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Sample records for radionuclide therapy trt

  1. Introduction to radiobiology of targeted radionuclide therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre ePOUGET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, new radionuclide-based targeted therapies have emerged as efficient tools for cancer treatment. Targeted radionuclide therapies (TRT are based on a multidisciplinary approach that involves the cooperation of specialists in several research fields. Among them, radiobiologists investigate the biological effects of ionizing radiation, specifically the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the radiation response. Most of the knowledge about radiation effects concerns external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and radiobiology has then strongly contributed to the development of this therapeutic approach. Similarly, radiobiology and dosimetry are also assumed to be ways for improving TRT, in particular in the therapy of solid tumors which are radioresistant. However, extrapolation of EBRT radiobiology to TRT is not straightforward. Indeed, the specific physical characteristics of TRT (heterogeneous and mixed irradiation, protracted exposure and low absorbed dose rate differ from those of conventional EBRT (homogeneous irradiation, short exposure and high absorbed dose rate, and consequently the response of irradiated tissues might be different. Therefore, specific TRT radiobiology needs to be explored. Determining dose-effect correlation is also a prerequisite for rigorous preclinical radiobiology studies because dosimetry provides the necessary referential to all TRT situations. It is required too for developing patient-tailored TRT in the clinic in order to estimate the best dose for tumor control, while protecting the healthy tissues, thereby improving therapeutic efficacy. Finally, it will allow to determine the relative contribution of targeted effects (assumed to be dose-related and non-targeted effects (assumed to be non-dose-related of ionizing radiation. However, conversely to EBRT where it is routinely used, dosimetry is still challenging in TRT. Therefore, it constitutes with radiobiology, one of the main

  2. Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) as a method for treatment of tinnitus and hyperacusis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Jastreboff, M M

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide information about the neurophysiologic model of tinnitus and Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT). With this overview of the model and therapy, professionals may discern with this basic foundation of knowledge whether they wish to pursue learning and subsequently implement TRT in their practice. This paper provides an overview only and is insufficient for the implementation of TRT.

  3. Development of a men's Preference for Testosterone Replacement Therapy (P-TRT instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeinbach SL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sheryl L Szeinbach,1 Enrique Seoane-Vazquez,2 Kent H Summers31Ohio State University, College of Pharmacy, Columbus, OH, USA; 2International Center for Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Boston, MA, 3Endo Health Solutions, Chadds Ford, PA, USABackground: This study used a standard research approach to create a final conceptual model and the Preference for the Testosterone Replacement Therapy (P-TRT instrument.Methods: A discussion guide was developed from a literature review and expert opinion to direct one-on-one interviews with participants who used testosterone replacement therapy and consented to participate in the study. Data from telephone interviews were transcribed for theme analysis using NVivo 9 qualitative analysis software, analyzed descriptively from a saturation grid, and used to evaluate men's P-TRT. Data from cognitive debriefing for five participants were used to evaluate the final conceptual model and validate the initial P-TRT instrument.Results: Item saturation and theme exhaustion was achieved by 58 male participants of mean age 55.0 ± 10.0 (22–69 years who had used testosterone replacement therapy for a mean of 175.0 ± 299.2 days. The conceptual model was developed from items and themes obtained from the participant interviews and saturation grid. Items comprising eight dimensions were used for instrument development, ie, ease of use, effect on libido, product characteristics, physiological impact, psychological impact, side effects, treatment experience, and preference. Results from the testosterone replacement therapy preference evaluation provide a detailed insight into why most men preferred a topical gel product over an injection or patch.Conclusion: Items and themes relating to use of testosterone replacement therapy were in concordance with the final conceptual model and 29-item P-TRT instrument. The standard research approach used in this study produced the

  4. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  5. [TRT and psychotherapy in the treatment of tinnitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, H; Gieler, U

    2010-10-01

    Basic requirements and results of tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) as well as other habituation therapies with psychotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of tinnitus are examined closely in this literature review. In German-speaking countries experts generally aim for involvement of psychotherapists beyond the classic TRT developed by Jastreboff and Hazell. On the basis of a validated diagnostic test such as the Tinnitus Questionnaire according to Hiller and Goebel (1998), such a therapy regime is more effective than the "classic" procedure. Under different treatment approaches, cognitive behavioural therapy elements have been proven to be effective-even as a component of the TRT-as well as integrated variants in psychodynamic therapies. We have to give consideration to the fact that in all studies about the selection and inclusion criteria selective test conditions were established which suggest that in each case diverse patient groups were studied. In the overall picture it becomes apparent that depending on the severity of the tinnitus and accompanying hearing problems a dysfunction-oriented and staged approach makes sense.

  6. SU-E-T-256: Optimizing the Combination of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Agents Using a Multi-Scale Patient-Specific Monte Carlo Dosimetry Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besemer, A; Bednarz, B; Titz, B; Grudzinski, J; Weichert, J; Hall, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Combination targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) is appealing because it can potentially exploit different mechanisms of action from multiple radionuclides as well as the variable dose rates due to the different radionuclide half-lives. The work describes the development of a multiobjective optimization algorithm to calculate the optimal ratio of radionuclide injection activities for delivery of combination TRT. Methods: The ‘diapeutic’ (diagnostic and therapeutic) agent, CLR1404, was used as a proof-of-principle compound in this work. Isosteric iodine substitution in CLR1404 creates a molecular imaging agent when labeled with I-124 or a targeted radiotherapeutic agent when labeled with I-125 or I-131. PET/CT images of high grade glioma patients were acquired at 4.5, 24, and 48 hours post injection of 124I-CLR1404. The therapeutic 131I-CLR1404 and 125ICLR1404 absorbed dose (AD) and biological effective dose (BED) were calculated for each patient using a patient-specific Monte Carlo dosimetry platform. The optimal ratio of injection activities for each radionuclide was calculated with a multi-objective optimization algorithm using the weighted sum method. Objective functions such as the tumor dose heterogeneity and the ratio of the normal tissue to tumor doses were minimized and the relative importance weights of each optimization function were varied. Results: For each optimization function, the program outputs a Pareto surface map representing all possible combinations of radionuclide injection activities so that values that minimize the objective function can be visualized. A Pareto surface map of the weighted sum given a set of user-specified importance weights is also displayed. Additionally, the ratio of optimal injection activities as a function of the all possible importance weights is generated so that the user can select the optimal ratio based on the desired weights. Conclusion: Multi-objective optimization of radionuclide injection activities

  7. ATLAS TRT Barrel in Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Luehring, F

    In July, the TRT group made a highly successful test of 6 Barrel TRT modules in the ATLAS H8 testbeam. Over 3000 TRT straw tubes (4 mm diameter gas drift tubes) were instrumented and found to operate well. The prototype represents 1/16 of the ATLAS TRT barrel and was assembled from TRT modules produced as spares. This was the largest scale test of the TRT to this date and the measured detector performance was as good as or better than what was expected in all cases. The 2004 TRT testbeam setup before final cabling was attached. The readout chain and central DAQ system used in the TRT testbeam is a final prototype for the ATLAS experiment. The TRT electronics used to read out the data were: The Amplifier/Shaper/Discriminator with Baseline Restoration (ASDBLR) chip is the front-end analog chip that shapes and discriminates the electronic pulses generated by the TRT straws. The Digital Time Measurement Read Out Chip (DTMROC) measures the time of the pulse relative to the beam crossing time. The TRT-ROD ...

  8. Results of TRT after eighteen months: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracca, Giovanna N; Forti, Stella; Crocetti, Andrea; Fagnani, Enrico; Scotti, Alberto; Del Bo, Luca; Ambrosetti, Umberto

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of TRT in patients suffering from tinnitus. The tinnitus disorder affects about 10-15% of the population and, in one person out of a hundred, it is a disabling disorder. TRT treatment is based on Jastreboff's neurophysiological model. TRT consists of two parts: counselling, and sound therapy by means of dedicated hearing aids and sound generators. It proved to be useful to reduce the symptoms related to tinnitus. Jastreboff's structured interviews were proposed to a sample of 51 patients with tinnitus belonging to the I-II-III-IV classes according to Jastreboff. These patients were treated for 18 months. Sixty-eight percent of patients reported a reduction in the symptoms related to tinnitus, such as sleep disturbance, problems in concentration, and inability to relax. A percentage (64.7%) of patients thought that their quality of life was improved. Patients who had suffered from tinnitus for less than one year achieved significantly better results than patients who had suffered for a longer period of time. TRT is an effective tool in the treatment of tinnitus.

  9. SU-E-T-345: Validation of a Patient-Specific Monte Carlo Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Dosimetry Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besemer, A; Bednarz, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is a compelling need for personalized dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy given that conventional dose calculation methods fail to accurately predict dose response relationships. To address this need, we have developed a Geant4-based Monte Carlo patient-specific 3D dosimetry platform for TRT. This platform calculates patient-specific dose distributions based on serial CT/PET or CT/SPECT images acquired after injection of the TRT agent. In this work, S-values and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were calculated using this platform and benchmarked against reference values. Methods: S-values for 1, 10, 100, and 1000g spherical tumors with uniform activity distributions of I-124, I-125, I-131, F-18, and Ra-223 were calculated and compared to OLINDA/EXM reference values. SAFs for monoenergetic photons of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 MeV and S factors for monoenergetic electrons of 0.935 MeV were calculated for the liver, kidneys, lungs, pancreas, spleen, and adrenals in the Zubal Phantom and compared with previously published values. Sufficient particles were simulated to keep the voxel statistical uncertainty below 5%. Results: The calculated spherical S-values agreed within a few percent of reference data from OLINDA/EXM for each radionuclide and sphere size. The comparison of photon SAFs and electron S-values with previously published values showed good agreement with the previously published values. The S-values and SAFs of the source organs agreed within 1%. Conclusion: Our platform has been benchmarked against reference values for a variety of radionuclides and over a wide range of energies and tumor sizes. Therefore, this platform could be used to provide accurate patientspecific dosimetry for use in radiopharmaceutical clinical trials

  10. The ATLAS TRT electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin, Serkant Ali; ATLAS Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS inner detector consists of three sub-systems: the pixel detector spanning the radius range 4cm-20cm, the semiconductor tracker at radii from 30 to 52 cm, and the transition radiation tracker (TRT), tracking from 56 to 107 cm. The TRT provides a combination of continuous tracking with many projective measurements based on individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibres or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. This...

  11. TRT and SCT barrels merge

    CERN Multimedia

    Wells, P S

    2006-01-01

    The SCT barrel was inserted in the TRT on 17 February, just missing Valentine's day. This was a change of emphasis for the two detectors. In the preceeding months there had been a lot of focus on testing their performance. The TRT had been observing cosmic rays through several sectors of the barrel, and all the modules on each of the four layers of the SCT had been characterised prior to integration. In parallel, the engineering teams, lead by Marco Olcese, Andrea Catinaccio, Eric Perrin, Neil Dixon, Iourii Gusakov, Gerard Barbier and Takashi Kohriki, had been preparing for this critical operation. Figure 1: Neil Dixon and Marco Olcese verifying the final alignment The two detectors had to be painstakingly aligned to be concentric to within a millimetre. The SCT was held on a temporary cantilever stand, and the TRT in the ID trolley had to inch over it. Finally the weight of the SCT was transferred to the rails on the inside of the TRT itself. The SCT services actually protruded a little outside the oute...

  12. Efficacy of TRT Using Noise Presentation from Mobile Phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorain Alam, Md; Gupta, Manish; Munjal, Sanjay; Panda, Naresh K

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) is to induce habituation, first of the reaction to the tinnitus signal, and subsequently to habituate the perception of tinnitus itself. Habituation of sound is achieved through sound treatment which involves the use of low-level broadband noise mainly through noise maskers. Noise maskers are costly hence there is a need to find an alternate source of noise like MP3 and mobile phones. The goal of present study was to find out whether persons with tinnitus may be successfully treated with TRT using sound treatment from the noise presented through mobile phones. Total 30 male adult patients with tinnitus were enrolled for TRT. TRT comprised of two activities i.e. directive counseling and sound treatment. The most efficient noise stimulus was tape recorded by presenting the noise in the sound field using speakers and was recorded using a digital tape recorder. The recorded noise was saved to the mobile phone of the person with tinnitus and was asked to play it using hands-free at the level which was just audible for the duration of 3-4 hours per day. The Tinnitus interview forms were used to measure: (1) Percentage awareness of tinnitus, (2) Percentage of the time it caused distress and (3) Number of life factors affected. After 6 months these measurements were repeated and an improvement score of 40% was taken as criteria for the significant success of TRT. Out of 30 patients, 25 could continue coming for follow up sessions. Out of these 25 patients, 17 patients (68%) showed significant improvement. The sound treatment may be provided with the help mobile phones, which is a cheaper substitute for costly noise maskers.

  13. Production of 177Lu for targeted radionuclide therapy: Available options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dah, Ashutosh; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Knapp, Furn F. Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive summary of the production of 177 Lu to meet expected future research and clinical demands. Availability of options represents the cornerstone for sustainable growth for the routine production of adequate activity levels of 177 Lu having the required quality for preparation of a variety of 177 Lu-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. The tremendous prospects associated with production of 177 Lu for use in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) dictate that a holistic consideration should evaluate all governing factors that determine its success. While both “direct” and “indirect” reactor production routes offer the possibility for sustainable 177 Lu availability, there are several issues and challenges that must be considered to realize the full potential of these production strategies. This article presents a mini review on the latest developments, current status, key challenges and possibilities for the near future. A broad understanding and discussion of the issues associated with 177 Lu production and processing approaches would not only ensure sustained growth and future expansion for the availability and use of 177 Lu-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, but also help future developments

  14. Cosmic Ray Data in TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Hance

    "I had a great day in August when I went into SR1," said Daniel Froidevaux, former project leader of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker, "not only had all SCT barrels arrived at CERN, but there were cosmic ray tracks seen in the TRT!" Daniel's excitement was mirrored by the rest of the TRT collaboration when, on July 29, the first cosmic ray tracks were seen in the barrel. Along with many others in the community, Daniel was quick to point out that this is the cumulative result of years of R&D, test beam work, and an intense installation and integration schedule. Indeed, the cosmic ray readout is only possible through the coordination of many efforts, from detector mechanics to module assembly, power and high voltage control, cooling, gas systems, electronics and cabling, data acquisition, and monitoring. "Many people have worked very hard on the the TRT, some of them for more than 10 years," said Brig Williams, the leader of the UPenn group responsible for much of the TRT front end electronics. He ...

  15. Tracking properties of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT)

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00349845; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The tracking performance parameters of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) as part of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) are described for different data taking conditions in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These studies are performed using data collected during the first (Run 1) and the second (Run 2) periods of LHC operation and are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The performance of the TRT, operating with Xe-based (Xe-based) and Argon-based (Ar-based) gas mixtures and its dependence on the TRT occupancy is presented. No significant degradation of position measurement accuracy was found up to occupancies of about 20\\% in Run 1. The relative number of reconstructed tracks in ID that also have a extension in the TRT was observed to be almost constant with the increase of occupancies up to 50\\%. Even in configurations where tracks are close to each other, the reconstruction algorithm is still able to find the correct TRT hits and properly reconstruct the tracks.

  16. Production of {sup 177}Lu for targeted radionuclide therapy: Available options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dah, Ashutosh [Isotope Production and Applications Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai (India); Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan [Molecular Group of Companies. Kerala (India); Knapp, Furn F. Jr. [Medical Isotopes Program, Isotope Dept. Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This review provides a comprehensive summary of the production of {sup 177}Lu to meet expected future research and clinical demands. Availability of options represents the cornerstone for sustainable growth for the routine production of adequate activity levels of {sup 177}Lu having the required quality for preparation of a variety of {sup 177}Lu-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. The tremendous prospects associated with production of {sup 177}Lu for use in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) dictate that a holistic consideration should evaluate all governing factors that determine its success. While both “direct” and “indirect” reactor production routes offer the possibility for sustainable {sup 177}Lu availability, there are several issues and challenges that must be considered to realize the full potential of these production strategies. This article presents a mini review on the latest developments, current status, key challenges and possibilities for the near future. A broad understanding and discussion of the issues associated with {sup 177}Lu production and processing approaches would not only ensure sustained growth and future expansion for the availability and use of {sup 177}Lu-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, but also help future developments.

  17. Radionuclide therapy practice and facilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Clarke, S.E.M.; Fischer, M.; Chatal, J.F.; Lewington, V.J.; Nilsson, S.; Troncone, L.; Vieira, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Using a questionnaire the EANM Task Group Radionuclide Therapy in 1993 collected data on the current practice of radionuclide therapy in European countries. Subsequently, at the request of the EANM Executive Committee, the EANM Radionuclide Therapy Committee has made an inventory of the distribution of facilities for radionuclide therapy and undertaken an assessment of the total number of patients treated throughout Europe and of the types of treatment provides, with the aim of supporting the development of policy to adjust the available capacity to the needs by the year 2000. For this purpose, a second, more detailed questionnaire was sent out the members and national advisors of the Committee (see below), who gathered the data for each country that was a member of the EANM at the time. It is concluded that a wide bariation in therapy practice exists across Europe, particularly in the utilisation of radionuclide therapy, the requirement and availability of proper isolation facilities and the background training of those undertaking therapy. More uniform guidelines and legislation are required, although changes in legislation may have a significant impact in some countries. Although there is wide variation in the therapies used in each country, one the whole it appears that there is an underutilisation of nuclear medicine as a therapeutic modality. A rapidly increasing role may be expected, in particular for oncological indications requiring high-dose radionuclide treatment. Therefore there is an urgent need for a greater number of isolation beds in dedicated centers throughout Europe

  18. Research progess on treatment of cancer with targeted radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jiawen; Zhang Caixia

    2008-01-01

    The new development and situation of targeted radionuclide therapy in oncology is described, which include radioimmunotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, gene therapy and radionuclide labled chemotherapeutics therapy. The application research on labled carrier of those therapy is emphasized. Meanwhile, the research progess of indomethacin and its combined with targeted radionuclide therapy is also described. (authors)

  19. Theranostic Approach for Metastatic Pigmented Melanoma Using ICF15002, a Multimodal Radiotracer for Both PET Imaging and Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Rbah-Vidal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This work reports, in melanoma models, the theranostic potential of ICF15002 as a single fluorinated and iodinated melanin-targeting compound. METHODS: Studies were conducted in the murine syngeneic B16BL6 model and in the A375 and SK-MEL-3 human xenografts. ICF15002 was radiolabeled with fluorine-18 for positron emission tomography (PET imaging and biodistribution, with iodine-125 for metabolism study, and iodine-131 for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT. TRT efficacy was assessed by tumor volume measurement, with mechanistics and dosimetry parameters being determined in the B16BL6 model. Intracellular localization of ICF15002 was characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. RESULTS: PET imaging with [18F]ICF15002 evidenced tumoral uptake of 14.33 ± 2.11%ID/g and 4.87 ± 0.93%ID/g in pigmented B16BL6 and SK-MEL-3 models, respectively, at 1 hour post inoculation. No accumulation was observed in the unpigmented A375 melanoma. SIMS demonstrated colocalization of ICF15002 signal with melanin polymers in melanosomes of the B16BL6 tumors. TRT with two doses of 20 MBq [131I]ICF15002 delivered an absorbed dose of 102.3 Gy to B16BL6 tumors, leading to a significant tumor growth inhibition [doubling time (DT of 2.9 ± 0.5 days in treated vs 1.8 ± 0.3 in controls] and a prolonged median survival (27 days vs 21 in controls. P53S15 phosphorylation and P21 induction were associated with a G2/M blockage, suggesting mitotic catastrophe. In the human SK-MEL-3 model, three doses of 25 MBq led also to a DT increase (26.5 ± 7.8 days vs 11.0 ± 3.8 in controls and improved median survival (111 days vs 74 in controls. CONCLUSION: Results demonstrate that ICF15002 fulfills suitable properties for bimodal imaging/TRT management of patients with pigmented melanoma.

  20. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  1. Radionuclide Therapies in Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendi, A Tuba; Moncayo, Valeria M; Nye, Jonathon A; Galt, James R; Halkar, Raghuveer; Schuster, David M

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances and applications of radionuclide therapy. Individualized precision medicine, new treatments, and the evolving role of radionuclide therapy are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Completion of the first TRT End-cap

    CERN Multimedia

    Catinaccio, A; Rohne, O

    On July 1, the first end-cap of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) was successfully completed in terms of the integration of the wheels assembled in Russia with their front-end electronics. The two groups of the detector, fully assembled and equipped with front-end electronics, were rotated from their horizontal position during stacking to their nominal vertical position, in which they will be integrated with the corresponding end-cap silicon-strip (SCT) detector towards the end of 2005, before installation into ATLAS in spring 2006. After starting the assembly in the SR building one year ago, the TRT team reached this important milestone, which marks the final realization and validation of the engineering concept developed by the CERN DT1 (ex-TA1) and ATT teams. A TRT end-cap consists of two sets of identical and independent wheels. The first type of wheels (type A, 12 wheels, positioned closest to the primary interaction point) contains 6144 radial straws positioned in eight successive layers s...

  3. A model for inverse dose-rate effects - low dose-rate hyper-sensibility in response to targeted radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, I.; Mather, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the Linear-Quadratic (LQ) model of cell survival, developed for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), could be extended to targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) in order to predict dose-response relationships in a cell line exhibiting low dose hypersensitivity (LDH). Methods: aliquots of the PC-3 cancer cell line were treated with either EBRT or an in-vitro model of TRT (Irradiation of cell culture with Y-90 EDTA over 24, 48, 72 or 96 hours). Dosimetry for the TRT was calculated using radiation transport simulations with the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code. Clonogenic as well as functional biological assays were used to assess cell response. An extension of the LQ model was developed which incorporated a dose-rate threshold for activation of repair mechanisms. Results: accurate dosimetry for in-vitro exposures of cell cultures to radioactivity was established. LQ parameters of cell survival were established for the PC-3 cell line in response to EBRT. The standard LQ model did not predict survival in PC-3 cells exposed to Y 90 irradiation over periods of up to 96 hours. In fact cells were more sensitive to the same dose when irradiation was carried out over 96 hours than 24 hours. I.e. at a lower dose-rate. Deviations from the LQ predictions were most pronounced below a threshold dose-rate of 0.5 Gy/hr. These results led to an extension of the LQ model based upon a dose-rate dependent sigmoid model of single strand DNA repair. This extension to the model resulted in predicted cell survival curves that closely matched the experimental data. Conclusion: the LQ model of cell survival to radiation has been shown to be largely predictive of response to low dose-rate irradiation. However, in cells displaying LDH, further adaptation of the model was required. (authors)

  4. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  5. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  6. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  7. First Combined SCT/TRT Cosmics Seen in SR1

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Jose Costa; H. Pernegger

    A major milestone for the Inner Detector project has been accomplished in early May as cosmic rays going through both the barrel Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) and Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) have been successfully recorded in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site at CERN. A cosmic-ray track in the combined SCT-TRT barrel As reported also in this issue of the eNews, in February of this year the SCT barrel was inserted into the TRT in the SR1 building. One eighth of the TRT barrel and a quarter of the SCT barrel were then cabled to power supplies and to the data acquisition system in order to verify the good operation of the detector before installation in the ATLAS cavern. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study its response to cosmic rays using a set of scintillators to give the external trigger, thus undertaking the enormous challenge of integrating the full chain of the detectors, the DAQ, and the reconstruction and monitoring software. A ...

  8. ATLAS TRT 2002 Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Capeans, M.

    Starting on 17th May, the ATLAS TRT 2002 Workshop was organised by Ken MacFarlane and his team at Hampton University, Virginia, USA. During a welcome break in the very dense workshop programme, the group enjoyed a half-day long boat trip along the waterways, offering a first-hand look at the history and heritage of this part of America. The attendance during the six-day workshop was about 50 people representing most of the collaborating institutes, although many Russian colleagues had stayed in their institutes to pursue the start-up of end-cap wheel production at PNPI and DUBNA. The meeting clearly showed that, during the year 2002, the TRT community is focusing on final design issues and module/wheel construction, while moving at the same time towards acceptance testing and integration, including the front-end electronics. The two main topics treated at the workshop were the preparation for beginning full production of the FE electronics, and the wire-joint problem that the US barrel colleagues have been fa...

  9. TRT Barrel milestones passed

    CERN Multimedia

    Ogren, H

    2004-01-01

    The barrel TRT detector passed three significant milestones this spring. The Barrel Support Structure (BSS) was completed and moved to the SR-1 building on February 24th. On March 12th the first module passed the quality assurance testing in Building 154 and was transported to the assembly site in the SR-1 building for barrel assembly. Then on April 21st the final production module that had been scanned at Hampton University was shipped to CERN. TRT Barrel Module Production The production of the full complement of barrel modules (96 plus 9 total spares) is now complete. This has been a five-year effort by Duke University, Hampton University, and Indiana University. Actual construction of the modules in the United States was completed in the first part of 2004. The production crews at each of the sites in the United States have now completed their missions. They are shown in the following pictures. Duke University: Production crew with the final completed module. Indiana University: Module producti...

  10. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit an... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750... patient's body. This generic type of device may include signal analysis and display equipment, patient and...

  11. Tumour therapy with radionuclides: assessment of progress and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Joergen; Forssell Aronsson, Eva; Hietala, Sven-Ola; Stigbrand, Torgny; Tennvall, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a promising modality for treatment of tumours of haematopoietic origin while the success for treatment of solid tumours so far has been limited. The authors consider radionuclide therapy mainly as a method to eradicate disseminated tumour cells and small metastases while bulky tumours and large metastases have to be treated surgically or by external radiation therapy. The promising therapeutic results for haematological tumours give hope that radionuclide therapy will have a breakthrough also for treatment of disseminated cells from solid tumours. New knowledge related to this is continuously emerging since new molecular target structures are being characterised and the knowledge on pharmacokinetics and cellular processing of different types of targeting agents increases. There is also improved understanding of the factors of importance for the choice of appropriate radionuclides with respect to their decay properties and the therapeutic applications. Furthermore, new methods to modify the uptake of radionuclides in tumour cells and normal tissues are emerging. However, we still need improvements regarding dosimetry and treatment planning as well as an increased knowledge about the tolerance doses for normal tissues and the radiobiological effects on tumour cells. This is especially important in targeted radionuclide therapy where the dose rates often are lower than 1 Gy/h

  12. Application of a whole-body pharmacokinetic model for targeted radionuclide therapy to NM404 and FLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzinski, Joseph J.; Floberg, John M.; Mudd, Sarah R.; Jeffery, Justin J.; Peterson, Eric T.; Nomura, Alice; Burnette, Ronald R.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Weichert, Jamey P.; Jeraj, Robert

    2012-03-01

    We have previously developed a model that provides relative dosimetry estimates for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) agents. The whole-body and tumor pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of this model can be noninvasively measured with molecular imaging, providing a means of comparing potential TRT agents. Parameter sensitivities and noise will affect the accuracy and precision of the estimated PK values and hence dosimetry estimates. The aim of this work is to apply a PK model for TRT to two agents with different magnitudes of clearance rates, NM404 and FLT, explore parameter sensitivity with respect to time and investigate the effect of noise on parameter precision and accuracy. Twenty-three tumor bearing mice were injected with a ‘slow-clearing’ agent, 124I-NM404 (n = 10), or a ‘fast-clearing’ agent, 18F-FLT (3‧-deoxy-3‧-fluorothymidine) (n = 13) and imaged via micro-PET/CT pseudo-dynamically or dynamically, respectively. Regions of interest were drawn within the heart and tumor to create time-concentration curves for blood pool and tumor. PK analysis was performed to estimate the mean and standard error of the central compartment efflux-to-influx ratio (k12/k21), central elimination rate constant (kel), and tumor influx-to-efflux ratio (k34/k43), as well as the mean and standard deviation of the dosimetry estimates. NM404 and FLT parameter estimation results were used to analyze model accuracy and parameter sensitivity. The accuracy of the experimental sampling schedule was compared to that of an optimal sampling schedule found using Cramer-Rao lower bounds theory. Accuracy was assessed using correlation coefficient, bias and standard error of the estimate normalized to the mean (SEE/mean). The PK parameter estimation of NM404 yielded a central clearance, kel (0.009 ± 0.003 h-1), normal body retention, k12/k21 (0.69 ± 0.16), tumor retention, k34/k43 (1.44 ± 0.46) and predicted dosimetry, Dtumor (3.47 ± 1.24 Gy). The PK parameter estimation of FLT

  13. Radionuclides in radiation-induced bystander effect; may it share in radionuclide therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widel, M

    2017-01-01

    For many years in radiobiology and radiotherapy predominated the conviction that cellular DNA is the main target for ionizing radiation, however, the view has changed in the past 20 years. Nowadays, it is assumed that not only directed (targeted) radiation effect, but also an indirect (non-targeted) effect may contribute to the result of radiation treatment. Non-targeted effect is relatively well recognized after external beam irradiation in vitro and in vivo, and comprises such phenomena like radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal (out of field) effect. These stress-induced and molecular signaling mediated phenomena appear in non-targeted cells as variety responses resembling that observed in directly hit cells. Bystander effects can be both detrimental and beneficial in dependence on dose, dose-rate, cell type, genetic status and experimental condition. Less is known about radionuclide-induced non-targeted effects in radionuclide therapy, although, based on characteristics of the radionuclide radiation, on experiments in vitro utilizing classical and 3-D cell cultures, and preclinical study on animals it seems obvious that exposure to radionuclide is accompanied by various bystander effects, mostly damaging, less often protective. This review summarizes existing data on radionuclide induced bystander effects comprising radionuclides emitting beta- and alpha-particles and Auger electrons used in tumor radiotherapy and diagnostics. So far, separation of the direct effect of radionuclide decay from crossfire and bystander effects in clinical targeted radionuclide therapy is impossible because of the lack of methods to assess whether, and to what extent bystander effect is involved in human organism. Considerations on this topic are also included.

  14. Completion of the TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Gagnon, P

    On February 3, the US-TRT team proudly completed the installation of the 96th barrel TRT module on its support structure in the SR building at CERN. This happy event came after many years of R&D initiated in the nineties by the TA1 team at CERN, followed by the construction of the modules in three American institutes (Duke, Hampton and Indiana Universities) from 1996 to 2003. In total, the 96 barrel modules contain 52544 kapton straws, each 4 mm in diameter and strung with a 30 micron gold-plated tungsten wire. Each wire was manually inserted, a feat in itself! The inner layer modules contain 329 straws, the middle layer modules have 520 straws and the outer layer, 793 straws. Thirty- two modules of each type form a full layer. Their special geometry was designed such as to leave no dead region. On average, a particle will cross 36 straws. Kirill Egorov, Chuck Mahlon and John Callahan inserted the last module in the Barrel Support Structure. After completion in the US, all modules were transferred...

  15. Model of metastatic growth valuable for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, Peter; Ahlman, Haakan; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to make a Monte Carlo simulation approach to estimate the distribution of tumor sizes and to study the curative potential of three candidate radionuclides for radionuclide therapy: the high-energy electron emitter 90 Y, the medium-energy electron emitter 177 Lu and the low-energy electron emitter 103m Rh. A patient with hepatocellular carcinoma with recently published serial CT data on tumor growth in the liver was used. From these data the growth of the primary tumor, and the metastatis formation rate, were estimated. Assuming the same tumor growth of the primary and all metastases and the same metastatis formation rate from both primary and metastases the metastatic size distribution was simulated for various time points. Tumor cure of the metastatic size distribution was simulated for uniform activity distribution of three radionuclides; the high-energy electron emitter 90 Y, the mean-energy electron emitter 177 Lu and the low-energy electron emitter 103m Rh. The simulation of a tumor cure was performed for various time points and tumor-to-normal tissue activity concentrations, TNC. It was demonstrated that it is important to start therapy as early as possible after diagnosis. It was of crucial importance to use an optimal radionuclide for therapy. These simulations demonstrated that 90 Y was not suitable for systemic radionuclide therapy, due to the low absorbed fraction of the emitted electrons in small tumors ( 103m Rh was slightly better than 177 Lu. For high TNC values low-energy electron emitters, e.g., 103m Rh was the best choice for tumor cure. However, the short half-life of 103m Rh (56 min) might not be optimal for therapy. Therefore, other low-energy electron emitters, or alpha emitters, should be considered for systemic targeted therapy

  16. Study of ATLAS TRT performance with GRID and supercomputers.

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; The ATLAS collaboration; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Belyaev, Nikita; Ryabinkin, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    After the early success in discovering a new particle consistent with the long awaited Higgs boson, Large Hadron Collider experiments are ready for the precision measurements and further discoveries that will be made possible by much higher LHC collision rates from spring 2015. A proper understanding of the detectors performance at high occupancy conditions is important for many on-going physics analyses. The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is one of these detectors. TRT is a large straw tube tracking system that is the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). TRT contributes significantly to the resolution for high-pT tracks in the ID providing excellent particle identification capabilities and electron-pion separation. ATLAS experiment is using Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. WLCG is a global collaboration of computer centers and provides seamless access to computing resources which include data storage capacity, processing power, sensors, visualisation tools and more. WLCG...

  17. Study of ATLAS TRT performance with GRID and supercomputers.

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; The ATLAS collaboration; Belyaev, Nikita; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Ryabinkin, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    After the early success in discovering a new particle consistent with the long awaited Higgs boson, Large Hadron Collider experiments are ready for the precision measurements and further discoveries that will be made possible by much higher LHC collision rates from spring 2015. A proper understanding of the detectors performance at highoccupancy conditions is important for many on-going physics analyses. The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is one of these detectors. TRT is a large straw tube tracking system that is the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). TRT contributes significantly to the resolution for high-pT tracks in the ID providing excellent particle identification capabilities and electron-pion separation. ATLAS experiment is using Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. WLCG is a global collaboration of computer centers and provides seamless access to computing resources which include data storage capacity, processing power, sensors, visualization tools and more. WLCG ...

  18. Hot off the press - First Combined SCT/TRT Endcap Cosmics Seen in SR1

    CERN Multimedia

    Christian Schmitt

    Following the successful combined SCT/TRT barrel test in the Spring 2006 (see ATLAS eNews from May 2006), a similar combined SCT/TRT endcap test is currently being performed in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site at CERN. One quadrant of the SCT and two sectors of the TRT have been cabled up and are used in this test. The picture shows one of the first combined tracks seen in the cosmics runs. The data taking and combined testing is expected to last until December 11th. The event display below shows one of the first combined tracks seen in the cosmics run. There are three different views of the same event: the top left part shows a x-y view of the event where the track can be seen in red, the SCT spacepoints in green, and the SCT strips in grey. On the right is the z-phi view, where also the TRT DriftCircles can be seen as white dots. In the bottom window, the TRT wheels are on top and the SCT disks are shown below with the hits corresponding to those shown in the top window. The TRT DriftCircl...

  19. A transition radiation tracker (TRT) for the Atlas experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, W.

    1995-05-01

    The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) foresees two general purpose detectors, CMS and ATLAS. The inner ATLAS detector will make use of a Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT), which consists of a barrel TRT and a forward TRT. The TRT will provide additional rejection power in order to reduce the jet background to less than 10 % of the inclusive isolated electron signal. Transition Radiation (TR) is generated by charged particles when they cross an interface of changing dielectric behaviour (radiator). The intensity of TR produced is proportional to the γ-factor (γ=E/mc 2 ). A short introduction of TR theory is followed by optimization studies of the radiator and the working gas mixture. TR is detected by gas proportional counters (straws). The electrical and mechanical characteristics of the straws were studied. Furthermore, the straw's operation at the presence of the 2 T magnetic field was investigated. Any signal corresponds to a heat load which has to be cooled in order to provide stable conditions. A cooling system is presented. The induced signal exhibits a long lasting component (ion tail). This ion tail tends to influence signals which are closely spaced in time. A filter was designed which suppresses the ion tail (pole/zero network). The physics performance of some prototypes was studied, in particular the hadron rejection and the tracking capability. A full-scale prototype (9600 channels) was designed and manufactured. A summary of the machinery and tooling involved is presented. (author)

  20. Radionuclide therapy in Russia: Experience, problems, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyb, A.F.; Drozdovsky, B. Ya.; Garbuzov, P.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radionuclide therapy in Russia has more than 50-years history. Radioiodine has been successfully used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and toxic goiter. Au-198 colloidal solution was used in the therapy of synovitis as well as mesothelioma. P-32 was used for polycythemia vera and metastatic bone pain palliation. The treatment was routinely performed in various radiological clinics. However, after the Chernobyl accident and due to more stringent radiation safety measures, it is now exclusively performed in the clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center RAMS, Obninsk. For the last 20 years, more than 10000 patients have been treated in the clinic including 200 children, mainly from the contaminated regions of Chernobyl accident. The palliative treatment of bone metastases is performed with home-produced 89Sr chloride in outpatient clinics and 153Sm-oxabifore in the clinic of MRRC. Nowadays majority of the 160 radionuclides of 80 chemical elements are produced in Russia and exported. Of these, only three are commonly used for therapy purposes, most common being the 131I for treatment of toxic goiter and thyroid differentiated cancer (about 2000 GBq annually). In Russia more than 50 thousand patients suffer from thyroid diseases. Other therapies include bone metastases with marked pain syndrome and hard bone and joint diseases. Radionuclide therapy in Russia is being expanded with the creation of radionuclide therapy departments in each region including Center of Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmaceutics (CNMAR) in Obninsk. This city has many research and medical institutes, nuclear-physical and radiochemical departments with highly skilled personnel and industrial production of medical radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Obninsk has a convenient geographical location for easy transportation of radiopharmaceuticals and patients. Under the aegis of CNMAR, many research works are being carried out to make radionuclide therapy more

  1. Application of the linear-quadratic model with incomplete repair to radionuclide directed therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, W.T.; Glasgow Univ.

    1991-01-01

    The LQ model has now been extended to include a general time varying dose rate profile, and the equations can be readily evaluated if an exponential radiation damage repair process is assumed. These equations are applicable to radionuclide directed therapy, including brachytherapy. Kinetic uptake data obtained during radionuclide directed therapy may therefore be used to determine the radiobiological dosimetry of the target and non-target tissues. Also, preliminary tracer studies may be used to pre-plan the radionuclide directed therapy, provided that tracer and therapeutic amounts of the radionuclide carrier are identically processed by the tissues. It is also shown that continuous radionuclide therapy will induce less damage in late-responding tissues than 2 Gy/fraction external beam therapy if the ratio of the maximum dose rate and the sublethal damage repair half-life in the tissue is less than 1.0 Gy. Similar inequalities may be derived for β-particle radionuclide directed therapy. (author)

  2. Anti-tumor effects of Egr-IFN γ gene therapy combined with 125I-UdR radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingguo; Ni Yanjun; Song Xiangfu; Li Yanyi; Yang Wei; Sun Ting; Ma Qingjie; Gao Fengtong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anti-tumor effects of Egr-IFNγ gene therapy combined with 125 I-UdR radionuclide therapy in mice bearing H22 hepatocarcinoma and its mechanism. Methods: The recombinant plasmid pcDNAEgr-IFNγ mixed with liposome was injected into tumor. 48 h later, 370 kBq 125 I-UdR was injected into tumor. The tumor growth rates at different times were observed. After 3 d gene-radionuclide therapy, the concentration of IFNγ in cytoplasm of H22 cells and cytotoxic activities of splenic CTL of the mice in different groups were examined. Results: The tumor growth rates of pcDNAEgr-IFNγ + 125 I-UdR group were obviously lower than those of control group, 125 I-UdR group and pcDNAEgr-1 + 125 I-UdR group 6-15 d after gene-radionuclide therapy. IFNγ protein was found in cytoplasm of H22 cells in pcDNAEgr-IFNγ + 125 I-UdR group after 3 d gene-radionuclide therapy. Cytotoxic activity of splenic CTL in pcDNAEgr-IFNγ + 125 I-UdR group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P 125 I-UdR radionuclide therapy are better than those of 125 I-UdR therapy. (authors)

  3. Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratochwil, C.; Giesel, F.L.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50 % and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90 %. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in > 30 % and symptom control in almost 80 % of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes. (orig.) [de

  4. Tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) is a specific clinical method based on the neurophysiological model of tinnitus described by Jastreboff (Jastreboff, P.J. (1990). Neurosci. Res., 8: 221-254). The method is aimed at habituation of reactions evoked by tinnitus, and subsequently habituation of the tinnitus perception. Several other methods have been suggested for habituation of tinnitus, but in TRT two components that strictly follow the principles of the neurophysiological model of tinnitus are implemented and necessary: (1) counseling, aimed at reclassification of tinnitus to a category of a neutral signals and (2) sound therapy, aimed at weakening tinnitus-related neuronal activity as suggested by Jastreboff and Hazell (Jastreboff, P.J. and Hazell, J.W.P. (2004). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). This chapter outlines the theoretical basis of TRT as well as comments on the clinical outcome of the use of TRT for different kinds of tinnitus.

  5. Anti-tumor effects of Egr-IFN gamma gene therapy combined with {sup 125}I-UdR radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingguo, Zhao [No.403 Hospital of PLA, Dalian (China); Yanjun, Ni; Xiangfu, Song; Yanyi, Li; Wei, Yang; Ting, Sun; Qingjie, Ma; Fengtong, Gao

    2008-12-15

    Objective: To explore the anti-tumor effects of Egr-IFNgamma gene therapy combined with {sup 125}I-UdR radionuclide therapy in mice bearing H22 hepatocarcinoma and its mechanism. Methods: The recombinant plasmid pcDNAEgr-IFNgamma mixed with liposome was injected into tumor. 48 h later, 370 kBq {sup 125}I-UdR was injected into tumor. The tumor growth rates at different times were observed. After 3 d gene-radionuclide therapy, the concentration of IFNgamma in cytoplasm of H22 cells and cytotoxic activities of splenic CTL of the mice in different groups were examined. Results: The tumor growth rates of pcDNAEgr-IFNgamma + {sup 125}I-UdR group were obviously lower than those of control group, {sup 125}I-UdR group and pcDNAEgr-1 + {sup 125}I-UdR group 6-15 d after gene-radionuclide therapy. IFNgamma protein was found in cytoplasm of H22 cells in pcDNAEgr-IFNgamma + {sup 125}I-UdR group after 3 d gene-radionuclide therapy. Cytotoxic activity of splenic CTL in pcDNAEgr-IFNgamma + {sup 125}I-UdR group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P<0.01). Conclusions: The anti-tumor effects in vivo of pcDNAEgr-IFNgamma gene therapy combined with {sup 125}I-UdR radionuclide therapy are better than those of {sup 125}I-UdR therapy. (authors)

  6. 25 years of tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J

    2015-04-01

    This year marks 25 years of tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT), the approach that aims to eliminate tinnitus as a problem by extinguishing functional connections between the auditory and the limbic and autonomic nervous systems to achieve habituation of tinnitus-evoked reactions and subsequently habituation of perception. TRT addresses directly decreased sound tolerance (DST) as well as tinnitus. TRT consists of counseling and sound therapy, both based on the neurophysiological model of tinnitus. The main goal of retraining counseling is to reclassify tinnitus into the category of a neutral stimulus, while the main goal of sound therapy is to decrease the strength of tinnitus-related neuronal activity. A unique aspect of TRT is that because treatment is aimed to work above the tinnitus source, and at connections linking the auditory and other systems in the brain, the etiology of tinnitus is irrelevant. Any type of tinnitus, as well as somatosounds, can be successfully treated by TRT. Over 100 publications can be found on Medline when using "tinnitus retraining therapy" as a search term. The majority of these publications indicate TRT offers significant help for about 80 % of patients. A randomized clinical trial showing the effectiveness of TRT has been published and another large study is in progress. The principles of the neurophysiological model of tinnitus, and consequently TRT, have not changed in over 25 years of use, but a number of changes have been introduced in TRT implementation. These changes include the recognition of the importance of conditioned reflexes and the dominant role of the subconscious pathways; the introduction of the concept of misophonia (i.e., negative reactions to specific patterns of sound) and the implementation of specific protocols for its treatment; greater emphasis on the concurrent treatment of tinnitus, hyperacusis, misophonia, and hearing loss; extensive modification of counseling; and refinements in sound therapy. The

  7. Tester of the TRT front-end electronics for the ATLAS-experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hajduk, Z; Kisielewski, B; Kotarba, A; Malecki, P; Natkaniec, Z; Olszowska, J; Ostrowicz, W; Krupinska, G

    2000-01-01

    The VME based tester for front-end electronics of the TRT (Transition Radiation Tracker) detector of the ATLAS-LHC experiment at CERN, Geneva, is described. The TRT read-out electronics for 424576 proportional tubes grouped on many thousands of cards requires stringent quality control after assembly and during installation. The tester provides all required data, pulses, timing and power supplies for tested cards. The essential part of the tester is its software that allows for device handling as well as facilitates functional and statistical tests. The prototype, present design as well as the new design for mass production tests are discussed. (17 refs).

  8. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  9. Aging studies for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT)

    CERN Document Server

    Åkesson, T; Bondarenko, V; Capéans-Garrido, M; Catinaccio, A; Cwetanski, Peter; Danielsson, H; Dittus, F; Dolgoshein, B A; Dressnandt, N; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Farthouat, Philippe; Fedin, O; Froidevaux, D; Gavrilenko, I; Grichkevitch, Y; Gagnon, P; Hajduk, Z; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Konovalov, S; Kowalski, T; Kramarenko, V A; Laritchev, A; Lichard, P; Lundberg, B; Luehring, F C; Markina, I; Manara, A; McFarlane, K; Mitsou, V; Muraviev, S; Newcomer, F M; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Olszowska, J; Peshekhonov, V D; Rembser, C; Romaniouk, A; Rhone, O; Rust, D R; Shchegelskii, V; Shmeleva, A; Smirnov, S; Smirnova, L N; Sosnovtsev, V V; Sutchkov, S; Tartarelli, F; Tikhomirov, V; Van Berg, R; Vassilieva, L; Wang, C; Williams, H H

    2003-01-01

    A summary of the aging and material validation studies carried out for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is presented. Particular emphasis is put on the different phenomena observed in straw tubes operating with the chosen Xe/CF//4/CO//2 mixture. The most serious effects observed are silicon deposition on the anode wire and damage of the anode wire gold plating. Etching phenomena and active radical effects are also discussed. With a careful choice of all materials and components, and with good control of the water contamination in the active gas, the ATLAS TRT will operate reliably for 10 years at the LHC design luminosity. To demonstrate this fully, more work is still needed on the gas system purification elements, in particular to understand their interplay with the active species containing fluorine created in the avalanche process under irradiation.

  10. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT): Straw tubes for tracking and particle identification at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00220535; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three inner detector tracking subsystems and consists of ∼300,000 thin-walled drift tubes (“straw tubes”) that are 4 mm in diameter. The TRT system provides ∼30 space points with ∼130 micron resolution for charged tracks with |η| 0.5 GeV/c . The TRT also provides electron identification capability by detecting transition radiation (TR) X-ray photons in an Xe-based working gas mixture. Compared to Run 1, the LHC beams now provide a higher centre of mass energy (13 TeV), more bunches with a reduced spacing (25 ns), and more particles in each bunch leading to very challenging, higher occupancies in the TRT. Significant modifications of the TRT detector have been made for LHC Run 2 mainly to improve response to the expected much higher rate of hits and to mitigate leaks of the Xe-based active gas mixture. The higher rates required changes to the data acquisition system and introduction of validity gate to reject out-of-time hits. Man...

  11. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT): Straw Tubes for Tracking and Particle Identification at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mindur, Bartosz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three inner detector tracking subsystems and consists of 300000 thin-walled drift tubes (“straw tubes”) that are 4 mm in diameter. The TRT system provides 30 space points with 130 micron resolution for charged tracks with |η| 0.5 GeV/c. The TRT also provides electron identification capability by detecting transition radiation (TR) X-ray photons in a Xe-based working gas mixture. Compared to Run 1, the LHC beams now provide a higher center of mass energy (13 TeV), more bunches with a reduced spacing (25 ns), and more particles in each bunch leading to very challenging, higher occupancies in the TRT. We will present TRT modifications made for Run 2 for in areas: to improve response to the expected much higher rate of hits and to mitigate leaks of the Xe-based active gas mixture. The higher rates required changes to the data acquisition system and introduction of validity gate to reject out-of-time hits. Radiation-induced gain changes in ...

