be and 210Pbexcess was used to determine soil and sediment residence times. Residence time of fine suspended particles is short and particles can travel the length of the river during a single storm, probably due to the short duration, high-intensity rainfalls which produce rapidly moving, steep flood waves. The readily detected peak of 137Cs activity in Cropp terrace and Hokitika gorge soils yielded sedimentation rates of 0.06-0.12 cm yr-1. At the Cropp terrace, inventory models of 210Pbexcess yield soil accumulation rates significantly less than those determined using the 137Cs activity peak. We attribute the differences to overestimation of 210Pbexcess in surface soils and to contrasting fallout fluxes, geochemical behavior and radionuclide contents of sedimenting materials. Total inventories of 210Pbexcess in soils greatly exceed the expected direct atmospheric deposition, suggesting that lateral transport of this nuclide occurs within the watershed. At the Hokitika gorge, all nuclides studied yielded similar sedimentation rates

  8. A study on the characteristics of colloid-associated radionuclide transport in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yun Chang

    1997-02-01

    Recently, the radionuclide transport in the form of colloids has been focused intensively in the safety assessment of a radioactive waste repository. As colloids are considered to be able to increase the transport rate of radionuclide through geologic media, the transport of radionuclide should be adjusted by the presence of colloids. The migration of dissolved radionuclide is expected to depend on various process such as advection, dispersion and interactions with soils, and, in addition, the transport of colloid-mediated radionuclide is considered to be more complicated because of the interactions between radionuclides and colloids. In this paper the migration behavior of colloid-associated radionuclides within subsurface are reviewed and studied in detail. The colloid-mediated transport system was modelled and simulated in order to illustrate the effects of colloids on the transport of radionuclide in the aquifer system. The transport rate of radionuclide is mainly controlled by a retardation factor which is controlled by colloidal behaviors, degree of adsorption, and the related geologic parameters. Therefore it is necessary to carefully understand the accelerating tendency of the retardation difference factor, and in this study the trends are analyzed, described and the retardation difference factor is mathematically defined, simplified and applied practically to the safety and performance assessment of a future repository

  9. Environmental study for radionuclides at Kurun-Uro area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, S.M.N.

    1993-01-01

    This work is aimed to study the environmental distribution of the terrestrial radionuclides and the resultant dose at Nuba mountains ( Kurun-Uro area ). This area has a high background natural radioactivity. More over it contains a rockphosphate zone lying between J. Kurun and J. Uro. Field scanning of gamma ray measurements on BGS- ISL Scintillomter was carried. At the same time different environment samples ( rock, soil, air, water and food ) were collected. These samples were treated then investigated on gamma spectrometry technique to determine radionuclides activity concentrations. X-ray fluorescent technique was used for the determination of P 2 O 5 and other elements. For phosphate determination as P 2 O 5 % the Bennelt Reed chemical method was used. From gamma counts and nuclides activity concentrations in soil samples the external exposure rate and the external Annual Effective Dose Equivalent (AEDE) were estimated. While the internal exposure rate and the internal (AEDE) were estimated from nuclides concentrations in air, water and food. The external (AEDE) were found to be 3.2 mSv at Kurun and 4.15 mSv at Uro. Over J. Kurun it is 20 mSv and 32 mSv over J. Uro. The internal AEDE were found to be 8.5 mSv and 12.9 mSv at Kurun and Uro respectively. The total AEDE is 11.7 mSv for Kurun area and 17 mSv for Uro. the AEDE at this area is seven times higher than the normal areas. The average P 2 O 5 % in the rock samples results using (XRF) and wet chemical method is 25% and 19% for Kurun and Uro respectively, so this area is very promising for fertilizer production, but special care must be taken for radiation impact on the environment. (author).41 refs.,

  10. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently

  11. Radionuclide exercise testing for coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    It is obvious that the indication and clinical applications of radionuclide stress testing have been expanded and that both techniques described in this article are useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive stress testing have been significantly enhanced by the introduction of these radionuclide approaches for detecting ischemia in patients with undiagnosed chest pain. High-risk patients with either stable CAD or recent myocardial infarction can be identified by the severity of the abnormal response elicited. Patients with multiple thallium defects, particularly of the redistribution type, appear to be at the highest risk for subsequent cardiac events. Similarly, patients with a greater than 10 per cent fall in ejection fraction with development of multiple wall motion abnormalities and an increase in end-systolic volume seem to be in a high risk subset. Further developments with single photon emission tomography and computer quantitation of thallium or ventriculographic images should make these tests even more reliable in obtaining useful information in patients with CAD. 34 references

  12. Field studies about radionuclide migration natural analogues and faults in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.M.; Hooker, P.J.; Brightman, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report puts together final reports of CEC contracts about the following topics: in situ determination of the effects of organics on the mobility of radionuclides in controlled conditions of groundwater flow (Drigg site); natural analogue studies of radionuclide migration (Loch Lomond, Broubster, Needle's Eye); faults in clays: their detection and characterization (Down Ampney site)

  13. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  14. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Isamov, N.; Barnett, C.L.; Beresford, N.A.; Howard, B.J.; Sanzharova, N.; Fesenko, E.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1–3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated. - Highlights: • The data on biological half-lives from Russian language literature were reviewed. • Radionuclides with the shortest half-lives in animals are those which accumulate in soft tissues. • Short term behaviour is affected by the form in which radionuclides are administered. • There is a tendency for more rapid radionuclide turnover in younger animals

  15. Radioanalytical studies of anthropogenic radionuclides in an anoxic fjord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, P.; Holm, E.

    1993-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 239+240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, 99 Tc, 137 Cs and 134 Cs has been studied in the permanently super-anoxic Framvaren fjord in southern Norway. The adjacent Helvik fjord (slightly below 14 m depth) was studied with the respect to the same radionuclides as a comparison for their distribution and levels during more normal conditions. Th was studied in both fjords as a representative for actinides in oxidation state +4. Vertical distribution of Pu, Am and Th in Framvaren all show increased concentration with depth. Complex formation with DOC is believed to be the main course for this behaviour. Increasing 232 Th with depth in sediment indicate possible remobilization of this element from the sediments. The limited water exchange between the two fjords is illustrated by the low 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu ratio and the higher 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio in Framvaren fjord. Concentration of 99 Tc in Framvaren is also lower than compared to Helvik fjord. Concentration of 99 Tc in Helvik and Framvaren fjord is approximately constant with depth

  16. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi [/sup 99m/Tc]triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET

  17. Radionuclide study on hepatic blood flow in Schistosomiasis Japonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Junichi; Uchiyama, Guio; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Hayashi, Sanshin; Araki, Tsutomu; Arai, Takao; Iuchi, Masahiko

    1986-11-01

    Schistosomiasis Japonica is a regional disease found in elderly people who were living in once-endemic areas in Japan. Yamanashi was one of these areas until 1970, since when no newly infected patients were reported. The disease is characteristic of developing irreversible interstitial fibrosis of the liver, where parasites migrate and lay eggs. Portal hypertension, esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinomas are the common features of the results. In order to estimate patient's hepatic blood flow, radionuclide angiography of the liver with the use of 10 - 15 millicuries of Tc-99m phytate were performed prior to the conventional multiview imaging. Twenty-two patients with schistosomiasis and twelve adults without evidence of liver disease were studied. A time-activity curve of the right lobe of the liver was generated by a computer, and the ratio of arterial blood flow to portal blood flow was calculated. As a result, a good correlation was found between the arterial to portal blood flow ratio and the grade of hepatic fibrosis verified by laparoscopic biopsy. The development of esophageal varices were likely to correlate well with the blood flow ratio rather than scores on the conventional static liver and spleen scintigram. The study was useful for evaluating patient's clinical stages and prognosis.

  18. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.

  19. Radionuclide study on hepatic blood flow in Schistosomiasis Japonica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Junichi; Uchiyama, Guio; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Hayashi, Sanshin; Araki, Tsutomu; Arai, Takao; Iuchi, Masahiko.

    1986-01-01

    Schistosomiasis Japonica is a regional disease found in elderly people who were living in once-endemic areas in Japan. Yamanashi was one of these areas until 1970, since when no newly infected patients were reported. The disease is characteristic of developing irreversible interstitial fibrosis of the liver, where parasites migrate and lay eggs. Portal hypertension, esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinomas are the common features of the results. In order to estimate patient's hepatic blood flow, radionuclide angiography of the liver with the use of 10 - 15 millicuries of Tc-99m phytate were performed prior to the conventional multiview imaging. Twenty-two patients with schistosomiasis and twelve adults without evidence of liver disease were studied. A time-activity curve of the right lobe of the liver was generated by a computer, and the ratio of arterial blood flow to portal blood flow was calculated. As a result, a good correlation was found between the arterial to portal blood flow ratio and the grade of hepatic fibrosis verified by laparoscopic biopsy. The development of esophageal varices were likely to correlate well with the blood flow ratio rather than scores on the conventional static liver and spleen scintigram. The study was useful for evaluating patient's clinical stages and prognosis. (author)

  20. Fracture mapping for radionuclide migration studies in the Climax granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, R.; Springer, J.

    1981-05-01

    As part of LLNL's program on radionuclide migration through fractured rock, major geologic discontinuities have been mapped and characterized at the 420 m level in the Climax Stock, adjacent to LLNL's Spent Fuel Test. Persistence or continuity of features was the principal sampling criterion, and ninety major fractures and faults were mapped in the main access and tail drifts. Although the purpose and nature of this study was different from previous fracture surveys in the Climax Stock, the results are generally consistent in that three predominant fracture sets are identified: NW strike/vertical, NE strike/vertical, NW strike/subhorizontal. The frequency of major features in the main access drift is somewhat higher than in the tail drift. Those mapped in the main access drift are generally braided, stepped, or en echelon, while those in the tail drift appear to be more distinct and planar. Several of the fractures in the tail drift lie in the NE/vertical set, while most form an entirely different set oriented N5E/55NW. Subhorizontal fractures were common to both drifts. An area of seepage associated with some of these low-angle features was mapped in the main access drift

  1. Program Plan: field radionuclide migration studies in Climax granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Coles, D.; Stone, R.

    1980-01-01

    This Program Plan describes the field radionuclide migration studies we plan to conduct in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. Laboratory support studies are included to help us understand the geochemical and hydrologic processes involved in the field. The Program Plan begins with background information (Section 1) on how this program fits into the National Waste Terminal Storage Program Plan and discusses the needs for field studies of this type. The objectives stated in Section 2 are in direct response to these needs, particularly the need to determine whether laboratory studies accurately reflect actual field conditions and the need for field testing to provide a data base for verification of hydrologic and mass transport models. The technical scope (Section 3) provides a work breakdown structure that integrates the various activities and establishes a base for the technical approach described in Section 4. Our approach combines an interactive system of field and laboratory migration experiments with the use of hydrologic models for pre-test predictions and data interpretation. Section 5 on program interfaces identifies how information will be transferred to other related DOE projects. A schedule of activities and major milestones (Section 6) and the budget necessary to meet the project objectives (Section 7) are included in the Program Plan. Sections 8 and 9 contain brief descriptions of how the technical and program controls will be established and maintained and an outline of our quality assurance program. This program plan is an initial planning document and provides a general description of activities. An Engineering Test Plan containing detailed experimental test plans, an instrumentation plan and equipment design drawings will be published as a separate document

  2. A review of methodology for studying the transfer of radionuclides in marine foodchains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.A.; Renfro, W.C.; Gilat, E.

    1975-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which radionuclides are cycled within marine foodchains is essential for predicting concentrations in harvestable seafoods, evaluating the role of organisms in redistributing radionuclides, and assessing radiation doses to populations. Because of the complex interactions within marine foodchains, detailed radioecological studies in contaminated natural ecosystems and carefully designed, long-term laboratory studies on experimental foodchains are both necessary. The report discusses some of the methodological problems involved in conducting field and laboratory studies on radionuclide transfer in marine foodchains. (author)

  3. Radionuclide esophageal emptying study before and after pneumatic dilatation in achalasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujiie, Hiroaki; Hongo, Michio; Lin, Yih-Fong; Satake, Kenzo; Asaki, Shigeru; Goto, Yoshio; Okuyama, Shinichi

    1987-11-01

    The therapeutic effect of pneumatic dilatation was evaluated quantitatively by radionuclide transit study in 11 achalasia patients. Before pneumatic dilatation, marked retention with more than 80 % of isotope in the esophagus at 15 minutes after ingestion was noted in all patients. Marked improvement in emptying was shown after pneumatic dilatation. Pneumatic dilatation is a safe and effective therapeutic aid for achalasia treatment, and radionuclide transit study is not only noninvasive and physiologic but also its procedure is easily performed. We conclude that radionuclide transit study is a good method to evaluate the result of the treatment quantitatively in achalasia patients.

  4. Literature review of the studies on uptake, retention and distribution of radionuclides by the foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamothe, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the available literature from the last 10 years dealing with studies on uptake, retention and distribution of radionuclides by an embryo or foetus following maternal intakes. The review concentrates on isotopes commonly used by Canadian licensees. From the animal studies and from the limited human data, it is evident that after maternal contamination, the embryo or foetus accumulates and retains most radionuclides. Very little human data is available and a large fraction of the quoted values for human foetal dose retention are obtained from extrapolation from animal experiments. The information obtained in animal experiments is useful in determining general patterns of retention and distributions of radionuclides within the foetoplacental unit

  5. A study on the radionuclide transport through fractured porous media based on the network resistance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ki Ha

    2000-02-01

    Before the actual construction of radioactive waste repository, analysis of radionuclide transport is required to predict the radiological effect on public and environment. Many models have been developed to predict the realistic radionuclide transport through the repository. In this study, Network Resistance Model (NRM) that is similar to electrical circuit network is adopted to simulate the radionuclide transport. NRM assume the media of repository as the resistance of the radionuclide transport and describes the transport phenomena of radionuclide by connecting the resistance as network. NRM is easy to apply to describe complex system and take less calculation time compared to the other model. The object of this study is to develop the fast, simple and efficient calculation method to simulate the radionuclide with the newly adopted concept using network resistance. New system configuration specially focused on rock edge region is introduced by dividing the rock matrix. By dividing the rock edge from the main rock matrix region, the rock edge region is more carefully analyzed and compared. Rock edge region can accelerate radionuclide transport due to the reducing effect on the total resistivity of rock matrix. Therefore, increased radioactive dose is expected when we apply NRM methodology in the performance assessment of the repository. Result of the performance assessment can be more conservative and reliable. NRM can be applied to other system configuration and for more complex pathways. NRM is simple to us e and easy to modify than any other modeling method

  6. A study on the radionuclide transport by bacteria in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byoung Sub

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to develop a predictive model based on a conceptual three phase system and to investigate the influence of bacteria and their generation on the transport of radionuclide in porous and fractured media. The mass balance for bacteria, substrate and radionuclide were formulated. To illustrate the model simply, an equilibrium condition was assumed to partition the substrate, bacteria and radionuclide concentrations between the solid soil matrix, aqueous phase, rock matrix and bacterial surface. From the numerical calculation of the radionuclide transport in the presence of bacteria, it was found that the growth of bacteria and supplied primary substrate as limiting or stimulating growth factor of bacteria are the most important factors of the radionuclide transport. We also found that, depend on the transport of bacteria the temporal and spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration was significantly altered. The model proposed in this study will improve the evaluation of the role of the bacteria in the transport of radionuclide in groundwater systems. Furthermore, this model would be usefully utilized in analyzing the important role of colloidal particulate on the overall performance of radioactive waste safety

  7. Preliminary study of radionuclide corrosion products in primary cooling water at RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestari, D.E.; Pudjojanto, M.S.; Subiharto; Budi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of radionuclides emitting gamma rays at the primary cooling water at RSG-GAS has been carried out. The water coolant samples was performed using a low level background gamma spectrometer unit, including of high resolution of gamma detector HP-Ge Tennelec and Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) ADCAM 100 ORTEC. The result indicated Na-24 and Mn-56 radionuclides that may be as corrosion product and should studied deeply in the future. The expected activity concentration radionuclide for Mn-56 is lower than those written in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), while for Na-24 is in agreement

  8. Study on the immunological and genetic effects induced by internal exposure to radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Luan Meiling

    1995-02-01

    The immune system is the important part of defense mechanism in organism. Studies have demonstrated the high radiosensitivity of the immunocytes to internal radionuclide exposure. It is evident that serious functional disturbances and morphological changes of immune organs are induced by internal contamination of radionuclides, including suppression of division and proliferation of immunocytes, induction of irreversible sequelae, leading to injurious effects on both central and peripheral immune organs. In order to study the consequences of the injuries of genetic material caused by internal contamination of radionuclides, researches have developed from the harmful effects on parental generation to those on the offspring. The present paper reports the study on the genetic injuries of somatic and germ cells induced by internal radionuclide exposure. Emphasis is placed on the molecular basis of radio-genetic effect and the relations of the molecular basis of DNA injury to gene mutation and chromosome aberration

  9. Design of laboratory and animal housing unit for radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a combined analytical laboratory and animal housing facility is discussed. By having sample processing facilities in close proximity to the experimental animals, the necessity for transporting biological specimens long distances has been curtailed. In addition, complete radionuclide counting equipment has been installed so that samples need not leave the animal housing site for analysis, a feature based on radiological health requirements. (U.S.)

  10. Global and regional left ventricular function and tomographic radionuclide perfusion: the Western Washington Intracoronary Streptokinase In Myocardial Infarction Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.L.; Davis, K.B.; Williams, D.L.; Caldwell, J.; Kennedy, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Western Washington Intracoronary Streptokinase In Myocardial Infarction Trial enrolled 250 patients with acute myocardial infarction. After the coronary angiographic diagnosis of thrombosis, patients were randomly assigned to receive either conventional therapy with heparin or intracoronary streptokinase followed by heparin. Of the 232 patients who survived at least 60 days, 207 (89%) underwent radionuclide ventriculographic determination of global and regional ejection fraction at a single institution at 62 +/- 35 days after infarction. In the first 100 patients, infarct size was also determined by quantitative single-photon emission tomographic imaging with thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) and expressed as a percentage of the left ventricle with a perfusion defect. Overall, global ejection fraction did not differ between patients treated with streptokinase (45.9 +/- 13.9%; n . 115) and control patients (46.1 +/- 14.4%; n . 92, p . NS). Similarly, the regional posterolateral, inferior, and anteroseptal ejection fraction did not differ between the two groups. Infarct size as measured by 201 Tl tomography was 19.4 +/- 12.8% (n . 52) of the left ventricle for the streptokinase group and 19.6 +/- 11.8% (n . 48; p . NS) for the control group. When patients were compared within groups by electrocardiographic location of infarction, time to treatment, or the presence or absence of vessel opening, there were no significant differences between streptokinase and control patients. Statistical inclusion of the 18 patients who died early and were unavailable for study also failed to modify the results, except for a possible reduction in inferior infarct size as measured by 201 Tl tomography

  11. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 2. Transfer to milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Howard, B.J.; Isamov, N.; Voigt, G.; Beresford, N.A.; Sanzharova, N.; Barnett, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of original information available from Russian language papers on radionuclide transfer to milk is provided. Most of the data presented have not been taken into account in international reviews. The transfer coefficient (F m ) values for radioactive isotopes of strontium, caesium and iodine are in good agreement with those previously published. The Russian language data, often based on experiments with many animals, constitute a considerable increase to the available data for many less well-studied radionuclides. In some instances, the Russian language data suggest changes in recommended values (e.g. Zr and Ru). The information presented here substantially increases the amount of available data on radionuclide transfer to milk and will be included in the current revision of the IAEA TRS Handbook of parameter values for radionuclide transfer

  12. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 2. Transfer to milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N; Barnett, C L

    2007-01-01

    An overview of original information available from Russian language papers on radionuclide transfer to milk is provided. Most of the data presented have not been taken into account in international reviews. The transfer coefficient (F(m)) values for radioactive isotopes of strontium, caesium and iodine are in good agreement with those previously published. The Russian language data, often based on experiments with many animals, constitute a considerable increase to the available data for many less well-studied radionuclides. In some instances, the Russian language data suggest changes in recommended values (e.g. Zr and Ru). The information presented here substantially increases the amount of available data on radionuclide transfer to milk and will be included in the current revision of the IAEA TRS Handbook of parameter values for radionuclide transfer.

  13. Study of radionuclides distribution mechanism at the territory of ''Qum Adasi'' OGPD and in layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmudov, H.M; Musayeva, Sh.Z.; Asgarova, V.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Its for several yeras that Inistitute of Radiation Problems ANAS has already started fundamental researches of radiation background state and radionuclide composition at the territories of oil and gas production departments. Base labaratories equipped with modern measurement units were established and strong specialists group was trained for fulfillment of these works and also for comprehensive analysis of obtained results. Over a long perios of time oil and gas production is realized at the territory of Q um Adasi O PGD. This territory with 3000 ha covers B ahar , h ovsan a nd Q um Adasi o il near the trestle and H ovsan o il-fields wells are located on-shore. These wells take their sources from different dephts and layers, thats why study of these layers radionuclide composition excites great interest. It has mainly two reasons: Study of dependence of produced crude oils radionuclide composition on oil layers;Dependence of oil-polluted areas and local radionuclide centers on natural layers.In order to protect environment and provide radiation safety of people working in oil-gas industry and the population living there, radiation background of these areas must be regularly kept under monitoring and the dependence of radionuclides creating this background on layers must be studied on the level of researches and practical result must be obtained. According to analysis results of the samples taken from local areas of oil-gas producing departments having high radiation background, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are the main natural radionuclides that create radiation background at the territory of Q um Adasi O GPD. According to the results of the conducted analysis, though in the areas having 5-8 mkR/h radiation background the effective activity of natural radionuclides is 38-40 Bk/kg, at the areas having 50-200 mkR/h radiation background effective activity increases to 1000-6500. And it shows that effective activity of radionuclides exceeds the norm for several

  14. Studies on distribution coefficient (Kd) of naturally occurring radionuclides in geological matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of fate and transport of toxic and radioactive metals in the subsurface of uranium tailing pond sites is critical to the assessment of environmental impact and to the development of effective remediation technologies. The mobility of radionuclides and toxic metals is enhanced by acidification of tailings due to sulphide oxidation catalysed by microbial activity. Due to infiltration of water, there is a possibility of leaching of these radionuclides and toxic metals from the tailings pond to the ground water. Sorption onto mineral surfaces is an important mechanism for reducing radionuclide concentrations along ground water flow paths and retarding radionuclide migration to the accessible environment. Reactive transport of ground water contaminants often assume that the reaction governing the retardation of a particular contaminant or radionuclide can be described by simple partitioning constant, K d . This constant is assumed to account for all the reversible sorption processes affecting transport of the contaminant. Experimental determination of site-specific K d values is absolutely essential for the accurate estimation of reactive transport of these contaminants. The results of such studies would be helpful to model migration of these pollutants and to estimate the radiation dose to members of the public through groundwater drinking pathway at different distances from the tailings pond. In the present study it is clearly observed that K d values of most of the radionuclides are strongly dependent on different soil and ground water parameters. The relationships generated between distribution coefficient values of different radionuclides and different soil and ground water parameters can be used to generate look up table. And these relationships can also be used for the prediction of K d values of different radionuclides by using the different physico-chemical parameters of soil and ground water of the particular location

  15. Study of radionuclide contamination at the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemyev, O.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper the contamination technical areas of the former Semipalatinsk test site is discussed in details. It is concluded, that radioactive contamination of the Degelen technical area caused by underground nuclear tests is mainly retained within tunnels and cavities. Investigation showed that many tunnel portal areas here are contaminated by radioactive substances. Areas of significantly high contamination levels are also found at the Balapan technical area mainly around borehole sleeves. A serious source of radioactive contamination is tritium in used boreholes and high content of radionuclides produced due to the fission of nuclear device and activation of rocks at crater rim around the Atom lake

  16. Study of groundwater colloids and their ability to transport radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjus, K.; Wikberg, P.

    1987-03-01

    Natural occurring colloids in groundwater can adsorb and transport released radionuclides. In this work groundwater colloids have been investigated with zeta potential measurements and dynamic light scattering. The goal was i) to estimate the detection limits of the Institute's equipment for particle size estimation with dynamic light scattering and zeta potential with dynamic light scattering combined with estimation of Doppler shift in the scattered light frequency; ii) to examine several different groundwaters (Stripa, Kamlunge, Svartboberget). The possibility to apply a theoretical adsorption model for interpreting the results is also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Radiotracer studies on radionuclide and trace element cycling in corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Teyssie, J.L.; Acosta, A.; Gattuso, J.P.; Jaubert, J.

    1999-01-01

    Microcosm experiments were designed in which microcolonies of three coral species were exposed to gamma-emitting radiotracers of trace metals and radionuclides ( 110 Am, 109 Cd. 57 Cocyanocobalamin, 110 Ag, 134 Cs, 65 Zn, 60 Co, 75 Se, 85 Sr, 133 Ba, 54 Mn) to determine uptake and loss as well as distribution in tissue, skeleton and zooxanthellae. Following a seven day exposure in seawater, the degree of uptake (CF = concentration factor) for a given element was highly dependent on species. The highest CF s , in whole colonies were found for 100m Ag(82-172), 57 Co (68-124) and 65 Zn (41-52); the lowest CF s , were noted for the soluble radionuclides Cs (1-2) and Sr (2-9). Low CF s , were recorded in skeleton and increased by roughly an order of magnitude between skeleton, tissue and zooxanthellae. 241 Am is readily taken up by dead skeleton (CF=31-49), whereas in living corals it is preferentially accumulated by the tissue (CF=51-120) which acts as a partial barrier against contamination of the internal skeleton (CF=6-10). The chemical species of the element can also affect uptake by corals, as evidenced by the order of magnitude greater bioaccumulation of organic cobalt compared to the inorganic form in tissues. Once accumulated, some of the elements tested (e.g. Cd, Co) are strongly retained with biological half-lives as long as several months

  18. Studies on concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Materials used were more than 20 kinds of fishes. 85 Sr chiefly localized in the hard tissue, such as the scale, bone, and gill, 60 Co in the liver, 65 Zn in the digestive organs, such as the liver, stomach, and intestine, 144 Ce in the gill, scale and liver, 106 Ru in the liver and intestine, and 131 I in the digestive organs, especially in the gallbladder. However, all these nuclides showed only slight localization in the edible parts of fish bodies. The concentration of radionuclides in immature anchovy was examined using 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce and so on, as tracers. The concentration factor of 137 Cs was 10 times that of 85 Sr, though, the loss of 137 Cs was very rapid compared to that of 85 Sr. 144 Ce pollution of immature anchovy was chiefly by adsorption to the surface of fish bodies. As to shells radionuclides were remarkably taken up in the mid-gut gland, among them, 144 Ce taken up in shell bodies was not excreated but accumulated in the bodies. In algae, 85 Sr, 106 Ru, and 59 Fe seemed to pollute algae physico-chemically by adsorption, and 131 I, 137 Cs, and 60 Co seemed to be taken up through inorganic metabolism showing their concentration factor 100 times that in fishes. (JPN)

  19. Radionuclide study for cardiac lesion in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguni, Hirokazu; Osawa, Makiko; Shishikura, Keiko

    1985-12-01

    Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy and radionuclide ventriculography with Tc-99m were performed in 10 patients with Duchenne muscular dystropohy (DMD) and 2 siblings with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Perfusion defect especially in the left ventricular posterolateral wall (LVPLW) and cardiac apex was seen on Tl-201 imaging in 6 of the DMD patients and one of the BMD patients. For these patients, Tc-99m imaging also showed left ventricular local wall motion abnormality in 5 patients and a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction in 4 patients. These findings coincided well with fibrosis of the LVPLW found on autopsy. There were individual differences regarding the occurrence of cardiac complications. One of the BMD patients, as well as DMD patients, had also cardiac complications which have long been considered less common. (Namekawa, K.).

  20. Radionuclide study for cardiac lesion in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguni, Hirokazu; Osawa, Makiko; Shishikura, Keiko

    1985-01-01

    Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy and radionuclide ventriculography with Tc-99m were performed in 10 patients with Duchenne muscular dystropohy (DMD) and 2 siblings with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Perfusion defect especially in the left ventricular posterolateral wall (LVPLW) and cardiac apex was seen on Tl-201 imaging in 6 of the DMD patients and one of the BMD patients. For these patients, Tc-99m imaging also showed left ventricular local wall motion abnormality in 5 patients and a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction in 4 patients. These findings coincided well with fibrosis of the LVPLW found on autopsy. There were individual differences regarding the occurrence of cardiac complications. One of the BMD patients, as well as DMD patients, had also cardiac complications which have long been considered less common. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Value of radionuclide oesophageal transit in studies of functional dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas-Elvira, J.M.; Martinez-Parades, M.; Velasco-Lajo, T.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide oesophageal transit time was evaluated in 70 individuals, divided into three groups: normal individuals, patients with non-organic dysphagia and patients with primary oesophageal motility disorders treated with per-endoscopic forced pneumatic dilatation. In all of them the oesophageal transit time of a bolus of water with 18.5 MBq (500 μCi) of 99 Tcsup(m) sulphur colloid was assessed, as was the percentage of residual activity of the bolus in the oesophagus. There was a significant difference in these parameters between the control group and the group with non-organic dysphagia, the diagnostic capacity of this test being 93% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 90% negative predictive value, which suggests its inclusion in diagnostic protocols of dysphagias. In patients with primary oesophageal motility disorders, a significant decrease in values of residual activity has been observed after treatment with per-endoscopic forced pneumatic dilation. (author)

  2. Natural analogue studies of the role of colloids, natural organics and microorganisms on radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Colloids may be important as a geochemical transport mechanism for radionuclides at geological repositories if they are (1) present in the groundwater, (2) stable with respect to both colloidal and chemical stabilities, (3) capable of adsorbing radionuclides, especially if the sorption is irreversible, and (4) mobile in the subsurface. The available evidence from natural analogue and other field studies relevant to these issues is reviewed, as is the potential role of mobile microorganisms (open-quotes biocolloidsclose quotes) on radionuclide migration. Studies have demonstrated that colloids are ubiquitous in groundwater, although colloid concentrations in deep, geochemically stable systems may be too low to affect radionuclide transport. However, even low colloid populations cannot be dismissed as a potential concern because colloids appear to be stable, and many radionuclides that adsorb to colloids are not readily desorbed over long periods. Field studies offer somewhat equivocal evidence concerning colloid mobility and cannot prove or disprove the significance of colloid transport in the far-field environment. Additional research is needed at new sites to properly represent a repository far-field. Performance assessment would benefit from natural analogue studies to examine colloid behavior at sites encompassing a suite of probable groundwater chemistries and that mimic the types of formations selected for radioactive waste repositories

  3. RADIONUCLIDE STUDIES IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE: INTERACTION OF RESEARCHER, CHILD AND PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Fomin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the issues interaction between a doctor and a child during the radionuclide study. They also give recommendations of the pediatric council under auspices of the European society of the nuclear medicine to carry on the scintigraphic studies among the children. The article high lights the basic moments as to the psychoprophylactic preparation of the children for the radionuclide study with regard to their age and character peculiarities. The researchers offer approaches to define the psychic and emotional status of the child, degree of anxiety before the study and methods to eliminate it, allowing for considerable quality improvement of the performed procedure.Key words: children, radionuclide diagnostics, pediatric radiology, psychoprophylactic preparation.

  4. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Barnett, C L; Beresford, N A; Howard, B J; Sanzharova, N; Fesenko, E

    2015-04-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1-3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A review on studies of the transport and the form of radionuclides in the fluvial environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-06-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has conducted studies with an aim to contribute to understanding the long-term behavior of atmospherically-derived radionuclides deposited on the ground. The present report reviews a series of studies among them which have especially dealt with the behavior of those radionuclides in a fluvial environment. The studies cited here include investigations of 1) the evaluation of the transport rate of the atmospherically-derived radionuclides from the ground via a river to the downstream areas where the affected water is consumed; 2) the physico-chemical form of the radionuclides in the fluvial environment. An investigation in the Kuji river watershed with {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be has validated i) the importance of suspended particulate materials in the fluvial discharge of those radionuclides, and ii) a methodology to estimate the discharge of those radionuclides based on the regression analysis with the river water flow rate. From a viewpoint of their distribution between water and suspended particles, the form of radionuclides released by the Chernobyl accident in rivers and lakes in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were analyzed. As a result, a general reasonability and some cautions were suggested when commonly reported distribution ratios obtained in the laboratory and the different environment are applied to describe the partitioning of the radionuclides in specific natural environmental conditions. This experimental investigation in Chernobyl also revealed the role of natural dissolved organics in affecting the dissolution and transport of {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am through complexation to form soluble species. Further, a chemical equilibrium model was applied to describe this complexation. The similar model was also applied for the behavior of iron and manganese (hydr)oxides in river recharged aquifers which can bear riverborne radionuclides and can influence their migration. The

  6. A review on studies of the transport and the form of radionuclides in the fluvial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi

    2001-06-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has conducted studies with an aim to contribute to understanding the long-term behavior of atmospherically-derived radionuclides deposited on the ground. The present report reviews a series of studies among them which have especially dealt with the behavior of those radionuclides in a fluvial environment. The studies cited here include investigations of 1) the evaluation of the transport rate of the atmospherically-derived radionuclides from the ground via a river to the downstream areas where the affected water is consumed; 2) the physico-chemical form of the radionuclides in the fluvial environment. An investigation in the Kuji river watershed with 137 Cs, 210 Pb and 7 Be has validated i) the importance of suspended particulate materials in the fluvial discharge of those radionuclides, and ii) a methodology to estimate the discharge of those radionuclides based on the regression analysis with the river water flow rate. From a viewpoint of their distribution between water and suspended particles, the form of radionuclides released by the Chernobyl accident in rivers and lakes in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were analyzed. As a result, a general reasonability and some cautions were suggested when commonly reported distribution ratios obtained in the laboratory and the different environment are applied to describe the partitioning of the radionuclides in specific natural environmental conditions. This experimental investigation in Chernobyl also revealed the role of natural dissolved organics in affecting the dissolution and transport of 239,240 Pu, 241 Am through complexation to form soluble species. Further, a chemical equilibrium model was applied to describe this complexation. The similar model was also applied for the behavior of iron and manganese (hydr)oxides in river recharged aquifers which can bear riverborne radionuclides and can influence their migration. The obtained findings and the

  7. The NIST natural-matrix radionuclide standard reference material program for ocean studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, K.G.W.; Zhichao Lin; Zhongyu Wu; MacMahon, C.; Filliben, J.J.; Krey, P.; Feiner, M.; Harvey, J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the Low-level Working Group of the International Committee on Radionuclide Metrology met in Boston, MA (USA) to define the characteristics of a new set of environmental radioactivity reference materials. These reference materials were to provide the radiochemist with the same analytical challenges faced when assaying environmental samples. It was decided that radionuclide bearing natural materials should be collected from sites where there had been sufficient time for natural processes to redistribute the various chemically different species of the radionuclides. Over the succeeding years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in cooperation with other highly experienced laboratories, certified and issued a number of these as low-level radioactivity Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for fission and activation product and actinide concentrations. The experience of certifying these SRMs has given NIST the opportunity to compare radioanalytical methods and learn of their limitations. NIST convened an international workshop in 1994 to define the natural-matrix radionuclide SRM needs for ocean studies. The highest priorities proposed at the workshop were for sediment, shellfish, seaweed, fish flesh and water matrix SRMs certified for mBq per sample concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239 Pu + 240 Pu. The most recent low-level environmental radionuclide SRM issued by NIST, Ocean Sediment (SRM 4357) has certified and uncertified values for the following 22 radionuclides: 40 K, 90 Sr, 129 I, 137 Cs, 155 Eu, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 212 Pb, 214 Bi, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 235 U, 237 Np, 238 U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu + 240 Pu, and 241 Am. The uncertainties for a number of the certified radionuclides are non-symmetrical and relatively large because of the non-normal distribution of reported values. NIST is continuing its efforts to provide the ocean studies community with additional natural matrix radionuclide SRMs. The freeze

  8. The role of laboratory animals in studying bone cancer resulting from skeletally deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Miller, S.C.; Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Griffith, W.C.; Guilmette, R.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    There is a continuing need to determine and understand the long-term health risks of internally deposited radionuclides in persons exposed medically or occupationally, or from radionuclides in the environment. A full understanding of these health risks, particularly for exposures involving low doses and dose rates, requires in-depth knowledge of both the dosimetry of a given exposure and the resulting long-term biological effects. Human data on 224 Ra and 226,228 Ra and their decay products are our primary sources of knowledge on the health risks of chronic alpha irradiation of the skeleton and serve as essential segments of our radiation protection practices for internally deposited radionuclides. However, we cannot obtain all of the needed information from these studies. This paper examines the role of laboratory animal studies in complementing and extending the knowledge of radiation-induced bone cancer obtained from studies of humans exposed to 224 Ra or 226,228 Ra

  9. Natural decay series radionuclide studies at the Needle's Eye Natural Analogue Site, II, 1989-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, A.B.; Whitton, A.M.; Shimmield, T.M.; Jemielita, R.A.; Scott, R.D.; Hooker, P.J.

    1991-12-01

    HMIP has a research programme investigating some naturally radioactive sites as geochemical analogues of radionuclide migration. The objective is to test thermodynamic databases and computer codes used for modelling radionuclide migration under environmental conditions. This report describes the study of transport and retardation processes affecting natural radionuclides, mainly uranium (U), in the vicinity of pitchblende veins in the cliff at Needle's Eye on the Solway Coast, SW Scotland. The natural decay series results from this study have been used to develop a well constrained geochemical model within which the codes can be tested. A conceptual geochemical model for the behaviour of U at the site was developed in stage I of the study; work in stage II is concerned with improving the information available on the U source term, groundwater chemistry, U aqueous phase specification, U retardation by fracture-lining minerals during fissure flow of groundwater, U-organic associations and loss of U from the site by stream drainage. (author)

  10. FUTURE STUDIES AT PENA BLANCA: RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN THE VADOSE ZONE OF AN ALLUVIAL FAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Goodell; J. Walton; P.J. Rodriguez

    2005-07-11

    The pathway to the accessible environment at Yucca Mountain contains volcanic rocks and alluvial fill. Transport properties in alluvial fill, specifically retardation and dispersivity, may be significant in determining the overall performance of the repository. Prior relevant studies, with the exception of the Nye County Tracer Test, are almost entirely in bedrock material. The proposed study will provide field data on radionuclide migration in alluvial material. High grade uranium ore was mined at the Nopal I deposit. This mined ore (60,000 tons) was moved in 1994 to its present site as open piles on an alluvial fan in the Boquilla Colorada Microbasin. Precipitation is approximately 20 cm/year, and has caused migration of radionuclides into the subsurface. We propose partial removal of an ore pile, excavation into the alluvial fan, sampling, and determination of radionuclide mobilities from the uranium decay chain. The proposed research would be taking advantage of a unique opportunity with a known time frame for migration.

  11. Critical look at studies of radionuclide migration in fractured granite cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.; Failor, R.

    1983-05-01

    A series of laboratory experiments studying radionuclide migration were conducted on eleven fractured granite cores from the Climax Stock at the Nevada Test Site. Failor et al (1982) discuss the equipment used, the preparation of the core, the experimental procedure, the data reduction, and the experimental results. They give estimates of the average fracture apertures, retardation values of /sup 85/Sr, /sup 95m/Tc, and /sup 137/Cs relative to /sup 3/H, and the percentage of each radionuclide retained in the core after each run. To determine the effect of fracture fill material and solution composition on radionuclide migration, they studied both natural and artificial fractures using either natural Climax ground water or distilled water. The results are summarized below along with a discussion of the problems inherent in the experiments and suggestions to minimize these problems.

  12. Critical look at studies of radionuclide migration in fractured granite cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.; Failor, R.

    1983-05-01

    A series of laboratory experiments studying radionuclide migration were conducted on eleven fractured granite cores from the Climax Stock at the Nevada Test Site. Failor et al (1982) discuss the equipment used, the preparation of the core, the experimental procedure, the data reduction, and the experimental results. They give estimates of the average fracture apertures, retardation values of 85 Sr, /sup 95m/Tc, and 137 Cs relative to 3 H, and the percentage of each radionuclide retained in the core after each run. To determine the effect of fracture fill material and solution composition on radionuclide migration, they studied both natural and artificial fractures using either natural Climax ground water or distilled water. The results are summarized below along with a discussion of the problems inherent in the experiments and suggestions to minimize these problems

  13. FUTURE STUDIES AT PENA BLANCA: RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN THE VADOSE ZONE OF AN ALLUVIAL FAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodell, P.; Walton, J.; Rodriguez, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    The pathway to the accessible environment at Yucca Mountain contains volcanic rocks and alluvial fill. Transport properties in alluvial fill, specifically retardation and dispersivity, may be significant in determining the overall performance of the repository. Prior relevant studies, with the exception of the Nye County Tracer Test, are almost entirely in bedrock material. The proposed study will provide field data on radionuclide migration in alluvial material. High grade uranium ore was mined at the Nopal I deposit. This mined ore (60,000 tons) was moved in 1994 to its present site as open piles on an alluvial fan in the Boquilla Colorada Microbasin. Precipitation is approximately 20 cm/year, and has caused migration of radionuclides into the subsurface. We propose partial removal of an ore pile, excavation into the alluvial fan, sampling, and determination of radionuclide mobilities from the uranium decay chain. The proposed research would be taking advantage of a unique opportunity with a known time frame for migration

  14. An experimental study on the application of radionuclide imaging in repair of the bone defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zhu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to validate the effect of radionuclide imaging in early monitoring of the bone’s reconstruction, the animal model of bone defect was made on the rabbits repaired with HA artificial bone. The ability of bone defect repair was evaluated by using radionuclide bone imaging at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The results indicate that the experimental group stimulated more bone formation than that of the control group. The differences of the bone reconstruction ability were statistically significant (p<0.05. The nano-HA artificial has good bone conduction, and it can be used for the treatment of bone defects. Radionuclide imaging may be an effective and first choice method for the early monitoring of the bone’s reconstruction.

  15. Generalization of some results of a vertical radionuclide migration study in soils of 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziborov, A.M.; Sadol'ko, I.V.; Sushchik, Yu.Ya.; Tikhanov, Eh.K.; Proskuryakov, A.G.; Kuz'michev, V.N.; Shcheglov, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    Results of radionuclide distribution study in a vertical profile of soils are presented under different landscape geochemical conditions in 1989-1991. It is ascertained that radionuclide migration process in geochemical profile of soils of 30-km zone is in early stage of development. More than 90% of radioactivity concentrates in the upper 5-10 cm layer whereas measurable radioactivity fixes at a depth up to 1 m. The process of deepening of radioactivity reserve center takes place in the surface soil layer. Now it equals 1,5-3 cm. Peculiarities of the vertical radionuclide distribution haven't brightly pronounced character depending on soil types and are at the formation stage. 12 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Experimental and modelling studies of radionuclide uptake in vegetated soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, J. K.; Butler, A. P.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations are currently being conducted at Imperial College into the upward migration of radionuclides from a contaminated water table and their subsequent uptake by plant root systems. This programme includes both experimental studies and related mathematical modelling. Previous work has been primarily with lysimeters. However, these experiments are expensive and somewhat lengthy and the alteration of key features is difficult. Therefore, an experimental research programme using smaller scale columns where conditions can be readily altered has been set up under a NERC studentship. This paper presents both the observed and simulated results from some preliminary column experiments involving the movement of two different radionuclides. It will be shown that physically-based mathematical models developed for field scale problems are readily applicable at the scale of the experimental columns. Work is currently in hand to demonstrate the validity of the column experiments for determining parameters associated with various soil, plant and radionuclide types. (author)

  17. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna].

  18. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Isamov, N.; Howard, B.J.; Voigt, G.; Beresford, N.A.; Sanzharova, N.

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  19. Aspects of uranium/thorium series disequilibrium applications to radionuclide migration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovich, M.

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the contribution which the uranium/thorium series disequilibrium concept can make to understanding the retardation and transport of radionuclides in the far-field of a radioactive waste repository. In principle, naturally occurring isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium can be regarded as geochemical analogues of the divalent radionuclides and multivalent actinides expected to be present in the radioactive waste inventory. The study of their retardation and/or transport in real rock/water systems which have taken place over geological timescales, can make an important contribution to establishing a rational basis for long-term predictive modelling of radionuclide transport required for safety assessments. (author)

  20. The study of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide near nuclear power plant using CFD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrale, Dhanesh B.; Bera, Subrata; Deo, Anuj K.; Gaikwad, Avinash J.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the studies on atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material released from nuclear power plants are based on Gaussian plume models which fail to take account turbulence generated. The Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) code is one such flow model that uses a form of Navier-Stokes equation for low mach number applications. In the 0-2 km range near nuclear power plant, mainly near the source of emission of radionuclides, obstructions like natural draft cooling towers, plant building and structures are located. The stability class 'F' conditions and temperature of surrounding atmosphere, 15°C are considered in analysis. Main constituents of radionuclides released from stack mainly xenon, krypton. Two cases are carried out a) dispersion of gases without obstruction of cooling tower and b) dispersion of gases with obstruction of cooling tower. It is observed that mass fraction of radionuclides near the cooling tower ground increased to certain extent due to obstruction and wake effect. (author)

  1. Radionuclide disequilibria studies for investigating the integrity of potential nuclear waste disposal sites: subseabed studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.; Thomas, C.W.; Petersen, M.R.; Perkins, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    This study of subseabed sediments indicates that natural radionuclides can be employed to define past long-term migration rates and thereby evaluate the integrity of potential disposal sites in ocean sediments. The study revealed the following conclusions: (1) the sedimentation rate of both the long and short cores collected in the North Pacific is 2.5 mm/1000 yr or 2.5 m/m.yr in the upper 3 meters; (2) the sedimentation rate has been rather constant over the last one million years; and (3) slow diffusive processes dominate within the sediment. Reworking of the sediment by physical processes or organisms is not observed

  2. Studies of radionuclides behavior on heavily contaminated 5-km zone of СhNPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Bondarkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the radionuclides behavior in the soils of “Red Forest” landfill in the nearest 5-km ChNPP zone were carried out during 2014 - 2015. The parameters of vertical migration and halftimes of upper 5-cm soil layer decontamination were obtained. Forms of occurrence of 90Sr and 137Cs, as well as the disperse composition of the Chernobyl origin fuel particles were evaluated. Behavior of radionuclides described in conditions of the convection-diffusion model and the parameters of the model slightly changed over the past decade.

  3. Study of the half-life of 123I and the determination of possible radionuclidic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Araujo, Camila Cristina Cunha; Candido, Marcos Antonio; Pereira, Wagner do Prado

    2013-01-01

    During the process of production of the radiopharmaceutical nuclear reactor or cyclotron, impurities can be generated from biological, chemical and radionuclidic. The development of the present work was to study the half-life of Na 123 I sample produced in IEN (Institute of Nuclear Engineering) using the technique of gamma-ray spectrometry with germanium detector in order to Identify such impurities. The results Indicate values of half-life consistent with recent publications with a deviation of 0,08% and 0:11% of uncertainty as well as the identification of impurities to radionuclides 95m Tc, 96 Tc and 121 Te. (author)

  4. Radionuclide transfer to freshwater biota species: review of Russian language studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S., E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.or [International Atomic Energy Agency, NAAL, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Fesenko, J.; Sanzharova, N.; Karpenko, E.; Titov, I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15

    Around 130 publications reporting studies on radionuclide transfer to freshwater biota species conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide the concentration ratio values. None of these studies were available up to now in the English language reviews or publications. The values derived have been compared with the CR values used for freshwater systems in the International reviews. For some radionuclides reviewed in this paper, the data are in good agreement with the mean CR values presented earlier, however for some of them, in particular, for {sup 241}Am (bivalve molluscs, gastropods and pelagic fish), {sup 60}Co (gastropods, benthic fish and insect larvae), {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs (benthic fish and zooplankton), the mean values given here are substantially different from those presented earlier. The data reported in this paper for thirty five radionuclides and eleven groups of freshwater species markedly improve the extent of available data for evaluation of radiation impact on freshwater species. - Research highlights: {yields} The paper provides information on concentration ratios to freshwater biota species for 35 radionuclides. Many of the data are for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. {yields} For the majority of radionuclides reviewed in this paper, the CR values are in good agreement with those given in the recent International reviews. {yields} For {sup 241}Am (bivalve molluscs, gastropods and pelagic fish), {sup 60}Co (gastropods, benthic fish and insect larvae), {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs (benthic fish and zooplankton), the mean values based on review of the Russian language publications are substantially different from those presented in the International reviews. {yields} Information presented in the paper significantly increases the availability of data on radionuclide accumulation in freshwater species.

  5. Transfer into the biosphere of radionuclides released from deep storage of radioactive wastes. Bibliographical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedon, V.; Siclet, F.

    1995-03-01

    Most countries with civilian nuclear programs today are encountering difficulty in implementing a nuclear waste management policy that is both technically safe in the long term and accepted by the public. To meet both criteria, the solution most generally envisaged is deep storage either of untreated spent nuclear fuel or of highly radioactive wastes resulting from reprocessing. In order to predict the potential impact of such storage on man, one needs to understand the path followed by radionuclides in the geosphere, and later in the biosphere. Given the time scales involved and the critical nature of the elements concerned, it is indispensable to turn to mathematical modeling of the phenomena. This, however, does not preclude the essential need for in-depth knowledge of the phenomena and of the physico-chemical characteristics of radionuclides. This report presents what is hoped to be a complete inventory of the radionuclides contained in ''high level'' wastes (categories B AND C). The elements concerned in studies on deep storage are essentially long-life radionuclides (both actinides and certain fission and activation products). Their physico-chemical characteristics and their behavior in various ecological compartments are examined. Bibliographical data bearing on: solubility (in an oxidizing, reducing medium), distribution factors (water/rock-sediment-soil), concentration and transfer factors (in aquatic and terrestrial mediums), dose conversion factors (in the case of internal and external irradiation), principal paths of exposure for each radionuclide studied, are presented in this report. Initial results from international projects to model what happens to radionuclides in the biosphere are also presented. In general, they are optimistic as to the future, but nonetheless point to a need to improve the conceptual base of the models, to ensure that all major phenomena and processes are taken into consideration and to examine any possible amplification

  6. Radionuclide transfer to freshwater biota species: review of Russian language studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Fesenko, J.; Sanzharova, N.; Karpenko, E.; Titov, I.

    2011-01-01

    Around 130 publications reporting studies on radionuclide transfer to freshwater biota species conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide the concentration ratio values. None of these studies were available up to now in the English language reviews or publications. The values derived have been compared with the CR values used for freshwater systems in the International reviews. For some radionuclides reviewed in this paper, the data are in good agreement with the mean CR values presented earlier, however for some of them, in particular, for 241 Am (bivalve molluscs, gastropods and pelagic fish), 60 Co (gastropods, benthic fish and insect larvae), 90 Sr and 137 Cs (benthic fish and zooplankton), the mean values given here are substantially different from those presented earlier. The data reported in this paper for thirty five radionuclides and eleven groups of freshwater species markedly improve the extent of available data for evaluation of radiation impact on freshwater species. - Research highlights: → The paper provides information on concentration ratios to freshwater biota species for 35 radionuclides. Many of the data are for 90 Sr and 137 Cs. → For the majority of radionuclides reviewed in this paper, the CR values are in good agreement with those given in the recent International reviews. → For 241 Am (bivalve molluscs, gastropods and pelagic fish), 60 Co (gastropods, benthic fish and insect larvae), 90 Sr and 137 Cs (benthic fish and zooplankton), the mean values based on review of the Russian language publications are substantially different from those presented in the International reviews. → Information presented in the paper significantly increases the availability of data on radionuclide accumulation in freshwater species.

  7. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  8. Status of radionuclide sorption-desorption studies performed by the WRIT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Relyea, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on interactions between dissolved radionuclides in groundwater and rocks and sediments away from the nearfield repository. Two approaches were used to study the primary mechanism, adsorption-desorption. Empirical studies rely on distribution coefficient measurements, and mechanism studies strive to identify, differentiate, and quantify the processes that control nuclide retardation. The status of sorption mechanism studies is discussed, with emphasis on delineating the usefulness of ideal ion-exchange, site-binding electrical double-layer, and redox-controlled sorption constructs. Since studies to date show greater potential for site-binding electrical double-layer models, future efforts will concentrate on this construct. Laboratory studies are discussed which corroborate the importance of redox reactions in causing nuclide retardation for multivalent elements, such as Tc, Np, Pu, and U. Results suggest that both solution-mediated reduction, such as the Fe(II)-Fe(III) couple, and solid-solution heterogeneous reduction reactions, such as reduction of solution Pu(VI) at the mineral surface by structural Fe(II), occur. Coupled microscopy, microprobe, and autoradiography studies have determined actual sorption sites for radionuclides on polymineralic rocks. The studies show that it is possible for minor phases to completely dominate the mass of radionuclides adsorbed. The most active minerals are typically alternation products (clays and zeolites). Several exercises are discussed which rank radionuclides according to their potential dose hazards. In each of the analyses discussed, the top four radionuclides are I, Tc, Np, and Ra. Other elements that rank high in potential hazards are Pu, U, Am, Th, Pb, Sn, Pd, and Se

  9. Modelling and experimental studies on the transfer of radionuclides to fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carini, F.; Atkinson, C.J.; Collins, C.; Coughtrey, P.J.; Eged, K.; Fulker, M.; Green, N.; Kinnersley, R.; Linkov, I.; Mitchell, N.G.; Mourlon, C.; Ould-Dada, Z.; Quinault, J.M.; Robles, B.; Stewart, A.; Sweeck, L.; Venter, A.

    2005-01-01

    Although fruit is an important component of the diet, the extent to which it contributes to radiological exposure remains unclear, partially as a consequence of uncertainties in models and data used to assess transfer of radionuclides in the food chain. A Fruits Working Group operated as part of the IAEA BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) programme from 1997 to 2000, with the aim of improving the robustness of the models that are used for radiological assessment. The Group completed a number of modelling and experimental activities including: (i) a review of experimental, field and modelling information on the transfer of radionuclides to fruit; (ii) discussion of recently completed or ongoing experimental studies; (iii) development of a database on the transfer of radionuclides to fruit; (iv) development of a conceptual model for fruit and (v) two model intercomparison studies and a model validation study. The Group achieved significant advances in understanding the processes involved in transfer of radionuclides to fruit. The work demonstrated that further experimental and modelling studies are required to ensure that the current generation of models can be applied to a wide range of scenarios

  10. Study on behavior of long-lived radionuclides in soil environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Shigemitsu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Katagiri, Hiromi; Akatsu, Yasuo [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1996-04-01

    Distribution of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 237}Np in soil in Japan was measured. Dependency of concentration on physical and chemical properties of soil was studied. High sensitivity inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was applied to the quantitative analysis of long-lived radionuclides. (J.P.N.)

  11. Bioconcentration of artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms: in situ and in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dementyev, Dmitry V.; Manukovsky, Nikolai S.; Bolsunovsky, Alexander Ya.; Alexandrova, Yuliyana V. [Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Some areas of the Yenisei River basin are affected by the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC), producing weapons-grade plutonium. Flood plain soils of the Yenisei contain a wide range of artificial radionuclides, including transuranium elements, which can be accumulated by living organisms. Concentrations of artificial radionuclides and heavy metals accumulated by mushrooms may be several orders of magnitude higher than those accumulated by plants, and, thus, mushrooms may be used as bio-concentrators of radionuclides and heavy metals for bioremediation of contaminated areas. The purposes of this study were to investigate 1) species specificity of accumulation of artificial radionuclides by edible mushrooms in radioactively contaminated areas of the Yenisei River flood plain and 2) accumulation rates of artificial radionuclides, including transuranium elements, in mushrooms under laboratory conditions. Species specificity of accumulation of artificial radionuclides and uranium by mushrooms was analyzed for 12 species of edible mushrooms. The study was performed at the sites affected by MCC operation, which were divided into two groups: 1) the sites only affected by aerosol-bound radionuclides and 2) the sites that also received waterborne radionuclides. Field studies showed great interspecific variations in Cs-137 accumulation by mushrooms. Activity concentrations of Cs-137 in bioindicator species Suillus granulatus and S. Luteus reached 10 kBq/kg dry weight. S. granulatus and S. luteus are concentrators of Cs-137, as suggested by the analysis of concentration factors (CFs), which reached 0.7-16 for these mushroom species. The CF of U-238 in fruiting bodies of the mushrooms was no greater than 0.11. Yenisei flood plain soils contain a wide range of transuranium elements, which can accumulate in environmental objects. Laboratory experiments on accumulation of Am-241 from solution by mycelium and Am-241 accumulation by fruiting bodies of mushrooms

  12. Sorption/ desorption studies of some radionuclides between disposal soil fractions and ground water. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Reefy, S.A.; Ali, A.

    1996-01-01

    The radioactive waste management program in egypt includes shallow land disposal area for waste package disposal. The proposed site is located to the east of the Hot laboratory centre at Inchas. Assessment of the efficiency of the different sediments and rocks found in this area as a barrier against release of radioactive nuclide to the environment is of major importance. This study is related to evaluate the migration of Cs, Co, and Am within the environment of this site. In this concern, seven soil fractions were taken from a digging well from the proposed disposal site at different depths down to the basalt sheets. A column was constructed containing the soil fractions representing the stratigraphic successions taken from the site. The radionuclides; Cs-137, Co-60, and Am-241 were in this investigation representatives for mono, di- and tri-valent elements and also represented the radionuclides which are mostly associated with radioactive wastes. The sorption/ desorption studies of these radionuclides with the different soil fractions and ground water from the proposed disposal site were carried out. The results obtained were used to predict the migration pathways of these radionuclides within the disposal environment. 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Study of alternative routes for the production of innovative radionuclides for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialty that uses radioactive nuclei for therapy or diagnosis of diseases such as different types of cancer. These radionuclides are coupled to carrier molecules to target sick cells. Currently, only few isotopes are used in clinical practice. However, many others may be of medical interest due to their emitted radiation and/or their half-life that can be adapted to the carrier molecule transit time and to the pathology. The aim of this PhD thesis is to study the production of innovative radionuclides for therapy and diagnosis applications in collaboration with the GIP ARRONAX, which possesses a multi-particle high energy cyclotron. A fundamental physical parameter to access the production rate of a radionuclide is the production cross section. Experimental data were measured for a selection of radionuclides: photon emitter (Tc-99m) and positron emitter (Sc-44g) for diagnosis, as well as electron emitters (Re-186, Tb-155 and Sn-117m) and α particles emitters (Th-226, Ra-223 and Bi-213) for therapeutic applications. These acquired data are obtained using alternative production routes compared to the commonly used. Data related to the contaminants produced during the irradiations were also extracted. The experimental cross section values are compared with theoretical model predictions. The large set of data obtained contributes to the theoretical physicist studies allowing to constrain their models to improve and/or validate them. (author)

  14. The study of the radiation protection problem in the radionuclide interstitial implantation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jimian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and study the radiation protection problem in the radionuclide interstitial permanent implantation therapy. Methods: Based on test data from radioactive measurement department, calculating results and national standards, the radiation dose of the exposed radioactive particles, the operator who has participated in the radionuclide interstitial permanent implantation therapy operation and the relatives who have accompanied the patient during the whole course, the reference time of being discharged from hospital for the patients who have been cured by different activity of radioactive particles are studied. Results: The maximal radiation dose of operating doctor who has participated in a single radionuclide interstitial permanent implantation therapy operation and the relatives who has accompanied the patient during the whole course are 0.315 mSv/a and 0.70 mSv. Based on actual contact frequencies, their radiation dose is proved to be smaller than the restricted dose prescribed by national standards. The reference time of leaving hospital for the patients who have been cured by different activity of radioactive particles is 0 to 44 days. Conclusion: The radiation dose of radiation workers and surrounding publics in the radionuclide interstitial permanent implantation therapy operation can be acceptable under certain shields. But the risk of potential exposure should be guarded. The authors should Lay down operation indications and avoid performing operation blindly. If one must be operated, the authors should plan the quantity and the part of the painting radioactive particles accurately in order to avoid some passible complications. (authors)

  15. Sorption/ desorption studies of some radionuclides between disposal soil fractions and ground water. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Reefy, S A; Ali, A [Hot Lab. Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive waste management program in egypt includes shallow land disposal area for waste package disposal. The proposed site is located to the east of the Hot laboratory centre at Inchas. Assessment of the efficiency of the different sediments and rocks found in this area as a barrier against release of radioactive nuclide to the environment is of major importance. This study is related to evaluate the migration of Cs, Co, and Am within the environment of this site. In this concern, seven soil fractions were taken from a digging well from the proposed disposal site at different depths down to the basalt sheets. A column was constructed containing the soil fractions representing the stratigraphic successions taken from the site. The radionuclides; Cs-137, Co-60, and Am-241 were in this investigation representatives for mono, di- and tri-valent elements and also represented the radionuclides which are mostly associated with radioactive wastes. The sorption/ desorption studies of these radionuclides with the different soil fractions and ground water from the proposed disposal site were carried out. The results obtained were used to predict the migration pathways of these radionuclides within the disposal environment. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Study on the radionuclide movement in the land water system in Rokkasho Village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kunio

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine the margin of safety for radionuclides to be released from Rokkasho Village, an investigation is required for evaluating the radiation safety in response to the actual situations including the meteorological, geographical and ecological conditions specific to the village. Aiming to construct a model for evaluating the amount of nuclide transfer from a river to a farm land, an investigation is planned on the radionuclide behaviors in the river water and their transfer from the river to the farm land and vice versa in the village. Since several little rivers originating in a small hill flow into a brackish marsh of the village, of which water and biological environments are very complicated and highly variable, an investigation is planned in this study on the parameters involving in the inflow and outflow of nuclides for the marsh and the amount and the mechanism of radionuclide accumulation in the marsh. Thus, it will be able to estimate the degree of the effects of changes in the marsh's water environment on radionuclide behaviors in it. Since this study is to start in this year, only the plans were described here. (M.N.)

  17. The biokinetics of Rhuthenium and Zirconium radionuclides in humans studied with stable tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronese, I.; Cantone, M.C.; Giussani, A.

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of the internal radiation dose delivered by radionuclides incorporated in the human body after accidental release into the environment requires the use of suitable biokinetic models. These models describe the absorption of radionuclides into the blood circulation, their distribution and retention in various organs and tissues, and the excretion routes. Biokinetic models are also employed for interpreting bioassay measurements in exposed subjects, like activity concentration measurements in body fluids (e.g. urine, blood), in order to estimate the incorporated amount of radioactive substances. The reliability of a biokinetic model is closely linked to the available experimental data used to develop the model itself. Biokinetic data for human subjects are available for most essential elements, as well as for some important non-essential elements such as caesium, lead, radium, uranium, americium and plutonium. For many other radionuclides, either very little or no information is available from human studies, and the respective models must be derived from other sources. These may include results from studies in animals, comparative data on the behaviour of similar radionuclides or chemical analogues in vitro. Biokinetic models developed from such a variety of data sources can be applied to humans only with a limited degree of confidence. The availability of data directly obtained on human subjects is therefore fundamental to set up more reliable and realistic models. Ruthenium and zirconium are among the elements characterised by a serious lack of reliable data in humans

  18. Experimental Studies to Evaluate the Role of Colloids on the Radionuclide Migration in a Crystalline Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarran, Nairoby; Missana, Tiziana; Alonso, Ursula; Garcia-Gutierrez, Miguel; Mingarro, Manuel; Lopez, Trinidad

    2008-01-01

    In a deep geological repository (DGR) of high level radioactive waste, all the possible phenomena affecting radionuclide migration have to be studied to assess its security over time. Colloids can play an important role for contaminant transport if the following conditions are fulfilled: colloids exist in a non negligible concentration, they are mobile and stable in the environment of interest, and they are able to adsorb radionuclides irreversibly. In this study, different transport experiments where performed to improve the knowledge on the main mechanisms affecting the radionuclide migration in the presence of colloids in a crystalline medium. Firstly, colloid stability was analysed and then transport experiments in an artificial granite longitudinal fracture were carried out. Synthetic colloids of different size and bentonite clay colloids were used to evaluate the effects of colloid size, charge, and water flow rate on their mobility. Results showed that both major importance of the water flow rate on the mobility of colloids and their recovery and a higher interaction of smaller particles with the surface. Finally, the migration behaviour of Sr, and Sr adsorbed onto bentonite colloids was compared. The elution curves of Sr adsorbed onto colloid were significantly different from the ones of Sr alone, pointing out that sorption/desorption mechanisms must be taken into account to understand the radionuclide migration in the fracture in the presence of colloids. (authors)

  19. Twenty-five-year study of radionuclides in the Susquehanna river via periphyton biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John; Kreeger, Danielle; Harris, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This 25-y study monitored aquatic and terrestrial gamma-ray-emitting radionuclide levels near a nuclear power plant. It is the only known, long-term environmental survey of its kind. It was conducted neither by a utility owner, nor by a government agency, but rather by a private, environmental research institution. Compared to dozens of other flora and fauna, periphyton was found to be the best indicator to biomonitor the Susquehanna River, which runs near PPL Susquehanna's nuclear plant. Sampling began in 1979 before the first plant start-up and continued for the next 24 years. Monitoring began two months after the Three Mile Island accident of 28 March 1979 and includes Three Mile Island area measurements. Ongoing measurements detected fallout from Chernobyl in 1986, as well as I not released from PPL Susquehanna. Although this paper concentrates on radionuclides found in periphyton, the scope of the entire environmental program includes a wide variety of aquatic and land-based plants, animals, and inorganic matter. Other species and matter studied were fish, mussels, snails, crayfish, insects, humus, mushrooms, lichens, squirrels, deer, cabbage, tomatoes, coarse and flocculated sediment, and more. Results show periphyton works well for detection of radionuclide activity, even in concentrations less than 100 Bq kg (picocuries per gram amounts). Data indicate that PPL Susquehanna's radionuclide releases have had no known environmental or human health impact.

  20. A study of radionuclide dispersion by river systems, using GIS and remote sensing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghuis, Sander; Brown, Justin; Steenhuisen, Frits; Skorve, Johnny

    2000-01-01

    The Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine in Zheleznogorsk, Russia, is situated on the banks of the Yenisey river. The combine consists of three RBMK-type graphite moderate reactors, a reprocessing plant for the production of weapons-grade plutonium and storage facilities for nuclear waste. Discharges of radionuclides into the Yenisey river were either part of normal operation procedures or caused by accidental releases (Strand et al., 1997). So far, little is known about the transport and fate of the radioactive contaminants in the areas downstream of the Krasnoyarsk CC that are influenced by the Yenisey river system. Aim is to comprehend the dispersion of radionuclides through the river system. Remotely sensed and field study information are combined in a geographical information system (GIS) to study the processes leading to the dispersion of sediment-bound radionuclides carried by the river system. Since the extent of the study area is several thousands or kilometres of river and adjacent flood plains, use is made of a record of remotely sensed (satellite) images that are handled by the GIS. Panchromatic, high resolution satellite images as well as multispectral Landsat MSS and TM images were compiled for the area of interest. The panchromatic images were taken in a period during which the facility was in operation (1960-1972) and obtained for intervals of circa 6 months. A time series of satellite images enables the identification of erosion and sedimentation zones. The behaviour and fate of particle-reactive radionuclides, e.g. 239,240 Pu and to large extent 137 Cs, will be closely related to the movement of sediment. With respect to the behaviour and fate of more conservative radionuclides as 90 Sr, information is required accounting for fractionation between the particulate and aqueous phases. Stereo images are used to comprehend the geomorphology of the Yenisey river systems, focused on classification of sedimentary deposits. Landsat MSS and TM with five

  1. The use of radionuclide techniques in soil erosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Mabit, L.

    2006-01-01

    Erosion is of concern since it can reduce soil productivity as a result of exportation of inorganic and organic material and nutrients out of the cultivated fields. These are the so-called 'onsite' impacts of erosion. Some of the exported materials, and the associated elements, find their way to water bodies The result is a degradation of the water quality due to suspended solids, sedimentation, eutrophication and pesticide toxicity, what is currently referred to as off-site impacts. Despite its importance, many countries lack reliable and comprehensive data on the problem, its magnitude and spatial extent. One of the reasons is that producing representative and reliable data on erosion is a long and resource intensive process.Fallout radionuclides (FRNs), such as 137 Cs, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have proven to be very powerful tracers of soil movements, that can complement interestingly more conventional approaches. Starting in the mid-1990's the IAEA has been actively involved in supporting coordinated research activities to further develop several methodological aspects related to the use of these isotopes and in the dissemination of the techniques among Member States, through the joint efforts of the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Section (SWMCN) of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the Soil Science Unit (SSU) of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory. A first Coordinated Research Project (CRP), from 1996 to 2001, helped to test and validate the basic assumptions underlying the use of FRN, to accelerate the development of conversion models used to translate FRN data into soil movements and to evaluate the effect of specific land use management on soil erosion. A second CRP, planned for 2003-2007, builds on the results of the first one to assess the efficiency of different soil conservation practices, to continue the validation of conversion models and the development of user-friendly software to

  2. Radionuclide transfer to marine biota species: review of Russian language studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Fesenko, E; Titov, I; Karpenko, E; Sanzharova, N; Fonseca, A Gondin; Brown, J

    2010-11-01

    An extensive programme of experiments on transfer of radionuclides to aquatic species was conducted in the former USSR starting from the early 1950s. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of radionuclide behaviour in marine ecosystems. Therefore, an overview of original information on radionuclide transfer to marine biota species available from Russian language literature sources is presented here. The concentration ratio (CR) values for many radionuclides and for marine species such as: (239)Pu, (106)Ru and (95)Zr (crustacean), (54)Mn, (90)Sr, (95)Nb, (106)Ru, (137)Cs (239)Pu, (241)Am and natural U (molluscs), and (54)Mn, (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (144)Ce (fish) are in good agreement with those previously published, whilst for some of them, in particular, for (32)P and (110)Ag (crustaceans), (35)S (molluscs), (32)P, (35)S, (95)Nb, and (106)Ru (macroalgae) and (60)Co and (239,240)Pu (fish) the data presented here suggest that changes in the default CR reference values presented in recent marine reviews may be required. The data presented here are intended to supplement substantially the CR values being collated within the handbook on Wildlife Transfer Coefficients, coordinated under the IAEA EMRAS II programme.

  3. Study on experimental models to analyze radionuclide migration behaviors through porous geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    The migration phenomenon of radionuclide through geological media such as soils and porous rocks, which is important in underground disposal of radioactive wastes, can be described by the advection-dispersion of groundwater and the interactions of radionuclide with geological media. On the other hand, to understand the migration phenomenon, actual migration data are experimentally acquired by a batch test, a column test and field trial. In the present study, experimental models about the interactions of radionuclide between the solid phase and the liquid phase were discussed systematically to interpret the migration data acquired by the various techniques and conditions. Equilibrium, reversibility, linearity, mechanism and chemistry in the interactions were considered in discussion of the experimental models. A calculation program, which can analyze migration data obtained under various conditions by applying the selected 9 types of experimental models, was maintained. The calculation program makes it be able to predict the migration behavior of radionuclide under various conditions and to decide the important parameter by a fitting analysis of the migration data. (author)

  4. Neutron activation of microspheres containing 165Ho: theoretical and experimental radionuclidic impurities study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squair, Peterson L.; Pozzo, Lorena; Ivanov, Evandro; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2011-01-01

    The 166 Ho microspheres are potentially interesting for medical applications for treatment of many tumors. The internal radionuclide therapy can use polymer or glass device that provides structural support for the radionuclide. After activation, beta minus emission of 166 Ho (T 1/2 =26.8h, β - E max =1.84 MeV, γ E p =80.6 keV) can be used for therapeutic purposes. The aim of this work is study the influence of radionuclide impurities between End of Bombardment (EOB) and the medical application. The appropriate specific activities and purity along decay should be adequate for their safe and efficient medical applications. The good practices on neutron activation techniques are choice a high purity target to avoid production of undesirable radionuclides and when possible with enriched targets to obtain higher specific activity. In this work the target used was Ho 2 O 3 and polymeric microspheres containing holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) manufactured at the Biotechnology Center-IPEN/CNEN-SP. Three conditions were evaluated: preliminary test with 1.0x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 for 1.0 hour; nowadays maximum capability of IEA-R1 reactor with 5.0x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 for 64.0 hours and the ideal IEA-R1 operation with 5.0x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 for 120.0 hours. Considering the sample with 99.9% 165 Ho purity and 0.1% for each impurities elements with its natural abundance, the highest radionuclidic impurity is the Lutetium followed by Ytterbium, Lanthanum and Cerium. The intrinsic radionuclidic impurity of 166 mHo is less relevant. This review is important to identify the radionuclidic purity characteristics of the preliminary studies with different time and flux irradiation. The data produced in this paper will help to define strategies for the production of 166 Ho radioisotope at IEA-R1 IPEN/CNEN-SP reactor. (author)

  5. Radionuclide migration experiments related to an underground nuclear test: II. modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompson, A.; Carle, S.F.; Smith, D.K.; Hudson, G.B.; Bruton, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The goal of this project is to improve our understanding of water and radionuclide migration in both saturated and unsaturated geologic media by coupling advanced simulation techniques, available characterization data, and radioanalytical measurements in the context of a remarkable field experiment. Between 1975 and 1991, groundwater was steadily pumped from a well adjacent to a 1965 underground test conducted in alluvium at the Nevada Test Site. The experiment was primarily conducted in order to elicit information on radionuclide migration through the saturated zone between the test and the well. The effluent was monitored. discharged to an unlined ditch, and allowed to infiltrate into the ground during flow towards a dry lake, about a kilometer away. The 16 years of pumping and infiltration created an unexpected second experiment in which the migration of the ditch effluent through the 200 meters of unsaturated media, back to the water table, could be studied. Pumping and effluent data are being utilized in conjunction with chemical measurements made in groundwater and a series of numerical models to better understand the movement of radionuclides in the system, both between the test and the well, and between the ditch and the water table. The release of radionuclides away from a testing area will be controlled by local groundwater flow rates, by their dissolution from solidified melt glass produced by the test, and by chemical sorption processes that retard their migration rates in chemically reactive geologic media. Only the more mobile and less reactive radionuclides (e.g.. tritium, 14 C, 36 Cl, 85 Kr, and 129 I) were measured in the well effluent. The movement of these radionuclides through the unsaturated media beneath the ditch will be affected additionally by the capillary nature of moisture movement under unsaturated conditions and by their interaction with and potential mass exchange with the gas (air) phase. Results of numerical simulations

  6. Radionuclide transfer in marine coastal ecosystems, a modelling study using metabolic processes and site data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, L; Bradshaw, C; Kumblad, L; Kautsky, U

    2014-07-01

    This study implements new site-specific data and improved process-based transport model for 26 elements (Ac, Ag, Am, Ca, Cl, Cm, Cs, Ho, I, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Po, Pu, Ra, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zr), and validates model predictions with site measurements and literature data. The model was applied in the safety assessment of a planned nuclear waste repository in Forsmark, Öregrundsgrepen (Baltic Sea). Radionuclide transport models are central in radiological risk assessments to predict radionuclide concentrations in biota and doses to humans. Usually concentration ratios (CRs), the ratio of the measured radionuclide concentration in an organism to the concentration in water, drive such models. However, CRs vary with space and time and CR estimates for many organisms are lacking. In the model used in this study, radionuclides were assumed to follow the circulation of organic matter in the ecosystem and regulated by radionuclide-specific mechanisms and metabolic rates of the organisms. Most input parameters were represented by log-normally distributed probability density functions (PDFs) to account for parameter uncertainty. Generally, modelled CRs for grazers, benthos, zooplankton and fish for the 26 elements were in good agreement with site-specific measurements. The uncertainty was reduced when the model was parameterized with site data, and modelled CRs were most similar to measured values for particle reactive elements and for primary consumers. This study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to validate models with more than just a few elements (e.g. Cs, Sr) in order to make them robust. The use of PDFs as input parameters, rather than averages or best estimates, enabled the estimation of the probable range of modelled CR values for the organism groups, an improvement over models that only estimate means. Using a mechanistic model that is constrained by ecological processes enables (i) the evaluation of the relative importance of food and water

  7. Radionuclide transfer in marine coastal ecosystems, a modelling study using metabolic processes and site data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalenko, L.; Bradshaw, C.; Kumblad, L.; Kautsky, U.

    2014-01-01

    This study implements new site-specific data and improved process-based transport model for 26 elements (Ac, Ag, Am, Ca, Cl, Cm, Cs, Ho, I, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Po, Pu, Ra, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zr), and validates model predictions with site measurements and literature data. The model was applied in the safety assessment of a planned nuclear waste repository in Forsmark, Öregrundsgrepen (Baltic Sea). Radionuclide transport models are central in radiological risk assessments to predict radionuclide concentrations in biota and doses to humans. Usually concentration ratios (CRs), the ratio of the measured radionuclide concentration in an organism to the concentration in water, drive such models. However, CRs vary with space and time and CR estimates for many organisms are lacking. In the model used in this study, radionuclides were assumed to follow the circulation of organic matter in the ecosystem and regulated by radionuclide-specific mechanisms and metabolic rates of the organisms. Most input parameters were represented by log-normally distributed probability density functions (PDFs) to account for parameter uncertainty. Generally, modelled CRs for grazers, benthos, zooplankton and fish for the 26 elements were in good agreement with site-specific measurements. The uncertainty was reduced when the model was parameterized with site data, and modelled CRs were most similar to measured values for particle reactive elements and for primary consumers. This study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to validate models with more than just a few elements (e.g. Cs, Sr) in order to make them robust. The use of PDFs as input parameters, rather than averages or best estimates, enabled the estimation of the probable range of modelled CR values for the organism groups, an improvement over models that only estimate means. Using a mechanistic model that is constrained by ecological processes enables (i) the evaluation of the relative importance of food and water

  8. Quantitative aspects of transuranic and other radionuclide field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.; Kinnison, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to identify, develop and communicate statistical methodology for environmental actinide studies. Significant accomplishments of FY 1980 were continued publication of TRAN-STAT, acquisition of preliminary results from a computer simulation study for evaluating estimators of average ratios, and the review of statistical estimation methods for data near detection limits

  9. Study of the association between exposure to transuranic radionuclides and cancer death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahian, Naz Afarin

    An exploratory epidemiological study has been conducted on 319 deceased nuclear workers, who had recorded intakes and histories of employment for at least one year during the time period from 1943 to 1995, at different facilities including the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites, and thorium and uranium mining and milling plants. These workers voluntarily agreed to donate their organs or whole body to the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) for scientific research purposes. The majority of this population was involved in documented radiological incidents during their careers. Many were exposed to transuranic radionuclides primarily via inhalation or puncture wounds. The purpose of this study was to find the level of dose that was received by the USTUR registrants following accidents and subsequent to mitigating actions, and to investigate whether or not there is any association between exposure to these transuranic radionuclides and cancer deaths. The external and internal dose assessments were performed using occupational radiation exposure histories and postmortem concentrations of transuranic radionuclides in critical organs, respectively. Statistical data analyses were performed to identify whether or not the USTUR registrants can be categorized as a 'low-dose' population and to investigate the potential correlation between exposure to transuranic radionuclides and causes of death within this population due to cancers of the lungs and liver as well as cancers of all sites, while controlling for the effects of other confounders. Based on the statistical tests performed, the USTUR registrants can be categorized as a low-dose population in terms of their occupational external exposures. However, when considering their total effective dose equivalents from both external penetrating radiation and internal exposure to transuranic radionuclides, they can not be categorized as a low-dose population with a 95% confidence level (alpha = 0

  10. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: 3. Transfer to muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Sanzharova, N; Voigt, G

    2009-03-01

    Over 150 publications reporting studies conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide transfer coefficients (F(f)) to the muscle of domestic animals from experiments using chronic administration, often for long timescales in large scale experiments. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews. The values derived have been compared with expected values reported by the IAEA's Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) where possible. The information presented here has been used in the current updating of parameters recommended for environmental assessments by the IAEA. Many of the reported values are for Sr due to the Mayak accident and Cs due to the Chernobyl accident. Nevertheless, the reported data for a wide range of radionuclides, in particular for Ru, Sb, and Zn markedly improve the extent of available data.

  11. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: 3. Transfer to muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, NAAL, 1400 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.org; Isamov, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Howard, B.J.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Sanzharova, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, NAAL, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-03-15

    Over 150 publications reporting studies conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide transfer coefficients (F{sub f}) to the muscle of domestic animals from experiments using chronic administration, often for long timescales in large scale experiments. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews. The values derived have been compared with expected values reported by the IAEA's Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) where possible. The information presented here has been used in the current updating of parameters recommended for environmental assessments by the IAEA. Many of the reported values are for Sr due to the Mayak accident and Cs due to the Chernobyl accident. Nevertheless, the reported data for a wide range of radionuclides, in particular for Ru, Sb, and Zn markedly improve the extent of available data.

  12. Study of the transfer of radionuclides in trees at a forest site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barci-Funel, G.; Dalmasso, J.; Barci, V.L.; Ardisson, G.

    1995-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr from soil to trees (conifers) was studied in a forest area, the Boreon massif, 30 km north of Nice in South Eastern France. This area has been highly contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Besides the γ-emitting fission products, the α-emitters 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu and the pure β-emitter 90 Sr were measured in different parts of the studied trees (roots, branches, twigs, etc.). As has already been reported by other authors, the radionuclide activities in the tree rings are not correlated with the fallout deposition. They were found varying according to the sap flux in the tree and higher in sapwood than in heartwood. For cesium the root absorption was found to be lower than the atmospheric deposition. Soil-to-plant concentration factors were calculated for 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239+240 Pu

  13. Radionuclide scanning after total knee replacement: correlation with pain and radiolucent lines. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, B R; Boeckstyns, M; Kjaer, L

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships among Tc-99m radionuclide bone scan findings, pain, and radiolucent lines in 35 postsurgical knees. Our prospective study included bone scans, as well as radiographic and clinical examination three, seven, and 12 months after knee replacement surgery in 35...... and nonpainful knees, and the degree of isotope uptake did not correlate with the development of radiolucent lines around the prosthetic components....

  14. Sorption studies of radionuclides on a modified mesoporous cerium(IV) silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehrian, H.; Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran; Ghannadi-Maragheh, M.; Yavari, R.; Khanchi, A.R.; Waqif-Husain, S.

    2008-01-01

    Five different samples of a new sorbent, modified mesoporous cerium(IV) silicate have been prepared with various mole ratios of Si/Ce and Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMABr) as template. XRD, nitrogen sorption, SEM, IR, thermogravimetry and sorption of radionuclides have been studied. Separation of Hg(II)-Th(IV), Hg(II)-Zr(IV) and Rb(I)-Zr(IV) have been developed on columns of this novel sorbent. (author)

  15. Radionuclide study for assessing the effect of carbocalcitonin on Sudeck's atrophy of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattimo, A.

    1988-01-01

    Sudeck's atrophy of the foot is a localized osteoporosis often developping after a trauma. Its pathophysiological aspects include increased local blood flow and bone uptake of 99m Tc-MDP with normal or decreased bone avidity for the radiotracer. A two-phase radionuclide study proved effective in assessing the effects of treatment with carbocalcitonin in a series of patients, as it showed a reduced local blood flow and bone uptake combined with an increased bone avidity

  16. Radionuclide migration study in the case of a geological disposal site. Bibliographic research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Sophie

    1997-01-01

    The present bibliographic research deals with the study of radionuclide migration in the case of a geological disposal of spent fuel from PWR nuclear reactors. Bibliography was made with the DIALOG server on the following databases: INSPEC, NTIS, Ei Compendex Plus, SPIN, SciSearch, Pascal et Current Contents Search, and with the INIS and DocTheses CD-Roms. A synthesis based on a few documents is made in the second part of the report. (author) [fr

  17. Use of radionuclides in the study of iron metabolism in iron deficient states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatkov, A.; Karakostov, K.; Iliev, Z.; Dimitrov, L.

    1977-01-01

    A study of erythropoiesis in iron deficient anemias by simultaneous labelling with the radionuclides iron 59 and chromium 51 revealed accelerated iron circuit, higher percentage of daily hemolysis, severely reduced or even absent labile reserves, decreased volume of packed red cells with no decrease of blood volume. Adequate iron 59 utilization was observed after administration of large doses of iron (500 mg) in the treatment of iron deficient anemias. (author)

  18. Captopril radionuclide test in renovascular hypertension: a European multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fommei, E.; Ghione, S.; Hilson, A.J.W.; Mezzasalma, L.; Oei, H.Y.; Piepsz, A.; Volterrani, D.

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m DTPA before and after captopril was evaluated in a multicentre study. All 380 hypertensive patients in the study underwent renal arteriography; 125 had renal arterial stenosis ≥70%, and 54 had a technically successful intervention to correct the stenosis. The post-captopril study had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 100% for predicting blood pressure response to intervention, if renal function was normal and a combination of quantitative parameters was applied. In the entire population renal artery stenosis ≥70% was detected with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 93% if renal function was normal. In patients with abnormal renal function the performance of the test was worse, owing to a lower specificity which could be increased by using only time parameters. The performance of the test was optimal when the post-captopril findings were examined; no improvement was achieved by evaluation of the changes induced by captopril from the baseline. The test can thus be simplified by performing only a post-captopril study for routine use: a negative test would exclude a curable form of renovascular hypertension in right angle 80% and a positive test would predict it in right angle 90% of the patients selected for suspicion of the disease. Usefulness of the scintigraphic test for monitoring the clinical results of intervention is suggested by correlating post-intervention outcome with pre- and post-intervention scintigraphic results. (orig./MG)

  19. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  20. Studying the migration behaviour of radionuclides in boom clay by electromigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbert Maes, H.; Moors, H.; Dierckx, A.; Aertsens, M.; Wang, L.; Canniere, P. de; Put, M. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Waste and Disposal - R and D Geological Disposal Mol (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Migration studies are an important part in the assessment of the performance of the Boom Clay Formation as a candidate for geological disposal of High-Level radwaste in Belgium. However, classical diffusion experiments take a long time because of the excellent retention characteristics of the Boom Clay. Electrical fields can be used to move ionic species. Especially for low permeability soils/sediments (such as clays), this driving force is far more efficient than a hydraulic gradient. As a consequence, the experimental time can be reduced drastically. This paper gives an overview on the quantitative and qualitative use of electromigration as a powerful technique to study radionuclides migration in clays. The enormous time gain in the determination of migration parameters for strongly retarded radionuclides as {sup 137}Cs{sup +} and {sup 226}Ra{sup 2+} is first demonstrated. Secondly, we want to demonstrate that electromigration has some useful features to study the behaviour of radionuclides with a more complex chemistry like the redox sensitive element uranium and Am-Organic Matter (OM) complexes. In the case of uranium, electromigration provides information on the speciation of the migrating species while for the Am-organic Matter complexes the role of OM as a possible carrier of actinides is investigated. (orig.)

  1. Studying the migration behaviour of radionuclides in boom clay by electromigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norbert Maes, H.; Moors, H.; Dierckx, A.; Aertsens, M.; Wang, L.; Canniere, P. de; Put, M.

    2001-01-01

    Migration studies are an important part in the assessment of the performance of the Boom Clay Formation as a candidate for geological disposal of High-Level radwaste in Belgium. However, classical diffusion experiments take a long time because of the excellent retention characteristics of the Boom Clay. Electrical fields can be used to move ionic species. Especially for low permeability soils/sediments (such as clays), this driving force is far more efficient than a hydraulic gradient. As a consequence, the experimental time can be reduced drastically. This paper gives an overview on the quantitative and qualitative use of electromigration as a powerful technique to study radionuclides migration in clays. The enormous time gain in the determination of migration parameters for strongly retarded radionuclides as 137 Cs + and 226 Ra 2+ is first demonstrated. Secondly, we want to demonstrate that electromigration has some useful features to study the behaviour of radionuclides with a more complex chemistry like the redox sensitive element uranium and Am-Organic Matter (OM) complexes. In the case of uranium, electromigration provides information on the speciation of the migrating species while for the Am-organic Matter complexes the role of OM as a possible carrier of actinides is investigated. (orig.)

  2. Study on the migration of radionuclide through geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Han, Kyung Won; Han, Pil Soo; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Park, Chung Kyun; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Youn Myoung; Yang, Ho Yeon

    1987-05-01

    In Korea, Two disposal alternatives such as shallow land burial and rock cavern disposal of low- and intermediate- level waste are most applaudable options currently receiving attention. For each disposal method, Safety assessment is necessary to estimate the performance of a disposal system and to predict probable radiological consequences. In the present study, rock cavern disposal method is proposed as a most favorable alternative in view of Korean situation

  3. Radionuclide study of gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Humphries, L.; Castellanos, F.X.; De Land, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying, 20 patients with anorexia nervosa were given 150 μCi of Tc-99m triethylene tetraamine polystyrene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5-minute intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The GET results were divided into three categories: prolonged (10 patients); rapid (eight); and normal (two). Although all patients had symptoms of gastric dysfunction, only 50% had prolonged GET. This study allows the objective documentation of gastric emptying and the separation of patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide

  4. Radionuclide angiocardiography in the normal dog: first-pass studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Stokhof, A.A. (Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals)

    1989-11-01

    The first pass of a bolus of radioactivity ({sup 99m}Tc) through the heart and lungs was studied in 27 anaesthetised healthy adult mongrel dogs, using a gamma camera with a computer on-line. Bodyweights ranged from 9 to 60 kg, heart rate from 108 to 150 beats min{sup -1}. Quantitative analysis revealed that the distribution volume (DV) of the labelled blood, the cardiac output (CO), the stroke volume (SV) and pulmonary blood volume (PBV) were almost proportional to the bodyweight. Specific results were: DV 120 ml kg{sup -1}, CO 136 ml kg{sup -1}, SV 1.11 ml kg{sup -1}, PBV 6.9 ml kg{sup -1}. The pulmonary transit time varied between 1.0 and 3.6 seconds. Clinical applicability of the method, including visual inspection of camera images and quantitative analysis of a time-activity curve of the lung, was demonstrated for one dog with an aortic stenosis and another with a left-to-right shunt. (author).

  5. Study of radionuclide mobilization and drag mechanisms during hydric erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claval, D.

    2000-11-01

    Water erosion is responsible for the spread of radioactive contaminant through the agricultural catchment area, its redistribution, possible concentration and export towards the aquatic environment, and also for the post-accident contamination of plants through splash of water. The aim of this work is to offer or improve values for the proper functioning of codes of calculation destined for operational use. These codes of calculation do not take into account the spread of contamination after its release. Modelling these transfers requires initially the acquisition of the capacity for spread of the contamination at decimetric scale. To this end, we have reproduced deposits of dry and wet radioactive aerosols of cesium and strontium at various stages in the hydric and structural history of the soil in function of a range of degrees of slope of the terrain. The exchanges of cesium and strontium at the water-soil interface have been quantified by means of millimetric experimentation in batches, during which the various phases of the mobilization of soil particles have been reproduced on calibrated blocks of aggregates. At the end of this study, it was apparent that the cesium migrates horizontally at an appreciably faster rate and in greater proportions than the strontium that fixes little on the particles and infiltrates into the first centimeter of the soil. The key parameter to take into account for the model would appear to be the initial humidity of the soil. In addition, the migration of the cesium appears to be particularly sensitive to the development of sedimentary crusts. Where the soil is dry or slaking crusted at the time of contamination, the first run-off are very efficient carriers of contamination. The sedimentary crust favours the exportation of cesium and strontium by preventing its infiltration, while at the same time trapping part of the contamination on its immobile particles. On steep slopes, the structure of the sedimentary crusts is less

  6. Radionuclide sorption and migration studies of getters for backfill barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, E.J.

    1980-07-01

    Bentonite and hectorite clay minerals were chosen for study and development as potential backfill materials for testing in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt. This choice of materials was based on initial screening results which are presented and on the predicted physical properties of these materials. These properties were verified experimentally in concentrated brines specific to the WIPP site. Distribution coefficients, K/sub d/, were calculated from batch sorption measurements on bentonite and hectorite in the nearly saturated brines A and B. The resulting K/sub d/ values were in the range of (1 to 5) x 10 3 ml/g for europium; (2 to 40) x 10 3 ml/g for plutonium(IV); and (4 to 16) x 10 3 ml/g for americium(III). A silica- and calcite-containing sand mixed with bentonite and hectorite acted as a sorber of americium(III) but was merely an inert diluent for plutonium(IV). Pertechnetate anions (TcO 4 - ) sorbed on activated charcoal with K/sub d/ values in the range of (0.2 to 0.4) x 10 3 ml/g. Pertechnetate, cesium, and strontium ions in brine were not sorbed appreciably by bentonite or hectorite. Although experimental evidence is given for a possible role of solubility in the sorption of europium on getters, other data presented here and evidence from the literature are inconsistent with a simple single reaction sorption mechanism. It is concluded that a backfill containing bentonite on hectorite and activated charcoal is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Eu(III), Pu(IV), and Am(III) cations and, with further development, to the migration of TcO 4 - anions as well

  7. Consideration for modelling studies of migration of accidentally released radionuclides in a river watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi; Tsuduki, Katsunori; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Ueno, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Concerning radionuclides that might be released in an event of an accident from a nuclear facility, much attention has been paid to the migration pathways including the atmospheric deposition and subsequent inflow to surface water bodies since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. In European countries, computer-coded systems for predicting the migration including those pathways and providing scientific supports for decision makers to manage the contamination have been developed. This report is a summary of presentations and discussion made at the occasion of the visit of Dr. Monte in order to have directions related to the current subject of research, development of a mathematical model of the behavior of radionuclides in a river watershed. Those presentations and discussions were made at JAERI and also at prominent universities and institutes of Japan involved in this study field. As a result of these discussions, distinct advantages and key issues in use of a mathematical model for prediction of the migration of radionuclides in a river watershed have been identified and analyzed. It was confirmed that the use of mathematical modeling has distinct advantages. Re-arrangement of the existing experimental knowledge on the environment in an ordered way according to a theory (a mathematical model) will lead to a new angle to consider a problem in that environment, despite several gaps in the data array. A model to assess the radionuclide behaviour in contaminated aquatic ecosystems is a basis of decision analysis tools for helping decision-makers to select the most appropriate intervention strategies for the ecosystems. Practical use of a mathematical model and continuous effort in its validation were recognized as crucial. (author)

  8. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  9. Study of migration behavior of technogenic radionuclides in the Yenisey River-Kara Sea aquatic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.; Legin, E.; Legin, V. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shishlov, A.; Savitskii, Yu. [Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Novikov, A.; Goryachenkova, T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-03-01

    migrates as soluble species weakly sorbed by the solid phase, causing the observed low content of Sr-90 in flood-land deposits and bottom sediments of the Yenisey River. The indicated migration behavior of radionuclides is characteristic of the Yenisey Gulf and the adjacent part of the Kara Sea also. We made similar conclusions when studying the migration behavior of Cs-137, Pu-239,240, and Sr-90 in the Kiev reservoir (1987). The formation of radioactive flood-land deposits is provided by rapid deposition of suspended material in stagnant zones during periodical flood. Humus compounds contribute significantly to accumulation of radionuclides in the flood-land deposits and bottom sediments, which is supported by the observed correlation between the radionuclide (Pu, Am, Eu) and total organic carbon distributions in them. Radiochemical analysis of separate fractions showed that about 20% of Pu and Am are associated with the organic fraction: Pu is nearly equally distributed between humic and fulvic acid fractions, whereas Am is preferentially associated with the fulvic acid fraction (the most mobile fraction of humus matter). It was demonstrated in model experiments that the calcium-hydrocarbonate type of water of the Yenisey River causes suppression of formation of mobile fulvate complexes of hydrolyzable radionuclides and, therefore, their transfer into the aqueous phase. In combination with the observed very high distribution coefficients of the radionuclides and low content of their mobile geochemical forms in flood-land deposits of the Yenisey River this suggest that they cannot contribute somewhat significantly to the secondary radioactive contamination of the river water by all mechanisms except migration by mechanical transfer. (author)

  10. Study of migration behavior of technogenic radionuclides in the Yenisey River-Kara Sea aquatic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.; Legin, E.; Legin, V.; Shishlov, A.; Savitskii, Yu.; Novikov, A.; Goryachenkova, T.