  12. Pattern Recognition in the TRT for the ATLAS B-Physics Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Baines, J T M; Hinkelbein, C; Kugel, A; Männer, R; Müller, M; Sessler, M; Simmler, H; Singpiel, H; Smizanska, M

    1999-01-01

    The current B-physics trigger strategy in LVL2 starts with a scan of the full volume of the TRT to reconstruct all tracks with pT > 0.5 GeV. Since the detector volume to be analysed is 100 times larger than a typical RoI, and the pT range of the track search extends down to 0.5 GeV, an additional factor of 10 in processing power is required in comparison with the high-pT TRT feature extraction algorithm which has a 5 GeV threshold. At low luminosity, the full scan will be performed as part of the B-physics trigger with a frequency of 9 kHz. Taking into account all these factors, the full scan at low luminosity will require 100 times more computing power than the RoI-guided scan at design luminosity. It is the most challenging of all LVL2 algorithms in terms of computing power and bandwidth requirements. A very fast and therefore simple algorithm is thus essential, independent of the hardware realisation. This paper presents a TRT track reconstruction algorithm which is based on a Hough Transform using a look-...

  13. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  14. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging for cardiac gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inubushi, Masayuki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2007-01-01

    In the field of cardiac gene therapy, angiogenic gene therapy has been most extensively investigated. The first clinical trial of cardiac angiogenic gene therapy was reported in 1998, and at the peak, more than 20 clinical trial protocols were under evaluation. However, most trials have ceased owing to the lack of decisive proof of therapeutic effects and the potential risks of viral vectors. In order to further advance cardiac angiogenic gene therapy, remaining open issues need to be resolved: there needs to be improvement of gene transfer methods, regulation of gene expression, development of much safer vectors and optimisation of therapeutic genes. For these purposes, imaging of gene expression in living organisms is of great importance. In radionuclide reporter gene imaging, ''reporter genes'' transferred into cell nuclei encode for a protein that retains a complementary ''reporter probe'' of a positron or single-photon emitter; thus expression of the reporter genes can be imaged with positron emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography. Accordingly, in the setting of gene therapy, the location, magnitude and duration of the therapeutic gene co-expression with the reporter genes can be monitored non-invasively. In the near future, gene therapy may evolve into combination therapy with stem/progenitor cell transplantation, so-called cell-based gene therapy or gene-modified cell therapy. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging is now expected to contribute in providing evidence on the usefulness of this novel therapeutic approach, as well as in investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying neovascularisation and safety issues relevant to further progress in conventional gene therapy. (orig.)

  15. Radionuclides for therapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, H.; Noelpp, U.; Triller, K.J.; Steffen, R.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in angiographic techniques has been a gradual evolutionary development which now permits the selective and superselective access to a tumor's vascular bed. A diagnostic angiographic procedure can be supplemented by a one-step, quick application of embolizing radioactive material. This endoarterial radionuclide embolizing tumor therapy has the maximum selectivity among radiotherapeutic methods, with the highest radiation doses to the tumor and neglectible exposure of normal tissue. Spread of radioactivity by diffusion or leaching can be prevented

  16. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C.; Oh, B. H.; Hong, H. J.

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology

  17. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  18. Retraining therapy for chronic tinnitus. A critical analysis of its status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener-Herwig, B; Biesinger, E; Gerhards, F; Goebel, G; Verena Greimel, K; Hiller, W

    2000-01-01

    Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT), as conceived of mainly by PJ Jastreboff, has recently received increasing attention in the media, as well as in seminars and congresses on treatment methods for chronic tinnitus. It is often claimed, though not explicitly in scientific publications, that TRT is currently the most efficacious therapy for tinnitus, obtaining improvement rates exceeding 80%. This assertion is highly significant in light of the most likely increasing prevalence of chronic tinnitus and ensuing urgent demand for effective therapies. Before examining the evidence regarding the effectiveness of TRT, Jastreboff's theoretical idea of tinnitus as a neurophysiological disorder is examined and evaluated. This idea is plausible and is supported by some evidence. The interaction between neuroacoustic and emotional processes emphasized by Jastreboff is, however, neither new nor sufficiently elaborated with respect to the underlying psychological factors. The TRT intervention technique and its main components 'directive counselling' and use of 'noise generators' are found to be theoretically well grounded. The lack of detailed information concerning TRT implementation and the potential consequence that differing interventions may be labelled TRT are criticized. Jastreboff's obvious opposition to psychologists' participation in TRT, despite the increase in efficacy they could affect through utilization of cognitive restructuring techniques and behaviour modification interventions, is also criticized. Finally, studies regarding the efficacy of TRT are reviewed and severe methodological shortcomings (e.g. lack of controlled randomized group studies) in TRT research are noted. Taking the current state of evidence into account, we conclude that there is no convincing empirical support for the assumption that TRT is superior to other treatments, since no comparative studies have been conducted. It is contended that there is more substantial empirical support for the

  19. Patient-Specific Dosimetry and Radiobiological Modeling of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Grant - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Sgouros, Ph.D.

    2007-03-20

    The broad, long-term objectives of this application are to 1. develop easily implementable tools for radionuclide dosimetry that can be used to predict normal organ toxicity and tumor response in targeted radionuclide therapy; and 2. to apply these tools to the analysis of clinical trial data in order to demonstrate dose-response relationships for radionuclide therapy treatment planning. The work is founded on the hypothesis that robust dose-response relationships have not been observed in targeted radionuclide therapy studies because currently available internal dosimetry methodologies are inadequate, failing to adequately account for individual variations in patient anatomy, radionuclide activity distribution/kinetics, absorbed dose-distribution, and absorbed dose-rate. To reduce development time the previously available software package, 3D-ID, one of the first dosimetry software packages to incorporate 3-D radionuclide distribution with individual patient anatomy; and the first to be applied for the comprehensive analysis of patient data, will be used as a platform to build the functionality listed above. The following specific aims are proposed to satisfy the long-term objectives stated above: 1. develop a comprehensive and validated methodology for converting one or more SPECT images of the radionuclide distribution to a 3-D representation of the cumulated activity distribution; 2. account for differences in tissue density and atomic number by incorporating an easily implementable Monte Carlo methodology for the 3-D dosimetry calculations; 3. incorporate the biologically equivalent dose (BED) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) models to convert the spatial distribution of absorbed dose and dose-rate into equivalent single values that account for differences in dose uniformity and rate and that may be correlated with tumor response and normal organ toxicity; 4. test the hypothesis stated above by applying the resulting package to patient trials of targeted

  20. Alpha Emitting Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals for Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Today, cancer treatments mainly rely on surgery or external beam radiation to remove or destroy bulky tumors. Chemotherapy is given when tumours cannot be removed or when dissemination is suspected. However, these approaches cannot permanently treat all cancers and relapse occurs in up to 50% of the patients’ population. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) are effective against some disseminated and metastatic diseases, although they are rarely curative. Most preclinical and clinical developments in this field have involved electron-emitting radionuclides, particularly iodine-131, yttrium-90 and lutetium-177. The large range of the electrons emitted by these radionuclides reduces their efficacy against very small tumour cell clusters or isolated tumour cells present in residual disease and in many haematological tumours (leukaemia, myeloma). The range of alpha particles in biological tissues is very short, less than 0.1 mm, which makes alpha emitters theoretically ideal for treatment of such isolated tumour cells or micro-clusters of malignant cells. Thus, over the last decade, a growing interest for the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides has emerged. Research on targeted alpha therapy (TAT) began years ago in Nantes through cooperation between Subatech, a nuclear physics laboratory, CRCNA, a cancer research centre with a nuclear oncology team and ITU (Karlsruhe, Germany). CD138 was demonstrated as a potential target antigen for Multiple Myeloma, which is a target of huge clinical interest particularly suited for TAT because of the disseminated nature of the disease consisting primarily of isolated cells and small clusters of tumour cells mainly localized in the bone marrow. Thus anti-CD138 antibodies were labelled with bismuth-213 from actinium-225/bismuth-213 generators provided by ITU and used to target multiple myeloma cells. In vitro studies showed cell cycle arrest, synergism with chemotherapy and very little induction

  1. E1B-attenuated onco lytic adenovirus enhances antitumor effect of radionuclide therapy by P53-independent way: cellular basic for radionuclide-viral therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhenwei, Zhang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Hua, Wu; Xuemei, Zhang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xinyuan, Liu [Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: Chemotherapy or external radiation therapy can potentiate the therapeutic effect of E1 B-attenuated oncolytic adenovirus. In this study, the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenovirus combined with internal radionuclide therapy was evaluated. Methods: Firstly, viral replication was examined by plaque assay and Southern blotting, after oncolytic adenovirus, ZD55, was exposed to iodine-131. Cell viability was evaluated qualitatively by crystal violet staining and quantitatively by MTT assay. FACS analysis was performed to determine the synergic proapoptotic effect of iodine-131 combined with ZD55. Results: Irradiation of iodine-131 does not influence ZD55 viral DNA replication. In combination with ZD55, iodine-131 can efficiently kill tumor cells in a p53-independent model. ZD55 augments the proapoptotic effect of iodine-131. Conclusion: Radionuclide-viral therapy might be a novel tool for treatment of hepatocarcinoma. (authors)

  2. Modeling the effects of repeated systemic administrations of small activity amounts In radionuclide therapy with beta emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, Carlos; Gonzalez, Joaquin; Cepero, Janet; Colom, Camila; Rodriguez, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Good results for radionuclide therapy treatments where repeated short time spaced systemic injection of small activity amounts are given have been reported. Bone marrow and kidneys are usually considered as dose-limiting organs in radionuclide therapy. The treatments in radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be optimized if irradiation effects in those one might be estimated. Xeno-grafted mice is the often biological model used during the evaluation of candidates for radionuclide therapy. A mathematical model of tumor cell kinetics was combined with another one reported for marrow cell kinetics which allows the calculation of marrow cell survival and proliferation in response to different irradiation schemes. Radionuclide therapy treatment with repeated administrations with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with beta emitters were simulated. The effects on fast-growing and slow-growing tumors were evaluated, as well as radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors. For more realistic estimation of absorbed dose in mice organs the cross-irradiation due to high energy beta particles was included into the MIRD's formula. Tumor and kidneys responses to the irradiation were estimated on the linear-quadratic model framework which was adapted for a multi-exponential dose rate function describing radionuclide therapy treatments with repeated administrations. Published values for murine tumors kinetics, marrows cellular turnover rates and radiosensitivities were used during the calculations. Iso-effective schemes were also determined varying the interval between fractions and the number of administration. For a given tolerated level of thrombocytopenia and absorbed dose in kidneys an optimal regime of radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be found. The mathematical model presented here allows the prediction of the nadir and duration of thrombocytopenia, the effects on kidneys and the tumor cell response to various treatment schemes

  3. Internal radiation dosimetry using nuclear medicine imaging in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeong Min; Byun, Byun Hyun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has been an important field in nuclear medicine. In radionuclide therapy, relevant evaluation of internally absorbed dose is essential for the achievement of efficient and sufficient treatment of incurable disease, and can be accomplished by means of accurate measurement of radioactivity in body and its changes with time. Recently, the advances of nuclear medicine imaging and multi modality imaging processing techniques can provide chance of more accurate and easier measurement of the measures commented above, in cooperation of conventional imaging based approaches. In this review, basic concept for internal dosimetry using nuclear medicine imaging is summarized with several check points which should be considered in real practice

  4. New aspects of radionuclide therapy of bone and joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas in developing countries P-32 is widely used for radionuclide therapy of painful bone metastases, in Europe three radionuclides or radiopharmaceutical agents are available for pain palliation: Sr-89, Sm-153-EDTMP, and Re-186-HEDP. Radionuclide therapy for pain palliation is indicated for bone pain due to metastatic malignancy that has involved multiple skeletal sites and has evoked an osteoblastic response on bone scintigraphy. Response rates of about 70-80% in patients with breast or prostate cancer is reported in the literature, less in metastatic lesions of other primary malignancies. Sm-153-EDTMP may also be used for curative treatment of primary bone tumours or their metastases. Radiosynovectomy as therapeutic procedure or rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory joint diseases, persistent synovial perfusion, and other joint diseases is widely used. Using Y-90 for the knee joint, Re-186 for middle sized joints, and Er-169 for small joints an improvement of symptoms may be observed in about 70-80%. (author)

  5. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine tumors in Germany: first results of a multi-institutional cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörsch, Dieter; Ezziddin, Samer; Haug, Alexander; Gratz, Klaus Friedrich; Dunkelmann, Simone; Krause, Bernd Joachim; Schümichen, Carl; Bengel, Frank M; Knapp, Wolfram H; Bartenstein, Peter; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Plöckinger, Ursula; Schwartz-Fuchs, Sabine; Baum, R P

    2013-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is an effective treatment option for patients with well-differentiated somatostatin receptor-expressing neuroendocrine tumors. However, published data result mainly from retrospective monocentric studies. We initiated a multi-institutional, prospective, board-reviewed registry for patients treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in Germany in 2009. In five centers, 297 patients were registered. Primary tumors were mainly derived from pancreas (117/297) and small intestine (80/297), whereas 56 were of unknown primary. Most tumors were well differentiated with median Ki67 proliferation rate of 5% (range 0.9-70%). Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy was performed using mainly yttrium-90 and/or lutetium-177 as radionuclides in 1-8 cycles. Mean overall survival was estimated at 213 months with follow-up between 1 and 230 months after initial diagnosis, and 87 months with follow-up between 1 and 92 months after start of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Median overall survival was not yet reached. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that best results were obtained in neuroendocrine tumors with proliferation rate below 20%. Our results indicate that peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is an effective treatment for well- and moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumors irrespective of previous therapies and should be regarded as one of the primary treatment options for patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing neuroendocrine tumors.

  6. Tinnitus retraining therapy: a different view on tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Pawel J; Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2006-01-01

    Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) is a method for treating tinnitus and decreased sound tolerance, based on the neurophysiological model of tinnitus. This model postulates involvement of the limbic and autonomic nervous systems in all cases of clinically significant tinnitus and points out the importance of both conscious and subconscious connections, which are governed by principles of conditioned reflexes. The treatments for tinnitus and misophonia are based on the concept of extinction of these reflexes, labeled as habituation. TRT aims at inducing changes in the mechanisms responsible for transferring signal (i.e., tinnitus, or external sound in the case of misophonia) from the auditory system to the limbic and autonomic nervous systems, and through this, remove signal-induced reactions without attempting to directly attenuate the tinnitus source or tinnitus/misophonia-evoked reactions. As such, TRT is effective for any type of tinnitus regardless of its etiology. TRT consists of: (1) counseling based on the neurophysiological model of tinnitus, and (2) sound therapy (with or without instrumentation). The main role of counseling is to reclassify tinnitus into the category of neutral stimuli. The role of sound therapy is to decrease the strength of the tinnitus signal. It is crucial to assess and treat tinnitus, decreased sound tolerance, and hearing loss simultaneously. Results from various groups have shown that TRT can be an effective method of treatment. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled ''Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy'' to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study; and the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

  8. Targeted radionuclide therapy for solid tumors: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nardo, Sally J.; De Nardo, Gerald L.

    2006-01-01

    Although radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been effective in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) as a single agent, solid tumors have shown less clinically significant therapeutic response to RIT alone. The clinical impact of RIT or other forms of targeted radionuclide therapy for solid tumors depends on the development of a high therapeutic index (TI) for the tumor vs. normal tissue effect, and the implementation of RIT as part of synergistic combined modality therapy (CMRIT). Preclinical and clinical studies have provided a wealth of information, and new prototypes or paradigms have shed light on future possibilities in many instances. Evidence suggests that combination and sequencing of RIT in CMRIT appropriately can provide effective treatment for many solid tumors. Vascular targets provide RIT enhancement opportunities and nanoparticles may prove to be effective carriers for RIT combined with intracellular drug delivery or alternating magnetic frequency (AMF) induced thermal tumor necrosis. The sequence and timing of combined modality treatments will be of critical importance to achieve synergy for therapy while minimizing toxicity. Fortunately, the radionuclide used for RIT also provides a signal useful for nondestructive quantitation of the influence of sequence and timing of CMRIT on events in animals and patients. This can be readily accomplished clinically using quantitative high-resolution imaging (e.g., positron emission tomography [PET])

  9. Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer; Nuklearmedizinische Therapie endokriner Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochwil, C.; Giesel, F.L. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Nuklearmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50 % and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90 %. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in > 30 % and symptom control in almost 80 % of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes. (orig.) [German] Dieser Artikel gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die etablierten sowie weitere vielversprechende, aktuell im Rahmen von Studien eingesetzte nuklearmedizinische Therapiemoeglichkeiten diverser endokrinologischer Neoplasien. Die Radiojodtherapie ist unveraendert die Therapie der Wahl beim differenzierten, jodspeichernden Schilddruesenkarzinom. Im metastasierten Stadium sind in ca. 50 % der Faelle noch

  10. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors.

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT

  11. Assessment of patients for treatment with tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James A; Jastreboff, Margaret M; Jastreboff, Pawel J; Schechter, Martin A; Fausti, Stephen A

    2002-01-01

    Clinical management for patients complaining of severe tinnitus has improved dramatically in the last 25 years. During that period of time, various methods of treatment have been introduced and are being used with varying degrees of success. One method that has received considerable attention is tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT). This method is being practiced by hundreds of clinicians worldwide, and retrospective clinical data indicate that TRT has been effective for the majority of patients. This article provides a guide for clinicians to evaluate their patients for treatment with TRT. Included in this guide is the expanded version of the TRT initial interview and specific instructions for the clinician administering the interview.

  12. PET SUV correlates with radionuclide uptake in peptide receptor therapy in meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Buck, Andreas K.; Samnick, Samuel; Kreissl, Michael; Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael; Loehr, Mario; Verburg, Frederik A.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the tumour uptake of radionuclide in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of meningioma can be predicted by a PET scan with 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogue. In this pilot trial, 11 meningioma patients with a PET scan indicating somatostatin receptor expression received PRRT with 7.4 GBq 177 Lu-DOTATOC or 177 Lu-DOTATATE, followed by external beam radiotherapy. A second PET scan was scheduled for 3 months after therapy. During PRRT, multiple whole-body scans and a SPECT/CT scan of the head and neck region were acquired and used to determine the kinetics and dose in the voxel with the highest radionuclide uptake within the tumour. Maximum voxel dose and retention of activity 1 h after administration in PRRT were compared to the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in the meningiomas from the PET scans before and after therapy. The median SUV max in the meningiomas was 13.7 (range 4.3 to 68.7), and the maximum fractional radionuclide uptake in voxels of size 0.11 cm 3 was a median of 23.4 x 10 -6 (range 0.4 x 10 -6 to 68.3 x 10 -6 ). A strong correlation was observed between SUV max and the PRRT radionuclide tumour retention in the voxels with the highest uptake (Spearman's rank test, P max and the therapeutic uptake (r = 0.95) and between SUV max and the maximum voxel dose from PRRT (r = 0.76). Observed absolute deviations from the values expected from regression were a median of 5.6 x 10 -6 (maximum 9.3 x 10 -6 ) for the voxel fractional radionuclide uptake and 0.40 Gy per GBq (maximum 0.85 Gy per GBq) 177 Lu for the voxel dose from PRRT. PET with 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues allows the pretherapeutic assessment of tumour radionuclide uptake in PRRT of meningioma and an estimate of the achievable dose. (orig.)

  13. Somatic tinnitus prevalence and treatment with tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, K; Lurquin, P; Horoi, M; Cotton, P; Hervé, V; Thill, M P

    2016-01-01

    Somatic tinnitus originates from increased activity of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, a cross-point between the somatic and auditory systems. Its activity can be modified by auditory stimulation or somatic system manipulation. Thus, sound enrichment and white noise stimulation might decrease tinnitus and associated somatic symptoms. The present uncontrolled study sought to determine somatic tinnitus prevalence among tinnitus sufferers, and to investigate whether sound therapy with counselling (tinnitus retraining therapy; TRT) may decrease tinnitus-associated somatic symptoms. To determine somatic tinnitus prevalence, 70 patients following the TRT protocol completed the Jastreboff Structured Interview (JSI) with additional questions regarding the presence and type of somatic symptoms. Among 21 somatic tinnitus patients, we further investigated the effects of TRT on tinnitus-associated facial dysesthesia. Before and after three months of TRT, tinnitus severity was evaluated using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), and facial dysesthesia was assessed with an extended JSI-based questionnaire. Among the evaluated tinnitus patients, 56% presented somatic tinnitus-including 51% with facial dysesthesia, 36% who could modulate tinnitus by head and neck movements, and 13% with both conditions. Self-evaluation indicated that TRT significantly improved tinnitus and facial dysesthesia in 76% of patients. Three months of TRT led to a 50% decrease in mean THI and JSI scores regarding facial dysesthesia. Somatic tinnitus is a frequent and underestimated condition. We suggest an extension of the JSI, including specific questions regarding somatic tinnitus. TRT significantly improved tinnitus and accompanying facial dysesthesia, and could be a useful somatic tinnitus treatment.

  14. The study of the radiation protection problem in the radionuclide interstitial implantation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jimian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and study the radiation protection problem in the radionuclide interstitial permanent implantation therapy. Methods: Based on test data from radioactive measurement department, calculating results and national standards, the radiation dose of the exposed radioactive particles, the operator who has participated in the radionuclide interstitial permanent implantation therapy operation and the relatives who have accompanied the patient during the whole course, the reference time of being discharged from hospital for the patients who have been cured by different activity of radioactive particles are studied. Results: The maximal radiation dose of operating doctor who has participated in a single radionuclide interstitial permanent implantation therapy operation and the relatives who has accompanied the patient during the whole course are 0.315 mSv/a and 0.70 mSv. Based on actual contact frequencies, their radiation dose is proved to be smaller than the restricted dose prescribed by national standards. The reference time of leaving hospital for the patients who have been cured by different activity of radioactive particles is 0 to 44 days. Conclusion: The radiation dose of radiation workers and surrounding publics in the radionuclide interstitial permanent implantation therapy operation can be acceptable under certain shields. But the risk of potential exposure should be guarded. The authors should Lay down operation indications and avoid performing operation blindly. If one must be operated, the authors should plan the quantity and the part of the painting radioactive particles accurately in order to avoid some passible complications. (authors)

  15. Radionuclide molecular target therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuhai; Meng Zhaowei; Tan Jian

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer harms people's health or even lives severely. Currently, the morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are ascending all over the world. Accounting for 38.08% of malignant tumor caused death in male and 16% in female in cities,ranking top in both sex. Especially, the therapy of non-small cell lung cancer has not been obviously improved for many years. Recently, sodium/iodide transporter gene transfection and the therapy of molecular target drugs mediated radionuclide are being taken into account and become the new research directions in treatment of advanced lung cancer patients with the development of technology and theory for medical molecular biology and the new knowledge of lung cancer's pathogenesis. (authors)

  16. Kidney protection during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with somatostatin analogues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolleman, E.J.; Melis, M.; Valkema, R.; Boerman, O.C.; Krenning, E.P.; Jong, M. de

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the present status of kidney protection during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. This treatment modality for somatostatin receptor-positive tumours is limited by renal reabsorption and retention of radiolabelled peptides

  17. TH-AB-206-01: Advances in Radionuclide Therapy - From Radioiodine to Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the field of nuclear medicine has made long strides with the continued advancement of related sciences and engineering and the availability of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides. Leveraging these advancements while combining the advantages of therapeutic and diagnostic radionuclides into one radiopharmaceutical has also created a new subfield “theranostics” in nuclear medicine that has the potential to further propel the field into the future. This session is composed of two talks; one focused on the physics principles of theranostics from properties of beta and alpha emitting radionuclides to dosimetric models and quantification; while the second describes preclinical and clinical applications of theranostics and discusses the challenges and opportunities of bringing them to the clinic. At the end of the session the listener should be able to identify: The different properties of beta and alpha emitting radionuclides Which radionuclides are selected for which nuclear medicine therapies and why How PET can be used to accurately quantify the uptake of tumor targeting molecules How individualized dosimetry can be performed from the management of thyroid cancer to novel radiolabeled antibody therapies Promising pre-clinical radiopharmaceutical pairs in prostate cancer and melanoma. Promising clinical Theranostics in neuroendocrine cancers. Challenges of bringing Theranostics to the clinic. E. Delpassand, RITA Foundation -Houston; SBIR Grant; CEO and share holder of RadioMedix.

  18. TH-AB-206-01: Advances in Radionuclide Therapy - From Radioiodine to Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humm, J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the past few decades, the field of nuclear medicine has made long strides with the continued advancement of related sciences and engineering and the availability of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides. Leveraging these advancements while combining the advantages of therapeutic and diagnostic radionuclides into one radiopharmaceutical has also created a new subfield “theranostics” in nuclear medicine that has the potential to further propel the field into the future. This session is composed of two talks; one focused on the physics principles of theranostics from properties of beta and alpha emitting radionuclides to dosimetric models and quantification; while the second describes preclinical and clinical applications of theranostics and discusses the challenges and opportunities of bringing them to the clinic. At the end of the session the listener should be able to identify: The different properties of beta and alpha emitting radionuclides Which radionuclides are selected for which nuclear medicine therapies and why How PET can be used to accurately quantify the uptake of tumor targeting molecules How individualized dosimetry can be performed from the management of thyroid cancer to novel radiolabeled antibody therapies Promising pre-clinical radiopharmaceutical pairs in prostate cancer and melanoma. Promising clinical Theranostics in neuroendocrine cancers. Challenges of bringing Theranostics to the clinic. E. Delpassand, RITA Foundation -Houston; SBIR Grant; CEO and share holder of RadioMedix.

  19. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapies with 90Y-conjugates. The IEO experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremonesi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Chinol, M.; Bartolomei, M.; Sacco, E.; Fiorenza, M.; Tosi, G.; Paganelli, G.; Stabin, M. G.

    2000-01-01

    The basis for successful radionuclide therapy is a high and stable uptake of the radiopharmaceutical in the target tissue along with low activity concentration in other normal organs. The contribution of dosimetry in radionuclide therapy is to predict before the treatment the absorbed doses in tumor and normal organs, to identify the critical organs, to minimize any possible toxicity and to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose. In this article is reported the experience concerning pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of two 90 Y-therapeutic protocols: 3-step pretargeting radioimmunotherapy (RIT) according to the biotin-avidin system and receptor mediated radionuclide therapy with the somatostatin analogue (DOTA-D-Phe 1 -Tyr 3 ) octreotide named DOTATOC. For the dosimetric analysis, analogous approaches for the two radiolabeled compounds due to the similar pharmacokinetic characteristics were adopted; the MIRD formalism was applied, taking into account both the physical and the biological characteristics of the radio conjugate and patients' metabolism. In order to determine biological clearance, serial blood samples and complete urine collection were obtained up to 48 hours after injection; to evaluate biodistribution, several whole body scans were acquired. Both therapies showed the advantageous characteristics of a fast blood clearance and a predominantly renal excretion of the radiopharmaceuticals thus lowering the irradiation of the total body. Although pharmacokinetic characteristics were similar, different critical organs were found for the two therapies: in particular, some considerations regarding red marrow, spleen and kidneys were required. The results of the studies indicate that high activities of 90 Y-biotin (3-step RIT) and 90 Y-DOTATOC can be administered with acceptable radiation doses to normal organs

  20. PET SUV correlates with radionuclide uptake in peptide receptor therapy in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Buck, Andreas K.; Samnick, Samuel; Kreissl, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Loehr, Mario [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Wuerzburg (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate whether the tumour uptake of radionuclide in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of meningioma can be predicted by a PET scan with {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin analogue. In this pilot trial, 11 meningioma patients with a PET scan indicating somatostatin receptor expression received PRRT with 7.4 GBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC or {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE, followed by external beam radiotherapy. A second PET scan was scheduled for 3 months after therapy. During PRRT, multiple whole-body scans and a SPECT/CT scan of the head and neck region were acquired and used to determine the kinetics and dose in the voxel with the highest radionuclide uptake within the tumour. Maximum voxel dose and retention of activity 1 h after administration in PRRT were compared to the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) in the meningiomas from the PET scans before and after therapy. The median SUV{sub max} in the meningiomas was 13.7 (range 4.3 to 68.7), and the maximum fractional radionuclide uptake in voxels of size 0.11 cm{sup 3} was a median of 23.4 x 10{sup -6} (range 0.4 x 10{sup -6} to 68.3 x 10{sup -6}). A strong correlation was observed between SUV{sub max} and the PRRT radionuclide tumour retention in the voxels with the highest uptake (Spearman's rank test, P < 0.01). Excluding one patient who showed large differences in biokinetics between PET and PRRT and another patient with incomplete data, linear regression analysis indicated significant correlations between SUV{sub max} and the therapeutic uptake (r = 0.95) and between SUV{sub max} and the maximum voxel dose from PRRT (r = 0.76). Observed absolute deviations from the values expected from regression were a median of 5.6 x 10{sup -6} (maximum 9.3 x 10{sup -6}) for the voxel fractional radionuclide uptake and 0.40 Gy per GBq (maximum 0.85 Gy per GBq) {sup 177}Lu for the voxel dose from PRRT. PET with {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues allows the pretherapeutic assessment of tumour

  1. Assessments for high dose radionuclide therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in the biotechnology of cell specific targeting of cancer and the increased number of clinical trials involving treatment of cancer patients with radiolabelled antibodies, peptides, and similar delivery vehicles have led to an increase in the number of high dose radionuclide therapy procedures. Optimised radionuclide therapy for cancer treatment is based on the concept of absorbed dose to the dose limiting normal organ or tissue. The limiting normal tissue is often the red marrow, but it may sometimes be the lungs, liver, intestinal tract, or kidneys. Appropriate treatment planning requires assessment of radiation dose to several internal organs and tissues, and usually involves biodistribution studies in the patient using a tracer amount of radionuclide bound to the targeting agent and imaged at sequential timepoints using a planar gamma camera. Time-activity curves are developed from the imaging data for the major organ tissues of concern, for the whole body and sometimes for selected tumours. Patient specific factors often require that dose estimates be customised for each patient. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration regulates the experimental use of investigational new drugs and requires 'reasonable calculation of radiation absorbed dose to the whole body and to critical organs' using the methods prescribed by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. Review of high dose studies shows that some are conducted with minimal dosimetry, that the marrow dose is difficult to establish and is subject to large uncertainties. Despite the general availability of software, internal dosimetry methods often seem to be inconsistent from one clinical centre to another. (author)

  2. Tinnitus retraining therapy--the experiences in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchova, L

    2005-01-01

    Since Mai 1999 Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) according to Jastreboff has been used in the management of 55 patients with tinnitus of various origin. Tinnitus isn't a disease, it is only a symptom. Therefore we needed to do an exact examination of the patient. We needed to apply causal therapy whenever it was possible. After six months of continuous therapy more than 50% patients reported improvement of tinnitus or it has disappeared. Concomitantly, we found hyperacusis, hypersensitivity to loud sounds. We could not assert that it was the cause or the consequence of the tinnitus. Considering these findings, it would appear TRT can be useful for extending the possibilities of tinnitus treatment. (Tab. 5, Fig. 1, Ref. 13.)

  3. Potentiation of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy by the PARP inhibitor olaparib

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nonnekens (Julie); M. van Kranenburg (Melissa); C.E.M.T. Beerens (Cecile); M. Suker (Mustafa); M. Doukas (Michael); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); M. de Jong (Marcel); D.C. van Gent (Dik)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMetastases expressing tumor-specific receptors can be targeted and treated by binding of radiolabeled peptides (peptide receptor radionuclide therapy or PRRT). For example, patients with metastasized somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can be treated with

  4. Dosimetric model for antibody targeted radionuclide therapy of tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, W.T.; Barrett, A.

    1990-01-01

    Although encouraging results have been obtained using systemic radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of cancer, it is likely that regional applications may prove more effective. One such strategy is the treatment of central nervous system leukemia in children by intrathecal instillation of targeting or nontargeting beta particle emitting radionuclide carriers. The beta particle dosimetry of the spine is assessed, assuming that the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid compartment can be adequately represented by a cylindrical annulus. The radionuclides investigated were 90 Y, 131 I, 67 Cu, and 199 Au. It is shown that the radiation dose to the cord can be significantly reduced using short range beta particle emitters and that there is little advantage in using targeting carriers with these radionuclides. 199 Au and 67 Cu also have the advantage of having a suitable gamma emission for imaging, permitting pretherapy imaging and dosimetric calculations to be undertaken prior to therapy. If these methods prove successful, it may be possible to replace the external beam component used in the treatment of central nervous system leukemia in children by intrathecal radionuclide therapy, thus reducing or avoiding side effects such as growth and intellectual impairment

  5. Clinical trial to compare tinnitus masking and tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, J A; Schechter, M A; Zaugg, T L; Griest, S; Jastreboff, P J; Vernon, J A; Kaelin, C; Meikle, M B; Lyons, K S; Stewart, B J

    2006-12-01

    Both tinnitus masking (TM) and tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) can be effective therapies for amelioration of tinnitus. TM may be more effective for patients in the short term, but with continued treatment TRT may produce the greatest effects. Although TM and TRT have been used for many years, research has not documented definitively the efficacy of these methods. The present study was a controlled clinical trial to prospectively evaluate the clinical efficacy of these two methods for US military veterans with severe tinnitus. Over 800 veterans were screened to ensure that enrolled patients had tinnitus of sufficient severity to justify 18 months of individualized treatment. Qualifying patients (n=123) were placed quasi-randomly (alternating placement) into treatment with either TM or TRT. Treatment was administered at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Outcomes of treatment were evaluated primarily using three self-administered tinnitus questionnaires (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire, Tinnitus Severity Index). Findings are presented from the three written questionnaires with respect to three categories of patients: describing tinnitus as a 'moderate,' 'big,' and 'very big' problem at baseline. Based on effect sizes, both groups showed considerable improvement overall. In general, TM effects remained fairly constant over time while TRT effects improved incrementally. For the patients with a 'moderate' and 'big' problem, TM provided the greatest benefit at 3 and 6 months; benefit to these TRT patients was slightly greater at 12 months, and much greater at 18 months. For patients with a 'very big' problem, TM provided the greatest benefit at 3 months. For these latter patients, results were about the same between groups at 6 months, and improvement for TRT was much greater at 12 months, with further gains at 18 months.

  6. What is the role of the bystander response in radionuclide therapies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren eBrady

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide therapy for cancer is undergoing a renaissance, with a wide range of radionuclide and clinical delivery systems currently under investigation. Dosimetry at the cellular and subcellular level is complex with inhomogeneity and incomplete targeting of all cells such that some tumour cells will receive little or no direct radiation energy. There is now sufficient preclinical evidence of a bystander response which can modulate the biology of these unirradiated cells with current research demonstrating both protective and inhibitory responses. Dependence upon fraction of irradiated cells has also been found has and the presence of functional gap junctions appears to be import for several bystander responses. The selection of either high or low LET radionuclides may be critical. While low LET radionuclides appear to have a bystander response proportional to dose, the dose-response from high LET radionuclides are more complex. In media transfer experiments a U shaped response curve has been demonstrated for high LET treatments. However this U shaped response has not been seen with co-culture experiments and its relevance remains uncertain. For high LET treatments there is a suggestion that dose rate effects may also be important with inhibitory effects noted with 125I labelling study and a stimulatory seen with 123I labelling in one study.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of late-onset hypogonadism: systematic review and meta-analysis of TRT outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, G; Rastrelli, G; Maggi, M

    2013-08-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a relatively common conditions affecting the aging male. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding LOH and its interaction with general health. LOH is often comorbid to obesity and several chronic diseases. For this reason lifestyle modifications should be strongly encouraged in LOH subjects with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and good treatment balance of chronic diseases. Medical therapy of LOH should be individualized depending on the etiology of the disease and the patient's expectations. Available evidence seems to suggest that testosterone replacement therapy is able to improve central obesity (subjects with MetS) and glycometabolic control (patients with MetS and T2DM), as well as to increase lean body mass (HIV, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), along with insulin resistance (MetS) and peripheral oxygenation (chronic kidney diseases). However, it should be recognized that the number of studies on benefits of T supplementation is too limited to draw final conclusions. Longer and larger studies are needed to better clarify the role of TRT in such chronic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Targeted radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours: principles and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Lewington, Val; Grossman, Ashley B

    2010-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours comprise a group of neoplasms with variable clinical behaviour. Their growth and spread is often very slow and initially asymptomatic, and thus they are often metastatic at the time of diagnosis and incurable by surgery. An exciting therapeutic strategy for cytoreduction, both for stabilisation of tumour growth and inhibition of hormone production, is the use of targeted radionuclide therapy. Evidence from large-scale, randomised, placebo-controlled trials is very difficult to obtain in these rare diseases, but current data appear promising. It is timely to review the principles underlying the use of these therapies, together with the clinical outcomes to date and potential directions for future research. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Guide to conducting tinnitus retraining therapy initial and follow-up interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James A; Jastreboff, Margaret M; Jastreboff, Pawel J; Schechter, Martin A; Fausti, Stephen A

    2003-01-01

    Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) is a structured method of tinnitus treatment that has been performed since 1990. The TRT Initial Interview form was developed to guide clinicians in obtaining essential information from patients that would specify treatment needs. The TRT Follow-up Interview form is similar to the initial interview form and is designed to evaluate outcomes of treatment. The clinician administers these forms verbally. The forms have been used in a highly abbreviated format with the potential for inconsistent interview administration between examiners. This project was to expand the forms to provide specific wording for each question. The expanded forms are presented in this article, and the intent of each question is explained. Standardized administration of these interview forms will facilitate greater uniformity in the initial evaluation and outcomes analyses of patients treated with TRT.

  10. Nuclear medicine in Uzbekistan and current status of radionuclide therapy in the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, N.; Khodjibekova, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The population of Uzbekistan is 26 million and to cater to this population we have only two nuclear medicine departments; one at the Clinical Centre for Surgery and the other at the Institute of Endocrinology, both situated in Tashkent, the capital city of Uzbekistan. Over the years through its own initiatives and through the support provided by several International Organizations including the IAEA, Uzbekistan has been able to marginally improve its nuclear medicine services. SPECT imaging was introduced through generous support from IAEA in the year 2001. As a result of this, the country is now able to provide modern in vivo nuclear medicine service to the population in a limited scale. At the Clinical Centre for Surgery we are able to provide gamma camera and SPECT imaging services to patients suffering from various nephro-urological, cardiac, neuro and oncological disorders. The other nuclear medicine centre at the Institute of Endocrinology does not have any modern imaging system. However it has been engaged in providing radionuclide therapy service for thyroid diseases like thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. From the year 1983 to 1999 the country has reported a total number of 6374 cases of Thyroid Cancer. This number is growing each year, for example the incidence of thyroid cancer in 1989 was 1.95 per 100,000, which has grown to 2.39 per 100,000 in 1999. While the Institute of Endocrinology provides therapeutic service to thyroid diseases, the main role of the Nuclear Medicine Department of Republic Specialized Center of Surgery is in following-up of patients after therapy by performing large dose I-131 whole body imaging, screening for metastases and for assessment of results of radioactive iodine therapy. Besides treating thyroid diseases with I-131 limited services are also available for treatment of polycythemia vera rubra with P-32 and radionuclide therapy for metastatic bone pain. Radionuclide therapy is growing rapidly around the world

  11. THERANOSTICS: From Molecular Imaging Using Ga-68 Labeled Tracers and PET/CT to Personalized Radionuclide Therapy - The Bad Berka Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Richard P; Kulkarni, Harshad R

    2012-01-01

    The acronym THERANOSTICS epitomizes the inseparability of diagnosis and therapy, the pillars of medicine and takes into account personalized management of disease for a specific patient. Molecular phenotypes of neoplasms can be determined by molecular imaging with specific probes using positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or optical methods, so that the treatment is specifically targeted against the tumor and its environment. To meet these demands, we need to define the targets, ligands, coupling and labeling chemistry, the most appropriate radionuclides, biodistribution modifiers, and finally select the right patients for the personalized treatment. THERANOSTICS of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) using Ga-68 labeled tracers for diagnostics with positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT), and using Lu-177 or other metallic radionuclides for radionuclide therapy by applying the same peptide proves that personalized radionuclide therapy today is already a fact and not a fiction.

  12. Impact of testosterone replacement therapy on thromboembolism, heart disease and obstructive sleep apnoea in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Alexander P; Hanske, Julian; Jiang, Wei; Kwon, Nicollette K; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Kathrins, Martin; Learn, Peter A; Sun, Maxine; Haider, Adil H; Basaria, Shehzad; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2018-05-01

    To assess the association of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) with thromboembolism, cardiovascular disease (stroke, coronary artery disease and heart failure) and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). A cohort of 3 422 male US military service members, retirees and their dependents, aged 40-64 years, was identified, who were prescribed TRT between 2006 and 2010 for low testosterone levels. The men in this cohort were matched on a 1:1 basis for age and comorbidities to men without a prescription for TRT. Event-free survival and rates of thromboembolism, cardiovascular events and OSA were compared between men using TRT and the control group, with a median follow-up of 17 months. There was no difference in event-free survival with regard to thromboembolism (P = 0.239). Relative to controls, men using TRT had improved cardiovascular event-free survival (P = 0.004), mainly as a result of lower incidence of coronary artery disease (P = 0.008). The risk of OSA was higher in TRT users (2-year risk 16.5% [95% confidence interval 15.1-18.1] in the TRT group vs 12.7% [11.4-14.1] in the control group. This study adds to growing evidence that the cardiovascular risk associated with TRT may be lower than once feared. The elevated risk of OSA in men using TRT is noteworthy. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Report of a Technical Meeting on ''Alpha emitting radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for therapy''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Considering the high potential of α-emitters for future development of radionuclide therapy, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a Technical Meeting on ‘Alpha Emitting Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals for Therapy’, from June 24 to 28, 2013, at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna with the purpose of gathering eminent Experts in the field and discuss with them the status and future perspectives of the field. Sixteen Experts and two External Observers from ten different countries, and four IAEA Technical Officers attended this meeting. Outstanding lectures have been presented covering all relevant aspects of α-therapy, which were followed by extensive discussions and analysis. Selected arguments encompassed production methods and availability of alpha-emitting radionuclides, labelling chemistry of alpha-emittting radioelements, design and development of target-specific radiopharmaceuticals, physical principles of alpha-particle dosimetry and advanced dosimetric models, biological effects of alpha radiation at the cellular level, on-going preclinical and clinical studies with new radiopharmaceuticals, results of clinical trials on the use of radium-223 chloride solutions for the treatment of metastatic bone cancer. The broad scientific background of invited components of the Experts’ panel conferred a strong interdisciplinary trait to the overall discussion and stimulated a critical analysis of this emerging unexplored field. Results of this comprehensive overview on alpha therapy, including recommendations to the Agency on suitable initiatives that may help to promote and spread the knowledge to Members States on this emerging therapeutic modality, are summarized in the present Report

  14. Outcomes of clinical trial: tinnitus masking versus tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James A; Schechter, Martin A; Zaugg, Tara L; Griest, Susan; Jastreboff, Pawel J; Vernon, Jack A; Kaelin, Christine; Meikle, Mary B; Lyons, Karen S; Stewart, Barbara J

    2006-02-01

    A controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate prospectively the clinical efficacy of tinnitus masking (TM) and tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) in military veterans having clinically significant tinnitus. Qualifying patients were placed into the two groups in an alternating manner (to avoid selection bias), and treatment was administered at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Outcomes of treatment were evaluated using three self-administered tinnitus questionnaires (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire, Tinnitus Severity Index) and the verbally administered TRT interview forms. Findings are presented from the three written questionnaires, and from two of the interview questions (percentage time aware of, and annoyed by, tinnitus). Outcomes were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis, using a multilevel modeling approach. Of the 123 patients enrolled, 118 were included in the analysis. Both groups showed significant declines (improvements) on these measures, with the TRT decline being significantly greater than for TM. The greater declines in TRT compared to TM occurred most strongly in patients who began treatment with a "very big" tinnitus problem. When patients began treatment with a "moderate" tinnitus problem, the benefits of TRT compared to TM were more modest.

  15. THERANOSTICS: From Molecular Imaging Using Ga-68 Labeled Tracers and PET/CT to Personalized Radionuclide Therapy - The Bad Berka Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Baum, Harshad R. Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The acronym THERANOSTICS epitomizes the inseparability of diagnosis and therapy, the pillars of medicine and takes into account personalized management of disease for a specific patient. Molecular phenotypes of neoplasms can be determined by molecular imaging with specific probes using positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, or optical methods, so that the treatment is specifically targeted against the tumor and its environment. To meet these demands, we need to define the targets, ligands, coupling and labeling chemistry, the most appropriate radionuclides, biodistribution modifiers, and finally select the right patients for the personalized treatment. THERANOSTICS of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs using Ga-68 labeled tracers for diagnostics with positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT, and using Lu-177 or other metallic radionuclides for radionuclide therapy by applying the same peptide proves that personalized radionuclide therapy today is already a fact and not a fiction.

  16. Dosimetric characterization of radionuclides for systemic tumor therapy: Influence of particle range, photon emission, and subcellular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusijaervi, Helena; Bernhardt, Peter; Ericsson, Thomas; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Various radionuclides have been proposed for systemic tumor therapy. However, in most dosimetric analysis of proposed radionuclides the charged particles are taken into consideration while the potential photons are ignored. The photons will cause undesirable irradiation of normal tissue, and increase the probability of toxicity in, e.g., the bone marrow. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties according to particle range, photon emission, and subcellular radionuclide distribution, of a selection of radionuclides used or proposed for radionuclide therapy, and to investigate the possibility of dividing radionuclides into groups according to their dosimetric properties. The absorbed dose rate to the tumors divided by the absorbed dose rate to the normal tissue (TND) was estimated for different tumor sizes in a mathematical model of the human body. The body was simulated as a 70-kg ellipsoid and the tumors as spheres of different sizes (1 ng-100 g). The radionuclides were either assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the entire tumor and normal tissue, or located in the nucleus or the cytoplasm of the tumor cells and on the cell membrane of the normal cells. Fifty-nine radionuclides were studied together with monoenergetic electrons, positrons, and alpha particles. The tumor and normal tissue were assumed to be of water density. The activity concentration ratio between the tumor and normal tissue was assumed to be 25. The radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons combined with a low photon contribution, and the alpha emitters showed high TND values for most tumor sizes. Electrons with higher energy gave reduced TND values for small tumors, while a higher photon contribution reduced the TND values for large tumors. Radionuclides with high photon contributions showed low TND value for all tumor sizes studied. The radionuclides studied could be divided into four main groups according to their TND values: beta emitters, Auger electron

  17. Quality of life assessment in radionuclide therapy: a feasibility study of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire in palliative 131I-lipiodol therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brans, B.; Lambert, B.; De Beule, E.; De Winter, F.; Dierckx, R.A.; Van Belle, S.; Van Vlierberghe, H.; De Hemptinne, B.

    2002-01-01

    The good tolerance of radionuclide therapy has frequently been proposed as a major advantage. This study explored the feasibility of using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire in palliative iodine-131 lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Questionnaires were completed during interviews in which all symptoms, co-morbidity and medication were assessed at baseline within 1 week before 131 I-lipiodol therapy, and subsequently after 1 and 3 months, in 20 patients treated with locoregional, intra-arterial 131 I-lipiodol therapy with or without cisplatin. Principal observations were that (1) a number of important scales, i.e. overall quality of life, physical functioning and pain, worsened between 0 and 3 months after 131 I-lipiodol therapy, irrespective of tumour response, and (2) the occurrence of clinical side-effects was associated with a negative impact on quality of life and physical functioning 1 and 3 months after 131 I-lipiodol. The QLQ-C30 can be regarded as a feasible method for quality of life assessment in 131 I-lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and possibly in other radionuclide therapies. These observations should be related to the impact of other treatment modalities on quality of life. (orig.)

  18. Simulation of transition radiation and electron identification ability of the ATLAS TRT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outer most tracking detector of the ATLAS experiment. In addition as functioning as atracking detector, it is capable of providing particle identification information through the emission and subsequent absorption and detection of transition radiation....... Below the effort of simulating transition radiation production and detector response is discussed, with emphasis on the data/simulation agreement and tuning. © 2012 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Testosterone replacement therapy and the internet: an assessment of providers' health-related web site information content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Daniel T; Masson, Puneet; Brannigan, Robert E

    2015-04-01

    To compare how providers of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in large metropolitan cities promote androgen replacement on their patient-oriented Web sites. TRT provider Web sites were identified using Google search and the terms "Testosterone replacement" and the name of the 5 most populous US cities. These Web sites were assessed for (1) type or specialty of medical provider, (2) discussion of the benefits and risks of TRT, and (3) industry affiliations. In total, 75 Web sites were evaluated. Twenty-seven of the 75 clinics (36%) were directed by nonphysicians, 35 (47%) were overseen by nonurology or nonendocrine physicians, and only 13 (17%) were specialist managed. Fourteen of 75 (18.6%) Web sites disclosed industry relationships. Ninety-five percent of Web sites promoted the benefits of TRT including improved sex drive, cognitive improvement, increased muscle strength, and/or improved energy. Only 20 of 75 Web sites (26.6%) described any side effect of TRT. Web sites directed by specialists were twice as likely to discuss risks of TRT compared with nonspecialist providers (41% vs 20%; odds ratio = 2.77; P <.01). Nine of 75 (12%) of all Web sites actually refuted that TRT was associated with significant side effects. Urologists and endocrinologists are in the minority of providers promoting TRT on the Internet. Specialists are more likely to discuss risks associated with TRT although the majority of surveyed Web sites that promote TRT do not mention treatment risks. There is substantial variability in quality and quantity of information on provider Web sites, which may contribute to misinformation regarding this prevalent health issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radionuclide therapy: regional and systemic routes of administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1991-01-01

    The optimal sequencing and integration of radiopharmaceutical therapy with respect to the multiple and competing therapeutic modalities is examined. It is estimated that the central goal of therapeutic nuclear medicine is to increase radiopharmaceutical delivery to tumour targets while sparing sensitive normal tissues. Among the factors to be considered in the choice of therapeutic radionuclides are: the decay mode, gamma-ray yield, half-lives and chemical reactivity. Several routes of administration are discussed and a number of manipulations which may be used to further improve radioparmaceutical delivery are outlined. The difficulty to perform accurate radiation dosimetry is also briefly examined. 14 refs., 1 tab

  1. Recovery of spermatogenesis following testosterone replacement therapy or anabolic-androgenic steroid use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Abram McBride

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT for hypogonadism continues to rise, particularly in younger men who may wish to remain fertile. Concurrently, awareness of a more pervasive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS within the general population has been appreciated. Both TRT and AAS can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis resulting in diminution of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is important that clinicians recognize previous TRT or AAS use in patients presenting for infertility treatment. Cessation of TRT or AAS use may result in spontaneous recovery of normal spermatogenesis in a reasonable number of patients if allowed sufficient time for recovery. However, some patients may not recover normal spermatogenesis or tolerate waiting for spontaneous recovery. In such cases, clinicians must be aware of the pathophysiologic derangements of the HPG axis related to TRT or AAS use and the pharmacologic agents available to reverse them. The available agents include injectable gonadotropins, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors, but their off-label use is poorly described in the literature, potentially creating a knowledge gap for the clinician. Reviewing their use clinically for the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and other HPG axis abnormalities can familiarize the clinician with the manner in which they can be used to recover spermatogenesis after TRT or AAS use.

  2. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem Bassil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nazem Bassil1, Saad Alkaade2, John E Morley1,31Division of Geriatric Medicine; 2Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 3GRECC, VA Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USAAbstract: Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT.Keywords: hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease

  3. uPAR Targeted Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-DOTA-AE105 Inhibits Dissemination of Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Juhl, Karina; Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is implicated in cancer invasion and metastatic development in prostate cancer and provides therefore an attractive molecular target for both imaging and therapy. In this study, we provide the first in vivo data on an antimetastatic effect...... of uPAR radionuclide targeted therapy in such lesions and show the potential of uPAR positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for identifying small foci of metastatic cells in a mouse model of disseminating human prostate cancer. Two radiolabeled ligands were generated in high purity and specific...... value of 100 nM in a competitive binding experiment. In vivo, uPAR targeted radionuclide therapy significantly reduced the number of metastatic lesions in the disseminated metastatic prostate cancer model, when compared to vehicle and nontargeted 177Lu groups (p

  4. Exploring Radiotherapy Targeting Strategy and Dose: A Pooled Analysis of Cooperative Group Trials of Combined Modality Therapy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Steven E; Fan, Wen; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Vokes, Everett E; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Karen; Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei

    2018-04-21

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy(CRT) is standard therapy for locally-advanced non-small-cell lung cancer(LA-NSCLC)patients. This study was performed to examine thoracic radiotherapy(TRT) parameters and their impact on patient survival. We collected Individual patient data(IPD) from 3600LA-NSCLC patients participating in 16 cooperative group trials of concurrent CRT. The primary TRT parameters examined included field design strategy(elective nodal irradiation(ENI) compared to involved field TRT(IF-TRT)), total dose, and biologically effective dose(BED). Hazard ratios(HRs) for overall survival were calculated with univariable and multivariable Cox models. TRT doses ranged from 60 to 74 Gy with most treatments administered once-daily. ENI was associated with poorer survival than IF-TRT(univariable HR,1.37;95%CI,1.24-1.51,pENI patients were 24 and 16 months, respectively. Patients were divided into 3 dose groups: low total dose(60 Gy), medium total dose(>60Gy-66Gy) and high total dose(>66Gy-74 Gy). With reference to the low dose group, the multivariable HR's were 1.08 for the medium dose group(95%CI=0.93-1.25) and 1.12 for the high dose group(CI=0.97-1.30).The univariate p=0.054 and multivariable p=0.17. BED was grouped as follows: low(55.5 Gy 10 ). With reference to the low BED group, the HR was 1.00(95%CI=0.85-1.18) for the medium BED group and 1.10(95%CI=0.93-1.31) for the high BED group. The univariable p=0.076 and multivariable p=0.16. For LA-NSCLC patients treated with concurrent CRT, IF-TRT was associated with significantly better survival than ENI-TRT. TRT total and BED dose levels were not significantly associated with patient survival. Future progress will require research focusing on better systemic therapy and TRT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Dose-response analysis of testosterone replacement therapy in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Aya; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Sako, Tomoko; Mahmood, Sabina; Kaku, Haruki; Nasu, Yasutomo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) is a conflict between a person's actual physical gender and the one they identify him or herself with. Testosterone is the key agent in the medical treatment of female to male GID patients. We conducted a dose-response analysis of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in 138 patients to determine the onset of the therapeutic effects. The TRT consisted of intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate and patients were divided into three groups; 250 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 125 mg every two weeks. The onset of deepening of voice, increase in facial hair and cessation of menses was evaluated in each group. At one month after the start of TRT, the onset of these physical changes was more prevalent in the group receiving the higher dose of testosterone, and there were dose-dependent effects observed between the three treatment groups. On the other hand, at six months after the start of TRT, most of the patients had achieved treatment responses and there were no dose-dependent effects with regard to the percentage of patients with therapeutic effects. No significant side effects were observed in any of the treatment groups. We demonstrated that the early onset of the treatment effects of TRT is dose-dependent, but within six months of starting TRT, all three doses were highly effective. Current study provides useful information to determine the initial dose of TRT and to suggest possible changes that should be made in the continuous dosage for long term TRT.

  6. Referent 3D tumor model at cellular level in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaic, R.; Ilic, R.D.; Petrovic, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim Conventional internal dosimetry has a lot of limitations because of tumor dose nonuniformity. The best approach for absorbed dose at cellular level for different tumors in radionuclide therapy calculation is Monte Carlo method. The purpose of this study is to introduce referent tumor 3D model at cellular level for Monte Carlo simulation study in radionuclide therapy. Material and Methods The moment when tumor is detectable and when same therapy can start is time period in which referent 3D tumor model at cellular level was defined. In accordance with tumor growth rate at that moment he was a sphere with same radius (10 000 μm). In that tumor there are cells or cluster of cells, which are randomly distributed spheres. Distribution of cells/cluster of cells can be calculated from histology data but it was assumed that this distribution is normal with the same mean value and standard deviation (100±50 mm). Second parameter, which was selected to define referent tumor, is volume density of cells (30%). In this referent tumor there are no necroses. Stroma is defined as space between spheres with same concentration of materials as in spheres. Results: Referent tumor defined on this way have about 2,2 10 5 cells or cluster of cells random distributed. Using this referent 3D tumor model and for same concentration of radionuclides (1:100) and energy of beta emitters (1000 keV) which are homogeneously distributed in labeled cells absorbed dose for all cells was calculated. Simulations are done using FOTELP Monte Carlo code, which is modified for this purposes. Results of absorbed dose in cells are given in numerical values (1D distribution) and as the images (2D or 3D distributions). Conclusion Geometrical module for Monte Carlo simulation study can be standardized by introducing referent 3D tumor model at cellular level. This referent 3D tumor model gives most realistic presentation of different tumors at the moment of their detectability. Referent 3D tumor model at

  7. Methodology for quantification of radionuclides used in therapy by bioanalysis 'in vitro'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C.; Sousa, Wanderson O.; Mesquita, Sueli A.; Santos, Maristela S.; Oliveira, S.M. Velasques de

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil, the radionuclides used for therapy are 131 ; 153 Sm, 90 Y and 177 Lu, under routine or experimentally. The quantification of the radiopharmaceutical activity excreted by the patient through the bioassay method, can be an important tool for individualized dosimetry, aiming the planning of subsequent therapies. The Bioanalysis In Vitro Laboratory (LBIOVT) of the Service of Individual monitoring (SEMIN) of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Brazil, has equipment and procedures for gamma and beta spectrometry. These detection systems are calibrated in energy and efficiency, and used standard reference sources provided by the National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LMNRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ). The LBIOVT Quality System follows the guidelines of the ISO-ABNT-17025 standard and annually, the laboratory participates in national (PNI) and international (PROCORAD). With respect to the excreta samples from patients, these are collected immediately after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. During the first 24 hours, they are collected with the patient hospitalized, and depending upon the physical half-life of the radionuclide can also be collected in the patient's home. Both in hospital and at home, the excreta is handled, stored and transported in accordance with standards for clinical research, radiation protection and transport of radioactive and biological materials. The specific activity radionuclide is referenced to the date and time of collection, allowing further evaluation of biological individual half-life. The care with the registration of excreted volumes as well as possible loss of excreta during collection, may interfere with the interpretation of the measures, since the results are provided in specific activity (Bq / L). Regarding the bioassay laboratory, these results are reliable when the laboratory is certified and participates in intercomparison programs of measures and methods. The laboratory

  8. Report on the 1. research coordination meeting on 'Development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on 177Lu for radionuclide therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) employing radiopharmaceuticals labelled with emitting radionuclides is fast emerging as an important part of nuclear medicine. Radionuclide therapy is effectively utilized for bone pain palliation, thus providing significant improvement in quality of life of patients suffering from pain resulting from bone metastasis. Targeting primary diseases by using specific carrier molecules labelled with radionuclides is also widely investigated and efficacious products have been emerging for the treatment of Lymphoma and Neuroendocrine tumours. In order to ensure the wider use of radiopharmaceuticals, it is essential to carefully consider the choice of radionuclides that together with the carrier molecules will give suitable pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy. The criteria for the selection of a radionuclide for radiotherapy are suitable decay characteristics and amenable chemistry. However, the practical considerations in selecting a radionuclide for targeted therapy are availability in high radionuclidic purity as well as high specific activity and low production cost and comfortable delivery logistics. 177 Lu is one of the isotopes emerging as a clear choice for therapy. Worldwide, the isotope is under investigation for approximately 30 different clinical applications, including treatment of colon cancer, metastatic bone cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer. 177 Lu decays with a half-life of 6.71 d by emission of particles with E max of 497 keV (78.6%), 384 keV (9.1%) and 176 keV (12.2%). It also emits photons of 113 keV (6.4%) and 208 keV (11%), that are ideally suited for imaging the in-vivo localization and dosimetric calculations applying a gamma camera. The physical half-life of 177 Lu is comparable to that of 131 I, the most widely used therapeutic radionuclide. The long halflife of 177 Lu provides logistic advantage for production, QA/QC of the products as well as feasibility to supply the products to places

  9. Preparation and evaluation of an astatine-211-labeled sigma receptor ligand for alpha radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Mizuno, Yoshiaki; Washiyama, Kohshin; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Naruto; Kozaka, Takashi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Shinohara, Atsushi; Odani, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sigma receptors are overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, making them potential targets for radionuclide receptor therapy. We have previously synthesized and evaluated 131 I-labeled (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-[ 131 I]pIV], which has a high affinity for sigma receptors. Therefore, (+)-[ 131 I]pIV significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in tumor-bearing mice. In the present study, we report the synthesis and the in vitro and in vivo characterization of (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV, an 211 At-labeled sigma receptor ligand, that has potential use in alpha-radionuclide receptor therapy. Methods: The radiolabeled sigma receptor ligand (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV was prepared using a standard halogenation reaction generating a 91% radiochemical yield with 98% purity after HPLC purification. The partition coefficient of (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV was measured. Cellular uptake experiments and in vivo biodistribution experiments were performed using a mixed solution of (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV and (+)-[ 125 I]pIV; the human prostate cancer cell line DU-145, which expresses high levels of the sigma receptors, and DU-145 tumor-bearing mice. Results: The lipophilicity of (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV was similar to that of (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. DU-145 cellular uptake and the biodistribution patterns in DU-145 tumor-bearing mice at 1 h post-injection were also similar between (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV and (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. Namely, (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV demonstrated high uptake and retention in tumor via binding to sigma receptors. Conclusion: These results indicate that (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV could function as an new agent for alpha-radionuclide receptor therapy.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of an astatine-211-labeled sigma receptor ligand for alpha radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Mizuno, Yoshiaki; Washiyama, Kohshin; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Naruto; Kozaka, Takashi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Shinohara, Atsushi; Odani, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Sigma receptors are overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, making them potential targets for radionuclide receptor therapy. We have previously synthesized and evaluated (131)I-labeled (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-[(131)I]pIV], which has a high affinity for sigma receptors. Therefore, (+)-[(131)I]pIV significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in tumor-bearing mice. In the present study, we report the synthesis and the in vitro and in vivo characterization of (+)-[(211)At]pAtV, an (211)At-labeled sigma receptor ligand, that has potential use in alpha-radionuclide receptor therapy. The radiolabeled sigma receptor ligand (+)-[(211)At]pAtV was prepared using a standard halogenation reaction generating a 91% radiochemical yield with 98% purity after HPLC purification. The partition coefficient of (+)-[(211)At]pAtV was measured. Cellular uptake experiments and in vivo biodistribution experiments were performed using a mixed solution of (+)-[(211)At]pAtV and (+)-[(125)I]pIV; the human prostate cancer cell line DU-145, which expresses high levels of the sigma receptors, and DU-145 tumor-bearing mice. The lipophilicity of (+)-[(211)At]pAtV was similar to that of (+)-[(125)I]pIV. DU-145 cellular uptake and the biodistribution patterns in DU-145 tumor-bearing mice at 1h post-injection were also similar between (+)-[(211)At]pAtV and (+)-[(125)I]pIV. Namely, (+)-[(211)At]pAtV demonstrated high uptake and retention in tumor via binding to sigma receptors. These results indicate that (+)-[(211)At]pAtV could function as an new agent for alpha-radionuclide receptor therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intravenous streptokinase therapy in acute myocardial infarction: Assessment of therapy effects by quantitative 201Tl myocardial imaging (including SPECT) and radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehn, H.; Bialonczyk, C.; Mostbeck, A.; Frohner, K.; Unger, G.; Steinbach, K.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate a potential beneficial effect of systemic streptokinase therapy in acute myocardial infarction, 36 patients treated with streptokinase intravenously were assessed by radionuclide ventriculography and quantitative 201 Tl myocardial imaging (including SPECT) in comparison with 18 conventionally treated patients. Patients after thrombolysis had significantly higher EF, PFR, and PER as well as fewer wall motion abnormalities compared with controls. These differences were also observed in the subset of patients with anterior wall infarction (AMI), but not in patients with inferior wall infarction (IMI). Quantitative 201 Tl imaging demonstrated significantly smaller percent myocardial defects and fewer pathological stress segments in patients with thrombolysis compared with controls. The same differences were also found in both AMI and IMI patients. Our data suggest a favorable effect of intravenous streptokinase on recovery of left ventricular function and myocardial salvage. Radionuclide ventriculography and quantitative 201 Tl myocardial imaging seem to be reliable tools for objective assessment of therapy effects. (orig.)

  12. Basic survey project for Joint Implementation, etc. Blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT) project (Panzhihua Iron and Steel (Group) Company, People's Republic of China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a feasibility study was conducted on the energy conservation at Panzhihua Iron and Steel Company in Sichuan Province, China. In this project, the pressure energy of blast furnace is to be recovered in the form of electric power by installing the blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT). In the project, the pressure-reducing valve was removed, and the dry dust collector/dry TRT were installed to make the scale of electric power production largest. A model of TRT was installed at No. 4 blast furnace and is now in operation. In this project, TRTs are to be installed at Nos. 1, 2 and 3 blast furnaces. As a result of the study, the investment totaled 5.46 billion yen. The capacity of power generation by TRT is 16,890 kW, and the generated output is 137,822 MWh/y. Moreover, the amount of energy conservation is 36,467 toe/y, and the reduction amount of greenhouse effect gas emissions is 112,830 CO2-ton/y. The term of investment recovery is 8.3 years. The effect of reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions is 20.66 CO2-ton/y/million yen. (NEDO)

  13. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism independently influences recovery of male sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy in postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Delli Muti, Nicola; Corona, Giovanni; Maggi, Mario; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    Few and contradictory studies have evaluated the possible influence of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism on male sexual function. In this study we evaluated the role of AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism in the recovery of sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition which is often associated with hypopituitarism and in which the sexual benefits of TRT must be distinguished from those of pituitary-function replacement therapies. Fifteen men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT. Main outcome measures included sexual parameters as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire, levels of pituitary dependent hormones (total testosterone, free T3, free T4, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], prolactin), and results of genetic analysis (AR gene CAG repeat number). Plasma concentrations of free T3, free T4, cortisol, and prolactin did not vary significantly between the two phases, while testosterone and IGF-1 increased significantly after TRT. A significant improvement in all sexual parameters studied was found. The number of CAG triplets was negatively and significantly correlated with changes in all the sexual parameters, while opposite correlations were found between changes in sexual parameters and changes in testosterone levels; no correlation of change in IGF1 with change in sexual parameters was reported. On multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for changes in testosterone, nearly all the associations between the number of CAG triplets and changes in sexual parameters were confirmed. Shorter length AR gene CAG repeat number is associated with the recovery of sexual function after TRT in postsurgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, independently of the effects of concomitant pituitary-replacement therapies. © 2014 International Society

  14. Association between tinnitus retraining therapy and a tinnitus control instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mari; Soma, Keiko; Ando, Reiko

    2009-10-01

    Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT), which is an adaptation therapy for tinnitus based on the neurophysiological model proposed by Jastreboff in 1990,consists of directive counseling and acoustic therapy with a tinnitus control instrument (TCI) or other devices. For the past 5 years, our hospital has administered TRT characterized by the use of a TCI. In this study, we reviewed the clinical course of patients with tinnitus who presented to our outpatient clinic for tinnitus and hearing loss during the 3-year period from April 2004 to March 2007 and underwent TRT with a TCI. Among 188 patients with tinnitus (105 males and 83 females), 88 patients (51 males and 37 females, excluding dropouts) who purchased a TCI and continued therapy were included in the study. Significant improvement in Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores was found as early as 1 month of treatment and later compared with those on initial examination, suggesting that TRT with a TCI may be an effective treatment for tinnitus. Among the noises generated by the TCI, the sound pressure output from the TCI was set at just below tinnitus loudness level both of the first adjustment and the second adjustment. Speech noise and white noise were frequently selected, whereas high-frequency noise and pink noise were infrequently selected. Speech noise was most frequently selected at the first adjustment, and the number of patients selecting white noise increased at the second adjustment. The results that we compared the two also revealed that the mean hearing level and tinnitus loudness levels were higher in the white noise group than in the speech noise group, which suggested that the inner ear disorder was more harder in the white noise group. Both the THI score and VAS grade improved after 1 month of treatment in the speech noise group, whereas improvement in these parameters was observed in the white noise group after 6 months of treatment. These results suggest that it took

  15. Release criteria for patients having undergone radionuclide therapy and criteria for their crossing the state border of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.; Balonov, M.; Golikov, V.

    2011-01-01

    By means of a conservative dosimetry model, the values of operational radiological criteria for patients released from hospital-residual activity in a body and dose rate near the patient's body-are substantiated based on the effective dose limit of 5 mSv for persons helping the patient or living with him and 1 mSv for other adults and children. Two sets of operative criteria for radionuclides 125 I, 131 I, 153 Sm and 188 Re used in Russia for radionuclide therapy were derived. Release criteria for 125 I well differ from such values in other countries because in this work absorption of 125 I low-energy photon radiation in the patient was taken into account. When a patient having undergone radionuclide therapy crosses the frontier of Russia, high-sensitivity devices for radiation control at the custom can detect the patient. A simplified radiological assessment of the patient was suggested aimed at provision of radiation safety for patient companions in transport. (authors)

  16. Accelerator based Production of Auger-Electron-emitting Isotopes for Radionuclide Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisgaard, Helge

    Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron...... isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able...

  17. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article

  18. Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gann Ting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, α-, β-, and γ-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients.

  19. Performance and future development of the ASDBLR ASIC for the ATLAS TRT

    CERN Document Server

    Bevensee, B E; Newcomer, F M; Tyrrell, B; Van Berg, R; Williams, H H; Romaniouk, A

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS TRT straw tracker will consist of more than 420 K straw tubes filled with a Xenon-based fast gas located in a magnetic field of 2 T. Some tubes will operate at rates in excess of 20 MHz. Stringent signal processing goals $9 have been determined using both simulation tools and measurement standards set by hand tuned discrete component prototypes. These include the ability to detect the earliest clusters from ionizing tracks as well as energetic $9 transition radiation photons without baseline shifts in a low noise and low power design. We report on measurements of two ASIC's fabricated in different processes that appear to be capable of achieving these goals. (2 refs).

  20. Report on the 1. research coordination meeting on 'Development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on {sup 177}Lu for radionuclide therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) employing radiopharmaceuticals labelled with emitting radionuclides is fast emerging as an important part of nuclear medicine. Radionuclide therapy is effectively utilized for bone pain palliation, thus providing significant improvement in quality of life of patients suffering from pain resulting from bone metastasis. Targeting primary diseases by using specific carrier molecules labelled with radionuclides is also widely investigated and efficacious products have been emerging for the treatment of Lymphoma and Neuroendocrine tumours. In order to ensure the wider use of radiopharmaceuticals, it is essential to carefully consider the choice of radionuclides that together with the carrier molecules will give suitable pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy. The criteria for the selection of a radionuclide for radiotherapy are suitable decay characteristics and amenable chemistry. However, the practical considerations in selecting a radionuclide for targeted therapy are availability in high radionuclidic purity as well as high specific activity and low production cost and comfortable delivery logistics. {sup 177}Lu is one of the isotopes emerging as a clear choice for therapy. Worldwide, the isotope is under investigation for approximately 30 different clinical applications, including treatment of colon cancer, metastatic bone cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer. {sup 177}Lu decays with a half-life of 6.71 d by emission of particles with E{sub max} of 497 keV (78.6%), 384 keV (9.1%) and 176 keV (12.2%). It also emits photons of 113 keV (6.4%) and 208 keV (11%), that are ideally suited for imaging the in-vivo localization and dosimetric calculations applying a gamma camera. The physical half-life of {sup 177}Lu is comparable to that of {sup 131}I, the most widely used therapeutic radionuclide. The long halflife of {sup 177}Lu provides logistic advantage for production, QA/QC of the products as well as feasibility to

  1. Effectiveness and side-effects of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine neoplasms in Germany: A multi-institutional registry study with prospective follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörsch, Dieter; Ezziddin, Samer; Haug, Alexander; Gratz, Klaus Friedrich; Dunkelmann, Simone; Miederer, Matthias; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Krause, Bernd Joachim; Bengel, Frank M; Bartenstein, Peter; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Pöpperl, Gabriele; Baum, R P

    2016-05-01

    Monocentric and retrospective studies indicate effectiveness of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy targeting somatostatin receptors of neuroendocrine neoplasms. We assessed overall and progression-free survival and adverse events of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy by a multi-institutional, board certified registry with prospective follow-up in five centres in Germany. A total of 450 patients were included and followed for a mean of 24.4 months. Most patients had progressive low- or intermediate grade neuroendocrine neoplasms and 73% were pretreated with at least one therapy. Primary neuroendocrine neoplasms were mainly derived of pancreas (38%), small bowel (30%), unknown primary (19%) or bronchial system (4%). Patients were treated with Lutetium-177 in 54%, with Yttrium-90 in 17% and with both radionuclides in 29%. Overall and progression-free survival was determined with Kaplan-Meier curves and uni-variate log rank test Cox models. Median overall survival of all patients was 59 (95% confidence interval [CI] 49-68.9) months. Overall survival was significantly inferior in the patients treated with Yttrium-90 solely (hazard ratio, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.83-5.64) compared to any peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with Lutetium-177. Grade II (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 0.79-5.32) and grade III (hazard ratio, 4.22; 95% CI, 1.41-12.06) neuroendocrine neoplasms had significantly worse overall survival than grade I neuroendocrine neoplasms. Patients with small neuroendocrine neoplasms of small bowel had significantly increased survival (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.87) compared to neuroendocrine neoplasms of other locations. Median progression-free survival was 41 (35.9-46.1) months and significantly inferior in patients treated with Yttrium solely (hazard ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.71-4.55). Complete remission was observed in 5.6% of patients, 22.4% had a partial remission, 47.3% were stable and 4% were progressive as best response. Adverse events of bone marrow

  2. New radiopharmaecuticals for receptor scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgolini, I.; Traub, T.; Leimer, M.; Novotny, C.; Pangerl, T.; Ofluoglu, S.; Halvadjieva, E.; Smith-Jones, P.; Flores, J.; Li, S.R.; Angelberger, P.; Havlik, E.; Andreae, F.; Raderer, M.; Kurtaran, A.; Niederle, B.; Dudczak, R.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro data have demonstrated a high amount of receptors for various hormones and peptides on malignant cells of neuroendocrine origin. Among these, binding sites for member of the SST-family (hSSTR1-5) are frequently found, and their expression has led to therapeutic and diagnostic attempts to specifically target these receptors. Receptor scintigraphy using radiolabeled peptide ligands has proved its effectiveness in clinical practice. In addition, initial results have indicated a clinical potential for receptor-targeted radiotherapy. Based on somatostatin (SST) receptor (R) recognition, the novel radiopharmaceuticals 111 In/ 9 0Y-DOTA-lanreotide developed at the University of Vienna as well as 111 In/ 9 0Y-DOTA-DPhe 1 -Tyr 3 -octreotide (NOVARTIS) both have provided promising data for diagnosis and treatment of hSSTR-positive tumors. SSTR scintigraphy using 111 In-DTPA-DPhe 1 -octreotide has a high positive predictive value for the vast majority of neuroendocrine tumors and has gained its place in the diagnostic work-up as well as follow-up of patients. Here it was used 111 In-DOTA-lanreotide scintigraphy in 166 patients since 1997 and have seen positive results in 93% of patients. In 42 patients with neuroendocrine tumors comparative data were obtained. As opposed to 111 In-DTPA-DPhe 1 -octreotide and 111 In-DOTA-DPhe 1 -Tyr 3 -octreotide, discrepancies in the scintigraphic results were seen in about one third of patients concerning both the tumor uptake as well as tumor lesion detection. Initial results both with 9 0Y-DOTA-lanreotide as well as 9 0Y-DOTA-DPhe 1 -Tyr 3 -octreotide has pointed out the clinical potential of radionuclide receptor-targeted radiotherapy. This new therapy could offer palliation and disease control at a reduced cost. The final peptide therapy strategy is most probably cheaper than conventional radio therapies or prolonged chemo therapies. Overall, receptor-mediated radiotherapy with 9 0Y-DOTA-lanreotide/ 9 0Y-DOTA-DPhe 1 -Tyr 3

  3. [Some aspects of pharmacotherapy of tinnitus. Compound therapy with Xylocaine and directive counseling--long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Marek; Sieśkiewicz, Andrzej; Rózańska-Kudelska, Małgorzata; Walenczak, Izabela

    2004-01-01

    29 out of 49 patients, who were treated in 1996-1998 with Xylocaine and directive counselling for their tinitus, were reevaluated. Non of the patients used any other pharmacological treatment of the tinnitus or underwent full tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) since 10-days treatment with Xylocaine had been completed. Initially 65.3% of patients declared improvement in their tinnitus. After over 5 years of observation success rate decreased to only 41.3%. Since the positive effect of 10-days treatment with Xylocaine and directive counselling was not stable we concluded that tinnitus patients should receive full TRT.

  4. To treat or not to treat with testosterone replacement therapy: a contemporary review of management of late-onset hypogonadism and critical issues related to prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kava, Bruce R

    2014-07-01

    Over the last 10 years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of patients identified and treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). By virtue of age, race, and family history, many of these patients are concurrently at risk for harboring indolent prostate cancer. Other men are at increased risk for prostate cancer as a result of an elevated serum PSA level or having had a prior prostate biopsy showing prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) or atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP). The clinician is often challenged with the decision whether to initiate TRT in these patients. This review presents a contemporary overview of the rationale for TRT, as well as the relationship between testosterone (endogenous and exogenous) and premalignant and malignant lesions of the prostate. We will discuss preliminary data from several recent series demonstrating that TRT may be safely administered in select patients with certain premalignant and bona fide malignant tumors of the prostate. In the absence of a large randomized clinical trial with long-term outcome data evaluating TRT, we hope that this overview will provide clinicians with an evidence-based approach to managing these anxiety-provoking - and often frustrating - clinical scenarios.

  5. Is testosterone replacement therapy in males with hypogonadism cost-effective? An analysis in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arver, Stefan; Luong, Ba; Fraschke, Anina; Ghatnekar, Ola; Stanisic, Sanja; Gultyev, Dmitry; Müller, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been recommended for the treatment of primary and secondary hypogonadism. However, long-term implications of TRT have not been investigated extensively. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate health outcomes and costs associated with life-long TRT in patients suffering from Klinefelter syndrome and late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). A Markov model was developed to assess cost-effectiveness of testosterone undecanoate (TU) depot injection treatment compared with no treatment. Health outcomes and associated costs were modeled in monthly cycles per patient individually along a lifetime horizon. Modeled health outcomes included development of type 2 diabetes, depression, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, and fractures. Analysis was performed for the Swedish health-care setting from health-care payer's and societal perspective. One-way sensitivity analyses evaluated the robustness of results. The main outcome measures were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and total cost in TU depot injection treatment and no treatment cohorts. In addition, outcomes were also expressed as incremental cost per QALY gained for TU depot injection therapy compared with no treatment (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER]). TU depot injection compared to no-treatment yielded a gain of 1.67 QALYs at an incremental cost of 28,176 EUR (37,192 USD) in the Klinefelter population. The ICER was 16,884 EUR (22,287 USD) per QALY gained. Outcomes in LOH population estimated benefits of TRT at 19,719 EUR (26,029 USD) per QALY gained. Results showed to be considerably robust when tested in sensitivity analyses. Variation of relative risk to develop type 2 diabetes had the highest impact on long-term outcomes in both patient groups. This analysis suggests that lifelong TU depot injection therapy of patients with hypogonadism is a cost-effective treatment in Sweden. Hence, it can support clinicians in decision making when considering

  6. Evaluation of new iodinated acridine derivatives for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma using {sup 125}I, an Auger electron emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardette, M.; Papon, J.; Bonnet, M.; Labarre, P.; Miot-Noirault, E.; Madelmont, J. C.; Chezal, J. M.; Moins, N. [UMR 990, INSERM, Universite d' Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Desbois, N. [EA 3660, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Wu, T. D.; Guerquin-Kern, J. L. [U 759 INSERM, Institute Curie, Orsay (France)

    2013-06-01

    The full text of the publication follows. The increasing incidence of melanoma and the lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form have led to an urgent need for new specific therapies. Several iodo-benzamides or analogs are known to possess specific affinity for melanoma tissue. New hetero-aromatic derivatives have been designed with a cytotoxic moiety and termed DNA intercalating agents. These compounds could be applied in targeted radionuclide therapy using {sup 125}I, Auger electrons emitter which gives high-energetic localized irradiation. Two iodinated acridine derivatives have been reported to present an in vivo kinetic profile conducive to application in targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of the present study was to perform a preclinical evaluation of these compounds. The DNA intercalating property was confirmed for both compounds. After radiolabeling with {sup 125}I, the two compounds induced in vitro a significant radiotoxicity on B16F0 melanoma cells. The acridine compound, ICF01040, appeared more radio toxic than the acridone compound, ICF01035. While cellular uptake was similar for both compounds, SIMS analysis and in vitro protocol showed a stronger affinity for melanin with ICF01035, which was able to induce a predominant scavenging process in the melanosome and restrict access to the nucleus. Nevertheless, an important radiotoxicity was measured for the two compounds while the nuclear accumulation was low. Indeed, even if nuclear localization remains the main target sensitive to Auger electrons, the cell membrane remains sensitive to {sup 125}I decays. So, these compounds may induce secondary toxic effects of irradiation, such as membrane lipid damage. Conducted to current experiments are evaluate such hypothesis. Taken together, these results suggest that ICF01040 is a better candidate for application in targeted radionuclide therapy using {sup 125}I. The next step will be in vivo evaluation, where high tumoral vectorization gives

  7. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-01

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development of this

  8. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development

  9. The potential of 211Astatine for NIS-mediated radionuclide therapy in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willhauck, Michael J.; Sharif Samani, Bibi-Rana; Goeke, Burkhard; Wolf, Ingo; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Stark, Hans-Juergen; Meyer, Geerd J.; Knapp, Wolfram H.; Morris, John C.; Spitzweg, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We reported recently the induction of selective iodide uptake in prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter-directed sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression that allowed a significant therapeutic effect of 131 I. In the current study, we studied the potential of the high-energy alpha-emitter 211 At, also transported by NIS, as an alternative radionuclide after NIS gene transfer in tumors with limited therapeutic efficacy of 131 I due to rapid iodide efflux. We investigated uptake and therapeutic efficacy of 211 At in LNCaP cells stably expressing NIS under the control of the PSA promoter (NP-1) in vitro and in vivo. NP-1 cells concentrated 211 At in a perchlorate-sensitive manner, which allowed a dramatic therapeutic effect in vitro. After intrapertoneal injection of 211 At (1 MBq), NP-1 tumors accumulated approximately 16% ID/g 211 At (effective half-life 4.6 h), which resulted in a tumor-absorbed dose of 1,580 ± 345 mGy/MBq and a significant tumor volume reduction of up to 82 ± 19%, while control tumors continued their growth exponentially. A significant therapeutic effect of 211 At has been demonstrated in prostate cancer after PSA promoter-directed NIS gene transfer in vitro and in vivo suggesting a potential role for 211 At as an attractive alternative radioisotope for NIS-targeted radionuclide therapy, in particular in smaller tumors with limited radionuclide retention time. (orig.)

  10. Open ear hearing aids in tinnitus therapy: An efficacy comparison with sound generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, Marta; Del Bo, Luca; Jastreboff, Margaret; Tognola, Gabriella; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) with sound generators or with open ear hearing aids in the rehabilitation of tinnitus for a group of subjects who, according to Jastreboff categories, can be treated with both approaches to sound therapy (borderline of Category 1 and 2). This study was a prospective data collection with a parallel-group design which entailed that each subject was randomly assigned to one of the two treatments group: half of the subjects were fitted binaurally with sound generators, and the other half with open ear hearing aids. Both groups received the same educational counselling sessions. Ninety-one subjects passed the screening criteria and were enrolled into the study. Structured interviews, with a variety of measures evaluated through the use of visual-analog scales and the tinnitus handicap inventory self-administered questionnaire, were performed before the therapy and at 3, 6, and 12 months during the therapy. Data showed a highly significant improvement in both tinnitus treatments starting from the first three months and up to one year of therapy, with a progressive and statistically significant decrease in the disability every three months. TRT was equally effective with sound generator or open ear hearing aids: they gave basically identical, statistically indistinguishable results.

  11. Radioactive Indium(114mIn) complexes derived thiosemicarbazones for development of glioma radionuclide therapy tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Thais S.; Menezes, Maria Ângela B.C.; Belo, Luiz Cláudio M.; Santos, Raquel G. dos; Franco, Lucas L.; Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Beraldo, Heloisa O.

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy is widely used as the main course of treatment for various types of cancer. However, the side effects derived from the prolonged use of highly cytotoxic drugs in association with chemotherapy induced resistance are important challenges for effective therapy. In this context, radionuclide therapy (RNT) can be an alternative way to decrease the toxicity and improve the specificity of anti tumoral drugs. Our group has recently demonstrated that Indium (III) coordination to N(4)-Tolyl-2-acetylpyridine-derived thiosemicarbazones improves cytotoxic effects on leukemia cell lines. Once 114m In is a prolific Auger electron emitter, in this study In (III) complexes and their radioactive analogs were produced by neutron activation and their potential for RNT was further studied. Native and radioactive complexes were tested in different concentrations in U87 and T98 glioblastoma multiform (GBM) cell lines, as well as in MRC5 fibroblast cell line. All drugs presented a dose dependent cytotoxicity against cancer cells at submicromolar concentrations. The treatment with 1 μM of the radioactive analogs containing 114m In proved to be at least 1.5 times more potent than non-radioactive complexes in GBM cell lines. Due to the innate resistance of glioblastomas to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the potentiation factor showed by the test radioactive complexes may be interesting in the course of treatment against these tumors. Therefore, the presented data suggests a synergistic effect of the radionuclide therapy conducted in this study, which might be due to the combinations of pharmacological and radiotherapeutic activities of the 114m In - thiosemicarbazone compounds. (author)

  12. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.; Jungerman, J.A.; DeNardo, G.L.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Cole, W.C.; Meares, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  13. New radiopharmaceuticals for receptor scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgolini, I.; Traub, T.; Leimer, M.; Novotny, C.; Pangerl, T.; Ofluoglu, S.; Halvadjieva, E.; Smith-Jones, P.; Flores, J.; Li, S.R.; Angelberger, P.; Havlik, E.; Andreae, F.; Raderer, M.; Kurtaran, A.; Niederle, B.; Dudczak, R. [Vienna Univ., Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2000-03-01

    In vitro data have demonstrated a high amount of receptors for various hormones and peptides on malignant cells of neuroendocrine origin. Among these, binding sites for member of the SST-family (hSSTR1-5) are frequently found, and their expression has led to therapeutic and diagnostic attempts to specifically target these receptors. Receptor scintigraphy using radiolabeled peptide ligands has proved its effectiveness in clinical practice. In addition, initial results have indicated a clinical potential for receptor-targeted radiotherapy. Based on somatostatin (SST) receptor (R) recognition, the novel radiopharmaceuticals {sup 111}In/{sup 9}0Y-DOTA-lanreotide developed at the University of Vienna as well as {sup 111}In/{sup 9}0Y-DOTA-DPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide (NOVARTIS) both have provided promising data for diagnosis and treatment of hSSTR-positive tumors. SSTR scintigraphy using {sup 111}In-DTPA-DPhe{sup 1}-octreotide has a high positive predictive value for the vast majority of neuroendocrine tumors and has gained its place in the diagnostic work-up as well as follow-up of patients. Here it was used {sup 111}In-DOTA-lanreotide scintigraphy in 166 patients since 1997 and have seen positive results in 93% of patients. In 42 patients with neuroendocrine tumors comparative data were obtained. As opposed to {sup 111}In-DTPA-DPhe{sup 1}-octreotide and {sup 111}In-DOTA-DPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide, discrepancies in the scintigraphic results were seen in about one third of patients concerning both the tumor uptake as well as tumor lesion detection. Initial results both with {sup 9}0Y-DOTA-lanreotide as well as {sup 9}0Y-DOTA-DPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide has pointed out the clinical potential of radionuclide receptor-targeted radiotherapy. This new therapy could offer palliation and disease control at a reduced cost. The final peptide therapy strategy is most probably cheaper than conventional radio therapies or prolonged chemo therapies. Overall

  14. Therapy with radionuclides. Radionuklid-Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1992-12-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.).

  15. Bone benefits of testosterone replacement therapy in male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, G; Biagioli, A; Balercia, G

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis is an asymptomatic, systemic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in increased bone fragility. Such condition is often underdiagnosed and undertreated, especially in men, therefore considerably increasing the fracture risk. Of note, fracture-related morbidity and mortality is generally higher in men, partly due to greater frailty. On the other hand, male hypogonadism is defined as the failure of the testes to produce androgens, sperm, or both and it is often due to the ageing process. This disorder, in turn, causes many systemic disorders, and it is the condition mainly associated with male osteoporosis. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is usually prescribed to restore optimal hormone levels, but conflicting data are available about the efficacy of TRT treatment on bone mineral density. In this review we extensively examined literature data about the usefulness of TRT in improving hypogonadism-associated low bone mineral density. Furthermore, we considered the complex relationship between male osteoporosis and hypogonadism, by specifically addressing the role of androgens in male bone physiology and the diagnostic approach to male osteoporosis and hypogonadism and also by dealing with some new related aspects such as the new endocrine pathways between bone and testis and the role of androgen receptor CAG polymorphism on bone density.

  16. Carcinoid crisis induced by receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC in a case of liver metastases from bronchial neuroendocrine tumor (atypical carcinoid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davì, M V; Bodei, L; Francia, G; Bartolomei, M; Oliani, C; Scilanga, L; Reghellin, D; Falconi, M; Paganelli, G; Lo Cascio, V; Ferdeghini, M

    2006-06-01

    SS receptors are overexpressed in many tumors, mainly of neuroendocrine origin, thus enabling the treatment with SS analogs. The clinical experience of receptor radionuclide therapy with the new analog [90Y-DOTA0-Tyr3 ]-octreotide [90Y-DOTATOC] has been developed over the last decade and is gaining a pivotal role in the therapeutic workout of these tumors. It is well known that some procedures performed in diagnostic and therapeutic management of endocrine tumors, such as agobiopsy and hepatic chemoembolization, can be associated with the occurrence of symptoms related to the release of vasoactive amines and/or hormonal peptides from tumor cell lysis. This is the first report of a severe carcinoid crisis developed after receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC administered in a patient affected by liver metastases from bronchial neuroendocrine tumor (atypical carcinoid). Despite protection with H1 receptor antagonists, octreotide and corticosteroids, few days after the therapy the patient complained of persistent flushing of the face and upper trunk, severe labial and periocular oedema, diarrhoea and loss of appetite. These symptoms increased and required new hospitalisation. The patient received iv infusion of octreotide associated with H1 and H2 receptor antagonists and corticosteroid therapy, which induced symptom remission within few days. The case here reported confirms that radionuclide therapy is highly effective in determining early rupture of metastatic tissue and also suggests that pre-medication should be implemented before the radiopeptide administration associated with a close monitoring of the patient in the following days.

  17. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardies, Manuel [INSERM U601, 9 Quai Moncousu, 44093 Nantes (France)]. E-mail: manu@nantes.inserm.fr; Flux, Glenn [Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Lassmann, Michael [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Julis-Maximilians University, Wuerzburg (Germany); Monsieurs, Myriam [Department of Health Physics, University of Ghent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki and HUS, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Strand, Sven-Erik [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University (Sweden)

    2006-12-20

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  18. Choice of radionuclide for antibody labelling: new perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, D.K.; Dass, S.

    1983-01-01

    The expanding horizons of labelled antibody techniques in diagnostic imaging or assay, therapy and research and the availabilities of monoclonal antibodies is resulting in a demand for suitable radionuclides as antibody labels. An outline is given of the different criteria for choosing an appropriate radionuclide for labelling an antibody depending on its particular field of use. The requirements of procedures for firmly linking radionuclides to antibodies are also given. (U.K.)

  19. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  20. From molecular imaging to personalized radionuclide therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. 68 Gallium is a positron emitter (t 1/2 68 min) which can be produced from a generator in a convenient, 'in-house' preparation and used for labeling of peptides, e.g. somatostatin analogues (SA) like DOTATOC or DOTATATE for molecular imaging of SSTR expressing tumors. Since 2004, we have performed over 7700 68 Ga PET/CT studies in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and have established SSTR PET/CT as the new gold standard for imaging G1 and G2 NET (staging, re-staging, therapy response evaluation and detection of unknown primary NET). The same peptides can be labeled with 177 Lutetium or 90 Yttrium for radionuclide therapy, a form of personalized treatment (THERANOSTICS approach). PRRNT is based on the receptor-mediated internalization of SA. Several clinical trials indicate that PRRNT can deliver effective radiation doses to tumors. A German multi-institutional registry study with prospective follow up in 450 patients indicates that PRRT is an effective therapy for patients with G1-2 neuroendocrine tumors, irrespective of previous therapies, with a survival advantage of several years compared to other therapies and only minor side effects. Median overall survival (OS) of all patients from the start of treatment was 59 months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) measured from last cycle of therapy accounted to 41 mo. Median PFS of pancreatic NET was 39 mo. Similar results were obtained for NET of unknown primary (median PFS: 38 mo) whereas NET of small bowel had a median PFS of 51 months. Side effects like 3-4 NEThro- or hemato-toxicity were observed in only 0.2% and 2% of patients respectively. PRRNT is highly effective in the management of NET, even in advanced cases. In patients with progressive neuroendocrine tumors, fractionated, personalized PRRNT with lower doses of radioactivity given over a longer period of time (Bad Berka Concept using sequential (DUO) PRRNT) results in excellent therapeutic responses

  1. Human Anti-Oxidation Protein A1M—A Potential Kidney Protection Agent in Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ahlstedt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT has been in clinical use for 15 years to treat metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. PRRT is limited by reabsorption and retention of the administered radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the proximal tubule. Consequently, it is essential to develop and employ methods to protect the kidneys during PRRT. Today, infusion of positively charged amino acids is the standard method of kidney protection. Other methods, such as administration of amifostine, are still under evaluation and show promising results. α1-microglobulin (A1M is a reductase and radical scavenging protein ubiquitously present in plasma and extravascular tissue. Human A1M has antioxidation properties and has been shown to prevent radiation-induced in vitro cell damage and protect non-irradiated surrounding cells. It has recently been shown in mice that exogenously infused A1M and the somatostatin analogue octreotide are co-localized in proximal tubules of the kidney after intravenous infusion. In this review we describe the current situation of kidney protection during PRRT, discuss the necessity and implications of more precise dosimetry and present A1M as a new, potential candidate for renal protection during PRRT and related targeted radionuclide therapies.

  2. Synthesis of Poly[APMA]-DOTA-64Cu Conjugates for Interventional Radionuclide Therapy of Prostate Cancer: Assessment of Intratumoral Retention by Micro–Positron Emission Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop new radiopharmaceuticals for interventional radionuclide therapy of locally recurrent prostate cancer, poly[N-(3-aminopropylmethacrylamide] [poly(APMA] polymers were synthesized by free radical precipitation polymerization in acetonedimethylsulfoxide using N,N‘-azobis(isobutyronitrile as the initiator. The polymers were characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance, size exclusion chromatography, and dynamic light scattering (Mn 5 2.40 × 104, Mw/Mn = 1.87. Subsequently, poly[APMA] was coupled with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA using 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride as an activator, followed by conjugation with 64Cu radionuclide. Prolonged retention of poly[APMA]-DOTA-64Cu conjugates within the tumor tissues was demonstrated by micro–positron emission tomography at 24 hours following intra-tumoral injection of the conjugates to human prostate xenografts in mice. The data suggest that the poly[APMA]-DOTA-64Cu conjugates might be useful for interventional radionuclide therapy of locally recurrent prostate cancer in humans.