    2001-01-01

    migrates as soluble species weakly sorbed by the solid phase, causing the observed low content of Sr-90 in flood-land deposits and bottom sediments of the Yenisey River. The indicated migration behavior of radionuclides is characteristic of the Yenisey Gulf and the adjacent part of the Kara Sea also. We made similar conclusions when studying the migration behavior of Cs-137, Pu-239,240, and Sr-90 in the Kiev reservoir (1987). The formation of radioactive flood-land deposits is provided by rapid deposition of suspended material in stagnant zones during periodical flood. Humus compounds contribute significantly to accumulation of radionuclides in the flood-land deposits and bottom sediments, which is supported by the observed correlation between the radionuclide (Pu, Am, Eu) and total organic carbon distributions in them. Radiochemical analysis of separate fractions showed that about 20% of Pu and Am are associated with the organic fraction: Pu is nearly equally distributed between humic and fulvic acid fractions, whereas Am is preferentially associated with the fulvic acid fraction (the most mobile fraction of humus matter). It was demonstrated in model experiments that the calcium-hydrocarbonate type of water of the Yenisey River causes suppression of formation of mobile fulvate complexes of hydrolyzable radionuclides and, therefore, their transfer into the aqueous phase. In combination with the observed very high distribution coefficients of the radionuclides and low content of their mobile geochemical forms in flood-land deposits of the Yenisey River this suggest that they cannot contribute somewhat significantly to the secondary radioactive contamination of the river water by all mechanisms except migration by mechanical transfer. (author)

  11. Clinical application of radionuclide cardiac study to the right heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Tatsuro; Ozaki, Masaharu; Ikezono, Tohru

    1984-01-01

    We experienced the four cases of rare right heart diseases: those are two-chambered right ventricle, ball thrombus in right ventricle, right ventricular hypertrophy and tricuspid valve regurgitation due to multiple pulmonary infarction, and right ventricular and right atrial infarction. The preoperative or ante mortem diagnosis of these diseases is difficult, especially by use of a noninvasive technique. This report shows the usefulness of radionuclide cardiac study for diagnosis of these cases. In the two-chambered right ventricle, abnormal muscle bundle was visualized by 201 Tlcl and was observed as the filling defect by sup(99m)Tc-HSA radionuclide angiography. The ball thrombus showed the filling defect of sup(99m)Tc-HSA in the right ventricle but was not extracted by 201 Tlcl in the site of the defect area. In the multiple pulmonary infarction, the right ventricular free wall was visualized by 201 Tlcl, and during right ventricular systole, regurgitation from right atrium to inferior vena cava was noticed by means of sup(99m)Tc-HSA radionuclide angiography. These findings suggested right ventricular hypertrophy and tricuspid valve regurgitation. In the right ventricular and right atrial infarction, right ventricular ejection fraction and right atrial fractional emptying were lower than those of normal controls. (author)

  12. Monitoring radionuclides in subsurface drinking water sources near unconventional drilling operations: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Andrew W.; Knight, Andrew W.; Eitrheim, Eric S.; Schultz, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional drilling (the combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) to extract oil and natural gas is expanding rapidly around the world. The rate of expansion challenges scientists and regulators to assess the risks of the new technologies on drinking water resources. One concern is the potential for subsurface drinking water resource contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials co-extracted during unconventional drilling activities. Given the rate of expansion, opportunities to test drinking water resources in the pre- and post-fracturing setting are rare. This pilot study investigated the levels of natural uranium, lead-210, and polonium-210 in private drinking wells within 2000 m of a large-volume hydraulic fracturing operation – before and approximately one-year following the fracturing activities. Observed radionuclide concentrations in well waters tested did not exceed maximum contaminant levels recommended by state and federal agencies. No statistically-significant differences in radionuclide concentrations were observed in well-water samples collected before and after the hydraulic fracturing activities. Expanded monitoring of private drinking wells before and after hydraulic fracturing activities is needed to develop understanding of the potential for drinking water resource contamination from unconventional drilling and gas extraction activities. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in ground water near unconventional drilling operations were investigated. • Natural uranium ( nat U), lead-210 ( 210 Pb), and polonium-210 ( 210 Po) levels are described. • No statistically significant increases in natural radioactivity post-drilling were observed

  13. Prediction of Radionuclide transfer based on soil parameters: application to vulnerability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, M.; Vidal, M.; Rauret, G.

    1998-01-01

    The multi factorial character of the radiocaesium and radiostrontium soil-to-plan transfer, which depends on the radionuclide level in the soil solution amplified by a plant factor, prevents from establishing univariate relationships between transfer factors and soil and/or plant parameters. The plant factor is inversely proportional to the level of competitive species in the soil solution (Ca and Mg, for radiostrontium, and K and NH 4 for radiocaesium). Radionuclide level in soil solution depends on the radionuclide available fraction and its distribution coefficient. For radiostrontium, this may be obtained from the Cationic Exchange Capacity (CEC), whereas for radiocaesium the Specific Interception Potential should be calculate, both corrected by the concentrations of the competitive species and selectivity coefficients. Therefore, the transfer factor eventually depends on soil solution composition, the available fraction and the number of sorption sites, as well as on the plant factor. For a given plant, a relative sequence of transfer can be set up based solely on soil parameters, since the plant factor is cancelled. This prediction model has been compared with transfer data from experiments with Mediterranean, mineral soils, contaminated with a thermo generated aerosol, and with podzolic and organic soils, contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. These studies revealed that it was possible to predict a relative scale of transfer for any type of soil, also allowing a scale of soil vulnerability to radiostrontium and radiocaesium contamination to be set up. (Author)

  14. Study on distribution and behavior of long-lived radionuclides in surface soil environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigemitsu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Katagiri, Hiromi; Akatsu, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Hideharu

    1996-01-01

    Technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) and Neptunium-237 ( 237 Np) are important radionuclides for environmental assessment around nuclear fuel cycle facilities, because these have long-lives and relatively high mobility in the environment. Therefore, we have been studied the determination, distribution and behavior of such long-lived radionuclides in surface soil environment. A new analytical technique using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied to the determination of long-lived radionuclides in environmental samples. The determination method consists of dry ashing, anion exchange and solvent extraction to eliminate the interfering elements and ICP-MS measurement. The sensitivity of this method was 10 to 100,000 times higher, and the counting time was 300 to 100,000 times shorter than the conventional radioanalytical methods. The soil samples were collected at nine points and core soil sample was collected by an electric core sampler at one point. The core soil sample was divided into eight layers. The depth profiles showed that more than 90% of 99 Tc and 237 Np were retained in the surface layer up to 10cm in depth which contained much amount of organic materials. The results suggest that content of organic materials in soil is related to adsorption of 99 Tc and 237 Np onto soil. (author)

  15. Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1991-05-01

    This annual report describes research conducted in FY 1990 by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Project. This multi-agency project measures the underground movement of radionuclides related to nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site. This project continues the long-term experiment at the site of the Cambric nuclear test. Water pumped from a well adjacent to the explosion cavity continues to show decreasing amounts of tritium and Krypton 85 but no Cesium 139. Analyses of drillback debris shows a distinction between refractory and volatile materials in respect to both their location in the test cavity and their leachability with groundwater. We surveyed materials used during nuclear testing to evaluate any post-test hazard; we concluded that most such materials pose a minimal hazard. The Los Alamos drilling program provided an opportunity for us to sample a collapsed zone above the cavity of a test, which was fired 2 years ago. We continue our research in colloid characterization and in detection of low levels of Technetium 99 in Nevada Test Site water. During FY 1990, we drilled a new hole in the Yucca Flat area to study radionuclide migration. This report also describes Los Alamos management and planning activities in support of this project. 20 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs

  16. Dosimetric studies of anti-CD20 labeled with therapeutic radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, G.; Dias, C.R.B.R.; Osso Junior, J.A., E-mail: gracielabarrio@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) makes use of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) labeled with alpha/beta radionuclides for therapeutical purposes, leading to tumor irradiation and destruction, preserving the normal organs on the radiation excess. The therapeutic activity to be injected in a specific patient is based on information obtained in dosimetric studies. Beta emitting radionuclides such as {sup 131}I, {sup 188}Re, {sup 90}Y, {sup 177}Lu and {sup 166}Ho are useful for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Anti-CD20 (Rituximab) is a chimeric MAb directed against antigen surface CD20 on B-lymphocytes, used in non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment (NHL). The association with beta radionuclides have shown greater therapeutic efficacy. Currently, two radiopharmaceuticals with Anti-CD20 for radioimmunotherapy have FDA approval for NHL treatment: {sup 131}I-AntiCD20 (Bexar) and {sup 90}Y-AntiCD20 (Zevalin). Techniques for the radiolabeling of {sup 188}Re-antiCD20 have been recently developed by IPEN-CNEN/SP in order to evaluate the clinical use of this radionuclide in particular. The use of {sup 188}Re (T{sub 1/2} 17h) produced by the decay of {sup 188}W (T{sub 1/2} 69d), from an {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator system, has represented an alternative to RIT. Beyond high energy beta emission for therapy, {sup 188}Re also emits gamma rays (155keV) suitable for image. The aim of this new project is to compare the labeling of anti-CD20 with {sup 188}Re with the same MAb labeled with {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 90}Y and even {sup 99m}Tc. The first step in this project is the review of the published data available concerning the labeling of this MAb with different radionuclides, along with data obtained at IPEN, taking into account labeling procedures, labeling yields, reaction time, level and kind of impurities and biodistribution studies. The pharmacokinetic code will be developed in Visual Studio.NET platform through VB.NET and C{sup ++} for biodistribution and dosimetric

  17. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  18. World-wide trend of long-lived radionuclides transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Il Hee; Yoo, Jae Hyung

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the concepts of partitioning and transmutation studies which are being conducted in several countries. This review was focused on the analysis of such areas as radiotoxicities of radwaste containing long-lived radionuclides, transmutation by reactors or accelerators, and separation of minor actinides. The world-wide trend of partitioning and transmutation studies was also investigated on the basis of each country's R and D activities in this area. (author). 5 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Study of radionuclides speciation with biological molecules of interest by spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, V.

    2007-07-01

    Mechanisms of complexation and accumulation of the radionuclides at the cellular and molecular level are complex and poorly known because the studies on these subjects are scarce. Within the framework of this thesis, we studied the interactions of europium (analogue of trivalent actinides) and uranium (VI) (actinide) with biological molecules of interest: phyto-chelatins. Their role is to protect cells against intrusions from nonessential heavy metals (thus toxic). These proteins are likely to be implied in the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides in living organisms. However, their structure is complex, this is why, in order to better understand their reactivity, we extended our studies to lower entities which constitute them (amino acids and glutathione). We determined solution speciation (stoichiometry, structure) as well as the complexing constants associated with the formation of these species. These studies were undertaken by Time Resolved Laser induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Electro-Spray Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infra-Rouge spectroscopy (FTIR) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS). The determination of the complexation constants enabled us to conclude that the complexing capacity of these molecules with respect to radionuclides was moderate (log 10 K 1 < 3, pH 3 or 6), the formed species are mononuclear with only one ligand molecule (1:1). The interaction is performed via oxygenated (hard) groups. The direct complexation of europium with phyto-chelatins at acidic pH was studied jointly by TRLIF and ES-MS. The complexing capacity of these molecules is much higher than that of GSH from which they result. In addition to studies undertaken on synthetic solutions reproducing the 'biological' conditions (pH close to neutrality, ionic strength 0.1 mol/L, etc), tests of cellular contamination were realized. The quantification of integrated europium showed that those are able to

  20. Marine radioactivity studies in the Suez Canal. A modelling study on radionuclide dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abril, J.M.; Abdel-Aal, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes work carried out under the IAEA Project EGY/07/002 to study the dispersion of radioactive material in the Suez Canal and the Bitter Lakes. This effort is linked with increased public concern about radiation safety through this important trade route. We apply a sequence of related modelling approaches, covering: (1) hydrodynamics, (2) transport of dissolved pollutants, (3) suspended loads and sediment dynamics, and (4) electrolytic reactions in aqueous suspension and in-sediment water pores. The final stage is a kinetic-reactive transport model for these tidal waters. The hydrodynamics have been studied using both 1D and 2D modelling approaches, and a reasonable calibration has been possible from the data set prepared with the collaboration of the Suez Canal Authority. Diffusion coefficients are calibrated from field tracing experiments included in the IAEA Project. They have been implemented in 1D and 2D models. Suspended matter dynamics and electrolytic reactions are documented from the available literature. Finally, different scenarios of discharges for both conservative and non-conservative radionuclides have been investigated

  1. Model studies of the transfer of radionuclides in the Finnish environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, R.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental modelling of the effects of radionuclide releases was studied. A computer model DETl2A was developed for evaluation of radionuclide transfer. The flexible structure of the model made it suitable for a wide range of applications. The model was employed to evaluate the biospheric transfer of radionuclides in two situations: 1) release cases from planned waste repositories in Finland, and 2) deposition due to the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl accident provided a good opportunity to test the DETRA model, originally constructed for waste disposal applications. A study was made of some biospheric local, regional and global scale scenarios, to which releases from repositories were assumed. Drinking water from a local well and consumption of fish were the most important dose pathways. The transfer of the Chernobyl deposition in some important Finnish transfer environments was evaluated. Especially the transfer of Cs-137 in the Kymijoki watercourse, including dynamic transfer to non-predatory and predatory fish species was studied. The calculated behaviour was compared with the measured behaviour. Nuclear weapon testing fallout was also considered in the comparison studies. On the basis of validation studies it was concluded that part of the Cs-137 deposition was in insoluble form. These model assumptions give that deposition consisting of soluble Cs-l37 could cause fourfold contamination of fish per unit deposition than deposition due to the Chernobyl accident in the modelled case. Model validation was also performed within international projects, in particular by participating in the BIOMOVS project. This participation will be continued in the VAMP program. In the summary part of the thesis the main attention is paid to modelling questions, whereas in the accompanying publications the results are presented in greater detail

  2. Radionuclide examination of motility disorders of the esophagus: a comparative study with manometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heukelem, H.A. van.

    1985-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation is to determine the value of radionuclide studies for clinical diagnostics in the light of its advantages over the manometric examination by means of available casuistics. A general review of the development of the examinations for assessment of the motility of the esophagus is given and both normal and disturbed motor function are described. The details of the patient groups and the techniques used in this study are presented. The results obtained for normal subjects and patients with achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, systemic connective tissue diseases with esophageal involvement and reflux esophagitis are reported and discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Judgment on the presence of radionuclides in sample analysis: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples require good judgment from the analysts. These two aspects in gamma spectrometric analysis of Proficiency Test and solid radioactive waste samples for the determination of radionuclides are discussed. It is vital to judge and decide what energy peaks belong to which radionuclides prior to the creation of customized radionuclide library for the analysis of specific samples. Corrections due to radionuclide decay and growth, and the half-life assigned to a particular radionuclide in the uranium and thorium series are also discussed. Discussion on judgment to confirm the presence of thorium in food samples based on gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis is also provided. (author)

  4. Studies on migration behavior of radionuclides under reducing conditions in JNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, A.; Sato, H.

    2002-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has performed extensive researches and developments to investigate the geochemistry and radionuclide migration in buffer materials and geosphere. Experimental and modeling studies have been carried out related to the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) as a link in the chair of a follow-up of the second progress report, which has explained in the technical feasibility of HLW geological disposal in Japan. In this paper, three experimental studies on solubility, sorption and diffusion of radionuclides under reducing conditions for assuring the reliability and for improving the quality of the databases are introduced. Solubility and sorption behavior of neptunium (Np) have been studied under reducing conditions in carbonate media. For the solubility study, thermodynamic equilibrium constants of carbonatohydroxo complexes of Np(IV) have been determined from a solubility measurement in alkaline solutions. For the sorption study, distribution coefficient (K d ) of Np onto smectite has been determined in weak alkaline solutions under reducing conditions in carbonate media. For the diffusion study, apparent diffusivity (D a ) of selenium (Se) in compacted bentonite have been determined under reducing conditions as a function of silica sand content and temperature

  5. Study of the effect of the fibre mass UP2 degradation products on radionuclide mobilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duro, Lara; Grive, Mireia; Gaona, Xavier; Bruno, Jordi [Amphos 21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain); Andersson, Thomas; Boren, Hans; Dario, Maarten [Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden); Allard, Bert; Hagberg, Jessica [Oerebro Univ., Oerebro (Sweden); Kaellstroem, Klas [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    This report presents a literature review and laboratory work of the degradation of the fibre UP2, as well as an assessment of the effects of its degradation products on Europium sorption onto cement, as an example of their effects on radionuclide migration. All laboratory work was performed by the Swedish groups (Linkoeping and Oerebro Universities), who also performed some of the literature review. The data interpretation was performed by the Spanish team (Amphos 21). SKB has combined the reports of these studies into this common document and has added minor editorial changes. All these changes have been accepted by the authors.

  6. A study on the radionuclide migration by means of the code LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenquellucci, F.; Deserti, M.

    1989-01-01

    LISA code (Long Term Isolation Safety Assessment) has been developed by J.R.C. EUROATOM Ispra (Radiochemistry Division) and it's utilized in order to study migration of radionuclides through porous media. Aim of the present work is to analyze LISA's input and output files. A brief description of the code is also performed. As LISA is a research and in development code, its structure is rather complex and an exhaustive description of input/output files is helpful for the user. Version 3 of LISA code, loaded on ENEA's IBM 3090, is avaylable by ENEA-VEL Bologna

  7. Absorption of selected radionuclides. Analysis of a literature study. Resorption ausgewaehlter Radionuklide. Analyse einer Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedler, H D; Kraus, H M

    1979-12-01

    In October 1978, the Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg e.V. published a contribution to part 26 of the model study of radio-ecology at Biblis under the title 'Estimation of the absorption of radionuclides from the gastrointestinal tract in the blood'. Using the example of this contribution, a critical analysis is made to show how a selection of the information contained in various scientific publications and other items of literature can give uncritical readers the impression that all statements made are scientifically well founded.

  8. The comparative study of the effect of some radionuclides on chlorella populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvobene, R.Ya.; Marchyulenene, D.P.; Shuliene, R.I.

    1984-01-01

    In this report the data are presented of the comparative study of physiological and genetic effects on chlorella populations (Chlorella vUlgaris Beijer, strain LARG-1) of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce (equal concentrations) distinguished by the radiation dose produced, the physico-chemical properties, and the levels of accumulation and deposition thereof in plant cells. The effects of the radionuclides on chlorella populations were estimated with a reference to the rate of photosynthesis, cell density, and the number of mutant and lethally affected cells

  9. Studies of migration and dispersion of radionuclides from the storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1976-08-01

    Conditions were tested under which fixed low level liquid radioactive wastes could be safely stored in geological formations of Czechoslovakia. Geological models were constructed to yield relatively accurate information on the migration and dispersion properties of some soils and rock formation in both static and dynamic conditions. Based on results of the models further testing was conducted under field conditions. The principal radionuclides used during the tests were 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Relative transport and dispersion data are provided for various of the earth studied groups and an assessment of the various sites provided in the report

  10. Cytogenetic studies of marine organisms in the areas with higher contents of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.; Floru, Kh.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Chalulu, K.; Gorbenko, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations in cells of marine crustaceans and worms have been studied at sites with a high natural radioactivity level (the Black Sea coast at the mountain Karadag in the Crimea and the Ikaria Island in the Aegean Sea, an area around the hydrothermal spa) as well as at sites with the normal natural radiation level. Higher level of chromosome mutagenesis was found in cells of Melita palmata embryos and in germ and somatic cells of Lycastopsis sp. juveniles in the area around the spa. Probably, chromosome aberrations were induced by higher concentrations of natural radionuclides and their radiation in the environment

  11. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  12. Study of the effect of the fibre mass UP2 degradation products on radionuclide mobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, Lara; Grive, Mireia; Gaona, Xavier; Bruno, Jordi; Andersson, Thomas; Boren, Hans; Dario, Maarten; Allard, Bert; Hagberg, Jessica; Kaellstroem, Klas

    2012-09-01

    This report presents a literature review and laboratory work of the degradation of the fibre UP2, as well as an assessment of the effects of its degradation products on Europium sorption onto cement, as an example of their effects on radionuclide migration. All laboratory work was performed by the Swedish groups (Linkoeping and Oerebro Universities), who also performed some of the literature review. The data interpretation was performed by the Spanish team (Amphos 21). SKB has combined the reports of these studies into this common document and has added minor editorial changes. All these changes have been accepted by the authors

  13. Study on vertical distribution of radionuclides ({sup 40}K, Th and U) in soil collected from Manjung district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainal, Fetri; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Khalik [Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Research Sdn. Bhd. 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The accumulation of radionuclides in soil is a greatest concerns due to their toxicity. This study investigated the vertical distribution of radionuclides and radiological assessment in a soil profile were collected in three different directions [North (N), North-East (NE) and South-East (SE)] within 40 km from Manjung district. All profile samples were collected down to 45cm at 7.5cm interval using hand auger. Soil density and radionuclides ({sup 40}K, Th and U) concentrations were determined by gravimetric method and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, respectively. The radionuclides concentrations was in decreasing order of {sup 40}K > Th > U. Soil quality assessment was carried out using Enrichment Factor (EF), Pollution Index (PI) and Geoaccumulation Index (I {sub geo}) where all radionuclides show significant enrichment (5 < EF < 20), PI classified as middle pollution classes and 0 < Igeo < 1, indicating moderately polluted, respectively. From the concentration of radionuclides, the radiological risk was calculated and the present result show external hazard index (H{sub ex}) is below than unity indicate low radiological risk.

  14. A comparative study of radionuclide bone scan, X-ray and MRI on early femoral head necrosis in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jihua; Ji Qinglian; Xu Aide; Zuo Shuyao; Gao Zhenhua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize radionuclide bone scan signs in the early femoral head necrosis (FHN) in adults, to compare them with MRI and X-ray findings and to discuss the pathological basis of radionuclide bone scan findings from the view of MRI. Methods: Forty cases (63 hips) with early FHN in adult patients proved by follow-up studies or pathology were analyzed. All patients underwent radionuclide bone scan, MRI and X-ray examination within a period of less than 7 d separately. Results: 1) Radionuclide bone scan manifestations of the early FHN corresponding to different MRI signs included: focally decreased uptake of radioisotope, focally increased uptake, atypical or typical doughnut sign, mildly increased uptake in the superior part of femoral head with band-like region of obviously increased uptake in inferior part of femoral head or femoral neck, and diffused increase of uptake in the whole head. 2) In 40 cases (63 hips), there was statistical difference in diagnosis early FHN in adults not only between radionuclide bone scan and X-ray but also between MRI and X-ray in sensitivity (P 0.05). Conclusions: 1) The atypical or typical doughnut sign and mildly increased uptake in the superior part of femoral head with band-like region of obviously increased uptake in inferior part of femoral head or neck are specific signs for diagnosing early FHN. 2) For sensitivity, radionuclide bone scan and MRI are equally superior to X-ray. (authors)

  15. Study of radionuclides migration in hydraulic binders. Influence of binder alteration on transfer mechanisms and kinetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richet, C.

    1992-01-01

    In the framework of low and medium activity wastes surface storage, hydraulic binders materials are usually used as containment barrier. The safety analysis of this storage mode involves the knowledge of their behaviour and of their retention capacity towards radionuclides, at short and long-term. The knowledge of diffusional processes inside their liquid phase and those of the interactions existing between the diffusing element and the cement matrix, as well as their kinetics, are essential elements for the study of their durability on 300 years. An experimental methodology has been defined, allowing the characterization of the transfer of an element j in a porous material by the determination of the diffusion coefficient of j in the pores of the material x and the determination of the local equilibrium constant characterizing the interaction of j with the material x. This can be made from the analytical expressions coming from the Fick laws. These parameters have been studied from diffusion and leaching experiments of radionuclides in pure cement pastes. A modelling of the leaching processes is proposed here. The decomposition of the hydraulic binders, by their leaching in a demineralized solution at 'aggressive' pH, leads essentially to their decalcification - whose kinetics answers to a pure diffusion law in √t - and an increase of their porosity. In these attack conditions, it seems that it exists a decalcification limit condition, from which a lattice of interconnected microcracks is developed in all the material. In consequence, the retention capacity of these degraded materials towards radionuclides decreases. The cesium transfer appears more sensitive to the degradation of the material than of those of the tritium. (O.M.)

  16. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  17. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  18. Quantification of glacial effects on radionuclide transport: transport sensitivity studies for SKI's SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King-Clayton, L.M.; Smith, P.A.; Dverstorp, B.

    1996-01-01

    with ice sheet coverage), and correspond to periods of high groundwater discharge at the margin of the modelled ice sheets. These short-term flux maxima may exceed the corresponding fluxes from the near-field and represent a relatively rapid 'flushing out' of radionuclides from the repository host rock. Fluxes to the biosphere may, for limited periods (∼2000 years or less), be 3 times higher than those from the near-field. The occurrence of these peak fluxes requires careful consideration in any performance assessment which wishes to take account of future changes in groundwater flow conditions. The study has provided a quantitative way of illustrating the possible effects of future glaciations on radionuclide transport from a repository. Such effects are likely to be significant in any potential siting area predicted to be affected by future periods of ice cover. (author)

  19. Evaluation of allograft perfusion by radionuclide first-pass study in renal failure following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillet, G.; Ballarin, J.; Urdaneta, N.; Campos, H.; Vernejoul, P. de; Fermanian, J.; Kellershohn, C.; Kreis, H.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of indices measured on a first-pass curve, we performed 72 radionuclide renal first-pass studies (RFP) in 21 patients during the early weeks following renal allograft transplantation. The diagnosis was based on standard clinical and biochemical data and on fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the transplant. Aortic and renal first-pass curves were filtered using a true low-pass filter and five different indices of renal perfusion were computed, using formulae from the literature. Statistical analysis performed on the aortic and renal indices indicated excellent reproducibility of the isotopic study. Although renal indices presented a rather large scatter, they all discriminated well between normal and rejection. Three indices have a particularly good diagnostic value. In the discrimination between rejection and Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN), only one index gave satisfying results. The indices, however, indicate that there are probably ATN with an alternation of renal perfusion and rejection episodes where perfusion is almost intact. We conclude that radionuclide first-pass study allows accurate and reproducible quantitation of renal allograft perfusion. The measured parameters are helpful to follow up the course of a post-transplantation renal failure episode and to gain more insight into renal ischemia following transplantation. (orig.)

  20. Multitracer study on absorption of radionuclides in atmosphere-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambe, Shizuko; Shinonaga, Taeko; Watanabe, Tadakazu; Yamaguchi, Isamu

    1996-01-01

    Direct absorption of atmospheric radionuclides by soybean plants was studied using a radioactive multitracer consisting of radionuclides of Sc, Mn, Co, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Eu, Gd, Yb, Hf, Re, and Ir. Soybean seedlings were cultivated at 23degC in a box where multitracer-adsorbed cellulose powders were floating in air. After 28-49 day-cultivation, the plants were harvested and divided into beans (seeds and pods), leaves, stems (inside and outside), and roots. Beans or leaves originating from the same node were collected together. After washing with dilute HCl solution and distilled water, they were dried and then subjected to γ-ray measurement. It was estimated that about 0.2 % of the multitracer was absorbed by the soybean plant, of which 80 % was found in the leaves, and 10 % each in beans and stems. The relative amounts of elements in the beans, leaves, and stems markedly differed depending on the element. Among the elements, Se * was greatly accumulated in the beans, leaves, and stems. Cobalt * , Se * , and Rb * were dominant in the beans, especially in the edible part of seeds. Relative amounts of Mn * , As * , Sr * , and Re * in the seeds were very small. It is noticeable that these nuclides were found in the seeds, though they were not physically exposed to the multitracer-adsorbed cellulose powders during growth. The radioactivities of Sc * , Mn * , Co * , As * , Se * , Rb * , Sr * , Y * , Eu * , Gd * , Yb * , Hf * , Re * , and Ir * were observed for the leaves. Brown leaves accumulated greater amounts of radionuclides than green ones. Main nuclides found in the stem were Sc * , Co * , Se * , Y * , Eu * , Gd * , Yb * , Hf * , and Ir * , a larger part of them on the outside. Trace amounts of Co * , Se * , and Rb * were detected in the roots. Little leakage of the multitracer into the soil was observed. These results indicate that various radionuclides in the atmosphere were directly absorbed through soybean leaves and then transported to the edible part

  1. A study of naturally occurring, radionuclide bearing deposits at Portland Creek, Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A small uraniferous peat deposit located near Portland Creek, Newfoundland was investigated as part of the National Uranium Tailings Program (NUTP). The purpose of the investigation was to provide data on naturally occurring uranium series radionuclides at a surface location that could be used to compare with the predictions of mathematical models. The investigation was carried out between August 18 and 30, 1984 by CBCL Limited with the assistance of Golder Associates, SENES Consultants Limited, Environmental Design Group and Monenco Analytical Laboratories. The investigation involved the determination of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the deposit site and collection of soil, water and biological samples. The samples were analyzed for major element chemistry, uranium and its various decay series radionuclides including radium-226 and the ratio of uranium-234 to uranium-238. The uranium mineralization was found to be associated with a peat deposit that has accumulated in post-glacial time. The deposit is situated within a groundwater discharge zone at the toe of a granitic talus pile that extends downward from the Long Range Mountains. The concentration of uranium within the peat deposit was found to vary from 100 to 28000 ppm, however, the activities of the uranium decay series radionuclides were comparatively very low. Radium-226 activities were found to vary from 0.5 Bq/g to 15.0 Bq/g. Little influence from the deposit was noted in the surrounding water bodies, fish samples and vegetation. Based on the results of the study the uranium mineralization within the peat is considered to be the result of precipitation or adsorption from groundwater that had previously leached uranium from the granitic talus which forms the groundwater recharge zone. The major geochemical mechanism for deposition is considered to be associated with the strong reducing conditions encountered within the peat. Being a recent deposit (i.e. less than 10,000-15,000 years old

  2. Long-term dose-response studies of inhaled or injected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Miller, S.C.; Bradley, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the scientific progress in, and current status of, life-span studies of the long-term health risks in Beagle dogs of chronic irradiation from internally deposited radionuclides or from an external source. The reporting period for this document is the 2-year period from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1993. Studies that were initiated at three different laboratories (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, ITRI, University of Utah, and Argonne National Laboratory, ANL) are presented here because they are being completed at ITRI. All living dogs in the Utah-initiated studies were transferred to the ITRI facility for the remainder of their life-span observations and measurements in September 1987. This report is the fourth in a series of reports dealing with the current status and progress of both the Utah and ITRI studies. Other life-span studies involving dogs exposed to gamma radiation from an external source were initiated and conducted for many years at ANL. In 1991, the decision was made to discontinue the chronic irradiation of the remaining living dogs and to transfer all remaining dogs to ITRI for care, clinical observations, and pathological observations at death or euthanasia. This report provides the current status of these dogs. Status reports on the Utah and ITRI studies comprise most of this report. The ITRI-related section presents brief statements of project objectives, the general procedures used in these studies, and some study-specific features for each of the 19 studies being conducted with either beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclides. Dose- and effect-modifying factors being addressed in these studies include total dose, dose rate, LET, solubility, nonuniformity of dose, species, age, sex, health status, and mode of exposure. Recent additions to experimental protocols for studies in which dogs are still alive involve the collection and analysis of tumor tissues using currently available molecular biology techniques

  3. A study on distribution of natural radionuclide polonium-210 in a pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Shaheed, K.; Somasundaram, S.S.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the distribution of 210 Po in Mutharasanallur pond ecosystem. It has been demonstrated that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within the ecosystem. The results of the study show a dissolved 210 Po concentration in pond water of 1.4mBql -1 . The sediment sample recorded a 210 Po activity of 59.9 Bqkg -1 . The aquatic organism showed differential accumulation of the radionuclide with enhanced bioaccumulation in soft tissues and muscle. The 210 Po activity in the biota fell within the range of 1.2-53.3 Bqkg -1 (wet weight). The bivalve mussel, Lamellidens marginalis was identified to accumulate higher concentration of 210 Po in soft tissues, suggesting that these organisms could serve as a bio-monitor of 210 Po radionuclide in a freshwater system. The concentration factors of 210 Po for the biotic components ranged from ∼ 10 2 - ∼ 10 4 . Analyses of the results indicate that prawn and fish represent an important source of supply of 210 Po to humans via dietary intake. Results of 210 Po activity in the abiotic and biotic components of the pond ecosystem were higher when compared with those of Cauvery river system, the primary water source of the pond. (author)

  4. Establishment of control site baseline data for erosion studies using radionuclides: a case study in East Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabit, Lionel, E-mail: L.Mabit@iaea.or [Soil Science Unit, FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, PO Box 100, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Martin, Paul [Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, PO Box 100, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jankong, Patcharin; Toloza, Arsenio [Soil Science Unit, FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, PO Box 100, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Padilla-Alvarez, Roman [Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, PO Box 100, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Zupanc, Vesna [Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to establish a reference site and its soil characteristics for use of fallout radionuclides in erosion studies in Slovenia. Prior to this study, no reference site and baseline data existed for Slovenia for this purpose. In the agricultural area of Goricko in East Slovenia, an undisturbed forest situated in Salamenci (46{sup o}44'N, 16{sup o}7'E), was selected to establish the inventory value of fallout {sup 137}Cs and to establish a baseline level of multi-elemental fingerprint (major, minor, trace elements including heavy metals) and naturally occurring radionuclides in soils. A total of 20 soil profiles were collected at four 10 cm depth increments for evaluation of baseline level of {sup 137}Cs inventory. An exponential distribution for {sup 137}Cs was found and the baseline level inventory was established at 7300 {+-} 2500 Bq m{sup -2} with a coefficient of variation of 34%. Of this mean present-day inventory, approximately 45% is due to the Chernobyl contribution. The physical degradation of soils through erosion is linked with biochemical degradation. This study introduces an approach to establishment of the naturally occurring radionuclide and elemental fingerprints baseline levels at a reference site which can provide comparative data to those from neighbouring agricultural fields for assessment of soil redistribution magnitude using fallout radionuclides. In addition, this information will be used to determine the impact of soil erosion processes and agricultural practices on soil quality and redistribution within agricultural landscapes in Slovenia.

  5. Laboratory and field studies related to the Radionuclide Migration Project: Progress report, October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    In this report we describe the work done at Los Alamos in support of the Radionuclide Migration project during fiscal year 1986. We have continued to monitor the transport of tritium and 85 Kr from the Cambric explosion zone to the satellite well, which is pumped at 600 gal/min. Corresponding movement of cationic radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr has not yet been observed after 12 yr of pumping, nor have we seen evidence that these strongly sorbing ions move in conjunction with colloids. We have analyzed more data from the Cheshire study site but have not resolved the uncertainties regarding the distribution and movement of radioactive materials at this location. Our attempts to improve our analytical capability for 36 Cl and 99 Tc have resulted in some progress. Similarly, we have increased our understanding of radionuclide transport phenomena such as channeling in fracture flow and anion exclusion in zeolites and clays. A sample exchange with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has helped us identify critical steps in our procedures for collecting and analyzing large-volume water samples. We have surveyed potential sites on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site for future radionuclide migration studies and conclude that there are none other than Cheshire presently available, and none are likely to be created in the near future. The Laboratory has engaged recently in radionuclide migration studies sponsored by our weapons program; we reviewed this work in an appendix to the annual report

  6. Lovelace ITRI studies on the toxicity of inhaled radionuclides in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, R.O.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews 19 studies conducted by the Lovelace ITRI on the toxicity of inhaled radionuclides in beagle dogs. These studies provide information to estimate potential health effects in accidentally exposed people. Specific radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 90 Y, 91 Y, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 238 Pu, and 239 Pu), chemical forms, and particle sizes were selected for study because they are abundant in nuclear operations and deliver a wide range of radiation dose patterns. Depending upon the aerosol, one or more of the following organs or tissues received the significant irradiation: lung, nasal cavity, lung-associated lymph nodes, whole body, liver, or skeleton, with the radiation dose delivered over durations of time ranging from a few days to several years. In eight studies monodisperse particles of either 238 PuO 2 or 239 PuO 2 were used to evaluate the influence of particle number and total dose on lung cancer induction. Most studies involved single, brief exposures of young adult dogs, but two studies used immature dogs, two used aged dogs, and two studies involved repeated brief exposures. For each aerosol two types of studies were conducted. One was used to evaluate the time course of retention of radioactivity in various tissues of the body for calculating radiation doses. The second was used to determine health effects in animals exposed to achieve different initial lung burdens and observed for the remainder of their life spans. Initial lung burdens were selected to produce early morbidity and mortality at the highest levels and an excess of late-occurring diseases such as cancer at the lowest levels. The latter dogs have had an excess incidence of cancer, especially of the lung, lung-associated lymph nodes, nasal cavity, skeleton, and liver. Relationships between radiation doses to various tissues and effects have been evaluated for individual studies

  7. Study of radionuclides speciation with biological molecules of interest by spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, V.

    2007-07-01

    Mechanisms of complexation and accumulation of the radionuclides at the cellular and molecular level are complex and poorly known because the studies on these subjects are scarce. Within the framework of this thesis, we studied the interactions of these cations with biological molecules of interest. We chose to focus on an actinide: uranium (VI) as well as europium as an analogue of trivalent actinides. The selected biological molecules are the phyto-chelatins: their role is to protect cells against intrusions from nonessential heavy metals (thus toxic). These proteins are likely to be implied in the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides in living organisms. However, their structure is complex, this is why, in order to better include/understand their reactivity, we extended our studies to lower entities which constitute them (amino acid: glycine, glutamic acid and cysteine; polypeptides: glutathione reduced and oxidized forms). In particular, we determined solution speciation (stoichiometry, structure) as well as the complexing constants associated with the formation with these species. These studies were undertaken by Time Resolved Laser induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Electro-Spray-Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infra-Rouge spectroscopy (FTIR) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS).The determination of the complexation constants enabled us to conclude that the complexing capacity of these molecules with respect to radionuclides was moderate (log 10 K 1 ≤ 3, pH 3 or 6), the formed species are mononuclear with only one ligand molecule (1:1). The interaction is performed via oxygenated (hard) groups. The direct complexation of europium with phyto-chelatins at acidic pH was studied jointly by TRLIF and ES-MS. The complexing capacity of these molecules is much higher than that of GSH from which they result. The interaction of europium with metallothioneins is, on the contrary, lower than

  8. Worldwide marine radioactivity studies (WOMARS): Radionuclide levels in oceans and seas. Final report of a coordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies (WOMARS) carried out by the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. It provides the most comprehensive information on levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the world ocean. Three anthropogenic radionuclides - 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu - were chosen as the most representative of anthropogenic radioactivity in the marine environment, comprising beta-, gamma- and alpha-emitters which have the highest potential contribution to radiation doses to humans via seafood consumption. Although the ocean contains the majority of the anthropogenic radionuclides released into the environment, the radiological impact of this contamination is low. Radiation doses from naturally-occurring radionuclides in the marine environment (e.g. 210 Po) are on the average two orders of magnitude higher. The results confirm that the dominant source of anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment is global fallout. The total 137 Cs input from global fallout was estimated to be 311 PBq for the Pacific Ocean, 201 PBq for the Atlantic Ocean, 84 PBq for the Indian Ocean and 7.4 PBq for the Arctic Ocean. For comparison, about 40 PBq of 137 Cs was released to the marine environment from Sellafield and Cap de la Hague reprocessing plants. The Chernobyl accident contributed about 16 PBq of 137 Cs to the sea, mainly the Baltic and Black Seas, where the present average concentrations of 137 Cs in surface water were estimated to be about 60 and 25 Bq/m 3 , respectively, while the worldwide average concentration due to global fallout is about 2 Bq/m 3 . For the purposes of this study, the world ocean was divided into latitudinal belts for which average radionuclide concentrations were estimated. Further, where available, time trends in radionuclide concentrations in surface water were studied and mean residence times of radionuclides in these areas as well as in

  9. Waste/Rock Interactions Technology Program: the status of radionuclide sorption-desorption studies performed by the WRIT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Relyea, J.F.

    1982-04-01

    The most credible means for radionuclides disposed as solid wastes in deep-geologic repositories to reach the biosphere is through dissolution of the solid waste and subsequent radionuclide transport by circulating ground water. Thus safety assessment activities must consider the physicochemical interactions between radionculides present in ground water with package components, rocks and sediments since these processes can significantly delay or constrain the mass transport of radionuclides in comparison to ground-water movement. This paper focuses on interactions between dissolved radiouclides in ground water and rocks and sediments away from the near-field repository. The primary mechanism discussed is adsorption-desorption, which has been studied using two approaches. Empirical studies of adsorption-desorption rely on distribution coefficient measurements while mechanism studies strive to identify, differentiate and quantify the processes that control nuclide retardation

  10. Geochemical studies of sorption and transport of radionuclides in rock media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Weed, H.C.; Tewhey, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Four studies, which supported the goals of the WISAP Program at Battelle PNL, were undertaken by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory during FY 1979. These were: (1) Batch K/sub d/ experiments, (2) Dynamic sorption experiments on rock cores, (3) Feasibility study for an in situ tracer test at the Climax Stock, NTS, and (4) Geochemical equilibrium code development. Only the equilibrium code development was not funded by the WISAP during FY 1979. The emphasis for the batch K/sub d/ studies was on various (15) sandstones in brine using 75 Se, 85 Sr, 125 Sb, 137 Cs, 141 Ce, and 237 Pu tracers. These sandstone samples were well-characterized for their physical and mineralogical nature. Complex K/sub d/ behavior was observed for the radionuclides studied but 85 Sr showed K/sub d/ values near zero for all samples. Both 141 Ce and 239 Pu K/sub d/ values ranged from 20 to upper limits of greater than or equal to 17,000. Dynamic sorption studies were done on NTS tuff and St. Peter sandstone core using 3 H, 85 Sr, and /sup 95m/Tc. These radionuclides were injected as a short pulse into the rock-equilibrated water that was flowing through the core. Tracer-free water was then continually flowed through the core until elution curves for the mobile radionuclides were established. Tritium and /sup 95m/Tc both traveled through the cores at the same rate, indicating no sorption for the mobile fraction of /sup 95m/Tc ( 95 TcO 4 - ). Strontium-85 did not exit the tuff cores but did exit the sandstone core although the elution curves showed definite retardation relative to the movement of 3 H and /sup 95m/Tc. Post-elution sectioning of the cores indicated that a fraction of the /sup 95m/Tc remained in the cores and was evenly distributed through the tuff cores. Strontium-85 showed a generally decreasing distribution from the inlet side to the outlet side of the tuff cores

  11. Reproducibility in the analysis of multigated radionuclide studies of left ventricular ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjorup, T.; Kelbaek, H.; Vestergaard, B.; Fogh, J.; Munck, O.; Jensen, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors determined the reproducibility (the standard deviation [SD]) in the analysis of multigated radionuclide studies of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Radionuclide studies from a consecutive series of 38 patients suspected of ischemic heart disease were analyzed independently by four nuclear medicine physiologists and four laboratory technicians. Each study was analyzed three times by each of the observers. Based on the analyses of the eight observers, the SD could be estimated by the use of a variance component model for LVEF determinations calculated as the average of the analyses of an arbitrary number of observers making an arbitrary number of analyses. This study presents the SDs for LVEF determinations based on the analyses of one to five observers making one to five analyses each. The SD of a LVEF determination decreased from 3.96% to 2.98% when an observer increased his number of analyses from one to five. A more pronounced decrease in the SD from 3.96% to 1.77% was obtained when the LVEF determinations were based on the average of a single analysis made by one to five observers. However, when dealing with the difference between LVEF determinations from two studies, the highest reproducibility was obtained if the LVEF determinations at both studies were based on the analyses made by the same observer. No significant difference was found in the reproducibility of analyses made by nuclear medicine physicians and laboratory technicians. Our study revealed that to increase the reproducibility of LVEF determinations, special efforts should be made to standardize the outlining of the end-systolic region interest

  12. Optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using 99mTc -DMSA in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Perez Diaz, M.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Varela Corona, C.; Paz Viera, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present research is focused on the optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using 9 9mTc-DMSA. The patients sample included 35 subjects, 23 of them were children and the other 12 were adults. Physical and metabolic characteristics of patients, total time of the study as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and gamma camera performance was considered in the experiments. Image quality of each study was evaluated using subjective criteria from two expert observers, without previous information about administered activity, and objective criteria based on signal/noise ratios and variance of the random noise in the images. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups of images with differentiated quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50%. (Author) 30 refs.

  13. Summary of experimental studies on biological effects of radionuclides in Chinese Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rusong

    1994-11-01

    The experimental studies on the biological effects with internal contamination of radionuclides (Such as Uranium, Plutonium, Tritium, Iodine, Radon and its products, etc.) in the Chinese nuclear industry were summarized systematically. In these studies some institutes in the nuclear industry system and other relevant units in China were involved. The review was carried out in both stochastic and deterministic effects, and focused on the dose-effect relationship. The research work showed that great progress for the experimental studies on biological effects with internal irradiation has been made in China. There is a definite characteristic in a certain extent. It makes contribution to develop the production of nuclear industry and the construction of national economy. Several constructive suggestions of prospects for the work in future were proposed and it will make an attention in the field of radiation protection at home and abroad

  14. A study of radionuclide transfer between invertebrates and their marine sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, Claude.

    1975-11-01

    Exchanges between sediment and marine organisms were studied in some benthic marine invertebrates, especially Arenicola marina L. (an Annelid). Experiments were carried out on the transfer of 60 Co, 137 Cs and accessorily 59 Fe and 144 Ce. Water was the chief vector for benthic marine invertebrates. These invertebrates seemed to act mainly in sedimentary areas on the redistribution of adsorbed radionuclides within the sediment. Radioactive contamination of the invertebrates was affected by various physiological or ecological factors. Benthic marine invertebrates were then studied as links in food chains. The transfer of 60 Co was studied in three food chains or fractions of food chains. The procedure allowed interesting observations from the health protection point of view and more fundamental investigations on cobalt metabolism (regulation, excretion) in a mollusc, a crustacea and a teleost [fr

  15. Field studies of the atmospheric processing of radionuclides released at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slinn, W.G.N.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Busness, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    This report gives a summary description of the goals and execution of field studies to characterize the radionuclides released from Chernobyl and to examine their long-range atmospheric transport and processing. Starting on April 28, 1986, an intensive planning and preparation effort was mounted over a very short time intercept and characterize the Chernobyl plume on its arrival over the western US. During the execution of these studies, they had very little firm information (beyond their own measurements and trajectory estimates) to confirm the location of the Chernobyl plume. On May 20, 1986, the studies were terminated, after extensive airborne sampling of air, cloud water, precipitation, soil, and vegetation as the plume traversed the western and central US and moved into Canada

  16. Experimental methodology to study radionuclide sorption and migration in geological formations and engineered barriers of waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo Sanz, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Spain, the waste management options include either the possibility of a final storage in a deep geological repository (DGR) or the centralized temporal surface disposal (CTS). DGRs are based in a multi-barrier concept with the geological barrier and including the vitrified waste, the metal containers and engineered barriers such as compacted bentonite and cement-based materials. On the other hand, CTS mainly considers concrete and cement to confine the metal canisters containing the waste. Radionuclide migration will mainly take place by the existence of chemical concentration gradients being thus diffusion the main transport mechanism or by the existence of hydraulic gradients due to the existence of water-conductive fractures. Radionuclide sorption/retention on the materials composing the natural and engineered barriers is the fundamental process controlling contaminant migration. The evaluation of sorption parameters and the understanding of the different mechanisms leading to radionuclide retention are very important issues. The study of diffusion processes is very relevant as well. This paper describes the main experimental methodologies applied to analyse radionuclide transport in the different barriers of radioactive repositories. Particularly we focused on obtaining of retention parameters as distribution coefficients, kd, or retardation factors, Rf, and diffusion coefficients of radionuclides. (Author) 6 refs.

  17. A report on intercomparison studies of computer programs which respectively model: i) radionuclide migration ii) equilibrium chemistry of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.; McD Grant, M.; Cross, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes two intercomparison studies of computer programs which respectively model: i) radionuclide migration ii) equilibrium chemistry of groundwaters. These studies have been performed by running a series of test cases with each program and comparing the various results obtained. The work forms a part of the CEC MIRAGE project (MIgration of RAdionuclides in the GEosphere) and has been jointly funded by the CEC and the United Kingdom Department of the Environment. Presentations of the material contained herein were given at plenary meetings of the MIRAGE project in Brussels in March, 1984 (migration) and March, 1985 (equilibrium chemistry) respectively

  18. Use of 82Br and 131I radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislav Pavelka

    2012-01-01

    The interference of excessive bromide intake with iodine metabolism in the rat was studied using 82 Br and 131 I radionuclides. Mainly lactating rat dams and their pups were used, in addition to adult male rats, in the present studies. Particularly, the influence of high bromide intake in lactating rat dams on the transfer of iodine and bromide to suckling young through breast milk was evaluated. The induction of hypothyroid status in the pups by high bromide intake in the mothers was proved unambiguously. Excessive bromide in lactating rat dams caused a marked decrease in plasma levels of thyroid hormones both, in the mothers and in their sucklings. The effects of an enhanced bromide intake on the thyroid function in relation to iodine status in the animals were also followed. Marked goitrogenic and thyrotoxic effects of excessive bromide in adult rats were significantly enhanced under the conditions of simultaneous iodine deficiency in the experimental animals. (author)

  19. Modeling studies of mountain-scale radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, George J.; Seol, Yongkoo; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2003-01-01

    We investigate radionuclide transport from a high-level nuclear waste repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. Several radioactive solutes (that cover the range of sorption behavior) and colloids of various sizes are studied. The results of the study indicate the importance of the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The effects of the climatic conditions, diffusion, and sorption (for solutes) or infiltration (for colloids) onto the matrix are discussed. The influence of the colloid size on transport is also investigated

  20. A computer study of radionuclide production in high power accelerators for medical and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, K. A.; Mashnik, S. G.; Wilson, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    Methods for radionuclide production calculation in a high power proton accelerator have been developed and applied to study production of 22 isotopes by high-energy protons and neutrons. These methods are readily applicable to accelerator, and reactor, environments other than the particular model we considered and to the production of other radioactive and stable isotopes. We have also developed methods for evaluating cross sections from a wide variety of sources into a single cross section set and have produced an evaluated library covering about a third of all natural elements. These methods also are applicable to an expanded set of reactions. A 684 page detailed report on this study, with 37 tables and 264 color figures is available on the Web at http://t2.lanl.gov/publications/publications.html, or, if not accessible, in hard copy from the authors.