  3. Therapy with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.) [de

  4. Impact of identifying factors which trigger bothersome tinnitus on the treatment outcome in tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molini, Egisto; Faralli, Mario; Calzolaro, Lucia; Ricci, Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain any differences in the effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy in relation to the presence or absence of a known negative reinforcement responsible for the tinnitus-related pathology. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2008, we recruited 294 subjects suffering from incapacitating tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. The patients underwent tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) according to the methods described by Jastreboff and Hazell [Tinnitus Retraining Therapy: Implementing the Neurophysiological Model. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp 121-133]. We clinically assessed the presence or absence of known phenomena of associative learning, regarding the presence of adverse events temporally correlated with tinnitus and the treatment outcome. The separate analysis of the 2 subgroups shows a statistically significant difference in the improvement rate between the group with a known triggering factor and the group without a triggering factor, with a preponderance of the former with a 91% improvement rate versus approximately 56% for the latter. In our study, the inability to identify factors triggering bothersome tinnitus negatively affected the treatment outcome in TRT. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Production and dosimetric aspects of the potent Auger emitter Co-58m for targeted radionuclide therapy of small tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisgaard, Helge; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing; Jensen, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Based on theoretical calculations, the Auger emitter 58mCo has been identified as a potent nuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy of small tumors. During the production of this isotope, the coproduction of the long-lived ground state 58gCo is unfortunately unavoidable, as is ingrowth of the gr...

  6. Paving the way to personalized medicine. Production of some theragnostic radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a relatively novel paradigm that involves specific individual radionuclides or radionuclide pairs that have emissions that allow pre-therapy low-dose imaging plus higher-dose therapy in the same patient. We have made an attempt to sort out and organize a number of such theragnostic radionuclides and radionuclide pairs that may potentially bring us closer to the age-long dream of personalized medicine for performing tailored low-dose molecular imaging (SPECT/CT or PET/CT) to provide the necessary pre-therapy information on biodistribution, dosimetry, the limiting or critical organ or tissue, and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), etc. If the imaging results then warrant it, it would be possible to perform higher-dose targeted molecular therapy in the same patient with the same radiopharmaceutical. A major problem that remains yet to be fully resolved is the lack of availability, in sufficient quantities, of a majority of the best candidate theragnostic radionuclides in a no-carrier-added (NCA) form. A brief description of the recently developed new or modified methods at BNL for the production of four theragnostic radionuclides, whose nuclear, physical, and chemical characteristics seem to show great promise for personalized cancer therapy are described.

  7. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  8. High-density digital links optimization of signal integrity and noise performance of the high-density digital links of the ATLAS-TRT readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandl, M.

    2000-02-01

    The TRT - Transition Radiation Tracker - is a sub detector of the particle detector ATLAS - A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS. About 420,000 detecting elements are distributed over 22 m3. They produce each second approximately 20 Tbit of data, which has to be transferred from the front-end electronics inside the detector to the back-end electronics outside the detector for further processing. The task of this thesis is to guarantee the integrity of the signals and the electromagnetic compatibility inside the TRT as well as to the aggressive surroundings. The electromagnetic environment of particle detectors in high-energy physics adds special constraints to the high data rates and the high complexity: high sensibility of the detecting elements and their pre amplifiers, confined space, limited material budget, a radioactive environment, and high static magnetic fields. Thus many industrial standard measures have to be abandoned. Special design is essential to compensate this disadvantage. (author)

  9. High-Density Digital Links Optimization of Signal Integrity and Noise Performance of the High-Density Digital Links of the ATLAS-TRT Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, M

    2000-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is a sub detector of the particle detector ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS). About 420,000 detecting elements are distributed over 22 m3. They produce each second approximately 20 Tbit of data which has to be transferred from the front-end electronics inside the detector to the back-end electronics outside the detector for further processing. The task of this thesis is to guarantee the integrity of the signals and the electromagnetic compatibility inside the TRT as well as to the aggressive surroundings. The electromagnetic environment of particle detectors in high-energy physics adds special constraints to the high data rates and the high complexity: high sensibility of the detecting elements and their pre amplifiers, confined space, limited material budget, a radioactive environment, and high static magnetic fields. Thus many industrial standard measures have to be abandoned. Special design is essential to compensate this disadvantage.

  10. Preparation and characterization of radionuclide 64Cu for positron emission tomographic diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometakova, J.

    2013-01-01

    We occupy ourselves with preparation of 64 Cu using cyclotron IBA 18/9. 64 Cu is a starting product for production of radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomographic diagnostics and therapy and metrological characterization as well. The use of non-traditional PET radionuclides has been spread in the world recently. Due to the physical properties (T 1/2 =12.7 h, β- 37.1 %, β + 17.9 %), 64 Cu is suitable for therapy (β - ) and diagnosing as well (β+). 64 Cu is suitable radionuclide for labeling of radiopharmaceuticals on the basis of bis-thiosemicarbazone for study of hypoxic tumors. The number and orientation of articles and papers at conferences show a great demand for 64 Cu in the world. It is caused by specific physical properties and possibility of preparation in small biomedical cyclotrons as well. An electrolytic preparation of a target lies in a galvanostatic plating of 64 Ni on a gold target. The target is irradiated by a cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9. COSTIS station (Compact Solid Target Irradiation System) is installed at the end of external proton beam. 64 Cu is separated from the target material by ionex Bio-Rad AG1-X8 as [ 64 Cu]CuCl 2 . The target material is recycled by a simple method. A process of 64 Cu preparation is completely automated and runs in a separation module with Plc Simatin S-1200 developed by Biont a.s. The product was measured by an ionization chamber (Curiementor), HPGe detector and LSC method (TDCR). (author)

  11. Preparation and characterization of radionuclide 64Cu for positron emission tomographic diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometakova, J.

    2013-01-01

    We occupy ourselves with preparation of 64 Cu using cyclotron IBA 18/9. 64 Cu is a starting product for production of radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomographic diagnostics and therapy and metrological characterization as well. The use of non-traditional PET radionuclides has been spread in the world recently. Due to the physical properties (T 1/2 =12.7 h, β- 37.1 %, β + 17.9 %), 64 Cu is suitable for therapy (β - ) and diagnosing as well (β+). 64 Cu is suitable radionuclide for labeling of radiopharmaceuticals on the basis of bis-thiosemicarbazone for study of hypoxic tumors. The number and orientation of articles and papers at conferences show a great demand for 64 Cu in the world. It is caused by specific physical properties and possibility of preparation in small biomedical cyclotrons as well. An electrolytic preparation of a target lies in a galvanostatic plating of 64 Ni on a gold target. The target is irradiated by a cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9. COSTIS station (Compact Solid Target Irradiation System) is installed at the end of external proton beam. 64 Cu is separated from the target material by ionex Bio-Rad AG1-X8 as [ 64 Cu]CuCl 2 . The target material is recycled by a simple method. A process of 64 Cu preparation is completely automated and runs in a separation module with PLC SIMATIC S7-1200 developed by Biont a.s. The product was measured by an ionization chamber (Curiementor), HPGe detector and LSC method (TDCR). (author)

  12. Phase I North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial-N9923 of escalating doses of twice-daily thoracic radiation therapy with amifostine and with alternating chemotherapy in limited stage small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, Yolanda I.; Okuno, Scott H.; Schild, Steven E.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Bot, Brian M.; Martens, John M.; Wender, Donald B.; Soori, Gamini S.; Moore, Dennis F.; Kozelsky, Timothy F.; Jett, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The primary goal was to identify the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) that can be given with chemotherapy and amifostine for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC). Methods and Materials: Treatment began with two cycles of topotecan (1 mg/m 2 ) Days 1 to 5 and paclitaxel (175 mg/m 2 ) Day 5 (every 3 weeks) given before and after TRT. The TRT began at 6 weeks. The TRT was given in 120 cGy fractions b.i.d. and the dose escalation (from 4,800 cGy, dose level 1, to 6,600 cGy, dose level 4) followed the standard 'cohorts of 3' design. The etoposide (E) (50 mg/day) and cisplatin (C) (3 mg/m 2 ) were given i.v. before the morning TRT and amifostine (500 mg/day) was given before the afternoon RT. This was followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). The dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were defined as Grade ≥4 hematologic, febrile neutropenia, esophagitis, or other nonhematologic toxicity, Grade ≥3 dyspnea, or Grade ≥2 pneumonitis. Results: Fifteen patients were evaluable for the Phase I portion of the trial. No DLTs were seen at dose levels 1 and 2. Two patients on dose level 4 experienced DLTs: 1 patient had a Grade 4 pneumonitis, dyspnea, fatigue, hypokalemia, and anorexia, and 1 patient had a Grade 5 hypoxia attributable to TRT. One of 6 patients on dose level 3 had a DLT, Grade 3 esophagitis. The Grade ≥3 toxicities seen in at least 10% of patients during TRT were esophagitis (53%), leukopenia (33%), dehydration (20%), neutropenia (13%), and fatigue (13%). The median survival was 14.5 months. Conclusion: The MTD of b.i.d. TRT was 6000 cGy (120 cGy b.i.d.) with EP and amifostine

  13. Dynamic and static small-animal SPECT in rats for monitoring renal function after 177Lu-labeled Tyr3-octreotate radionuclide therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, M.; Swart, J.; Visser, M. de; Berndsen, S.C.; Koelewijn, S.; Valkema, R.; Boerman, O.C.; Krenning, E.P.; Jong, M. de

    2010-01-01

    High kidney radiation doses during clinical peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with beta-particle-emitting radiolabeled somatostatin analogs will lead to renal failure several months after treatment, urging the coinfusion of the cationic amino acids lysine and arginine to reduce the renal

  14. Association of subcutaneous testosterone pellet therapy with developing secondary polycythemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotker, Katherine Lang; Alavian, Michael; Nelson, Bethany; Baird, Grayson L; Miner, Martin M; Sigman, Mark; Hwang, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    A variety of methods for testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) exist, and the major potential risks of TRT have been well established. The risk of developing polycythemia secondary to exogenous testosterone (T) has been reported to range from 0.4% to 40%. Implantable T pellets have been used since 1972, and secondary polycythemia has been reported to be as low as 0.4% with this administration modality. However, our experience has suggested a higher rate. We conducted an institutional review board-approved, single-institution, retrospective chart review (2009–2013) to determine the rate of secondary polycythemia in 228 men treated with subcutaneously implanted testosterone pellets. Kaplan–Meyer failure curves were used to estimate time until the development of polycythemia (hematocrit >50%). The mean number of pellets administered was 12 (range: 6–16). The mean follow-up was 566 days. The median time to development of polycythemia whereby 50% of patients developed polycythemia was 50 months. The estimated rate of polycythemia at 6 months was 10.4%, 12 months was 17.3%, and 24 months was 30.2%. We concluded that the incidence of secondary polycythemia while on T pellet therapy may be higher than previously established. PMID:29205178

  15. Targeted radionuclide therapy with astatine-211: Oxidative dehalogenation of astatobenzoate conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teze, David; Sergentu, Dumitru-Claudiu; Kalichuk, Valentina; Barbet, Jacques; Deniaud, David; Galland, Nicolas; Maurice, Rémi; Montavon, Gilles

    2017-05-31

    211 At is a most promising radionuclide for targeted alpha therapy. However, its limited availability and poorly known basic chemistry hamper its use. Based on the analogy with iodine, labelling is performed via astatobenzoate conjugates, but in vivo deastatination occurs, particularly when the conjugates are internalized in cells. Actually, the chemical or biological mechanism responsible for deastatination is unknown. In this work, we show that the C-At "organometalloid" bond can be cleaved by oxidative dehalogenation induced by oxidants such as permanganates, peroxides or hydroxyl radicals. Quantum mechanical calculations demonstrate that astatobenzoates are more sensitive to oxidation than iodobenzoates, and the oxidative deastatination rate is estimated to be about 6 × 10 6 faster at 37 °C than the oxidative deiodination one. Therefore, we attribute the "internal" deastatination mechanism to oxidative dehalogenation in biological compartments, in particular lysosomes.

  16. Design and implementation of the ATLAS TRT front end electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Mitch; Atlas TRT Collaboration

    2006-07-01

    The ATLAS TRT subsystem is comprised of 380,000 4 mm straw tube sensors ranging in length from 30 to 80 cm. Polypropelene plastic layers between straws and a xenon-based gas mixture in the straws allow the straws to be used for both tracking and transition radiation detection. Detector-mounted electronics with data sparsification was chosen to minimize the cable plant inside the super-conducting solenoid of the ATLAS inner tracker. The "on detector" environment required a small footprint, low noise, low power and radiation-tolerant readout capable of triggering at rates up to 20 MHz with an analog signal dynamic range of >300 times the discriminator setting. For tracking, a position resolution better than 150 μm requires leading edge trigger timing with ˜1 ns precision and for transition radiation detection, a charge collection time long enough to integrate the direct and reflected signal from the unterminated straw tube is needed for position-independent energy measurement. These goals have been achieved employing two custom Application-specific integrated circuits (ASICS) and board design techniques that successfully separate analog and digital functionality while providing an integral part of the straw tube shielding.

  17. Design and implementation of the ATLAS TRT front end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer, Mitch

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS TRT subsystem is comprised of 380,000 4 mm straw tube sensors ranging in length from 30 to 80 cm. Polypropelene plastic layers between straws and a xenon-based gas mixture in the straws allow the straws to be used for both tracking and transition radiation detection. Detector-mounted electronics with data sparsification was chosen to minimize the cable plant inside the super-conducting solenoid of the ATLAS inner tracker. The 'on detector' environment required a small footprint, low noise, low power and radiation-tolerant readout capable of triggering at rates up to 20 MHz with an analog signal dynamic range of >300 times the discriminator setting. For tracking, a position resolution better than 150 μm requires leading edge trigger timing with ∼1 ns precision and for transition radiation detection, a charge collection time long enough to integrate the direct and reflected signal from the unterminated straw tube is needed for position-independent energy measurement. These goals have been achieved employing two custom Application-specific integrated circuits (ASICS) and board design techniques that successfully separate analog and digital functionality while providing an integral part of the straw tube shielding

  18. Radioactive Indium({sup 114m}In) complexes derived thiosemicarbazones for development of glioma radionuclide therapy tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Thais S.; Menezes, Maria Ângela B.C.; Belo, Luiz Cláudio M.; Santos, Raquel G. dos, E-mail: thaissribeiro01@gmail.com, E-mail: lcmb@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: gouvears@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Franco, Lucas L.; Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Beraldo, Heloisa O., E-mail: lucas_lopardi@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: a13xandr31@hotmail.com, E-mail: heloisaberaldoufmg@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Química

    2017-07-01

    Chemotherapy is widely used as the main course of treatment for various types of cancer. However, the side effects derived from the prolonged use of highly cytotoxic drugs in association with chemotherapy induced resistance are important challenges for effective therapy. In this context, radionuclide therapy (RNT) can be an alternative way to decrease the toxicity and improve the specificity of anti tumoral drugs. Our group has recently demonstrated that Indium (III) coordination to N(4)-Tolyl-2-acetylpyridine-derived thiosemicarbazones improves cytotoxic effects on leukemia cell lines. Once {sup 114m}In is a prolific Auger electron emitter, in this study In (III) complexes and their radioactive analogs were produced by neutron activation and their potential for RNT was further studied. Native and radioactive complexes were tested in different concentrations in U87 and T98 glioblastoma multiform (GBM) cell lines, as well as in MRC5 fibroblast cell line. All drugs presented a dose dependent cytotoxicity against cancer cells at submicromolar concentrations. The treatment with 1 μM of the radioactive analogs containing {sup 114m}In proved to be at least 1.5 times more potent than non-radioactive complexes in GBM cell lines. Due to the innate resistance of glioblastomas to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the potentiation factor showed by the test radioactive complexes may be interesting in the course of treatment against these tumors. Therefore, the presented data suggests a synergistic effect of the radionuclide therapy conducted in this study, which might be due to the combinations of pharmacological and radiotherapeutic activities of the {sup 114m}In - thiosemicarbazone compounds. (author)

  19. Survival outcomes after radiation therapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer after adoption of computed tomography-based simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aileen B; Neville, Bridget A; Sher, David J; Chen, Kun; Schrag, Deborah

    2011-06-10

    Technical studies suggest that computed tomography (CT) -based simulation improves the therapeutic ratio for thoracic radiation therapy (TRT), although few studies have evaluated its use or impact on outcomes. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) -Medicare linked data to identify CT-based simulation for TRT among Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between 2000 and 2005. Demographic and clinical factors associated with use of CT simulation were identified, and the impact of CT simulation on survival was analyzed by using Cox models and propensity score analysis. The proportion of patients treated with TRT who had CT simulation increased from 2.4% in 1994 to 34.0% in 2000 to 77.6% in 2005. Of the 5,540 patients treated with TRT from 2000 to 2005, 60.1% had CT simulation. Geographic variation was seen in rates of CT simulation, with lower rates in rural areas and in the South and West compared with those in the Northeast and Midwest. Patients treated with chemotherapy were more likely to have CT simulation (65.2% v 51.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.48 to 1.88; P simulation. Controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics, CT simulation was associated with lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.82; P simulation. CT-based simulation has been widely, although not uniformly, adopted for the treatment of stage III NSCLC and is associated with higher survival among patients receiving TRT.

  20. FY 1999 report on the fundamental investigation for promotion of Joint Implementation. Blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT) project for China's Panzhihua Iron and Steel (Group) Company; 1999 nendo Chugoku Panzhihua kotetsu (shudan) koji koro rochoatsu hatsuden setsubi (TRT) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility study is conducted for introduction of a top pressure recovery turbine (TRT) in China's Panzhihua Iron and Steel (Group) Company, Sichuan Province, for the potential project to simultaneously contribute to abatement of the greenhouse effect gases and to sustainable economic development of the counterpart country. This project considers to adopt the TRTs in 3 blast furnaces (No.1 to 3) of the 4 furnaces in service at the works, producing 2,500,000 t/y of crude steel, where the No.4 furnace is already provided with the model system and not considered in this project. According to the feasibility study results, the total fund required is 5.46 billion yen (Japan-made facilities: 4.172 billion yen, and China-made facilities: 1.288 billion yen), energy-saving effect is 36,467 t/y as crude, greenhouse effect gas emission abatement effect: 112,830 t/y as CO2, and pay-off period is 8.3 years. This plan considers to adopt almost the same facilities as those for the model project on a commercial basis. The taxes will be applied to the Japan-made facilities at a rate of 30% or more, although they were free for the model project, which should squeeze the investment effects. For the TRT project to be realized, low-interest fund is essential, and environmental yen loans will be necessary. (NEDO)

  1. Targeted radionuclide therapy with A 177Lu-labeled anti-HER2 nanobody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Huyvetter, Matthias; Vincke, Cécile; Xavier, Catarina; Aerts, An; Impens, Nathalie; Baatout, Sarah; De Raeve, Hendrik; Muyldermans, Serge; Caveliers, Vicky; Devoogdt, Nick; Lahoutte, Tony

    2014-01-01

    RIT has become an attractive strategy in cancer treatment, but still faces important drawbacks due to poor tumor penetration and undesirable pharmacokinetics of the targeting vehicles. Smaller radiolabeled antibody fragments and peptides feature highly specific target accumulation, resulting in low accumulation in healthy tissue, except for the kidneys. Nanobodies are the smallest (MWnanobodies is predominantly dictated by the number of polar residues in the C-terminal amino acid tag. Three nanobodies were produced with different C-terminal amino-acid tag sequences (Myc-His-tagged, His-tagged, and untagged). Dynamic planar imaging of Wistar rats with 111In-DTPA-nanobodies revealed that untagged nanobodies showed a 70% drop in kidney accumulation compared to Myc-His-tagged nanobodies at 50 min p.i.. In addition, coinfusion of untagged nanobodies with the plasma expander Gelofusin led to a final reduction of 90%. Similar findings were obtained with different 177Lu-DTPA-2Rs15d nanobody constructs in HER2pos tumor xenografted mice at 1 h p.i.. Kidney accumulation decreased 88% when comparing Myc-His-tagged to untagged 2Rs15d nanobody, and 95% with a coinfusion of Gelofusin, without affecting the tumor targeting capacity. Consequently, we identified a generic method to reduce kidney retention of radiolabeled nanobodies. Dosimetry calculations of Gelofusin-coinfused, untagged 177Lu-DTPA-2Rs15d revealed a dose of 0.90 Gy/MBq that was delivered to both tumor and kidneys and extremely low doses to healthy tissues. In a comparative study, 177Lu-DTPA-Trastuzumab supplied 6 times more radiation to the tumor than untagged 177Lu-DTPA-2Rs15d, but concomitantly also a 155, 34, 80, 26 and 4180 fold higher radioactivity burden to lung, liver, spleen, bone and blood. Most importantly, nanobody-based targeted radionuclide therapy in mice bearing small estiblashed HER2pos tumors led to an almost complete blockade of tumor growth and a significant difference in event-free survival

  2. Pilot study using technetium-99m pertechnetate sequential radionuclide-sialography for assessing salivary gland function of nasopharyngeal cancer patients on radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.S.; Sundram, F.; Somanesan, S.; Tan, H.S.K.; Gao, F.; Chung, B.; Machin, D.

    2003-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is mainly treated by radiation therapy. A common complication of radiotherapy is xerostomia. Direct measurements of the amount of saliva produced using suction cups and volumetric assessments are cumbersome and time consuming. Sequential radionuclide sialography is a reproducible and convenient method of measuring salivary function. Patients with newly diagnosed NPC underwent a pilot study using technetium-99m pertechnetate sequential radionuclide sialography to assess their salivary function before and at 3 months post radiation therapy. From the sialography, time-activity-curves were obtained for analysis of salivary function. The shape of the time-activity-curve with citric acid stimulation was classified into 4 types according to the degree of radiation-induced dysfunction. All 14 patients had worse time-activity curves for both parotids and submandibular glands after radiation therapy. The P values for the change in time-activity-curves for all the salivary glands were less than 0.005. All patients with abnormal type of curves before radiation therapy presented type IV(non-functioning) curve after radiation therapy. A ratio (Rc) of pre- and post-stimulation counts allowed for quantification of the degree of stimulatory response. We found a significant decrease in Rc before and after radiation therapy for all the salivary glands (P < 0.001). The salivary gland to background ratio, which is a reflection of the degree of salivary gland functional uptake, also had a significant reduction after radiation. It is feasible to use technetium 99m pertechnetate in the measurement of salivary gland function in nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated with radiation therapy

  3. Therapy in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Sadeghi, R.; Takavar, A.; Fard, A.; Saghari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Although there have been very significant development in the field of radionuclide therapy within the past 10 years, radionuclide therapy in the form of 131 I, 33 P,.... have been in use for over 46 years. Palliation of bone pain is a good example for radionuclide therapy. It has an especial role in advanced metastatic cancer. 32 P, 89 Sr-Cl, 186 Re-HEDP, 133 Sm-EDTMP, and 117 mSn-DTPA are used in these patients. They are usually effective and help to maintain a painless life for patients with advanced cancer. Although this kind of therapy is not as rapid as radiotherapy, its effect lasts longer. In addition re-treatment with these agents is safe and effective. Radioimmunotherapy is a new exciting technique in the radionuclide therapy. In this technique monoclonal antibodies or their fragments are labeled with a suitable radionuclide, these antibodies can irradiate tumor cells over a distance of some fraction of a millimeter. Bulky tumors are obviously unsuitable targets for Rit. Several antibodies specific for Cd 20 (B1 and 1 F 5) and CD 37 (Mb-1) labeled with 131 I have been used for hematologic malignancies with good response. Several antigens associated with carcinomas of various histologic types have been targeted for therapeutic purposes by antibodies labeled with different radionuclides. Other routes of administration like intraperitoneal, intrathecal, and intravesical have been used with different rates of success. Pre targeting techniques can be used to reduce unwanted radioactive concentration in normal tissues. The avidin-biotin system is an example, which exploits the high-affinity binding between avidin and biotin, and was first used with anti-Cea antibody. Radiation synovectomy is another aspect of radionuclide therapy 198 Au colloid, 90 Y resin colloid, and 165 Dy-FHMA are some of the radionuclides used in the field of hematology. There has been significant advances in the field of therapy in nuclear medicine in recent years, which are briefly

  4. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATOC in advanced neuroendocrine tumors: results from a Danish cohort treated in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Andreas Klaus; Gregersen, Tine; Grønbæk, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Limited therapeutic options have highlighted the demand for new treatment modalities for patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Promising results of initial studies have warranted the implementation of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in clinical practice. However, this t...

  5. Radiopharmacy requirements in the context of advances in radionuclide therapy (RNT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The advances in the use of radiopharmaceutical products for radionuclide therapy (RNT) are accompanied by additional demands on the facilities and practices in hospital based and centralized radiopharmacies. In general, therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals meant for systemic administration should be preferably availed as ready-to-use products from a licensed source. Amongst the radionuclides for therapy being evaluated extensively, a few such as the generator produced 188 Re (T 1/2 17 h), would warrant additional formulation processing steps at the hospital end and it is required to institute appropriate validated protocols. 188 Re is eluted from a 188 W- 188 Re generator and is often used after post-elution concentration involving use of ion exchanger columns in tandem. The radiochemical purity of the final formulation e.g. 188 Re-HEDP, 188 Re-lipiodol, etc. and the breakthrough of the long-lived parent nuclide 188 W in 188 Re have to be reliably ascertained and certified for compliance with the stipulated standards. The equipment and other facilities required would depend on the nature and range of products handled. In the event of use of another important therapeutic radionuclide, 90 Y (T 1/2 64 h) (sourced from 90 Sr- 90 Y generator), a pure beta emitter, the assay of activity and the breakthrough of 90Sr in 90Y would involve using special techniques. Also, in view of the long half-life of the parent nuclides, 188 W (T 1/2 70 d) and 90 Sr (T 1/2 28.3 y), in turn, the shelf-life of the generators, greater care in aseptic practices in the operation and maintenance of the generators is essential to assure pharmaceutical safety. Reliable validated practices need to be evolved leading to establishing SOP for formulation, QC testing and certification, as well as institution of necessary calibration protocols. There can be differences in mandatory regulations depending on the national authorities/systems. Wherever, the licensing of the radiopharmacist and

  6. Tumour control probability (TCP) for non-uniform activity distribution in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusijaervi, Helena; Bernhardt, Peter; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Non-uniform radionuclide distribution in tumours will lead to a non-uniform absorbed dose. The aim of this study was to investigate how tumour control probability (TCP) depends on the radionuclide distribution in the tumour, both macroscopically and at the subcellular level. The absorbed dose in the cell nuclei of tumours was calculated for 90 Y, 177 Lu, 103m Rh and 211 At. The radionuclides were uniformly distributed within the subcellular compartment and they were uniformly, normally or log-normally distributed among the cells in the tumour. When all cells contain the same amount of activity, the cumulated activities required for TCP = 0.99 (A-tilde TCP=0.99 ) were 1.5-2 and 2-3 times higher when the activity was distributed on the cell membrane compared to in the cell nucleus for 103m Rh and 211 At, respectively. TCP for 90 Y was not affected by different radionuclide distributions, whereas for 177 Lu, it was slightly affected when the radionuclide was in the nucleus. TCP for 103m Rh and 211 At were affected by different radionuclide distributions to a great extent when the radionuclides were in the cell nucleus and to lesser extents when the radionuclides were distributed on the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm. When the activity was distributed in the nucleus, A-tilde TCP=0.99 increased when the activity distribution became more heterogeneous for 103m Rh and 211 At, and the increase was large when the activity was normally distributed compared to log-normally distributed. When the activity was distributed on the cell membrane, A-tilde TCP=0.99 was not affected for 103m Rh and 211 At when the activity distribution became more heterogeneous. A-tilde TCP=0.99 for 90 Y and 177 Lu were not affected by different activity distributions, neither macroscopic nor subcellular

  7. First straw straightness measurements on a 4-plane end-cap ATLAS TRT wheel

    CERN Document Server

    Lucotte, A; Mitsou, V A; Mouraviev, S V; Nadtochy, A

    2001-01-01

    This document reports the first results and their interpretation of the straw straightness measurements that have been performed on the first 4-plane end-cap prototype of the ATLAS TRT. Section 2 presents the experimental setup used for the measurements, as well as a review of the data sample used to perform this study. It also provides a description of the method used to assess straw straightness, which is based on the measurements of the maximal gas gain deviation (``straw eccentricity'') seen along the straw. Section 3 reports the results of straw straightness for the 4-plane module, including corrections due to the gas flow. The effect of energy resolution degradation is also explained and results in terms of wire offset are reported. In Section 4, the straw bending due to an applied lateral deformation is measured, and finally Section 5 reviews the conclusions.

  8. Gene therapy and radionuclides targeting therapy in mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    Breast carcinoma's gene therapy is a hotspot in study of the tumor's therapy in the recent years. Currently the major therapy methods that in the experimentative and primary clinical application phases include immunological gene therapy, multidrug resistance gene therapy, antisense oligonucleotide therapy and suicide gene therapy. The gene targeting brachytherapy, which is combined with gene therapy and radiotherapy has enhanced the killer effects of the suicide gene and nuclide in tumor cells. That has break a new path in tumor's gene therapy. The further study in this field will step up it's space to the clinical application

  9. Systematic review of hormone replacement therapy in the infertile man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr El Meliegy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To highlight alternative treatment options other than exogenous testosterone administration for hypogonadal men with concomitant infertility or who wish to preserve their fertility potential, as testosterone replacement therapy (TRT inhibits spermatogenesis, representing a problem for hypogonadal men of reproductive age. Materials and methods: We performed a comprehensive literature review for the years 1978–2017 via PubMed. Also abstracts from major urological/surgical conferences were reviewed. Review was consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA criteria. We used Medical Subject Heading terms for the search including ‘testosterone replacement therapy’ or ‘TRT’ and ‘male infertility’. Results: In all, 91 manuscripts were screened and the final number used for the review was 56. All studies included were performed in adults, were written in English and had an abstract available. Conclusions: Exogenous testosterone inhibits spermatogenesis. Hypogonadal men wanting to preserve their fertility and at the same time benefiting from TRT effects can be prescribed selective oestrogen receptor modulators or testosterone plus low-dose human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG. Patients treated for infertility with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism can be prescribed hCG alone at first followed by or in combination from the start with follicle-stimulating hormone preparations. Keywords: Gonadotrophins, Hypogonadism, Infertility, Systematic review, Testosterone therapy

  10. Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with (90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATOC in Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors: Results from a Danish Cohort Treated in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Andreas Klaus; Gregersen, Tine; Grønbæk, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Limited therapeutic options have highlighted the demand for new treatment modalities for patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Promising results of initial studies have warranted the implementation of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in clinical practice. However, this t...

  11. Extension of the biological effective dose to the MIRD schema and possible implications in radionuclide therapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, Sebastien; Hobbs, Robert F.; Prideaux, Andrew R.; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George

    2008-01-01

    In dosimetry-based treatment planning protocols, patients with rapid clearance of the radiopharmaceutical require a larger amount of initial activity than those with slow clearance to match the absorbed dose to the critical organ. As a result, the dose-rate to the critical organ is higher in patients with rapid clearance and may cause unexpected toxicity compared to patients with slow clearance. In order to account for the biological impact of different dose-rates, radiobiological modeling is beginning to be applied to the analysis of radionuclide therapy patient data. To date, the formalism used for these analyses is based on kinetics derived from activity in a single organ, the target. This does not include the influence of other source organs to the dose and dose-rate to the target organ. As a result, only self-dose irradiation in the target organ contributes to the dose-rate. In this work, the biological effective dose (BED) formalism has been extended to include the effect of multiple source organ contributions to the net dose-rate in a target organ. The generalized BED derivation has been based on the Medical Internal Radionuclide Dose Committee (MIRD) schema assuming multiple source organs following exponential effective clearance of the radionuclide. A BED-based approach to determine the largest safe dose to critical organs has also been developed. The extended BED formalism is applied to red marrow dosimetry, as well as kidney dosimetry considering the cortex and the medulla separately, since both those organs are commonly dose limiting in radionuclide therapy. The analysis shows that because the red marrow is an early responding tissue (high α/β), it is less susceptible to unexpected toxicity arising from rapid clearance of high levels of administered activity in the marrow or in the remainder of the body. In kidney dosimetry, the study demonstrates a complex interplay between clearance of activity in the cortex and the medulla, as well as the initial

  12. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on bone metabolism in male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: focus on the role of androgen receptor CAG polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, G; delli Muti, N; Gioia, A; Biagioli, A; Lenzi, A; Balercia, G

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between androgen receptor (AR) CAG polymorphism and bone metabolism is highly controversial. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the independent role of AR CAG repeat polymorphism on bone metabolism improvement induced by testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition frequently associated with hypopituitarism and in which the effects of TRT have to be distinguished from those resulting from concomitant administration of pituitary function replacing hormones. 12 men affected by post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism [mean duration of hypogonadism 8.3 ± 2.05 (SD) months] were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT (from 74 to 84 weeks after the beginning of therapy). The following measures were studied: parameters of bone metabolism [serum markers and bone mineral density (BMD)], pituitary dependent hormones and genetic analysis (AR CAG repeat number). Total testosterone, estradiol, free T4 (FT4) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased between the two phases, while follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) decreased. While serum markers did not vary significantly between the two phases, BMD improved slightly but significantly in all the studied sites. The number of CAG triplets correlated negatively and significantly with all the variations (Δ-) of BMDs. Conversely, Δ-testosterone correlated positively and significantly with all studied Δ-BMDs, while Δ-FSH, Δ-estradiol, Δ-FT4, and Δ-IGF-1 did not correlate significantly with any of the Δ-BMDs. Multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for Δ-testosterone, showed that CAG repeat length was negatively and significantly associated with ∆-BMD of all measured sites. Our data suggest that, in post-surgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, shorter AR CAG tract is independently associated with greater TRT-induced improvement of BMD.

  13. Testosterone replacement therapy among elderly males: the Testim Registry in the US (TRiUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya RK

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rajib K Bhattacharya,1 Mohit Khera,2 Gary Blick,3 Harvey Kushner,4 Martin M Miner51Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 2Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 3Circle Medical LLC, Norwalk, CT, USA; 4Biometrics, Auxilium Pharmaceuticals, Malvern, PA, USA; 5Men's Health Center, Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, USABackground: Testosterone levels naturally decline with age in men, often resulting in testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism. However, few studies have examined hypogonadal characteristics and treatment in older (≥65 years men.Objective: To compare data at baseline and after 12 months of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT in hypogonadal men ≥65 vs <65 years old. Data for participants 65–74 vs ≥75 years old were also compared.Methods: Data were from TRiUS (Testim Registry in the United States, which enrolled 849 hypogonadal men treated with Testim® 1% (50–100 mg testosterone gel/day for the first time. Anthropometric, laboratory, and clinical measures were taken at baseline and 12 months, including primary outcomes of total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. Comparisons of parameters were made using Fisher's exact test or analysis of variance. Nonparametric Spearman's ρ and first-order partial correlation coefficients adjusted for the effect of age were used to examine bivariate correlations among parameters.Results: Of the registry participants at baseline with available age information, 16% (133/845 were ≥65 years old. They were similar to men <65 years old in the duration of hypogonadism prior to enrollment (~1 year, TT and FT levels at baseline, TT and FT levels at 12-month follow-up, and in reported compliance with treatment. Older patients were more likely to receive lower doses of TRT. PSA levels did not statistically differ between groups after 12 months of TRT (2.18 ± 2.18 ng

  14. DNA damage in blood lymphocytes in patients after {sup 177}Lu peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Uta; Bluemel, Christina; Buck, Andreas Konrad; Werner, Rudolf Alexander; Lassmann, Michael [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Nowak, Carina; Scherthan, Harry [Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology affiliated to the University of Ulm, Munich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate DNA double strand break (DSB) formation and its correlation with the absorbed dose to the blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing their first peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with {sup 177}Lu-labelled DOTATATE/DOTATOC. The study group comprised 16 patients receiving their first PRRT. At least six peripheral blood samples were obtained before, and between 0.5 h and 48 h after radionuclide administration. From the time-activity curves of the blood and the whole body, residence times for blood self-irradiation and whole-body irradiation were determined. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated, fixed with ethanol and subjected to immunofluorescence staining for colocalizing γ-H2AX/53BP1 DSB-marking foci. The average number of DSB foci per cell per patient sample was determined as a function of the absorbed dose to the blood and compared with an in vitro calibration curve established in our laboratory with {sup 131}I and {sup 177}Lu. The average number of radiation-induced foci (RIF) per cell increased over the first 5 h after radionuclide administration and decreased thereafter. A linear fit from 0 to 5 h as a function of the absorbed dose to the blood agreed with our in vitro calibration curve. At later time-points the number of RIF decreased, indicating progression of DNA repair. Measurements of RIF and the absorbed dose to the blood after systemic administration of {sup 177}Lu may be used to obtain data on the individual dose-response relationships in vivo. Individual patient data were characterized by a linear dose-dependent increase and an exponential decay function describing repair. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of Sound Therapy Tinnitus Treatments with Concurrent Counseling in Active Duty Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-04

    to be distressing or debilitating, affecting HRQoL (Colucci, 2013; Formby and Scherer, 2013; Hearing Center of Excellence, 2013). This severe...according to the Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) Patient Counseling Guide (Henry, Trune, Robb and Jastreboff , 2007). All participants used Bang...this study was the TRQ (Wilson et al., 1991). The TRQ is a self-report survey designed to assess and measure psychological distress associated with

  16. Radionuclide therapy for true polycythemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasieva, N.I.; Grushka, G.V.; Vasiliev, L.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    remission was achieved in 102 (67%). In these patients, the general condition improved, angina and thrombophlebitis course became more favorable, and ability to work improved. Mean remission duration after the first course of treatment with P-32 was 42 months and 26 months after two courses. Mean life span made up 9.3 years. Thus, radionuclide therapy for true polycythemia with P-32 improves the quality of life and increases mean life span in the patients. (author)

  17. Development and optimization of targeted radionuclide tumor therapy using folate based radiopharmaceuticals

    CERN Document Server

    Reber, Josefine Astrid

    The folate receptor (FR) has been used for a quarter of a century as a tumor-associated target for selective delivery of drugs and imaging agents to cancer cells. While several folic acid radioconjugates have been successfully employed for imaging purposes in (pre)clinical studies, a therapeutic application of folic acid radioconjugates has not yet reached the critical stage which would allow a clinical translation. Due to a substantial expression of the FR in the proximal tubule cells, radiofolates accumulate in the kidneys which are at risk of damage by particle-radiation. To improve this situation, we aimed to develop and evaluate strategies for the performance of FR-targeted radionuclide therapy by decreasing the renal uptake of radiofolates and thereby reducing potential nephrotoxic effects. Two different strategies were investigated. First, the combination of radiofolates with chemotherapeutic agents such as pemetrexed (PMX) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and secondly, an approach based on radioiodinated fol...

  18. Early weight loss predicts the reduction of obesity in men with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism undergoing long-term testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Mahmoud; Yassin, Dany-Jan; Shoukfeh, Huda; Nettleship, Joanne Elisabeth; Yassin, Aksam

    2017-03-01

    We and others have previously shown that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) results in sustained weight loss in the majority of middle-aged hypogonadal men. Previously, however, a small proportion failed to lose at least 5% of their baseline weight. The reason for this is not yet understood. In the present study, we sought to identify early indicators that may predict successful long-term weight loss, defined as a reduction of at least 5% of total body weight relative to baseline weight (T0), in men with hypogonadism undergoing TRT. Eight parameters measured were assessed as potential predictors of sustained weight loss: loss of 3% or more of baseline weight after 1 year of TU treatment, severe hypogonadism, BMI, waist circumference, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1C ), age and use of vardenafil. Among the eight measured parameters, three factors were significantly associated with sustained weight loss over the entire period of TU treatment: (1) a loss of 3% of the baseline body weight after 1 year of TRT; (2) baseline BMI over 30; and (3) a waist circumference >102 cm. Age was not a predictor of weight loss.

  19. The study of parotid function with radionuclide imaging after radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanbin; Zhang Qi; Wang Ling; Wu Shixiu; Xie Congying

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the uptake and excretion function of parotid by radionuclide imaging after simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy (SMART) in nasopharyngeal cancer. Methods: Forty-eight nasopharyngeal cancer cases, 38 of them were treated by SMART with 2.5 Gy/fraction at tumor and enlarged lymph node to a total dose of 70 Gy, and 2.0 Gy/fraction at subclinical foci and prophy laxtic area volume to a total dose of 56 Gy in 38 d. The other 10 cases were treated by traditional radiation therapy (RT). After treatment, all patients performed parotid imaging and both uptake index (UI) and excretion index (EI) after acid stimulation were calculated. Clinical manifestation such as grade of mouth dryness was also analyzed. Results: Average UI and EI in SMART group decreased 21.9% and 37.3% respectively, with 12 cases moderate and severe mouth dryness, whereas in traditional RT group, mean UI and El decreased 56.1% and 96.1% respectively, with 9 cases moderate and severe mouth dryness. There was significant difference between them (P<0.05). Conclusion: Parotid imaging is sensitive for monitoring parotid function, and it is also reliable to evaluate the safety of SMART to parotid.. (authors)

  20. Tinnitus retraining therapy for patients with tinnitus and decreased sound tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Pawel J; Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2003-04-01

    Our experience has revealed the following: (1) TRT is applicable for all types of tinnitus, as well as for decreased sound tolerance, with significant improvement of tinnitus occurring in over 80% of the cases, and at least equal success rate for decreased sound tolerance. (2) TRT can provide cure for decreased sound tolerance. (3) TRT does not require frequent clinic visits and has no side effects; however, (4) Special training of health providers involved in this treatment is required for this treatment to be effective.

  1. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC in recurrent meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolomei, Mirco; Bodei, Lisa; De Cicco, Concetta; Grana, Chiara Maria; Baio, Silvia Melania; Arico, Demetrio; Paganelli, Giovanni [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Cremonesi, Marta [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Botteri, Edoardo [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milan (Italy); Sansovini, Maddalena [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (I.R.S.T.), Radiometabolic Medicine Division, Meldola (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    Meningiomas are generally benign and in most cases surgery is curative. However, for high-grade histotypes or partially resected tumours, recurrence is fairly common. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is usually given in such cases but is not always effective. We assessed peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC in a group of patients with meningioma recurring after standard treatments in all of whom somatostatin receptors were strongly expressed on meningioma cell surfaces. Twenty-nine patients with scintigraphically proven somatostatin subtype 2 receptor-positive meningiomas were enrolled: 14 had benign (grade I), 9 had atypical (grade II) and 6 had malignant (grade III) disease. Patients received intravenous {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC for 2-6 cycles for a cumulative dose in the range of 5-15 GBq. Clinical and neuroradiological evaluations were performed at baseline, during and after PRRT. The treatment was well tolerated in all patients. MRI 3 months after treatment completion showed disease stabilization in 19 of 29 patients (66%) and progressive disease in the remaining 10 (34%). Better results were obtained in patients with grade I meningioma than in those with grade II-III, with median time to progression (from beginning PRRT) of 61 months in the low-grade group and 13 months in the high-grade group. PRRT with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC can interfere with the growth of meningiomas. The adjuvant role of this treatment, soon after surgery, especially in atypical and malignant histotypes, deserves further investigation. (orig.)

  2. Introduction [Nuclear data for the production of therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactivity plays an important role in medical science in terms of beneficial applications in both diagnosis and therapy. The former entails the introduction of a short lived radionuclide attached to a suitable pharmaceutical into the patient, and measurement of the accumulation and movement of activity from outside. This process is called emission tomography and involves the measurement of either a single low energy γ ray (i.e. single photon computed emission tomography) or coincidences between the two 511 keV photons formed in the annihilation of a positron (i.e. positron emission tomography (PET)). The major governing principle in all diagnostic studies is that the radiation dose to the patient is as low as possible. Two modalities exist in the therapeutic use of radioactivity. The first and most commonly followed procedure involves the use of external beams of electrons, X rays and γ rays from radioactive sources (e.g. 60 Co), high energy γ rays from accelerators, and hadrons (e.g. neutrons, protons and heavy ions). The second modality involves the introduction of certain radionuclides to a given part of the body (e.g. joints, organ and tumour) either mechanically or via a biochemical pathway. Mechanical introduction is called brachytherapy, whereas the biochemical pathway is known as endoradiotherapy. External radiation therapy is outside the scope of the present studies. The concerted and collaborative efforts described here deal specifically with the production and use of radionuclides. An earlier coordinated research project (CRP) of the IAEA was devoted to diagnostic radionuclides. The present effort is related to therapeutic radionuclides.

  3. New peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of invasive cancer cells: in vivo studies using 177Lu-DOTA-AE105 targeting uPAR in human colorectal cancer xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Rasmussen, Palle; Madsen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    -of-concept for a theranostic approach as treatment modality in a human xenograft colorectal cancer model. MethodsA DOTA-conjugated 9-mer high affinity uPAR binding peptide (DOTA-AE105) was radiolabeled with 64Cu and 177Lu, for PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy study, respectively. Human uPAR-positive CRC HT-29...... for the first time the in vivo efficacy of an uPAR-targeted radionuclide therapeutic intervention on both tumor size and its content of uPAR expressing cells thus setting the stage for future translation into clinical use. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  4. Patient-specific dosimetry in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: a clinical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalkia, M.T.; Stefanoyiannis, A.P.; Chatziioannou, S.N.; Efstathopoulos, E.P.; Round, W.H.; Nikiforidis, G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) belong to a relatively rare class of neoplasms. Nonetheless, their prevalence has increased significantly during the last decades. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new treatment approach for inoperable or metastasised NETs. The therapeutic effect is based on the binding of radiolabelled somatostatin analogue peptides with NETs’ somatostatin receptors, resulting in internal irradiation of tumours. Pre-therapeutic patient-specific dosimetry is essential to ensure that a treatment course has high levels of safety and efficacy. This paper reviews the methods applied for PRRT dosimetry, as well as the dosimetric results presented in the literature. Focus is given on data concerning the therapeutic somatostatin analogue radiopeptides 111 In-[DTPA o , D -Phe 1 ]-octreotide ( 111 In-DTPA-octreotide), 90 Y-[DOTA o ,Tyr 3 ]-octreotide ( 90 Y-DOTATOC) and 177 Lu-[DOTA o ,Tyr 3 ,Thr 8 ]-octreotide ( 177 Lu-DOTATATE). Following the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee formalism, dosimetric analysis demonstrates large interpatient variability in tumour and organ uptake, with kidneys and bone marrow being the critical organs. The results are dependent on the image acquisition and processing protocol, as well as the dosimetric imaging radiopharmaceutical.

  5. Successful neoadjuvant peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for an inoperable pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes da Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs can present with advanced local or distant (metastatic disease limiting the possibility of surgical cure. Several treatment options have been used in experimental neoadjuvant settings to improve the outcomes in such cases. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PPRT using beta emitting radiolabelled somatostatin analogues has been used in progressive pancreatic NETs. We report a 55-year-old female patient with a 12.8 cm pancreatic NET with significant local stomach and superior mesenteric vein compression and liver metastases. The patient underwent treatment with [177Lutetium-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-octreotate for the treatment of local and metastatic symptomatic disease. Six months after 4 cycles of 177lutetium-octreotate, resolution of the abdominal complaints was associated with a significant reduction in tumour size and the tumour was rendered operable. Histology of the tumour showed a 90% necrotic tumour with abundant hyalinized fibrosis and haemorrhage compatible with PPRT-induced radiation effects on tumour cells. This report supports that PPRT has a role in unresectable and metastatic pancreatic NET.

  6. Experimental peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in radioiodine negative somatostatin receptor positive thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilica, B.; Kroiss, A.; Putzer, D.; Uprimmy, C.; Warwitz, B.; Kendler, D.; Waitz, D.; Virgolini, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Purpose: This retrospective analysis evaluated the time to progression (TTP), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with radioiodine negative thyroid cancer who had undergone peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE, 177 Lu-DOTA-LAN, 90 Y-DOTA-TOC or 90 Y-DOTA-LAN after tumor progression. Methods: Data derived from twenty patients with either differentiated (n=15), anaplastic (n=1) or medullary (n=4) somatostatin receptor positive thyroid cancer who had received treatment with PRRT after tumor progression. TTP, PFS and OS were defined according to the clinical trial endpoints suggested by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Progressive disease was defined by sonography, FDG-PET, Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET, or CT (RECIST Criteria). Results: In 17 patients the median overall survival time after the first PRRT was 17.3 (range: 0.1 - 109.7) months. Three patients still alive are actually showing stable disease. The median of PFS in 20 Patients (6 with more than one PRRT-cycle or PRRT-substance) has been 10.9 (range: 0.1 - 44.0) months. The median TTP was 15.6 (range 4.4 to 29.2) months. Conclusion: PRRT appears to be useful in patients with somatostatin receptor positive but radioiodine negative thyroid cancer as a complementary palliative cytotoxic therapy. (authors)

  7. Marketing and Testosterone Treatment in the USA: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Ayyash, Omar M; Emery, Sherry L; Wessel, Charles B; Davies, Benjamin J

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for classic hypogonadism, although off-label indications have resulted in a dramatic expansion in prescriptions in the USA. Marketing may significantly affect prescriber behavior. To systematically review all available evidence on marketing and TRT in the USA. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched up to July 2017 for all relevant publications reporting on assessments of the TRT market size, economic costs associated with hypogonadism, trends in TRT prescriptions, drug discontinuation rates, and advertising and sales efforts in the USA. Twenty retrospective studies were included in the final analysis. The market size for hypogonadism constitutes 5.6-76.8% of men in the USA, with the lower end of the range representing the strictest criteria for diagnosis. Men with a diagnosis of hypogonadism consume $14 118 in direct and indirect costs to the payer. Over the last 2 decades, TRT prescriptions have increased between 1.8- and 4-fold. After 1 yr, 80-85% of men discontinue TRT. There is an association between direct-to-consumer advertising and testosterone testing, TRT prescriptions, and TRT without testosterone testing. There is a high prevalence of misinformation on Internet advertising. Off-label indications have driven the dramatic expansion of TRT prescriptions over the last 2 decades. Direct-to-consumer advertising poses a unique challenge in the USA. Overtreatment can be avoided by applying strict diagnostic criteria for hypogonadism, which limits the addressable market for TRT. In this report, we reviewed the relationship between marketing and testosterone therapy in the USA. We found that many patients are prescribed testosterone without an appropriate diagnosis of hypogonadism, which may be related to the marketing efforts for off-label prescribing. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijnenberg, Mark W.; Jong, Marion de

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of sublethal damage, and repopulation during or after the therapy. Models for radiation response of preclinical tumour models after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy based on the linear quadratic model are presented. The accuracy of the radiation dose is very important for observation of dose-effects. Uncertainties in the radiation dose estimation arise from incomplete assay of the kinetics, low accuracy in volume measurements and absorbed dose S-values for stylized models instead of the actual animal geometry. Normal dose uncertainties in the order of 20% might easily make the difference between seeing a dose-effect or missing it altogether. This is true for the theoretical case of a homogeneous tumour type behaving in vivo in the same way as its cells do in vitro. Heterogeneity of tumours induces variations in clonogenic cell density, radiation sensitivity, repopulation capacity and repair kinetics. The influence of these aspects are analysed within the linear quadratic model for tumour response to radionuclide therapy. Preclinical tumour models tend to be less heterogenic than the clinical conditions they should represent. The results of various preclinical radionuclide therapy experiments for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy are compared to the outcome of theoretical models and the influence of increased heterogeneity is analysed when the results of preclinical research is transferred to the clinic. When the radiation dose and radiobiology of the tumour response is known well enough it may be possible to leave the current phenomenological approach in preclinical radionuclide therapy and start basing these experiments on radiation dose. Then the use of a gamma ray

  9. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konijnenberg, Mark W.; Jong, Marion de [Nuclear Medicine Department, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    Preclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of sublethal damage, and repopulation during or after the therapy. Models for radiation response of preclinical tumour models after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy based on the linear quadratic model are presented. The accuracy of the radiation dose is very important for observation of dose-effects. Uncertainties in the radiation dose estimation arise from incomplete assay of the kinetics, low accuracy in volume measurements and absorbed dose S-values for stylized models instead of the actual animal geometry. Normal dose uncertainties in the order of 20% might easily make the difference between seeing a dose-effect or missing it altogether. This is true for the theoretical case of a homogeneous tumour type behaving in vivo in the same way as its cells do in vitro. Heterogeneity of tumours induces variations in clonogenic cell density, radiation sensitivity, repopulation capacity and repair kinetics. The influence of these aspects are analysed within the linear quadratic model for tumour response to radionuclide therapy. Preclinical tumour models tend to be less heterogenic than the clinical conditions they should represent. The results of various preclinical radionuclide therapy experiments for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy are compared to the outcome of theoretical models and the influence of increased heterogeneity is analysed when the results of preclinical research is transferred to the clinic. When the radiation dose and radiobiology of the tumour response is known well enough it may be possible to leave the current phenomenological approach in preclinical radionuclide therapy and start basing these experiments on radiation dose. Then the use of a gamma ray

  10. Utility of γH2AX as a molecular marker of DNA double-strand breaks in nuclear medicine: applications to radionuclide therapy employing auger electron-emitting isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Li-Jeen; Orlowski, Christian; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    There is an intense interest in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy. In particular, radiopharmaceuticals which involve targeting radionuclides specifically to cancer cells with the use of monoclonal antibodies (radioimmunotherapy) or peptides (targeted radiotherapy) are being widely investigated. For example, the ultra-short range Auger electron-emitting isotopes, which are discussed in this review, are being considered in the context of DNAtargeted radiotherapy. The efficient quantitative evaluation of the levels of damage caused by such potential radiopharmaceuticals is required for assessment of therapeutic efficacy and determination of relevant doses for successful treatment. The DNA double-strand break surrogate marker, γH2AX, has emerged as a useful biomonitor of damage and thus effectiveness of treatment, offering a highly specific and sensitive means of assessment. This review will cover the potential applications of γH2AX in nuclear medicine, in particular radionuclide therapy.

  11. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Standardizing Therapy Monitoring with 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT Using the Example of Somatostatin Receptor Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Luboldt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to standardize therapy monitoring of hepatic metastases from gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs during the course of somatostatin receptor radionuclide therapy (SRRT. In 21 consecutive patients with nonresectable hepatic metastases of GEP-NETs, chromogranin A (CgA and 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT were compared before and after the last SRRT. On 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT, the maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax of normal liver and hepatic metastases were calculated. In addition, the volumes of hepatic metastases (volume of interest [VOI] were measured using four cut-offs to separate normal liver tissue from metastases (SUVmax of the normal liver plus 10% [VOIliver+10%], 20% [VOIliver+20%], 30% [VOIliver+30%] and SUV = 10 [VOI10SUV]. The SUVmaxof the normal liver was below 10 (7.2 ± 1.3 in all patients and without significant changes. Overall therapy changes (Δ per patient (mean [95% CI] were statistically significant with p < .01 for ΔCgA = −43 (−69 to −17, ΔSUVmax = −22 (−29 to −14, and ΔVOI10SUV = −53 (−68 to −38% and significant with p < .05 for ΔVOIliver+10% = −29 (−55 to −3%, ΔVOIliver+20% = −32 (−62 to −2 and ΔVOIliver+30% = −37 (−66 to −8. Correlations were found only between ΔCgA and ΔVOI10SUV (r = .595; p < .01, ΔSUVmax and ΔVOI10SUV (0.629, p < .01, and SUVmax and ΔSUVmax (r = .446; p < .05. 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT allows volumetric therapy monitoring via an SUV-based cut-off separating hepatic metastases from normal liver tissue (10 SUV recommended.

  12. Novel approaches of chemoradiotherapy in unresectable stage IIIA and stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Bogart, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    Approximately one third of patients with non-small cell lung cancer have unresectable stage IIIA or stage IIIB disease, and appropriate patients are candidates for chemoradiotherapy with curative intent. The optimal treatment paradigm is currently undefined. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy, compared with sequential chemotherapy and thoracic radiation therapy (TRT), results in superior overall survival outcomes as a result of better locoregional control. Recent trials have revealed efficacy for newer chemotherapy combinations similar to that of older chemotherapy combinations with concurrent TRT and a lower rate of some toxicities. Ongoing phase III trials will determine the roles of cisplatin and pemetrexed concurrent with TRT in patients with nonsquamous histology, cetuximab, and the L-BLP25 vaccine. It is unlikely that bevacizumab will have a role in stage III disease because of its toxicity. Erlotinib, gefitinib, and crizotinib have not been evaluated in stage III patients selected based on molecular characteristics. The preliminary results of a phase III trial that compared conventionally fractionated standard-dose TRT (60 Gy) with high-dose TRT (74 Gy) revealed an inferior survival outcome among patients assigned to the high-dose arm. Hyperfractionation was investigated previously with promising results, but adoption has been limited because of logistical considerations. More recent trials have investigated hypofractionated TRT in chemoradiotherapy. Advances in tumor targeting and radiation treatment planning have made this approach more feasible and reduced the risk for normal tissue toxicity. Adaptive radiotherapy uses changes in tumor volume to adjust the TRT treatment plan during therapy, and trials using this strategy are ongoing. Ongoing trials with proton therapy will provide initial efficacy and safety data.

  13. Radioisotopes for imaging and radionuclide targeted therapy in nuclear medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forsterová, Michaela; Zimová, Jana; Beran, Miloš

    -, - (2007), s. 76-77 ISSN N R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : metal radionuclides * bifunctional chelators Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry

  14. Activity determination of radionuclides for diagnostic and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossert, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The application of radionuclides plays in medicine an important role and requires reliable activity determination. The PTB provides for this activity normals and determines the activity of the presented sources. The article describes, how activity determinations in the PTB occur, and by which ways this can be used for nuclear medicine. Research and development works in the PTB are just so illuminated as the determination of nuclide data of some isotopes relevant for medicine.

  15. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  16. Radionuclide imaging in diagnosis and therapy of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Cansheng

    2000-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of angiopathy or infection of the diabetic foot is the key to the successful management. Radionuclide imaging is very useful in detecting diabetic microangiopathy, assessing the prognosis of foot ulcers, and diagnosing the osteomyelitis

  17. Radiation protection measures for reduction of incorporations of iodine-131 by the staff of a radionuclide therapy ward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, J.; Meyer, K.; Lincke, T.; Sabri, O.; Alborzi, H.; Lorenz, J.; Schoenmuth, T.; Keller, A.

    2009-01-01

    The air in patient's rooms with thyroid therapies is loaded with iodine 131, which is to be seen as a cause for the incorporation of iodine 131 by the staff. The patients exhale a part of the iodine applied for their intended radionuclide therapy. The activity is concentrated in the saliva and, thereby, the breath air is moistened and iodine reaches the exhaled and compartment air. The detection of iodine in the form of contaminations and/or incorporations with the staff succeeds only after a longer stay in the patient's room. With this, a clear relation between the particular type of work performed in the room and therapy of malignant thyroid disease with high amounts of radioactivity can be found. The measured values of incorporations, obtained with an whole-body counter, are in the range of up to 400Bq. The activity concentration in the compartment air some hours after application of the therapeutic activity reaches a maximum and then decreases with a half-life of about 15 hours. As a protection measure we asked the patients wearing a mask up to 30 hours after application to (orig.)

  18. Studies on the preparation of 109Pd and 111Ag by (n,γ) reactions on natural palladium for possible applications in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimalnath, K.V.; Chirayil, Viju; Saha, Sujata

    2007-01-01

    Natural palladium on neutron activation provided two radionuclides viz 111 Ag and 109 Pd with attractive nuclear properties for use in radionuclide therapy applications in nuclear medicine. 109 Pd (t 1/2 13.7h, E βmax 1.03MeV) was produced by neutron activation of 108 Pd, while in the same target 111 Ag (t 1/2 7.45d, E βmax 1.04MeV) is formed by the beta decay of co-produced radioactive 111 Pd. Measured samples of palladium foils were neutron irradiated in Dhruva reactor for 7d at a flux of 9 x 10 13 n.cm -2 .s -1 . Radioactive palladium and silver were separated by ion-exchange chromatography over Dowex 1x8, 200-400 mesh size anion exchanger column. Radiochemical mixture of palladium and silver loaded in 10M HCl acid medium showed retention of palladium, while silver eluted out freely. The separated radionuclidically pure fractions of 109 Pd and 111 Ag activity were reconstituted as chloride and nitrate solutions respectively. About 133 GBq 109 Pd and 930 MBq of 111 Ag activity were produced from 100mg palladium. (author)

  19. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  20. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  1. Novel diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for the development of innovative radiopharmaceuticals

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose the exploration of novel radionuclides with diagnostic or therapeutic properties from ISOLDE. Access to such unique isotopes will enable the fundamental research in radiopharmaceutical science towards superior treatment, e.g. in nuclear oncology. The systematic investigation of the biological response to the different characteristics of the decay radiation will be performed for a better understanding of therapeutic effects. The development of alternative diagnostic tools will be applied for the management and optimization of radionuclide therapy.

  2. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  3. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  4. Current perspectives of radiation therapy. History of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, Jun

    2011-01-01

    More than 100 years have passed since the discovery of X-Strahlen by Roentgen. The history of radiation therapy has evolved under mutual stimulating relationships of the external beam radiation therapy by X-ray tubes and accelerators, and the internal radiation therapy employing radium and other radionuclides. The currently employed technologies in radiation therapy have its origin already till nineteen sixties and the development of physics and engineering have realized the original concept. (author)

  5. Radionuclide synovectomy – essentials for rheumatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek M. Chojnowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70–80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice.

  6. Treatment of metastasis localizations by intratumoral injection of radionuclide microsphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo Peiyu; Pang Yan; Zhu Dianqing; Chang Keli; Zhu Yanjia

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of radionuclide-labeled microsphere by intratumoral injection into 18 patients with superficial metastasis tumor for treatment. Methods: 18 patients with superficial metastasis were treated with radionuclide-labeled microsphere ( 90 Y-GTMS and 32 P-GTMS) by multi-point intratumoral injection. Each injection dose was 11.1-18.5 MBq/g (tumor). Results: 1 patient was relieved completely, 9 were relieved partly, 5 were improved and 3 kept stable. The total rate of relief and virtual value were 55.6% and 83.3% respectively. Conclusion: Topical treatment by using radionuclide may help diminish the tumor, control its progress and ease the symptoms. Thus it can be used as a supplement of routine treatment of tumors and it should do some work in therapy of malignant tumors in late stages

  7. Cardiovascular risks and elevation of serum DHT vary by route of testosterone administration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Stephen E; Shuster, Jonathan J; Zou, Baiming; Ye, Fan; Jia, Huanguang; Wokhlu, Anita; Yarrow, Joshua F

    2014-11-27

    Potential cardiovascular (CV) risks of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) are currently a topic of intense interest. However, no studies have addressed CV risk as a function of the route of administration of TRT. Two meta-analyses were conducted, one of CV adverse events (AEs) in 35 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TRT lasting 12 weeks or more, and one of 32 studies reporting the effect of TRT on serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). CV risks of TRT: Of 2,313 studies identified, 35 were eligible and included 3,703 mostly older men who experienced 218 CV-related AEs. No significant risk for CV AEs was present when all TRT administration routes were grouped (relative risk (RR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76 to 2.13, P = 0.34). When analyzed separately, oral TRT produced significant CV risk (RR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.45 to 3.55, P = 0.015), while neither intramuscular (RR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.28 to 1.56, P = 0.32) nor transdermal (gel or patch) TRT (RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.62 to 2.62, P = 0.48) significantly altered CV risk. Serum testosterone/DHT following TRT: Of 419 studies identified, 32 were eligible which included 1,152 men receiving TRT. No significant difference in the elevation of serum testosterone was present between intramuscular or transdermal TRT. However, transdermal TRT elevated serum DHT (5.46-fold, 95% CI: 4.51 to 6.60) to a greater magnitude than intramuscular TRT (2.20-fold, 95% CI: 1.74 to 2.77). Oral TRT produces significant CV risk. While no significant effects on CV risk were observed with either injected or transdermal TRT, the point estimates suggest that further research is needed to establish whether administration by these routes is protective or detrimental, respectively. Differences in the degree to which serum DHT is elevated may underlie the varying CV risk by TRT administration route, as elevated serum dihydrotestosterone has been shown to be associated with CV risk in observational studies.

  8. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  9. Measurement of beta emitting radionuclides in dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tastan, S.; Soylu, A.; Kucuk, O.; Ibis, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radionuclides for diagnostics purposes like Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67 and In-111 are measured by using ionization type of dose calibrators. Therapeutic radionuclides, which emit both beta and gamma rays are detected by the same type of dose calibrators. Other therapeutic products like Y-90, P-32 and Sr-89 are pure beta emitters and they are gaining wider utility because various new therapy radiopharmaceuticals are being developed. The type of container material, like glass or plastic, may seriously affect radioactivity measurement due to attenuation, Since it is crucial to give the exact amount of radioactivity to the patient for therapy purposes, dedicated dose calibrators are specially manufactured for the measurement of these radionuclides. But these measuring systems are not widely available in nuclear medicine centers where therapy is applied to the patient. It is a known fact that dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments can be calibrated for vials and syringes using standard sources of the same radioisotope. The method of calibration of Y-90 measurement for two ionization chamber dose calibrators available in the institute will be summarized in this presentation

  10. Measurement of beta emitting radionuclides in dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tastan, S.; Soylu, A.; Kucuk, O.; Ibis, E.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclides for diagnostics purposes like Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67 and In-111 are measured by using ionization type of dose calibrators. Therapeutic radionuclides, which emit both beta and gamma rays are detected by the same type of dose calibrators. Other therapeutic products like Y-90, P-32 and Sr-89 are pure beta emitters and they are gaining wider utility because various new therapy radiopharmaceuticals are being developed. The type of container material, like glass or plastic, may seriously affect radioactivity measurement due to attenuation, Since it is crucial to give the exact amount of radioactivity to the patient for therapy purposes, dedicated dose calibrators are specially manufactured for the measurement of these radionuclides. But these measuring systems are not widely available in nuclear medicine centers where therapy is applied to the patient. It is a known fact that dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments can be calibrated for vials and syringes using standard sources of the same radioisotope. The method of calibration of Y-90 measurement for two ionization chamber dose calibrators available in the institute will be summarized in this presentation. (author)

  11. Bremsstrahlung parameters of praseodymium-142 in different human tissues. A dosimetric perspective for 142Pr radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, M.K.; Jabal-Ameli, H.; Ahmadi, S.J.; Sadeghi, M.; Sadjadi, S.; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Praseodymium-142 [T 1/2 =19.12 h, E β -=2.162 MeV (96.3%), E γ =1575 keV (3.7%)] is one of the 141 Pr radioisotopes. Many studies have been attempted to assess the significance of usage 142 Pr in radionuclide therapy. In many studies, the dosimetric parameters of 142 Pr sources were calculated by modeling 142 Pr sources in the water phantom and scoring the energy deposited around it. However, the medical dosimetry calculations in water phantom consider Bremsstrahlung production, raising the question: ''How important is to simulate human tissues instead of using water phantom?'' This study answers these questions by estimation of 142 Pr Bremsstrahlung parameters. The Bremsstrahlung parameters of 142 Pr as therapeutic beta nuclides in different human tissues (adipose, blood, brain, breast, cell nucleus, eye lens, gastrointestinal tract, heart, kidney, liver, lung deflated, lymph, muscle, ovary, pancreas, cartilage, red marrow, spongiosa, yellow marrow, skin, spleen, testis, thyroid and different skeleton bones) were calculated by extending the national council for radiation protection model. The specific Bremsstrahlung constant (Γ Br ), probability of energy loss by beta during Bremsstrahlung emission (P Br ) and Bremsstrahlung activity (A release ) Br were estimated. It should be mentioned that Monte Carlo simulation was used for estimation of 142 Pr Bremsstrahlung activity based on the element compositions of different human tissues and the calculated exposures from the anthropomorphic phantoms. Γ Br for yellow marrow was smallest amount (1.1962 x 10 -3 C/kg-cm 2 /MBq-h) compared to the other tissues and highest for cortical bone (2.4764 x 10 -3 C/kg-cm 2 /MBq-h), and, overall, Γ Br for skeletal tissues were greater than other tissues. In addition, Γ Br breast was 1.8261 x 10 -3 C/kg-cm 2 /MBq-h which was greater than sacrum and spongiosa bones. Moreover, according to (A release ) Br of 142 Pr, the patients receiving 142 Pr do not have to be hospitalized for

  12. Spatial aspects of combined modality radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodey, Rachel K.; Evans, Phil M.; Flux, Glenn D.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: A combined modality radiotherapy (CMRT) incorporates both external beam radiotherapy (EBT) and targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) components. The spatial aspects of this combination were explored by utilising intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to provide a non-uniform EBT dose distribution. Patients and methods: Three methods of prescribing the required non-uniform distribution of EBT dose are described, based on both physical and biological criteria according to the distribution of TRT uptake. The results and consequences of these prescriptions are explored by application to three examples of patient data. Results: The planning procedure adopted allowed IMRT plans to be produced that met the prescription requirements. However, when the treatment was planned as a CMRT, compared with the use of EBT alone, more satisfactory target doses could be achieved with lower doses to normal tissues. The effects of errors in EBT delivery and in the functional data were found to cause a non-uniform prescription to tend towards the uniform case. Conclusions: The methods and results are relevant for more general biological treatment planning, in which IMRT may be used to produce dose distributions prescribed according to tumour function. The effects of delivery and dose calculation errors can have a significant impact on how such treatments should be planned

  13. Isosorbide dinitrate and nifedipine treatment of achalasia: a clinical, manometric and radionuclide evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfond, M.; Rozen, P.; Gilat, T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of sublingual isosorbide dinitrate (5 mg) and nifedipine (20 mg) were compared in 15 patients with achalasia. The parameters examined included the manometric measurement of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure, the radionuclide assessment of esophageal emptying and the clinical response. The mean basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure fell significantly after both drugs (p less than 0.01), with a maximum fall of 63.5% 10 min after receiving isosorbide dinitrate, but by only 46.7% 30 min after nifedipine. The esophageal radionuclide test meal retention was significantly less (p less than 0.01) only after receiving isosorbide dinitrate. The drug improved initial esophageal emptying by its effect on the lower esophageal sphincter and by relieving the test meal hold-up noted to occur at the junction of the upper and midesophagus. Eight patients cleared their test meal within 10 min after isosorbide dinitrate administration while only two did so after nifedipine. Subjectively, 13 patients had their dysphagia relieved by isosorbide dinitrate and 8 by nifedipine. However, this relief was not confirmed in 4 patients by the radionuclide study and they, as well as the other 3 patients who did not respond to therapy, were referred to pneumatic dilatation. Side effects were more prominent after nitrates. Three of the patients are currently receiving nifedipine and 5 patients received isosorbide dinitrate therapy for 8-14 mo. The radionuclide test meal is currently the best way of objectively evaluating drug therapy in patients with achalasia. Isosorbide dinitrate is more effective than nifedipine in relieving their symptoms

  14. Isosorbide dinitrate and nifedipine treatment of achalasia: a clinical, manometric and radionuclide evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfond, M.; Rozen, P.; Gilat, T.

    1982-11-01

    The effects of sublingual isosorbide dinitrate (5 mg) and nifedipine (20 mg) were compared in 15 patients with achalasia. The parameters examined included the manometric measurement of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure, the radionuclide assessment of esophageal emptying and the clinical response. The mean basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure fell significantly after both drugs (p less than 0.01), with a maximum fall of 63.5% 10 min after receiving isosorbide dinitrate, but by only 46.7% 30 min after nifedipine. The esophageal radionuclide test meal retention was significantly less (p less than 0.01) only after receiving isosorbide dinitrate. The drug improved initial esophageal emptying by its effect on the lower esophageal sphincter and by relieving the test meal hold-up noted to occur at the junction of the upper and midesophagus. Eight patients cleared their test meal within 10 min after isosorbide dinitrate administration while only two did so after nifedipine. Subjectively, 13 patients had their dysphagia relieved by isosorbide dinitrate and 8 by nifedipine. However, this relief was not confirmed in 4 patients by the radionuclide study and they, as well as the other 3 patients who did not respond to therapy, were referred to pneumatic dilatation. Side effects were more prominent after nitrates. Three of the patients are currently receiving nifedipine and 5 patients received isosorbide dinitrate therapy for 8-14 mo. The radionuclide test meal is currently the best way of objectively evaluating drug therapy in patients with achalasia. Isosorbide dinitrate is more effective than nifedipine in relieving their symptoms.

  15. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepe, K. [GH Hospital Frankfurt/Oder, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany); Becker, A. [GH Hospital Frankfurt/Oder, Department of Internal Medicine, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Since the 1990s the advantages of breastfeeding have been emphasized and the number of women who nurse their infant has increased significantly. Although women in this population are generally healthy and relatively rarely need radionuclide imaging or radionuclide therapies, the issue of radiation protection of breastfed children arises because of their higher radiosensitivity. Approximately 55 papers on excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after radionuclide imaging or therapy have been published. Unfortunately, most of them are case reports or include only a small number of cases. In 1955 the first report was published about a breastfeeding woman after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis. This early study showed a higher concentration of radioiodine in breast milk than in plasma and investigated the risk to the infant, especially to the thyroid gland.

  16. [111In-DTPA]octreotide tumor uptake in GEPNET liver metastases after intra-arterial administration: An overview of preclinical and clinical observations and implications for tumor radiation dose after peptide radionuclide therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Pool (Stefan); B.L. Kam (Boen); G.A. Koning (Gerben); M. Konijnenberg (Mark); T.L.M. ten Hagen (Timo); W.A.P. Breeman (Woulter); E.P. Krenning (Eric); M. de Jong (Marcel); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAims: With the aim to improve peptide receptor radionuclide therapy effects in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (GEPNET) liver metastases we explored the effect of intra-arterial (IA) administration of [111In-DTPA]octreotide (111In-DTPAOC) on tumor uptake in an

  17. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  18. Phase II drugs currently being investigated for the treatment of hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udedibia, Emeka; Kaminetsky, Jed

    2014-12-01

    Hypogonadism is the most common endocrine disorder, which affects men of all age groups. Recent shifts in public awareness, increased screening and recognition of symptoms and updated diagnostic criteria have led to an increase in men diagnosed as hypogonadal, including middle-aged and older men who previously would have been considered eugonadal. The increase in testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has paralleled an increase in advancements of treatment options. Although current therapies are highly efficacious for many men, there remains a need for newer therapies that are more cost-effective, preserve ease of use and administration, mitigate undesirable effects and closely mimic physiological levels of testosterone. In this review, the authors discuss current TRTs and therapies in development for the treatment of hypogonadism. The focus is on therapies under Phase II investigation or those who have recently completed Phase II study. With several new therapies in development, the authors expect advancements in achieving treatment benchmarks that meet the needs of the individual symptomatic hypogonadal male. Increased public awareness of hypogonadism and TRT has led to a welcomed expansion in the choice of TRT options. These include new delivery systems, formulations, routes of administration and non-testosterone modalities.

  19. Production of radionuclides by 14 MeV neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfassi, Z.B.

    1983-01-01

    Due to the short half-lives of these nuclides they have to be produced in situ or at least not far from the place of use. The cost of 14 MeV neutron generators have been compared with the typical middle-sized cyclotrons and it was found that the capital costs are much lower in the case of neutron generators. This is the main reason for the availability of 14 MeV neutron generators in many scientific institutes compared to the scarcity of cyclotrons. Lately, the use of 14 MeV neutrons for cancer therapy was studied in several medical centers. A number of hospitals and cancer research centers have high intensity 14 MeV neutron generators for this purpose. The advantages of using short-lived in-house produced radionuclides suggest the use of the available 14 MeV neutron generators for biological studies and in medical diagnosis. 14 MeV neutron generators can be used to produce some of the medically useful radionuclides, such as /sup 18/F, /sup 80/Br, /sup 199m/Hg, and others. However, the amount required for medicine can only be prepared by the new high intensity neutron generators, used for neutron therapy and not by the smaller ones, commonly used in university laboratories (--10/sup 11/ n/sec). On the other hand, these relatively small neutron generators can be used for the preparation of radionuclides for biological studies. They facilitate the study of metabolism of elements for which radionuclides cannot be usually purchased due to short half-lives or the high price of the long-lived ones, such as /sup 34m/Cl, /sup 18/F, /sup 28,29/Al, /sup 27/Mg, and others. An example is the work done on the fate of Al and Mg in rats using /sup 28/Al and /sup 27/Mg./sup 13/

  20. Prostate MRI findings in patients treated for testosterone deficiency while on active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Rahul, Krishnan; Takeda, Toshikazu; Benfante, Nicole; Mulhall, John P.; Hricak, Hedvig; Eastham, James A.; Vargas, Hebert Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) findings in patients treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) while on active surveillance (AS) for low-risk prostate cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 12 patients who underwent mpMRI before and after TRT while on AS. Changes in serum testosterone level, prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate biopsy findings, prostate volume and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 (PI-RADSv2) score before and after TRT were summarized. Results Following TRT, there was a significant increase in serum testosterone (516.5 ng/dl vs. 203.0 ng/dl), PSA (4.2 ng/ml vs. 3.3 ng/ml) and prostate volume (55.2 cm3 vs. 39.4 cm3). Two patients had biopsy progression during the study periods. The PI-RADSv2 scores before and after TRT were unchanged in 10/12 patients; none of these demonstrated biopsy progression on post TRT. The PI-RADSv2 scores increased after TRT in 2/12 patients; both showed Gleason score upgrade on follow-up biopsy. One of these two patients underwent radical treatment due to clinical progression. The area under the curve calculated from PI-RADSv2 score after TRT was 0.90, which was better than that calculated from post TRT PSA level (0.48). Conclusions After TRT, mpMRI findings remained stable in patients without biopsy progression, while PI-RADSv2 score increase was identified in patients with Gleason score upgrade on follow-up biopsy. PMID:27665357

  1. Subjective tinnitus assessment and treatment in clinical practice: the necessity of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Heyning, Paul; Gilles, Annick; Rabau, Sarah; Van Rompaey, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Subjective tinnitus can be triggered by a variety of causes, and therefore tinnitus patients constitute a very heterogeneous population difficult to manage. In this article, we reviewed the current literature to present our conceptual model of the conscious auditory percept and tinnitus - based on experimental research - in order to explain the clinical approach to the individual tinnitus patient. Fundamental research has provided evidence to support the neurophysiological model of tinnitus developed by Jastreboff. By manipulating the limbic, autonomic and auditory systems, tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) aims to reduce the response to the abnormal stimulus. Evidence has confirmed the effectiveness of TRT and cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing the negative impact of subjective tinnitus on the patients' quality of life. Every patient with subjective tinnitus has its unique 'tinnitus profile' which provides a guide to the necessary combination of therapeutic actions. Evidence suggests the multidisciplinary approach combining etiological therapy as well as TRT, and cognitive behavioral therapy in specialized clinics is not only effective in reducing the patient's quality of life but also cost-effective from a healthcare and societal point of view.

  2. Radionuclide investigations in clinical cardiology - 10 years of cooperation in Frankfurt/FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepzig, H. Jr.; Kaltenbach, M.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclide investigations today are an important tool in cardiology. They close the diagnostic gap in cases where non-invasive procedures of cardiological diagnosis such as ecg, exercise-ecg, echocardiography and chest-x-ray remains unrevealing. Further, they are helpful when an exact quantitation of the disease or a precise follow-up is required. Radionuclide techniques are very useful to detect myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease and to judge myocardial function in patients with aortic or mitral regurgitation. Follow-up investigations after therapy (aortocoronary bypass, PTCA, valve replacement) permit conclusions regarding the benefit of these measures. Results of radionuclide investigations should consider the Bayes' theorem in order to keep false-negative and false-positive reports as low as possible. (orig.) [de

  3. Nuclear Techniques for Coronary Heart Disease Therapy after Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurlaila-Z

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear techniques studies of the heart represent one of the fastest growing areas of research. Several years ago, nuclear medicine cardiac studies were limited for the evaluation and diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Development in radiopharmaceutical-chemistry and instrumentation have made possible advances in nuclear medicine for restenosis cardiovascular therapy after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.The radionuclide as radiation source can be delivered to the target basically by two techniques, those are catheter-based systems and radioactive stents. For this purpose,it can be use the γ and β emitter radionuclides, in which the β emitter radionuclides is an ideal radionuclide for endovascular therapy. Restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty can be prevented by using the radioactive stent. This review discusses several techniques which could be used for restenosis cardiovascular therapy. Furthermore, several types of radiopharmaceutical and kinds of radionuclides as well as doses of the compounds for this purpose are also reviewed. (author)

  4. Auger Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Nadia; Cornelissen, Bart; Vallis, Katherine A.

    Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons have been of particular interest as therapeutic agents. This is primarily due to the short range in tissue, controlled linear paths and high linear energy transfer of these particles. Taking into consideration that ionizations are clustered within several cubic nanometers around the point of decay the possibility of incorporating an Auger emitter in close proximity to the cancer cell DNA has immense therapeutic potential thus making nuclear targeted Auger-electron emitters ideal for precise targeting of cancer cells. Furthermore, many Auger-electron emitters also emit γ-radiation, this property makes Auger emitting radionuclides a very attractive option as therapeutic and diagnostic agents in the molecular imaging and management of tumors. The first requirement for the delivery of Auger emitting nuclides is the definition of suitable tumor-selective delivery vehicles to avoid normal tissue toxicity. One of the main challenges of targeted radionuclide therapy remains in matching the physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide and targeting moiety with the clinical character of the tumor. Molecules and molecular targets that have been used in the past can be classified according to the carrier molecule used to deliver the Auger-electron-emitting radionuclide. These include (1) antibodies, (2) peptides, (3) small molecules, (4) oligonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), (5) proteins, and (6) nanoparticles. The efficacy of targeted radionuclide therapy depends greatly on the ability to increase intranuclear incorporation of the radiopharmaceutical without compromising toxicity. Several strategies to achieve this goal have been proposed in literature. The possibility of transferring tumor therapy based on the emission of Auger electrons from experimental models to patients has vast therapeutic potential, and remains a field of intense research.

  5. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  6. Optimal diagnostic measures and thresholds for hypogonadism in men with HIV/AIDS: comparison between 2 transdermal testosterone replacement therapy gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, Gary

    2013-03-01

    To determine the incidence of hypogonadism in men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS), the most useful serum testosterone measurement and threshold for diagnosing hypogonadism, and the comparative efficacy of 2 testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) 1% gels (AndroGel® [Abbott Laboratories] and Testim® [Auxilium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.]). This was a 2-stage observational study. In stage 1, patient records from 2 medical practices specializing in HIV/AIDS were reviewed. Eligible patients were aged ≥ 18 years; had HIV-seropositive status confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot test or HIV-1 viremia confirmed by HIV-1 RNA polymerase chain reaction; and had prior baseline testosterone assessments for hypogonadism (ie, presence of signs/symptoms of hypogonadism as well as total testosterone [TT] and free testosterone [FT] level measurements). Stage 2 included the evaluation of patients from stage 1 who were treated with 5 to 10 g/day of TRT. The stage 2 inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of low testosterone (defined as TT level < 300 ng/dL and/or FT level < 50 pg/mL, as per The Endocrine Society guidelines and presence/absence of hypogonadal signs and symptoms); ≥ 12 months of evaluable sign and symptom assessments and TT/FT level measurements while on TRT with either Testim® or AndroGel®; and ≥ 4 weeks on initial TRT if the initial TRT was switched or discontinued. Four hundred one of 422 patients met the stage 1 inclusion criteria and 167 of 401 patients (AndroGel®, n = 92; Testim®, n = 75) met the stage 2 inclusion criteria. Total testosterone level < 300 ng/dL alone identified 24% (94 of 390) of patients as hypogonadal, but failed to diagnose an additional 111 patients (67.7%) with FT levels < 100 pg/mL and hypogonadal symptoms. Through month 12, AndroGel® increased mean TT levels by +42.8% and FT levels by +66.9%, compared with +178.7% (P = 0.017) and +191% (P = 0.039), respectively, for

  7. Implementation of sum-peak method for standardization of positron emission radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is being increasingly recognized as an important quantitative imaging tool for diagnosis and assessing response to therapy. As correct dose administration plays a crucial part in nuclear medicine, it is important that the instruments used to assay the activity of the short-lived radionuclides are calibrated accurately, with traceability to the national or international standards. The sum-peak method has been widely used for radionuclide standardization. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of PET radiopharmaceuticals at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE). (author)

  8. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  9. EORTC QLQ-BM22 and QLQ-C30 quality of life scores in patients with painful bone metastases of prostate cancer treated with strontium-89 radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaka, Shinji; Satoh, Takefumi; Chow, E.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80% of patients with prostate cancer will develop bone metastases, which often lead to bone pain and skeletal-related events. Sr-89 is an established alternative for the palliation of bone pain in prostate cancer. We aimed to assess the effect of Sr-89 radionuclide therapy on quality of life (QOL) in prostate cancer patients with painful bone metastases. Thirteen patients received a single intravenous injection of Sr-89 at a dose of 2.0 MBq/kg. All patients underwent QOL evaluation prior to Sr-89 treatment and 1, 2, and 3 months afterward using the Japanese version of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer developed a Quality of Life questionnaire for Patients with Bone Metastases 22(EORTC QLQ-BM22), EORTC Quality of Life Group core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), a visual analog scale (VAS), and face scale. We also evaluated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) response and toxicity of the Sr-89 therapy. The pain characteristics subscale of the EORTC QLQ-BM22 was significantly reduced from 1 month onward compared with the baseline. The functional interference and psychosocial aspects subscales were significantly higher than baseline from 2 months onward. At 2 months, VAS indicated a significant reduction in pain as compared to the baseline. Sr-89 therapy caused a nonsignificant reduction in PSA and ALP levels. No patients had leukocyte toxicity, and one patient had grade 3 platelet toxicity. Sr-89 radionuclide therapy can provide not only reduced pain characteristics but also better psychosocial aspects and functional interference in patients with painful bone metastases of prostate cancer. (author)

  10. Progress on the development of a detector mounted analog and digital readout system for the ATLAS TRT

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, C; Dressnandt, N; Gay, C; Lundberg, B; Munar, A; Mayers, G; Newcomer, M; Van Berg, R; Williams, H H

    2004-01-01

    The 430,000 element ATLAS Transition Radiation straw tube Tracker (TRT) is divided into a central barrel tracker consisting of 104,000 axially mounted straws and two radially arranged end caps on either side of the barrel with 160,000 straws each. To achieve a track position resolution of 140 mu m, the front end electronics must operate at a low (2fC) threshold with a time marking capability of ~1ns. Two ASICs, the ASDBLR and DTMROC provide the complete pipelined readout chain. Custom designed FBGA packages for the ASICs provide a small enough outline to be detector mounted and the extensive use of low level differential signals make mounting the analog packages on printed circuit boards directly opposite the 40 MHz digital chips feasible. The readout electronics for the barrel occupies a potentially important part of the active tracker volume and an aggressive effort has been made to make it as compact as possible. Utilizing a single board for both analog and digital ASICS a 0.1 cm /sup 3/ per channel volume...

  11. Progress in the development of the DTMROC time measurement chip for the ATLAS transition radiation tracker (TRT)

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, C; Dressnandt, N; Ekenberg, T; Farthouat, Philippe; Keener, P T; Lam, N; La Marra, D; Mann, J; Newcomer, F M; Ryzhov, V; Söderberg, M; Szczygiel, R; Van Berg, R; Williams, H H

    2001-01-01

    A 16-channel digital time-measurement readout chip (DTMROC) has been fabricated in the TEMIC/DM1LL left bracket 1 right bracket BI- CMOS radiation-hard process for the Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) Transition Radiation Tracker (ATLAS/TRT) at CERN left bracket 2 right bracket . The chip receives discriminated straw-drift-tube signals from bipolar amplifier-shaper-discriminator chips (ASDBLR). measures the arrival time in 3.125 ns increments ( plus or minus 1 ns), and stores the data in a pipeline for 3.3mus. A trigger signal (L1A) causes the data to be tagged with a time stamp and stored for readout- Up to 13 events may be stored in an on-chip buffer while data is being clocked out in a 40 MHz serial stream. The chip has been designed to function after exposure to 1x10**1**4 protons/cm**2 and 1 Mrad total dose. System beam-tests have demonstrated measurement of track positions with a resolution of 165mum and 85% efficiency at rates up to 18MHz. 6 Refs.

  12. Radionuclide therapy of skin cancers and Bowen's disease using specially designed skin patch: A pilot study in an animal model and clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. D.; Park, K. K.; Lee, M. G.; Lee, J. T.; Yoo, H. S.; Kim, E. H.; Rhim, K. J.; Kim, Y. M.; Park, K. B.; Kim, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignant tumors in human. Therapeutic modalities of the skin cancers are local destruction, radiotherapy and surgery. External radiation therapy leads to good results, however, overall 5-6 weeks of treatment period is needed to deliver optimal radiation dose to tumors. In this study, β-emitting radionuclide, Ho-166, impregnated in a specially designed patch was utilized to superficial skin cancers and Bowen's disease for local irradiation. Methods; Animal study was employed in 10 mice with chemically induced skin tumors. Five- mm size patches containing 22.2 -72.15 MBq(0.6 - 1.95 mCi) of Ho-166 were applied to the tumor surface for 1 -2 hr. In clinical trial, patients with squamous carcinoma(n=3), basal cell carcinoma(n=1), and Bowen's disease(n=1) were treated with patches containing 273.8 - 999 MBq (7.4 - 27 mCi) of Ho-166 for 30 minutes to 1 hour. Pathologic examination was performed 4 - 7 weeks after the treatment in animal model. Skin biopsy was performed 8 weeks post-treatment in four patients. Results; Tumor destruction was seen 1 week post the treatment, however, radiation dermatitis or ulceration developed at the site of radionuclide application. Those reactions healed gradually with fibrosis or epithelialization, which was confirmed pathologically. No significant adverse reaction to radiation except subcutaneous fibrosis was found. Conclusion; Superficial skin tumors could be successfully treated by topical application of β-emitting radionuclides. (author)

  13. Kidney protection during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with somatostatin analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolleman, Edgar J.; Melis, Marleen; Valkema, Roelf; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, V 220, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boerman, Otto C. [Radboud University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    This review focuses on the present status of kidney protection during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. This treatment modality for somatostatin receptor-positive tumours is limited by renal reabsorption and retention of radiolabelled peptides resulting in dose-limiting high kidney radiation doses. Radiation nephropathy has been described in several patients. Studies on the mechanism and localization demonstrate that renal uptake of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues largely depends on the megalin/cubulin system in the proximal tubule cells. Thus methods are needed that interfere with this reabsorption pathway to achieve kidney protection. Such methods include coadministration of basic amino acids, the bovine gelatin-containing solution Gelofusine or albumin fragments. Amino acids are already commonly used in the clinical setting during PRRT. Other compounds that interfere with renal reabsorption capacity (maleic acid and colchicine) are not suitable for clinical use because of potential toxicity. The safe limit for the renal radiation dose during PRRT is not exactly known. Dosimetry studies applying the principle of the biological equivalent dose (correcting for the effect of dose fractionation) suggest that a dose of about 37 Gy is the threshold for development of kidney toxicity. This threshold is lower when risk factors for development of renal damage exist: age over 60 years, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and previous chemotherapy. A still experimental pathway for kidney protection is mitigation of radiation effects, possibly achievable by cotreatment with amifostine (Ethylol), a radiation protector, or with blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Future perspectives on improving kidney protection during PRRT include combinations of agents to reduce renal retention of radiolabelled peptides, eventually together with mitigating medicines. Moreover, new somatostatin analogues with lower

  14. Kidney protection during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with somatostatin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolleman, Edgar J.; Melis, Marleen; Valkema, Roelf; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de; Boerman, Otto C.

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the present status of kidney protection during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. This treatment modality for somatostatin receptor-positive tumours is limited by renal reabsorption and retention of radiolabelled peptides resulting in dose-limiting high kidney radiation doses. Radiation nephropathy has been described in several patients. Studies on the mechanism and localization demonstrate that renal uptake of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues largely depends on the megalin/cubulin system in the proximal tubule cells. Thus methods are needed that interfere with this reabsorption pathway to achieve kidney protection. Such methods include coadministration of basic amino acids, the bovine gelatin-containing solution Gelofusine or albumin fragments. Amino acids are already commonly used in the clinical setting during PRRT. Other compounds that interfere with renal reabsorption capacity (maleic acid and colchicine) are not suitable for clinical use because of potential toxicity. The safe limit for the renal radiation dose during PRRT is not exactly known. Dosimetry studies applying the principle of the biological equivalent dose (correcting for the effect of dose fractionation) suggest that a dose of about 37 Gy is the threshold for development of kidney toxicity. This threshold is lower when risk factors for development of renal damage exist: age over 60 years, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and previous chemotherapy. A still experimental pathway for kidney protection is mitigation of radiation effects, possibly achievable by cotreatment with amifostine (Ethylol), a radiation protector, or with blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Future perspectives on improving kidney protection during PRRT include combinations of agents to reduce renal retention of radiolabelled peptides, eventually together with mitigating medicines. Moreover, new somatostatin analogues with lower

  15. Nuclear medicine therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Eary, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    One in three of the 30 million Americans who are hospitalized are diagnosed or treated with nuclear medicine techniques. This text provides a succinct overview and detailed set of procedures and considerations for patient therapy with unsealed radioactivity sources.  Serving as a complete literature reference for therapy with radiopharmaceuticals currently utilized in practice, this source covers the role of the physician in radionuclide therapy, and essential procedures and protocols required by health care personnel.

  16. The production of radionuclides for nuclear medicine from a compact, low-energy accelerator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, William D; Parks, Geoffrey T; Titov, Dmitry; Beasley, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The field of nuclear medicine is reliant on radionuclides for medical imaging procedures and radioimmunotherapy (RIT). The recent shut-downs of key radionuclide producers have highlighted the fragility of the current radionuclide supply network, however. To ensure that nuclear medicine can continue to grow, adding new diagnostic and therapy options to healthcare, novel and reliable production methods are required. Siemens are developing a low-energy, high-current - up to 10 MeV and 1 mA respectively - accelerator. The capability of this low-cost, compact system for radionuclide production, for use in nuclear medicine procedures, has been considered. The production of three medically important radionuclides - (89)Zr, (64)Cu, and (103)Pd - has been considered, via the (89)Y(p,n), (64)Ni(p,n) and (103)Rh(p,n) reactions, respectively. Theoretical cross-sections were generated using TALYS and compared to experimental data available from EXFOR. Stopping power values generated by SRIM have been used, with the TALYS-generated excitation functions, to calculate potential yields and isotopic purity in different irradiation regimes. The TALYS excitation functions were found to have a good agreement with the experimental data available from the EXFOR database. It was found that both (89)Zr and (64)Cu could be produced with high isotopic purity (over 99%), with activity yields suitable for medical diagnostics and therapy, at a proton energy of 10MeV. At 10MeV, the irradiation of (103)Rh produced appreciable quantities of (102)Pd, reducing the isotopic purity. A reduction in beam energy to 9.5MeV increased the radioisotopic purity to 99% with only a small reduction in activity yield. This work demonstrates that the low-energy, compact accelerator system under development by Siemens would be capable of providing sufficient quantities of (89)Zr, (64)Cu, and (103)Pd for use in medical diagnostics and therapy. It is suggested that the system could be used to produce many other

  17. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  18. Study of alternative routes for the production of innovative radionuclides for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialty that uses radioactive nuclei for therapy or diagnosis of diseases such as different types of cancer. These radionuclides are coupled to carrier molecules to target sick cells. Currently, only few isotopes are used in clinical practice. However, many others may be of medical interest due to their emitted radiation and/or their half-life that can be adapted to the carrier molecule transit time and to the pathology. The aim of this PhD thesis is to study the production of innovative radionuclides for therapy and diagnosis applications in collaboration with the GIP ARRONAX, which possesses a multi-particle high energy cyclotron. A fundamental physical parameter to access the production rate of a radionuclide is the production cross section. Experimental data were measured for a selection of radionuclides: photon emitter (Tc-99m) and positron emitter (Sc-44g) for diagnosis, as well as electron emitters (Re-186, Tb-155 and Sn-117m) and α particles emitters (Th-226, Ra-223 and Bi-213) for therapeutic applications. These acquired data are obtained using alternative production routes compared to the commonly used. Data related to the contaminants produced during the irradiations were also extracted. The experimental cross section values are compared with theoretical model predictions. The large set of data obtained contributes to the theoretical physicist studies allowing to constrain their models to improve and/or validate them. (author)

  19. Pain palliation therapy of bone metastases: palliative or curative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.