  1. Model validation studies of water flow and radionuclide transport in vegetated soils using lysimeter data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, A.; Jining Chen [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    involved in tritium assessment, with the opportunity to test this component of their codes. In total six groups participated in the study, three groups undertaking solely hydrological simulations, the other three also including radionuclide transport. One factor which was soon identified was, owing to previous applications and development objectives, some of the models had structural forms which were inappropriate for the lysimeter scenario. In many cases participants found that they had difficulty applying the fixed water table and specified concentration boundary conditions to their models. This immediately introduced a degree of uncertainty into the model simulations. In other instances the onset of free drainage once the soil moisture reached a specified 'field capacity' led to marked discrepancies between simulated and observed hydrological data. In addition, the manner in which this free drainage mobilised radionuclides also had an important bearing on soil radioactivity profiles. The manner in which modelers selected parameter values was an important aspect of the user interpretation component of the study. Where appropriate, modelers sought to derive parameter values from the supplied data. However, in one instance a more generic approach to the identification of hydrological parameters resulted in model behaviour which was markedly different from the experimental data. This identified a discrepancy in the soil physical textural analysis and the measured hydraulic parameters compared with standard classification schemes. The effect of user interpretation on parameter selection was also clearly seen in the choice of the soil sorption K{sub d} values. One group tended to take a rather conservative view in order to provide a 'worst case' scenario, whereas in the other erred towards significantly higher values. The degree of discretization used by the various models played an important role in the dispersive transport of radionuclides up the soil

  2. Model validation studies of water flow and radionuclide transport in vegetated soils using lysimeter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, A.; Jining Chen

    1996-09-01

    assessment, with the opportunity to test this component of their codes. In total six groups participated in the study, three groups undertaking solely hydrological simulations, the other three also including radionuclide transport. One factor which was soon identified was, owing to previous applications and development objectives, some of the models had structural forms which were inappropriate for the lysimeter scenario. In many cases participants found that they had difficulty applying the fixed water table and specified concentration boundary conditions to their models. This immediately introduced a degree of uncertainty into the model simulations. In other instances the onset of free drainage once the soil moisture reached a specified 'field capacity' led to marked discrepancies between simulated and observed hydrological data. In addition, the manner in which this free drainage mobilised radionuclides also had an important bearing on soil radioactivity profiles. The manner in which modelers selected parameter values was an important aspect of the user interpretation component of the study. Where appropriate, modelers sought to derive parameter values from the supplied data. However, in one instance a more generic approach to the identification of hydrological parameters resulted in model behaviour which was markedly different from the experimental data. This identified a discrepancy in the soil physical textural analysis and the measured hydraulic parameters compared with standard classification schemes. The effect of user interpretation on parameter selection was also clearly seen in the choice of the soil sorption K d values. One group tended to take a rather conservative view in order to provide a 'worst case' scenario, whereas in the other erred towards significantly higher values. The degree of discretization used by the various models played an important role in the dispersive transport of radionuclides up the soil profile. This, in turn, revealed a strong

  3. Benchmark studies of computer prediction techniques for equilibrium chemistry and radionuclide transport in groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review of two recent benchmark exercises is presented. These were separately concerned with the equilibrium chemistry of groundwater and the geosphere migration of radionuclides, and involved the use of a total of 19 computer codes by 11 organisations in Europe and Canada. A similar methodology was followed for each exercise, in that series of hypothetical test cases were used to explore the limits of each code's application, and so provide an overview of current modelling potential. Aspects of the user-friendliness of individual codes were also considered. The benchmark studies have benefited participating organisations by providing a means of verifying current codes, and have provided problem data sets by which future models may be compared. (author)

  4. A Monte Carlo study for the shielding of γ backgrounds induced by radionuclides for CDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Tang Changjian; Yue Qian; Cheng Jianping; Kang Kejun; Li Jianmin; Li Jin; Li Yulan; Li Yuanjing; Ma Hao; Xue Tao; Zeng Zhi; Wong, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    The CDEX (China Dark matter EXperiment) Collaboration will carry out a direct search for WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) using an Ultra-Low Energy Threshold High Purity Germanium (ULE-HPGe) detector at the CJPL (China JinPing deep underground Laboratory). A complex shielding system was designed to reduce backgrounds and a detailed GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation was performed to study the achievable reduction of γ rays induced by radionuclides and neutron backgrounds by D(γ,n)p reaction. Furthermore, the upper level of allowed radio purity of shielding materials was estimated under the constraint of the expected goal. Compared with the radio purity reported by other low-background rare-event experiments, it indicates that the shielding used in the CDEX can be made out of materials with obtainable radiopurity. (authors)

  5. Natural analogues of radionuclide migration: reconnaissance study of sites (May 1985-March 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.J.; Ball, T.K.; Basham, I.R.; Bloodworth, A.J.; Roberts, P.D.; Ivanovich, M.

    1986-01-01

    Research into natural analogues of radionuclide migration provide data for supporting computer codes that describe the processes of transport and retardation. Such models are appropriate to the far-fields of shallow and deep radioactive waste repositories. The objective of this research project was to define locations within the UK and abroad worthy of detailed investigation. Site investigations and evaluations were carried out at a number of UK localities. The main focus of this survey has been on uraniferous veins in places at near surface where transport of uranium into sediments has occurred. Several uranium rich mineralisations associated with granite margins were visited in Cornwall, Devon and along the Solway Firth coast in Scotland; the disused U mine at South Terras in Cornwall and the coastal site at Needle's Eye near Dalbeattie are confirmed as future study sites. Results to hand from the sediments of Loch Lomand warrant further measurements of iodine and bromine in fresh cores. (author)

  6. Studies on the mobility of some heavy metals and transuranic radionuclides in major Indian soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Vyas, B.N.; Athalye, V.V.; Ramachandran, V.; Mistry, K.B.

    1983-01-01

    Studies on the mobility of the heavy metals, chromium, lead, zinc and transuranic radionuclides plutonium and americium in three major Indian soils, namely a vertisol-pellustert (black soil), an oxisol (laterite soil) and an entisol-haplaquent (alluvial soil), indicated that more than 98% of the surface-deposited pollutants were retained in the top 0 to 2.5 cm layer when leached with rain-water. In general, the mobility of these elements was either unaffected or marginally reduced at high doses of added organic matter as compared with controls. However, leaching with dilute solutions of (10 -4 M-bar) EDTA, EDDHA and DTPA resulted in enhancement of the mobility of all these pollutants with a high degree of chelate specificity for individual ions, depending upon the soil type. Rapid formation of stable soluble Cr-EDDHA, Pu-DTPA and Am-DTPA complexes facilitated the leaching of these pollutants from the contaminated soils. (author)

  7. Radionuclide measurements, via different methodologies, as tool for geophysical studies on Mt. Etna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, D., E-mail: daniela.morelli@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare- Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Imme, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare- Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Altamore, I.; Cammisa, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Giammanco, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma, 2, I-95123 Catania (Italy); La Delfa, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia,57 I-95127 Catania (Italy); Mangano, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Neri, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma, 2, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Patane, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia,57 I-95127 Catania (Italy)

    2011-10-01

    Natural radioactivity measurements represent an interesting tool to study geodynamical events or soil geophysical characteristics. In this direction we carried out, in the last years, several radionuclide monitoring both in the volcanic and tectonic areas of the oriental Sicily. In particular we report in-soil Radon investigations, in a tectonic area, including both laboratory and in-site measurements, applying three different methodologies, based on both active and passive detection systems. The active detection devices consisted of solid-state silicon detectors equipped in portable systems for short-time measurements and for long-time monitoring. The passive technique consisted of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), CR-39 type, and allowed integrated measurements. The performances of the three methodologies were compared according to different kinds of monitoring. In general the results obtained with the three methodologies seem in agreement with each other and reflect the tectonic settings of the investigated area.

  8. Radionuclide dynamic renal imaging for renal function study in patients with NIDDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ruiping; Qu Wanying; Gao Wenping

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclide dynamic renal imaging was performed to gain evidence for further treatment and evaluation of prognosis in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). 99m Tc-DTPA dynamic renal imaging was performed in 137 NIDDM patients and 44 normal controls (NC). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renogram were acquired simultaneously. Renal tubular secretion function was measured with 99m Tc-EC in 126 of the 137 diabetics and 17 NC. GFR decreased in all patients with different duration of NIDDM and the difference was remarkably significance in comparison with NC (t = 7.17∼13.73, P 99m Tc-EC. This study showed that the function of glomerular filtration and tubular secretion were both damaged in all diabetics. Their magnitude was aggravated with the prolongation of the course of disease

  9. Radionuclide studies in patients with neurological and psychiatric complications of systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Krajka-Lauer, J.; Koseda-Dragan, M.; Lyczak, P.; Stepien, E.

    1998-01-01

    The psychiatric and neurological complications are present in a major part of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). When biochemical and immunological assessment of those patients is currently satisfactory , diagnostic imaging of central nervous system is met with difficulties. The paper overviews the psychiatric and neurological complications of SLE, pathological changes in CNS and the diagnostic imaging of CNS in SLE. The paper underlines an important role of radionuclide studies in the diagnostic algorithm in this group of patients facing the unsatisfactory sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Regional cerebral blood flow imaging using simple photon computed tomography and cerebral glucose metabolism using positron emission tomography may play the crucial role both in assessment of present CNS involvement and for the follow-up in the course of therapy. (author)

  10. Radionuclide techniques in studies of cardiac performance and circulatory changes during antihypertensive treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falch, D.K.

    A non-invasive radionuclide technique to determine variables in the systematic and pulmonary circulation useful in out- patient studies is described. Indium 113m chloride was chosen as the tracer, and iodine 125 iothalamate may be used for simultaneous determination of the glomerular filtration rate. The counting geometry is discussed at some length. The errors of the method and its reproducability seem to be acceptable. The method was tested on two groups of healthy subjects, one of which was composed of well-trained athletes, and two groups of patients, one with chronic cardiac insufficiency, the other with primary hypertension. Tables are presented giving hemodynamic data for these groups. It is concluded that the technique gives some useful data, but that further refinement and supplementation is necessary to obtain a guidance in drug therapy. (JIW)

  11. Radionuclide measurements, via different methodologies, as tool for geophysical studies on Mt. Etna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morelli, D.; Imme, G.; Altamore, I.; Cammisa, S.; Giammanco, S.; La Delfa, S.; Mangano, G.; Neri, M.; Patane, G.

    2011-01-01

    Natural radioactivity measurements represent an interesting tool to study geodynamical events or soil geophysical characteristics. In this direction we carried out, in the last years, several radionuclide monitoring both in the volcanic and tectonic areas of the oriental Sicily. In particular we report in-soil Radon investigations, in a tectonic area, including both laboratory and in-site measurements, applying three different methodologies, based on both active and passive detection systems. The active detection devices consisted of solid-state silicon detectors equipped in portable systems for short-time measurements and for long-time monitoring. The passive technique consisted of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), CR-39 type, and allowed integrated measurements. The performances of the three methodologies were compared according to different kinds of monitoring. In general the results obtained with the three methodologies seem in agreement with each other and reflect the tectonic settings of the investigated area.

  12. Evaluation of post-ESWL renal sequelae using quantitative radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, H.; Elhaddad, SH.; Ziada, G.; El-Tawil, A.; Hegazi, A.; Fawzy, K.

    1995-01-01

    45 adult patients with single, unilateral renal stones without back pressure change attended to Cairo University Hospital during 1990 and 1991 were treated with ESWl. All cases were subjected to radionuclide renal studies using 131 I-OIH and 99 mTc-DTPA done pre-, immediate post- and 3 months post-ESWL. No significant changes of total renal ERPF and GFR could be detected. Treated kidneys GFR, GFR%, ERPE and T max showed no significant changes after ESWL except for a transient significant improvement of their T 1/2 (P 3500 shocks caused the reverse (P 55000 caused deterioration of their GFR that persisted up to 3 months (P<0.03). Conclusion: ESWL therapy is safe method for treatment of renal stones with no significant functional changes. 6 tabs

  13. Studies on groundwater flow and radionuclide migration at underground environments. Final report of collaboration research between JAERI and AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nagao, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) conducted a collaboration program Phase II with the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) from 1994 to 1998. The program was started to contribute the establishment of safety assessment methodology for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the basis of the results from the Phase I program (1987-1993). The Phase II program consisted of following experimental items: (1) radionuclide migration experiments for quarried blocks (1m x 1m x 1m) of granite with natural fracture under in-situ geochemical conditions at 240 m level of Underground Research Laboratory of AECL; (2) study on the effects of dissolved organic materials extracted from natural groundwaters on radionuclide migration; (3) study on groundwater flow using environmental isotopes at two different geologic environments; (4) development of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model for heterogeneous geological media. The mobility of radionuclides was retarded in the fracture by the deep geological conditions and the fracture paths. The groundwater humic substances with high molecular size were enhanced for the mobility of radionuclides in the sand and granitic media due to the complexation. The application of 36 Cl and 129 I for the analysis on the long-term groundwater flow can be validated on the basis of investigation at the URL site. Moreover, the geostatistical model for the analysis on groundwater flow and radionuclide migration was developed, and was able to describe the groundwater flow and the migration of environmental tracers at AECL sites. This report summaries the results of the Phase II program between JAERI and AECL. (author)

  14. Studies on groundwater flow and radionuclide migration at underground environments. Final report of collaboration research between JAERI and AECL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nagao, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) conducted a collaboration program Phase II with the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) from 1994 to 1998. The program was started to contribute the establishment of safety assessment methodology for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the basis of the results from the Phase I program (1987-1993). The Phase II program consisted of following experimental items: (1) radionuclide migration experiments for quarried blocks (1m x 1m x 1m) of granite with natural fracture under in-situ geochemical conditions at 240 m level of Underground Research Laboratory of AECL; (2) study on the effects of dissolved organic materials extracted from natural groundwaters on radionuclide migration; (3) study on groundwater flow using environmental isotopes at two different geologic environments; (4) development of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model for heterogeneous geological media. The mobility of radionuclides was retarded in the fracture by the deep geological conditions and the fracture paths. The groundwater humic substances with high molecular size were enhanced for the mobility of radionuclides in the sand and granitic media due to the complexation. The application of {sup 36}Cl and {sup 129}I for the analysis on the long-term groundwater flow can be validated on the basis of investigation at the URL site. Moreover, the geostatistical model for the analysis on groundwater flow and radionuclide migration was developed, and was able to describe the groundwater flow and the migration of environmental tracers at AECL sites. This report summaries the results of the Phase II program between JAERI and AECL. (author)

  15. Basic studies on the estimation of the capacitance of human pulmonary 'venous' system using radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Hideki; Gotoh, Kohshi; Suzuki, Takahiko; Ohsumi, Yukio; Yagi, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Senri

    1993-01-01

    To establish the methodology to assess the capacitance of human pulmonary 'venous' system, using radionuclide angiocardiography and passive leg elevation, some basic aspects of the method were investigated. The pulmonary 'venous' system consisted of pulmonary veins and the left atrium. A short segment of the volume-pressure curve in human pulmonary 'venous' system was obtained as a line connecting the 2 points. (1) Pulmonary 'venous' volume-mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure plot (P 'V' V-PCW plot) in supine position, where P 'V' V=0.7 x PBV. Pulmonary blood volume (PBV) was obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography, while mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCW) was simultaneously recorded by a floating catheter. (2) ΔP 'V' V-ΔPCW relation where ΔP 'V' V=0.8 x ΔPBV. Increment of the pulmonary blood volume (ΔPBV) during passive elevation of legs was measured from the baseline PBV and the percentage increase in the radioactivity over the right anterior chest during the leg elevation, after correction for (a) radioactivity from chest wall origin, and for (b) attenuation of the radioactive beams by the lung and the anterior chest wall. ΔPCW was the increase in PCW during leg elevation. The present study focussed on the details of the two corrections, (a) and (b), using, in parts, mechanical models. The present study also focussed on the reproducibility of the ΔP 'V' V, ΔPCW and Cp'v' (compliance of the pulmonary 'venous' system). The coefficient of variation was ±23% in ΔP 'V' V, ±18% in ΔPCW and ±18% in Cp'v', indicating a fair degree of reproducibility. (author)

  16. Radionuclide transport paths in the nearfield - a KBS-3 concept study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1990-07-01

    The general scope of the study has been to identify and define major paths for radionuclide transport from KBS3 canisters, focusing on the nearfield rock. A primary purpose was to document the hydraulic properties of the 'disturbed zones' around blasted tunnels and it is concluded from compilation of theoretical data and field experiment recording that stress relief and blasting effects combine to form a previous zone that extends to about 1 m from the tunnel periphery. It has an average, isotropic hydraulic conductivity of no less than 10 -8 m/s. A second major purpose of the study was to generalize the structure of granitic rock with respect to water-bearing fractures. Forsmark, Finnsjoen, and Stripa data have been considered and found to support the idea of rather regular 'orthogonal' fracture systems with relatively large spacings. The hydraulically active part of the fractures, which can be characterized by simple statistical distributions of persistence, spacing, and aperture, is formed by channels, which can be taken as plane, straight stripes with constant width and aperture. The width can be assumed on the basis of field observations while the aperture is estimated from the bulk conductivity and the geometry of the fracture network. The major transport paths of the rock have been concretized and combined to form a general simplified model intended for calculation of radionuclide transport through water flow and through diffusion through continuous water passages. This model comprises of a circumscribing pervious zone of 'wall disturbance' around the deposition holes in addition to the fracture channels. (author)

  17. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  18. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ( 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 210 Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of 238 U and 232 Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  19. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  20. Radionuclide Emission Estimation for the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, Bradley J.

    2010-01-01

    An Radiological Safety Analysis Computer Program (RSAC)-7 model dose assessment was performed to evaluate maximum Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) boundary effective dose equivalent (EDE, in mrem/yr) for potential individual releases of radionuclides from the facility. The CAES is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding educational opportunities at Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed a strategic plan (INL/EXT-07-12950) based on the balanced scorecard approach. At the present time it is unknown exactly what processes will be used in the facility in support of this strategic plan. What is known is that the Idaho State University (ISU) Radioactive Materials License (Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license 11-27380-01) is the basis for handling radioactive material in the facility. The material in this license is shared between the ISU campus and the CAES facility. There currently are no agreements in place to limit the amount of radioactive material at the CAES facility or what is done to the material in the facility. The scope of this analysis is a summary look at the basis dose for each radionuclide included under the license at a distance of 100, 500, and 1,000 m. Inhalation, ingestion and ground surface dose was evaluated using the NRC design basis guidelines. The results can be used to determine a sum of the fractions approach to facility safety. This sum of the fractions allows a facility threshold value (TV) to be established and potential activities to be evaluated against

  1. NORM - Radionuclide transfer studies - A modern approach according Directive 2013/59/EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, Ivica; Hajdinjak, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Regarding NORM, Directive applies in particular to human activities which involve the presence of natural radiation sources that lead to a significant increase in the exposure of workers or members of the public, in particular the processing of materials with naturally-occurring radionuclides (NORM) and the exposure of workers or members of the public to indoor radon, the external exposure from building materials and cases of lasting exposure resulting from the after-effects of an emergency or a past human activity. For areas with long-lasting residual contamination in which the Member State has decided to allow habitation and the resumption of social and economic activities, Member States shall ensure, in consultation with stakeholders, that arrangements are in place, as necessary, for the ongoing control of exposure with the aim of establishing living conditions that can be considered as normal. For building materials which are identified by the Member State as being of concern from a radiation protection point of view, Member State shall ensure that, before such materials are placed on the market the activity concentration index I is determined. The index relates to the gamma radiation dose derived throughout the radionuclide transfer studies, in excess of typical outdoor exposure, in a building constructed from a specified building material. The index applies to the building material, not to its constituents except when those constituents are building materials themselves and are separately assessed as such. The calculation of dose needs to take into account other factors such as density, thickness of the material as well as factors relating to the type of building and the intended use of the material (bulk or superficial). (authors)

  2. Study on the natural radionuclides in vegetables and food materials in Coonoor Taluk of Nilgiri Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, R.; Selvasekarappandian, S.; Kannan, V.

    2005-01-01

    One of the important route through which radionuclides enter human body is food material. A considerable study on this aspect focuses on the natural radionuclides content since it is the major contributor to the total dose received by human beings. Natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb in uranium series and 228 Ra in the thorium series exist ubiquitously in the environment and significantly contribute to the effective dose equivalent. The concentration of these radionuclides in different vegetables and food material collected in Coonoor taluk of Nilgiri Biosphere has been estimated. The concentration of 210 Po has been estimated by radiochemical separation followed by alpha counting. 210 Pb content in food material has been estimated by in growth of its daughter 210 Bi and followed by its counting by low background beta counting system. 228 Ra content has been estimated by chemical separation followed by, low background beta counting. 226 Ra has been estimated by chemical separation followed by emanation of 222 Rn and alpha counting. The vegetables and other food materials have been collected throught the study area Coonoor. The collected vegetable and food materials are coming under five categories such as leafy vegetable, tuberous vegetables, other vegetables, cereals and other food materials. The observed 210 Po concentration in the present study varies from 0.06 to 0.91 Ba/kg (fresh weight). The highest concentration of 210 Po (0.91 Bq/kg) has been observed in Tea collected at Thaimalai and the lowest value (0.06 Bq/kg) has been observed in carrot (root) collected at Bikole. The highest concentration of 210 Pb (1.12 Bq/kg) has been found in Cauliflower collected at Colocombai, while the least concentration of 210 Pb (0.12 Bq/kg) has been observed in Beans collected at Bikole. The Carrot coming under tuberous vegetable collected at Kateri have registered the highest value of 2.30 Bq/kg and the Cauliflower coming under leafy vegetable collected at

  3. Subject-3: Study on migration of radionuclides released into terrestrial and aquatic environment after nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Ueno, T.; Nagao, S.; Yanase, N.; Tkachenko, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Subject-3 has been focused on the migration behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the terrestrial surface environment, especially in connection with their chemical and physical forms. Migration behavior of radionuclides is strongly affected with their chemical and physical forms (for example; Gunten and Benes 1995). One of the two categories in Subject-3 consists of migration from surface soils including aging effects of hot particles, plant uptake from contaminated soils, and resuspension of radionuclides. The other is run off by river system, considering the role of organic materials. (author)

  4. Subject-3: Study on migration of radionuclides released into terrestrial and aquatic environment after nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Ueno, T.; Nagao, S.; Yanase, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Arkhipov, A.N. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center for International Research (Ukraine); Tkachenko, Yu. [The State Enterprise Regional Monitoring and Domestic Control (RADEC) (Unknown)

    2001-03-01

    Subject-3 has been focused on the migration behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the terrestrial surface environment, especially in connection with their chemical and physical forms. Migration behavior of radionuclides is strongly affected with their chemical and physical forms (for example; Gunten and Benes 1995). One of the two categories in Subject-3 consists of migration from surface soils including aging effects of hot particles, plant uptake from contaminated soils, and resuspension of radionuclides. The other is run off by river system, considering the role of organic materials. (author)

  5. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  6. Natural decay series radionuclide studies at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, A.B.; Scott, R.D.; Houston, C.M.; Hooker, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report covers work on a natural radioactive geochemical system and has been carried out with the aim of improving confidence in using predictive models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. It is one of a series being produced and is concerned with the U/Th decay series characterization of the hydrothermal mineral veins and the movement of these radionuclides into post-glacial flood plain deposits

  7. A method of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment using environmental radionuclides. A case study of Tsuzura river watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizugaki, Shigeru; Onda, Yuichi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Koga, Satoko; Hiramatsu, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    To study the fluvial sediment sources in forested watershed in Shikoku Island, Japan, the concentration of Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex and U decay series radionuclides were analyzed. The study area in the midstream of Shimanto River basin, located 700 km southwest of Tokyo. The 0.33 km 2 area watershed ranges in elevation from 170 m to 560 m above sea level. The soil sampling was conducted in hillslopes in various locations such as landslide scar, soil surface in unmanaged Hinoki (Chamacecyparis obtusa) plantation and unsealed forest road, and detailed sampling in the stream bed and bank was also conducted in several tributaries. Time-integrated suspended sediment sampler was adopted to obtain enough volume of sample to determine the radionuclides. The activities of Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-214 and Bi-214 of soils and fluvial sediments were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Correction for the effect of particle size distribution and organic matter content on the radionuclides were conducted to compare the radionuclides concentration between the soils of potential suspended sediment sources and fluvial sediments. It was found that there were significant differences of Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex concentration between forest floor or runoff sediment and forest road or stream bank. The Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex concentration of suspended sediment varied among them, suggesting the possibility of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment by Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex . (author)

  8. Comparative study of the radionuclide uptake and distribution within plants for barley and maize varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, O.

    1998-01-01

    Differences in the Cs-134 and Sr-85 uptake by three barley and two maize varieties were investigated in a water culture experiment. In barley, the maximum differences were about 30% for cesium and 50% for strontium. The differences between the maize varieties were negligible. The maximum difference between the varieties of the two species of crops was approximately 30% for cesium and 1 70% for strontium with higher radionuclide uptake by maize. All barley varieties accumulated cesium nearly 3.5 times more effectively than strontium, whereas for the maize varieties, cesium was accumulated about 2 times more effectively. There is a large difference in the radionuclide distribution within the plants: the amount of radiocesium in the green part of plants of both species was approximately 30% of the total, while for radiostrontium it was about 80%. As a result, approximately the same amount of the radionuclides were present in the green part of plants, despite the large difference in the uptake of the radionuclides by the whole plants. It is concluded that crop selection as a provision to reduce radionuclide contamination of the food chain should only be applied taking into account the different radionuclide distributions within the plants

  9. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  10. radiochemical study on the medically and technology radionuclides of some lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglan, H.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, trials for the production of the medically and technologically interesting 139 Ce and 142 Pr radionuclides through cyclotron irradiations using protons and alpha particles were studied. The radiochemical separation of no-carrier-added cerium from proton irradiated lanthanum was studied by solvent extraction using DEE, TBP and TPPO, the latter reagent being employed for the first time for separation of radio cerium from bulk of lanthanum. Distribution coefficients of cerium and lanthanum were investigated as a function of equilibrium time and HNO 3 concentration. A mixture of 0.05 M K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 was used as an oxidizing agent to improve the separation efficiency of cerium. A comparative study of the three extractants released that DEE is the best for separation of cerium from bulk of lanthanum oxide. The target was prepared by pressing. The production of 139 Ce of high radionuclidic and chemical purity via irradiation of lanthanum oxide target at MGC-20 cyclotron with protons of energy 14.5 is described. The experimental yield was found to be 153 kBq/μAh .The adsorption behaviour of La/Ce system on Dowex 50W-X8 in different media, namely, nitric acid, acetate buffer and citrate buffer was studied as a function of the concentration of nitric acid and buffer ph. In addition, in cation-exchange column chromatography experiments, three different eluants, namely, citrate buffer of ph 5.5, 0.1 M EDTA and 0.2 M α-HIBA, were employed for separation of Ce (III) from La (III). The optimum conditions for improvement of radiochemical separation of no-carrier-added 139 Ce from proton irradiated lanthanum were applied using the most suitable chelating agent 0.2 M α-HIBA. The purification of 139 Ce from macro amount of La (III) was done using two columns in a sequence. The experimental yield was found to be 200 kBq/μAh.

  11. A cytogenetic study of hospital workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides in Serbia. Premature centromere division as novel biomarker of exposure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajic, Jelena; Rakic, Boban [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health ' ' Dr Dragomir Karajovic' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Biodosimetry Dept.; Jovicic, Dubravka [Univ. ' ' Singidunum' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Genotoxicology Dept.; Milovanovic, Aleksandar [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health ' ' Dr Dragomir Karajovic' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Biodosimetry Dept.; Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Occupational Health Dept.

    2016-04-15

    The health risk of chronic exposure to radionuclides includes changes in the genome (e.g., chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei) that increase chromosomal instability. There are also other phenomena, which seem to appear more frequently in metaphases of exposed persons (such as premature centromere division). The aim of this study was to discover whether or not there is correlation between incidence of named cytogenetic changes in persons occupationally exposed to radionuclides in comparison with unexposed control group, and if significant correlation is determined, can premature centromere division be consider as a biomarker of radiation exposure? The exposed group comprised 50 individuals occupationally exposed to radionuclides. The reference control group consisted of 40 unexposed individuals. Chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and premature centromere division were analyzed according to a standard International Atomic Energy Agency protocol. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 statistics.The means for analyzed cytogenetic changes were significantly higher in the exposed group. Positive correlation between them was found in exposed group. Premature centromere division parameter PCD5-10 was selected as particularly suitable for separating groups (exposed/unexposed). Identification of other phenomena related to radionuclide exposure, beside well known, may clarify recent problems in radiobiology concerning the biological response to low doses of ionizing radiation and its consequences.

  12. A cytogenetic study of hospital workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides in Serbia. Premature centromere division as novel biomarker of exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajic, Jelena; Rakic, Boban; Jovicic, Dubravka; Milovanovic, Aleksandar; Belgrade Univ.

    2016-01-01

    The health risk of chronic exposure to radionuclides includes changes in the genome (e.g., chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei) that increase chromosomal instability. There are also other phenomena, which seem to appear more frequently in metaphases of exposed persons (such as premature centromere division). The aim of this study was to discover whether or not there is correlation between incidence of named cytogenetic changes in persons occupationally exposed to radionuclides in comparison with unexposed control group, and if significant correlation is determined, can premature centromere division be consider as a biomarker of radiation exposure? The exposed group comprised 50 individuals occupationally exposed to radionuclides. The reference control group consisted of 40 unexposed individuals. Chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and premature centromere division were analyzed according to a standard International Atomic Energy Agency protocol. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 statistics.The means for analyzed cytogenetic changes were significantly higher in the exposed group. Positive correlation between them was found in exposed group. Premature centromere division parameter PCD5-10 was selected as particularly suitable for separating groups (exposed/unexposed). Identification of other phenomena related to radionuclide exposure, beside well known, may clarify recent problems in radiobiology concerning the biological response to low doses of ionizing radiation and its consequences.

  13. Actinides and long-lived radionuclides in tissues of the Japanese population. Summary of the past 20-year studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Yamashita, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive fallout constitutes the major source of contamination of the environment with fission products. Our primary interest was in selected fission products, such as 131 I, 89 Sr, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs, and neutron activation products, such as 3 H and 14 C. Plutonium-239,240, 241 Am and 90 Tc are generated from nuclear tests, and they are important by-products on nuclear industries. Polonium-210, 210 Pb and 232 Th, 230 Th and 228 Th occur widely in nature. These radionuclides enter the human body through inhalation and the ingestion through food and water. These nuclides may cause radiation doses to certain organs of the body. Assessment of the resulting health hazards is an essential public health activity, which demands reliable techniques for the assay of the various radionuclides in man and his environment. Accumulation of radionuclides from man-made sources and primordial radionuclides in various tissues of the Japanese population is presented. The studies were performed at the Department of Public Health, Akita University School of Medicine, during the periods from 1973 to 1995. (author)

  14. Esophageal transit in patients bearing diabetes mellitus: contribution to its study with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.M.; Almeida Cruz, M.G. de; Lima, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Among the disorders brought about by diabetes mellitus one may include the involvement of the esophageal innervation, which leads to motor disturbances of the esophagus even in non-symptomatic phases. Taking into consideration how simple and sensitive the scintigraphic method is, in the study of esophageal motility, the authors have proposed to compare the duration of esophageal transit with radionuclide in patients bearing diabetes mellitus and in normal individuals. Thirty-three diabetic patients and 26 controls were studied. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (insulin dependents, 11 patients): group B (insulin non dependents, 22 patients). The study showed that the alterations in the time of esophageal transit predominated in groups of diabetics that were insulin non dependents, having no connection with the duration of the disease. In the group of insulin dependents the abnormalities found were related to the duration of the disease. The results obtained showed the importance of this method in the study of diabetic patients with a possible involvement of esophageal motility. (author)

  15. Towards automatic analysis of dynamic radionuclide studies using principal-components factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigran, K.S.; Barber, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A method is proposed for automatic analysis of dynamic radionuclide studies using the mathematical technique of principal-components factor analysis. This method is considered as a possible alternative to the conventional manual regions-of-interest method widely used. The method emphasises the importance of introducing a priori information into the analysis about the physiology of at least one of the functional structures in a study. Information is added by using suitable mathematical models to describe the underlying physiological processes. A single physiological factor is extracted representing the particular dynamic structure of interest. Two spaces 'study space, S' and 'theory space, T' are defined in the formation of the concept of intersection of spaces. A one-dimensional intersection space is computed. An example from a dynamic 99 Tcsup(m) DTPA kidney study is used to demonstrate the principle inherent in the method proposed. The method requires no correction for the blood background activity, necessary when processing by the manual method. The careful isolation of the kidney by means of region of interest is not required. The method is therefore less prone to operator influence and can be automated. (author)

  16. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  17. In situ radionuclide migration studies in a shallow sand aquifer (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.M.; Alexander, L.S.; Hitchman, S.P.; Hooker, P.J.; Noy, D.J.; Ross, C.A.M.; Stuart, A.; West, J.M.

    1985-07-01

    As a result of a study of the geology of the British Nuclear Fuels premises at Drigg, Cumbria, the British Geological Survey identified a shallow glacial sand deposit approximately 1.5m thick, interbedded between two clay horizons. An array of boreholes has been contructed in this sand in order to study the migration of radionuclides introduced into the formation under controlled conditions of groundwater flow. Conservative tracers used in the field test include chloride (as NaCl, detected using a specific ion electrode) and iodine-131 (as NaI, detected radiometrically using a NaI (T1) crystal). Strontium-85 (as the chloride) has been used as a chemically reactive tracer in conjuction with 131 I. The principal research objectives of the programme are as follows:- (1) to undertake laboratory batch sorption experiments using core material from the field site in order to choose those nuclides of radiological interest that would migrate sufficiently quickly for their behaviour to be studied in a field experiment within a reasonable time period. (2) to identify and quantify the mechanisms for nuclide/sediment interaction by determination of the geochemical distribution of 85 Sr in contaminated cores using a sequential leaching procedure. (3) to obtain appropriate data on the hydraulic characteristics of the sand formation in order to construct a mathematical model to describe groundwater flow and reactive mass transport. (author)

  18. Study on plutonium distribution in Palomares ecosystem after an accidental aerosol release of transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Sanchez, L.

    1990-01-01

    A discharge of plutonium and transuranic elements accidentally ocurred near Palomares (Almeria, Spain) in 1966. After decontamining operations, about 10 g of finely dispersed plutonium remained on the soil and was spreaded on the sorroundings and into Mediterranean sea. An analytical study including a 34 sampling sites of marine sediments, chemical clean-up, analytical methods for isolating plutonium from interfering radionuclides in the alfa-spectra was carried out. The detection limit level reached for the 239 u+ 240 Pu was 10 mBq/Kg one of the lowest cited in the Spanish analytical literature until now. These results were attained following a careful electroplating Pu deposition method developed by our laboratory as result of the high signal/noise rates measured and a 20 KeV resolution. Several analytical assurance quality procedures specially developed for the Palomares ecological system were applied to the results, at the CIEMAT laboratories using reference standard certified samples. The values were unbiased and with no differences statistically significants between them. Interlaboratory comparisons were carried out. After 20 years of plutonium traces environmental transport their concentration were from two at three times the leves of radionuclides in the fallout of the zone studied. The plutonium concentration range in surface sediments was 0.3-5.0 Bq/Kg. The highest values corresponding in the coastal sediments and the lowest in the deep sea. Plutonium concentrations are highly correlated with the sediments structure, grain size composition and distance from the mouth of Almanzora river. The most important contribution at the transport from the land into sea could be the freshet occured at 1973. For this reason the plutonium ecologycal path has been from Palomares sorroundings into the sea. Sites in the Mediterranean sea not affected by plutonium apportation from Almanzora river showed Pu levels approximately the same as the mean value for the whole

  19. Adsorption and desorption of radionuclide europium(III) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes studied by batch techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Songsheng Lu; Junzheng Xu; Caicai Zhang; Zhiwei Niu

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of Eu(III) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a function of pH, ionic strength and solid contents are studied by batch technique. The results indicate that the adsorption of Eu(III) on MWCNTs is strongly dependent on pH values, dependent on ionic strength at low pH values and independent of ionic strength at high pH values. Strong surface complexation and ion exchange contribute to the adsorption of Eu(III) on MWCNTs at low pH values, whereas surface complexation and surface precipitation are the main adsorption mechanism of Eu(III) on MWCNTs. The desorption of adsorbed Eu(III) from MWCNTs by adding HCl is also studied and the recycling use of MWCNTs in the removal of Eu(III) is investigated after the desorption of Eu(III) at low pH values. The results indicate that adsorbed Eu(III) can be easily desorbed from MWCNTs at low pH values, and MWCNTs can be repeatedly used to remove Eu(III) from aqueous solutions. MWCNTs are suitable material in the preconcentration and solidification of radionuclides from large volumes of aqueous solutions in nuclear waste management. (author)

  20. Studies on radionuclide concentration along the Northern Coast of Krusadai Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inigo Valan, I.; Stephen, A.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Murthy, S.M.S.; Vijayalakshmi, I.

    2014-01-01

    Krusadai Island - The Biologist's Paradise, is situated in Gulf of Mannar (GaM) near Rameswaram of Tamilnadu, India. It has been recognized as Ecological sensitive area under Coastal regulation zone notification 1991 because these area act as the breeding zone for a variety of marine species, most of which are consumed by human population. Above all Govt. of India and Govt. of Tamil Nadu jointly declared Gulf of Mannar as Marine National Park under Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. So it is essential to have a periodic radiological survey in this area in order to check the concentrations of various radionuclide. Apart from this 2004 Tsunami had many devastating effects along the coastal Tamil Nadu. GOM (Especially Rameswaram coast) didn't suffer a lot due to the barricade-like protection given by the island nation Sri Lanka. But reports suggest that northeastern part of the Krusadai Island had noticeable effects due to Tsunami, which interests to study this area. Current study is a preliminary radioactive report on the northern part of the Krusadai Island

  1. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools

  2. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  3. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  4. Organic complexation of radionuclides in cement pore water: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, W.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of the organic ligands EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), NTA (nitrilotriacetate), citrate and oxalate on the speciation of Cs, Sr, Ra, Ni, Pd, Tc, Sn, Zr, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm in cement pore waters is studied by means of chemical equilibria. Emphasis is laid on the development of a complete and consistent thermodynamic data base for the high pH range beyond pH 11. Missing data are estimated using free-energy relationships derived from a large number of experimentally determined stability constants compiled from the literature. In case where a sound estimation of stability constants is not possible due to the scarcity of quantitative information, at least upper limits are assessed for the stability of all possibly important species. Chemical equilibria were computed within the range of pH 11 to 13 and a range of Ca concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1 mol -1 (M). ETDA complexes predominate only in the case of Ni. In all other cases, the competition of Ca-organic or metal-hydroxo complexes successfully prevent any significant influence of EDTA, NTA, citrate or oxalate on the speciation of these radionuclides. (author) 10 figs., 9 refs

  5. Natural analogue and microstructural studies in relation to radionuclide retardation by rock matrix diffusion in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoto, M.; Rodriguez Rey, A.; Ruiz de Argandona, V.G.; Calleja, L.; Menendez, B.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility that radionuclide retardation by rock matrix diffusion will be limited in granitic rocks by geological factors is studied, as well as the possibility that diffusion will be confined to a narrow zone from water-conducting fractures. Petrophysical measurements, uranium series and geochemical analyses in the rock adjacent to fractures, have been performed to establish the extent of fracture-related microstructural changes that might influence the potential for diffusion and whether or not there is any record of diffusion of uranium, its daughters, or other elements. The results obtained from El Berrocal (Spain), Stripa (Sweden) and White-shell (Canada) granites, suggest that: (a) there is a zone adjacent to the fractures (generally less than 100 mm) where microstructural changes and enhanced uranium mobility exist; (b) the evidence for diffusion having taken place in the rock is confined largely to this zone. So, it appears that diffusivity determinations on rock collected away from the influence of fractures will not give representative data for diffusion modelling, in addition to the effect of distressing after removing rocks from depth. It is suggested that diffusion will be of limited effectiveness as a retardation mechanism in many granitic rocks, particularly in water movement confined to narrow channels where access by nuclides to the fracture walls is restricted. 51 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs., 9 appendices

  6. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria: Part 3. Measurements of radionuclides in airborne and deposited material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattenden, N.J.; Cambray, R.S.; Playford, K.; Eakins, J.D.; Fisher, E.M.R.

    1980-09-01

    Six stations sampling airborne particulate and deposited material were established in the Cumbrian coastal region. The measurements were undertaken to study current atmospheric levels and to discriminate between material from nuclear weapon tests, routine atmospheric discharges from the nuclear reprocessing works at Windscale and other sources, e.g. the sea. The results show that samples of both airborne and deposited material contain radionuclide concentrations in excess of those expected from nuclear weapon fallout. For Pu and 241 Am isotopes, the excess material comes mainly from a seaward direction. The transfer mechanism is probably resuspension, but the actinide levels are much greater than would be expected from the simple transfer of bulk seawater. For 137 Cs, the material in excess of amounts expected from nuclear weapon fallout can be attributed largely to Windscale discharges to air and seaspray containing the bulk seawater concentration of 137 Cs. Other fission products present in amounts exceeding nuclear weapon fallout were 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 134 Cs and 144 Ce. Tritium was also observed in amounts slightly in excess of nuclear weapon fallout. The highest observed annual average concentration in air for Pu isotopes was 0.2% of the derived air concentration, modified for members of the public, of 2.3 mBq/m 3 . (author)

  7. The study of parotid function with radionuclide imaging after radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanbin; Zhang Qi; Wang Ling; Wu Shixiu; Xie Congying

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the uptake and excretion function of parotid by radionuclide imaging after simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy (SMART) in nasopharyngeal cancer. Methods: Forty-eight nasopharyngeal cancer cases, 38 of them were treated by SMART with 2.5 Gy/fraction at tumor and enlarged lymph node to a total dose of 70 Gy, and 2.0 Gy/fraction at subclinical foci and prophy laxtic area volume to a total dose of 56 Gy in 38 d. The other 10 cases were treated by traditional radiation therapy (RT). After treatment, all patients performed parotid imaging and both uptake index (UI) and excretion index (EI) after acid stimulation were calculated. Clinical manifestation such as grade of mouth dryness was also analyzed. Results: Average UI and EI in SMART group decreased 21.9% and 37.3% respectively, with 12 cases moderate and severe mouth dryness, whereas in traditional RT group, mean UI and El decreased 56.1% and 96.1% respectively, with 9 cases moderate and severe mouth dryness. There was significant difference between them (P<0.05). Conclusion: Parotid imaging is sensitive for monitoring parotid function, and it is also reliable to evaluate the safety of SMART to parotid.. (authors)

  8. Experimental study on the first aid for the accidental intake of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kusama, Tomoko; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we described an experimental study on the first aid for the accidental intake of radionuclides. Following experiments on first aid were made: (1) Sodium Alginate or prussian blue was respectively given orally to the mice immediately after administration of 85 Sr or 134 Cs. (2) Isotonic saline intraperitoneal treatment as a type of water supply or DTPA oral treatment was made to the mice immediately after intravenous injection of 58 Co or 54 Mn. The whole body retention in mice was measured with a 5 cm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector up to 28 hr after administration. Sodium alginate or prussian blue reduced intestinal absorption of radiostrontium or radiocesium. DTPA and isotonic saline increased excretion of radiocobalt and radiomanganese in urine. DTPA oral treatment reduced the whole body retention of 58 Co to 66% and 54 Mn to 89% of the control. It was worked out from the dose estimation that the intraperitoneal injection of 10 ml isotonic saline or DTPA oral administration immediately after 58 Co injection decreased the internal radiation dose by approximately 22% or 14%, respectively. (author)

  9. Evaluation of post-ESWL renal sequelae using quantitative radionuclide studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustafa, H; Elhaddad, SH; Ziada, G; El-Tawil, A [Nuclear medicine (Egypt); Hegazi, A; Fawzy, K [Urology departments Faculty of medicine, Cairo university, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    45 adult patients with single, unilateral renal stones without back pressure change attended to Cairo University Hospital during 1990 and 1991 were treated with ESWl. All cases were subjected to radionuclide renal studies using 131 I-OIH and 99 mTc-DTPA done pre-, immediate post- and 3 months post-ESWL. No significant changes of total renal ERPF and GFR could be detected. Treated kidneys GFR, GFR%, ERPE and T max showed no significant changes after ESWL except for a transient significant improvement of their T 1/2 (P<0.04); that occurred immediately after ESWL. Contralateral kidneys showed only transient statistically significant improvement of both %GFR and T 1/2 (P<0.02 and <0.04 respectively) Regional evaluation of the stone bearing zones revealed transient significant deterioration of their regional ERPF (P<0.03). We found that shocks <3500 caused transient significant improvement of treated side ERPF, whereas >3500 shocks caused the reverse (P<0.05). Moreover, power index (number of shocks X KV) >55000 caused deterioration of their GFR that persisted up to 3 months (P<0.03). Conclusion: ESWL therapy is safe method for treatment of renal stones with no significant functional changes. 6 tabs.

  10. Left ventricle expands maximally preceding end-diastole. Radionuclide ventriculography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horinouchi, Osamu

    2002-01-01

    It has been considered that left ventricle (LV) expands maximally at the end-diastole. However, is it exactly coincident with this point? This study was aimed to determine whether the maximal expansion of LV coincides with the peak of R wave on electrocardiogram. Thirty-three angina pectoris patients with normal LV motion were examined using radionuclide ventriculography. Data were obtained from every 30 ms backward frame from the peak of R wave. All patients showed the time of maximal expansion preceded the peak of R wave. The intervals from the peak of R wave and the onset of P wave to maximal expansion of LV was 105±29 ms and 88±25 ms, respectively. This period corresponds to the timing of maximal excurtion of mitral valve by atrial contraction, and the centripetal motion of LV without losing its volume before end-diastole may be interpreted on account of the movement of mitral valve toward closure. These findings suggest that LV expands maximally between P and R wave after atrial contraction, preceding the peak of R wave thought conventionally as the end-diastole. (author)

  11. A Preliminary Study of Two Different Clays for Separation of Some Artificial Radionuclides in Stimulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasheen, Y.F.; Seliman, A.F.; Shehata, F.A.; Youssef, M.A.; Abo-Aly, M.

    2016-01-01

    The removal of long lived radionuclides, such as 134 Cs(I), 133 Ba(II), 90 Sr(II) and 152 Eu(III) by bentonite (W-Bent) and kaolin (S-Kaol) was studied as a function of different parameters using a batch technique. The results showed that the optimum ph was selected to be 6. Kinetically in case of W-Bent, the adsorption is heterogeneous for 134 Cs, 133 Ba and homogenous for 90 Sr and 152 Eu. The distribution coefficient values follow the order of 1 '5 2 Eu> 134 Cs> 90 Sr> 133 Ba. Langmuir, Freundlish, Dubinin-Raduskevich (D-R) and Temkin isotherm models were applied. According to the D-R model, W-Bent showed a high affinity to 152 Eu with a maximum capacity (q m = 0.43 mol/Kg) in comparison with S-Kaol (q m =0.023 mol/Kg). Also according to D-R model the adsorption energy (E> 8.0 KJ mol -1 ) that means the adsorption reaction is expected to be chemisorption. Finally both clays are cost-effective sorbent materials with an excellent adsorption capacity, but some surface modification for S-Kaol is recommended to be more effective than its natural form

  12. Sorption and desorption studies of some radionuclides by soil samples. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, H A; Ezz El-Din, M R; Abd El-Gawad, A S [Hot Laborities Center, National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation control, Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The different factors influencing the sorption/desorption of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 60} Co, {sup 241} Am and {sup (152+154)}Eu by soil samples of Inshas area were investigated. Mineralogical analysis of the soil samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram soil (X/m) increased as the carrier concentration [C] increased from (10{sup -9} to 10{sup -}1 mol) following a freundlich type isotherm. The distribution coefficient [K d] of the radionuclides was found to be affected by pH. The presence of K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Fe{sup 3+} as competing ions decreases the sorption capacity of the radioisotopes studied. The presence of complexing agents has a significant effect on the mobility of these radioisotopes. On the basis of the results obtained an attempt is being carried out to calculate different transport rates of the relevant isotopes in the investigated media. The mathematical model for the dispersion of the radioisotopes investigated in the groundwater environment was also elucidated. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Clinical Evaluation of Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Studies using Liquid and Solid Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jae Gol; Lee, Min Jae; Song, Chi Wook; Hyun, Jin Hai; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-15

    The author performed radionuclide esophageal transit studies(RETS) with liquid and solid boluses using the same day protocol in 90 normal controls and 164 patients with various primary esophageal motility disorders who were diagnosed by manometric criteria and clinical courses. The authors calculated mean esophageal transit time(MTT) and mean residual retention(MRR) in each of the liquid and solid studies, and classified time-activity curve(TAC) patterns. The normal criteria of RETS with liquid bolus were MTT<24 sec, MRR<9%, and the TAC pattern that showed rapid declining slope and flat low residual(Type 1). The normal criteria of RETS with solid bolus were MTT<35 sec, MRR<9% and TAC of type 1. With these normal criteria, the sensitivity and the specificity of the liquid study were 62.2% and 97.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 75.4% with the solid study. The author also found that the RETS was highly reproducible. The achalasia typically showed no effective emptying of both liquid and solid boluses during the whole study period, and was well differentiated by its extremely long transit time and high retention from the other motility disorders. The diffuse esophageal spasm(DES) and nonspecific esophageal motility disorder(NEMD) showed intermediate delay in transit time and increased retention. In the groups of hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter(LES), hypotensive LES and nutcracker, there noted no significant difference with the normal control group in terms of MTT and MRR. The DES and NEMD could be more easily identified by solid studies that showed more marked delay in MTT and increased MRR as compared with the liquid study. In conclusion, esophageal scintigraphy is a safe, noninvasive and physiologic method for the evaluation of esophageal emptying.