    2007-01-01

    In Germany the incidence of breast cancer is about 85 and of prostate cancer about 50 new patients per 100.000 inhabitants/year. In about 80% of prostate cancer patients and 75% of breast cancer patients bone metastases are observed in autopsy. Most of these patients develop severe pain syndrome from bone metastases reducing quality of life during life time. Therapy of these patients should aim at adding life to the years not years to their life. The knowledge of metastatic cell biology, of cell-cell interaction and of tumor-cell, tumor cell-skeleton interaction may modify the therapeutic procedure. Already in 1940/41, Pecher treated a patient suffering from painful prostate cancer bone metastases administering 296 MBq 89 Strontium chloride. About 10 years later, Friedell introduced 32 Phosphorus for treatment of bone metastases from breast cancer. Today in Europe 3 radionuclides are approved for pain palliation therapy as shown in Table.1. Indication: - pain palliation therapy of bone metastases from prostate cancer ( 89 Sr and 186 Re); - pain palliation of all osteoblastic metastases independent from primary tumors ( 153 Sm). Contraindications: - pregnant and lactating females - myelosuppression ( 3 granulocytes; 3 platelets); - impaired renal function (urea >12 mmol/l; creatinine > 150 mmol/l) - incontinence; - acute or chronic spinal cord compression and/or brain metastases causing neurological symptoms; - disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The recommended activities per treatment are: 89 Sr 150 MBq, 186 Re 1.295 MBq, and 153 Sm 37 MBq/kg BW. Shortly (6-8 weeks) prior to radionuclide therapy for pain palliation no high dose chemotherapy or large field radiation therapy should be performed. Stopping unlabelled bisphosphonate therapy prior to pain palliation therapy is not necessary. This radionuclide therapy may be repeated several time, the interval between tracer administration depends on blood cell count rate. The recommended intervals are for 89 Sr

  20. Somatostatin receptor gene therapy combined with targeted therapy with radiolabeled octreotide: a new treatment for liver metastases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mearadji (Amir); W.A.P. Breeman (Wouter); L.J. Hofland (Leo); R.L. Marquet (Richard); J. Jeekel (Hans); E.P. Krenning (Eric); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) on somatostatin receptor (SSR)-transfected colon carcinoma cells in a rat liver metastases model.SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previously the authors have shown highly effective therapy with

  1. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  2. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  3. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  4. Radiopharmaceutical therapy in Dominican Republic. Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johny Osvaldo de los Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this paper we present experience in Dominican Republic on Radiopharmaceutical Therapy. In our country, there are 8 Center with Nuclear Medicine Department. Only, 7 centers are working with Radiopharmaceutical Therapy. Radioiodine treatment with I-131 in Thyroid diseases(Thyroid Cancer and Hyperthyroidism). This is only Nuclear Medicine therapy available in Dominican Republic. The objectives of this paper are to analyze and assess the difficulties and facilities for the development of Radiopharmaceutical Therapy in Dominican Republic. We made surveys with the help of Nuclear Medicine Physicians of different Nuclear Medicine departments. 8 Nuclear Physicians accepted the interview. Two of these Nuclear Medicine Centers are Department of a Cancer Center and they have many patients for therapies. In the majority opinion of Physicians, Cost of Radiopharmaceuticals is principal problem to use Therapy in Dominican Republic. In addition the following problems were identified: Lack of awareness about new therapy in Nuclear Medicine among Physicians of other specialties, lack of adequate training in the current trends of radionuclide therapy and finally lack of basic infrastructure, equipment and finances to buy radiopharmaceuticals and introduce radionuclide therapy. For this reason, Nuclear Medicine Centers prefer to work with only I-131 Therapy and they do not have new programs to start other therapies. In the near future, our department of Nuclear Medicine will work with I-131, pain palliation, treatment of metastatic disease and Treatment of benign diseases. We have interest in offering other therapies in the department and we hope that other departments with more resources, have the same interest, to enhance practice of radionuclide therapy in our country. (author)

  5. Radiochemical schemes of obtaining 89Sr and 90Y radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usarov, Z. O.

    2010-03-01

    which would be used for radionuclide therapy of oncological diseases. (author)

  6. Radionuclide esophageal transit: an evaluation of therapy in achalasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, M.K.; Brady, C.E.; Weiland, F.L.

    1983-09-01

    We measured quantitative esophageal transit, expressed as percentage of esophageal retention, before and after pneumatic dilatation in two patients with achalasia. In the sitting position they ingested a 500 ml liquid meal containing 500 muCi technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Radioactivity counts of the entire esophagus were plotted at five-minute intervals for 30 minutes. In five normal control subjects the esophagus essentially cleared in less than one minute. Both patients with achalasia had definite retention 30 minutes before dilatation and had quantitative improvement after dilatation. Radionuclide scintigraphic esophageal transit probably correlates better than other parameters with the physiologic degree of obstruction in achalasia.

  7. Contributions of nuclear medicine to the therapy of malignant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinendegen, L.E. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizin Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik)

    1991-11-01

    The diagnostic and therapeutic application of radionuclides on oncology has led to an increased efficiency in the treatment of malignant tumors. - Regarding diagnosis, measuring metabolic reactions in tumor tissue, especially by positron emission tomography, opened the potential for assaying tumor response to different treatment modalities and thus eventually for tailoring effective treatment of a given tumor in the individual patient. - Regarding treatment, attention is given to the choice of the radionuclide for optimal deposition of the desired radiation in tumor cells avoiding exposure of normal cells; in this context microdosimetric considerations are essential with respect to {beta}-emitters, {alpha}-emitters, the Auger-effect and neutron capture therapy. Examples of therapeutic uses of radionuclides in the inorganic form are 131-I for thyroid cancer and 32-P for polycythemia vera; organically bound radionuclides are employed with precursors for tumor cell metabolism or with receptor seeking agents, such as MIBG and monoclonal antibodies which presently enjoy a particular interest and bear great promise. Stable nuclides, if property accumulated within tumors, may be activated for therapy in situ, for example by thermal neutrons, as in neutron capture therapy using the 10-B (n, {alpha})7-Li reaction. - Treatment planning and execution with radionuclides have gained momentum over the past decade, yet much more needs to be done. (orig.).

  8. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  9. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Konijnenberg (Mark); M. de Jong (Marion)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPreclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of

  10. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  11. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  12. Inducement of radionuclides targeting therapy by gene transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Quanyong

    2001-01-01

    The author presents an overview of gene transfection methods to genetically induce tumor cells to express enhanced levels of cell surface antigens and receptors to intake radiolabeled antibody and peptide targeting and thus increase their therapeutic effect in radiotherapy. The current research include inducement of radioimmunotherapy through CEA gene transfection, inducement of iodine-131 therapy by sodium iodide symporter gene transfection and inducement of MIBG therapy by noradrenaline transporter gene transfection. These studies raise the prospect that gene-therapy techniques could be used to enable the treatment of a wide range of tumors with radiopharmaceuticals of established clinical acceptability

  13. Evaluation of radioiodinated vesamicol analogs for sigma receptor imaging in tumor and radionuclide receptor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Akhter, Nasima; Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Washiyama, Kohshin; Kinuya, Seigo; Kawai, Keiichi; Mori, Hirofumi

    2009-11-01

    It has been reported that sigma receptors are highly expressed in a variety of human tumors. In this study, we selected (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino] cyclohexanol [(+)-pIV] as a sigma receptor ligand and evaluated the potential of radioiodinated (+)-pIV for tumor imaging and therapy. (+)-[(125/131)I]pIV was prepared by an iododestannylation reaction under no-carrier-added conditions with radiochemical purity over 99% after HPLC purification. Biodistribution experiments were performed by the intravenous injection of (+)-[(125)I]pIV into mice bearing human prostate tumors (DU-145). Blocking studies were performed by intravenous injection of (+)-[(125)I]pIV mixed with an excess amount of unlabeled sigma ligand into DU-145 tumor-bearing mice. For therapeutic study, (+)-[(131)I]pIV was injected at a dose of 7.4 MBq followed by measurement of the tumor size. In biodistribution experiments, (+)-[(125)I]pIV showed high uptake and long residence in the tumor. High tumor to blood and muscle ratios were achieved because the radioactivity levels of blood and muscle were low. However, the accumulations of radioactivity in non-target tissues, such as liver and kidney, were high. The radioactivity in the non-target tissues slowly decreased over time. Co-injection of (+)-[(125)I]pIV with an excess amount of unlabeled sigma ligand resulted in a significant decrease in the tumor/blood ratio, indicating sigma receptor-mediated tumor uptake. In therapeutic study, tumor growth in mice treated with (+)-[(131)I]pIV was significantly inhibited compared to that of an untreated group. These results indicate that radioiodinated (+)-pIV has a high potential for sigma receptor imaging in tumor and radionuclide receptor therapy.

  14. Release of patients after radionuclide therapy. With contributions from the [International Commission on Radiological Protection] ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The use of unsealed radiopharmaceuticals for treatment of disease is common practice worldwide. This approach was widely employed some years ago and, following a decline, there has recently been a resurgence of interest in it. The combination of newly accessible radionuclides, improved labelling technology and developments in biotechnology has resulted in more enthusiasm and a wider range of applications for this form of therapy. Radionuclide treatments are performed with either the patient admitted to hospital or as an outpatient only. The criteria to determine which approach is best vary considerably, and are not always closely linked with the well established standards of radiation protection practice. Safety issues for the patient, their family, associated carers, staff and the general public arise with either approach. The potential risks are from both external irradiation and contamination. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) specify the dose constraints and limits for all of these groups, and their more general provisions with respect to the as low as reasonably achievable principle and justification also apply. One way of managing exposures of the various groups is to control when patients are released from hospital. While they are in hospital, it is relatively easy to control exposure. Once they have returned to their family in the community, they must be advised on how to restrict the exposure of those people that they will come into contact with. Until recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) did not provide specific advice in this area, and relied on the application of dose limits and constraints. However, regulators in some countries took a prescriptive approach, often using estimates of retained activity as a release criterion. These only loosely relate to dose limits. This publication attempts to bring newly available advice

  15. Testosterone replacement elevates the serum uric acid levels in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Mahmood, Sabina; Araki, Motoo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) results from a disagreement between a person's biological sex and the gender to which he or she identifies. With respect to the treatment of female to male GID, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available. The uric acid (UA) level can be influenced by testosterone; however, the early effects and dose-dependency of TRT on the serum UA concentration have not been evaluated in this population. We herein conducted a dose-response analysis of TRT in 160 patients with female to male GID. The TRT consisted of three treatment groups who received intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate: 125 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 250 mg every two weeks. Consequently, serum UA elevation was observed after three months of TRT and there was a tendency toward testosterone dose-dependency. The onset of hyperuricemia was more prevalent in the group who received the higher dose. We also demonstrated a positive correlation between increased levels of serum UA and serum creatinine. Since the level of serum creatinine represents an individual's muscle volume and the muscle is a major source of purine, which induces UA upregulation, the serum UA elevation observed during TRT is at least partially attributed to an increase in muscle mass. This is the first study showing an association between serum UA elevation and a TRT-induced increase in muscle mass. The current study provides important information regarding TRT for the follow-up and management of the serum UA levels in GID patients.

  16. Radionuclide imaging in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, C.A.; Robinson, R.G.; Hinthorn, D.R.; Liu, C.

    1978-01-01

    Eight patients with herpes simplex encephalitis among the 10 cases diagnosed at the University of Kansas Medical Center from 1966 to 1976 were studied with /sup 99m/Tc early in their diagnostic work-up. The images were unilaterally positive in the temporal lobe area in all 8 patients. Radionuclide studies can suggest herpes simplex as the specific etiology in cases of encephalitis and can also indicate the best site for brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis by fluorescent antibody techniques. Appropriate antiviral therapy should be instituted as soon as possible to alter the course of this destructive form of viral encephalitis

  17. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  18. Medical Physics Staffing Needs in Diagnostic Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy: An Activity Based Approach [Endorsed by International Organization for Medical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decades, the rapid technological development of diagnostic and interventional radiology and nuclear medicine has made them major tools of modern medicine. However, at the same time the involved risks, the growing number of procedures and the increasing complexity of the procedures require competent professional staff to ensure safe and effective patient diagnosis, treatment and management. Medical physicists (or clinically qualified medical physicists) have been recognized as vital health professionals with important and clear responsibilities related to quality and safety of applications of ionizing radiation in medicine. This publication describes an algorithm developed to determine the recommended staffing levels for clinical medical physics services in medical imaging and radionuclide therapy, based on current best practice, as described in international guidelines.

  19. New peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of invasive cancer cells: in vivo studies using 177Lu-DOTA-AE105 targeting uPAR in human colorectal cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Morten; Rasmussen, Palle; Madsen, Jacob; Ploug, Michael; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The proposition of uPAR as a potential target in cancer therapy is advanced by its predominant expression at the invasive front of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its value as prognostic biomarker for poor survival in this disease. In this study, we provide the first in vivo proof-of-concept for a theranostic approach as treatment modality in a human xenograft colorectal cancer model. Methods: A DOTA-conjugated 9-mer high affinity uPAR binding peptide (DOTA-AE105) was radiolabeled with 64 Cu and 177 Lu, for PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy study, respectively. Human uPAR-positive CRC HT-29 cells were inoculated in Nude mice and treated with 177 Lu-DOTA-AE105 once a visible tumor had formed. To evaluate the true effect of the targeted radiotherapy, two controls groups were included in this study, one receiving a 177 Lu-labeled non-binding control peptide and one receiving vehicle. All animals were treated day 0 and 7. A parallel 18 F-FLT PET/CT study was performed on day 0, 1, 3 and 6. Dosimetry calculations were based on a biodistribution study, where organs and tissue of interest were collected 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 24 h post injection of 177 Lu-DOTA-AE105. Toxicity was assessed by recording mouse weight and by H and E staining of kidneys in each treatment group. Results: uPAR-positive HT-29 xenograft was clearly visualized by PET/CT imaging using 64 Cu-DOTA-AE105. Subsequently, these xenograft transplants were locally irradiated using 177 Lu-DOTA-AE105, where a significant effect on tumor size and the number of uPAR-positive cells in the tumor was found (p 18 F-FLT PET/CT imaging study revealed a significant correlation between 18 F-FLT tumor uptake and efficacy of the radionuclide therapy. A histological examination of the kidneys from one animal in each treatment group did not reveal any gross abnormalities and the general performance of all treated animals also showed no indications of radioactivity-induced toxicity. Conclusion: These findings

  20. Modified inorganic nanoparticles as vehicles for alpha emitters in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowska, A.; Leszczuk, E.; Koźmiński, P.; Bilewicz, A.; Morgenstern, A.; Bruchertseifer, F.

    2014-01-01

    The TiO 2 nanoparticles have unique properties like: high specific surface, high affinity for multivalent cations and simple way of synthesis, which are useful in the process of labelling. Commercially available (e.g. P-25 Degussa) and synthesised in our laboratory nanoparticles were used in experiments. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, SEM, DLS and NanoSight techniques. In the experiments, two different methods of labeling are tested. The first one was based on the possibility of formation strong bonds with certain cations on the surface of the nanoparticles. In the 65 second one, TiO 2 nanoparticles were doped with 225 Ac during the process of synthesis. In both cases, high yields of labelling (>99%) was obtained. Afterwards, the stability of labelled nanoparticles was examined in 0.9 % NaCl, 10 -3 M EDTA, solutions of biologically active substances (cysteine, glutathione) and human serum. In case of TiO 2 nanoparticles labelled with 225 Ac, which was built in the crystalline structure, the leakage of 225 Ac and its daughter radionuclides was not significant in any of solutions, even when the incubation time was extended to 10 days. In the case of nanoparticles with adsorbed 225 Ac on surface the leakage in serum was slightly higher, but still insignificant. Also the NaA nanozeolite as a carrier for radium radionuclides has been studied. 224 Ra and 225 Ra, the α-particle emitting radionuclides, have been absorbed in the nanometer-sized NaA zeolite through simple ion-exchange. 224,225 Ra-nanozeolites have shown very good stability in solutions containing: physiological salt, EDTA, amino acid and human serum. To make NaA nanozeolite particles dispersed in water their surface has been modified with silane coupling agent containing poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules. To obtain conjugates specific for receptors on glioma cancer cells short peptide substance P were covalently attached to the PEG-TiO 2 and PEG-nanozeolite surface. The obtained

  1. 188Re(V) Nitrido Radiopharmaceuticals for Radionuclide Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-01-19

    The favorable nuclear properties of rhenium-188 for therapeutic application are described, together with new methods for the preparation of high yield and stable 188 Re radiopharmaceuticals characterized by the presence of the nitride rhenium core in their final chemical structure. 188 Re is readily available from an 188 W/ 188 Re generator system and a parallelism between the general synthetic procedures applied for the preparation of nitride technetium-99m and rhenium-188 theranostics radiopharmaceuticals is reported. Although some differences between the chemical characteristics of the two metallic nitrido fragments are highlighted, it is apparent that the same general procedures developed for the labelling of biologically active molecules with technetium-99m can be applied to rhenium-188 with minor modification. The availability of these chemical strategies, that allow the obtainment, in very high yield and in physiological condition, of 188 Re radiopharmaceuticals, gives a new attractive prospective to employ this radionuclide for therapeutic applications.

  2. 188Re(V) Nitrido Radiopharmaceuticals for Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-01-01

    The favorable nuclear properties of rhenium-188 for therapeutic application are described, together with new methods for the preparation of high yield and stable 188Re radiopharmaceuticals characterized by the presence of the nitride rhenium core in their final chemical structure. 188Re is readily available from an 188W/188Re generator system and a parallelism between the general synthetic procedures applied for the preparation of nitride technetium-99m and rhenium-188 theranostics radiopharmaceuticals is reported. Although some differences between the chemical characteristics of the two metallic nitrido fragments are highlighted, it is apparent that the same general procedures developed for the labelling of biologically active molecules with technetium-99m can be applied to rhenium-188 with minor modification. The availability of these chemical strategies, that allow the obtainment, in very high yield and in physiological condition, of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals, gives a new attractive prospective to employ this radionuclide for therapeutic applications. PMID:28106830

  3. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  4. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  5. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  6. MR spectroscopy of hepatic fat and adiponectin and leptin levels during testosterone therapy in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L V; Andersen, P E; Diaz, Alejandro Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) often have lowered testosterone levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Ectopic fat increases the risk of CVD, whereas subcutaneous gluteofemoral fat protects against CVD and has a beneficial adipokine-secreting profile. Testosterone...... replacement therapy (TRT) may reduce the content of ectopic fat and improve the adipokine profile in men with T2D. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 39 men aged 50-70 years with T2D and bioavailable testosterone levels...

  7. Targeted alpha therapy: Applications and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchertseifer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Full text: The field of targeted alpha therapy has been developed rapidly in the last decade. Besides 223 Ra, 211 At and 212 Pb/ 212 Bi the alpha emitters 225 Ac and 213 Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. The presentation will give a short overview about the current clinical treatments with alpha emitting radionuclides and will place an emphasis on the most promising clinical testing of peptides and antibodies labelled with 225 Ac and 213 Bi for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with glioma and glioblastoma multiform, PSMA-positive tumor phenotype and bladder carcinoma in situ. (author)

  8. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  9. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  10. The pharmacotherapy of male hypogonadism besides androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Ratrelli, Giulia; Maggi, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Adulthood male hypogonadism (HG) is the most common form of HG. Although testosterone (T) replacement therapy (TRT) is the most common way of treating HG, other options are available depending on patient's needs and expectations. We analyze alternative options to TRT as a medical intervention in treating HG. Gonadotropin (Gn) therapy is the treatment of choice in men with secondary HG (sHG), who require fertility. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy represents an alternative to Gn for inducing spermatogenesis in patients with sHG, however, its use is limited by the poor patient compliance and high cost. In obese HG men, lifestyle modifications and, in particular, weight loss should be the first step. Recent data suggest that antiestrogens represent a successful treatment for sHG. Other potential therapeutic options include the stimulation of hypothalamic activity (i.e., kisspeptin and neurokinin-B agonists). Conversely, the possibility of increasing Leydig cell steroid production, independently from Gn stimulation, seems unreliable. Understanding the nature of male HG and patient's needs are mandatory before choosing among treatment options. For primary HG only TRT is advisable, whereas for the secondary form several alternative possibilities can be offered.

  11. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  12. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  13. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  14. Radioisotopes for therapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, Meera

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides made great impact in the history of nuclear sciences both at the end of 19th century with the discoveries of Becquerel and madame Curie and later in 1934, when Frederic Joliet and Irene Curie demonstrated the production of the first artificial radioisotopes, 30 P, by bombardment of 27 Al by alpha particles. The subsequent invention of cyclotron and setting up of nuclear reactor opened the floodgate for production of artificial radionuclides. Currently, majority of radionuclides are made artificially by transforming a stable nuclide into an unstable state and thus far over 2500 radionuclides have been produced artificially. Use of radionuclides in various fields immediately followed their production and last century has witnessed tremendous growth in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes, in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, food preservation, water resource management, environmental studies, etc. While radiation and radioisotopes are used both for diagnosis as well as for therapy in the field of medicine, therapeutic applications are among the earliest, which began as an empirical science in the beginning and developed into a well structured modality with time. (author)

  15. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  16. RESTORATION OF FERTILITY IN A MAN WITH AZOOSPERMIA DEVELOPED IN RESPONSE TO TREATMENT WITH TESTOSTERONE GEL (A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Korneev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT allows to combat the symptoms of age-related androgen deficiency (AAD; however, it may have side effects, including the reduction in sperm count and even complete cessation of spermatogenesis and development of azoospermia. The fertility may not be restored even within 18 month after treatment completion. Russian researcher explored the impact of TRT with gel on the ejaculate parameters in men with hypogonadism and observed no negative effects on spermatogenesis within 3 months after treatment initiation. We describe a clinical case of reversible azoospermia induced by a relatively short course of TRT with gel. Fertilizing capacity of sperm was finally restored, which was confirmed by a clinical pregnancy obtained by in vitro fertilization. Physicians prescribing TRT should inform their patients that such treatment is contraindicated to those men who would like to preserve their fertility and explain that the restoration of fertility will take some time after treatment completion.

  17. Effect of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator on acute myocardial infarction; Limitation of infarct size and preservation of left ventricular function evaluated by radionuclide methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Takaya; Inou, Tetsuji; Ashihara, Toshiaki; Ogata, Ikuo; Nabeyama, Shouzou; Yamada, Akira; Murakami, Satoshi; Kodama, Mayuko; Matsui, Kanji (Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital, Ehime (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Radionuclide studies were performed in 18 patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving i.v. injection of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 12 hr after an attack. Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography revealed that infarct size decreased by 42% in the rt-PA treated group, as compared with 25% in the control group. Left ventricular ejection fraction, as found on first-pass radionuclide angiography with Tc-99m PYP, was significantly higher in the rt-PA treated group than the control group (49% vs 38%). Radionuclide imagings were helpful in confirming myocardial salvage after rt-PA intravenous therapy. It was also considered necessary to perform rt-PA therapy as early as possible after an acute myocardial attack. (N.K.).

  18. Metabolic effects of testosterone replacement therapy on hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Cai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review was aimed at assessing the metabolic effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT on hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A literature search was performed using the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PubMed. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Two reviewers retrieved articles and evaluated the study quality using an appropriate scoring method. Outcomes including glucose metabolism, lipid parameters, body fat and blood pressure were pooled using a random effects model and tested for heterogeneity. We used the Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager 5.2 software for statistical analysis. Five RCTs including 351 participants with a mean follow-up time of 6.5-months were identified that strictly met our eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis of the extractable data showed that testosterone reduced fasting plasma glucose levels (mean difference (MD: −1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI (−1.88, −0.31, fasting serum insulin levels (MD: −2.73; 95% CI (−3.62, −1.84, HbA1c % (MD: −0.87; 95% CI (−1.32, −0.42 and triglyceride levels (MD: −0.35; 95% CI (−0.62, −0.07. The testosterone and control groups demonstrated no significant difference for other outcomes. In conclusion, we found that TRT can improve glycemic control and decrease triglyceride levels of hypogonadal men with T2DM. Considering the limited number of participants and the confounding factors in our systematic review; additional large, well-designed RCTs are needed to address the metabolic effects of TRT and its long-term influence on hypogonadal men with T2DM.

  19. Phase 2 Study of Accelerated Hypofractionated Thoracic Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Limited-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Bing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Hong, Ling-Zhi [Department of Oncology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Cai, Xu-Wei; Zhu, Zheng-Fei; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Kuai-Le; Fan, Min; Mao, Jing-Fang; Yang, Huan-Jun; Wu, Kai-Liang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Fu, Xiao-Long, E-mail: xlfu1964@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the efficacy and toxicity of accelerated hypofractionated thoracic radiation therapy (HypoTRT) combined with concurrent chemotherapy in the treatment of limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC), with the hypothesis that both high radiation dose and short radiation time are important in this setting. Methods and Materials: Patients with previously untreated LS-SCLC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2, and adequate organ function were eligible. HypoTRT of 55 Gy at 2.5 Gy per fraction over 30 days was given on the first day of the second or third cycle of chemotherapy. An etoposide/cisplatin regimen was given to 4 to 6 cycles. Patients who had a good response to initial treatment were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. The primary endpoint was the 2-year progression-free survival rate. Results: Fifty-nine patients were enrolled from July 2007 through February 2012 (median age, 58 years; 86% male). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 49.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35.3%-62.7%). Median survival time was 28.5 months (95% CI 9.0-48.0 months); the 2-year overall survival rate was 58.2% (95% CI 44.5%-71.9%). The 2-year local control rate was 76.4% (95% CI 63.7%-89.1%). The severe hematologic toxicities (grade 3 or 4) were leukopenia (32%), neutropenia (25%), and thrombocytopenia (15%). Acute esophagitis and pneumonitis of grade ≥3 occurred in 25% and 10% of the patients, respectively. Thirty-eight patients (64%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusion: Our study showed that HypoTRT of 55 Gy at 2.5 Gy per fraction daily concurrently with etoposide/cisplatin chemotherapy has favorable survival and acceptable toxicity. This radiation schedule deserves further investigation in LS-SCLC.

  20. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  1. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  2. Evaluation of cytotoxic and tumor targeting capability of (177)Lu-DOTATATE-nanoparticles: a trailblazing strategy in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Geetanjali; Dubey, Priyanka; Shukla, Jaya; Ghosh, Sourabh; Bandopadhyaya, Gurupad

    2016-06-01

    We propose an innovative strategy of nanoparticle-mediated-peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) employing PLGA-nanoparticles together with anti-β-hCG antibodies that can protect kidneys from radiation damage while simultaneously enhancing its tumor targeting and cytotoxic ability for somatostatin receptor (SSR) positive tumors. PEG-coated-(177)Lu-DOTATATE-PLGA-nanoparticles (PEG-LuD-NP) were formulated and characterized. In vitro toxicity of these particles was tested on human glioblastoma cell line U87MG over a radiation dose range of 19-78 Gy, using MTT assay and flow cytometry. To further enhance cytotoxicity and test the feasibility of active tumor targeting, apoptosis-inducing anti-β-hCG monoclonal antibodies were employed in vitro, after confirming expression of β-hCG on U87MG. In vivo tumor targeting ability of these particles, in comparison to uncoated particles and un-encapsulated (177)Lu-DOTATATE, was assessed by intravenous administration in tumor-induced wistar rats. Rats were first imaged in a gamma camera followed by euthanasia for organ extraction and counting in gamma counter. The particles were spherical in shape with mean diameter of 300 nm. Highest cytotoxicity that could be achieved with PEG-LuD-NP, on radio-resistant U87MG cells, was 35.8 % due to complex cellular response triggered by ionizing radiation. Interestingly, synergistic action of antibodies and PEG-LuD-NP doubled the cytotoxicity (80 %). PEG-LuD-NP showed the highest tumor uptake (4.3 ± 0.46 % ID/g) as compared to (177)Lu-DOTATATE (3.5 ± 0.31 %) and uncoated-(177)Lu-DOTATATE-nanoparticles (3.4 ± 0.35 %) in tumor-inoculated wistar rats (p targeting SSR positive tumors for enhanced cytoxicity and reduced renal radiation dose associated with conventional PRRT. To our knowledge of literature, this is the first study to establish in vitro and in vivo efficacy profile of nanoparticles in PRRT providing a stepping-stone for undergoing and future research

  3. Nuclear medicine - factors influencing the choice and use of radionuclides in diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This report addresses the many factors which influence the choice of the proper radiopharmaceutical drug product for the diagnosis or treatment of a specific disease or condition in a human subject. The Report examines the historical factors that influence the choice of radionuclides, the factors that influence the localization of radionuclides in tissues, the factors that influence the choice of instruments, and include an evaluation of the nuclear medicine procedures that could be selected and their clinical usefulness. In examining these factors the desirable characteristics of the radiopharmaceutical drug products of the measurement systems are identified. The methods of dose determination and the assumptions used in determination of dose are developed. There is also a section on radiation effects. A chapter on guidelines for procedures in nuclear medicine and some general and specific recommendations for protection of patients conclude the body of the text

  4. Targeted alpha therapy: Applications and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchertseifer, Frank, E-mail: frank.bruchertseifer@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: The field of targeted alpha therapy has been developed rapidly in the last decade. Besides {sup 223}Ra, {sup 211}At and {sup 212}Pb/{sup 212}Bi the alpha emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. The presentation will give a short overview about the current clinical treatments with alpha emitting radionuclides and will place an emphasis on the most promising clinical testing of peptides and antibodies labelled with {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with glioma and glioblastoma multiform, PSMA-positive tumor phenotype and bladder carcinoma in situ. (author)

  5. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  6. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  7. Feasibility of short-lived radionuclide production at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Haken, R.K.; Awschalom, M.; Rosenberg, I.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements for establishing a short-lived radionuclide production program at Fermilab are explored. Such a program would utilize beam from the linac portion of the injector much like the present Neutron Therapy Facility. It should be possible to use approximately 10 to 20 μA of 66-MeV protons for iodine-123 production. Several additional magnets would need to be acquired and a shielded target facility would need to be constructed. However, the feasibility of establishing such a program hinges upon its harmonious operation with the high energy physics program

  8. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  9. Calculation and Evaluation of Fission Yields and Capture Cross Sections Leading to the Production of Therapeutic Radionuclide by Means of Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublet, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Much progress has been made in nuclear medicine that involves the use of radionuclides for both diagnosis and therapy. Because of this qualitative and quantitative growth, the adoption of a set of established radionuclides for various applications, the methods of nuclide production need to be addressed and consideration given to other, emerging radionuclides that are judged to be developing in importance. The methods involved are characterized by the transmutation of isotopes by neutron-induced reactions and decays. Therefore, newly evaluated cross sections, fission yields and decay characteristics of relevance to the reactor production of those therapeutic radionuclides have been reviewed. Considerations of the decay schemes of all the nuclides involved are also included. (author)

  10. AB19. Testosterone replacement therapy: how safe is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Larry

    2014-01-01

    controversies surrounding testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) have been addressed in the past few years. Although the androgenic effects of TRT on normal and malignant prostate cells have been studied for over 70 years, little clinical prospective research exists on the physiological responses of prostate tissues to a wide range of serum testosterone levels. The early, well-designed in vivo studies formed the basis of the concept that testosterone has a threshold or saturation level in all types of androgen-dependent prostate cells. That is, the stimulatory effects of androgens on the prostate reach a point within physiological serum levels above which they no longer have any proliferative effect and serum levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone can decrease substantially in both the eugonadal and hypogonadal states without affecting the amount of androgen within the nucleus of the cell. At a certain threshold level (possibly ‘castrate’ level), the intranuclear level of androgen will begin to decrease and the appropriate physiological changes will be triggered. Questions remain as to whether results from experimental studies in the rat can be extrapolated to the situation in humans. Is the human prostate subject to the same homeostatic constraints as has been so well defined in animal experiments, and if so, what is the threshold or saturation level for maximal intracellular androgens and physiological responses in man? The sensitivity of an individual to varying levels of testosterone is also influenced by his genetic makeup, particularly polymorphisms in the androgen receptor, and other upstream signaling and downstream metabolic events, including diabetes mellitus and obesity. Despite decades of research, no compelling evidence exists that increasing testosterone beyond this threshold level has a causative role in prostate cancer, or indeed changes the biology of the disease. Notwithstanding this, the reluctance to utilize testosterone replacement has been

  11. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  12. Should single-phase radionuclide bone imaging be used in suspected osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fihn, S.D.; Larson, E.B.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.; Gerber, F.H.

    1984-01-01

    The records of 69 patients who had 86 delayed, static radionuclide bone images for suspected osteomyelitis were studied to determine the effects of this procedure on diagnosis and treatment. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were lower than reported in several other studies. When osteomyelitis was unlikely, imaging was either negative or falsely positive and rarely affected treatment. In 46 cases where osteomyelitis was more likely, imaging potentially changed therapy in 19 but was unhelpful or misleading in 15. Static-phase images with ''definite'' interpretations, particularly when negative, are specific, but ''equivocal'' studies may lead to diagnostic and therapeutic errors. When ostemyelitis is improbable, imaging rarely changes diagnosis or therapy

  13. Country report: Brazil. Development of Radiopharmaceuticals Based on {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y for Radionuclide Therapy at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osso, Jr., J. A.; Barrio, G.; Dias, C. R.B.R.; Brambilla, T. P.; Dantas, D. M.; Suzuki, K. N.; Barboza, M. F.S.; Bortoleti, E.; Fukumori, N. T.; Mengatti, J. [Radiopharmacy Center – Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research – IPE N-CNEN/SP, São Paulo – Brazil (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The overall objective of this CRP is to develop radiopharmaceuticals for targeted therapy using {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y and to study the performance of generators with long lived parent radionuclides as well as to validate the QC control procedures for estimating the purity of generator eluents. The CRP is expected to enhance the capability in production of {sup 90}Y and {sup 188}Re radiopharmaceuticals to meet the increasing demand of therapeutic products for clinical applications, in particular in Brazil. In this period efforts were made towards the assembling of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y generators, quality control of {sup 90}Y, the labelling of DMSA(V) and anti-CD20 with {sup 188}Re and the labelling of Hydroxiapatite(HA) with {sup 90}Y. (author)

  14. Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

  15. Neuroendocrine Tumours : From Radiomolecular Imaging to Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIOS eLIMOURIS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Transhepatic radionuclide infusion (THRI has been introduced as a new treatment approach for unresectable liver neuroendocrine metastatic lesions with the prerequisite of a positive In-111 Pentetreotide (Octreoscan. Patients with multiple liver neuroendocrine metastases can be locally treated after selective hepatic artery catheterization and infusion of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, and in case of extra-hepatic secondary spread, after simple i.v. application. According to the world wide references, the average dose per session to each patient is 6.3±0.3 GBq (~ 160-180 mCi of In-111-DTPA-Phe1- Pentetreotide, 10-12 fold in total, administered monthly or of 4.1± 0.2 GBq (~105-116 mCi of Y-90 DOTA TOC, 3 fold in total or of 7.0 ± 0.4 GBq (~178-200 mCi of Lu-177 DOTA TATE, 4-6 fold in total (the choice of which being based on the tumor size, assessed by CT or MRI . Follow-up at monthly intervals has to be performed by means of ultrasonography (US. Treat- ment response has to be assessed according to the WHO criteria (RECIST or SWOG.

  16. Practical Guidance on Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRNT) for Neuroendocrine Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRNT) using 90 Y-DOTATOC was first administered in 1996 in Basel, Switzerland, to a 40 year old patient with a gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET). The objective was to stabilize the progression of the tumour, which had proven refractory to conventional chemotherapy. The excellent subjective and objective responses after several treatment cycles prompted exhaustive pre-clinical and clinical research to explore the therapeutic potential of PRRNT for the treatment of NETs. Since then, PRRNT using 90 Y- or 177 Lu-DOTATOC has acquired wide acceptance and is now used in many medical centres in Europe and other parts of the world. NET is a unique subclass of cancer in which a good percentage of affected patients may experience disease control following several cycles of PRRNT, with improvement of symptoms and quality of life in the majority of cases. This book is a practical reference for specialists in clinical oncology and nuclear medicine embarking on deploying and executing a comprehensive programme for treating patients with NETs. It is part of a larger endeavour of the IAEA to enable medical centres in Member States to introduce therapeutic applications of unsealed radioisotopes in clinical routine practice. This publication provides comprehensive, multidisciplinary guidance on the use of PRRNT in order to enhance the effective, safe and standardized implementation of best practice for treating patients with NETs and gastroenteropancreatic cancers, with due regard to the recent international classifications of NETs. It provides comprehensive protocols for employing either 90 Y or 177 Lu tagged somatostatin receptor targeting peptides, as well as clinically assessed protocols for renal protection. It is a comprehensive compilation of clinically based evidence with input from experienced and renowned medical professionals in this field. The various sections cover clinical presentations, patient eligibility

  17. Practical Guidance on Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRNT) for Neuroendocrine Tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRNT) using {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC was first administered in 1996 in Basel, Switzerland, to a 40 year old patient with a gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET). The objective was to stabilize the progression of the tumour, which had proven refractory to conventional chemotherapy. The excellent subjective and objective responses after several treatment cycles prompted exhaustive pre-clinical and clinical research to explore the therapeutic potential of PRRNT for the treatment of NETs. Since then, PRRNT using {sup 90}Y- or {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC has acquired wide acceptance and is now used in many medical centres in Europe and other parts of the world. NET is a unique subclass of cancer in which a good percentage of affected patients may experience disease control following several cycles of PRRNT, with improvement of symptoms and quality of life in the majority of cases. This book is a practical reference for specialists in clinical oncology and nuclear medicine embarking on deploying and executing a comprehensive programme for treating patients with NETs. It is part of a larger endeavour of the IAEA to enable medical centres in Member States to introduce therapeutic applications of unsealed radioisotopes in clinical routine practice. This publication provides comprehensive, multidisciplinary guidance on the use of PRRNT in order to enhance the effective, safe and standardized implementation of best practice for treating patients with NETs and gastroenteropancreatic cancers, with due regard to the recent international classifications of NETs. It provides comprehensive protocols for employing either {sup 90}Y or {sup 177}Lu tagged somatostatin receptor targeting peptides, as well as clinically assessed protocols for renal protection. It is a comprehensive compilation of clinically based evidence with input from experienced and renowned medical professionals in this field. The various sections cover clinical presentations

  18. Application and evolution of several therapy nuclides labelled antibody in tumour therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiaheng; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Guanquan

    2004-12-01

    Radiolabeled Monoclonal antibody had a lot of merits, such as decreasing the lesion because of the external exposure to normal tissue and the whole body, destroying cancer cells which McAb could not reach, and little ornamentation effect by Antigen. Therefor, it gradually became a kind of guiding therapy method which endowed with practical value. Up to now, the radionuclides which be used for tumour radioimmunotherapy included mostly 131 I, 90 Y, 188 Re, 186 Re, 153 Sm, 211 At, et al. The application and evolution of several therapy nuclides labelled antibody in tumour therapy are in troduced. (authors)

  19. Current Status and Future Directions of Targeted Peptide Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkema, R.

    2009-01-01

    Current status: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is currently almost exclusively targeted at the somatostatin receptor (sst). Of the 5 receptor subtypes, sst2 is frequently very highly expressed at the cell surface of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Octreotide is a small and stable derivative of native somatostatin, which can be very well labeled with therapeutic radionuclides such as the beta-emitters ''9''0Y, ''1''7''7Lu or the Auger emitter ''1''1''1In, chelated in DTPA or DOTA, linked to the peptide. All current therapeutic octreotide derivatives are agonists that are internalized in the cell. The affinity for the sst2 receptor is better for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate than for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide or [DTPA]octreotide. ''9''0Y is a pure beta-emitter, with a half-life of 2.7 days, a high energy of 2.270 MeV, and a maximum penetration in tissue of 12mm. ''1''7''7Lu with a half-life of 6.7 days emits a low abundance of gamma photons as well as beta particles of 497 keV, with a maximum tissue penetration of 2 mm. ''1''7''7Lu-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Lu-DOTATE), ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Y-DOTATATE) and ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide (Y-DOTATOC) are today the most frequently used therapeutic radiopeptides. Main inclusion criteria: inoperable and/or metastatic NET, receptor-positivity in all known lesions demonstrated by sufficient uptake on ''1''1''1In-octreotide scintigraphy (intensity > liver parenchyma), life expectancy at least 3-6 months, sufficient bone marrow reserve (hemoglobin (HGB) ≥ 5 mmol/L, white blood cells (WBC) ≥ 2*10 9 /L, platelets (PLT) ≥ 75*10 12 /L), sufficient renal function (serum creatinine 40 mL/min), sufficient hepatic and cardiac reserve. Karnofski score ≥50. Efficacy: several groups have reported objective response rates (RECIST or WHO/SWOG; CT or MRI based). Complete remission (CR) is rarely seen, partial remission (PR; >50% shrinkage SWOG) in 7% - 37%, minor remission (MR, 25% - 50% shrinkage) in 13% - 17

  20. Functionalized NaA nanozeolites labeled with 224,225Ra for targeted alpha therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Agata; Leszczuk, Edyta; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bilewicz, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    The 223 Ra, 224 Ra, and 225 Ra radioisotopes exhibit very attractive nuclear properties for application in radionuclide therapy. Unfortunately the lack of appropriate bifunctional ligand for radium is the reason why these radionuclides have not found application in receptor-targeted therapy. In the present work, the potential usefulness of the NaA nanozeolite as a carrier for radium radionuclides has been studied. 224 Ra and 225 Ra, α-particle emitting radionuclides, have been absorbed in the nanometer-sized NaA zeolite (30-70 nm) through simple ion exchange. 224,225 Ra-nanozeolites exhibited very high stability in solutions containing physiological salt, EDTA, amino acids, and human serum. To make NaA nanozeolite particles dispersed in water their surface was modified with a silane coupling agent containing poly(ethylene glycol) molecules. This functionalization approach let us covalently attach a biomolecule to the NaA nanozeolite surface.

  1. A Monte Carlo study on {sup 223}Ra imaging for unsealed radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihiko, E-mail: takahsr@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Miwa, Kenta; Sasaki, Masayuki [Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Baba, Shingo [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra), an α-emitting radionuclide, is used in unsealed radionuclide therapy for metastatic bone tumors. The demand for qualitative {sup 223}Ra imaging is growing to optimize dosimetry. The authors simulated {sup 223}Ra imaging using an in-house Monte Carlo simulation code and investigated the feasibility and utility of {sup 223}Ra imaging. Methods: The Monte Carlo code comprises two modules, HEXAGON and NAI. The HEXAGON code simulates the photon and electron interactions in the tissues and collimator, and the NAI code simulates the response of the NaI detector system. A 3D numeric phantom created using computed tomography images of a chest phantom was installed in the HEXAGON code. {sup 223}Ra accumulated in a part of the spine, and three x-rays and 19 γ rays between 80 and 450 keV were selected as the emitted photons. To evaluate the quality of the {sup 223}Ra imaging, the authors also simulated technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) imaging under the same conditions and compared the results. Results: The sensitivities of the three photopeaks were 147 counts per unit of source activity (cps MBq{sup −1}; photopeak: 84 keV, full width of energy window: 20%), 166 cps MBq{sup −1} (154 keV, 15%), and 158 cps MBq{sup −1} (270 keV, 10%) for a low-energy general-purpose (LEGP) collimator, and those for the medium-energy general-purpose (MEGP) collimator were 33, 13, and 8.0 cps MBq{sup −1}, respectively. In the case of {sup 99m}Tc, the sensitivity was 55 cps MBq{sup −1} (141 keV, 20%) for LEGP and 52 cps MBq{sup −1} for MEGP. The fractions of unscattered photons of the total photons reflecting the image quality were 0.09 (84 keV), 0.03 (154 keV), and 0.02 (270 keV) for the LEGP collimator and 0.41, 0.25, and 0.50 for the MEGP collimator, respectively. Conversely, this fraction was approximately 0.65 for the simulated {sup 99m}Tc imaging. The sensitivity with the LEGP collimator appeared very high. However, almost all of the counts were

  2. αVβ3 Integrin-Targeted Radionuclide Therapy with 64Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao-Hui; Furukawa, Takako; Degardin, Mélissa; Sugyo, Aya; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Kawamura, Kazunori; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Boturyn, Didier; Dumy, Pascal; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-09-01

    The transmembrane cell adhesion receptor αVβ3 integrin (αVβ3) has been identified as an important molecular target for cancer imaging and therapy. We have developed a tetrameric cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide-based radiotracer (64)Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4, which successfully captured αVβ3-positive tumors and angiogenesis by PET. Here, we subsequently evaluated its therapeutic potential and side effects using an established αVβ3-positive tumor mouse model. Mice with subcutaneous U87MG glioblastoma xenografts received single administrations of 37 and 74 MBq of (64)Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 (37 MBq/nmol), peptide control, or vehicle solution and underwent tumor growth evaluation. Side effects were assessed in tumor-bearing and tumor-free mice in terms of body weight, routine hematology, and hepatorenal functions. Biodistribution of (64)Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 with ascending peptide doses (0.25-10 nmol) and with the therapeutic dose of 2 nmol were determined at 3 hours and at various time points (2 minutes-24 hours) postinjection, respectively, based on which radiation-absorbed doses were estimated. The results revealed that (64)Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 dose dependently slowed down the tumor growth. The mean tumor doses were 1.28 and 1.81 Gy from 37 and 74 MBq of (64)Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4, respectively. Peptide dose study showed that the tumor uptake of (64)Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 dose dependently decreased at doses ≥1 nmol, indicating a saturation of αVβ3 with the administered therapeutic doses (1 and 2 nmol). Combined analysis of the data from tumor-bearing and tumor-free mice revealed no significant toxicity caused by 37-74 MBq of (64)Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 Our study demonstrates the therapeutic efficacy and safety of (64)Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 for αVβ3-targeted radionuclide therapy. (64)Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 would be a promising theranostic drug for cancer imaging and therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(9); 2076-85. ©2016 AACR

  3. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  4. Changes observed in radionuclide bone scans during and after teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Amelia E.B.; Blake, Glen M.; Fogelman, Ignac; Taylor, Kathleen A.; Ruff, Valerie A.; Rana, Asad E.; Wan, Xiaohai

    2012-01-01

    Visual changes on radionuclide bone scans have been reported with teriparatide treatment. To assess this, serial studies were evaluated and quantified in ten postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (20 μg/day subcutaneous) who had 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans (baseline, 3 and 18 months, then after 6 months off therapy). Women were injected with 600 MBq 99m Tc-MDP, and diagnostic bone scan images were assessed at 3.5 h. Additional whole-body scans (10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h) were analysed for 99m Tc-MDP skeletal plasma clearance (K bone ). Regional K bone differences were obtained for the whole skeleton and six regions (calvarium, mandible, spine, pelvis, upper and lower extremities). Bone turnover markers (BTM) were also measured. Most subjects showed visual changes on 3- and 18-month bone scan images that disappeared after 6 months off therapy. Enhanced uptake was seen predominantly in the calvarium and lower extremities. Whole skeleton K bone displayed a median increase of 22% (3 months, p = 0.004) and 34% (18 months, p = 0.002) decreasing to 0.7% (6 months off therapy). Calvarium K bone changes were three times larger than other sites. After 6 months off therapy, all K bone and BTM values returned towards baseline. The increased 99m Tc-MDP skeletal uptake with teriparatide indicated increased bone formation which was supported by BTM increases. After 6 months off therapy, metabolic activity diminished towards baseline. The modulation of 99m Tc-MDP skeletal uptake during treatment was the result of teriparatide's metabolic activity. These findings may aid the radiological evaluation of similar teriparatide patients having radionuclide bone scans. (orig.)