  14. Proposed development of a radionuclide washoff model for the German Reactor Safety Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents a brief overview of the possible development of a model for the attenuation of radionuclide concentrations in urban environments due to rainfall/runoff relationships. The following sequence of actions is suggested: (1) preliminary review, (2) exploratory modeling, (3) detailed literature review, (4) development of mathematical model, (5) development of computer model, and (6) model review including verification and sensitivity analysis. To facilitate the initiation of the indicated efforts, an introduction to the relevant literature is provided. Further, the following topics are also briefly discussed: (1) radionuclide transport and removal in the terrestrial environment, (2) need for a description of the chemical and physical forms of the radionuclides released in a reactor accident, and (3) potential importance of surface-water contamination. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Study of the Boom clay layer as a geochemical barrier for long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetsle, L.H.; Henrion, P.; Put, M.; Cremers, A.

    1985-01-01

    The Boom clay layer below the nuclear site of Mol, Belgium has been thoroughly investigated on its geohydrologic and physicochemical characteristics as well as by laboratory experiments and in situ tests in the underground laboratory. Hydraulic permeabilities have been measured in situ; the chemical composition of the interstitial clay water is related to the mineralogical composition. Radionuclide sorption data and sorption mechanisms are given for Cs, Sr, Eu, Tc, Am, Pu and Np; experimental diffusion coefficients were determined by clay plug migration tests in representative conditions. Results of model calculations for the migration of radionuclides in dense porous media are given for Cs, Sr, Pu and Np

  16. Coupled study of radionuclides and stable lead isotopes in Western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralles, J.

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this work is to identified an environmental deposit able to have stored the atmospheric signal over large time-scale leaning our investigations on lead stable isotopes ( 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 Pb) and radionuclide ( 210 Pb, 137 Cs, 239 Pu, 240 Pu) analysis. Owing to prior studies on anthropogenic lead sources, emission intensity and sedimentary accumulation, we choose to investigate the marine sediments of the Western Mediterranean. In the Gulf of Lions, the sedimentary accumulation is 110 ± 7 μg.cm -2 high in good agreement with the atmospheric inventory estimate we made from salt marshes of Camargue (99 μg.cm -2 ). The reconstructed lead accumulation through a modelling step coupling 210 Pb and stable isotopes corroborates the regional anthropogenic emissions (Ferrand, 1996). Briefly, in this context of the marine sediments are a relevant proxy to study past lead atmospheric concentration over the last hundred years. In the Alboran Sea, the study area is less constrained and more complex in terms of climatic, meteorological and hydrological conditions. The sedimentary inventory is of 153 ± 47 μg.cm -2 , 1,5 higher than in the margin sediments of the Gulf of Lions. The analysis of aerosols, sediments and settling particles evidences a continuity between the atmospheric signal and the sedimentary record. In spite of this encouraging results, the knowledge of the Alboran system is still too restricted in order to unambiguously conclude on accuracy of deep marine sediments of this area to study past atmospheric fallouts. (author)

  17. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  18. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  19. Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on glomerular filtration rate in essential hypertension: A radionuclide study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuocolo, A.; Volpe, M.; Mele, A.F.; Celentano, L.; Neumann, R.D.; Trimarco, B.; Salvatore, M. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Naples (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    A number of studies show that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) raises renal sodium excretion with a concomitant increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in both experimental animals and normal humans. Studies using indirect evaluation of GFR have provided less consistent results in hypertensive patients. We studied the effects of intravenously administered (iv) {alpha}-human ANP on GFR in patients with hypertension by a radionuclide technique using technetium 99m diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid. In six patients (ANP group), GFR was determined under control conditions, during iv ANP (initial bolus of 0.5 {mu}g/kg followed by a 21-min maintenance infusion at 0.05 {mu}g.kg{sup -1}.min{sup -1}) and during a recovery phase. In six other patients (control group), GFR was determined under control conditions, during saline iv infusion and during recovery. The two groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, basal blood pressure, heart rate or GFR. In the ANP group, the infusion of the peptide induced a significant decrease of mean blood pressure (from 133+-5 to 120+-5 mmHg, P<0.01), no change in heart rate and a significant increase in GFR (from 104+-4 to 125+-5 ml/min, P<0.01). During recovery, blood pressure, heart rate and GFR were not different from the values recorded under control conditions. No changes in blood pressure, heart rate or GFR (from 106+-5 to 108+-5 ml/min, n.s.) were detected during saline infusion in the control group. Our results demonstrated that in patients with essential hypertension, ANP induces an augmentation in GFR in spite of a decrease in blood pressure; this suggests a unique role for atrial peptide-related drugs in the treatment of human hypertension. (orig.).

  20. In situ radionuclide migration studies in a shallow sand aquifer. Part. 1. Part. 2: appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.M.; Alexander, L.S.; Hitchman, S.P.; Hooker, P.J.; Noy, D.J.; Ross, C.A.M.; Stuart, A.; West, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    As a result of a study of the geology of the British Nuclear Fuels premises at Drigg, Cumbria, the British Geological Survey identified a shallow glacial sand deposit approximately 1.5m thick, interbedded between two clay horizons. An array of boreholes has been constructed in this sand in order to study the migration of radionuclides introduced into the formation under controlled conditions of groundwater flow. Conservative tracers used in the field test include chloride (as NaCl) and iodine-131 (as NaI). Strontium-85 (as the chloride) has been used as a chemically reactive tracer in conjunction with 131 I. The principal research objectives of the programme are as follows: (1) To undertake laboratory batch sorption experiments using core material from the field site in order to choose those nuclides of radiological interest that would migrate sufficiently quickly for their behaviour to be studied in a field experiment within a reasonable time period. (2) To identify and quantify the mechanisms for nuclide/sediment interaction by determination of the geochemical distribution of 85 Sr in contaminated cores using a sequential leaching procedure. (3) To obtain appropriate data on the hydraulic characteristics of the sand formation in order to construct a mathematical model to describe groundwater flow and reactive mass transport. Part 2 of this report contains the following appendices: (1) Calculation of sorption parameters. (2) A low-cost manifold system for use with multi-level samplers. (3) Radioactivity curves for 131 I and 85 Sr. (4) Results of particle size analysis for sand aquifers

  1. A field study of physico-chemical states of artificial radionuclides in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yutaka; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    1974-01-01

    The physico-chemical states of artificial radionuclides, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce in seawater were investigated by radiochemical analysis of filtered and unfiltered seawater. The difference of radionuclide concentrations between unfiltered and filtered seawaters was defined as the ''particulate form'' radioisotope and its ''particle ratio'' was discussed. Practically no particulate 90 Sr, greater than 0.22 μ in size, was observed in both coastal and open seawaters, but some of 137 Cs seemed to be insoluble in some circumstances, especially in coastal waters. A considerable amount of 144 Ce was found to be particulate. An estimation of the radionuclides in particulate form was made for Kashima-nada seawaters collected in 1970 to 1972, and it was shown that the possible occurrence of particulate radionuclides, greater than 0.22 μ in size, were 1% or less for 90 Sr and 6% for 137 Cs. In the coastal water, 80% of 144 Ce were seemed to be in particulate form, but in the open seawater only a few %. The influences of suspended materials to 137 Cs and 144 Ce concentration levels in seawater were not negligible and further investigations are desirable. (auth.)

  2. Use of Br-82 and I-131 radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 2 (2012), s. 379-383 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bromide * goitrogenic effect * iodine radionuclides * thyroid hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2012

  3. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  4. Radionuclide and/or radiological technique as a comprehensive renal function study in clinical pediatric pratice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Errico, G.; La Vecchia, G.; Nodari, A.; Cenci, F.

    1984-01-01

    84 patients with clinically suspected urinary pathway pathology always underwent CRRA (Computerized Radionuclide Renal Angiography) and IVP (Intra Venous Pyelography); in some selected children RC (Retrograde Cystography) and CRDC (Computerized Retrograde Cysto Scintigraphy) and/or RCS (Retrograde Cysto Scintigraphy) and/or RCS (Retrograde Cysto Scintigraphy) were performed. These children, ranging from 1 day to 14 years of age, were classified, on the basis of clinical features, as: glomerulonephritis (34 cases); pyelonephritis (7 cases); vesico-ureteral reflux (15 cases); kidney and/or urinary tract malformations (29 cases). Clinical suspicion was proven by radioisotope and radiographic studies in 55 patients, namely: glomerulonephritis (23 cases); pyelonephritis (5 cases); vesico-ureteral reflux (11 cases); kidney and/or urinary tract malformation (16 cases). Among complications of the last pathology two cases of pyelo-pyelic reflux in a Y shaped duplication, cause of recurrent lumbar pain and urinary infection, not detected by IVP and RC, were discovered by CRRA; in addition two cases of vesico-ureteral reflux in patients with recurrent urinary infection were detected by CRDC but not confirmed by RC (these refluxes were considered as insignificant and transient). In our opinion, radioisotope studies (CRRA-CRDC-RCS) by i.v. injection (99m-Tc-DTPA; 0.30 MBq/kg) or by vesical catheterisation (99m-Tc-pertecnetate; 18 MBq) are particularly useful to differentiate complete from incomplete, organic from functional urinary tract obstruction, since they allow a quantitative assessment of both kidney function and unilateral renal impairment. Radiographic examination (IVP and RC), on the other hand, provide more detailed anatomical information, but are less suitable for monitoring treatment because of the higher radiation dose delivered to the patients. (Author)

  5. Monte Carlo verification of polymer gel dosimetry applied to radionuclide therapy: a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gear, J I; Partridge, M; Flux, G D; Charles-Edwards, E

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the dosimetric performance of the polymer gel dosimeter 'Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin, initiated by Copper' and its suitability for quality assurance and analysis of I-131-targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry. Four batches of gel were manufactured in-house and sets of calibration vials and phantoms were created containing different concentrations of I-131-doped gel. Multiple dose measurements were made up to 700 h post preparation and compared to equivalent Monte Carlo simulations. In addition to uniformly filled phantoms the cross-dose distribution from a hot insert to a surrounding phantom was measured. In this example comparisons were made with both Monte Carlo and a clinical scintigraphic dosimetry method. Dose-response curves generated from the calibration data followed a sigmoid function. The gels appeared to be stable over many weeks of internal irradiation with a delay in gel response observed at 29 h post preparation. This was attributed to chemical inhibitors and slow reaction rates of long-chain radical species. For this reason, phantom measurements were only made after 190 h of irradiation. For uniformly filled phantoms of I-131 the accuracy of dose measurements agreed to within 10% when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. A radial cross-dose distribution measured using the gel dosimeter compared well to that calculated with Monte Carlo. Small inhomogeneities were observed in the dosimeter attributed to non-uniform mixing of monomer during preparation. However, they were not detrimental to this study where the quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution of polymer gel dosimetry were far superior to that calculated using scintigraphy. The difference between Monte Carlo and gel measurements was of the order of a few cGy, whilst with the scintigraphic method differences of up to 8 Gy were observed. A manipulation technique is also presented which allows 3D scintigraphic dosimetry measurements to be compared to polymer

  6. Cerium(III) molybdate nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and radionuclides adsorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Taher, E-mail: Taher_yosefy@yahoo.com [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Institute, Kargher Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tarbiat Moallem University, Mofatteh Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanchi, Ali Reza; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Institute, Kargher Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rofouei, Mohamad Kazem [Tarbiat Moallem University, Mofatteh Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yavari, Ramin; Davarkhah, Reza; Myanji, Behzad [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Institute, Kargher Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new inorganic nanoparticles with average size about 40 nm were synthesized by chemical method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology studies reveal existing nanowires among dense nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation shows it has high stability in rough media and high affinity for Cs(I), U(VI), and Th(IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was used for adsorption of radionuclides and removal of {sup 134}Cs from real sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These findings are important for evaluating human and environmental risk assessment. - Abstract: Cerium(III) molybdate nanostructure with average size about 40 nm was prepared by adding cerium(III) chloride and ammonium molybdate solutions under varying conditions. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Brunauere Emmette Teller (BET) techniques. Ion exchange capacity of the sample for potassium ion and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for 23 metal ions were determined, the K{sub d} values for Tl(I), Pb(II), Th(IV), U(VI), and Cs(I) ions were found to be sufficiently high for their removal from various effluents. The adsorption behavior of the sample towards Cs(I){sub 134} species were studied. Finally, the binary separation of Dy(III)-U(VI), Sm(III)-Th(IV) and Cs(I)-Rb(I) and removal of Cs(I){sub 134} from the real sample were successfully achieved.

  7. Studies on influence of environmental factors on concentration on concentration of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Environmental factors which seemed to influence the concentration of radionuclides to marine organisms including illumination, water temperature, coexisting stable elements, salt concentration, suspended matters in sea water and residue were studied. The influence of illumination was examined by algae using 137 Cs, 60 Co, 85 Sr, and 106 Ru as tracers, within 24 hours of illumination. The concentration of 137 Cs and 60 Co revealed remarkable increase of uptake in accordance with increasing illumination intensity, and 24 hours illumination showed 2 times concentration of that by 4 hours'. 85 Sr and 106 Ru showed no effect of illumination, and suggested their concentration was depending on adsorption to the surface. As for water temperature, the concentration factor of 65 Zn, 137 Cs obtained from fishes and shells by 22 0 C breeding was 2 times of that by 12 0 C breeding. Concerning the influence of coexisting stable elements, fishes and shells were examined by 54 Mn, 60 Co, and 65 Zn as tracers. When the stable elements concentration in sea water became 10 times the normal, concentration factor depending on adsorption and metabolism became respective one tenth and one second of the normal value. The influence of salt concentration was examined using 85 Sr, 65 Zn, and 137 Cs, and revealed that 28 to 40 per cent changes of salt level gave slight influence on concentration factor. In order to study the influence of suspended matters and quality of residue, 3 kinds of 106 Ru complex species were added. Concentration factor of Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme) showed no remarkable difference between breeding in filtrated and non-filtrated sea water. However, clams living in the sand should be taken care of the concentration by the residue in the sea bottom. (Kanao, N.)

  8. Studying the effect of the Semipalatinsk Test Site on radionuclide and elemental composition of water objects in the Irtysh River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodukhin, V; Аidarkhanov, A; Lukashenko, S; Gluchshenko, V; Poznyak, V; Lyahova, O

    2015-06-01

    The results of the field and laboratory studies of radiation and environmental state at the specific area of Irtysh River adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site are provided. It was found that the radiation situation in this area is normal: equivalent dose of γ-radiation = (0.11-0.13) µSv h(-1). Determination of radionuclide composition of soil, bottom sediment and water samples was performed by the methods of instrumental γ-spectrometry, radiochemical analysis and the liquid scintillation β-spectrometry. It was found that concentrations of the studied natural and artificial radionuclides in these objects are very low; no contamination with radionuclides was detected in this segment of Irtysh River. The article provides the results of elemental composition determination for samples of soil and bottom sediment (by X-ray fluorescence method) and water samples (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method). It is shown that the content of some elements (Li, Be, B, V, Cu, Sr, Mo) in the water of Irtysh River increases downstream. The additional studies are required to explain this peculiarity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B and left bundle-branch block: electrophysiologic and radionuclide study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakovec, P.; Kranjec, I.; Fettich, J.J.; Jakopin, J.; Fidler, V.; Turk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Coinciding left bundle-branch block and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B, a very rare electrocardiographic occurrence, was found in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy. Electrophysiologic study revealed eccentric retrograde atrial activation during ventricular pacing, suggesting right-sided accessory pathway. At programmed atrial pacing, effective refractory period of the accessory pathway was 310 ms; at shorter pacing coupling intervals, normal atrioventricular conduction with left bundle-branch block was seen. Left bundle-branch block was seen also with His bundle pacing. Radionuclide phase imaging demonstrated right ventricular phase advance and left ventricular phase delay; both right and left ventricular phase images revealed broad phase distribution histograms. Combined electrophysiologic and radionuclide investigations are useful to disclose complex conduction abnormalities and their mechanical correlates.

  10. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B and left bundle-branch block: electrophysiologic and radionuclide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovec, P.; Kranjec, I.; Fettich, J.J.; Jakopin, J.; Fidler, V.; Turk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Coinciding left bundle-branch block and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B, a very rare electrocardiographic occurrence, was found in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy. Electrophysiologic study revealed eccentric retrograde atrial activation during ventricular pacing, suggesting right-sided accessory pathway. At programmed atrial pacing, effective refractory period of the accessory pathway was 310 ms; at shorter pacing coupling intervals, normal atrioventricular conduction with left bundle-branch block was seen. Left bundle-branch block was seen also with His bundle pacing. Radionuclide phase imaging demonstrated right ventricular phase advance and left ventricular phase delay; both right and left ventricular phase images revealed broad phase distribution histograms. Combined electrophysiologic and radionuclide investigations are useful to disclose complex conduction abnormalities and their mechanical correlates

  11. Experimental studies on behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in relation to deep-ocean disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, S.R.; Fowler, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the interactions of long-lived radionuclides with sediments from present or potential deep-ocean radioactive waste disposal sites. The studies have been concerned with both geochemical aspects and sediment/animal radioecology. Examples drawn from the comparative behaviour of technetium and three transuranium nuclides (neptunium, plutonium and americium) are presented in relation to their uptake from sea water by deep-ocean sediments, ease of desorption and transfer from contaminated sediments to benthic invertebrates. The results provide information for the prediction of the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in the deep-sea water/sediment boundary after their release from wastes. (author)

  12. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  13. Diffusion of Radionuclides in Bentonite Clay - Laboratory and in situ Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Mats

    2002-12-01

    the bentonite. However, at some spots in the clay, the Tc activity was considerably higher. We ascribe these activity peaks to iron-containing minerals in the bentonite, by which Tc(VII) has been reduced to Tc(IV) and precipitated. The cations Sr 2+ , Cs + and Co 2+ , as well as the anion I-, behaved in the CHEMLAB experiments as expected from laboratory studies. Three experiments in the LOT series are completed. The first two diffusion experiments in LOT were less successful, the first due to the fact that saturation of the bentonite was not obtained during the experimental period and the radionuclides did not move at all. In the second, the uptake of the bentonite parcel was less successful. Water from the drilling flushed away large pieces of the top part of the bentonite and the lower part of the test parcel was super-saturated with water and expanded when released from the rock. The activity distribution in the second experiment was analysed. The Co 2+ profile looked as we had expected, while Cs + had spread more than our calculations indicated. However, the third experiment was successful from emplacement, water saturation and heating to uptake. The activity distribution for both cations was as expected from laboratory studies. Altogether the three different types of experiments give a uniform picture of radionuclide diffusion in bentonite clay for the ions investigated

  14. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Laboratory and field studies related to the Radionuclide Migration project: Progress report, October 1, 1986-September 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1988-02-01

    In this report we describe the research done by personnel of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in support of the Radionuclide Migration project during FY 1987. We are engaged in collecting data concerning the movement of radionuclides at three locations on the Nevada Test Site. We continue to monitor the elution of tritium and krypton from the RNM-2S well at the Cambric site and have described in detail the elution of 36 Cl from the same well. The data from this field study provide us with the opportunity to test the validity of several models of solute transport through geologic media. We have detected tritium and fission products in a water sample from the hole UE20n number1, which was drilled this year at the Cheshire site on Pahute Mesa. We are also continuing our efforts to learn how radionuclides have moved in test areas 3 and 4 near the Aleman site. Our laboratory work this year includes (1) a characterization of the size and density of two stable plutonium(IV) colloid suspensions prepared by different techniques and (2) a study of the transmission of colloidal-size polystyrene beads through crushed-rock columns. 18 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Comparative studies on the transfer of radionuclides to the fetus in the rat - implications for human dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.; Adams, N.; Gray, S.A.; Rees, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a series of studies in which the transfer of isotopes of Cs, Sr, Ru, Ce and Am to newborn rats has been measured following their administration to the mother either before or during gestation. The results have shown that transfer to the fetus depends not only on the radionuclide administered but also on the time of administration relative to the onset of pregnancy. They have also demonstrated that average concentrations of radionuclides in the newborn infant and mother can vary by more than two orders of magnitude. Of the radionuclides studied 85 Sr and 137 Cs were the most effectively translocated to the fetus when administered towards the end of gestation, and 141 Ce and 241 Am the least. Thus following administration on the 14th day of pregnancy the relative concentrations of 85 Sr and 241 Am in the newborn rat and mother at birth were respectively 0.21 and 0.004, and on the 19th day 5.3 and 0.02. The development of a dosimetric model for 241 Am is also described. 23 refs.; 3 tabs

  17. Study of the dispersion of radionuclides in the Ilha Grande Bay - RJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Franciane Martins de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed the study of the dispersion profiles of radionuclides released in liquid radioactive effluents from the Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto (CNAAA), in the Ilha Grande Bay, located in Angra dos Reis, RJ. Taking the overall activity released by liquid effluents discharge from the CNAAA in the Piraquara de Fora Bay as a reference parameter to the dilution rates scanning, the accordance level between the achieved 3 H results (1 :16) and those reported by Franklin (1 :20) can be seen as relevant. The post-1965 137 Cs concentration raise can be regarded as a consequence of the operational start up in the CNAAA, being the Ribeira Bay considered its preferential uptake, from the plume displacement high tide, as well as its retention, due to local deposition favourable trends. The evaluation of the prevailing mechanism on long half-life radio isotopes dispersion pointed out its dependence on meteorological condition parameters, during the sampling procedures. If diffusion prevailingness occurs, both 223 Ra and 224 Ra distribution pathways result in diffusion coefficients ranging from 20,12 ± 3,81 - 21,07 ± 3,91 km 2 .d -1 to a 228 Ra offshore flux and time of residence of, respectively, 3,18 ± 1,01 x 108 Bq.d-1 and 25,35 ± 0,45 days. On the other hand, an uppermost advection process provided 228 Ra offshore flux and time of residence of, respectively, 2,26 ± 0,424 x 10 8 Bq.d -1 and 13,08 ± 0,21 days. (author)

  18. A study of the colonic transit function by dual radionuclide colon scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Weidong; Sun Buzhou; Song Changyi; Lu Jinyan; Wang Shejiao; Zheng Xianghong; Huang Lin; Lei Yamei

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To establish a new, simple and noninvasive method which can quantitatively analyze the colonic transit function by dual radionuclide colon scintigraphy. Methods: 24 patients with constipation and 32 normal controls were studied. Na 131 I was sealed into capsule made by polyvinylchloride which can not be digested and absorbed in gastrointestinal tract. Patients and normal volunteers swallow 131 I capsules and drink 99 Tc m labelled sulfur colloid solution at the same time. The static image was acquired at the regular time, then calculate the Geometric Center values (GC). Results: 1) The capsules can be clearly located through the colonic contour shown by 99 Tc m labeled sulfur colloid when it reached the large bowel. 2) The transiting time from mouth to cecum, through colon and through whole gastrointestinal in normal people were (6.61 +- 1.94), (36.61 +- 10.51) and (42.72 +- 10.02) h, respectively, in constipation group were (8.03 +- 3.63), (65.50 +- 28.40) and (74.05 +- 28.17) h, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in two groups compared with each other. But the transiting time through colon and whole gastrointestinal in constipation was slower than that in normal people, with significant difference (P < 0.01). 3) Through examination the colonic transit abnormality can be divided into three patterns: whole colon transit delay, right-colon transit delay and left-colon transit delay. Conclusions: This method is a simple, physiologic and quantitative in evaluating the colonic transit, it can also stage the colonic dyskinesia of the patients

  19. Radionuclide studies of the lymphatic systems and their particular role in the assessment of the lymphoedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakkou, E.

    1984-01-01

    Dynamic radionuclide studies of the lymphatic system are used to measure the length of time required for the tracer to transit the upper and lower extremities as well as to determine, for any given point of time, the transportation and storage capacities of lymph vessels and nodes, respectively. Secondary lymphoedemas of more substantial proportions can reliably be diagnosed and classified on the basis of degrees of severity. The presence of those lymphoedemas is typically indicated by dermal back flow at circulatory bottlenecks, delays or marked delays (by more than 15 min) in transit and durations of transit beyond the measurable range. Further characteristic signs are passive dilatation of the prefacial bundle of lymph vessels (which is likely to be a first degree dilatation, if seen in late scintigrams and a second or third degree dilatation in cases escaping scintigraphic detection) and wide-spread inhibitions of activity over the entire extremity examined. Combined oedematous changes of lymph vessels and veins can only be predicted from lymph circulation disorders. This method permits an immediate diagnosis of any conditions precluding the use of endolymphatic therapy in malignant melanomas, thus sparing the patient the discomforts of treatment and helping to avoid unnecessary expenditure. Dynamic scintigraphy offers advantages over lymphography in that it has a greater discriminating power in diagnostic evaluations of active or passive dilatation of the bundle of lymph vessels, dermal back flow as well as the functional performance of damaged lymph vessels and also in that it permits a more precise visualisation of the superfacial and deep vessels of the lymphatic systems. (TRV) [de

  20. Radionuclide deposition and migration within the Gideaa and Finnsjoen study sites, Sweden: A study of the fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, E.; Sundblad, B.; Karlberg, O.; Lampe, S.; Tullborg, E.L.

    1987-12-01

    Radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 were deposited over large areas of Sweden. The distribution and migration of the radionuclides during the first months after deposition were measured in a comprehensive survey within two study sites, Gideaa in Aangermanland county and Finnsjoen in Uppland county. The sites are previously investigated in the SKB site characterization programme and well defined regarding geology and hydrology. Radionuclides analysed are: Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-90, Zr-95, Nb-95, Mo-99, Ru-103, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Sb-125, I-131, Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-140, La-140, Ce-141 and Ce-144. The CS-137 surface activity gave a range of 30-100 kBq/m 2 in Gideaa and 20-40 kBq/m 2 in Finnsjoen. Radionuclide migration is observed in soil profiles, groundwater and rock fissures. An active transport by surface water is also evident from sediment samples. Radionuclides have been absorbed in different types of vegetation. (orig./DG)

  1. Cation-selective extraction column study for the conception of nuclear medical radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streng, Roman

    2012-01-01

    The topic of the present work is the conception of a Yttrium-90 radionuclide generator for nuclear medicine applications. Due to its physical properties Yttrium-90 is considered as one of the most useful nuclides for radiotherapeutic cancer treatment. The parent nuclide Strontium-90 is gained during reprocessing of fission products. Thus, the sustained availability of large quantities of Yttrium-90 is limited to a number of research facilities. A radionuclide generator provides an independent Yttrium-90 source and enhances the capacities for radiopharmaceutical research and biomedical applications. The present work focussed on the identification of appropriate column materials for the separation of Strontium and Yttrium. The results for two materials are reported: AnaLig registered Sr-01 and crystalline antimonic acid. Based on the mode of operation of the Technetium-99m generator the aim was to enable the construction of a compact, enclosed apparatus. The projected device comprises a reservoir for the eluant, the ion-exchange column, pipings and radiation shielding. Elution of Yttrium-90 could then be easily performed by connecting evacuated vials to the outlet tube. The prospected concept involves physical and chemical confinements that exclude most of the known processes for Strontium-Yttrium separation. For example no ligands, no oxidizing reactants (e.g. nitric acid) and no organic solvents are to be used, but small volumes of isotonic or buffer solutions and dilute acids respectively. AnaLig registered Sr-01 is a commercially available resin used in extraction chromatography. Its high selectivity for Strontium cations results from the strictly defined cavity of the imbedded cryptand. Determination of weight distribution coefficients, elution studies and pre-generator experiments were carried out. Quantitative separation of Yttrium from Strontium and Zirconium is possible using small volumes of 0,05 M hydrochloric acid as eluant. Furthermore, high flow rates

  2. A Monte Carlo study on {sup 223}Ra imaging for unsealed radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihiko, E-mail: takahsr@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Miwa, Kenta; Sasaki, Masayuki [Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Baba, Shingo [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra), an α-emitting radionuclide, is used in unsealed radionuclide therapy for metastatic bone tumors. The demand for qualitative {sup 223}Ra imaging is growing to optimize dosimetry. The authors simulated {sup 223}Ra imaging using an in-house Monte Carlo simulation code and investigated the feasibility and utility of {sup 223}Ra imaging. Methods: The Monte Carlo code comprises two modules, HEXAGON and NAI. The HEXAGON code simulates the photon and electron interactions in the tissues and collimator, and the NAI code simulates the response of the NaI detector system. A 3D numeric phantom created using computed tomography images of a chest phantom was installed in the HEXAGON code. {sup 223}Ra accumulated in a part of the spine, and three x-rays and 19 γ rays between 80 and 450 keV were selected as the emitted photons. To evaluate the quality of the {sup 223}Ra imaging, the authors also simulated technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) imaging under the same conditions and compared the results. Results: The sensitivities of the three photopeaks were 147 counts per unit of source activity (cps MBq{sup −1}; photopeak: 84 keV, full width of energy window: 20%), 166 cps MBq{sup −1} (154 keV, 15%), and 158 cps MBq{sup −1} (270 keV, 10%) for a low-energy general-purpose (LEGP) collimator, and those for the medium-energy general-purpose (MEGP) collimator were 33, 13, and 8.0 cps MBq{sup −1}, respectively. In the case of {sup 99m}Tc, the sensitivity was 55 cps MBq{sup −1} (141 keV, 20%) for LEGP and 52 cps MBq{sup −1} for MEGP. The fractions of unscattered photons of the total photons reflecting the image quality were 0.09 (84 keV), 0.03 (154 keV), and 0.02 (270 keV) for the LEGP collimator and 0.41, 0.25, and 0.50 for the MEGP collimator, respectively. Conversely, this fraction was approximately 0.65 for the simulated {sup 99m}Tc imaging. The sensitivity with the LEGP collimator appeared very high. However, almost all of the counts were

  3. Discriminant method for the optimization of radionuclide activity in studies of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Diaz, Marlen

    2003-01-01

    It is presented a method for the optimization of the radionuclidic activity to administer to mature patients in studies of Nuclear Medicine. The method is based in technical of discriminant analysis to build a function that discriminates groups with image quality differed on the base of physical parameters as they are the contrast image and the aleatory noise. The image quality is the dependent variable and it is selected by means of experts' evaluation and technical of clustering. The function is a lineal combination of a reduced group of variables physical-medical, able to discriminate the groups starting from a big group of variables measures. The method allows, also, to establish the relative weight of each discriminant variable selected . The behavior of the same ones is analyzed among studies carried out with different administered activity, with the objective of determining the minimum value of this that still allows good results in the image quality (Approach of activity optimization). It is validated the method by means of results comparison with the grateful Curved ROC in studies carried out with the Mannequins of Jaszczak (for planar studies) and of Insert Heart (for studies of SPECT). The optim activity value of the 99mTc, obtained with the application of the method, was coincident with the one obtained after the application of the method ROC to 6 expert observers as much in planar studies as in SPECT for two different cameras gamma. The method was applied later on in static, dynamic studies and of SPECT carried out with camera gamma to a mature population of 210 patient. The decisive variables of the quality of the image were obtained in the nuclear venticulography in rest, the bony gammagraphy, the nuclear renogram, the renal gammagraphy and the cerebral SPECT, as well as some activity values optimized for the equipment conditions and available radiopharmac in the country, allowing to establish a better commitment relationship between image quality

  4. In-situ radionuclide transport and preferential groundwater flows at INEEL (Idaho): Decay-series disequilibrium studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.L.; Roback, R.; Murrell, M.; McLing, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Uranium and thorium-decay series disequilibria in groundwater occur as a result of water-rock interactions, and they provide site-specific, natural analog information for assessment of in-situ, long-term migration of radionuclides in the far field of a nuclear waste disposal site. In this study, a mass balance model was used to relate the decay-series radionuclide distributions among solution, sorbed and solid phases in an aquifer system to processes of water transport, sorption-desorption, dissolution-precipitation, radioactive ingrowth-decay, and α recoil. Isotopes of U and Rn were measured in 23 groundwater samples collected from a basaltic aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Idaho. The results show that groundwater activities of Th and Ra isotopes are 2--4 orders lower than those of their U progenitors. Modeling of the observed disequilibria places the following constraints on the time scale of radionuclide migration and water-rock interaction at INEEL: (1) Time for sorption is minutes for Ra and Th; time for desorption is days for Ra and years for Th; and time for precipitation is days for Th, years for Ra, and centuries for U. (2) Retardation factors due to sorption average > 10 6 for 232 Th, approximately10 4 for 226 Ra, and approximately10 3 for 238 U. (3) Dissolution rates of rocks are approximately70 to 800 mg/L/y. (4) Ages of groundwater range from 222 Rn occur near the groundwater recharging sites as well as in the major flow pathways. Decay of the sorbed parent radionuclides (e.g., 226 Ra and 228 Ra) on micro-fracture surfaces constitutes an important source of their daughter ( 222 Rn and 228 Th) activities in groundwater

  5. Assessing the impact of releases of radionuclides into sewage systems in urban environment - simulation, modelling and experimental studies - LUCIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundelll-Bergman, S.; Avila, R.; Cruz, I. de la; Xu, S.; Puhakainen, M.; Heikkinene, T.; Rahola, T.; Hosseini, A.; Nielsen, Sven; Sigurgeirsson, M.

    2009-06-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project on assessing the impact of releases of radionuclides into sewage systems and was established to provide more knowledge and suitable tools for emergency preparedness purposes in urban areas. It was known that the design of sewage plants, and their wastewater treatments, is rather similar between the Nordic countries. One sewage plant in each of the five Nordic countries was selected for assessing the impact of radionuclide releases from hospitals into their sewerage systems. Measurements and model predictions of dose assessments to different potentially exposed members of the public were carried out. The results from the dose assessments indicate that in case of routine releases annual doses to the three hypothetical groups of individuals are most likely insignificant. Estimated doses for workers are below 10 μSv/y, for the two studied radionuclides 99mTc and 131I. If uncertainties in the predictions of activity concentrations in sludge are considered, then the probability of obtaining doses above 10 μSv/y may not be insignificant. The models and approaches developed can also be applied in case of accidental releases. A laboratory inter-comparison exercise was also organised to compare analytical results across the laboratories participating in the project, using both 131I, dominating man-made radionuclide in sewage systems due to the medical use. A process oriented model of the biological treatment is also proposed in the report that does not require as much input data as for the LUCIA model. This model is a combination of a simplified well known Activated Sludge Model No.1 (Henze, 1987) and the Kd concept used in the LUCIA model. The simplified model is able to estimate the concentrations and the retention time of the sludge in different parts of the treatment plant, which in turn, can be used as a tool for the dose assessment purpose.filled by the activity. (au)

  6. Assessing the impact of releases of radionuclides into sewage systems in urban environment - simulation, modelling and experimental studies - LUCIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundelll-Bergman, S. (Vattenfall Power Consultant, Stockholm (Sweden)); Avila, R.; Cruz, I. de la (Facilia AB, (Sweden)); Xu, S. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, (Sweden)); Puhakainen, M.; Heikkinene, T.; Rahola, T. (STUK (Finland)); Hosseini, A. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Nielsen, Sven (Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU (Denmark)); Sigurgeirsson, M. (Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland))

    2009-06-15

    This report summarises the findings of a project on assessing the impact of releases of radionuclides into sewage systems and was established to provide more knowledge and suitable tools for emergency preparedness purposes in urban areas. It was known that the design of sewage plants, and their wastewater treatments, is rather similar between the Nordic countries. One sewage plant in each of the five Nordic countries was selected for assessing the impact of radionuclide releases from hospitals into their sewerage systems. Measurements and model predictions of dose assessments to different potentially exposed members of the public were carried out. The results from the dose assessments indicate that in case of routine releases annual doses to the three hypothetical groups of individuals are most likely insignificant. Estimated doses for workers are below 10 muSv/y, for the two studied radionuclides 99mTc and 131I. If uncertainties in the predictions of activity concentrations in sludge are considered, then the probability of obtaining doses above 10 muSv/y may not be insignificant. The models and approaches developed can also be applied in case of accidental releases. A laboratory inter-comparison exercise was also organised to compare analytical results across the laboratories participating in the project, using both 131I, dominating man-made radionuclide in sewage systems due to the medical use. A process oriented model of the biological treatment is also proposed in the report that does not require as much input data as for the LUCIA model. This model is a combination of a simplified well known Activated Sludge Model No.1 (Henze, 1987) and the Kd concept used in the LUCIA model. The simplified model is able to estimate the concentrations and the retention time of the sludge in different parts of the treatment plant, which in turn, can be used as a tool for the dose assessment purpose.filled by the activity. (au)

  7. Detection of gastroesophageal reflux in survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A radionuclide scintigraphic study in 26 children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.J.; Bharathi Dasan, J.; Chandrasekhar, N.; Tripathi, M.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, A.; Gupta, D.K.; Mitra, D.K.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Anatomical and functional esophageal abnormalities in survivors with CDH are well known. Gastro-esophageal Reflux (GER) is a common cause of long-term morbidity in survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The incidence of GER in these patients varies from 20-70% using various modalities. Aims: The present retrospective analysis was undertaken to find out the incidence of GER detected by radionuclide scintigraphy in survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Materials and Methods: Radionuclide scintigraphy for GER detection were performed in 26 survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (17 male and 9 female) with a mean age of 19 months; age range 10 days to 56 months. Seven of the children had symptoms suggestive of GER. Of these 7, 3 had recurrent respiratory tract infection, 2 had regurgitation, 1 had vomiting and 1 had epigastric pain. The remaining 19 children were referred as part of routine follow up. All the children underwent radionuclide scintigraphy with 100-200 micro curie (3.7 -7.4MBq) of Tc99m-Sulphur Colloid. Results: The radionuclide scintigraphy detected GER in 11 out of 26(42.3%) children. Among the 7 symptomatic children, 4 (57%) had positive scintigraphic studies for reflux. Of these 4, 3(75%) had proximal reflux and 1 had distal reflux. Of the 19 asymptomatic patients, 7 (37%) were positive for GER on scintigraphy. Of these 7, 4 (57%) had proximal reflux and 3 (43%) had distal reflux. Conclusions: There is high incidence of GER in survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia irrespective of the presence or absence of symptoms suggestive of GER. Scintiscanning being a simple, noninvasive test can be used for initial evaluation of survivors of CDH for GER

  8. Multitracer study on the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in komatsuna at different growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambe, S.; Ozaki, T.; Enomoto, S.; Shinonaga, T.

    1999-01-01

    The selective absorption coefficient, which is a parameter of an uptake model of radionuclides by plants, was determined for various radionuclides by a multitracer technique. Komatsuna, Brassica rapa var. perviridis, was hydroponically cultivated in a nutrient solution containing a multitracer for 1 day. Nutrient concentration dependence of the selective absorption coefficient of various elements from Be to Re was obtained separately for leaves and roots. The selective absorption coefficients of these elements were, in general, found to decrease with an increase in the concentration of nutrient solutions. Regression equations of the power function for the selective absorption coefficients and the concentration of nutrient solutions were obtained for the leaves and roots. The effects of photon flux and growth stage of plants on the selective absorption coefficients were also studied. It was found that the photon flux influenced the accumulation of radionuclides in the roots but had no significant effect on the selective absorption coefficients for the leaves in 1-day cultivation with the multitracer. The selective absorption coefficients of Mn and Zn in the leaves of the plants at the development stage were higher than those at the maturation stage. For the other elements, no significant effects of the growth stage on the selective absorption coefficients were observed. (author)

  9. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  10. An experimental study on the toxicity of several radionuclides inhaled at different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.; Nenot, J.C.; Morin, M.; Masse, R.; Metivier, H.; Nolibe, D.; Skupinski, W.

    1975-01-01

    For over 5 years investigations have been carried out on large lots of rats on the toxicological action of several inhaled radionuclides. Various physico chemical forms of α-emitting actinides and β-emitting lanthanides were used, respectively 239 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, as oxide or nitrate solution at pH1, 244 Cm nitrate, and 144 Ce chloride and 141 Ce chloride and oxide. The activities deposited per gram of lung varied between 10nCi and 10μCi. The first effect observed was life-shortening. A comparison of the survival curves shows a heterogeneity factor whose values for the various radionuclides is given. Lung cancers were also observed. Rarely lung carcinomas were the cause of death, which was unknown and seemed to vary with the different compounds [fr

  11. Biomass selection for biosorption study of 226 Ra and 137 Cd radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Wilson Cervi da

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to verify the potentialities to apply the biosorption technique to synthetic and real solution containing 226 Ra and 137 Cs, utilizing the seaweed Sargassum sp. and the microorganisms Penicillium sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Monoraphidium sp. Indeed, the screening of the most effective biomass to remove the radionuclides was also a central objective. 226 Ra was selected due to its high radiotoxicity and the fact that it can be assimilated and incorporated by living organism through substitution og Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , two essential nutrients. On the other hand, the selection of 137 Cs, a radionuclide of medium toxicity, was due to its mobility in the environment, which increases the possibility to be assimilated by the organisms as the essential nutrients Na + and K + . (author)

  12. Study on radionuclides transport from natural evaporating ponds to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Keqiang; Zou Changgui

    1997-08-01

    The results of simulated experiments, field monitoring and radiation health risk evaluation of radionuclides transport to the atmosphere from the natural evaporating ponds of a certain nuclear factory, and the estimating method of releasing source strength are presented. The estimated results of radiation health risk show that the maximum individual annual risk is 6.5 x 10 -9 and the total collective annual risk within a radius of 20 km is 3.2 x 10 -5 person, which are caused by operation of the evaporating ponds. It should be pointed out that the above estimated results only refer to one operating year (1990). If the cumulative effect of radionuclides deposition in ground is considered, the risk will increase a little with time until the dynamic balance is achieved. (5 ref., 8 tabs.)

  13. Radionuclide angiography in graded carotoid stenosis. An experimental study with angiographic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, B.N.; Holman, B.L.; Rosenbaum, A.E.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide and contrast angiographies were performed in 10 dogs. In 6 dogs unilateral or bilateral (partial or total) carotid occlusions were produced by silk ligatures. Follow-up angiographies were carried out at intervals up to 6 months following surgery. Visual assessment of the radionuclide carotid angiogram was compared to quantitative analysis of the time-activity curves over these areas. Several parameters of these curves were reviewed. The ratio of the slopes was the most sensitive parameter of the assessment of carotid artery stenosis. The ratio of the slopes of the curves in normal dogs (mean 96 +- 5.2 S.D.) was significantly different from that in animals with stenosis greater than 80 percent (mean 67.3 +- 16.9 S.D.). (U.S.)

  14. A radioanalytical study of radionuclides in a dysoligotrophic lake in Southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, M.; Roos, P.; Holm, E.; Peck, G.

    1998-01-01

    Unusually high activity concentration of various artificial radionuclides (from nuclear test fallout and the Chernobyl accident) and some natural radionuclides, have been discovered in lakes with high amounts of humic substances. These lakes tend to have low pH, at times down to pH 5. The lake, Svartsjoen, in the southern part of Sweden is one of these lakes. The food chain and resulting concentration factors in Svartsjoen were investigated and compared to results for other 'normal' lakes. Fish and water samples were collected and analysed for 137 Cs 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 210 Po during a 4-month visit to Lund. The level of 239/240 Pu in the water of Svartsjoen was found to be elevated. The work on fish from the lake indicates that these elevated levels are not transferred into the food chain. It appears that the humic substances could be blocking plutonium from entering the food chain

  15. Long-term study on the behaviour of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krouglov, S.; Alexakhin, R.; Arkhipov, N.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution with time chemical species of 90 Sr, 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce in soil, and the data on variation of 90 Sr, 134 Cs, 137 Cs transfer to grain and straw of four cereal crops has been used to estimate the rate of radionuclide release from fuel particles and cesium fixation in the soil. Field experiments were carried out in the 30-km restricted zone around Chernobyl NPP

  16. Study of the hydrodynamic circulation and transport of radionuclides in the Ilha Grande Bay -RJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Mariza Ramalho

    2001-01-01

    The Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Center (CNAAA), located at the city of Rio de Janeiro and the liquid effluents are released into the Ilha Grande Bay (BIG). The objective of this work was to simulate mathematically the dispersion of 3 H and 137 Cs present in the liquid effluents that are routinely released into the environment, and in this way contribute to the improvement of the radiological impact assessment associated to these releases. The hydrodynamic circulation pattern of the bay and the transport of radionuclides were simulated by means of numerical modeling techniques by the computational system SisBAHIA (Sistema Base Hidrodinâmica e Ambiental). The results indicate that the local circulation pattern is mainly driven by the propagation of the tidal wave, and is characterized by low current velocities of about 0.1 m.s -1 . The wind stress (normal or extreme ones ) over the free surface does not alter the local circulation pattern significantly. The effluents are released in a rate of about 120 m 3 .s. -1 . As a result, the local hydrodynamics is markedly altered by means of the formation of a huge vortices close to the release area. According to the annual amount of the released radionuclides predicted in the Nuclear Licensing Document, and considering a continuous release it could be predicted that the radionuclide plume would present a low mobility, with most of the activity concentration amount being restricted close to the source. The activity concentration distribution reach the transportation steady state by the end of the 51 st day of simulation. A conservative behavior of both radionuclides in the water column was assumed in the performed simulation. (author)

  17. Study on radionuclide migration through a buffer material of the repository for high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Masaki; Ohe, Toshiaki

    1989-01-01

    The present report discusses radionuclide migration through a buffer material from the view point of experimental and data analysis. Na-bentonite loosely compacted with dry density of 0.8 - 1 g/cm 3 was contacted with cesium chloride solution of about 100 ppb containing Cs-134 as a tracer at 40degC and at 70degC. After the experiments, the bentonite cake was sliced and cesium distribution in the cake was measured by gamma-spectrometry. Apparent diffusivities of 2∼5 x 10 -7 cm 2 /sec was determined through the analysis method where pore diffusion and adsorption were involved. Numerical solution well described the observed data. The pore diffusion would be clearfied to be a dominant mechanism of the radionuclide migration in the bentonite, through discussing the pore diffusion mechanism and activation energy of the diffusion. This report also discusses the capability of the chemical transport model CHEMTRN for long-term predictions of the radionuclide migration. (author)

  18. Radionuclide sorption kinetics and column sorption studies with Columbia River basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1983-09-01

    The kinetics of radionuclide sorption and desorption reactions in basalt-groundwater systems were evaluated at 60 degrees C using a batch equilibration method. It was found that many sorption reactions on surfaces of fresh (unaltered) basalt from the Umtanum and Cohassett flows are slow. Some reactions require more than 50 days to reach a steady state. Sorption of neptunium and uranium in oxidizing (air saturated) groundwater appears to be controlled by slow reduction of these elements by the basalt surfaces. The resulting lower oxidation states are more strongly sorbed. Technetium and selenium, which are anionic under oxidizing conditions, are not measurably sorbed on fresh basalt surfaces, but are slightly sorbed on the altered surfaces of flow top basalt. Under reducing conditions, where the groundwater contains dilute hydrazine, sorption is faster for neptunium, uranium, technetium, selenium, and lead. Plutonium sorption rates were not affected by the groundwater Eh. It was shown that radium was precipitated rather than sorbed under the conditions of these experiments. Umtanum flow top material sorbed radionuclides much faster than fresh basalt surfaces due to its greater surface area and cation exchange capacity. Desorption rates for plutonium, uranium, neptunium, technetium, and selenium were generally much less than sorption rates (especially for reducing conditions). These radionuclides are irreversibly sorbed on the basalts. 25 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs

  19. Critical pathway studies for selected radionuclides. Part of a coordinated programme on environmental monitoring for radiological protection in Asia and the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.

    1980-04-01

    The programme carried out critical pathway studies for selected radionuclides ( 60 Co, 63 Ni, 59 Fe, 54 Mn, sup(110m)Ag, 106 Ru and 144 Ce) and assessed population exposure in the vicinity of Tarapur Atomic Power Station. The following topics are covered under the programme. (i) Demographic study of dietary habits and consumption data for Tarapur population. (ii) Concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in food products. (iii) Determination of radionuclides in sea water, silt, marine algae and marine organisms at Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) Site. (iv) Behaviour of radionuclides released to marine environment. (v) Evaluation of critical exposure pathway. (vi) Population exposure in the vicinity of Tarapur Atomic Power Station

  20. Spatial distribution and risk assessment of radionuclides in soils around a coal-fired power plant: A case study from the city of Baoji, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Lijun; Wei Haiyan; Wang Lingqing

    2007-01-01

    Coal burning may enhance human exposure to the natural radionuclides that occur around coal-fired power plants (CFPP). In this study, the spatial distribution and hazard assessment of radionuclides found in soils around a CFPP were investigated using statistics, geostatistics, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in soils range from 12.54 to 40.18, 38.02 to 72.55, and 498.02 to 1126.98 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Ordinary kriging was carried out to map the spatial patterns of radionuclides, and disjunctive kriging was used to quantify the probability of radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) higher than the threshold. The maps show that the spatial variability of the natural radionuclide concentrations in soils was apparent. The results of this study could provide valuable information for risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision support

  1. ''In-situ'' spectro-electrochemical studies of radionuclide-contaminated surface films on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendres, C.A.; Mini, S.; Mansour, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The incorporation of heavy metal ions and radioactive contaminants into hydrous oxide films has been investigated in order to provide fundamental knowledge that could lead to the technological development of cost-effective processes and techniques for the decontamination of storage tanks, piping systems, surfaces, etc., in DOE nuclear facilities. The formation of oxide/hydroxide films was simulated by electrodeposition onto a graphite substrate from solutions of the appropriate metal salt. Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), supplemented by Laser Raman Spectroscopy (LRS), was used to determine the structure and composition of the host oxide film, as well as the impurity ion. Results have been obtained for the incorporation of Ce, Sr, Cr, Fe, and U into hydrous nickel oxide films. Ce and Sr oxides/hydroxides are co-precipitated with the nickel oxides in separate phase domains. Cr and Fe, on the other hand, are able to substitute into Ni lattice sites or intercalate in the interlamellar positions of the brucite structure of Ni(OH) 2 . U was found to co-deposit as a U(VI) hydroxide. The mode of incorporation of metal ions depends both on the size and charge of the metal ion. The structure of iron oxide (hydroxide) films prepared by both anodic and cathodic deposition has also been extensively studied. The structure of Fe(OH) 2 was determined to be similar to that of α-Ni(OH) 2 . Anodic deposition from solutions containing Fe 2+ results in a film with a structure similar to γ-FeOOH. From the knowledge gained from the present studies, principles and methods for decontamination have become apparent. Contaminants sorbed on oxide surfaces or co-precipitated may be removed by acid wash and selective dissolution or complexation. Ions incorporated into lattice sites and interlamellar layers will require more drastic cleaning procedures. Electropolishing and the use of an electrochemical brush are among concepts that should be considered seriously for the latter

  2. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  3. The study of selective accumulation of radionuclides cesium 137, strontium 90 and cerium 144 in the cellular compartments of charophyta algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchyulenene, D.P.; Moteyunene, E.B.; Gudavichene, N.A.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1976-01-01

    The study of the accumulation of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 144 Ce in separate compartments of Chara algae (cellular wall, protoplasm, vacuoles), testifies to the fact that the entrance and accumulation level of the radionuclides depend upon the selective permeability of the cellular wall and plasmalemma, which is regulated both by the ratio of the chemical analogues of the radionuclides in the medium, and by the level of cellular metabolism [fr

  4. Personalized {sup 177}Lu-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours: a simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Prete, Michela; Buteau, Francois-Alexandre; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu [Laval Univ., QC (Canada). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, and Cancer Research Center; CHU de Quebec - Laval Univ., QC (Canada). Dept. of Medical Imaging, and Oncology Branch of Research Center

    2017-08-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate is commonly administered at empiric, fixed amounts of injected radioactivity (IA). This results in highly variable absorbed doses to critical organs and suboptimal treatment of most patients. The primary aims of this study were to design a personalized PRRT (P-PRRT) protocol based on dosimetry, and to perform a simulation of this protocol in a retrospective cohort of patients with neuroendocrine tumours, in order to assess the potential of P-PRRT to safely increase the absorbed dose to the tumour during a four-cycle induction course. Thirty-six patients underwent 122 fixed-IA {sup 177}Lu-octreotate PRRT cycles with quantitative SPECT/CT-based dosimetry. Twenty-two patients completed a four-cycle induction course (29.6 ± 2.4 GBq cumulative IA), with kidney, bone marrow and maximum tumour absorbed doses of 16.2 ± 5.5, 1.3 ± 0.8, and 114 ± 66 Gy, respectively. We simulated a P-PRRT regime in which the renal absorbed dose per IA was predicted by the body surface area and glomerular filtration rate for the first cycle, and by renal dosimetry of the previous cycle(s) for the following cycles. Personalized IA was adjusted at each cycle in order to reach the prescribed renal absorbed dose of 23 Gy over four cycles (with a 25-50% reduction when renal or bone marrow function was impaired). Simulated IA and absorbed doses were based on actual patient characteristics, laboratory values and absorbed doses per IA delivered at each cycle. In the P-PRRT regime, cumulative IA could have been increased to 43.7 ± 16.5 GBq over four induction cycles (10.9 ± 5.0 GBq per cycle), yielding cumulative kidney, bone marrow and maximum tumour absorbed doses of 21.5 ± 2.5, 1.63 ± 0.61, and 163.4 ± 85.9 Gy, respectively. This resulted in an average 1.48-fold increase in cumulative maximum tumour absorbed dose over empiric PRRT (range, 0.68-2.64-fold; P = 0.0013). By standardizing the renal absorbed dose delivered

  5. Dose-response study of the hematological toxicity induced by vectorized radionuclides in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau-Poivet, J.; Sas, N.; Nguyen, F.; Abadie, J.; Chouin, N.; Barbet, J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: in internal radiotherapy, the dose-limiting factor is often the bone marrow (BM) toxicity. In patients, its relationship with the BM absorbed dose seems to be elusive. Most probable reasons are the BM depletion following previous treatments associated to dose assessment complexity. To avoid this and better understand myelotoxicity mechanisms, we investigated hematopoiesis from BM to blood after radionuclide injections in healthy mice associated to individual BM dosimetry. Based on these data, a compartmental model was developed to predict the depletion of each mouse hematopoietic cell in a dose-dependent manner. Materials and methods: C57/Bl6 mice were injected with increasing activities of 18 FNa, an osteo-tropic agent. Mean absorbed doses to the BM were calculated using the MIRD formalism with the mineralized bone considered as the principal source of 18 FNa. Time-integrated activities within the skeleton were derived from dynamic micro PET-CT images. Hematological toxicity was monitored via blood cell counts and myeloid progenitor colony assays over time after injection. The myelotoxicity model consists in compartments for each hematopoietic cell. Its parameters were adjusted to reproduce experimental toxicities. Results: for an absorbed dose to the BM of 0.8 ± 0.1 Gy, myeloid progenitors showed a 84% depletion 84% at day 7 post-injection (D7) and a recovery at D14 for all precursors and D21 for the less differentiated progenitor. In blood, neutrocytopenia was observed at D3 (80% decrease) and recovered at D7. Thrombocytopenia was also noticed between D7 and D17 with a nadir at D7 (26% of depletion). The compartmental model predicted platelets kinetics in a satisfying manner. The nadir value, time to nadir and time to recovery were estimated with errors of 4.9%, 10.2% and 10% respectively. Whereas higher absorbed doses only increased platelets depletion (62% associated to 1.4 Gy), they extended the recovery time for all

  6. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  7. Laboratory studies of radionuclide distributions between selected groundwaters and geologic media. Progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    During FY-1980, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory contributions to the Waste/Rock Interactions Technology program were primarily in the areas of migration-rate studies using crushed rock, whole core, and fractured core columns; parametric studies of variables which may influence radionuclide sorption-desorption behavior; and initial studies of actinide chemistry in near-neutral solutions and Eh control. Batch experiments in both air and a controlled atmosphere (nitrogen, less than or equal to 0.2 ppM oxygen, less than or equal to 20 ppM carbon dioxide) for the sorption of several radionuclides on granite and argillite were completed. These data also provided informaton on the effects of other parameters, such as particle size and contact time. All nine elements studied had different sorption ratios for argillite when measured under the controlled atmosphere than when measured in air, except possibly for americium where any effect was smaller than the standard deviations. As expected, strontium, cesium, and barium are least affected by the presence or absence of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Columns of crushed rock and solid and cracked cores were used to study the migration of radionuclides through such materials. In general, sorption ratios measured by batch techniques are 2 to 3 times greater than those for columns; however, a wide variation in behavior was observed, depending upon the element and the mineralogy. Work has begun on a system wherein traced groundwater is circulated through a crushed rock column; this should provide a link between the usual, single-pass, crushed rock columns and the batch experiments. Materials characterization has continued, and techniques for the determination of Fe(II) in silicate rocks and groundwater have been made operational. Work on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has been started

  8. Laboratory and field studies related to the radionuclide migration project. Progress report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, W.R.; Thompson, J.L.

    1984-04-01

    The FY 1983 laboratory and field studies related to the Radionuclide Migration project are described. Results are presented for radiochemical analyses of water samples collected from the RNM-1 well and the RNM-2S satellite well at the Cambric site. Data are included for tritium, 36 Cl, 85 Kr, 90 Sr, 129 I, and 137 Cs. Preliminary results from water collection at the Cheshire site are reported. Laboratory studies emphasize the sorptive behavior of tuff and its dependence on mineralogy. 18 references, 7 figures, 13 tables

  9. Extension of Studies with 3M Empore TM and Selentec MAG *SEP SM Technologies for Improved Radionuclide Field Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beals, D.M.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center is evaluating new field sampling methodologies to more easily determine concentrations of radionuclides in aqueous systems. One methodology studied makes use of 3M EmporeTM disks. The disks are composed of selective resins embedded in a Teflon support. The disks remove the ion of interest from aqueous solutions when the solution is passed through the disk. The disk can then be counted directly to quantify the isotope of interest. Four types of disks were studied during this work: for the extraction of technetium (two types), cesium, plutonium, and strontium. A sampler has been developed for automated, unattended, in situ use of the EmporeTM disks

  10. Extension of Studies with 3M Empore TM and Selentec MAG *SEP SM Technologies for Improved Radionuclide Field Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beals, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-07-10

    The Savannah River Technology Center is evaluating new field sampling methodologies to more easily determine concentrations of radionuclides in aqueous systems. One methodology studied makes use of 3M EmporeTM disks. The disks are composed of selective resins embedded in a Teflon support. The disks remove the ion of interest from aqueous solutions when the solution is passed through the disk. The disk can then be counted directly to quantify the isotope of interest. Four types of disks were studied during this work: for the extraction of technetium (two types), cesium, plutonium, and strontium. A sampler has been developed for automated, unattended, in situ use of the EmporeTM disks.

  11. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  12. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume IV: radionuclide and heavy metal transport, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    The principal sources of tritium, radiocesium, and radiocobalt in the environment at the Savannah River Plant have been reactor area effluent discharges to onsite streams. Radioactive releases began in 1955, with the period of major reactor releases occurring between 1955 and 1968. Since the early 1970s, releases, except for tritium releases, have been substantially reduced. Radioisotope liquid releases resulted specifically from leaching of reactor fuel elements with cladding failures which exposed the underlying fuel to water. The direct sources of these releases were heat exchanger cooling water, spent fuel storage and disassembly basin effluents, and process water from each of the reactor areas. Offsite radiochemical monitoring of water and sediment at upriver and downriver water treatment facilities indicates that SRP contributions of gamma-emitting radionuclide levels present at these facilities are minute. Tritium in water attributable to SRP operations is routinely detected at the downriver facilities; however, total alpha and nonvolatile beta concentrations attributable to SRP liquid releases are not detected at the downriver facilities. The historic material balance calculated for onsite releases of tritium transported to the Savannah River exhibits a high accounting of tritium released. Other radionuclides released to onsite streams have primarily remained in onsite floodplains. Radionuclide releases associated with reactor operations are derived primarily from disassembly basin water releases in the reactor areas and historically have been the major source of radioactivity released to onsite streams. The movement and interaction of these releases have been governed by cooling water discharges. Liquid releases continue to meet DOE concentration guides for the various radioisotopes in onsite streams and in the Savannah River

  13. Comparison of gating methods for the real-time analysis of left ventricular function in nonimaging blood pool studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, B B; Stewart, J R; Shiavi, R G; Lorenz, C H

    1995-01-01

    Gating methods developed for electrocardiographic-triggered radionuclide ventriculography are being used with nonimaging detectors. These methods have not been compared on the basis of their real-time performance or suitability for determination of load-independent indexes of left ventricular function. This work evaluated the relative merits of different gating methods for nonimaging radionuclude ventriculographic studies, with particular emphasis on their suitability for real-time measurements and the determination of pressure-volume loops. A computer model was used to investigate the relative accuracy of forward gating, backward gating, and phase-mode gating. The durations of simulated left ventricular time-activity curves were randomly varied. Three acquisition parameters were considered: frame rate, acceptance window, and sample size. Twenty-five studies were performed for each combination of acquisition parameters. Hemodynamic and shape parameters from each study were compared with reference parameters derived directly from the random time-activity curves. Backward gating produced the largest errors under all conditions. For both forward gating and phase-mode gating, ejection fraction was underestimated and time to end systole and normalized peak ejection rate were overestimated. For the hemodynamic parameters, forward gating was marginally superior to phase-mode gating. The mean difference in errors between forward and phase-mode gating was 1.47% (SD 2.78%). However, for root mean square shape error, forward gating was several times worse in every case and seven times worse than phase-mode gating on average. Both forward and phase-mode gating are suitable for real-time hemodynamic measurements by nonimaging techniques. The small statistical difference between the methods is not clinically significant. The true shape of the time-activity curve is maintained most accurately by phase-mode gating.

  14. Summarizing history of the Nevada Applied Ecology Groups' environmental studies of transuranics and other radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, W.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents historical summaries of the research programs at the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG). NAEG was formed in 1970 as an outgrowth of the formation of the Office of Effects Evaluation and an anticipation by NV management of what was to become the National Environmental Policy Act. The objectives of the NAEG programs were: (1) delineate locations of contamination; (2) determine concentrations in ecosystem components; (3) quantify rates of movement among ecosystem components; and (4) evaluate potential dose from plutonium and other radionuclides

  15. Comprehensive radionuclide study of the functional status of hypophyseal-thyroid system in autonomous thyroid adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashkadamov, A.V. (Kievskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Ehndokrinologii i Obmena Veshchestv (Ukrainian SSR))

    1981-10-01

    The significance of radionuclide investigation methods in the diagnosis of the functional state of thyroid and the role of these methods in the diagnosis of compensated and decompensated toxic adenomas, are found out. It is established that thyrotropic pituitary body function is decreased in patients with autonomous thyroid adenomas. The general thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentration is higher in patients with clinical thyrotoxicosis manifestations. It is shown that complex, radioisotope and radioimmunologic investigations are of great value in the diagnosis of compensated and decompensated toxic adenoma.

  16. Comprehensive radionuclide study of the functional status of hypophyseal-thyroid system in autonomous thyroid adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashkadamov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance of radionuclide investigation methods in the diagnosis of the functional state of thyroid and the role of these methods in the diagnosis of compensated and decompensated toxic adenomas, are found out. It is established that thyrotropic pituitary body function is decreased in patients with autonomous thyroid adenomas. The general thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentration is higher in patients with clinical thyrotoxicosis manifestations. It is shown that complex, radioisotope and radioimmunologic investigations are of great value in the diagnosis of compensated and decompensated toxic adenoma [ru

  17. Dual-radionuclide simultaneous gastric emptying and bile transit study after gastric surgery with double-tract reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Kawano, Masaya; Kinami, Shinichi; Fujimura, Takashi; Miwa, Koichi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2005-01-01

    The physiology of gastrointestinal transfer function after proximal gastrectomy with bypass-tract reconstruction is not well understood. We applied a simultaneous dual-radionuclide method with a hepatobiliary imaging and gastric emptying study to evaluate physiologic alterations occurring after surgery. Nineteen patients with early gastric cancer, including 9 preoperative control patients and 10 who had proximal gastrectomy and double-tract reconstruction surgery were examined by dual-radionuclide hepatobiliary and gastric emptying studies ( 99m Tc PMT and 111 In DTPA). Retention fraction in the stomach at 3 minutes (R3) and 60 minutes (R60) and gastric emptying half-time (GET) were calculated. Bile reflux and mixture of bile and food were also evaluated. The retention fractions of R3 and R60 were significantly lower in the double-tract reconstruction group than those in the preoperative group. GET differed significantly between the double-tract and preoperative groups (20.7 min±7.1 min and 36.2 min±11.0 min, p=0.0018). The mixture of bile and food was not good in the double-tract reconstruction group (p=0.014 vs. preoperative). Patients with a large residual stomach showed slower initial emptying (p=0.0068) and a better mixture of bile and food (p=0.058) compared to those with a small residual stomach. The bile reflux was not significantly increased after surgery. The dual-radionuclide gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary imaging was feasible and could demonstrate characteristic transit patterns of the foods and bile in the double-tract reconstruction procedure. A larger residual stomach, if possible, is desirable to provide better transfer and mixing of bile and foods. (author)

  18. Radionuclides (210Pb, 226Ra, 210Po e 137Cs) in the Cananeia-Iguape coastal system: environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Roberto Tatsuya

    2002-01-01

    This work was developed in the Cananeia-lguape Coastal System, coast south of the State of Sao Paulo, with the aim of monitoring the levels of some natural radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra ) and artificial ( 137 Cs) and to study the sedimentary dynamics of the area. For this, some studies and determinations were carried out, such as: sedimentation rates, concentration factors, bio-indicators and ingestion for the human population of some of these radionuclides. For the obtaining of the levels of these radionuclides, radiochemical and instrumental methodologies were developed and applied in reference samples of the International Agency of Atomic Energy (IAEA). After this, the methodologies were applied in samples of sediments, aquatic organisms and water of the channels collected in several points. In the sediments, the levels of ( 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 137 Cs varied from 6.1 to 167.5 Bq.kg -1 from 4.1 to 28.5 Bq.kg -1 and from MDC (0.28) to 6.1 Bq.kg -1 respectively. More significant correlations were observed among the percentage of mud (silt-clay) in the sediments and the levels of these radionuclides. These data were used for sedimentation rate studies in the points of sampling in the System. The sedimentation rates obtained with the values of unsupported ( 210 Pb and 137 Cs for the Ponta do Arrozal (T1), Ponta do Frade (T2), Valo Grande (T3) and Carapara-BOCA River (T4) were of 5.02 and 5.00 mm.a -1 , 2.30 and 3.82 mm.a -1 , 14.59 and 15.74 mm.a -1 , 3.41 and 5.00 mm.a -1 respectively. The sedimentation rates obtained with unsupported 210 Pb and the 137 Cs in the cores(T1, T2, T3 and T4) showed a good agreement. The sedimentation rates obtained along the System reflect the dynamics intern of the channels, that presents general tendency the one accentuated deposition process, with pronounced contribution of sediments of continental origin, for the drainages Mandira and Ribeira of Iguape Rivers, by the high biological production of the System as well as the

  19. Accidental releases of radionuclides: a preliminary study of the consequences of land contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.R.; Haywood, S.M.; Linsley, G.S.

    1982-10-01

    The long term consequences of land contamination from accidental releases of activity from thermal reactors are examined. The radiological consequences are assessed using an analysis of the exposure of individuals and the population to ground deposits of the radionuclides released. The contribution of the different nuclides in the release by their various exposure routes to the irradiation of man are calculated as a function of time after release and the most radiologically important are identified. A preliminary assessment is made of off-site economic and social consequences of accidental releases by estimating the areas of land which would be affected by the introduction of countermeasures to control individual radiation exposure due to external irradiation from ground deposits (relocation of populations), and the intake of radionuclides contained in locally produced foodstuffs (restrictions on food production). The areas where administrative controls would be necessary decline in size with time after the release; estimates are made of this time-dependent behaviour using dynamic environmental transfer models. Finally, the collective doses saved by the introduction of countermeasures are estimated using population and agricultural distribution data for a rural location in the United Kingdom. (author)

  20. Gas and aerosol radionuclide transfers in complex environments: experimental studies of atmospheric dispersion and interfaces exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maro, Denis

    2011-01-01

    In situations of chronic or accidental releases, the atmosphere is the main pathway of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities to the environment and, consequently, to humans. It is therefore necessary to have sufficient information on this pathway to accurately assess the radiological impact on man and his environment. Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety develops its own tools of dispersion and atmospheric transfer for its expertise, under normal operation conditions of a facility, but especially in crisis or post-accident. These tools must have a national and international recognition in particular through scientific validation against benchmark experiments performed internationally, nationally or within the IRSN. The Radioecology Laboratory of Cherbourg-Octeville provides, and will increasingly make, a significant contribution to the scientific influence of the Institute in this field. The work presented in this report has contributed to the development or improvement of experimental techniques in the fields of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and transfer at interfaces, in complex environments (complex topography, urban area). These experimental techniques, applied during field campaigns, have allowed to acquire new data in order to get a better understanding of radionuclide transfers in the form of gases and aerosols. (author)

  1. A radioanalytical study of radionuclides in a dysoligotrophic lake in Southern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, M; Roos, P; Holm, E [Lund University Hospital, Lund, (Sweden). The Jubileum Institute, Department of Radiation Physics; Peck, G [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics, Marine Chemistry Laboratory

    1998-07-01

    Unusually high activity concentration of various artificial radionuclides (from nuclear test fallout and the Chernobyl accident) and some natural radionuclides, have been discovered in lakes with high amounts of humic substances. These lakes tend to have low pH, at times down to pH 5. The lake, Svartsjoen, in the southern part of Sweden is one of these lakes. The food chain and resulting concentration factors in Svartsjoen were investigated and compared to results for other 'normal' lakes. Fish and water samples were collected and analysed for {sup 137}Cs {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am and {sup 210}Po during a 4-month visit to Lund. The level of {sup 239/240}Pu in the water of Svartsjoen was found to be elevated. The work on fish from the lake indicates that these elevated levels are not transferred into the food chain. It appears that the humic substances could be blocking plutonium from entering the food chain.

  2. Radionuclide migration studies at the Savannah River Plant humid shallow land burial site for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Hawkins, R.H.; Emslie, R.H.; Hoeffner, S.L.; King, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    A program of field, laboratory, and modeling studies for the Savannah River Plant low-level waste burial ground has been conducted for several years. The studies provide generic data on an operating shallow land burial site in a humid region. Recent results from individual studies on subsurface monitoring, lysimeter tests, soil-water chemistry, and transport modeling are reported. Monitoring continues to show little movement of radionuclides except tritium. Long-term lysimeter tests with a variety of defense wastes measure migration under controlled field conditions. One lysimeter was excavated to study radionuclide distribution on the soil column beneath the waste. New soil-water distribution coefficients (K/sub d/) were measured for Co-60, Sr-90, Ru-106, Sb-125, and I-129. Laboratory and field data are integrated by means of the SRL dose-to-man model, to evaluate effects of alternative disposal practices. The model recently has been used to evaluate TRU disposal criteria and to predict migration behavior of tritium, Tc-99, and I-129. 14 references, 2 tables

  3. The Development and Application of Reactive Transport Modeling Techniques to Study Radionuclide Migration at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Selvi Viswanathan

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada has been chosen as a possible site for the first high level radioactive waste repository in the United States. As part of the site investigation studies, we need to make scientifically rigorous estimations of radionuclide migration in the event of a repository breach. Performance assessment models used to make these estimations are computationally intensive. We have developed two reactive transport modeling techniques to simulate radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain: (1) the selective coupling approach applied to the convection-dispersion-reaction (CDR) model and (2) a reactive stream tube approach (RST). These models were designed to capture the important processes that influence radionuclide migration while being computationally efficient. The conventional method of modeling reactive transport models is to solve a coupled set of multi-dimensional partial differential equations for the relevant chemical components in the system. We have developed an iterative solution technique, denoted the selective coupling method, that represents a versatile alternative to traditional uncoupled iterative techniques and the filly coupled global implicit method. We show that selective coupling results in computational and memory savings relative to these approaches. We develop RST as an alternative to the CDR method for solving large two- or three-dimensional reactive transport simulations for cases in which one is interested in predicting the flux across a specific control plane. In the RST method, the multidimensional problem is reduced to a series of one-dimensional transport simulations along streamlines. The key assumption with RST is that mixing at the control plane approximates the transverse dispersion between streamlines. We compare the CDR and RST approaches for several scenarios that are relevant to the Yucca Mountain Project. For example, we apply the CDR and RST approaches to model an ongoing field experiment called the Unsaturated Zone

  4. Study of the influence of radionuclide biokinetics on in vivo counting using voxel phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamart, St.

    2008-10-01

    The in vivo measurement is an efficient method to estimate the retention of activity in case of internal contamination. However, it is currently limited by the use of physical phantoms for the calibration, not enabling to reproduce neither the morphology of the measured person nor the actual distribution of the contamination. The current method of calibration therefore leads to significant systematic uncertainties on the quantification of the contamination. To improve the in vivo measurement, the Laboratory of Internal Dose Assessment (LEDI, IRSN) has developed an original numerical calibration method with the OEDIPE software. It is based on voxel phantoms created from the medical images of persons, and associated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code of particle transport. The first version of this software enabled to model simple homogeneous sources and to better estimate the systematic uncertainties in the lung counting of actinides due to the detector position and to the heterogeneous distribution of activity inside the lungs. However, it was not possible to take into account the dynamic feature, and often heterogeneous distribution between body organs and tissues of the activity. Still, the efficiency of the detection system depends on the distribution of the source of activity. The main purpose of the thesis work is to answer to the question: what is the influence of the biokinetics of the radionuclides on the in vivo counting? To answer it, it was necessary to deeply modify OEDIPE. This new development enabled to model the source of activity more realistically from the reference biokinetic models defined by the ICRP. The first part of the work consisted in developing the numerical tools needed to integrate the biokinetics in OEDIPE. Then, a methodology was developed to quantify its influence on the in vivo counting from the results of simulations. This method was carried out and validated on the model of the in vivo counting system of the LEDI. Finally, the

  5. Japan Sea expeditions for studies on water circulation and transport processes of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Orihiko; Ito, Toshimichi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2006-02-01

    The Japan Sea expeditions at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA from October 1, 2005, former JAERI: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute until September 30, 2005) were started on its participation in the first and second Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expeditions in 1994 and 1995 to investigate the situation on marine pollution due to radioactive wastes dumped in the Japan Sea and other seas around Japan. After the joint expeditions, JAEA continued to conduct the Japan Sea expeditions not only to monitor the impacts of radioactive wastes dumped in the Japan Sea, but also to investigate water circulation and the migration behavior of radionuclides in the Japan Sea. Taking account of some difficulties and constraints due to the political boundaries in the Japan Sea, the expeditions were carried out, separating the sea into two regions; one is the Japanese exclusive economical zone (EEZ) and the other is the Russian EEZ. The data of observations and measurements obtained in the two regions were analyzed together. The program of the Japan Sea expeditions included large-volume seawater sampling at different depths and seabed sediment sampling for measurements of representative anthropogenic radionuclides. To investigate the migration behavior of the radionuclides more in detail, associated oceanographic observations were also implemented; CTD/MBS (conductivity-temperature-depth meter with multi-bottle sampler) casts, analysis of dissolved oxygen and nutrients, deployment and recovery of mooring systems with current meters and sediment traps, and so on. Additional seawater samples were taken with CTD/MBS for further analysis on land. This report summarizes the results of the Japan Sea expeditions (Phase 1) conducted and/or jointed by JAEA from 1994 to 2002. First the report explains oceanographic features of the Japan Sea, main expeditions in the past and the summarized results of the Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expeditions. Then the report gives an outline of the

  6. Laboratory and Field Studies Related to Radionuclide Migration at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. A. Martinez; D. L. Finnegan; Joseph L. Thompson; K. S. Kung

    1999-03-01

    In this report, we describe the work done in FY 1998 at Los Alamos National Laboratory as part of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMA) funded by the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE/NV). The major part of our research effort was to measure radionuclides present in water or soil samples collected from near nuclear tests. We report our measurements for materials collected in both saturated and unsaturated horizons adjacent to nuclear test cavities or collapse chimneys and from within several cavities. Soil samples collected from above the cavities formed by the Halfbeak, Jerboa, and Bobac tests contained no radioactivity, although a test similar to Bobac in the same area had been contaminated with {sup 137}Cs. Water samples from near the Shoal test contained no measurable radionuclides, whereas those from near Faultless and Aleman had concentrations similar to previous measurements. Water from the Tybo-Benham site was similar to earlier collections at that site; this year, we added {sup 241}Am to the list of radionuclides measured at this location. Two Bennett pumps in tandem were used to extract water from the piezometer tube in the cavity of the Dalhart event. This extraction is a significant achievement in that it opens the possibility of purging similar tubes at other locations on the NTS. The Cheshire post shot hole was reconfigured and pumped from two horizons for the first time since mid-1980. We are especially interested in examining water from the level of the working point to determine the hydrologic source term in a cavity filled with groundwater for over 20 years. We devoted much time this year to examining the colloid content of NTS groundwater. After developing protocols for collecting, handling, and storing groundwater samples without altering their colloid content, we analyzed water from the Tybo-Benham and from the Cheshire sites. Whereas the colloid concentration did not vary much with depth at Tybo

  7. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  8. CHEMLAB. A probe for in-situ radionuclide experiments. Diffusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Mats; Eriksen, Trygve E. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-06-01

    CHEMLAB is a borehole laboratory built into a probe, in which in situ experiments can be carried out under ambient conditions with respect to pressure and temperature with the use of natural groundwater from the surrounding rock. The first CHEMLAB experiments, diffusion of cations and anions in compacted bentonite clay, have been carried out in borehole KA2512A at a depth of 320 m in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Diffusant solutions of Co{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +}, I{sup -} and TcO{sup 4-} with {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I and {sup 99}Tc as tracers were used. measured profiles for the radionuclides in the bentonite are in good agreement with profiles predicted from modelling based on apparent diffusivities and sorption coefficients obtained in laboratory experiments with clay compacted to corresponding dry density and synthetic ground water with the same composition as in borehole KA2512A.

  9. CHEMLAB. A probe for in-situ radionuclide experiments. Diffusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Mats; Eriksen, Trygve E.

    2001-06-01

    CHEMLAB is a borehole laboratory built into a probe, in which in situ experiments can be carried out under ambient conditions with respect to pressure and temperature with the use of natural groundwater from the surrounding rock. The first CHEMLAB experiments, diffusion of cations and anions in compacted bentonite clay, have been carried out in borehole KA2512A at a depth of 320 m in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Diffusant solutions of Co 2+ , Sr 2+ , Cs + , I - and TcO 4- with 57 Co, 85 Sr, 134 Cs, 131 I and 99 Tc as tracers were used. measured profiles for the radionuclides in the bentonite are in good agreement with profiles predicted from modelling based on apparent diffusivities and sorption coefficients obtained in laboratory experiments with clay compacted to corresponding dry density and synthetic ground water with the same composition as in borehole KA2512A

  10. Studies of airborne and deposited radionuclides at the GSF Research Center at Neuherberg near Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The sampling site and the currently used procedures of sample collection and analysis are sketched briefly. Typical monthly sample sizes are several 100000 cubic meters of air, and total deposition samples from 1 m 2 surface area. The analysis includes gamma spectrometry (e.g. of 7 Be, 137 Cs, 210 Pb) as well as radiochemical analysis with subsequent alpha spectrometry (e.g. of Pu, U, 210 Po) or beta counting (e.g. of 90 Sr, 210 Pb). Some recent results on Chernobyl-derived radionuclides are presented and compared to earlier observations. The role of resuspension and the influence of other parameters such as the stagnation index or the wind velocity on the observed activity concentrations are discussed. (author)

  11. Studies of airborne and deposited radionuclides at the GSF Research Center at Neuherberg near Munich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [GSF Forschungzentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The sampling site and the currently used procedures of sample collection and analysis are sketched briefly. Typical monthly sample sizes are several 100000 cubic meters of air, and total deposition samples from 1 m{sup 2} surface area. The analysis includes gamma spectrometry (e.g. of {sup 7}Be, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb) as well as radiochemical analysis with subsequent alpha spectrometry (e.g. of Pu, U, {sup 210}Po) or beta counting (e.g. of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb). Some recent results on Chernobyl-derived radionuclides are presented and compared to earlier observations. The role of resuspension and the influence of other parameters such as the stagnation index or the wind velocity on the observed activity concentrations are discussed. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs.

  12. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  13. Study of a 4πβ-γ coincidence system for absolute radionuclide activity measurement using plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piuvezam Filho, Helio

    2007-01-01

    The present work was intended to study a coincidence system 4π(PS)β-γ for absolute activity measurement using plastic scintillators in 4π geometry. Along with experiments on the coincidence system, simulations were also performed applying the Monte Carlo Method, by means of codes PENELOPE and ESQUEMA. These simulations were performed in order to calculate the extrapolation curve of the coincidence system 4π(PS)β-γ and compare it to experimental data. A new geometry was proposed to the coincidence system adding up a second photomultiplier tube to the previous system for improving light collection from the plastic scintillator, as this system presented limitations in the minimum detected energy due to the presence of electronic noise and low gain. The results show that an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio was obtained, as well as in the minimum detected energy. Moreover, there was an increase in the detection efficiency. With these modifications, it is now possible to calibrate radionuclides which emit low energy electrons or X-rays, increasing the number of radionuclides that can be standardized with this type of system.(author)

  14. A study of the global and regional ventricle function using radionuclide ventriculography in the cases of patients with and without KHK under nitrate and placebo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroth, B.

    1983-01-01

    In a controlled study of 74 patients with coronary heart disease (KHK) or without provable heart disease the ventricle function at rest and under ergonomic load before and after oral administration of nitrates, respectively placebos was studied with the help of radionuclide ventriculography. Radionuclide ventriculography proved itself thereby as a valuable method of high sensitivity for the recognition of KHK. The stress test increases the sensitivity and allows inferences to be made on the extent of the ischemia. The global function at rest is more a parameter for the functional restriction by infarct scars. A quantitative regional evaluation also makes possible the recognition of minor local changes. The additional study after nitrate administration allows a basis for the extent of reversibility in the stress-dependent functional restriction. The effects of a drug therapy become extrinsically presentable as a result of radionuclide ventriculography. (TRV) [de

  15. The use of Canadian monitoring networks to study the movement of airborne radionuclides on a global scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, L.T.; Johnson, S.; Mercier, J.F.; Stocki, T.J.; Ungar, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Bureau of Health Canada operates a number of radiological monitoring networks for the purpose of detecting routine emissions from nuclear facilities and also of providing early warnings of major nuclear events which may have an impact on Canada. The vast quantity of data collected from these networks can contribute to a wide range of scientific studies on atmospheric transport processes and climate change effects. The potential for such studies can be greatly expanded through partnerships with other nations operating similar monitoring networks. We present a number of examples to illustrate the application of this information for a variety of environmental problems. To be consistent with the theme of this conference, we have considered only the measurements of radio-nuclides and radioactivity. However, archived air filters can equally well be used to study a wide range of trace metal contaminants and also certain persistent organic pollutants that remain stable on the air filter medium (author)(tk)

  16. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  17. Study of transfer mechanisms of radionuclides downstream from ditch T22 of the experimental site at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Celine

    2013-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure rates at the site and prevent atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides released by the Chernobyl reactor 4 explosion (April 1986), about 800 trenches were dug on site to dispose contaminated material. Since 1999, the Chernobyl Pilot Site (CPS) was set up to study the migration of radionuclides from one of these trenches, the trench T22, in the Environment (biosphere, unsaturated zone, saturated zone). The aim of this study is to investigate migration processes in groundwater. At first, the maximal extent of the contaminant plume is studied based on the understanding of the conservative tracer 36 Cl behavior. High contamination of groundwater by 36 Cl is shown, with 36 Cl/Cl ratios 1 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretical natural ratio. This contamination is attributed to migration from the trench. Then, a reactive approach is considered. A conceptual model of the main geochemical processes in groundwater is proposed based on the study of major elements concentrations ([Cl - ], [HCO 3 - ], [SO 4 2- ], [NO 3 - ], [Na + ], [Ca 2+ ], [K + ], [Mg 2+ ], [Si]), [Fe 2+ ] concentrations, [Mn 2+ ] concentrations, δ 18 O and δ 2 H. Meteoric origin of groundwater is showed. Some element concentrations are mainly governed by migrations from the trench. However, natural geochemical processes are also assessed to have an influence on groundwater geochemistry: thus, weathering of minerals, cation exchanges and leakage are supposed. Next, uranium and strontium migrations are investigated based on measurements of 238 U/ 235 U, 86 Sr/ 88 Sr, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios. Indeed, dissolution fuel particles buried in the trench and the release of associated radionuclides is supposed to have a significant impact on those ratios in groundwater. However, in spite of an increase of [ 238 U] concentrations down gradient of the trench, measured 238 U/ 235 U ratios in groundwater are in the natural range. Analytical procedure for 86 Sr/ 88 Sr and 87 Sr/ 86

  18. Study on the behaviour of radionuclides in seawater in the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea area. Part of a coordinated programme on marine radioactivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, A.

    1976-12-01

    Results of the analysis of coastal waters from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea are reported. Certain radionuclides, trace elements and salts (U, Ra226, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Fe, Cd, Hg, Na, K, Ca, Cl, So 4 ) were determined in samples from the two different areas. The measured concentrations are given (table) and compared with reported values for open sea water in the areas studied. The results indicate an obvious difference between the two water bodies compared with open sea water

  19. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Alkaline Degradation of Cellulose and its Impact on the Sorption of Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loon, L.R. van; Glaus, M A

    1998-08-01

    For more than ten years, cellulose degradation has been regarded as an important process which can adversely effect the sorption of radionuclides on cement in a radioactive waste repository. However, so far, it was not possible to quantify this effect. This study reports new experimental data on alkaline degradation of cellulose, together with a re-evaluation of old literature data. For the first time now, it becomes possible to quantitatively estimate the potential role of cellulose degradation in performance assessment studies. In the first part of this study, a literature overview of other studies on alkaline degradation of cellulose is given, together with a general discussion on the effect of organic ligands on the sorption of radionuclides. Further, an overview of the important mechanisms of alkaline degradation of cellulose and some kinetic aspects of the main reactions taking place is presented. The relevance of the processes for performance assessment is explained in detail. The discussion forms the starting-point for a detailed experimental program for evaluating the role of alkaline degradation of cellulose in performance assessment. In the second part, experimental studies on alkaline degradation are presented. Different cellulosic materials were degraded in an artificial cement pore water, representing the first stage of cement degradation. The most important degradation products ({alpha}- and {beta}-isosaccharinic acid) were characterised and the results compared with other studies. Kinetic parameters for the main reactions were measured and discussed. A good agreement was found between the measured values and values extrapolated from the literature. The solubility of the sparingly soluble Ca-salt of {alpha}-isosaccharinic acid (ISA) was studied as well as the interaction of ISA with cement. Sorption of ISA on cement can keep the ISA concentration in the pore water of a repository at a low level. The effect of pure ISA and degradation products on the

  1. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Alkaline Degradation of Cellulose and its Impact on the Sorption of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, L.R. van; Glaus, M.A.

    1998-08-01

    For more than ten years, cellulose degradation has been regarded as an important process which can adversely effect the sorption of radionuclides on cement in a radioactive waste repository. However, so far, it was not possible to quantify this effect. This study reports new experimental data on alkaline degradation of cellulose, together with a re-evaluation of old literature data. For the first time now, it becomes possible to quantitatively estimate the potential role of cellulose degradation in performance assessment studies. In the first part of this study, a literature overview of other studies on alkaline degradation of cellulose is given, together with a general discussion on the effect of organic ligands on the sorption of radionuclides. Further, an overview of the important mechanisms of alkaline degradation of cellulose and some kinetic aspects of the main reactions taking place is presented. The relevance of the processes for performance assessment is explained in detail. The discussion forms the starting-point for a detailed experimental program for evaluating the role of alkaline degradation of cellulose in performance assessment. In the second part, experimental studies on alkaline degradation are presented. Different cellulosic materials were degraded in an artificial cement pore water, representing the first stage of cement degradation. The most important degradation products (α- and β-isosaccharinic acid) were characterised and the results compared with other studies. Kinetic parameters for the main reactions were measured and discussed. A good agreement was found between the measured values and values extrapolated from the literature. The solubility of the sparingly soluble Ca-salt of α-isosaccharinic acid (ISA) was studied as well as the interaction of ISA with cement. Sorption of ISA on cement can keep the ISA concentration in the pore water of a repository at a low level. The effect of pure ISA and degradation products on the sorption of

  2. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  3. Studying relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Rivers Kura-Araks basin, Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, A.G.; Saghatelyan, A.K.; Kyureghyan, A.A; Mikayelyan, M.G.

    2008-07-01

    We initiated a research in late 2005 as a constituent and logical expansion of an ongoing NATO Science for Peace/OSCE project 'South Caucasus River Monitoring' which has been performed since 2002 and was initially focused on indication of river water quality and quantity indices and determination of heavy metals. It should be stressed that this radioactivity research is the first ever attempt of this kind and that all the data obtained are unique. This paper is focused on a study of relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Armenia's section of Rivers Kura-Araks basin and highlights data obtained for the studied period 2006-2007 (author)(tk)

  4. Studying relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Rivers Kura-Araks basin, Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.G.; Saghatelyan, A.K.; Kyureghyan, A.A; Mikayelyan, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    We initiated a research in late 2005 as a constituent and logical expansion of an ongoing NATO Science for Peace/OSCE project 'South Caucasus River Monitoring' which has been performed since 2002 and was initially focused on indication of river water quality and quantity indices and determination of heavy metals. It should be stressed that this radioactivity research is the first ever attempt of this kind and that all the data obtained are unique. This paper is focused on a study of relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Armenia's section of Rivers Kura-Araks basin and highlights data obtained for the studied period 2006-2007 (author)(tk)

  5. Contribution on the study of microbial effects on the leaching of radionuclides embedded in nuclear waste engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spor, H.

    1994-05-01

    The aim of this work is to study the different interactions mechanisms between microorganisms and radioelements in conditions similar to those of a radioactive waste disposal site and to determine all the mechanisms due to microbial effects on the leaching of radionuclides embedded in nuclear waste engineered barriers. In this work are presented the different following points: - a bibliographic study on the microorganisms-radioelements interactions; - the conditions of metabolites production during the microbial growth (influence of the nature of the carbonated source, pH effects, aerobiosis conditions...); the mechanisms of a direct effect for determining the importance of the bio-sorption mechanism by microorganisms; the fact that the microbial biomass can strongly interact with actinides, heavy metals and radioelements; the effects of microorganisms on storage materials (cement and clay) containing radioelements (uranium, cesium); the complexation capacities of the organic and mineral acids produced during the microbial growth. (O.M.)

  6. The use of radionuclide DNA probe technology in epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Octavio [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Tropical; Gomes, Rosangela Fatima; Melo, Maria Norma de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia]|[Cor Jesus Fontes Mato Grosso Univ., Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Julio Muller

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis are due to different species that belongs to Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana complex and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis complex, respectively. Cutaneous leishmaniasis ulcers may persist for months to years but eventually they heal, while mucocutaneous leishmaniasis can result in destructive lesions on the nose, oral pharynx, lips or face. The specific diagnosis of the disease is important because of the high cost and toxicity of the treatment and the subsequent medical follow-up depends on the precise identification of the complex that causes the infection. The epidemiological information furnished by the identification of parasites of a given endemic region is also essential for the design of appropriate control measures. In this work we typed, using specific DNA probes labelled with {sup 32}P radionuclide, samples collected from patients living in endemic areas of Mato Grosso state. The results showed that L. braziliensis is the predominant group infecting human patients in the state. We have typed, up to the moment 68 samples. 64 samples (94.1%) belonged to the L. braziliensis complex and only 4 (5.9%) belonged to the L. mexicana complex. (author)

  7. Laboratory column experiments for radionuclide adsorption studies of the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, D.A.; Heath, C.E.; Brown, G.O.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide transport experiments were carried out using intact cores obtained from the Culebra member of the Rustler Formation inside the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Air Intake Shaft. Twenty-seven separate tests are reported here and include experiments with 3 H, 22 Na, 241 Am, 239 Np, 228 Th, 232 U and 241 Pu, and two brine types, AIS and ERDA 6. The 3 H was bound as water and provides a measure of advection, dispersion, and water self-diffusion. The other tracers were injected as dissolved ions at concentrations below solubility limits, except for americium. The objective of the intact rock column flow experiments is to demonstrate and quantify transport retardation coefficients, (R) for the actinides Pu, Am, U, Th and Np, in intact core samples of the Culebra Dolomite. The measured R values are used to estimate partition coefficients, (kd) for the solute species. Those kd values may be compared to values obtained from empirical and mechanistic adsorption batch experiments, to provide predictions of actinide retardation in the Culebra. Three parameters that may influence actinide R values were varied in the experiments; core, brine and flow rate. Testing five separate core samples from four different core borings provided an indication of sample variability. While most testing was performed with Culebra brine, limited tests were carried out with a Salado brine to evaluate the effect of intrusion of those lower waters. Varying flow rate provided an indication of rate dependent solute interactions such as sorption kinetics

  8. Study of Long-Lived Radionuclides in Environmental Samples by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, E.; Navarro, N.; Fernández, M.

    2015-01-01

    Thorium is considered as one of the highly radiotoxic elements, because following its decay a number of other α, β and/or γ emitting daughters are produced. Uranium mining and processing, as well as remediation of impacted soils, are one of the principal anthropogenic sources of thorium release to the air, soil and water. Measurement of Th isotopes requires the use of analytical techniques capable of reliably measure the content of Th isotopes at trace levels. 230Th determination has generally been performed by α-spectrometry. However, this method needs sample preparation of 3-4 days and counting times from days to up to two weeks. A way to face this difficulty is the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique is adequate for the determination of 232Th and 238U, long-lived radionuclides, and it can be applied, successfully, in the determination of 230Th, particularly if it is associated with a pre-concentration stage. This work presents the development of a rapid and simple analytical procedure based on mass spectrometry for the determination of 230Th and the results obtained in the analysis of environmental filters.

  9. Study on structuring the supervision system of coal mine associated with radionuclides in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Guangwen; Jia Xiahui

    2012-01-01

    Xinjiang is one of China's rich coal provinces (areas) and it accounts for about 40% national coal reserves. In the long-term radioactive scientific research, monitoring and environmental impact assessment works, we found parts of Yili and Hetian's coal was associated with higher radionuclide, and parts of coal seam even reached nuclear mining level. However the laws and regulations about associated radioactive coal mine supervision were not perfect, and the supervision system is still in the exploration. This article mainly started with the coal mine enterprises' geological prospecting reports, radiation environmental impact assessment and monitoring report preparation for environment acceptance checking and supervisory monitoring, controlled the coal radioactive pollution from the sources, and carried out the research of building Xinjiang associated radioactive coal mine supervision system. The establishment of supervision system will provide technical guidance for the enterprises' coal exploitation and cinders using on the one hand, and on the other hand will provide decision-making basis for strengthening the associated radioactive coal mine supervision for Xinjiang environmental regulators. (authors)

  10. Radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems - results of a model validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, G.; Venter, A.; Avila, R.; Bergman, R.; Bulgakov, A.; Calmon, P.; Fesenko, S.; Frissel, M.; Goor, F.; Konoplev, A.; Linkov, I.; Mamikhin, S.; Moberg, L.; Orlov, A.; Rantavaara, A.; Spiridonov, S.; Thiry, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the IAEA's BIOMASS Forest Working Group (FWG) was to bring together experimental radioecologists and modellers to facilitate the exchange of information which could be used to improve our ability to understand and forecast radionuclide transfers within forests. This paper describes a blind model validation exercise which was conducted by the FWG to test nine models which members of the group had developed in response to the need to predict the fate of radiocaesium in forests in Europe after the Chernobyl accident. The outcomes and conclusions of this exercise are summarised. It was concluded that, as a group, the models are capable of providing an envelope of predictions which can be expected to enclose experimental data for radiocaesium contamination in forests over the time scale tested. However, the models are subject to varying degrees of conceptual uncertainty which gives rise to a very high degree of divergence between individual model predictions, particularly when forecasting edible mushroom contamination. Furthermore, the forecasting capability of the models over future decades currently remains untested

  11. Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model prediction-experimental data intercomparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Z.; Carini, F.; Eged, K.; Kis, Z.; Linkov, I.; Mitchell, N.G.; Mourlon, C.; Robles, B.; Sweeck, L.; Venter, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from an international exercise undertaken to test model predictions against an independent data set for the transfer of radioactivity to fruit. Six models with various structures and complexity participated in this exercise. Predictions from these models were compared against independent experimental measurements on the transfer of 134 Cs and 85 Sr via leaf-to-fruit and soil-to-fruit in strawberry plants after an acute release. Foliar contamination was carried out through wet deposition on the plant at two different growing stages, anthesis and ripening, while soil contamination was effected at anthesis only. In the case of foliar contamination, predicted values are within the same order of magnitude as the measured values for both radionuclides, while in the case of soil contamination models tend to under-predict by up to three orders of magnitude for 134 Cs, while differences for 85 Sr are lower. Performance of models against experimental data is discussed together with the lessons learned from this exercise

  12. Chemical modelling studies on the impact of small scale mineralogical changes on radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emren, A.T.