  5. Combination of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with fractionated external beam radiotherapy for treatment of advanced symptomatic meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreissl, Michael C; Flentje, Michael; Sweeney, Reinhart A; Hänscheid, Heribert; Löhr, Mario; Verburg, Frederik A; Schiller, Markus; Lassmann, Michael; Reiners, Christoph; Samnick, Samuel S; Buck, Andreas K

    2012-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is the treatment of choice for irresectable meningioma. Due to the strong expression of somatostatin receptors, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been used in advanced cases. We assessed the feasibility and tolerability of a combination of both treatment modalities in advanced symptomatic meningioma. 10 patients with irresectable meningioma were treated with PRRT ( 177 Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3 octreotate or - DOTA0,Tyr3 octreotide) followed by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). EBRT performed after PRRT was continued over 5–6 weeks in IMRT technique (median dose: 53.0 Gy). All patients were assessed morphologically and by positron emission tomography (PET) before therapy and were restaged after 3–6 months. Side effects were evaluated according to CTCAE 4.0. Median tumor dose achieved by PRRT was 7.2 Gy. During PRRT and EBRT, no side effects > CTCAE grade 2 were noted. All patients reported stabilization or improvement of tumor-associated symptoms, no morphologic tumor progression was observed in MR-imaging (median follow-up: 13.4 months). The median pre-therapeutic SUV max in the meningiomas was 14.2 (range: 4.3–68.7). All patients with a second PET after combined PRRT + EBRT showed an increase in SUV max (median: 37%; range: 15%–46%) to a median value of 23.7 (range: 8.0–119.0; 7 patients) while PET-estimated volume generally decreased to 81 ± 21% of the initial volume. The combination of PRRT and EBRT is feasible and well tolerated. This approach represents an attractive strategy for the treatment of recurring or progressive symptomatic meningioma, which should be further evaluated

  6. Mild erythrocytopenia is the most frequent long-term sequel after peptide receptor radionuclide Therapy: Results of long-term follow-up in more than 500 Patients from a single centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; Kulkami, H.R.; Baum, R.P.; Menghui, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is highly effective in well differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and lends a benefit in overall survival of several years. Renal toxicity is a well-known adverse effect of PRRNT. Hematological toxicity as possible long-term sequel has been hardly examined. Therefore we investigated the effect of PRRT on the hematological status (erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes) of patients who received individualized therapy at our centre. Materials and Methods: Out of over 500 patients, 59 chemotherapy naive patients with well-differentiated NENs who were treated with at least 3 cycles of PRRT with 177 Lu- and/or 90 Y- labeled DOTATATE/DOTATOC and long-term follow-up were selected for this analysis. Blood counts were documented before the first cycle and repeated at monthly intervals between further cycles and during re-staging examinations after PRRT for many years. Comparisons were done between the hematological status before the first cycle and the one 3 years after the last cycle of PRRT. Results: All 3 cell lines were significantly decreased 3 years after the last radionuclide therapy (erythrocytes, leukocytes: p=0,000; thrombocytes: p=0,002; confidence interval 95%). But only erythrocytes showed a significant decrement, i.e., below the reference level of our in-house laboratory (mean value ± standard deviation: (4.07 ± 0.69)/l; reference level: 4.1-5.4/l). Conclusions: Mild erythrocytopenia is the most frequent long-term sequel after PRRT. Although it has to be considered that repeated cycles probably cause impoverishment in bone marrow reserve (or red cell precursors), PRRT achieves both significant improvement in clinical symptoms and excellent palliation. Thus it remains a safe procedure if performed at specialized centres with interdisciplinary and long-term care. (authors)

  7. Assessment of ventricular function by radionuclide ventriculography in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Weiyu; He Pinyu; Zhuang Weite

    1996-01-01

    Left ventricular(LV) and right ventricular(RV) function were determined using radionuclide ventriculography in 50 patients with hyperthyroidism. LVEF, LVPFR, SV of the hyperthyroidism group were decreased in comparison with the normal group (P<0.01), whereas CO of the hyperthyroidism patients were higher than that of normal (P<0.01). Except LVPER, the LVEF, SV had significant difference between two groups. Compared to normal group, RVEF, RVPER, RVPFR were also decreased (P<0.01). Besides 30 cases of the hyperthyroidism were examined by impedance cardiogram (ICG) and impedance pulmonary rheogram (IPR), all showed closely correlation with the parameters determined by ventriculography. There was the involvement of right ventricular function insufficiency, especially in ejection phase. When compared with pre-therapy, pos-therapy cases showed significant improvement in EF, PER, PFR of left and right ventricular

  8. Radionuclides in air, water, and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection

  9. Phytoremediation of radionuclides: an emerging alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shraddha

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of nuclear power industry, nuclear weapon testing, dismantling of existing nuclear weapons and occasional accidents have contributed to an enhancement in the level of radionuclides in the environment. The radionuclides due to their long half life and transfer through the food chain effect adversely to normal biological systems. Hence, it is essential to effectively remove the radionuclides from contaminated soils and solutions. Phytoremediation - the use of plants for remediation of toxic metals and radionuclides has been recognized as an aesthetically pleasing, low cost and environment friendly in situ method. Phytoremediation is an umbrella term which covers several plant based approaches. Plants have shown the potential of remediation of these radionuclides from spiked solutions, low level nuclear waste and soil. Various aspects of phytoremediation as well as potential of various plants for remediation of radionuclides will be discussed here. (author)

  10. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  11. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  12. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  13. Radionuclide diagnostics of right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaorska-Rajca, J.

    1993-01-01

    Difficulties in evaluating the right ventricle function motivate to making research into new non-invasive methods. Four radionuclide methods that are used to access the right ventricle have been discussed in this paper: first-pass angiocardiography, gated equilibrium ventriculography with red blood cells labelled in vivo technetium- 99 Tc, ventriculography with radioactive xenon 133 and a computerized single probe. Advantages and disadvantages of using each method have been discussed. RNV 99m Tc method has been recognized as the best one to evaluate RV function. Results of the right ventricle assessment in patients have been discussed in the following clinical groups: chronic cor pulmonale (CP), chronic lung disease without pulmonary arterial hypertension (LD), coronary artery disease (CAD), in patients after infarction (IMA and IMi), dilated cardiomyopathy (KZ) and valvular heart diseases (Wm and Wa). Abnormals in right ventricle function occur with different intensity in all groups, although they no specificity. The highest abnormality occurs in patients with KZ, CP, IMi and Wm, the lowest one - in patients with CAD. Abnormalities are higher in patients with congestive heart failure. In most pathological groups the right ventricle dysfunction is connected with the left ventricle insufficiency. The interdependence between the dysfunction of both ventricles is differs in particular diseases. Assessment of right ventricle function with radionuclide methods plays an important role in diagnosis and control therapy of cardiopulmonary diseases. (author). 385 refs, 48 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Performance of a coumarin-based liquid dosimeter for phantom evaluations of internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi-Ae [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States): Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: miaepark@bwh.Harvard.edu; Moore, Stephen C. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States): Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Limpa-Amara, Naengnoi [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States): Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kang Zhuang [Department of Physics, University of Massachusettes at Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Makrigiorgos, G. Mike [Dana Faber-Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA 01225 (United States): Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2006-12-20

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) requires accurate absorbed dose estimation in individual patients. It has been shown that a coumarin-based liquid dosimeter is useful for various phantom geometries of relevance to patient-specific internal dosimetry. The purpose of this study was to refine the performance limits of the coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (CCA) dosimeter using the high-energy {beta}-emitter, Y-90, by measuring the dosimeter's dependence on dose rate, by finding the maximum dose limit, and by comparing measured dose values to those from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Non-fluorescent CCA is converted to highly fluorescent 7-hydroxyl-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (7-OH-CCA) upon irradiation. We measured the Y-90-induced fluorescence from 7-OH-CCA under different conditions. Fluorescence was measured using activity concentrations from 1.1 to 181 MBq/cc, providing initial dose rates from 0.7 to 117 cGy/min. To determine the maximum dose limit, fluorescence was measured for different elapsed times from 4 to 150 h, using a fixed activity concentration, 3.7 MBq/cc. A Cs-137 irradiator was used for calibration, to convert fluorescence measurements to absorbed dose. We calculated absorbed dose using the DOSXYZnrc MC program. We modeled the geometry of cuvettes realistically, including plastic walls, surrounding air, and Y-90 in liquid. S-values of Y-90 in water were calculated using 1-mm cubic voxels. A linear dependence of fluorescence on dose rate was observed up to 80 cGy/min, and the dependence on total dose was linear up to {approx}20 Gy The average difference between calculated and measured dose values over 9 samples was 3.6{+-}2%. For our geometry, the dose based on voxel S-values was within 1% of that calculated using MC simulation of the phantom. We refined the performance limits of a CCA-based dosimeter for phantom studies of TRT using Y-90, and confirmed a close agreement between measured and calculated dose values. CCA dosimetry is a promising technique

  15. Lanthanide bearing radioactive particles for cancer therapy and multimodality imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielhuis, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    Local radionuclide therapy using radioactive microspheres is a promising therapy for patients suffering from liver malignancies. In contrast to normal liver tissue, which receives most of its blood flow from the portal vein, liver malignancies are almost exclusively dependent on arterial blood

  16. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  17. Effects of the variation of samples geometry on radionuclide calibrator response for radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Fragoso, Maria Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the nuclear medicine practice, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radiopharmaceuticals which will be administered to the subjects is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The instrument used for this purpose is the radionuclide calibrator. The radiopharmaceuticals are usually contained on glass vials or syringes. However, the radionuclide calibrators response is sensitive to the measurement geometry. In addition, the calibration factors supplied by manufactures are valid only for single sample geometry. To minimize the uncertainty associated with the activity measurements, it is important to use the appropriate corrections factors for the each radionuclide in the specific geometry in which the measurement is to be made. The aims of this work were to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators varying the geometry of radioactive sources and to determine experimentally the correction factors for different volumes and containers types commonly used in nuclear medicine practice. The measurements were made in two ionization chambers of different manufacturers (Capintec and Biodex), using four radionuclides with different photon energies: {sup 18}F, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl. The results confirm the significant dependence of radionuclide calibrators reading on the sample geometry, showing the need of use correction factors in order to minimize the errors which affect the activity measurements. (author)

  18. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  19. Comparison of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT with [18F]NaF PET/CT in the evaluation of bone metastases in metastatic prostate cancer patients prior to radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprimny, Christian; Svirydenka, Anna; Fritz, Josef; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Nilica, Bernhard; Decristoforo, Clemens; Haubner, Roland; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Buxbaum, Sabine; Horninger, Wolfgang; Virgolini, Irene Johanna

    2018-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in the evaluation of bone metastases in metastatic prostate cancer (PC) patients scheduled for radionuclide therapy in comparison to [ 18 F]sodium fluoride ( 18 F-NaF) PET/CT. Sixteen metastatic PC patients with known skeletal metastases, who underwent both 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and 18 F-NaF PET/CT for assessment of metastatic burden prior to radionuclide therapy, were analysed retrospectively. The performance of both tracers was calculated on a lesion-based comparison. Intensity of tracer accumulation of pathologic bone lesions on 18 F-NaF PET and 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET was measured with maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) and compared to background activity of normal bone. In addition, SUV max values of PET-positive bone lesions were analysed with respect to morphologic characteristics on CT. Bone metastases were either confirmed by CT or follow-up PET scan. In contrast to 468 PET-positive lesions suggestive of bone metastases on 18 F-NaF PET, only 351 of the lesions were also judged positive on 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET (75.0%). Intensity of tracer accumulation of pathologic skeletal lesions was significantly higher on 18 F-NaF PET compared to 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET, showing a median SUV max of 27.0 and 6.0, respectively (p PET, with a median SUV max of 1.0 in comparison to 2.7 on 18 F-NaF PET; however, tumour to background ratio was significantly higher on 18 F-NaF PET (9.8 versus 5.9 on 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET; p = 0.042). Based on morphologic lesion characterisation on CT, 18 F-NaF PET revealed median SUV max values of 23.6 for osteosclerotic, 35.0 for osteolytic, and 19.0 for lesions not visible on CT, whereas on 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET median SUV max values of 5.0 in osteosclerotic, 29.5 in osteolytic, and 7.5 in lesions not seen on CT were measured. Intensity of tracer accumulation between 18 F-NaF PET and 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET was significantly higher in osteosclerotic (p

  20. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  1. Performance and quality control of radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.; Baker, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The use of ionising radiations in nuclear medicine has traditionally divided itself into two specific areas. The diagnostic usage has generally been dominated by the injection or ingestion of radionuclides. The therapeutic applications, on the other hand, have usually been accomplished by the application of ionising radiation, both from machines and radionuclide sources, whereby the radiation source is external to the patient. Over recent years, this divide has become increasingly blurred and the science between diagnosis and therapy has become significantly closer. This is particularly the situation in respect of the instruments used to determine the activity or dose delivered by the radiation source. In the ideal therapeutic situation, the radiation dose would be delivered solely to the malignant tissue. With external radiation therapy, this can never be achieved completely but this ideal can be approached more closely with targeted radiotherapy wherein radionuclides are introduced directly into the malignancy either as a solid, physical source or as a solution that, by its chemistry, concentrates into the area of interest. In order to achieve the optimum efficacy of treatment, there is an associated requirement to determine accurately the activity or dose rate of the radioactive source being used. It is here that the technology used in the diagnostic field can also be used to advantage for therapeutic applications. For diagnosis, the instrument of choice is the radionuclide calibrator and this equipment is increasingly finding parallel usage for the characterisation of therapeutic sources. Despite their appearances however, radionuclide calibrators are not 'black boxes' and need to be used with care, subjected to a robust level of quality control and operated by personnel who have a fundamental understanding of their operational characteristics. A measure of the level of performance of operational radionuclide calibrators and the competence of their

  2. Neutron activation of microspheres containing 165Ho: theoretical and experimental radionuclidic impurities study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squair, Peterson L.; Pozzo, Lorena; Ivanov, Evandro; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2011-01-01

    The 166 Ho microspheres are potentially interesting for medical applications for treatment of many tumors. The internal radionuclide therapy can use polymer or glass device that provides structural support for the radionuclide. After activation, beta minus emission of 166 Ho (T 1/2 =26.8h, β - E max =1.84 MeV, γ E p =80.6 keV) can be used for therapeutic purposes. The aim of this work is study the influence of radionuclide impurities between End of Bombardment (EOB) and the medical application. The appropriate specific activities and purity along decay should be adequate for their safe and efficient medical applications. The good practices on neutron activation techniques are choice a high purity target to avoid production of undesirable radionuclides and when possible with enriched targets to obtain higher specific activity. In this work the target used was Ho 2 O 3 and polymeric microspheres containing holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) manufactured at the Biotechnology Center-IPEN/CNEN-SP. Three conditions were evaluated: preliminary test with 1.0x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 for 1.0 hour; nowadays maximum capability of IEA-R1 reactor with 5.0x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 for 64.0 hours and the ideal IEA-R1 operation with 5.0x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 for 120.0 hours. Considering the sample with 99.9% 165 Ho purity and 0.1% for each impurities elements with its natural abundance, the highest radionuclidic impurity is the Lutetium followed by Ytterbium, Lanthanum and Cerium. The intrinsic radionuclidic impurity of 166 mHo is less relevant. This review is important to identify the radionuclidic purity characteristics of the preliminary studies with different time and flux irradiation. The data produced in this paper will help to define strategies for the production of 166 Ho radioisotope at IEA-R1 IPEN/CNEN-SP reactor. (author)

  3. Radionuclide assessment of pulmonary microvascular permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, A.B.J. [Medical Intensive Care Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Free University Hospital, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-04-01

    The literature has been reviewed to evaluate the technique and clinical value of radionuclide measurements of microvascular permeability and oedema formation in the lungs. Methodology, modelling and interpretation vary widely among studies. Nevertheless, most studies agree on the fact that the measurement of permeability via pulmonary radioactivity measurements of intravenously injected radiolabelled proteins versus that in the blood pool, the so-called pulmonary protein transport rate (PTR), can assist the clinician in discriminating between permeability oedema of the lungs associated with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and oedema caused by an increased filtration pressure, for instance in the course of cardiac disease, i.e. pressure-induced pulmonary oedema. Some of the techniques used to measure PTR are also able to detect subclinical forms of lung microvascular injury not yet complicated by permeability oedema. This may occur after cardiopulmonary bypass and major vascular surgery, for instance. By paralleling the clinical severity and course of the ARDS, the PTR method may also serve as a tool to evaluate new therapies for the syndrome. Taken together, the currently available radionuclide methods, which are applicable at the bedside in the intensive care unit, may provide a gold standard for detecting minor and major forms of acute microvascular lung injury, and for evaluating the severity, course and response to treatment. (orig.). With 2 tabs.

  4. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  5. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  6. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  7. Changes observed in radionuclide bone scans during and after teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Amelia E.B.; Blake, Glen M.; Fogelman, Ignac [King' s College London, School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Kathleen A.; Ruff, Valerie A.; Rana, Asad E.; Wan, Xiaohai [Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Visual changes on radionuclide bone scans have been reported with teriparatide treatment. To assess this, serial studies were evaluated and quantified in ten postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (20 {mu}g/day subcutaneous) who had {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans (baseline, 3 and 18 months, then after 6 months off therapy). Women were injected with 600 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MDP, and diagnostic bone scan images were assessed at 3.5 h. Additional whole-body scans (10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h) were analysed for {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal plasma clearance (K{sub bone}). Regional K{sub bone} differences were obtained for the whole skeleton and six regions (calvarium, mandible, spine, pelvis, upper and lower extremities). Bone turnover markers (BTM) were also measured. Most subjects showed visual changes on 3- and 18-month bone scan images that disappeared after 6 months off therapy. Enhanced uptake was seen predominantly in the calvarium and lower extremities. Whole skeleton K{sub bone} displayed a median increase of 22% (3 months, p = 0.004) and 34% (18 months, p = 0.002) decreasing to 0.7% (6 months off therapy). Calvarium K{sub bone} changes were three times larger than other sites. After 6 months off therapy, all K{sub bone} and BTM values returned towards baseline. The increased {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake with teriparatide indicated increased bone formation which was supported by BTM increases. After 6 months off therapy, metabolic activity diminished towards baseline. The modulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake during treatment was the result of teriparatide's metabolic activity. These findings may aid the radiological evaluation of similar teriparatide patients having radionuclide bone scans. (orig.)

  8. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  9. Clinical History of the Theranostic Radionuclide Approach to Neuroendocrine Tumors and Other Types of Cancer: Historical Review Based on an Interview of Eric P. Krenning by Rachel Levine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rachel; Krenning, Eric P

    2017-09-01

    In nuclear medicine, the term theranostics describes the combination of therapy and diagnostic imaging. In practice, this concept dates back more than 50 years; however, among the most successful examples of theranostics are peptide receptor scintigraphy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. The development of these modalities through the radiolabeling of somatostatin analogs with various radionuclides has led to a revolution in patient management and established a foundation for expansion of the theranostic principle into other oncology indications. This article provides a review of the evolution and development of the theranostic radionuclide approach to the management of neuroendocrine tumors, as described by the inventor of this technique, Eric P. Krenning, in an interview with Rachel Levine. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  10. Correction factors of commercial radionuclide calibrators for several measurement geometries of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Amanda Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    In order to reach therapy and diagnosis objectives, the activity must be determined with high accuracy to administer a radiopharmaceutical to a patient. Initially, a glass vial with the radiopharmaceutical is placed into the radionuclide calibrator to determine its activity. Subsequently, an aliquot is transferred to a syringe and again its activity is measured on the calibrator before being administered to the patient. The glass vial and the syringe are different in many aspects as the calibration factors too, which may cause incorrect activities administered to the patient. This study aims to determine the correction factors, as well as the values of the uncertainties associated to two distinct models of calibrators: one that uses ionization chamber and another Geiger-Mueller as detectors. The radionuclides chosen were 99 Tc m and 123 1 and the containers were glass vials (type lOR and P6) and plastic syringes of 3 and 5 mL. The correction factors for each type of vials or syringe were determined as a function of volume and type of calibrator. Activity measurements comparison was also made involving several radionuclide calibrators of different models belonging to four nuclear medicine hospitals and to National Metrology Laboratory of lionizing Radiation (LNMRI). In the measurements of activity values larger than allowed by CNEN NN-3.05 norm, results have shown deviations for syringes in calibrator with Geiger-Mueller detectors and for both radionuclides. (author)

  11. Amifostine protects rat kidneys during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolleman, Edgar J.; Forrer, Flavio; Bernard, Bert; Bijster, Magda; Valkema, Roelf; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de; Vermeij, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, the kidneys are the major dose-limiting organs, because of tubular reabsorption and retention of radioactivity. Preventing renal uptake or toxicity will allow for higher tumour radiation doses. We tested the cytoprotective drug amifostine, which selectively protects healthy tissue during chemo- and radiotherapy, for its renoprotective capacities after PRRT with high-dose [ 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate. Male Lewis rats were injected with 278 or 555 MBq [ 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate to create renal damage and were followed up for 130 days. For renoprotection, rats received either amifostine or co-injection with lysine. Kidneys, blood and urine were collected for toxicity measurements. At 130 days after PRRT, a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan was performed to quantify tubular uptake of 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a measure of tubular function. Treatment with 555 MBq [ 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate resulted in body weight loss, elevated creatinine and proteinuria. Amifostine and lysine treatment significantly prevented this rise in creatinine and the level of proteinuria, but did not improve the histological damage. In contrast, after 278 MBq [ 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate, creatinine values were slightly, but not significantly, elevated compared with the control rats. Proteinuria and histological damage were different from controls and were significantly improved by amifostine treatment. Quantification of 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT scintigrams at 130 days after [ 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate therapy correlated well with 1/creatinine (r 2 = 0.772, p 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate. Besides lysine, amifostine might be used in clinical PRRT as well as to maximise anti-tumour efficacy. (orig.)

  12. Environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behaviour of the radionuclides making the major contribution to man's irradiation through diet is described. The following stages are emphasized: transfer of radionuclides to plants; transfer of radionuclides to animals; metabolism of inhaled or ingested radionuclides in animals providing food for man; transfer of radionuclides through the aquatic environment; application of food chain models. (43 references)

  13. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  14. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  15. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, C.R.; Maisey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    Several factors influencing the choice of radiopharmaceutical used in the treatment of benign and malignant disease are discussed. A brief review is given of the routine clinical uses of radiopharmaceuticals including treatments for hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, polycythaemia rubra vera and intracavitary therapy. Finally clinical situations using radionuclides under evaluation including the treatment of bone disease, adrenal tumours and monoclonal antibodies are discussed. (UK)

  17. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 240 Pu, and 3 H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  18. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of Merkel cell carcinoma using 177lutetium-labeled somatostatin analogs in combination with radiosensitizing chemotherapy. A potential novel treatment based on molecular pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salavati, A.; Prasad, V.; Baum, R.P.; Schneider, C.P.; Herbst, R.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have been published on the safety and feasibility of synchronous use of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRNT), as source of internal radiation therapy, in combination with chemotherapy. In this study we reported a 53-year-old man with stage IV Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), who underwent synchronous internal radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Based on presumable poor prognosis with chemotherapy only, functional similarities of MCC with other neuroendocrine tumors and available evidence of effectiveness and safety of synchronous use of external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy in treatment of high-risk MCC patients, our interdisciplinary neuroendocrine tumor board recommended him to add PRRNT to his ongoing chemotherapy. He received 2 courses of 177 Lu-DOTATATE(1, 4, 7, 10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid-1-D-Phe1-Tyr3-Thr8-octreotide) in combination with ongoing 8 cycles of liposomal doxorubicin based on standard protocols. Response to therapy was evaluated by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) and 68 gallium-somatostatin-receptor PET/CT. There was an impressive improvement of the clinical symptoms. However, follow-up positron emission tomography (PET)/CT studies showed mixed pattern of response. Synchronous use of PRRNT and radiosensitizing chemotherapy seems safe and feasible in high risk MCC patients, however, further prospective studies and clinical trials are warranted to provide reliable evidence of possible pitfalls and effectiveness of PRRNT and 68 Ga-somatostatin-receptor PET/CT in the management of MCC. (author)

  19. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  20. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  1. Radionuclide targeting with particular emphasis on urinary bladder carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestroem, A.

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of urinary bladder carcinoma is increasing and many patients die every year of this disease despite assumed radical therapy. Thus, there is a need for improved methods of diagnosis and therapy. Radionuclide targeting is based on achieving specific delivery of radioactive nuclides to tumour cells with minimal damage to surrounding normal tissues. Two possible target structures are the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and the related receptor HER-2. Cellular binding and retention of 125 I-EGF-dextran conjugates was investigated in two bladder carcinoma cell lines. The conjugate bound specifically to the EGF receptor with delayed maximum binding, limited intracellular degradation and prolonged cellular retention compared to 125 I-EGF. EGF was labelled using different radionuclides and methods. All the labelled variants bound specifically to the tumour cells although the cellular binding patterns and retention varied considerably. 111 In-DTPA-EGF had highest cellular retention and in decreasing order 211 At-benzoyl-EGF and 125 I-labelled EGF. Bladder cancer spheroids bound both 125 I-EGF-dextran as well as 125 I-EGF. Conjugate binding increased during a 48 h incubation period and was most prominent in the outer cell layers. The length of the dextran chain appeared not to alter the binding pattern. The expression of EGF receptors and HER-2 in metastases and primary bladder carcinoma tumours was investigated. Both receptors were expressed in the majority of metastases and primary tumours. Targeting the EGF receptor and/or HER-2 in urinary bladder carcinoma is an exciting new concept

  2. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  3. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration have been studied in natural fissures orieted parallel to the axis of granite drill cores. A short pulse of the radionuclides solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. After several hundred fissure volumes water had been pumped through the fissure following the radionuclide pulse the activity distribution on the fissure surfaces was measured. From the retardation of 152 Eu, 235 Np and 237 Pu it is concluded that these radionuclides are transported in the oxidation states Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(V). The distribution coefficients K sub (d) calculated from flow and activity distribution data on the basis of geometric surface area/volume ratios are of the same order as published K sub (d) values obtained from batch equilibrium experiments. (Author)

  4. Investigation progress of imaging techniques monitoring stem cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun; An Rui

    2006-01-01

    Recently stem cell therapy has showed potential clinical application in diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumor and trauma. Efficient techniques of non-invasively monitoring stem cell transplants will accelerate the development of stem cell therapies. This paper briefly reviews the clinical practice of stem cell, in addition, makes a review of monitoring methods including magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging which have been used in stem cell therapy. (authors)

  5. Measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere with a radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    A worldwide radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests has detected the anthropogenic radioactive materials released in the atmosphere due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant impacted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. After four months have passed since the accident occurred, most overseas stations do not detect the radionuclides of Fukushima origin any more. The Takasaki station in Japan, however, is still detecting them every day. This paper describes radionuclide monitoring stations and the network of them as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as the measurement results of radionuclide particulates and radioactive isotopes of xenon released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with the monitoring network. (J.P.N.)

  6. Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasennykh, M.Yu.; Apps, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions)

  7. A vector Wiener filter for dual-radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Links, J.M.; Prince, J.L.; Gupta, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    The routine use of a single radionuclide for patient imaging in nuclear medicine can be complemented by studies employing two tracers to examine two different processes in a single organ, most frequently by simultaneous imaging of both radionuclides in two different energy windows. In addition, simultaneous transmission/emission imaging with dual-radionuclides has been described, with one radionuclide used for the transmission study and a second for the emission study. There is thus currently considerable interest in dual-radionuclide imaging. A major problem with all dual-radionuclide imaging is the crosstalk between the two radionuclides. Such crosstalk frequently occurs, because scattered radiation from the higher energy radionuclide is detected in the lower energy window, and because the lower energy radionuclide may have higher energy emissions which are detected in the higher energy window. The authors have previously described the use of Fourier-based restoration filtering in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) to improve quantitative accuracy by designing a Wiener or other Fourier filter to partially restore the loss of contrast due to scatter and finite spatial resolution effects. The authors describe here the derivation and initial validation of an extension of such filtering for dual-radionuclide imaging that simultaneously (1) improves contrast in each radionuclide's direct image, (2) reduces image noise, and (3) reduces the crosstalk contribution from the other radionuclide. This filter is based on a vector version of the Wiener filter, which is shown to be superior [in the minimum mean square error (MMSE) sense] to the sequential application of separate crosstalk and restoration filters

  8. Radionuclides for therapeutic applications: Biological and medical aspects (present status, development and expectations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; Gahbauer, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Different multidisciplinary therapeutic strategies and technical approaches are used today in cancer therapy. Among the techniques involving ionizing radiation, therapeutic applications of radioactive nuclides deserve a particular interest ; some clinical indications are well established, while several others are now being investigated, and some of them are promising. The efficacy of radionuclides in therapy often depends on technical factors such as specific activity, purity, chemical presentation, availability, etc. These factors are closely related, at least partly, to the production methods. This justifies the organization of the present Consultant's meeting by the IAEA. Brief information on cancer, its socio-economic aspects, and some data concerning cure rate are presented first

  9. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  10. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  11. a five-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Malotka, Magdalena-Isabela

    2012-01-01

    About 3 million people suffer from chronic tinnitus in Germany. Currently, there is no causal therapy of chronic tinnitus. Existing therapies are characterized by a purely symptom-related procedure. There are therapies based on a neurophysiological understanding that Tinnitus is understood as a consequence of wrong working neural networks, like the tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) of Jastreboff. The therapy consists of counseling and hearing therapy. As a result of criticism of Jastreboff...

  12. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  13. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  15. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  16. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.

  17. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi [/sup 99m/Tc]triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET

  18. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  19. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  20. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  1. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily 210 Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report

  2. Retrospective investigation of testosterone undecanoate depot for the long-term treatment of male hypogonadism in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaglen, Helen M; Paul, Ryan G; Yarndley, Tania; Kamp, Jozef; Elston, Marianne S; Conaglen, John V

    2014-02-01

    Testosterone undecanoate depot (TUD) administered intramuscularly is an effective form of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for male hypogonadism. Because of the ease of administration, TUD therapy may be preferable to subcutaneously implanted extended release T pellet implants (TI). The primary objective was to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of long-term (≥ 2 years therapy) TUD therapy in the clinical setting. The secondary objective was to retrospectively compare TUD with TI therapy. Retrospective data were collected from the Waikato Hospital Endocrine Database for 179 hypogonadal men treated with TUD for ≥ 2 years from 1998-2011, with 124 of these men receiving previous TI therapy. The main outcome measure for efficacy was serum trough total testosterone (TT), and for safety an increase in hemoglobin (Hb) and/or hematocrit (Hct), rise in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and/or prostatic biopsy and alteration in body mass index and lipid profile. Additional outcome measures were changes in the dosing and/or interval regimens for TUD therapy. Overall, 72% of trough TT levels were in the normal range for TUD therapy compared with 53% of trough TT levels during TI therapy. TUD therapy was well tolerated with 162 men (90.5%) completing 2 years of treatment, and only seven men (3.9%) stopping TUD because of adverse effects. A rise in Hb and/or Hct occurred in 25 men (14%), and a significant rise in PSA in 20 men (13%) at some stage during TUD therapy. At 2 years, 91% of men received the standard 1,000 mg TUD dose with 66% at the standard dosing interval of 10-14 weekly. TUD is an efficacious, safe, and well tolerated form of TRT, and individual optimisation of the dose and/or interval is only required in the minority of men. Particularly given the ease of administration, TUD was the preferred TRT for both patients and clinicians. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. The safety of available treatments of male hypogonadism in organic and functional hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, G; Rastrelli, G; Reisman, Y; Sforza, A; Maggi, M

    2018-03-01

    In the case of primary male hypogonadism (HG), only testosterone (T) replacement therapy (TRT) is possible whereas when the problem is secondary to a pituitary or hypothalamus alteration both T production and fertility can be, theoretically, restored. We here systematically reviewed and discussed the advantages and limits of medications formally approved for the treatment of HG. Areas covered: Data derived from available meta-analyses of placebo controlled randomized trials (RCTs) were considered and analyzed. Gonadotropins are well-toleratedand their use is mainly limited by higher costs and a more cumbersome treatment schedule than TRT. Available RCTs on TRT suggest that cardiovascular (CV) and venous thromboembolism risk is not a major issue and that prostate safety is guaranteed. The risk of increased hematocrit is mainly limited to the use of short terminjectable preparations. Expert opinion: In the last few years the concept of 'organic' irreversible HG and 'functional' or age- and comorbidity-related HG has been introduced. This definition is not evidence-based. The majority of RCTs enrolled patients with 'functional' HG. Considering the significant improvement in body composition, glucose metabolism and sexual activity, TRT should not be limited to 'organic' HG, but also offered for 'functional'.

  4. Loading technique for preparing radionuclide containing nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    associated with leaky blood vessels. The composition and methods of the invention find particular use in diagnosing and imaging cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions associated with leaky blood vessels in a subject. The present invention provides a new diagnostic tool for the utilization......Source: US2012213698A The present invention relates to a novel composition and method for loading delivery systems such as liposome compositions with radionuclides useful in targeted diagnostic and/or therapy of target site, such as cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions...... of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique. One specific aspect of the invention is directed to a method of producing nanoparticles with desired targeting properties for diagnostic and/or radio-therapeutic applications....

  5. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  6. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  7. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fissures running parallel to the axes of granitic drill cores. A short pulse of radionuclide solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. At the end of each experiment the fissure was opened and the radionuclide distribution on the fissure surfaces measured. The retardation of 241 Am(III) at pH 8.2 as well as the variation in 235 Np(V) retardation with pH are found to be in good agreement with K d-values obtained in batch experiments. The reduction of (TcO - 4 ) to Tc(IV) leads as expected to increasing retardation.(author)

  8. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  9. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  10. Radionuclide supply of the progeny via mother's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharenko, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    While examining transition of radioactive substances from material organism to milk and then radionuclide administration with milk to progeny, a number of relationships had been revealed. They are similar to those discovered by the author during his study on transplacental radionuclide kinetics. The quantity of transition through placental and milk barriers of group 2 Periodical system radionuclides is inversally proportional to radionuclide mass number. There is evidence for the increase of radionuclide transition per different kinds of animal progeny mass unit during pregnancy as well as during lactation [ru

  11. Direct comparison of 68Ga-DOTA-TOC and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the follow-up of patients with neuroendocrine tumour treated with the first full peptide receptor radionuclide therapy cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Nilica, Bernhard; Waitz, Dietmar; Stevanovic, Vlado; Uprimny, Christian; Kendler, Dorota; Buxbaum, Sabine; Warwitz, Boris; Gerardo, Llanos; Henninger, Benjamin; Virgolini, Irene; Rodrigues, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the value of 68Ga-DOTA-TOC and 18F-FDG PET/CT for initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with neuroendocrine tumour (NET) treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Methods We evaluated 66 patients who had histologically proven NET and underwent both PRRT and three combined 68Ga-DOTA-TOC and 18F-FDG PET/CT studies. 68Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT was performed before PRRT, 3?months after completion of PRRT and after a further 6???9 months. 18F-FDG PET/CT was do...

  12. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  13. Water, soil, crops and radionuclides. Studies on the behavior of radionuclides in the terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    In order to predict the migration of artificially-produced radionuclides into a human body and its radiation dose rates of human body and to decrease the exposed radiation doses of human body, the behavior of radionuclides in the environment must be elucidated. In National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the environmental radioecological research group of Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology has progressed the survey and research on the behavior of artificially-produced radionuclides in the terrestrial environment. This article describes the research results (the radioactivity of water, soil, and crops) made so far at Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology. (M.H.)

  14. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in the management of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: efficacy profile, safety, and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severi S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Severi,1 Ilaria Grassi,1 Silvia Nicolini,1 Maddalena Sansovini,1 Alberto Bongiovanni,2 Giovanni Paganelli1 1Nuclear Medicine Unit, 2Osteoncology and Rare Tumors Center, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST IRCCS, Meldola, Italy Abstract: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT, developed over the last two decades, is carried out using radiopharmaceuticals such as 90Y-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide and 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate (177Lu-Dotatate. These radiocompounds are obtained by labeling a synthetic somatostatin analog with a β-emitting radioisotope. The compounds differ from each other in terms of their energetic features (due to the radionuclide and peptide receptor affinity (due to the analog but share the common characteristic of binding specific membrane somatostatin receptors that are (generally overexpressed in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs and their metastases. NENs are tumors arising from diffuse neuroendocrine system cells that are classified according to grading based on Ki67 percentage values (Grades 1 and 2 are classed as neuroendocrine tumors [NETs] and to the anatomical site of occurrence (in this paper, we only deal with gastroenteropancreatic [GEP]-NETs, which account for 60%–70% of all NENs. They are also characterized by specific symptoms such as diarrhea and flushing (30% of cases. Despite substantial experience gained in the area of PRRT and its demonstrable effects in terms of efficacy, safety, and improvement in quality of life, these compounds are still not registered (registration of 177Lu-Dotatate for the treatment of midgut NETs is expected soon. Thus, PRRT can only be used in experimental protocols. We provide an overview of the work of leading groups with wide-ranging experience and continuity in data publication in the area of GEP-NET PRRT and report our own personal experience of using different dosage schedules based on the presence of kidney and bone marrow risk factors

  15. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  16. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments of weathering of glass waste form and the reacted sediments with simulated glass leachates show that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of secondary precipitates. In addition, synthetic phosphate-bearing nanoporous material exhibits high stability at temperature and has a very high K d value for U(VI) removal. Both natural and synthetic barrier materials can be used as additional efficient adsorbents for retarding transport of radionuclides for various contaminated waste streams and waste forms present at U. S. Department of Energy clean-up sites and the proposed geologic radioactive waste disposal facility. In the radioactive waste repository facility, natural or synthetic materials are planned to be used as a barrier material to immobilize and retard radionuclide release. The getter material can be used to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream and subsequently incorporate the loaded getters in a cementitious or various monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides form monolithic waste forms by being emplaced as a backfill barrier material around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential hazard of leached radioactive wastes. The barrier material should be highly efficient to sequester radionuclides and possess physical and chemical stability for long-term exposure to severe weathering conditions. Because potential leaching of radionuclides depends on various environmental and weathering conditions of the near-field repository, the barrier materials must be durable and not disintegrate under a range of moisture, temperature, pressure, radiation, Eh, ph. and

  17. Changes in Patterns of Care for Limited-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Results of the 99-01 Patterns of Care Study-A Nationwide Survey in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Takashi; Sumi, Minako; Ishihara, Yoshitomo M.S.; Numasaki, Hodaka M.S.; Mitsumori, Michihide; Teshima, Teruki

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken to analyze the practice process of thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) and evaluate changes in patterns of care for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) in Japan. Methods and Materials: The Patterns of Care Study (PCS) conducted the second nationwide survey of care process for patients with LS-SCLC treated by using TRT between 1999 and 2001. Results: The PCS collected data for 139 patients with LS-SCLC (man-woman ratio, 5:1; median age, 69 years; age > 70 years, 43%; Karnofsky Performance Status > 70, 73%; and Stage III, 88%). Median total dose was 50 Gy. Twice-daily TRT was used in 44% of patients. Median field size was 12 x 14 cm. The most commonly used photon energy was 10 MV (77%), whereas obsolete techniques using 60 Co or X-ray energy less than 6 MV comprised 12%. Three-dimensional conformal therapy was used with 12% of patients. Computed tomography simulation was performed in 40% of cases. Only 12 patients (8.6%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). Concurrent chemotherapy and TRT (CCRT) was used for 94 patients (68%). Only 6 patients (4.4%) entered clinical trials. Compared with the previous PCS 95-97, significant increases in the use of CCRT (34-68%; p < 0.0001), twice-daily TRT (15-44%; p < 0.0001), and PCI (1.7-8.6%; p =0.0045) were observed, although the absolute number of patients receiving PCI was still extremely low. Conclusions: Evidence-based CCRT and twice-daily TRT has penetrated into clinical practice. However, PCI is not yet widely accepted in Japan

  18. Radionuclide detection of gastroesophageal reflux in children suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.; Gopinath, P.G.; Sharma, S.K.; Prasad, A.K.; Arora, N.K.; Tiwari, D.C.; Gupta, K.; Chetty, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radionuclide gastro-esophageal scintigraphy was performed on 25 control and 183 children suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract inspection. Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) of varying grades was observed in 135 patients. The severity of clinical symptoms in the patients was found to be directly related to the severity of reflux observed in the radionuclide study. In some patients an attempt was also made to quantitate GER by calculating the gastro-esophageal reflex index. The results of the scintigraphic study were correlated with the results of the other commonly used and more conventional barium swallow and fluoroscopy study. Gastro-esophageal scintigraphy was found to be much superior in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in detecting GER. It was also possible to objectively evaluate and monitor response to treatment following conservative or corrective surgical therapy using the radionuclide technique. The results of the study demonstrated a remarkably high incidence of GER in the patients. Whether GER is the cause of recurrent lower respiratory tract infection or not is difficult to establish firmly. But within the perview of the study the association seems to be very strong and cannot be easily ignored. (author). 26 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at efficient phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, we examined the effect of soil microbes on the uptake ability of plants using the multitracer technique to find that tomato rhizofungi in Fusarium spp. can stimulate the uptake of 85 Sr and 137 Cs by the plants. The synergic effect of a nonpathogenic strain of F. oxysporum on the uptake of radionuclides by plants proved to be enhanced by introducing a phytochelatin synthase gene into the fungus. Since soil contamination by radionuclides is still an unsolved problem in many parts of the world. Studies on phytoremediation of polluted soil environment will be important for developing effective strategies and devising adequate techniques to reduce human risks caused by food contamination of radionuclides. (author)

  20. Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L.

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

  1. Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

  2. Radionuclide methods in the diagnostics of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, O.; Cincarova, E.; Treslova, L.; Andel, M.; Knotkova, V.; Chroustova, D.; Mala, M.

    1997-01-01

    31 diabetic patients with diabetic foot syndrome Wagner II-III were examined. At all patients the laboratory symptoms of the inflammation with the X-ray radiography, three phase scintigraphy of the skeleton with 99m Tc MDP or 99m Tc HDP and 99m Tc-Granulocyte were examined. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot syndrome with following long-time antibiotic therapy can be reliable determined in positive results of both radionuclide methods, first of all scintigraphy with labelled leucocytes

  3. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process

  4. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  5. Production and dosimetric aspects of the potent Auger emitter 58mCo for targeted radionuclide therapy of small tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thisgaard, H.; Elema, D.R.; Jensen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Based on theoretical calculations, the Auger emitter 58m Co has been identified as a potent nuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy of small tumors. During the production of this isotope, the coproduction of the long-lived ground state 58g Co is unfortunately unavoidable, as is ingrowth of the ground state following the isomeric decay of 58m Co. The impact of 58g Co as a β + - and γ-emitting impurity should be included in the dosimetric analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate this critical part of dosimetry based on experimentally determined production yields of 58m Co and 58g Co using a low-energy cyclotron. Also, the cellular S-values for 58m Co have been calculated and are presented here for the first time. Methods: 58m Co was produced via the 58 Fe(p,n) 58m Co nuclear reaction on highly enriched 58 Fe metal. In addition, radiochemical separations of produced radio-cobalt from nat Fe target material were performed. The theoretical subcellular dosimetry calculations for 58m Co and 58g Co were performed using the MIRD formalism, and the impact of the increasing ground state impurity on the tumor-to-normal-tissue dose ratios (TND) per disintegration as a function of time after end of bombardment (EOB) was calculated. Results: 192 ± 8 MBq of 58m Co was produced in the irradiation corresponding to a production yield of 10.7 MBq/μAh. The activity of 58g Co was measured to be 0.85% ± 0.04% of the produced 58m Co activity at EOB. The radio-cobalt yields in the rapid separations were measured to be >97% with no detectable iron contaminations in the cobalt fractions. Due to the unavoidable coproduction and ingrowth of the long-lived ground state 58g Co, the TND and the potency of the 58m Co decrease with time after EOB. If a future treatment with a 58m Co labeled compound is not initiated before, e.g., 21 h after EOB, the resulting TND will be approximately 50% of the TND of 'pure' 58m Co as a result of the increased normal tissue dose from

  6. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and 67 Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of 111 In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation

  7. Clinical results of radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours with {sup 90}Y-DOTATATE and tandem {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE: which is a better therapy option?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunikowska, Jolanta; Krolicki, Leszek [Medical University of Warsaw, Nuclear Medicine Department, Warsaw (Poland); Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna [Collegium Medicum Cracow, Cracow (Poland); Mikolajczak, Renata; Pawlak, Dariusz [Institute of Atomic Energy POLATOM, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is a treatment option for patients with disseminated neuroendocrine tumours (NET). A combination treatment using the high-energy {sup 90}Y beta emitter for larger lesions and the lower energy {sup 177}Lu for smaller lesions has been postulated in the literature.The aim of the study was to evaluate combined {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE therapy in comparison to {sup 90}Y-DOTATATE alone. Fifty patients with disseminated NET were included in the study prospectively and divided into two groups: group A (n = 25) was treated with {sup 90}Y-DOTATATE, whereas group B (n = 25) received the 1:1 {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. The administered activity was based on 3.7 GBq/m{sup 2} body surface area in three to five cycles, with amino acid infusion for nephroprotection. The median overall survival time in group A was 26.2 months while in group B median survival was not reached. Overall survival was significantly higher in group B (p = 0.027). Median event-free survival time in group A was 21.4 months and in group B 29.4 months (p > 0.1). At the 12-month follow-up, comparison of group A vs group B showed stable disease (SD) in 13 vs 16 patients, disease regression (RD) in 5 vs 3 patients and disease progression (PD) in 3 vs 4 patients; 4 and 2 patients died, respectively. The 24-month follow-up results were SD in nine vs ten patients, RD in one patient vs none and PD in four patients in both groups; three and four patients died, respectively. Side effects were rare and mild. The results indicate that therapy with tandem radioisotopes ({sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE) provides longer overall survival than with a single radioisotope ({sup 90}Y-DOTATATE) and the safety of both methods is comparable. (orig.)