    1998-01-01

    Several models exist for control of redox properties in groundwater. The proposals for redox controlling substances include iron oxides, chlorites, methane, pyrite and poly-sulphides. The CRACKER program has been developed to model groundwater formation in crystalline rock. The program has been used to model observed Aespoe groundwaters. The modelled and observed groundwater properties have been found to be similar. It has been found that some of the models have difficulties in explaining other properties than the pE-pH behaviour (properties like element concentrations), while other models perform quite well. pE-pH results are shown for a model consisting of some thirty minerals and a high salinity groundwater at two temperatures. The redox properties have been assumed to be controlled by several redox reactions occurring simultaneously. The most obvious feature is the decrease in pH at a higher temperature. It has also been found that modelled retardation of radionuclides is lower if the mineral distribution shows a spatial variability at a length scale of a few millimeters rather than being homogeneous at such length scales. (R.P.)

  13. Laboratory column experiments for radionuclide adsorption studies of the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, D.A.; Heath, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, G.O. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Dept.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide transport experiments were carried out using intact cores obtained from the Culebra member of the Rustler Formation inside the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Air Intake Shaft. Twenty-seven separate tests are reported here and include experiments with {sup 3}H, {sup 22}Na, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Np, {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}U and {sup 241}Pu, and two brine types, AIS and ERDA 6. The {sup 3}H was bound as water and provides a measure of advection, dispersion, and water self-diffusion. The other tracers were injected as dissolved ions at concentrations below solubility limits, except for americium. The objective of the intact rock column flow experiments is to demonstrate and quantify transport retardation coefficients, (R) for the actinides Pu, Am, U, Th and Np, in intact core samples of the Culebra Dolomite. The measured R values are used to estimate partition coefficients, (kd) for the solute species. Those kd values may be compared to values obtained from empirical and mechanistic adsorption batch experiments, to provide predictions of actinide retardation in the Culebra. Three parameters that may influence actinide R values were varied in the experiments; core, brine and flow rate. Testing five separate core samples from four different core borings provided an indication of sample variability. While most testing was performed with Culebra brine, limited tests were carried out with a Salado brine to evaluate the effect of intrusion of those lower waters. Varying flow rate provided an indication of rate dependent solute interactions such as sorption kinetics.

  14. Sedimentation Studies relevant to low-level radioactive effluent dispersal in the Irish Sea. Part 1. Radionuclides in marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T J; Parker, W R; Kirby, R

    1980-01-01

    This report examines the discharge of various radionuclides into the Irish Sea with particular reference to the interaction between the radionuclides and the sediments. A review of the relevant literature has revealed a variety of possible interaction mechanisms which are sensitive to many environmental parameters. It is concluded that the particular mechanism and any potential for remobilisation are dependent on the unique conditions existing at a particular site. The precise nature of the interaction in the Irish Sea and the remobilisation potential of the various radionuclides are poorly known. Measurements of radionuclide distributions have previously been used to infer rates of sedimentary processes. The assumptions underlying these interpretations are considered and it is shown that a large amount of information on the sedimentological regime of a given area is required before confident interpretations of radionuclide distributions can be made. This background material is only partially available for the Irish Sea.

  15. A study on the radiation and environmental safety -Studies on radionuclide migration and distribution in terrestrial ecosystem-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Duk; Kim, Sam Lang; Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Yong Hoh; Kim, Sang Bok; Lee, Myung Hoh; Hong, Kwang Heui; Lee, Won Yoon; Park, Doo Won; Choi, Sang Doh

    1995-07-01

    In order to investigate the migrational behaviors of radionuclides deposited onto the farm-land during crop cultures, potato and red pepper were cultured on lysimeters installed in a greenhouse and the solution of mixed radionuclides such as Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85 and Cs-137 was distributed over the land surface on different growth stages of the crops. For rice, soybean, Chinese cabbage and radish, the second or third year's radio-tracer experiments were carried out. Experimental results on Sr-85 and Cs-137 transfer factors for Chinese cabbage and radish were compared with their root-uptake concentrations calculated using existing methods. Samples of farm-land soils and crop plants were collected in the middle part of Korea and concentrations of several γ-emitters were measured. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of Cs-137 measured in outdoor fields were compared with those from greenhouse experiments. 20 figs, 35 tabs, 58 refs. (Author)

  16. Radioanalytical procedures used to study the release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel and the diffusion into bentonite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramebaeck, H.; Albinsson, Yngve; Skaalberg, M.; Eklund, U.B.

    1999-12-01

    This report presents radio-analytical procedures for the assay of 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 237 Np, 239 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm. These analytical procedures were used in a project studying the release and diffusion of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel into bentonite clay. The main task was to use methods giving a high specificity in the detection combined with a low detection limit. A high specificity will eliminate errors caused by interferences, yielding errors in the analysis. A low detection limit was necessary since the release was often very low. Solvent extraction was used in order to remove interferences. The detection methods, radiometric or mass spectrometric, were chosen to give the lowest detection limit

  17. Right and left ventricular cardiac function in a developed world population with human immunodeficiency virus studied with radionuclide ventriculography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette; Gerstoft, Jan; Hesse, Birger

    2004-01-01

    . No correlations were found between reduced cardiac function and levels of the 3 peptides measured. CONCLUSIONS: No major dysfunction of the left ventricle is present in a developed world HIV population. However, a small but significant part of this population has modestly reduced right-sided systolic function.......-associated morbidity and mortality rates. Accordingly, the prevalence of HIV-associated cardiac dysfunction may also have changed. The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of right- and left-sided cardiac dysfunction in a Danish HIV population, most of whom were undergoing HAART, with radionuclide...... ventricular ejection fraction and 6 (7%) had a reduced right ventricle ejection fraction (0.35-0.42) compared with reference values from the age- and sex-matched reference population. Patients with HIV and reduced cardiac function did not differ in the duration of HIV, CD4 count, CD4 nadir, or HIV RNA load...

  18. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  19. New peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of invasive cancer cells: in vivo studies using 177Lu-DOTA-AE105 targeting uPAR in human colorectal cancer xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Rasmussen, Palle; Madsen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    -of-concept for a theranostic approach as treatment modality in a human xenograft colorectal cancer model. MethodsA DOTA-conjugated 9-mer high affinity uPAR binding peptide (DOTA-AE105) was radiolabeled with 64Cu and 177Lu, for PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy study, respectively. Human uPAR-positive CRC HT-29...... for the first time the in vivo efficacy of an uPAR-targeted radionuclide therapeutic intervention on both tumor size and its content of uPAR expressing cells thus setting the stage for future translation into clinical use. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  20. Study of radionuclides interaction with hydrophytocenosis. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided research and monitoring on agricultural residue-biological interactions in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiulioniene, J.D.

    The aim of the work described here was to study: the effect at various concentrations of lead, effluent from pulp and paper production and DDT on the physiological state of algae (as assessed from the membrane potentials, the protoplasmic drifting velocity and the cell survival rate); the effect of thermal contamination on the physiological state of algae (assessed from the protoplasm mobility and cell survival rate) and on the accumulation of radionuclides in hydrophytes; and the effect of radionuclides on chlorella populations (the state of which was assessed from the cell density, the rate of photosynthesis and the number of mutant and lethally damaged cells)

  1. A review of a field study of radionuclide migration from an underground nuclear explosion at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.; Daniels, W.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Thompson, J.L.; Rundberg, R.S.; Fraser, S.L.; Daniels, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a long-term (9 year) field study of the distribution of radionuclides around an underground nuclear explosion cavity at the Nevada Test Site are reviewed. The goals of this Radionuclide Migration project are to examine the rates of migration underground in various media and to determine the potential for movement, both on and off the Nevada Test Site, of radioactivity from such explosions, with particular interest in possible contamination of water supplies. Initial studies were undertaken near the site of the low-yield test Cambric, which was detonated 73 m beneath the water table in tuffaceous alluvium. Solid samples were obtained from just below ground surface to 50 m below the detonation point, and water was sampled from five different regions in the vicinity of the explosion. Ten years after the test, most of the radioactivity was found to be retained in the fused debris in the cavity region and no activity above background was found 50 m below. Only tritium and 90 Sr were present in water in the cavity at levels greater than recommended concentration guides for water in uncontrolled areas. A satellite well is being used to remove water 91 m from the detonation point. During seven years (7x10 6 m 3 ) of pumping, tritium, 85 Kr, 36 Cl and 129 I have been detected in the water. Approximately 40% of the total tritium from the cavity region has been removed by pumping at the satellite well, and the maximum in the tritium concentration is clearly defined. Use of sensitive analytical techniques has permitted measurement of the very low concentrations of 36 Cl and 129 I present in the water. The 36 Cl peak precedes the tritiated water, possibly as a result of anion exclusion. Additional analyses are in progress to better define the shape of the 129 I concentration curve. (author)

  2. Review of a field study of radionuclide migration from an underground nuclear explosion at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.; Daniels, W.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Thompson, J.L.; Rundberg, R.S.; Fraser, S.L.; Daniels, K.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results from a long-term (9 year) field study of the distribution of radionuclides around an underground nuclear explosion cavity at the Nevada Test Site are reviewed. The goals of this Radionuclide Migration project are to examine the rates of migration underground in various media and to determine the potential for movement, both on and off the Nevada Test Site, of radioactivity from such explosions, with particular interest in possible contamination of water supplies. Initial studies were undertaken near the site of the low-yield test Cambric, which was detonated 73 m beneath the water table in tuffaceous alluvium. Solid samples were obtained from just below ground surface to 50 m below the detonation point, and water was sampled from five different regions in the vicinity of the explosion. Ten years after the test, most of the radioactivity was found to be retained in the fused debris in the cavity region and no activity above background was found 50 m below. Only tritium and 90 Sr were presented in water in the cavity at levels greater than recommended concentration guides for water in uncontrolled areas. A satellite well is being used to remove water 91 m from the detonation point. During seven years (7 x 10 6 m 3 ) of pumping, tritium, 85 Kr, 36 Cl, and 129 I have been detected in the water. Approximately 40% of the total tritium from the cavity region has been removed by pumping at the satellite well, and the maximum in the tritium concentration is clearly defined. Use of sensitive analytical techniques has permitted measurement of the very low concentrations of 36 Cl and 129 I present in the water. The 36 Cl peak precedes the tritiated water, possibly as a result of anion exclusion. Additional analyses are in progress to better define the shape of the 129 I concentration curve

  3. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  4. Effects of soil properties on natural radio-nuclides concentration in arid environment: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.F.M.; Al-Sewaidan, H.A.I.; Al-Saif, A.S.; Diab, H.I.

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from an arid environment in the central region of Saudi Arabia, 28 samples from selected 14 locations in an agricultural farm. Two samples, one from cultivated land and the second from uncultivated land, of the same origin were collected from each location. This work aims at investigating the changes of soil properties due to dry-land use and its effects on naturally occurring radio-nuclides (NOR) concentration and distribution. The specific activity, in Bq/kg, of 226 Ra ( 238 U series), 228 gRa ( 232 Th series), 40 K and 137 Cs were measured using calibrated gamma-ray spectrometer. The soil physical and chemical properties [e.g. pH, EC, particle size distribution (clay, silt and sand percentages), CaCO 3 %, soluble cations (Ca, Mg, Na and K) and soluble anions (CO 3 , HCO 3 , Cl and SO 4 )] were determined. The radium equivalent activity, in Bq/kg, and absorbed dose rate one meter above the ground, in nGy/y, were calculated. Generally, there are not noticeable changes in soil properties due to agricultural activities or strong correlations between soil properties and NOR specific activities. That could be due to the sandy nature of the soil and the effects of adsorption-filtration processes on the behavior and the distribution pattern of NOR in arid environment. Therefore, the environmental impacts of different man-made activities on underground resources should be carefully considered due to the possible filtration behavior of different pollutants in dry-land environment. (author)(tk)

  5. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  6. A Study on the Determination of Radionuclide Concentrations in Animal Feedstuffs for Use Following a Nuclear Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Choi, Young Gil; Han, Moon Hee

    2001-01-01

    The optimized derived intervention levels for animal products were evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis. From these results, the radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use were derived. It was shown that radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use depend strongly on animal products, radionuclides and feeding period (period from the starting time to be fed with contaminated feedstuffs to production time of animal products). In case of feedstuffs contaminated with long-lived radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr), the feedstuffs with lower contamination should be supplied to animals with increase of feeding period due to the bioaccumulation of radionuclides. While, in case of feedstuffs contaminated with short-lived radionuclides ( 131 I), the feeding of higher contaminated feedstuffs was possible with increase of feeding period due to radionuclide decay. It was shown that 137 Cs concentration in animal feedstuffs for use was lower than 90 Sr concentration. It is primarily due to the higher feed-animal product transfer factor of 137 Cs

  7. Natural-analog studies for partial validation of conceptual models of radionuclide retardation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.B.; Brookins, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Transport by groundwater within the Culebra Dolomite, an aquifer above the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), is the most probable mechanism for long-term release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Radionuclides could be retarded by sorption if the groundwater is exposed to sufficient amounts of fracture-lining clays. In this natural-analog study, distributions of U and trace metals have been examined to constrain the strength of clay/solute interactions within the Culebra. Uranium solid/liquid distribution ratios, calculated from U concentrations of groundwaters and consanguineous fracture-filling clays, range from ∼80 to 800 m ell/g and imply retardation factors of 60 to 500 using a fracture-flow model. Retardation factors inferred from uranium-series disequilibria and 14 C ages in Culebra groundwaters alone are much lower (∼10), implying that clays may contain a significant unreactive component of U. Such a possibility is corroborated by Rb/Sr ages; these imply long-term stability of the clays,with resetting occurring more than 250 Ma ago. Factor analysis and mass-balance calculations suggest, however, that Mg-rich clays are dissolving in Pleistocene-age groundwaters and/or are converting to Na-rich smectites, and that B and Li are taken up from the water by the clays. Apparently, the solution chemistry reflects gradual equilibration of clays with groundwater, but thus far the bulk of the clays remain structurally intact. Measurements of the distribution of U in the Culebra will be more meaningful if the inert and exchangeable components of the U content of the clays can be quantified. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  9. Methodical aspects of radionuclide study of locomotor system in patients with systemic diseases of connective tissue with single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potsibyina, V.V.; Oderyij, Je.A.

    1998-01-01

    The original technique was used to examine 427 patients aged 18-64 with systemic diseases of locomotor system connective tissue and 65 controls. In addition to clinical studies, radionuclide signs of locomotor system lesions was investigated with NUCLETRON APEX SP-6 CT unit using labeled with Tc-99m and osteotropic radiopharmaceuticals

  10. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  11. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  12. Caspian Sea water balance and dynamics studies using anthropogenic radionuclides: Implications for environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oregioni, B.; Gastaud, J.; Pham, M.K.; Povinec, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Environmental changes in the Caspian Sea have recently become of great interest in connection with fluctuations in sea level changes. Radioactive and stable isotopes have been used as powerful tracers to investigate water balance and dynamics and have contributed significantly to understanding climatically driven environmental changes in the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea is the world largest inland water body with a surface area of about 386000 km 2 and a volume of about 67000 km 3 , located in a large continental depression about 28 m below sea level. With no surface outlet, the Caspian Sea is particularly sensitive to climatic variations. The drainage area of the Caspian Sea is approximately 3.7 million square kilometers. The Volga, Ural and Terek empty into the North Caspian, with their combined annual flow accounting for 88% of all water entering the sea. The Sulak, Samur, Kura and a number of small rivers contribute about 7% of the inflow, the remainder comes from the rivers of the Iranian shore. The Caspian Sea is divided into three basins with approximately the same surface. The North Caspian Basin, maximum depth 15 m, average depth 5 m, contains 1% of the total water. The Middle Caspian (or Central) Basin has a maximum depth of 800 m and contains 22% of the total water. The South Caspian Basin, maximum depth 1024 m, average depth 330 m, contains 77% of the total Caspian Sea water. Recently there have been concerns over the environmental conditions of the Caspian Sea, especially over observed sea level changes, which have had a strong impact on the region. Anthropogenic radionuclides like 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239 , 240 Pu are particularly useful tracers for the investigation of water dynamics. Two research-training cruises were carried out in September 1995 and August-September 1996. At every station, 60-70 liters samples of seawater from different depths were processed for sequential separation of plutonium, cesium and strontium isotopes. This was

  13. Capacity study of sorption of radionuclides 137Cs, 233U, 75Se and 60Co in concrete and mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, H.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.; Alonso, U.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.; Lopez, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider and mortar similar in composition to those used in the storage of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level of the Cabril (Cordoba) and presents the results of tests of selected radionuclides sorption.

  14. Review of Russian-language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 4. Transfer to poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Howard, B.J.; Isamov, N.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Sanzharova, N.; Voigt, G.

    2009-01-01

    Data on radionuclide transfer to domestic chickens and ducks obtained from research performed in the former Soviet Union were reviewed to provide transfer coefficient values (Ff) to poultry and edible egg contents. The majority of the data are from experiments with 90 Sr and 137 Cs, reflecting the importance of these radionuclides after global fallout and major radiation accidents. Data for 3 H, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 22 Na 65 Zn, 131 I and U are also given. The values derived have been compared with those in the current IAEA Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) and the recent revision which incorporates the values from this paper. The Russian-language data give improved estimates for many radionuclides and the revised handbook is now based on the better quality data given for chronic administration.

  15. Review of Russian-language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 4. Transfer to poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Sanzharova, N; Voigt, G

    2009-10-01

    Data on radionuclide transfer to domestic chickens and ducks obtained from research performed in the former Soviet Union were reviewed to provide transfer coefficient values (Ff) to poultry and edible egg contents. The majority of the data are from experiments with (90)Sr and (137)Cs, reflecting the importance of these radionuclides after global fallout and major radiation accidents. Data for (3)H, (54)Mn, (59)Fe, (60)Co, (22)Na (65)Zn, (131)I and U are also given. The values derived have been compared with those in the current IAEA Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) and the recent revision which incorporates the values from this paper. The Russian-language data give improved estimates for many radionuclides and the revised handbook is now based on the better quality data given for chronic administration.

  16. The speciation of radionuclides in sediments and soils. Part II. Studies with a sequential organic extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, H.A.; Williams, G.A.; Cooper, M.B.

    1983-07-01

    A series of chemical extractions with a range of organic solvents has been performed to investigate the speciation of radionuclides in soil and sediment samples from the Mt. Brockman area in the Northern Territory. The major result is that of all the organic solvents used in the extractions, only acetic acid removes large proportions of the radionuclides 210 Pb (ca. 30-70%) and 226 Ra (10-55%) from the soil and sediment samples. The failure of the other organic solvents, and in particular dimethylformamide, to extract appreciable amounts of these radionuclides is taken to indicate that 210 Pb and 226 Ra are not present as discrete metal complexes of organic ligands. The overriding conclusion, that the acidic nature of the solvent is the most important property in releasing the bound radionuclides into solution, suggests that even under mildly acidic conditions encountered in the environment significant amounts of 210 Pb and 226 Ra may be released for transportation

  17. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  18. Experimental studies on the migration of radionuclides of the elements I, Sr, Cs, Co and Pd in the roof rock of the projected waste repository at Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Lang, H.; Moser, H.

    1985-07-01

    The studies were intended to provide information on the sorptive properties of 15 samples of fine-grain and medium-grain sands with regard to the radionuclides of I, Sr, Cs, Co, and Pd, and on their hydraulic properties. The samples were taken from the geologic formations in the area surrounding the projected waste repository in the Gorleben salt mine, at depth of up to 250 m down from terrain surface, and were analysed by means of column and batch experiments. Further goals were to determine the radionuclide migration as a function of flow velocity of the groundwater, and of sand compactness, as well as the effects of carrier ions and main groundwater contituents. The margins of retardation factors for the various radionuclides are given. One important result of the studies is that it could be expeimentally verified that there is the process of quasi irreversible sorption, i.e. it could be shown that desorption of radionuclides from natural, unconsolidated rock proceeds very much slowlier than sorption, so that this finding is of great significance to the safety assessment of a radioactive waste repository in geologic formations. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Device-dependent activity estimation and decay correction of radionuclide mixtures with application to Tc-94m PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Mark F.; Daube-Witherspoon, Margaret E.; Plascjak, Paul S.; Szajek, Lawrence P.; Carson, Richard E.; Everett, James R.; Green, Shielah L.; Territo, Paul R.; Balaban, Robert S.; Bacharach, Stephen L.; Eckelman, William C.

    2001-01-01

    Multi-instrument activity estimation and decay correction techniques were developed for radionuclide mixtures, motivated by the desire for accurate quantitation of Tc-94m positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Tc-94m and byproduct Tc isotopes were produced by proton irradiation of enriched Mo-94 and natural Mo targets. Mixture activities at the end of bombardment were determined with a calibrated high purity germanium detector. The activity fractions of the greatest mixture impurities relative to 100% for Tc-94m averaged 10.0% (Tc-94g) and 3.3% (Tc-93) for enriched targets and 10.1% (Tc-94g), 11.0% (Tc-95), 255.8% (Tc-96m), and 7.2% (Tc-99m) for natural targets. These radioisotopes have different half-lives (e.g., 52.5 min for Tc-94m, 293 min for Tc-94g), positron branching ratios (e.g., 0.72 for Tc-94m, 0.11 for Tc-94g) and gamma ray emissions for themselves and their short-lived, excited Mo daughters. This complicates estimation of injected activity with a dose calibrator, in vivo activity with PET and blood sample activity with a gamma counter. Decay correction using only the Tc-94m half-life overestimates activity and is inadequate. For this reason analytic formulas for activity estimation and decay correction of radionuclide mixtures were developed. Isotope-dependent sensitivity factors for a PET scanner, dose calibrator, and gamma counter were determined using theoretical sensitivity models and fits of experimental decay curves to sums of exponentials with fixed decay rates. For up to 8 h after the end of bombardment with activity from enriched and natural Mo targets, decay-corrected activities were within 3% of the mean for three PET studies of a uniform cylinder, within 3% of the mean for six dose calibrator decay studies, and within 6% of the mean for four gamma counter decay studies. Activity estimation and decay correction for Tc-94m mixtures enable routine use of Tc-94m in quantitative PET, as illustrated by application to a canine Tc-94m sestamibi

  20. Radionuclide distribution of Holocene sediments and its effects on the habitat of recent foraminifers: A case study from the Western Marmara Sea (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal Yumun, Zeki; Kam, Erol; Murat Kılıc, Ali

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Radionuclides cause radioactive contamination in aquatic environments just as other non-biodegradable pollutants, such as heavy metals, sink to the seafloor and accumulate in the sediments. These radioactive pollutants especially affect benthic foraminifera living on the sediment surface or in the sediments in the seafloor. Foraminifera were used as bioindicators to analyze the effect of radioactivity pollution on ecosystems. In this study, we have investigated natural and artificial radionuclide (232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs) distribution in sediment samples taken in the living areas of benthic foraminifera in the Western Marmara Sea by means of gamma spectrometry. Accordingly, 29 core samples taken in 2016 from depths of about 20-35 m close to the shores of the Marmara Sea were used. Core samples representing the pollution of the study area were collected at locations such as discharge points for domestic and industrial areas, port locations, and others. Other samples were taken from areas unaffected or less affected by pollution. The radionuclide concentration activity values in the sediment samples obtained from the locations, in Bq/kg, were 137Cs, 0.9-9.4; 232Th, 18.9-86; 226Ra, 10-50; 40K, 24.4-670. These values were compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) data, and an environmental analysis was carried out. The 226Ra series, the 232Th series, and the 40K radionuclides accumulate naturally, and they are also increasing continuously due to anthropogenic pollution. Although the 226Ra values obtained throughout the study areas remained within normal limits according to the UNSCEAR values, the 40K and 232Th series values were found to be higher in almost all locations. According to these results, the main causes of radioactive pollution in the investigation area are agricultural and mining activities. Keywords: Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, Cs-137, radionuclide, Western Marmara Sea, Foraminifera

  1. The potential of two Salix genotypes for radionuclide/heavy metal accumulation. A case study of Rovinari ash pit (Gorj District, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernea, Cornelia; Neţoiu, Constantin; Corneanu, Gabriel; Crăciun, Constantin; Corneanu, Mihaela; Cojocaru, Luminiţa; Rovena Lăcătuşu, Anca; Popescu, Ion

    2014-05-01

    Thermo Electric Power Plants (TEPP) produce a high amount of ash, that contains heavy metals and radionuclides. Ash is usually stored in ash-pits, in mixture with water and contains U235, Th 234 and their decay products, that are released from the coal matrix, during combustion, as well as heavy metals. Warm weather dried the ash and it can be spread by the wind in surrounded area. This paper presents the results of an experiment with two Salix genotypes, cultivated on an old closed ash-pit, nearby the Rovinari TEPP, in the middle Jiu valley (Gorj District, Romania), in order to evaluate its tolerance to heavy metals and radionuclides. Ash analysis revealed the presence of natural radionuclides, beloging from ash and coal dust, as well as of Cs 137, of Chernobil provenance. Radionuclides content over the normal limits for Romania were registered for Th 234, Pb210, U235 and Ra226. The heavy metals level in ash was over the normal limits, but under the alerts limits. In order to establish the woody plants tolerance to heavy metals and radionuclides, it is important to study the seedlings behavior. In this respect Salix alba and Salix viminalis whips and cuttings culture have been establish on Rovinari ash-pit. The observations made on survival and growth rate pointed out the superiority of Salix viminalis behaviour. After a period of three years Salix viminalis registered a 96% survival rate, while in Salix alba annual decreases, reaching to 14%. These results are supported by the radionuclides content in leaves and by the electron microscopy studies. In Salix alba the leaves parenchimatic cells present a low sinthesis activity. The exogenous particles are accumulated in parenchima cells vacuola, the chloroplasts are usually agranal, with few starch grains and mitocondria presents slightly dillated crista. The ultrastructural features of the mature leaf cells, evidenced the natural adaptation of Salix viminalins for development in an environment with a big amount of

  2. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  3. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  4. Proceedings of the meeting on computational and experimental studies for modeling of radionuclide migration in complex aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi; Hakanson, Lars

    2010-09-01

    The Research Group for Environmental Science of JAEA held a meeting on computational and experimental studies for modeling of radionuclide migration in complex aquatic ecosystems during November 16-20 of 2009. The aim was to discuss the relevance of various computational and experimental approaches to that modeling. The meeting was attended by a Swedish researcher, Prof. Dr. Lars Hakanson of Uppsala University. It included a joint talk at the Institute for Environmental Sciences, in addition to a field and facility survey of the JNFL commercial reprocessing plant located in Rokkasho, Aomori. The meeting demonstrated that it is crucial 1) to make a model structure be strictly relevant to the target objectives of a study and 2) to account for inherent fluctuations in target values in nature in a manner of qualitative parameterization. Moreover, it was confirmed that there can be multiple different approaches of modeling (e.g. detailed or simplified) with relevance for the objectives of a study. These discussions should be considered in model integration for complex aquatic ecosystems consisting catchments, rivers, lakes and coastal oceans which can interact with the atmosphere. This report compiles research subjects and lectures presented at the meeting with associated discussions. The 10 of the presented papers indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. Review of neutron activation analysis in the standardization and study of reference materials, including its application to radionuclide reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) plays a very important role in the certification of reference materials (RMs) and their characterization, including homogeneity testing. The features of the method are briefly reviewed, particularly aspects relating to its completely independent nuclear basis, its virtual freedom from blank problems, and its capacity for self-verification. This last aspect, arising from the essentially isotopic character of NAA, can be exploited by using different nuclear reactions and induced nuclides, and the possibility of employing two modes, one instrumental (nondestructive), the other radiochemical (destructive). This enables the derivation of essentially independent analytical information and the unique capacity of NAA for selfvalidation. The application of NAA to quantify natural or man-made radionuclides such as uranium, thorium, 237 Np, 129 I and 230 Th is discussed, including its advantages over conventional radiometric methods and its usefulness in providing independent data for nuclides where other confirmatory analyses are impossible, or are only recently becoming available through newer 'atom counting' techniques. Certain additional, prospective uses of NAA in the study of RMs and potential RMs are mentioned, including transmutation reactions, creation of endogenously radiolabelled matrices for production and study of RMs (such as dissolution and leaching tests, use as incorporated radiotracers for chemical recovery correction), and the possibility of molecular activation analysis for specification. (orig.)

  6. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  7. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  8. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  9. Dietary exposure to trace elements and radionuclides: the methodology of the Italian total diet study 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena D'Amato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the methodology of the Italian Total Diet Study 2012-2014 aimed at assessing the dietary exposure of the general Italian population to selected non-essential trace elements (Al, inorganic As, Cd, Pb, methyl-Hg, inorganic Hg, U and radionuclides (40K, 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr. The establishment of the TDS food list, the design of the sampling plan, and details about the collection of food samples, their standardized culinary treatment, pooling into analytical samples and subsequent sample treatment are described. Analytical techniques and quality assurance are discussed, with emphasis on the need for speciation data and for minimizing the percentage of left-censored data so as to reduce uncertainties in exposure assessment. Finally the methodology for estimating the exposure of the general population and of population subgroups according to age (children, teenagers, adults, and the elderly and gender, both at the national level and for each of the four main geographical areas of Italy, is presented.

  10. Establishment of bases for joint study and cooperation on long-lived radionuclides transmutation between Korea and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Jik; Shim, Joon Bo; Choi, Chang Joo; Park, Won Seok; Song, Tae Young; Kim, Chang Kyu; Kil, Choong Sup

    2003-02-01

    The most important technical fields related to transmutation are partitioning of long-lived radionuclides and transmutation system to be used for converting them into short-lived or stable radionuclides. Technical cooperation between Korea and Russia is needed because Russia has an unequalled position in the fields of development of the fast reactors and pyrochemical processes around the world. The aim of this project is an establishment of bases for coordination on transmutation technology between Korea and Russia. State of the art of domestic and foreign countries upon partitioning of long-lived radionuclides, transmutation system and Gen IV development was summarized. Also, the 7th Korea-Russia joint coordination committee meeting and the 1st joint workshop were held as a result of this project. Technical fields and scheme on future cooperation between Korea and Russia were discussed and agreed in the course of the meetings

  11. Study of the contamination of components of the marine environment by soluble and insoluble forms of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraizier, A.; Ancellin, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental contamination of various physical components and organisms of the marine environment was carried out using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 51 Cr, 60 Co, 106 Ru and 59 Fe. The relationships between the physico-chemical states of the radionuclides, the variations in the environmental conditions, and the properties of the experimental samples were clarified. Marine organisms were more readily contaminated by the insoluble forms of 106 Ru and 59 Fe than by the soluble forms. It appears that the physiology of the marine organisms can have a bearing on the degree and evolution of the contamination whatever the physico-chemical state of the radionuclides may be, but in certain circumstances the contamination level is independent of the variations in environmental conditions and the related variations in the physiology of the organism. (author)

  12. Radionuclide techniques for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.J.; Moody, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past decade, many of the prime indications for radionuclide brain scanning have become instead indications for CCT, and nuclear medicine studies of the brain have assumed more of a complementary, supportive role. However, there is great promise for improvement in central nervous system radionuclide applications with advances anticipated in both radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation. Nuclear medicine is continuing to function as a powerful research tool and, in the relatively near future, may regain its role as a major clinical test of the central nervous system

  13. A comparative study of peripheral to central circulation delivery times between intraosseous and intravenous injection using a radionuclide technique in normovolemic and hypovolemic canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.L.; Fontanarosa, P.B.; Passalaqua, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Intraosseous infusion is considered a useful technique for administration of medications and fluids in emergency situations when peripheral intravascular access is unobtainable. This study examined the effectiveness of intraosseous infusion for delivery of substances to the central circulation. Central deliveries of a radionuclide tracer administered by the intraosseous and intravenous routes were evaluated during normovolemic and hypovolemic states. Intraosseous infusion achieved peripheral to central circulation transit times comparable to those achieved by the intravenous route. Analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences between the peripheral to central delivery times comparing intraosseous and intravenous administration. The results demonstrate that intraosseous infusion is a rapid and effective method of delivery to the central circulation and is an alternative method for intravascular access. This study also suggests that a radionuclide tracer is useful for the evaluation of transit times following intraosseous injection

  14. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  15. Studies on therapeutic method of liver cancer(hapatocellular carcinome)by Holmium-166 radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, H. S.; Kim, M. J.; Han, K. H.; Park, C. I. [Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    As the study of radioactive nuclide, Holmium-166 in the treatment of liver cancer(hepatocellular carcinoma), this study was performed under the base of animal experimental. Using dog liver, percutaneous injection of Ho-166 MAA or chitosan with premade dose was done under the ultrasound guidance. Continuously the same procedure as previous one was performed in the skin hapatoma, which was developed by the injection of hepatocellular carcinoma cell in the nude mouse, In case of injected normal liver of dog, imaging study including ultrasound, CT and MRI was done in order to evaluate effect of Ho-166 and pathologic reaction. The result showed well defined nectosis of normal liver as well as skin hepatoma. The area of nectosis is dependent on the dose of injected Ho-166. Generally, pathologic reaction is tissue coagulation nectosis, Ho-166 particles, fibrosis and hemorrhage. In the clinical study, 50 patients with hapatoma was selected for this study under the agreement of patient. Under ultrasound guidance percutaneous injection of Ho-166 Maa or chitosan to tumor was performed and follow-up study was extended from 6 to 12 month. The result showed that 64% of patient were completely treated. Overall, the effect of treatment could be obtained in 41 patient (82%) among 50 hepatoma patient. Conclusively Ho-166 is thought to be a compromising agent in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and one of therapeutic modality, if it is established internally and world-wide. In the future, the popular percutaneous ethanol injection method will be replaced to this method. 19 refs., 1 tabs., 14 figs. (author)

  16. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 3. Inventories of some long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides associated with lagoon surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.

    1997-12-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected during 1979 from 87 locations in the lagoon at Bikini Atoll. The collections were made to better define the concentrations and distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred to the composition of the surface sediment from the nuclear testing program conducted by the United States at the Atoll between 1946 and 1958. This is the last of three reports on Bikini sediment studies. In this report, we discuss the concentrations and inventories of the residual long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in sediments from the lagoon. The gamma-emitting radionuclides detected most frequently in sediments collected in 1979, in addition to Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) (discussed in the second report of this series), included Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Bismuth-207 ({sup 207}Bi), Europium-155 ({sup 155}Eu), and Cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co). Other man-made, gamma-emitting radionuclides such as Europium-152,154 ({sup 152,154}Eu), Antimony-125 ({sup 125}Sb), and Rhodium-101,102m ({sup 101,102m}Rh) were occasionally measured above detection limits in sediments near test site locations. The mean inventories for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 207}Ei, {sup 155}Eu, and {sup 60}Co in the surface 4 cm of the lagoon sediment to be 1.7, 0.56, 7.76, and 0.74 TBq, respectively. By June 1997, radioactive decay would reduce these values to 1.1, 0.38, 0.62, and 0.07 TBq, respectively. Some additional loss results from a combination of different processes that continuously mobilize and return some amount of the radionuclides to the water column. The water and dissolved constituents are removed from the lagoon through channels and exchange with the surface waters of the north equatorial Pacific Ocean. Highest levels of these radionuclides are found in surface deposits lagoonward of the Bravo Crater. Lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with sediment lagoonward of the eastern reef. The quantities in

  17. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E.; Wobber, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitored in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program. Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media

  19. Area 11 case study of radionuclide movement by storm channel erosion: A baseline method and initial evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.; Gouveia, F.J.; Patton, S.E.; Fry, C.O.

    1993-04-01

    At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), where radionuclide contamination is found in surface soils, there is potential for water erosion to move radionuclides beyond the boundaries of controlled areas and into channels cut by infrequent storms. This loss of control and the increased risk of further movement are issues which require the development of a method for the quantitative monitoring of contamination and calculation of the radionuclide-movement rate. In this report the authors develop a method which is used to measure the amount and rate of movement of americium-241 ( 241 Am) in a storm channel, and which offers special features for establishment of baseline concentrations. This method was applied to the standing problem of the erosion of the plutonium contaminated open-quotes ground zeroclose quotes area of site open-quotes 11Dclose quotes in Area 11 of NTS. By establishing 241 Am concentrations in the storm channel, the concentrations of 239+240 Pu can also be calculated using a previously determined 239+240 Pu/ 241 Am ratio from soil samples collected in Area 11. The method utilizes systematic field surveys with a field instrument for detection of low-energy radiation (FIDLER), and provides a computational method which, when validated, could become a standard procedure for monitoring radionuclide movement in the washes and storm channels throughout the NTS

  20. Radionuclide study of the hepatobiliary system function in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.M.; Savich, O.A.; Markov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The functional state of the liver parenchyma, concentration and motor functions of the gallbladder in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) was studied. To analyze hepatobiliary system disorders depending on the type of DM, presence of complications, duration of the disease and the age of the patients

  1. The study of specific activity and effect of gamma ray from natural radionuclide to the environment outside Sultan Abdul Aziz Plant Station, Kapar, Klang, Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Amar Fikri Wan Ali

    2012-01-01

    Waste resulting from coal combustion process can result in increasing the specific activity of natural radionuclide such as 238 U, 232 Th , 226 Ra and 40 K. Following combustion, radionuclide focused on fly ash, some escape the filtration system in the chimney that causes the gamma ray exposure dose increases. The objective of this study was to calculate the specific activity of natural radionuclide and identifying the gamma ray exposure dose outside the Stesen Janakuasa Elektric Station of Sultan Abdul Aziz further examine the risk of gamma ray exposure dose and specific activity of natural radionuclide to the ecosystem because the station is located close to residential areas and local residents migratory bird stopover. The samples studied are soil, water and sediment that are outside the station. Samples taken with the correct procedures then treated and stored about a month before counting. Gamma ray exposure dose for the seven stations studied are between 0.330 μSv/ h - 1.20 μSv/ h. While the range of specific activities obtained for the 40 K, 238 U, 232 Th and 226 Ra were 201 Bq/ kg - 468 Bq/ kg, 0.480 Bq/ kg - 2.57 Bq/ kg, 12.9 Bq/ kg - 74.5 Bq/ kg and 6.64 Bq/ kg - 11.7 Bq/ kg. While the sediment samples were 216 Bq/ kg - 465 Bq/ kg, 18.1 Bq/ kg - 4.43 Bq/ kg, 24.8 Bq/ kg - 65.3 Bq/ kg, 8.53 Bq/ kg - 11.2 Bq/ kg. For water samples, the specific range of their specific activities are 10.5 Bq/ L - 12.1 Bq/ L, 1.40 Bq/ L - 1.63 Bq/ L, 1.57 Bq/ L - 1.65 Bq/ L and 0 Bq/ L - 1.14 Bq/ L. (author)

  2. Study of Validity Criteria for Radionuclide-Analysis of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Uk; Baek, Hyun Suk; Jeong, Sung Yeop [Sungwoo E and T Co., Hanam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Seung Kyu [Korea Radioactive waste Management Corporation, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Literature survey on the deviation of the measuring equipment and statistical analysis on the measured data of domestic LILW were performed in order to set evaluation criteria quantitatively when comparing the result of each test and inspections. This study provided opportunity to increase credibility and re-assure validity of Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Through the statistical analysis for deviation of measurement by comparing repository inspection with generator self-test, the quantitative acceptance criteria were set depending on specific activity of Co-60 and Cs-137. The acceptance criteria is a relative bias of KRMC result to generator result and set from low 50 % to high 150 % for Co-60, from low 30 % to 250 % for Cs-137. In this study, because the statistical analysis results of the waste drum assay are not enough representing whole range specified at WAC, an additional research that include characteristic analysis of LILW generated other birthplace should be done.

  3. A Study on the Representative Sampling Survey for Radionuclide Analysis of RI Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, K. Y. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juyoul; Jung, Gunhyo [FNC Tech. Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    We developed a quantitative method for attaining a representative sample during sampling survey of RI waste. Considering a source, process, and type of RI waste, the method computes the number of sample, confidence interval, variance, and coefficient of variance. We also systematize the method of sampling survey logically and quantitatively. The result of this study can be applied to sampling survey of low- and intermediate-level waste generated from nuclear power plant during the transfer process to disposal facility.

  4. Reactor-building-basement radionuclide and source distribution studies. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, T.E.; Horan, J.T.; Worku, G.

    1983-06-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor Building basement has been sampled several times since August 1979. This report compiles the analytical results and sample history for the liquid and solid samples obtained to date. In addition, basement radiation levels were also obtained using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The data obtained will provide information to support ongoing mass balance and source term studies and will aid in characterizing the 282-ft elevation for decontamination planning and dose reduction

  5. Reproducibility of radionuclide gastroesophageal reflux studies using quantitative parameters and potential role of quantitative assessment in follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Khursheed, K.; Nasir, W.; Saeed, M.A.; Fatmi, S.; Jafri, S.; Asghar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide gastroesophageal reflux studies have been widely used in the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters have been used for the interpretation of reflux studies but there is little consensus on the use of these parameters in routine gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphic studies. Aim of this study was to evaluate the methodological issues underlying the qualitative and quantitative assessment of gastroesophageal reflux and to determine the potential power of the reflux index calculation in follow-up assessment of the reflux positive patients. Methods: Total 147 patients suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, asthma and having strong clinical suspicion of GER were recruited in the study. Dynamic scintigraphic study was acquired for 30 minutes after oral administration of 99mTc phytate. Each study was analyzed three times by two nuclear medicine physicians. Clinical symptoms were graded according to predefined criteria and there correlation with severity reflux was done. Time activity curves were generated by drawing ROIs from esophagus. Reflux index was calculated by the standard formula and cut off value of 4% was used for RI calculation. Reflux indices were used for follow-up assessments in reflux positive patients. Kappa statistics and chi square test were used to evaluate the agreement and concordance between qualitative and quantitative parameters. Results: Tlae over all incidence of reflux in total study population was 63.94 %( 94 patients). The kappa value for both qualitative and quantitative parameters showed good agreement for intra and inter-observer reproducibility (kappa value > 0.75). Concordance between visual analysis and time activity curves was not observed. Reflux index and visuat interpretation shows concordance in the interpretation. The severity of clinical symptoms was directly related to the severity of the reflux observed in the

  6. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration have been studied in natural fissures orieted parallel to the axis of granite drill cores. A short pulse of the radionuclides solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. After several hundred fissure volumes water had been pumped through the fissure following the radionuclide pulse the activity distribution on the fissure surfaces was measured. From the retardation of 152 Eu, 235 Np and 237 Pu it is concluded that these radionuclides are transported in the oxidation states Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(V). The distribution coefficients K sub (d) calculated from flow and activity distribution data on the basis of geometric surface area/volume ratios are of the same order as published K sub (d) values obtained from batch equilibrium experiments. (Author)

  7. Disequilibrium study of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium series in cores and briny groundwaters from Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1988-05-01

    The concentrations of natural radionuclides of the 238 U and /232/Th series are reported in several cores and in ten deep and five shallow briny groundwaters from various formations in the Palo Duro Basin. The formations include Granite Wash, Pennsylvanian Granite Wash, Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate, Seven River, Queen Grayburg, San Andres, Yates and Salado. The natural radionuclide data in cores suggest that the radionuclides have not migrated or been leached for at least a period of about 1 million years. Relative to the U and Th concentrations in cores, the brines are depleted by a factor of 10 4 to 10 5 , indicating extremely low solubility of U and Th in brines. The natural radionuclide data in brines suggest that radium is not sorbed significantly and thus not retarded in nine deep brines. Radium is somewhat sorbed in one deep brine of Wolfcamp Carbonate and significantly sorbed in shallow brines. Relative to radium, the U, Th, Pb, Bi, and Po radionuclides are highly retarded by sorption. The retardation factors for 228 Th range from 10 2 to 10 3 , whereas those for 230 Th and 234 U range from 10 3 to 10 5 , depending on the formation. The 234 U/ 238 U ratios in these brines are constant at about 1.5. The magnitude of the 234 U/ 230 Th ratio appears to reflect the degree of redox state of the aquifer's environment. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratio in nine deep brines is about unity, suggesting that U, like Th +4 , is in the +4 state, which in turn suggests a reduced environment. 49 refs., 23 figs., 18 tabs

  8. Experimental studies on correlation between accumulation of radionuclides by fish, availability of bottom sediments, and concentration of microelements in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katkov, A E

    1979-07-01

    There are revealed peculiarities of accumulation of radionuclides desorbed from the ground by hydrobionts as compared with the accumulation of radionuclides appearing in the basin for the first time. The results of the experimental investigations on the dependence of nuclide accumulation coefficients (AC) on their concentration in water are summarized. The experiments have been performed on adult (6-8 years) golden crucian carp Carassius carassius in a basin with fresh water with /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 131/I, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 210/Po. The radionuclide group (/sup 54/Mn, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 210/Po) has been found out. The ground has contributed to its accumulation. For another group (/sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 51/Cr) it has been found an indistinctly expressed influence only of silt containing ground on AC. The third group comprises the radionuclides (/sup 90/Sr, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 131/I) accumulation of which in fish has been prevented by the ground. An inverse correlation between the nuclide AC changes in fishes (..delta..K) and changes in the concentration of their isotope carried (..delta..C) in water has been observed. The results of the mathematical processing of the summarized experimental data according to the ..delta..Kx ..delta..C=1 criterion are described by the dependence close to ACxC..-->.. const., cor. responding to the law of tendency to constancy preservation in the microelement concentration tissues. In the course of investigation of the relationship between the AC and the change of the radionuclide aggregate state in water no common dependence has been established.

  9. The Study of Isolated Bacteria Application for Bioremediation Agent of Uranium Radionuclide in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, Mochd

    2007-01-01

    Application of the isolated bacteria on the Low Level Uranium Waste as uranium bioremediation agent in the environment has been studied. The objective of this research is to study the possibility of isolated bacteria to be used on uranium remediation process. The isolation of uranium resistance bacteria was carried out on the selective medium SBS containing 10 mg/l uranium, incubated at 37°C until the growth was visible. Selection of binding uranium bacteria was carried out based on their ability to grow on liquid medium containing various concentration of uranium that shacked on 120 rpm speed. The isolated bacteria with the highest specific growth rate constant (μ) were selected for biochemical characterization and identification by matching profile method. The result of this research showed that three selected isolate bacteria were able to grow well on liquid SBS medium until 100 mg/l uranium concentration. The identification results showed that two of them were suspected belong to the genus Pseudomonas and one isolates belong to the genus of Bacillus. The uranium reduction studied was performed by growing up the isolated bacteria on the SBS liquid medium that containing 40 mg/l uranium. Bacterial growth were measured by weighted of bacterial biomass and uranium concentration were measured by spectrophotometer. The research result showed that the selected isolates bacteria may applicable for bioremediation agent because of their ability to grow well on liquid SBS medium and their ability on uranium concentration reduction. The efficiency of reduction by Pseudomonas in the isolated bacteria one were 78.51 % and in the isolated bacteria three were 91.47 % , and Bacillus in the isolate bacteria six were 52.73%. (author)

  10. Studies of radionuclide availability and migration at the Nevada Test Site relevant to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewhey, J.D.; Weed, H.C.; Coles, D.G.; Ramspott, L.D.; MacLean, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    The sorption distribution coefficient, K/sub d/, of a nuclide is defined as the concentration of a nuclide on a solid phase divided by its concentration in the liquid phase subsequent to equilibrium being attained. In the case of batch K/sub d/ measurements done in the laboratory, it is difficult to ascertain the extent of equilibration, and experiments may not reflect true K/sub d/ values. Kurt Wolfsberg of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has referred to laboratory K/sub d/ measurements as distribution ratios or R/sub d/'s. An R/sub d/ is obtained in the same manner as a K/sub d/ but does not imply equilibrium. The term R/sub d/ is used in this study. The results from the batch R/sub d/ studies are listed in tabular form. The standard deviation of the counting data for each R/sub d/ is given. The R/sub d/ values can be arranged according to the following inequalities: Pu > Cs, except for biotite; Cs > Sr, except for limestone; and Sr > Tc. The exceptions are considered significant for Pu vs Cs on biotite, but not for Cs vs Sr on limestone. The low R/sub d/ values for Tc indicate that within the limits of measurement it is not sorbed under the experimental conditions in this study. One possible cause for the negative values is preferential sorption of the sample on the walls of the sample container, so that the sample container sorbs less Tc than the blank container does

  11. Radionuclide studies on the reparative ostogenesis in the simulation on the leg shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sveshnikov, A.A.; Smotrova, L.A.; Shatokhin, V.D.

    1984-07-01

    The time course of metabolic processes in the osseous tissue and the capillary blood circulation in the forming osseous regenerate and the bone as a whole were studied in 16 patients using pyrophosphate and DTPA. The results of radiometry made it possible to give a quantitative evaluation of regeneration intensity: during intensive osteogenesis the accumulation of labeled pyrophosphate increased up to 720%, and the capillary blood circulation speeded up to 380%. Before the completion of osteogenesis the drug accumulation decreased considerably up to 250%.

  12. Radionuclide studies on the reparative ostogenesis in the simulation on the leg shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveshnikov, A.A.; Smotrova, L.A.; Shatokhin, V.D.

    1984-01-01

    The time course of metabolic processes in the osseous tissue and the capillary blood circulation in the forming osseous regenerate and the bone as a whole were studied in 16 patients using pyrophosphate and DTPA. The results of radiometry made it possible to give a quantitative evaluation of regeneration intensity: during intensive osteogenesis the accumulation of labeled pyrophosphate increased up to 720%, and the capillary blood circulation speeded up to 380%. Before the completion of osteogenesis the drug accumulation decreased considerably up to 250%

  13. The natural analogous study of the migration of radionuclides in granite for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jinsheng

    1995-01-01

    Granite is one of the optimum types of surround rock for radioactive waste geological disposal. The study of natural analogues could provide very useful reference materials for selecting validating and designing site of repository in granite. The basic research substances are as follows: the fracture system and the circulation paths of the fluid, the hydrothermal alteration, the evolution of hydrothermal solution, the U, Th, REE element geochemical behaviours, the secondary mineral phases and its retention capacity for the concerned radioactive nuclides and the mass transfer modelling

  14. Routine studies of swallowed radionuclide transit in pediatrics: experience with 400 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, J.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Christophe, E.; Blanquet, P.; Ducassou, D.; Wynchank, S.

    1984-02-01

    Scintigraphic studies of swallowed 99m Tc-sulphur colloid mixed with a few millilitres of liquid, performed on 400 pediatric patients of all ages, allowed visualisation of foregut function and measurement of oesophageal transit time and gastric emptying proportions. This non-invasive and physiological procedure requires a standard gamma camera with computing facilities and was performed as an outpatient routine. It proved very effective for the detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux and aspiration of refluxed liquid in patients of all ages but especially in neonates. The relevance of these scintigraphic results to oesophagitis, repeated respiratory problems, cyanotic and apnoeic spells and alternative methods of investigation is described.

  15. Routine studies of swallowed radionuclide transit in paediatrics: experience with 400 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Christophe, E.; Blanquet, P.; Wynchank, S.

    1984-01-01

    Scintigraphic studies of swallowed 99 m Tc-sulphur colloid mixed with a few millilitres of liquid, performed on 400 paediatric patients of all ages, allowed visualisation of foregut function and measurement of oesophageal transit time and gastric emptying proportions. This non-invasive and physiological procedure requires a standard gamma camera with computing facilities and was performed as an outpatient routine. It proved very effective for the detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux and aspiration of refluxed liquid in patients of all ages but especially in neonates. The relevance of these scintigraphic results to oesophagitis, repeated respiratory problems, cyanotic and apnoeic spells and alternative methods of investigation is described. (orig.)

  16. Study of conjugation and radiolabeling of monoclonal antibody rituximab for use in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massicano, Adriana Vidal Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Lymphomas are tumors originated from the transformation of a lymphocyte in the lymphatic system. The most common lymphoma is the Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Advances in immunology and molecular biology have been improving NHL's detection and treatment strategies development, such as Radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody used as immunotherapeutic to treat refractory or relapsed NHL. The goal of the present work was to conjugate this antibody to DOTA-NHS-ester bifunctional chelator and to radiolabel it with 177 Lu radioisotope in order to develop a radio immunotherapeutic agent for NHL's treatment. Different rituximab to DOTA molar ratios (1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, 1:250, 1:500 and 1:1000) were evaluated in order to determine the best condition for obtaining the highest radiochemical purity of radio immunotherapeutic. The stability of the unlabeled immuno conjugated was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for up to 240 days in different storage conditions. The stability of the labeled preparations was evaluated either after storing at 2-8 degree C or incubation in human serum at 37 degree C. The binding to serum proteins was also determined. In vivo studies were performed in healthy Swiss mice, in order to characterize the biological properties of labeled conjugate. Finally, preliminary studies of radio immuno conjugated competitive binding to CD20 positive Raji cells were carried out in order to analyze if the process of conjugation and radiolabeling compromises the immunoreactivity of the antibody. The conjugation applying lower antibody to chelator molar ratios (1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) showed high stability when stored for up to 240 days in different conditions. The HPLC analysis showed that the monoclonal antibody conjugated in molar ratio 1:50 was labeled with higher radiochemical purity (> 95%) when purified in PD-10 column. This conjugate showed reasonable stability at 2-8 degree C. The analysis of the

  17. Complication of venous thrombosis of the lower extremities with pulmonary embolism; Approach by radionuclide studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Teruyasu; Morita, Rikushi (Shiga Medical School, Otsu (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    We studied the relationship between the complication of the pulmonary embolism and the localization of the venous thrombus in the lower extremities using Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) venography. Tc-99m MAA venography clearly demonstrated most of the deep and superficial veins from the leg to the pelvis and the abdomen. The incidence of venous thrombosis was highest in the pelvic veins (28.8%), and second in the superficial leg veins (10.9%). The complication of pulmonary embolism was highest in the pelvic venous thrombosis (20.4%), and second in the femoral venous thrombosis (16.0%). (author).

  18. A study on the improved DTC method for estimations of radionuclide activity in radwaste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hee; Hwang, Ki Ha; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Kun Jai; Kim, Tae Wook; Kim, Kyoung Deok; Herr, Young Hoi; Song, Myung Jae

    2004-01-01

    Disposal of rad waste containers requires the assessment of the radioactive contents of each container. Some containers can not be assessed by the γ nuclide analyzer because of time constraint and economical burden. One alternative method, dose to curie conversion (DTC) method can provide an estimate of the container activity. This study evaluates the impact of voids, the chemical composition and density of the material and the distribution of the source related to surface dose rate and the development of the improved DTC method for more accurate assessment

  19. Characterization and excitation behaviour studies of radionuclide (scandium) in glass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehana, Ishrat; Shahid, K.A.; Husain, S.; Muhammad, Din

    1999-01-01

    Directional movements of bed load in marine sediments are studied using a radioactive tracer, scandium, similar to the natural sediment in the area. Scandium glass prepared for this purpose was analyzed by atomic emission spectrography for quality assurance purposes. A buffer composed of graphite with 5% germanium oxide was used for accurate and reproducible analyses. The role of this buffer in the excitation behavior of scandium and variations in spectral line intensity with respect to various influencing parameters are reported. Volatilization of scandium was observed using the moving plate technique, with a dc-arc as the excitation source

  20. Application of Laplace transform to analysis of the excretory organs radionuclide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knigavko, V.G.; Pilipenko, M.Yi.; Pakhomov, V.Yi.; Lyisovij, V.M.; Nesterov, V.G.; Bondarenko, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper is devoted to application of Laplace transform to solving equations at performing stochastic mathematical modelling of radiopharmaceuticals (RP) transportation in the studied organs. Application of this method allows to derive a formula for transformation of the curves of RP excretion from the body at intravenous administration, i.e. provides the possibility to calculate traditional values at extravascular administration of the preparations. Application of Laplace transform with bioexponencial approximation of the blood clearance curve also allows to develop a new algorithm of radionephrogram deconvolution analysis

  1. Impact of contamination with long-lived radionuclides on PET kinetics modelling in multitracer studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars; Hansen, Søren Baarsgaard; Jensen, Svend B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An important issue in multitracer studies is the separation of signals from the different radiotracers. This is especially the case when an early tracer has a long physical half-life and kinetic modelling has to be performed, because the early tracer can confer a long-lived contamin......Introduction: An important issue in multitracer studies is the separation of signals from the different radiotracers. This is especially the case when an early tracer has a long physical half-life and kinetic modelling has to be performed, because the early tracer can confer a long...... of subsequent PET tracers. Blood sample counts were corrected by recounting the samples a few days later. A more optimal choice of energy window was also explored. The effect of correction versus noncorrection was investigated using a two-tissue kinetic model with irreversible uptake (K1, k2, k3). Results: K1...... counting of blood samples can lead to a contaminating background not observed in PET imaging and this background can affect kinetic modelling. If the contaminating tracer has a much longer half-life than the foreground tracer, then the problem can be solved by late recounting of the samples....

  2. Study of the degradation of organic molecules complexing radionuclides by using Advanced Oxidation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekab, K.

    2014-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the application of two AOPs (Advanced Oxidation Processes) to degrade and mineralise organic molecules which are complexing radio-elements, and thus to allow their concentrations by trapping on mineral matrices. EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) is chosen as reference organic complexing agent for preliminary tests performed with inactive cobalt 59 before addressing actual nuclear effluents with active cobalt 60. The author first presents the industrial context (existing nuclear wastes, notably liquid effluents and their processing) and proposes an overview of the state of the art on adsorption and precipitation of cobalt (natural and radioactive isotope). Then, the author presents the characteristics of the various studied oxides, the photochemical reactor used to perform tests, experimental techniques and operational modes. Results are then presented regarding various issues: adsorption of EDTA and the Co-EDTA complex, and cobalt precipitation; determination of the lamp photon flow by chemical actinometry and by using the Keitz method; efficiency of different processes (UV, UV/TiO 2 , UV/H 2 O 2 ) to degrade EDTA and to degrade the Co-EDTA complex; processing of a nuclear effluent coming from La Hague pools with determination of decontamination factors

  3. Plan for radionuclide tracer studies of the residence time distribution in the Wilsonville dissolver and preheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Begovich, J.M.; Brashear, H.R.

    1983-12-01

    Stimulus-response measurements using radiotracers to measure residence time distribution (RTD) and hydrodynamic parameters for the preheaters and dissolvers at the Ft. Lewis Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) and the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal conversion pilot plants are reviewed. A plan is also presented for a series of radioactive tracer studies proposed for the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama, to measure the RTD for the preheater and dissolvers in the SRC-I mode. The tracer for the gas phase will be 133 Xe, and 198 Au (on carbonized resin or as an aqueous colloidal suspension) will be used as the slurry tracer. Four experimental phases are recommended for the RTD tracer studies: (1) preheater; (2) dissolver with 100% takeoff; (3) dissolver with 100% takeoff and solids withdrawal; and (4) dissolver with 50% takeoff. Eighteen gas-tracer and 22 liquid-tracer injections are projected to accomplish the four experimental phases. Two to four tracer injections are projected for preliminary tests to ensure the capability of safe injection of the radiotracers and the collection of statistically significant data. A complete projected cost and time schedule is provided, including procurement of necessary components, preparation of the radiotracers, assembly and testing of tracer injection apparatus and detection systems, onsite work and tracer injections, laboratory experimentation, data analysis, and report writing

  4. Study of distribution coefficient of some radionuclides in liquid-solid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafar, M.; Abdul-Hadi, A.; Al-Hassanieh, O.

    2001-10-01

    The distribution of the elements U, Th, Am, Eu, Cs, Sr and Ra in a solid-aqueous system. Natural phosphate in contact with groundwater, was investigated usingγ and α spectroscopy. The effect of various factors such as phase contact time, Ph, particle size of the solid phase, and the concentration of a element Ca, were studied. The obtained results show that, more than 98% of the actinide elements and europium are adsorbed by the solid phase under all conditions. The fission products Cs and Sr have different behaviours, depending on experiment conditions. The behaviour of Ra is closer to the actinides than to the fission products. There are small differences between the behaviour of the actinide elements, which can be interpreted by migration mechanism from the aqueous to the solid phase i.e. adsorption or precipitation. (author)

  5. Application of radionuclide techniques to study the wear behaviour of peripherally treated and coated components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, E.; Mayer, K.H.; Rodrian, U.; Scheidemantel, N.; Schweizer, R.

    1990-07-01

    Technically and economically important machinery components (helical gear wheels, camshafts, rams, valve rockers) were to be optimized with regard to their wear behaviour under operation-oriented load conditions, and the process parameters required both for peripheral layer heating and surface coating were to be determined. Based on earlier experiments, the treatment parameters and the basic materials were varied. The layer structure was studied, characterized and correlated wi the wear behaviour. The wearing parts were activated in the reactor by thermal neutrons, or in the cyclotron by charged particles. By labelling various parts by means of different radioisotopes, up to three components may be measured at the same time in practice, provided that the circumstances are favourable. (BBR) [de

  6. Radionuclide studies in upper gastro-intestinal ulceration - are they reliable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstens, A.J.; Iturralde, M.; Fourie, P.A.; Pilloy, W.; Van Wyk, A.

    1985-01-01

    Endoscopy is at present the diagnostic technique of choice in the evaluation and detection of upper gastro-intestinal tract ulceration. Because of the physical discomfort, suffered by patients during endoscopic examination, the search for better and less invasive methods of examination (especially in the unco-operative and seriously ill patient) continues. According to reports from the Orient, sucralfate (Ulsanic; Continental Ethicals) has prominent ulceravid properties. These properties are being used in conjunction with a tagging agent, in this case technetium-99m, as a diagnostic method for the detection and localization of upper gastro-intestinal ulceration. In this pilot study on 6 patients the positive findings of others regarding the specificity and promise of this method could not be confirmed

  7. Study of radionuclide leaching from the residues of K Basin sludge dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    The sludges remaining in the K Basins after removal of the spent N Reactor nuclear fuel will be conditioned for disposal. After conditioning, an acid-insoluble residue will remain that may require further leaching to properly condition it for disposal. This document presents a literature study to identify and recommend one or more chemical leaching treatments for laboratory testing, based on the likely compositions of the residues. The processes identified are a nitric acid cerate leach, a silver-catalyzed persulfate leach, a nitric hydrofluoric acid leach, an oxalic citric acid reactor decontamination leach, a nitric hydrochloric acid leach, a ammonium fluoride nitrate leach, and a HEOPA formate dehydesulfoxylate leach. All processes except the last two are recommended for testing in that order

  8. Study on the international cooperation improvement for the safety management of high-level radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Pil Soo; Gang, Mun Ja; Kim, Seung Soo; Park, Jung Gyun; Bak, Min Hoon; Jung, Gun Ho; Park, Gung Gyun; Han, Gyung Won

    2004-02-01

    This project has supported the international Migration'03 conference, and formed a working group which is consisted with domestic and foreign experts for HLW and is held biennially. For the international research cooperation with advanced countries, foreign research activities and facilities/equipments for the study of HLW, especially actinides, were reviewed. And two arrangements between KAERI and JNC, KAERI and FZK/INE in the field of R and D for geological disposal of HLW were signed. For a recent hot issue about the selection of Wi-Island in Jun-Buk as a candidate of disposal site for Low and Middle radioactive Waste(LMLW), an open forum about the stability of the disposal of radioactive waste held at JeonJu, the capital of Jun-Buk province, with foreign experts who take part in Migration'03 conference. And their interview contents about the stability of LMLW in newspapers might be the good propaganda for the nuclear power industry

  9. Radionuclide scanning in a study of the pulmonary blood flow with the open arterial canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizaev, M.N.; Gulyamov, D.S.; Khodzhibekov, M.Kh.; Anvarov, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristic features of the distribution of the arterial pulmonary blood flow have been studied in 32 patients with the open arterial flow by lung scanning with albumin macroaggregate and 131 I. Research was conducted using the gamma-Ochamber ''Fo Gamma LFV'' and the scanner ''Magnaskaner 500I''. Disordered distribution of the pulmonary blood flow expressed in its unilateral decrease was detected in 17 patients (52.9%). A higher frequency of pulmonary hypertension was noted in these patients versus those with a relatively normal distribution of the pulmonary blood flow. A severe course of the disease was observed in high pulmonary hypertension combined with sharp suppression of the blood flow in one of the lungs or with signs of the shift from the right to the left side

  10. Numerical modeling of radionuclide migration in water-saturated planar fracture: study of performance of bentonite in the far-field region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Claudia S. da; Alvim, Antonio C.M., E-mail: csilveira@con.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The analysis of radionuclide migration in fractured porous media is an important part of the safety assessment of a deep geologic disposal for high level radioactive wastes. In this work, numerical solution for simple geometry was developed to study radionuclide migration, including decay chain from a hypothetical repository, whereas the initial region of fracture is filled with bentonite which expanded from EBS (Engineered Barrier System). The following cases were considered: convective transport with constant velocity along the fracture, longitudinal hydrodynamic dispersion in the fracture along the fracture axis, molecular diffusion from fracture into rock matrix, sorption within rock matrix, sorption onto the surface of the fracture, radioactive decay, decay chain, and diffusion in bentonite extrusion region. For conservative analysis, the porous matrix adjacent to the fracture was subdivided into two different subdomains, each with different set of parameters and considering that the radionuclides were available for migration in the solubility limit, at fracture inlet, from the initial time. The partial differential equations that govern the physical system were discretized by finite differences, by using the Implicit Euler Method with forward scheme in the convective term. In this study, numerical simulation was performed for 100, 1000 and 10000 years, with and without bentonite extrusion, in order to compare the migration retardation obtained by bentonite located at the beginning of the fracture in saturated environment. The numerical simulation results showed the importance of extruded area in the far field region of the fractured host rock. (author)

  11. Numerical modeling of radionuclide migration in water-saturated planar fracture: study of performance of bentonite in the far-field region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Claudia S. da; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of radionuclide migration in fractured porous media is an important part of the safety assessment of a deep geologic disposal for high level radioactive wastes. In this work, numerical solution for simple geometry was developed to study radionuclide migration, including decay chain from a hypothetical repository, whereas the initial region of fracture is filled with bentonite which expanded from EBS (Engineered Barrier System). The following cases were considered: convective transport with constant velocity along the fracture, longitudinal hydrodynamic dispersion in the fracture along the fracture axis, molecular diffusion from fracture into rock matrix, sorption within rock matrix, sorption onto the surface of the fracture, radioactive decay, decay chain, and diffusion in bentonite extrusion region. For conservative analysis, the porous matrix adjacent to the fracture was subdivided into two different subdomains, each with different set of parameters and considering that the radionuclides were available for migration in the solubility limit, at fracture inlet, from the initial time. The partial differential equations that govern the physical system were discretized by finite differences, by using the Implicit Euler Method with forward scheme in the convective term. In this study, numerical simulation was performed for 100, 1000 and 10000 years, with and without bentonite extrusion, in order to compare the migration retardation obtained by bentonite located at the beginning of the fracture in saturated environment. The numerical simulation results showed the importance of extruded area in the far field region of the fractured host rock. (author)

  12. Radionuclide therapy of skin cancers and Bowen's disease using specially designed skin patch: A pilot study in an animal model and clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. D.; Park, K. K.; Lee, M. G.; Lee, J. T.; Yoo, H. S.; Kim, E. H.; Rhim, K. J.; Kim, Y. M.; Park, K. B.; Kim, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignant tumors in human. Therapeutic modalities of the skin cancers are local destruction, radiotherapy and surgery. External radiation therapy leads to good results, however, overall 5-6 weeks of treatment period is needed to deliver optimal radiation dose to tumors. In this study, β-emitting radionuclide, Ho-166, impregnated in a specially designed patch was utilized to superficial skin cancers and Bowen's disease for local irradiation. Methods; Animal study was employed in 10 mice with chemically induced skin tumors. Five- mm size patches containing 22.2 -72.15 MBq(0.6 - 1.95 mCi) of Ho-166 were applied to the tumor surface for 1 -2 hr. In clinical trial, patients with squamous carcinoma(n=3), basal cell carcinoma(n=1), and Bowen's disease(n=1) were treated with patches containing 273.8 - 999 MBq (7.4 - 27 mCi) of Ho-166 for 30 minutes to 1 hour. Pathologic examination was performed 4 - 7 weeks after the treatment in animal model. Skin biopsy was performed 8 weeks post-treatment in four patients. Results; Tumor destruction was seen 1 week post the treatment, however, radiation dermatitis or ulceration developed at the site of radionuclide application. Those reactions healed gradually with fibrosis or epithelialization, which was confirmed pathologically. No significant adverse reaction to radiation except subcutaneous fibrosis was found. Conclusion; Superficial skin tumors could be successfully treated by topical application of β-emitting radionuclides. (author)

  13. Preliminary Study on the Use of Radionuclides 137Cs and 210Pb and Spectro radiometry Techniques as Tools to Determine Soil Erosion State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Vegas, E.; Gasco Leonarte, C.; Schmid, T.; Suarez, J. A.; Rodriguez Rastrero, M.; Almorox Alonso, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclides are largely used as tools for studying and quantifying soil erosion. The global fallout of artificial radionuclides derived from weapons testing (1945-1970) was rapidly and firmly fixed in soil surface horizons. This allowed determining soil erosion by comparing 137 C s inventories at individual sampling points with a reference inventory. This procedure is complemented with the 210 P buns inventory calculation as an indicator of the local average of radionuclides deposition. Spectro radiometry is implemented to associate soil reflectance measurements to physical and chemical soil properties related to soil erosion processes obtained from laboratory analyses. The methodology applies both instrumental techniques in soil samples from a semiarid agricultural area near to Camarena (Toledo). The resulting inventories obtained for 137 C s and 210 P bexc are similar to the Spanish reference allowing comparation. Spectro radiometry results correlate well with soil properties measured in the laboratory and can be applied to determine these properties more quickly and easily, as well as for integration with gamma spectrometry results. This is a preliminary study to identify soils affected by erosion that is presented as a Master thesis of the Official Master Degree: A gro- Environmental Technology for a Sustainable Agriculture , of the Technical University of Madrid - School of Agricultural Engineers (UPM-ETSI). Coherent and complimentary results are obtained applying both instrumental techniques within this agricultural area.. (Author)

  14. Radiochemical and radioecological studies of natural and artificial alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Persson, B.

    1980-01-01

    Transuranium elements, including uranium and thorium, were analyzed in both marine and terrestrial samples. Vertical profiles of 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 230 Th, and 238 U, in the Pacific, the Mediterranean, and the Atlantic, measured by different investigators, were compared. Uptake of the fallout isotopes 241 Pu, 240+239 Pu, 238 Pu, and 241 Am in the lichen - reindeer food chain was studied. Americium and thorium exhibited similar biophysical behavior in the environment and in the water column, although the settling velocity for thorium was somewhat higher. Plutonium showed similar distribution in the water columns in different waters. The fraction of ingested plutonium which was retained in the body of reindeer was in good agreement with the value of 3 x 10 -5 predicted for man. Uranium showed a constant concentration in the water column, with a low affinity to particles in the water. The high concentration of uranium in reindeer tissues depended on high intake from drinking water and foodstuffs other than lichens

  15. The role of radionuclide studies in the differential diagnosis of dementia with Lewy Body (DLB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockhuis, B.; Romanowicz, G.; Slawek, J.; Wieczorek, D.; Ussorowska, D.; Derejko, M.

    2006-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy Body (DLB) is considered to be the second most common (20%) neuropathological cause of degenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Typical clinical features of DLB include a progressive and fluctuating cognitive impairment and visual hallucinations along with Parkinsonian symptoms. Early diagnosis is important in DLB because of dangerous neuroleptic sensitivity which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Cholinergic deficit in DLB is more extensive when compared with AD. This might explain the beneficial effect of therapy with cholinesterase inhibitors, with improvement of cognitive and psychiatric functions. The functional neuroimaging with the use of SPECT and PET may contribute to the clinical diagnosis and understanding the possible pathogenesis of DLB. There are many similarities between DLB and AD with pronounced parietotemporal hypoperfusion whereas occipital hypoperfusion is more pronounced in DLB. Using tracers for presynaptic dopamine transporters such as I-123 β-CIT recent studies have found severely impaired dopaminergic function in DLB, similar to Parkinson Disease (PD) but not present in AD. Authors present a review of current literature on the role of SPECT and PET imaging in the diagnosis of DLB and three illustrated cases of probable DLB with rCBF SPECT scanning showing mostly parieto-occipital hypoperfusion. (author)

  16. A Real-Time Data Monitoring and Accumulation System for Dynamic Studies with Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, W.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W. J.; Ostertag, H.; Adam, W. E.; Scheer, K. E. [German Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1971-02-15

    A multipurpose digital data monitoring and accumulation system is described. The central unit of the system is a PDP-8 computer with a 12K memory. The system contains furthermore a multipurpose digital input/output register for low data rates, a fourfold and a twofold ADC connected to the high-speed multiplexor unit of the PDP-8 and a digital timet. Data from various process peripheries are recorded on a nine-track IBM compatible Ampex tape recorder. When two co-ordinates are recorded the system is used in the ''add-one-to-storage'' mode. In the case of more than two co-ordinates the data are stored in the sequential mode, event by event. A dialogue real-time monitor program in assembler language was developed to control the process peripheries. The 4K-Fortran operating system was modified in such a way that monitor subroutines were called into the Fortran program without loss of the real-time properties of the monitor system during a Fortran run. The use of the system for lung function studies with an Anger-type scintillation camera and {sup 133}Xe is discussed as an example of the application of the system. (author)

  17. RADIONUCLIDE STUDIES USING TUMOR-SEEKING RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Tarassov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Object: to evaluate the efficiency of prostate scintigraphy in the prebioptic diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and two patients with suspected PC underwent comprehensive examination, including 99mTc-technetril prostate scintigraphy and a morphometric study of biopsy material columns. A computer program (official registration certificate No. 2007614475 dated October 24, 2007 was worked out and patented to calculate the intensity of accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals in different portions of the right and left prostate lobes.Results and discussion. When the division index point «pathological focus/background», 1.5; ≤ 1.5, healthy; > 1.5 suspected prostate cancer was used, the sensitivity of prostate scintigraphy was 81.65%; its specificity was 87.1%; the diagnostic effectiveness was 84.37%.Conclusion: The application of prostate scintigraphy can improve indicators for early detection of PC, due to the purposeful detection of the points, enhance the effectiveness of biopsy, and, having more grounds than the early ones, to exclude this disease at the prebioptic stage. The method is noninvasive and can be used to monitor patients with suspected PC.

  18. RADIONUCLIDE STUDIES USING TUMOR-SEEKING RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Tarassov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Object: to evaluate the efficiency of prostate scintigraphy in the prebioptic diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and two patients with suspected PC underwent comprehensive examination, including 99mTc-technetril prostate scintigraphy and a morphometric study of biopsy material columns. A computer program (official registration certificate No. 2007614475 dated October 24, 2007 was worked out and patented to calculate the intensity of accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals in different portions of the right and left prostate lobes.Results and discussion. When the division index point «pathological focus/background», 1.5; ≤ 1.5, healthy; > 1.5 suspected prostate cancer was used, the sensitivity of prostate scintigraphy was 81.65%; its specificity was 87.1%; the diagnostic effectiveness was 84.37%.Conclusion: The application of prostate scintigraphy can improve indicators for early detection of PC, due to the purposeful detection of the points, enhance the effectiveness of biopsy, and, having more grounds than the early ones, to exclude this disease at the prebioptic stage. The method is noninvasive and can be used to monitor patients with suspected PC.

  19. Mechanistic study and modeling of radionuclides retention by the hydrated calcium silicates (HCS) of cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointeau, I.

    2000-09-01

    This work attempts to investigate the modelling of radioisotopes (Cs + , Pb 2+ , Eu 3+ ) immobilization in cement matrix, in the frame of the design of engineered barrier of a deep radwaste repository. The model development concept consists of three major steps: - surface chemistry modelling of the calcium silicate hydrate CSH, used to simulate hydrated cement behaviour; - solid analysis of the batch sorption experiments: identification of the uptake mechanism; - both previous steps are used, with isotherm data, in the modelling of the radioisotopes immobilization in the CSH matrix. Final results: (all modelling are available for all the range of studied Ca/Si ratios and have been validated with predictive calculations). - A thermodynamic modelling of the CSH surface chemistry has been developed. The labile calcium and proton sorption constants on silanol sites (>SiOH) have been extracted. - Cs + is sorbed on two sites. The silanol site (weak site) has a high site density (10 sites.nm -2 ), which accounts for the CSH unsaturation in high [CS + ]. A strong site is also identified. - Pb 2+ immobilization in CSH matrix is modelled with surface equilibria and solubility equilibrium. - Eu 3+ fixation has been investigated with solid analysis: Site-Selective anti Time-Resolved Luminescence Spectroscopy, XPS and SEM-EDS. Eu 3+ thus does not precipitate in CSH water but is sorbed on the CSH surface (high hydroxylated environment). Europium is also (minority site) inserted in the CSH framework. (author)

  20. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  1. Chemo-radionuclide therapy for thyroid cancer. Initial experimental study with cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Takashi; Iwata, Masahiro; Iida, Yasuhiro; Kasagi, Kanji; Konishi, Junji

    2002-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy has long been used for distant metastases of thyroid cancer. Although partially effective in most cases, it can render a complete cure only in a limited number of patients. One way to enhance its efficacy would be to combine it with antineoplastic agents. Here we describe an initial in vitro evaluation with 4 thyroid cancer cell lines. Cells were sparsely seeded in microtiter plates and allowed to grow for 2 days; then they were exposed to sublethal concentrations of cisplatin (CDDP), doxorubicin (Dox), or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), followed by treatment with I-131 for 48 hr. Cell survival was measured with a commercial kit based on the colorimetry of succinate dehydrogenase activity. Chemotherapeutic drugs exerted similar concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects in all 4 cell lines. The doses necessary to reduce the surviving fraction to half of the control were about 3 μg/ml for CDDP, 0.3 μg/ml for Dox, and 3 μg/ml for 5-FU (when used continuously for 48 hours). On the other hand, sensitivity to I-131 irradiation differed among the lines; same doses (7.4-14.8 MBq/ml) caused the greatest damage in FRO cells, a modest effect in NPA and WRO, and only minimal change in B-CPAP. The combined effect was most demonstrable in wells treated with Dox and radioiodine, whereas the addition of CDDP or 5-FU had marginal or insignificant merit, respectively. In FRO cells, half-lethal doses of the above mentioned CDDP, Dox, and 5-FU, when used together with 14.8 MBq/ml I-131, reduced cell survival to 54.5%, 29.4% and 33.4%, respectively, vs. 60.2% with radioiodine alone. In vitro, clinical concentrations of Dox can accelerate the killing of thyroid cancer cells by radioiodine. These favorable experimental results warrant future studies to evaluate whether this new bidisciplinary approach is clinically relevant and feasible. (author)

  2. Chemo-radionuclide therapy for thyroid cancer. Initial experimental study with cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misaki, Takashi; Iwata, Masahiro; Iida, Yasuhiro; Kasagi, Kanji; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-09-01

    Radioiodine therapy has long been used for distant metastases of thyroid cancer. Although partially effective in most cases, it can render a complete cure only in a limited number of patients. One way to enhance its efficacy would be to combine it with antineoplastic agents. Here we describe an initial in vitro evaluation with 4 thyroid cancer cell lines. Cells were sparsely seeded in microtiter plates and allowed to grow for 2 days; then they were exposed to sublethal concentrations of cisplatin (CDDP), doxorubicin (Dox), or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), followed by treatment with I-131 for 48 hr. Cell survival was measured with a commercial kit based on the colorimetry of succinate dehydrogenase activity. Chemotherapeutic drugs exerted similar concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects in all 4 cell lines. The doses necessary to reduce the surviving fraction to half of the control were about 3 {mu}g/ml for CDDP, 0.3 {mu}g/ml for Dox, and 3 {mu}g/ml for 5-FU (when used continuously for 48 hours). On the other hand, sensitivity to I-131 irradiation differed among the lines; same doses (7.4-14.8 MBq/ml) caused the greatest damage in FRO cells, a modest effect in NPA and WRO, and only minimal change in B-CPAP. The combined effect was most demonstrable in wells treated with Dox and radioiodine, whereas the addition of CDDP or 5-FU had marginal or insignificant merit, respectively. In FRO cells, half-lethal doses of the above mentioned CDDP, Dox, and 5-FU, when used together with 14.8 MBq/ml I-131, reduced cell survival to 54.5%, 29.4% and 33.4%, respectively, vs. 60.2% with radioiodine alone. In vitro, clinical concentrations of Dox can accelerate the killing of thyroid cancer cells by radioiodine. These favorable experimental results warrant future studies to evaluate whether this new bidisciplinary approach is clinically relevant and feasible. (author)

  3. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  4. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  5. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  6. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  7. Study of the radionuclides contained in wastes produced by the phosphate industry and their impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetsle, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the present state of the management and disposal of waste associated with mining, milling and reprocessing of phosphate ores with regard to its content on naturally occurring radionuclides. The main areas of investigation are: phosphate ores and their characteristics and phosphate trade in the Member States of the European Community, production and processing methods of phosphoric acids and phosphates, interaction of phosphate products and wastes with the environment, standards and regulations for radioactivity released during processing in the phosphate industry

  8. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  9. A biomonitoring plan for assessing potential radionuclide exposure using Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Nelson Hall, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Kosson, D.S. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Powers, Charles W. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2007-12-15

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US and other nations were faced with a legacy of nuclear wastes. For some sites where hazardous nuclear wastes will remain in place, methods must be developed to protect human health and the environment. Biomonitoring is one method of assessing the status and trends of potential radionuclide exposure from nuclear waste sites, and of providing the public with early warning of any potential harmful exposure. Amchitka Island (51{sup o} N lat, 179{sup o} E long) was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. Following a substantive study of radionuclide levels in biota from the marine environment around Amchitka and a reference site, we developed a suite of bioindicators (with suggested isotopes) that can serve as a model for other sites contaminated with radionuclides. Although the species selection was site-specific, the methods can provide a framework for other sites. We selected bioindicators using five criteria: (1) occurrence at all three test shots (and reference site), (2) receptor groups (subsistence foods, commercial species, and food chain nodes), (3) species groups (plants, invertebrates, fish, and birds), (4) trophic levels, and (5) an accumulator of one or several radionuclides. Our major objective was to identify bioindicators that could serve for both human health and the ecosystem, and were abundant enough to collect adjacent to the three test sites and at the reference site. Site-specific information on both biota availability and isotope levels was essential in the final selection of bioindicators. Actinides bioaccumulated in algae and invertebrates, while radiocesium accumulated in higher trophic level birds and fish. Thus, unlike biomonitoring schemes developed for heavy metals or other contaminants, top-level predators are not sufficient to evaluate potential radionuclide exposure at Amchitka. The process described in this paper resulted in the selection of Fucus, Alaria fistulosa, blue

  10. Effectiveness and side-effects of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine neoplasms in Germany: A multi-institutional registry study with prospective follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörsch, Dieter; Ezziddin, Samer; Haug, Alexander; Gratz, Klaus Friedrich; Dunkelmann, Simone; Miederer, Matthias; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Krause, Bernd Joachim; Bengel, Frank M; Bartenstein, Peter; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Pöpperl, Gabriele; Baum, R P

    2016-05-01

    Monocentric and retrospective studies indicate effectiveness of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy targeting somatostatin receptors of neuroendocrine neoplasms. We assessed overall and progression-free survival and adverse events of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy by a multi-institutional, board certified registry with prospective follow-up in five centres in Germany. A total of 450 patients were included and followed for a mean of 24.4 months. Most patients had progressive low- or intermediate grade neuroendocrine neoplasms and 73% were pretreated with at least one therapy. Primary neuroendocrine neoplasms were mainly derived of pancreas (38%), small bowel (30%), unknown primary (19%) or bronchial system (4%). Patients were treated with Lutetium-177 in 54%, with Yttrium-90 in 17% and with both radionuclides in 29%. Overall and progression-free survival was determined with Kaplan-Meier curves and uni-variate log rank test Cox models. Median overall survival of all patients was 59 (95% confidence interval [CI] 49-68.9) months. Overall survival was significantly inferior in the patients treated with Yttrium-90 solely (hazard ratio, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.83-5.64) compared to any peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with Lutetium-177. Grade II (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 0.79-5.32) and grade III (hazard ratio, 4.22; 95% CI, 1.41-12.06) neuroendocrine neoplasms had significantly worse overall survival than grade I neuroendocrine neoplasms. Patients with small neuroendocrine neoplasms of small bowel had significantly increased survival (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.87) compared to neuroendocrine neoplasms of other locations. Median progression-free survival was 41 (35.9-46.1) months and significantly inferior in patients treated with Yttrium solely (hazard ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.71-4.55). Complete remission was observed in 5.6% of patients, 22.4% had a partial remission, 47.3% were stable and 4% were progressive as best response. Adverse events of bone marrow

  11. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  12. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  13. Radionuclide supply of the progeny via mother's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharenko, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    While examining transition of radioactive substances from material organism to milk and then radionuclide administration with milk to progeny, a number of relationships had been revealed. They are similar to those discovered by the author during his study on transplacental radionuclide kinetics. The quantity of transition through placental and milk barriers of group 2 Periodical system radionuclides is inversally proportional to radionuclide mass number. There is evidence for the increase of radionuclide transition per different kinds of animal progeny mass unit during pregnancy as well as during lactation [ru

  14. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE: the IEO phase I-II study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodei, Lisa; Grana, Chiara M.; Baio, Silvia M.; Lombardo, Dario; Chinol, Marco; Paganelli, Giovanni [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Cremonesi, Marta; Ferrari, Mahila E. [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Fazio, Nicola [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Medical Oncology, Milan (Italy); Iodice, Simona [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milan (Italy); Bartolomei, Mirco [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); M. Bufalini Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Cesena, FC (Italy); Sansovini, Maddalena [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Unit of Radiometabolic Medicine, Meldola, FC (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is used in tumours expressing type 2 somatostatin receptors (sst{sub 2}), mainly neuroendocrine. The aim of this prospective phase I-II study was to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE in multiple cycles. Fifty-one consecutive patients with unresectable/metastatic sst{sub 2}-positive tumours, divided into two groups, received escalating activities (3.7-5.18 GBq/cycle, group 1; 5.18-7.4 GBq/cycle, group 2) of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. Cumulative activities ranged from 3.7 to 29.2 GBq (median 26.4 GBq in median 6 cycles, group 1, 21 patients) and 5.55 to 28.9 GBq (median 25.2 GBq in 4 cycles, group 2, 30 patients), based on dosimetry. No major acute or delayed renal or haematological toxicity occurred (one grade 3 leukopenia and thrombocytopenia). Cumulative renal absorbed doses were 8-37 Gy (9-41 Gy bioeffective doses). A median decrease of creatinine clearance of 21.7% 6 months after PRRT, 23.9% after 1 year and 27.6% after 2 years was observed. Higher losses (>20%) occurred in patients with risk factors for renal toxicity, particularly hypertension and diabetes. Cumulative bone marrow doses were <1.5 Gy. Blood elements showed a progressive mild drop during cycles and recovered during follow-up (median 30 months). Thirty-nine patients were progressive at enrolment. Partial and complete responses occurred in 15 of 46 (32.6%) assessable patients. The median time to progression was 36 months. Overall survival was 68% at 36 months. Non-responders and patients with extensive tumour involvement had lower survival. {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE was well tolerated up to 29 GBq cumulative activity (up to 7.4 GBq/cycle). The maximum tolerated dose/cycle was not reached. However, considering the individual bone marrow function and the presence of risk factors for kidney toxicity, it seems safer to divide cumulative activities into lower activity cycles. (orig.)

  15. Radionuclides in air, water, and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection

  16. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Zhao Jingyong; Hong Chengjiao; Lao Qinhua; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  17. Research on the assessment technology of the radionuclide inventory for the radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. J.; Song, M. C.; Hwang, G. H.; Lee, C. M.; Yuk, D. S.; Lee, S. C.

    2004-02-01

    The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : reassessment of selection criteria and final selection of target radionuclides, establishment of detailed radionuclide evaluation methods for each target radionuclide, development of requirement and fulfillment guidelines for the assessment methods of the assay-target radionuclide inventory

  18. Research on the assessment technology of the radionuclide inventory for the radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Song, M. C.; Hwang, G. H.; Lee, C. M.; Yuk, D. S.; Lee, S. C. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : reassessment of selection criteria and final selection of target radionuclides, establishment of detailed radionuclide evaluation methods for each target radionuclide, development of requirement and fulfillment guidelines for the assessment methods of the assay-target radionuclide inventory.

  19. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  20. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  1. Radionuclides in plants in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a long-term study (from 2002 to 2008) on the concentrations of natural ( 7 Be, 210 Pb, 40 K) and fission ( 137 Cs) radionuclides in leaves of higher plants (linden and chestnut) in an urban area (city of Belgrade) are presented. The activity of the radionuclides was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The study is a part of the ongoing air quality monitoring programme in urban areas in the Republic of Serbia. (author) [sr

  2. Radiochemical studies relevant to cyclotron production of the radionuclides 71,72As, 68Ge/68Ga and 76,77,80mBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, Mohamed Mostafa Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    The radionuclides 71,72,73,74 As, 68 Ge/ 68 Ga and 76,77,80m Br are gaining considerable interest in nuclear medicine. A method for the separation of no-carrier-added arsenic radionuclides from the bulk amount of proton-irradiated GeO 2 target as well as from coproduced radiogallium was developed. The extraction of radioarsenic by different organic solvents from acid solutions containing alkali iodide was studied and optimized. The influence of the concentration of various acids (HCl, HClO 4 , HNO 3 , HBr, H 2 SO 4 ) as well as of KI was studied using cyclohexane. The practical application of the optimized procedure in the production of 71 As and 72 As is demonstrated. The batch yields achieved were in the range of 75-84% of the theoretical values. The radiochemical separation of radiogallium from radiogermanium was studied using ion exchange chromatography (Amberlite IR-120) and solvent extraction (Aliquat 336 in o-xylene). At first optimized methods for the separation of no-carrier-added 68 Ge/ 69 Ge formed via the nat Ga(p,xn) 69 Ge process in a Ga 2 O 3 target and for n.c.a. 67 Ga formed via the nat Zn(p,xn) 67 Ga reaction in a Zn target were developed. Using those radionuclides as tracers several factors affecting the separation of radiogallium from radiogermanium were studied and for each procedure the optimum conditions were determined. The solvent extraction using Aliquat 336 was found to be more suitable and was adapted to the separation of n.c.a. 68 Ga from its parent n.c.a. 68 Ge. The quality of the product thus obtained is discussed. The separation of no-carrier-added radiobromine and no-carrier-added radiogallium from proton irradiated ZnSe target was studied in detail. The adsorption behaviour of n.c.a. radiobromine, n.c.a. radiogallium, zinc and selenium towards the cation-exchange resin Amberlyst 15, in H + form, and towards the anion-exchange resin Dowex 1X10 in Cl - and OH - forms, was investigated. The elution of n.c.a. radiobromine and n

  3. The study of conjugation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for labeling with metallic or lanthanides radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanji, Akinkunmi Ganiyu

    2012-01-01

    Lymphomas are malignancies or cancers that start from the malign transformation of a lymphocyte in the lymphatic system. Generally, lymphomas start from the lymph nodes or from the agglomeration of the lymphatic tissues, organs like stomach, intestines, in some cases it can involve the bone marrow and the blood, it can also disseminate to other organs. Lymphomas are divided in two major categories: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patient with NHL are generally treated with radiotherapy alone or combined with immunotherapy using monoclonal antibody rituximab (MabThera®). Currently, monoclonal antibodies (Acm) conjugated with bifunctional chelate agents and radiolabeled with metallic or lanthanides radionuclides are a treatment reality for patients with NHL by the principle of radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This study focused on the conditions of conjugation of Acm rituximab (MabThera®) with bifunctional chelating agents DOTA and DTPA. Various parameters were studied: method of Acm purification, conditions of Acm conjugation, the method for determination of number of chelate agent coupled to the Acm, method for purification of the conjugated antibody Acm, conditions of labeling of the conjugated antibody with lutetium-177, method of purification of the radiolabeled immuno conjugate, method of radiochemical purity (RP), specific binding in vitro Raji cells (Human Burkitt) and biological distribution performed in normal Balb-c mouse. The three methodologies employed in pre-purification of Acm (dialysis, size exclusion chromatograph and dial filtration) demonstrated to be efficient; they provided sample recovery exceeding 90%. However, the methodology of dial filtration presents minimal sample loss, and gave the final recovery of the sample in micro liters; thereby facilitating sample use in subsequent experiments. Numbers of chelators attached to the Acm molecule was proportional to the molar ratio studied. When we evaluated the influence of different

  4. The natural course of radionuclide bone scanning in the evaluation of total knee replacement--a 2 year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, B R; Boeckstyns, M; Stadeager, Carsten Preben

    1990-01-01

    In order to establish the natural course of radionuclide bone scanning images after total knee replacement 41 consecutive patients were scheduled for examination 3, 7, 12 and 24 months after surgery. The mean age was 69 years (range 50-80 years); the female:male ratio was 4:1. Thirty-two patients...... completed the entire program. A total of 143 99Tcm medronic acid complex scintigrams was performed. No significant difference between the grades of total scintigraphic uptake at any of the four examinations nor any difference between the first and the last examinations could be demonstrated (P = 0...

  5. Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides for use in waste management system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal on the deep ocean bed. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. No single option is clearly the best from the radiological point of view. However, in conjunction with waste inventory data the results may be used to provide a preliminary view of the relative radiological merits of the various disposal options. (author)

  6. Long-lived radionuclides in seabed of the Baltic Sea. Report of the sediment baseline study of HELCOM MORS-PRO in 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Jukka Mattila, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Jakobson, E.; Herrmann, J.; Graveris, V.; Vilimaite-Silobritiene, B.; Suplinska, M.; Stepanov, A.; Luening, M.

    2007-01-01

    Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Generally, this is the final sink for most of the organic material produced in the water phase, as well as for other particles transported by water currents from other sea areas and from adjacent terrestrial areas. During their slow settling, the particles tend to bind radionuclides from the water phase and carry them to the bottom. Under favourable conditions, the deposited particles form undisturbed laminae in a stratigraphic sequence on the seabed, and the bottom sediments create an archive from which the history of the area can be read. Various particle-bound substances can be identified as markers of specific historical events and, with the aid of marker horizons, the laminae can be dated. Modern dating methods provide reliable time scales in which time-dependent changes in the concentrations of radionuclides can be recorded. As an example, the radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s and the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in April 1986 have created useful markers in the sediments of many sea areas, especially in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea offers exceptionally good opportunities to conduct sedimentological studies because the average rate of sedimentation there is much higher than in the oceans and in most other coastal seas. The anoxic conditions in the near-bottom water of the Baltic Proper, and hence the lack of benthic animals over large bottom areas, result in the formation of an undisturbed sedimentary medium, which enables the sampling of sediment laminae in an undisturbed stratigraphic sequence. However, sediment sampling is extremely sensitive to errors, which can cause substantial differences in results. This fact should always be taken into account

  7. Depositions of heavy metals and radionuclides in the region of the plant for non-ferrous metals (Plovdiv) studied by the methods of mass- and gamma- spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrikov, M.; Hristov, Hr.; Antonov, A.

    2001-01-01

    Soil samples and vegetation from the region of KCM-S.A. (Plant for non-ferrous metals) -Plovdiv have been studied by means of a conventional γ-spectroscopy and a mass-spectrometry analysis. The concentrations of several decades of elements, including heavy metals and radionuclides have been determined at low detection limits. Conclusions about the influence of atmospheric emissions connected with the production of non-ferrous metal on the present environmental state of the region have been drown from the obtained results. (author)

  8. Studies of up date radionuclides, macro- and microelements distribution in system 'soil from water-collecting areas - water - bottom sediment' of the Skazka's lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosel, Yu.S.; Strakhovenko, V.D.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides, macro- and microelements have been studied in bottom sediments of lake Skazka. The lake occur in south Baikal coast. The average contents of the radiocesium excess over background 3 times more. From the 137 Cs and 210 Pb distribution throughout the column, we have estimated the dynamics of changes in the sediments. The known depth and time of formation of these bench marks permitted estimation of the rate of recent sedimentation in the lake: 0,3 and 0,2 sm/year.

  9. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  10. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  11. Relating β+ radionuclides' properties by order theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, N.Y.; Guillermo Restrepo; Cohen, I.M.; Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires

    2013-01-01

    We studied 27 β + radionuclides taking into account some of their variants encoding information of their production, such as integral yield, threshold energy and energy of projectiles used to generate them; these radionuclides are of current use in clinical diagnostic imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). The study was conducted based on physical, physico-chemical, nuclear, dosimetric and quantum properties, which characterise the β + radionuclides selected, with the aim of finding meaningful relationships among them. In order to accomplish this objective the mathematical methodology known as formal concept analysis was employed. We obtained a set of logical assertions (rules) classified as implications and associations, for the set of β + radionuclides considered. Some of them show that low mass defect is related to high and medium values of maximum β + energy, and with even parity and low mean lives; all these parameters are associated to the dose received by a patient subjected to a PET analysis. (author)

  12. Radionuclide ventilation-perfusion studies in pediatric respiratory diseases: 157 measurements of the distribution of ventilation and perfusion in 130 children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Christophe, E.; Saudubray, F.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide investigations provide regional quantitative and kinetic data with a very low exposure. Results are dissonant with roentgenographic findings in 52% of cases and enhance diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. Although it provides poor quality images. The use of 133 Xe is preferable for ventilation studies to ensure correct evaluation of washout and trapping. According to the patient's age and position, 50% washout times vary from 5.6 to 8.7 seconds in the upper segments and from 5.6 to 8.5 seconds in the lower segments. Distribution of blood flow can be studied after intravenous injection of either sup(99m)Tc labelled microspheres of human albumin or 133 Xe saline solution. The former provides better quality images with studies of all incidences but may be contraindicated in cases of severe pulmonary hypertension or major right-to-left shunts. The latter allows a better sequential study. Radionuclide ventilation-perfusion studies are one of the major advances in pediatric pneumology in recent years [fr