  8. Relationship between internal dosimetry and DNA double strand breaks in lymphocytes after radionuclide therapy; Zusammenhang zwischen physikalischer Dosimetrie und DNA Doppelstrangbruechen in Lymphozyten nach Radionuklidtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Uta

    2015-09-30

    In radionuclide therapy radiopharmaceuticals are administered mostly systemically. Primarily, beta-emitters are used because of their short range in tissue. As a result the radiopharmaceutical distributes within the human body and accumulates in organs and target structures. Thus, the body is irradiated internally, in contrast to external irradiation in radiotherapy. The pattern of the activity distribution within the human body is determined by the physical and chemical properties of the radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the amount of activity and its accumulation in organs or tissues is essential for the calculation of the absorbed dose which defines the energy deposited in the body by ionizing radiation. During internal or external irradiation, patients are exposed to ionizing radiation which does not only destroy the malignant cells but also damages healthy tissue and cells. This is mainly caused by direct and indirect interaction of the radiation with the DNA which damages the DNA structure. Most frequently, there are single strand breaks and base damages. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are rare; nevertheless, they are the most critical lesions for cells as repairing the damage is difficult. Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA could cause mutations, chromosomal aberrations or lead to cell death. The formation of a DNA DSB in nuclear chromatin results in the rapid phosphorylation of the histone H2 variant H2AX, then called gamma-H2AX. Furthermore, DSBs also recruit the damage sensor 53BP1 to the chromatin surrounding the DSBs, which leads to 53BP1 and gamma-H2AX co-localization in the chromatin surrounding a DSB. By immunofluorescence staining with gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 antibodies those biomarkers can be addressed by microscopically visible DNA damage protein foci, this is also known as the DNA damage focus assay. With progression of DSB repair, gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci disappear. It is assumed that one focus corresponds to one DSB. Therefore, the number of foci per

  9. Remediation of radionuclide pollutants through biosorption - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nilanjana [Environmental Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2012-01-15

    The development of nuclear science and technology has led to the increase of nuclear wastes containing radionuclides to be released and disposed in the environment. Pollution caused by radionuclides is a serious problem throughout the world. To solve the problem, substantial research efforts have been directed worldwide to adopt sustainable technologies for the treatment of radionuclide containing wastes. Biosorption represents a technological innovation as well as a cost effective excellent remediation technology for cleaning up radionuclides from aqueous environment. A variety of biomaterials viz. algae, fungi, bacteria, plant biomass, etc. have been reported for radionuclide remediation with encouraging results. This paper reviews the achievements and current status of radionuclide remediation through biosorption which will provide insights into this research frontier. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  11. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in a Ribble Estuary saltmarsh: transport and deposition of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; McDonald, P.; Parker, A.; Rae, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Routine discharges of low-level liquid radioactive waste by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfields have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. Variations in radionuclide concentrations ( 137 Cs, 230 Th, and 239240 Pu) with depth in a mature saltmarsh core were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends and waste-dispersal mechanisms. Core samples from Longton/Hutton Marsh were analysed by gamma-spectrometry and α-spectrometry for radionuclides and by laser granulometry to establish grain-size variations with depth. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137 Cs and 239240 Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs and 600 Bq kg -1 for 239240 Pu. Thorium-230 exhibited complex activity profiles with depth, specific activities ranging between 200 and 2400 Bq kg -1 . The vertical distributions of Sellafield-derived radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 239240 Pu) in mature saltmarsh deposits reflect the time-integrated discharge pattern from Sellafield, implying a transport mechanism that has involved the mixing of sediment labelled with radioactivity from recent discharges and sediment labelled from historical discharge events before deposition. A mechanism involving the transport of contaminated silt therefore seems to dominate. The vertical distribution of Springfields-derived 230 Th in the same areas reflects the annual gross-α discharge pattern from BNFL Springfields. In contrast to the Sellafield-derived radionuclides, a fairly rapid transport mechanism from source to sink is implied, with little or no time for mixing with radionuclides discharged years earlier. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Radionuclide investigation of the blood flow in tumor and normal rat tissues in induced hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istomin, Yu.P.; Shitikov, B.D.; Markova, L.V.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclide angiography was performed in rats with transplantable tumors. Induced hyperglycemia was shown to result in blood flow inhibition in tumor and normal tissues of tumor-bearing rats. Some differences were revealed in a degree of reversibility of blood flow disorders in tissues of the above strains. The results obtained confirmed the advisability of radiation therapy at the height of a decrease in tumor blood

  13. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Positron Emission Tomography Imaging and Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma: New Multimodal Fluorinated and Iodinated Radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonial, A.; Papon, J.; Bayle, M.; Vidal, A.; Auzeloux, Ph.; Rbah, L.; Bonnet-Duquennoy, M.; Miot-Noirault, E.; Galmier, M.J.; Borel, M.; Madelmont, J.C.; Moins, N.; Chezal, J.M.; Kuhnast, B.; Boisgard, R.; Dolle, F.; Tavitian, B.; Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B.; Askienazy, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a series of 14 new iodinated and fluorinated compounds offering both early imaging ( 123 I, 124 I, 18 F) and systemic treatment ( 131 I) of melanoma potentialities. The biodistribution of each 125 I-labeled tracer was evaluated in a model of melanoma B16F0-bearing mice, using in vivo serial γ scintigraphic imaging. Among this series, [ 125 I]56 emerged as the most promising compound in terms of specific tumoral uptake and in vivo kinetic profile. To validate our multimodality concept, the radiosynthesis of [ 18 F]56 was then optimized and this radiotracer has been successfully investigated for in vivo PET imaging of melanoma in B16F0- and B16F10-bearing mouse model. The therapeutic efficacy of [ 131 I]56 was then evaluated in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F0 melanoma, and a significant slow down in tumoral growth was demonstrated. These data support further development of 56 for PET imaging ( 18 F, 124 I) and targeted radionuclide therapy ( 131 I) of melanoma using a single chemical structure. (authors)

  14. Interpretation of biological-rate coefficients derived from radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Rigorous expressions are derived for the biological-rate coefficients (BRCs) determined from time-dependent measurements of three different dependent variables of radionuclide tracer experiments. These variables, which apply to a single organism, are radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity. The BRCs derived from these variables have different mathematical expressions and, for high growth rates, their numerical values can be quite different. The precise mathematical expressions for the BRCs are presented here to aid modelers in selecting the correct parameters for their models and to aid experiments in interpreting their results. The usefulness of these three variables in quantifying elemental uptakes and losses by organisms is discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Research on sorption behavior of radionuclides under shallow land environment. Mechanism and standard methodologies for measurement of distribution coefficients of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Tadao; Takebe, Shinichi; Nagao, Seiya; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Hagiwara, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    This study consists of two categories' research works. One is research on sorption mechanism of radionuclides with long half-life, which are Technetium-99, TRU elements and U series radionuclides, on soil and rocks, including a development of database of distribution coefficients of radionuclides. The database on the distribution coefficients of radionuclides with information about measurement conditions, such as shaking method, soil characteristics and solution composition, has been already opened to the public (JAERI-DATABASE 20001003). Another study is investigation on a standard methodology of the distribution coefficient of radionuclide on soils, rocks and engineering materials in Japan. (author)

  16. Combined anti-tumor therapeutic effect of targeted gene, hyperthermia, radionuclide brachytherapy in breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daozhen; Tang Qiusha; Xiang Jingying; Xu Fei; Zhang Li; Wang Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antitumor therapeutic effect of combined therapy of magnetic induction heating by nano-magnetic particles, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HSV-tk suicide gene) and internal radiation in mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinoma. Methods: The transfection reagents, plasmids heat shock protein-HSV-tk (pHSP-HSV-tk), ferroso-ferric oxide nano-magnetic fluid flow and 188 Re-ganciclovir-bovine serum albumin-nanopaticles (GCV-BSA-NP) were prepared. The heating experiments in vivo were carried out using ferroso-ferric oxide nano-magnetic fluid flow. Sixty mice tumor models bearing MCF-7 breast carcinoma were established and randomly divided into six groups. Group A was the control group, B was gene transfection therapy group, C was hyperthermia group, D was gene transfection therapy combined with radionuclide brachytherapy group, E was gene therapy combined with hyperthermia group, and F was gene therapy, hyperthermia combined with radionuclide brachytherapy group. The tumor growth, tumor mass and histopathological changes were evaluated. The expression of HSV-tk in the groups of B, D, E and F was detected by RT-PCR. Poisson distribution and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis by SPSS 10.0 software. Results: In the animal heating experiments, the temperature of tumor increased up to 39.6 degree C, 43.2 degree C, and 48.1 degree C quickly with different injected doses (2, 4 and 6 mg respectively) of nano-magnetic particles and maintained for 40 min. The temperature of tumor tissue reduced to 36.8 degree C, 37.5 degree C and 37.8 degree C in 10 min when alternating magnetic field (AMF) stopped. The tumor mass in Groups C ((452.50±30.29) mg), D ((240.98±35.32)mg), E((231.87±27.41) mg) and F ((141.55±23.78) mg) were much lower than that in Group A ((719.12±22.65) mg) (F=800.07, P<0.01), with the most significant treatment effect in Group F.The tumor mass in Group B((684.05±24.02) mg) was higher than

  17. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzerman, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  18. RIVER-RAD, Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RIVER-RAD assesses the potential fate of radionuclides released to rivers. The model is simplified in nature and is intended to provide guidance in determining the potential importance of the surface water pathway, relevant transport mechanisms, and key radionuclides in estimating radiological dose to man. 2 - Method of solution: A compartmental linear transfer model is used in RIVER-RAD. The river system model in the code is divided into reaches (compartments) of equal size, each with a sediment compartment below it. The movement of radionuclides is represented by a series of transfers between the reaches, and between the water and sediment compartments of each reach. Within each reach (for both the water and sediment compartments), the radionuclides are assumed to be uniformly mixed. Upward volatilization is allowed from the water compartment, and the transfer of radionuclides between the reaches is determined by the flow rate of the river. Settling and resuspension velocities determine the transfer of absorbed radionuclides between the water and sediment compartments. Radioactive decay and decay-product buildup are incorporated into all transport calculations for all radionuclide chains specified by the user. Each nuclide may have unique input and removal rates. Volatilization and radiological decay are considered as linear rate constants in the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None noted

  19. Radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.F. Jr.; Deliso, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ( 131 I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  20. Radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jr, J F; Deliso, H B

    1993-12-31

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ({sup 131}I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  2. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  3. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  4. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  5. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitored in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program. Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media

  6. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  7. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  8. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  9. Manual of bioassay procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskach, S.; Petkau, A.

    1986-06-01

    A monitoring program is described by which atomic radiation workers ar monitored for internal contamination with radionuclides in the workplace. The program involves analytical procedures for measuring alpha, beta and gamma activity in biological specimens, usually urine. Radionuclides are identified by their characteristic radiation using liquid scintillation counting, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. Examples of calculating the minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are given and used to derive call-in-criteria in accordance with which the different groups of workers are monitored each month

  10. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  11. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237

  12. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  13. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  14. Statistical analysis of fallout radionuclides transfer to paddy-field rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Morisawa, S.; Inoue, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclides released from nuclear facilities to atmosphere are transported through various pathways in biosphere and cause human exposure. Among these radionuclides transfer pathways, an ingestion of crops containing radionuclides is one of the dominant pathway for human exposure. For the safety assessment of nuclear facilities, it is important to understand the behavior of radionuclides in agricultural environment and to describe them in a mathematical model. In this paper, a statistical model is proposed for estimating the concentration of fallout radionuclides in paddy-field rice, the staple food for Japanese people. For describing behavior of fallout radionuclides in a paddy-field, a dynamic model and a statistical model have been proposed respectively. The model used in this study has been developed assuming that the amount of radionuclides transfer to brown rice (hulled rice) or polished rice through direct deposition of airborne radionuclides (the direct deposition pathway) and root uptake from a paddy soil (the root uptake pathway) are proportional to the deposition flux of radionuclides and concentration of radionuclides in paddy soil respectively. That is, the model has two independent variables; the deposition flux of radionuclides and the concentration of radionuclides in the paddy soil, and has single dependent variable; the concentration of radionuclides in brown rice or polished rice. The regression analysis is applied by using environmental monitoring data. Then the distribution of radionuclides between rice-bran (skin part of rice crop) and polished rice (core part) through both the direct deposition pathway and the root uptake pathway are evaluated by the model. (author)

  15. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  16. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  17. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  18. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  19. Management of Therapy Patients. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauer, L. T. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The basic principles of radiation protection and their implementation as they apply to nuclear medicine are covered in general in Chapter 3. This chapter will look at the specific case of nuclear medicine used for therapy. In addition to the standards discussed in Chapter 3, specific guidance on the release of patients after radionuclide therapy can be found in the IAEA’s Safety Reports Series No. 63 [20.1]. When the patient is kept in hospital following radionuclide therapy, the people at risk of exposure include hospital staff whose duties may or may not directly involve the use of radiation. This can be a significant problem. However, it is generally felt that it can be effectively managed with well trained staff and appropriate facilities. On the other hand, once the patient has been released, the groups at risk include members of the patient’s family, including children, and carers; they may also include neighbours, visitors to the household, co-workers, those encountered in public places, on public transport or at public events, and finally, the general public. It is generally felt that these risks can be effectively mitigated by the radiation protection officer (RPO) with patient-specific radiation safety precaution instructions.

  20. Prostate specific membrane antigen- a target for imaging and therapy with radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L; Capala, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer continues to represent a major health problem, and yet there is no effective treatment available for advanced metastatic disease. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of more effective treatment modalities that could improve the outcome. Because prostate specific...... membrane antigen (PSMA), a transmembrane protein, is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers, and its expression is further increased in poorly differentiated, metastatic, and hormone-refractory carcinomas, it is a very attractive target. Molecules targeting PSMA can be labelled with radionuclides...... to become both diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents. The use of PSMA binding agents, labelled with diagnostic and therapeutic radio-isotopes, opens up the potential for a new era of personalized management of metastatic prostate cancer....

  1. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  2. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  3. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajzikova, Anna; Smrcek, Stanislav; Kozempel, Jan; Vlk, Martin; Barta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide ( 227 Ac, 227 Th, 223 Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  4. Quality of Life and Sexual Function Benefits of Long-Term Testosterone Treatment: Longitudinal Results From the Registry of Hypogonadism in Men (RHYME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Raymond C; Wu, Frederick; Behre, Hermann M; Porst, Hartmut; Meuleman, Eric J H; Maggi, Mario; Romero-Otero, Javier; Martinez-Salamanca, Juan I; Jones, Thomas Hugh; Debruyne, Frans M J; Kurth, Karl-Heinz; Hackett, Geoff I; Quinton, Richard; Stroberg, Peter; Reisman, Yacov; Pescatori, Edoardo S; Morales, Antonio; Bassas, Lluis; Cruz, Natalio; Cunningham, Glenn R; Wheaton, Olivia A

    2017-09-01

    The benefits and risks of long-term testosterone administration have been a topic of much scientific and regulatory interest in recent years. To assess long-term quality of life (QOL) and sexual function benefits of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) prospectively in a diverse, multinational cohort of men with hypogonadism. A multinational patient registry was used to assess long-term changes associated with TRT in middle-age and older men with hypogonadism. Comprehensive evaluations were conducted at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after enrollment into the registry. QOL and sexual function were evaluated by validated measures, including the Aging Males' Symptom (AMS) Scale and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). A total of 999 previously untreated men with hypogonadism were enrolled at 25 European centers, 750 of whom received TRT at at least one visit during the period of observation. Patients on TRT reported rapid and sustained improvements in QOL, with fewer sexual, psychological, and somatic symptoms. Modest improvements in QOL and sexual function, including erectile function, also were noted in RHYME patients not on TRT, although treated patients showed consistently greater benefit over time in all symptom domains compared with untreated patients. AMS total scores for patients on TRT were 32.8 (95% confidence interval = 31.3-34.4) compared with 36.6 (95% confidence interval = 34.8-38.5) for untreated patients (P treatment. The major strengths are the large, diverse patient population being treated in multidisciplinary clinical settings. The major limitation is the frequency of switching from one formulation to another. Overall, we confirmed the broad and sustained benefits of TRT across major QOL dimensions, including sexual, somatic, and psychological health, which were sustained over 36 months in our treatment cohort. Rosen RC, Wu F, Behre H, et al. Quality of Life and Sexual Function Benefits Effects of Long-Term Testosterone Treatment

  5. Radionuclide Data Centre. Tasks and problems of obtaining the most reliable values of the nuclear physics characteristics of radionuclides and radiation physics parameters of radionuclide sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechev, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the establishment of the Radionuclide Data Centre under the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute. Its functions and areas of activity are discussed. The paper focuses on the procedure of obtaining the evaluated values of the decay and radiative characteristics of the widely used radionuclides. (author)

  6. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  7. General program for the advancement of the radionuclide technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The 'General Program for the Advancement of the Radionuclide Technology' was elaborated in 1978 by the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Foerderung der Radionuklidtechnik' (AFR) (Association for the Promotion of Radionuclide Technology). In addition to an inventory of the major applications of radionuclide technology, this General Program includes a comprehensive description of tasks relating to the central topics of raw materials, environment, technology and materials, health and nutrition, scientific developments of radionuclide technology. The 'General Program for the Advancement of the Radionuclide Technology' serves inter alia as a basis of evaluation in opinions on funding applications filed with the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) with respect to the provision of advanced techniques involving radionuclides for industrial application. (orig.) [de

  8. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  9. Geochemistry and radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretically, the geochemical barrier can provide a major line of defense in protecting the biosphere from the hazards of nuclear waste. The most likely processes involved are easily identified. Preliminary investigations using computer modeling techniques suggest that retardation is an effective control on radionuclide concentrations. Ion exchange reactions slow radionuclide migration and allow more time for radioactive decay and dispersion. For some radionuclides, solubility alone may limit concentrations to less than the maximum permissible now considered acceptable by the Federal Government. The effectiveness of the geochemical barrier is ultimately related to the repository site characteristics. Theory alone tells us that geochemical controls will be most efficient in an environment that provides for maximum ion exchange and the precipitation of insoluble compounds. In site selection, consideration should be given to rock barriers with high ion exchange capacity that might also act as semi-permeable membranes. Also important in evaluating the site's potential for effective geochemical controls are the oxidation potentials, pH and salinity of the groundwater

  10. Aligning physics and physiology: Engineering antibodies for radionuclide delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ting K; Wu, Anna M

    2018-03-14

    The exquisite specificity of antibodies and antibody fragments renders them excellent agents for targeted delivery of radionuclides. Radiolabeled antibodies and fragments have been successfully used for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of cell surface targets in oncology and immunology. Protein engineering has been used for antibody humanization essential for clinical applications, as well as optimization of important characteristics including pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and clearance. Although intact antibodies have high potential as imaging and therapeutic agents, challenges include long circulation time in blood, which leads to later imaging time points post-injection and higher blood absorbed dose that may be disadvantageous for RIT. Using engineered fragments may address these challenges, as size reduction and removal of Fc function decreases serum half-life. Radiolabeled fragments and pretargeting strategies can result in high contrast images within hours to days, and a reduction of RIT toxicity in normal tissues. Additionally, fragments can be engineered to direct hepatic or renal clearance, which may be chosen based on the application and disease setting. This review discusses aligning the physical properties of radionuclides (positron, gamma, beta, alpha, and Auger emitters) with antibodies and fragments and highlights recent advances of engineered antibodies and fragments in preclinical and clinical development for imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2

  12. Radionuclide investigation of the bone marrow with 99mTc-coren in patients with polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, L.Ya.; Prikhod'ko, A.G.; Rozdil'skij, S.I.; Astap'eva, O.N.; Grusha, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of radionuclide investigation of the bone marrow in 44 patients (of them 32 with polycythemia vera) were presented. The informative value of bone marrow scintigraphy and whole-body radiometry using 99m Tc-coren was shown in the patients with polycythemia vera at advanced stages. The results obtained made it possible to specify a clinical stage and prognosis of disease, and to optimize therapy

  13. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Wirth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.) [de

  14. Randomized Phase II Study of Pemetrexed, Carboplatin, and Thoracic Radiation With or Without Cetuximab in Patients With Locally Advanced Unresectable Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 30407

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Ramaswamy; Bogart, Jeffrey; Stinchcombe, Thomas; Wang, Xiaofei; Hodgson, Lydia; Kratzke, Robert; Garst, Jennifer; Brotherton, Timothy; Vokes, Everett E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Cancer and Leukemia Group B conducted a randomized phase II trial to investigate two novel chemotherapy regimens in combination with concurrent thoracic radiation therapy (TRT). Patients and Methods Patients with unresectable stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were randomly assigned to carboplatin (area under the curve, 5) and pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) every 21 days for four cycles and TRT (70 Gy; arm A) or the same treatment with cetuximab administered concurrent only with TRT (arm B). Patients in both arms received up to four cycles of pemetrexed as consolidation therapy. The primary end point was the 18-month overall survival (OS) rate; if the 18-month OS rate was ≥ 55%, the regimen(s) would be considered for further study. Results Of the 101 eligible patients enrolled (48 in arm A and 53 in arm B), 60% were male; the median age was 66 years (range, 32 to 81 years); 44% and 35% had adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma, respectively; and more patients enrolled onto arm A compared with arm B had a performance status of 0 (58% v 34%, respectively; P = .04). The 18-month OS rate was 58% (95% CI, 46% to 74%) in arm A and 54% (95% CI, 42% to 70%) in arm B. No significant difference in OS between patients with squamous and nonsquamous NSCLC was observed (P = .667). The toxicities observed were consistent with toxicities associated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion The combination of pemetrexed, carboplatin, and TRT met the prespecified criteria for further evaluation. This regimen should be studied further in patients with locally advanced unresectable nonsquamous NSCLC. PMID:21747084

  15. Radionuclide migration in crystalline rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelttae, P.

    2002-01-01

    Crystalline rock has been considered as a host medium for the repository of high radioactive spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The geosphere will act as an ultimate barrier retarding the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere if they are released through the technical barriers. Radionuclide transport is assumed to take place along watercarrying fractures, and retardation will occur both in the fracture and within the rock matrix. To be able to predict the transport and retardation of radionuclides in rock fractures and rock matrices, it is essential to understand the different phenomena involved. Matrix diffusion has been indicated to be an important mechanism, which will retard the transport of radionuclides in rock fractures. Both dispersion and matrix diffusion are processes, which can have similar influences on solute breakthrough curves in fractured crystalline rock. In this work, the migration of radionuclides in crystalline rock fractures was studied by means of laboratory scale column methods. The purpose of the research was to gain a better understanding of various phenomena - particularly matrix diffusion - affecting the transport and retardation behaviour of radionuclides in fracture flow. Interaction between radionuclides and the rock matrix was measured in order to test the compatibility of experimental retardation parameters and transport models used in assessing the safety of underground repositories for spent nuclear fuel. Rock samples of mica gneiss and of unaltered, moderately altered and strongly altered tonalite represented different rock features and porosities offering the possibility to determine experimental boundary limit values for parameters describing both the transport and retardation of radionuclides and rock matrix properties. The dominant matrix diffusion behaviour was demonstrated in porous ceramic column and gas diffusion experiments. Demonstration of the effects of matrix diffusion in crystalline rock fracture succeeded for the

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhagen, J.D.; Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  17. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R.I.; Dulama, C.N.; Toma, Al.

    2006-01-01

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  18. Production and dosimetric aspects of the potent Auger emitter {sup 58m}Co for targeted radionuclide therapy of small tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thisgaard, H.; Elema, D.R.; Jensen, M. [PET and Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Medicine Department, Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark and Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Winsloewparken 19, DK-5000 Odense (Denmark); The Hevesy Laboratory, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Based on theoretical calculations, the Auger emitter {sup 58m}Co has been identified as a potent nuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy of small tumors. During the production of this isotope, the coproduction of the long-lived ground state {sup 58g}Co is unfortunately unavoidable, as is ingrowth of the ground state following the isomeric decay of {sup 58m}Co. The impact of {sup 58g}Co as a {beta}{sup +}- and {gamma}-emitting impurity should be included in the dosimetric analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate this critical part of dosimetry based on experimentally determined production yields of {sup 58m}Co and {sup 58g}Co using a low-energy cyclotron. Also, the cellular S-values for {sup 58m}Co have been calculated and are presented here for the first time. Methods: {sup 58m}Co was produced via the {sup 58}Fe(p,n){sup 58m}Co nuclear reaction on highly enriched {sup 58}Fe metal. In addition, radiochemical separations of produced radio-cobalt from {sup nat}Fe target material were performed. The theoretical subcellular dosimetry calculations for {sup 58m}Co and {sup 58g}Co were performed using the MIRD formalism, and the impact of the increasing ground state impurity on the tumor-to-normal-tissue dose ratios (TND) per disintegration as a function of time after end of bombardment (EOB) was calculated. Results: 192 {+-} 8 MBq of {sup 58m}Co was produced in the irradiation corresponding to a production yield of 10.7 MBq/{mu}Ah. The activity of {sup 58g}Co was measured to be 0.85% {+-} 0.04% of the produced {sup 58m}Co activity at EOB. The radio-cobalt yields in the rapid separations were measured to be >97% with no detectable iron contaminations in the cobalt fractions. Due to the unavoidable coproduction and ingrowth of the long-lived ground state {sup 58g}Co, the TND and the potency of the {sup 58m}Co decrease with time after EOB. If a future treatment with a {sup 58m}Co labeled compound is not initiated before, e.g., 21 h after EOB, the

  19. Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qinhong; Weng Jianqing; Wang Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides 99 Tc and 129 I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides 99 Tc, 129 I, and 237 Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  20. Method of combined radionuclide assessment of the greater and uteroplacental circulation in plural pregnency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illarionova, N.M.; Fuks, M.A.; Ehventov, A.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of the clinical testing of a combined radionuclide method of assessment of the greater and uteroplacentral circulation in 15 women with plural pregnancy. The method permits the detection of hemodynamic changes without increasing radiation exposure to the mother's body and fetuses, the determination of a type of plural pregnancy (monochorionic or dichorial twins), and the prediction of pregnancy outcome that is very important for the choice of appropriate and timely therapy

  1. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  2. Radionuclide characterization of environmental air around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gede Sutresna Wijaya; Anung Muharini

    2015-01-01

    Air is an important environmental component in human life. Presence of air pollutants or contaminants will have a negative impact on human health. According to the existence of a nuclear facility in Yogyakarta, the characterization of radionuclides in the air is absolutely necessary to ensure the safety of people and the environment and also to supervise the safe operation of the facility. In this research the characterization of radionuclides in the air was carried through the air sampling by using High Volume Air Sampler equipped with filter TFA 2133, followed by analysis using combination of a gamma and alpha spectrometers. The concentration of radioactivity in the air fluctuates depending on the time and duration of sampling. Characterization of gamma emitting radionuclides in the air is dominated by radon progeny radionuclides such as 214 Pb, 214 Bi with activity 20.09 ± 1.23 until 32.91 ± 4.87 Bq/m 3 and 31.22 ± 1.76 until 44.25 ± 4.91 Bq/m 3 . Alpha emitter radionuclide was dominated by 214 Po (7.69 MeV) which is also radon progeny and a primordial radionuclides. It can be concluded that the presence of radionuclides in the environmental air not as a product resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities in Yogyakarta. (author)

  3. Correlations of CTLA-4 exon-1 49 A/G and promoter region 318C/T polymorphisms with the therapeutic efficacy of 131 I radionuclide in graves' disease in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xin-Rui; Wen, Xin; Wang, Shan; Fan, Shao-Hua; Zhuang, Juan; Wang, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Li, Meng-Qiu; Hu, Bin; Shan, Qun; Sun, Chun-Hui; Bao, Ya-Xing; Wu, Dong-Mei; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Yuan-Lin

    2017-08-04

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune process in which the thyroid gland is triggered by autoantibodies, resulting in hyperthyroidism. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate whether exon-1 49 A/G and promoter region 318C/T polymorphisms in the CTLA-4 gene. This study consisted of 653 eligible patients with Graves' disease. After receiving 131I radionuclide therapy, these patients were classified into the remission and non-remission groups. A logistic regression-based model was used to analyze independent factors affecting the patient response to 131I radionuclide therapy. The results showed that CTLA-4 49 A/G was closely related to the efficacy of 131 I treatment for Graves' disease (AG + GG vs. AA: OR = 6.543, 95%CI = 2.611 ∼ 16.40, P Graves' disease. Logistic regression analysis indicated that thyroid weight (OR = 0.963, 95%CI = 0.944 ∼ 0.982, P Graves' disease. These data indicated that CTLA-4 exon-1 49 A/G polymorphism may be associated with patient response to radionuclide 131 I therapy in Graves' disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamponnet, C.; Martin-Garin, A.; Gonze, M.-A.; Parekh, N.; Vallejo, R.; Sauras-Yera, T.; Casadesus, J.; Plassard, C.; Staunton, S.; Norden, M.; Avila, R.; Shaw, G.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K d for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance its

  5. An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamponnet, C. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SECRE, CADARACHE, B.P. 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France)], E-mail: christian.tamponnet@irsn.fr; Martin-Garin, A.; Gonze, M.-A. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SECRE, CADARACHE, B.P. 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Parekh, N. [Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Vallejo, R.; Sauras-Yera, T.; Casadesus, J. [Department of Plant Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Plassard, C.; Staunton, S. [INRA, UMR Rhizosphere and Symbiosis, Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier (France); Norden, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, 171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Avila, R. [Facilia AB, Valsgaerdevaegen 12, 168 53 Bromma, Stockholm (Sweden); Shaw, G. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K{sub d} for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance

  6. Quantification of radionuclide uptake levels for primary bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Francis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to quantify the level of uptake of administered radionuclide in primary bone tumors for patients undergoing bone scintigraphy. Retrospective study on 48 patient's scintigrams to quantify the uptake levels of administered radiopharmaceuticals was performed in a nuclear medicine unit in Ghana. Patients were administered with activity ranging between 0.555 and 1.110 MBq (15–30 mCi, and scanned on Siemens e.cam SPECT system. Analyses on scintigrams were performed with Image J software by drawing regions of interest (ROIs over identified hot spots (pathologic sites. Nine skeletal parts namely cranium, neck, shoulder, sacrum, sternum, vertebra, femur, ribcage, and knee were considered in the study, which involved 96 identified primary tumors. Radionuclide uptakes were quantified in terms of the estimated counts of activity per patient for identified tumor sites. Average normalized counts of activity (nGMC per patient ranged from 5.2759 ± 0.6590 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of cranium tumors to 72.7569 ± 17.8786 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of ribcage tumors. The differences in uptake levels could be attributed to different mechanisms of Tc-99m MDP uptake in different types of bones, which is directly related to blood flow and degree of osteoblastic activity. The overall normalized count of activity for the 96 identified tumors was estimated to be 23.0350 ± 19.5424 cts/mm2/MBq. The study revealed highest uptake of activity in ribcage and least uptake in cranium. Quantification of radionuclide uptakes in tumors is important and recommended in assessing patient's response to therapy, doses to critical organs and in diagnosing tumors.

  7. A basic toxicity classification of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    In the course of its work in the field of health and safety the International Atomic Energy Agency has often met the practical requirement for grading radionuclides in order of their relative radiotoxicities. This need was particularly evident when the Agency's Basic Safety Standards for the protection of health against ionizing radiation were in preparation, when it was necessary to exempt quantities of radionuclides from inclusion in the norms. A basic toxicity grading might be of help to laboratories in meeting some of their requirements in problems related to waste management as well as for the design of experimental facilities. It should also serve as a basis for the development of safety criteria for laboratory equipment and procedures for handling and transporting various quantities and kinds of radionuclides. The purpose of the present Report is to make a toxicity grading of the radionuclides according to the risk of biological injury which they may cause when they have become incorporated in the human body. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  8. A basic toxicity classification of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-04-01

    In the course of its work in the field of health and safety the International Atomic Energy Agency has often met the practical requirement for grading radionuclides in order of their relative radiotoxicities. This need was particularly evident when the Agency's Basic Safety Standards for the protection of health against ionizing radiation were in preparation, when it was necessary to exempt quantities of radionuclides from inclusion in the norms. A basic toxicity grading might be of help to laboratories in meeting some of their requirements in problems related to waste management as well as for the design of experimental facilities. It should also serve as a basis for the development of safety criteria for laboratory equipment and procedures for handling and transporting various quantities and kinds of radionuclides. The purpose of the present Report is to make a toxicity grading of the radionuclides according to the risk of biological injury which they may cause when they have become incorporated in the human body. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  9. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  10. Transfer parameters of radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To increase the accuracy of estimation of exposure dose by radionuclides in the marine, the informations of environmental parameter data in the marine were collected, arranged and discussed. The informations were discussed by 'a sectional committee of marine suspended solids and sediment'. The following problems were investigated and the studies were recorded in this report, clear explanation about the distribution factor (kd), the estimation method of kd, the fluctuating factor of kd data (properties of suspension and sediment, differences among the experimental methods), the physical and chemical behavior of radionuclides, sediment of radionuclides by means of sorption to the suspended particles in the marine, sorption of radionuclides into the marine soil (sediment), re-eluent of radionuclides sorpted in the marine soil (sediment), and relation between marine organism and marine suspended materials and sediment. (S.Y.)

  11. Production of medical short-lived radionuclides in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    The production of radionuclides for medical and biomedical research in Canada has been reviewed with respect to the national geographic and demographic characteristics which influence their use. The types of facilities available for the production of short-lived radionuclides have been summarized, and a tabulation of the radionuclides that are produced has been presented. In broad terms production facilities can be classified as belonging to one of two groups, nuclear reactor or charged-particle accelerators. The charged-particle accelerators produce the more neutron-deficient and (because of the resultant decay properties) the more useful radionuclides for medical application. The nuclear reactor facilities for radionuclide production range in size and capacity from the high-flux research reactors of AECL to the six SLOWPOKE reactors, five of which are located on university campuses across the country. The McMaster University reactor is used to produce curie quantities of fluorine-18 weekly. Millicurie amounts of a large number of radionuclides, most of which have half-lives ranging from 2 to 50 hr, are produced in the low-flux reactors, in support of basic medical research

  12. Simulation of radionuclide transport in U.S. agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.D.; Baes, C.F. III.

    1982-01-01

    Because of the recent concern about the impact of energy technologies on man and related health effects, there has emerged a need for models to calculate or predict the effects of radionuclides on man. A general overview is presented of a model that calculates the ingrowth of radionuclides into man's food chain. The FORTRAN IV computer program TERRA, Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides in Agriculture, simulates the build-up of radionuclides in soil, four plant food compartments, in meat and milk from beef, and in the livestock food compartments that cause radionuclide build-up in milk and meat from beef. A large data set of spatially oriented parameters has been developed in conjunction with TERRA. This direct-access data set is called SITE, Specific Information on the Terrestrial Environment, and contains 35 parameters for each of 3525 half-degree longitude-latitude cells which define the lower 48 states. TERRA and SITE are used together as a package for determining radionuclide concentrations in man's food anywhere within the conterminous 48 states due to atmospheric releases

  13. Assessment of the important radionuclides in nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1985-10-01

    The relative importance of the various radionuclides contained in nuclear waste has been assessed by consideration of (1) the quantity of each radionuclide present, (2) the Environmental Protection Agency's release limits for radionuclides, (3) how retardation processes such as solubility and sorption affect radionuclie transport, and (4) the physical and chemical forms of radionuclides in the waste. Three types of waste were reviewed: spent fuel, high-level waste, and defense high-level waste. Conditions specific to the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project potential site at Yucca Mountain were used to describe radionuclide transport. The actinides Am, Pu, Np, and U were identified as the waste elements for which solubility and sorption data were most urgently needed. Other important waste elements were identified as Sr, Cs, C, Ni, Zr, Tc, Th, Ra, and Sn. Under some conditions, radionuclides of three elements (C, Tc, and I) may have high solubility and negligible sorption. The potential for transport of some waste elements (C and I) in the gas phase must also be evaluated for the Yucca Mountain Site. 12 refs., 17 tabs

  14. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  15. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gaseous or volatile radionuclide or a radionuclide-labeled aerosol and permit it to be respired by the patient during nuclear medicine ventilatory tests (testing process of exchange between the lungs and the...

  16. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10 6 /yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs

  17. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  18. Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1982-11-01

    The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions

  19. Online estimation of radionuclide transportation in water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Jing Zhang; Li-Sheng Hu

    2017-01-01

    Transportation evaluation of the radionuclide waste discharged from nuclear power plants is an essential licensing issue, especially for inland sites. Basically, the dynamics of radionuclide transportation are nonlinear and time-varying. Motivated by its time-consuming computation, the work proposed an online estimation method for the radionuclide waste in water surface. After extracting the nonlinearity of factors influencing radionuclide transportation, the method utilizes transfer function and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models to perform deterministic and probabilistic estimations. It turns out that, the resulting predictions show high accuracy and can optimize the online discharge management of radioactive waste for nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  1. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  2. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  3. The fate and importance of radionuclides produced in nuclear events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, B; Anspaugh, L; Chertok, R; Gofman, J; Harrison, F; Heft, R; Koranda, J; Ng, Y; Phelps, P; Potter, G; Tamplin, A [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Some of the major program at the Bio-Medical Division concerned with the fate and importance of the fission products, the radionuclides induced in the device materials, the radionuclides induced in the environment surrounding the device, and the tritium produced in Plowshare cratering events will be discussed. These programs include (1) critical unknowns in predicting organ and body burdens from radionuclides produced in cratering events; (2) the analysis with a high-resolution solid state gamma ray spectrometer of radionuclides in complex biological and environmental samples; (3) the characterization of radioactive particles from cratering detonation; (4) the biological availability to beagles, pigs and goats of radionuclides in Plowshare debris; (5) the biological availability to aquatic animals of radionuclides in Plowshare and other nuclear debris and the biological turnover of critical nuclides in specific aquatic animals; (6) the biological availability of Plowshare and other nuclear debris radionuclides to dairy cows and the transplacental transport of debris radionuclides in the dairy cow; (7) the persistence and behavior of radionuclides, particularly tritium, at sites of Plowshare and other nuclear detonations; and (8) somatic effects of Low Dose Radiation: Chromosome studies. (author)

  4. The fate and importance of radionuclides produced in nuclear events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.; Anspaugh, L.; Chertok, R.; Gofman, J.; Harrison, F.; Heft, R.; Koranda, J.; Ng, Y.; Phelps, P.; Potter, G.; Tamplin, A.

    1969-01-01

    Some of the major program at the Bio-Medical Division concerned with the fate and importance of the fission products, the radionuclides induced in the device materials, the radionuclides induced in the environment surrounding the device, and the tritium produced in Plowshare cratering events will be discussed. These programs include (1) critical unknowns in predicting organ and body burdens from radionuclides produced in cratering events; (2) the analysis with a high-resolution solid state gamma ray spectrometer of radionuclides in complex biological and environmental samples; (3) the characterization of radioactive particles from cratering detonation; (4) the biological availability to beagles, pigs and goats of radionuclides in Plowshare debris; (5) the biological availability to aquatic animals of radionuclides in Plowshare and other nuclear debris and the biological turnover of critical nuclides in specific aquatic animals; (6) the biological availability of Plowshare and other nuclear debris radionuclides to dairy cows and the transplacental transport of debris radionuclides in the dairy cow; (7) the persistence and behavior of radionuclides, particularly tritium, at sites of Plowshare and other nuclear detonations; and (8) somatic effects of Low Dose Radiation: Chromosome studies. (author)

  5. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E.; Wobber, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Radiopharmaceuticals and other compounds labelled with short-lived radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals and Other Compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides covers through both review and contributed articles the potential applications and developments in labeling with short-lived radionuclides whose use is restricted to institutions with accelerators. The book discusses the current and potential use of generator-produced radionuclides as well as other short-lived radionuclides, and the problems of quality control of such labeled compounds. The book is useful to nuclear medicine physicians.

  7. Radionuclides incorporation in activated natural nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Parra

    2016-01-01

    Natural palygorskite nanotubes show suitable physical and chemical properties and characteristics to be use as potential nanosorbent and immobilization matrix for the concentration and solidification of radionuclides present in nuclear wastes. In the development process of materials with sorption properties for the incorporation and subsequent immobilization of radionuclides, the most important steps are related with the generation of active sites simultaneously to the increase of the specific surface area and suitable heat treatment to producing the structural folding. This study evaluated the determining parameters and conditions for the activation process of the natural palygorskite nanotubes aiming at the sorption of radionuclides in the nanotubes structure and subsequent evaluation of the parameters involve in the structural folding by heat treatments. The optimized results about the maximum sorption capacity of nickel in activated natural nanotubes show that these structures are apt and suitable for incorporation of radionuclides similar to nickel. By this study is verified that the optimization of the acid activation process is fundamental to improve the sorption capacities for specifics radionuclides by activated natural nanotubes. Acid activation condition optimized maintaining structural integrity was able to remove around 33.3 wt.% of magnesium cations, equivalent to 6.30·10 -4 g·mol -1 , increasing in 42.8% the specific surface area and incorporating the same molar concentration of nickel present in the liquid radioactive waste at 80 min. (author)

  8. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  9. Underground radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimz, G.J.; Thompson, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This document reviews results from a number of studies concerning underground migration of radionuclides from nuclear test cavities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Discussed are all cases known to the Department of Energy's Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program where radionuclides have been detected outside of the immediate vicinity of nuclear test cavities that are identifiable as the-source of the nuclides, as well as cases where radionuclides might have been expected and were intentionally sought but not fixed. There are nine locations where source-identifiable radionuclide migration has been detected, one where migration was purposely induced by pumping, and three where migration might be expected but was not found. In five of the nine cases of non-induced migration, the inferred migration mechanism is prompt fracture injection during detonation. In the other four cases, the inferred migration mechanism is water movement. In only a few of the reviewed cases can the actual migration mechanism be stated with confidence, and the attempt has been made to indicate the level of confidence for each case. References are cited where more information may be obtained. As an aid to future study, this document concludes with a brief discussion of the aspects of radionuclide migration that, as the present review indicates, are not yet understood. A course of action is suggested that would produce a better understanding of the phenomenon of radionuclide migration

  10. Monte Carlo verification of polymer gel dosimetry applied to radionuclide therapy: a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gear, J I; Partridge, M; Flux, G D; Charles-Edwards, E

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the dosimetric performance of the polymer gel dosimeter 'Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin, initiated by Copper' and its suitability for quality assurance and analysis of I-131-targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry. Four batches of gel were manufactured in-house and sets of calibration vials and phantoms were created containing different concentrations of I-131-doped gel. Multiple dose measurements were made up to 700 h post preparation and compared to equivalent Monte Carlo simulations. In addition to uniformly filled phantoms the cross-dose distribution from a hot insert to a surrounding phantom was measured. In this example comparisons were made with both Monte Carlo and a clinical scintigraphic dosimetry method. Dose-response curves generated from the calibration data followed a sigmoid function. The gels appeared to be stable over many weeks of internal irradiation with a delay in gel response observed at 29 h post preparation. This was attributed to chemical inhibitors and slow reaction rates of long-chain radical species. For this reason, phantom measurements were only made after 190 h of irradiation. For uniformly filled phantoms of I-131 the accuracy of dose measurements agreed to within 10% when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. A radial cross-dose distribution measured using the gel dosimeter compared well to that calculated with Monte Carlo. Small inhomogeneities were observed in the dosimeter attributed to non-uniform mixing of monomer during preparation. However, they were not detrimental to this study where the quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution of polymer gel dosimetry were far superior to that calculated using scintigraphy. The difference between Monte Carlo and gel measurements was of the order of a few cGy, whilst with the scintigraphic method differences of up to 8 Gy were observed. A manipulation technique is also presented which allows 3D scintigraphic dosimetry measurements to be compared to polymer

  11. SU-G-TeP3-08: Pre-Clinical Radionuclide Therapy Dosimetry in Several Pediatric Cancer Xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, I; Otto, M; Weichert, J; Baiu, D; Bednarz, B [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The focus of this work is to perform Monte Carlo-based dosimetry for several pediatric cancer xenografts in mice treated with a novel radiopharmaceutical {sup 131}I-CLR1404. Methods: Four mice for each tumor cell line were injected with 8–13 µCi/g of the {sup 124}124I-CLR1404. PET/CT images of each individual mouse were acquired at 5–6 time points over the span of 96–170 hours post-injection. Following acquisition, the images were co-registered, resampled, rescaled, corrected for partial volume effects (PVE), and masked. For this work the pre-treatment PET images of {sup 124}I-CLR1404 were used to predict therapeutic doses from {sup 131}I-CLR1404 at each time point by assuming the same injection activity and accounting for the difference in physical decay rates. Tumors and normal tissues were manually contoured using anatomical and functional images. The CT and the PET images were used in the Geant4 (v9.6) Monte Carlo simulation to define the geometry and source distribution, respectively. The total cumulated absorbed dose was calculated by numerically integrating the dose-rate at each time point over all time on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Results: Spatial distributions of the absorbed dose rates and dose volume histograms as well as mean, minimum, maximum, and total dose values for each ROI were generated for each time point. Conclusion: This work demonstrates how mouse-specific MC-based dosimetry could potentially provide more accurate characterization of efficacy of novel radiopharmaceuticals in radionuclide therapy. This work is partially funded by NIH grant CA198392.

  12. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is an... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system... include patient and equipment supports, component parts, treatment planning computer programs, and...

  13. The contamination of the oceans by anthropogenic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Cunha, Ieda I.L.

    1998-01-01

    Several hundreds of artificial of artificial radionuclides are produced as the result of human activities, such as the applications of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, testing of nuclear weapons and nuclear accidents. Many of these radionuclides are short-lived and decay quickly after their production, but some of them are longer-lived and are released into the environment. From the radiological point of view the most important radionuclides are cesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium-239, due to their chemical and nuclear characteristics. The two first radioisotopes present long half life (30 and 28 years), high fission yields and chemical behaviour similar to potassium and calcium, respectively. No stable element exists for plutonium-239, that presents high radiotoxity, longh half-life (24000 years) and some marine organisms accumulate plutonium at high levels. The radionuclides introduced into marine environment undergo various physical, chemical and biological processes taking place in the sea. These processes may be due to physical, dispersion or complicated chemical and biological interactions of the radionuclides with inorganic and organic suspend matter, variety of living organism, bottom sediments, etc. The behaviour of radionuclides in the sea depends primarily on their chemical properties, but it may also be influenced by properties of interacting matrices and other environmental factors. The major route of radiation exposure of man to artificial radionuclides occuring in the marine environment is through ingestion of radiologically contamined marine organisms. This paper summarizes the main sources of contamination in the marine environment and presents an overview covering the oceanic distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in the FAO regions. A great number of measurements of artificial radioclides have been carried out on various marine environmental samples in different oceans over the world, being cesium-137 the most widely measured

  14. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  15. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  16. Radionuclide determination of right and left ventricular stroke volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei Feng; Roubin, G S; Choong, C Y.P.; Harris, P J; Flether, P J; Kelly, D T; Uren, R F; Hutton, B F

    1985-03-01

    The relationship between radionuclide and thermodilution measurement of stroke volumes (SV) was investigated in 30 patients without valvular regurgitation or intracardiac shunt (group A) at rest and during exercise. Both attenuated radionuclide right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) SV measurements correlated well with the SV determined by the thermodilution method (r = 0.87 and r = 0.93, all P < 0.001). The reliability of the radionuclide method to estimate SV was evaluated prospectively in two additional groups of patients. In 11 patients without valvular regurgitation or intracardiac shunt (group B) the radionuclide RVSV and LVSV closely approximated to thermodilution SV at rest and during exercise. In 15 patients with aortic regurgitation (group C) the radionuclide stroke volume ratio correlated well with the angiographic regurgitant fraction. Thus, both RVSV and LVSV and the severity of aortic regurgitation can be reliably measured with gated radionuclide ventriculography.

  17. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified

  18. Radionuclide cisternographic findings in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Jae Seung; Ryu, Jin Sook; Shin, Jung Woo; Im, Joo Hyuk; Lee, Myoung Chong; Jung, Sung Joo; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography may be helpful in understanding pathophysiology of postural headache and low CSF pressure in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The purpose of this study was to characterize radionuclide cisternogrpahic findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The study population consists of 15 patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Diagnosis was based on their clinical symptoms and results of lumbar puncture. All patients underwent radionuclide cisternography following injection of 111 to 222 MBq of Tc-99m DTPA into the lumbar subarachnoid space. Sequential images were obtained between 1/2 hour and 24 hour after the injection of Tc-99m DTPA. Radioactivity of the bladder, soft tissue uptake, migration of radionuclide in the subarachnoid space, and extradural leakage of radionuclide were evaluated according to the scan time. Radionuclide cisternogram showed delayed migration of radionuclide into the cerebral convexity (14/15), increased soft tissue uptake (11/15), and early visualization of bladder activity at 30 min (6/10) and 2 hr (13/13). Cisternography also demonstrated leakage site of CSF in 4 cases and 2 of these were depicted at 30min. Epidural blood patch was done in 11 patients and headache was improved in all cases. The characteristics findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension were delayed migration of radionuclide and early visualization of the soft tissue and bladder activity. These scintigraphic findings suggest that CSF leakage rather than increased CSF absorption or decreased production may be the main pathophysiology of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Early and multiple imaging including the bladder and soft tissue is required to observe the entire dynamics of radionuclide migration

  19. Fire fighting in a radionuclide laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, H.

    1991-01-01

    A fire-brigade was called to a laboratory which held a handling licence for the radionuclides C-14, T, P-32, Se-75, Mo-99, and S-35. The fire-brigade was unaware of a release of radionuclides. Therefore they used respiratory equipment, and all persons present were subsequently examined for contamination. (DG) [de

  20. Permissible annual depositions and radionuclide concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.A.; Golovko, M.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    It is established that it necessary to take into account the other ways of radionuclide intake apart from the inhalation one when determining the standards for radionuclide contamination of the atmospheric air. Whereby it is proposed to standardize annual depositions rather than permissible concentration in the atmospheric air for the ways related to radionuclide releases on the ground surface, which is explained by ambiguity of their dry deposition rate from the air. Formulae and results of calculation of standard characteristics are presented. The permissible radionuclide depositions, related to the intake through food chains are calculated with account