WorldWideScience

Sample records for radionuclide stations based

  1. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring station operating regime influence on radionuclide detection sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    International Monitoring System (IMS) stations are being deployed worldwide in support of the Comprehensive [Nuclear] Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The highly sensitive radionuclide monitoring stations regularly sample airborne radionuclide particulates to determine whether fission products are present in the atmosphere that may be indicative of a nuclear weapons test. Standards have been set for these stations regarding their operation regime and the minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for specific radionuclides likely to be present after a nuclear weapons test. This study uses actual CTBT monitoring data to relate a subset of the specified operational standards with the listed MDC limits. It is determined that a relationship exists between the specified operational regime and the MDC values. Since the background radioactivity is largely a function of the radon and thoron progeny, longer decay operational regimes allow for a reduction in the background. For longer lived radionuclides, this corresponds to a reduction in MDC. (author)

  2. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A previous assessment of the radiological consequences of the emission of natural radionuclides from coal-fired power stations had indicated that 210 Pb was the main contributor to the maximum individual dose. This dose arose from the consumption of foodstuffs particularly cattle liver contaminated by deposited fly ash. Uncertainty surrounded some of the factors used in the assessment, and a limited environmental monitoring programme was recommended to improve it. An experiment has been performed to measure the specific activities of 210 Pb and 210 Po in livers from cattle that had grazed in a field near Didcot power station. Livers from cattle in the Cotswold region have been measured for comparison. The specific activities of 210 Pb and 210 Po in soil and grass samples from both areas have also been measured at three-monthly intervals over a year. No statistically significant increases were observed in the 210 Pb and 210 Po levels in liver, soil or grass samples which could be attributed to the operation of the power station. Transfer coefficients for 210 Pb from forage to liver were about two orders of magnitude less than that used in the original assessment, and the transfer coefficients for 210 Po about a factor a two less. (orig.)

  3. Detection limit improvements forecasted at CTBTO IMS radionuclide stations based on size separation of aerosols by aerodynamic diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegalski, S.; Ezekoye, O.A.; Pena, J.M.; Waye, S.; Pickering, M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies show that aerosols with natural activity have an aerodynamic diameter in the range of 0.1 to 1 μm. In contrast, nuclear explosions generally produce radioactive aerosols with aerodynamic diameters less than 0.1 μm and greater than 1 μm. These differences in aerosol sizes are quite fortuitous because they allow aerosol aerodynamic diameter to be utilized as a physical property to separate aerosols of natural origin from those produced in a nuclear explosion. Data collected in Austin, TX and at U.S. CTBT IMS radionuclide stations have been utilized to forecast detection limit improvements possible given an aerosol size separation capability. (author)

  4. Characterization of residual radionuclide contamination within and around commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Abel, K.H.; Thomas, C.W.; Lepel, E.A.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, W.V.; Carrick, L.C.; Leale, M.W.

    1985-07-01

    To provide a statistically valid data base for the residual radionuclide inventories in nuclear power stations, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was contracted to conduct an extensive sampling and measurements program at a number of nuclear power plants. This paper summarizes the results of the radionuclide characterization studies conducted at seven nuclear power stations from a decommissioning assessment viewpoint

  5. Measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere with a radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    A worldwide radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests has detected the anthropogenic radioactive materials released in the atmosphere due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant impacted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. After four months have passed since the accident occurred, most overseas stations do not detect the radionuclides of Fukushima origin any more. The Takasaki station in Japan, however, is still detecting them every day. This paper describes radionuclide monitoring stations and the network of them as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as the measurement results of radionuclide particulates and radioactive isotopes of xenon released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with the monitoring network. (J.P.N.)

  6. Evaluating the radiation environment around a nuclear power station with unmonitored radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarev, A.A.; Dibobes, I.K.; Pyuskyulan, K.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the radiation monitoring system at (RMS) at the Armenian nuclear power station; the environmental monitoring program includes measuring the gamma radiation around the station, determining radionuclide contents in air and fallout, and also in surface water and ground water, in water plants and bottom sediments, in soil and plants and also in local agricultural products. The RMS monitors gas-aerosol releases and effluents from the station. The radius of the monitored zone is 25 km. The gamma radiation is measured by IKS dosemeters and SRP-68-01 portable instruments. The air is monitored by six stationary aspriation systems at distances of 1, 5, 6, 11, 14, 15 and 50 km and 28 planchette cells. The RMS records virtually all the mean monthly and mean annual fluctuations in the global background. In seven years of operation at the Armenian station, only Ca 137 and Sr 90 from global fallout together with Be 7 of cosmogenic origin have been observed in air apart from two cases. In 1981, air samples taken with the aspirators and combined over a quarter showed Ce 141, Ce 144, Ru 106, Ru 103, Nb 95 and Zr 95. The concentrations of these are presented

  7. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station. [/sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb levels in cattle livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Crick, M J [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1982-11-01

    Previous measurements have shown enhanced levels of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb from fly ash deposited in the environment around old coal-fired power stations. Preliminary results are presented for levels of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb in liver samples from cattle which had grazed for two to three years in a field adjacent to a modern power station. No significant difference in the levels of these natural radionuclides was found compared to liver samples obtained from cattle in a control area.

  8. Assessment of natural radionuclide content in deposits from drinking water purification station and excess lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, S.A.M.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Tammam, M.; Elsaman, R.

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of natural radionuclide in deposits samples taken from Thirty-six drinking water purification stations have been measured and determined using gamma-ray spectrometry system using (sodium iodide NaI (Tl) detector). Knowledge of radioactivity present in deposits of drinking water purification station enables one to assess any possible radiological hazard to humankind by the use of such materials. The natural radionuclide ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) contents have been analyzed for the deposits samples with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard nature. The Absorbed dose rate, The annual effective dose equivalent, Radium equivalent activities, Hazard indices (H ex and H in ), Gamma index, Excess lifetime cancer risk and Annual gonadal dose equivalent were calculated for investigated area. Results of the study could serve as an important baseline radiometric data for future epidemiological studies and monitoring initiatives in the study area.

  9. The study of specific activity and effect of gamma ray from natural radionuclide to the environment outside Sultan Abdul Aziz Plant Station, Kapar, Klang, Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Amar Fikri Wan Ali

    2012-01-01

    Waste resulting from coal combustion process can result in increasing the specific activity of natural radionuclide such as 238 U, 232 Th , 226 Ra and 40 K. Following combustion, radionuclide focused on fly ash, some escape the filtration system in the chimney that causes the gamma ray exposure dose increases. The objective of this study was to calculate the specific activity of natural radionuclide and identifying the gamma ray exposure dose outside the Stesen Janakuasa Elektric Station of Sultan Abdul Aziz further examine the risk of gamma ray exposure dose and specific activity of natural radionuclide to the ecosystem because the station is located close to residential areas and local residents migratory bird stopover. The samples studied are soil, water and sediment that are outside the station. Samples taken with the correct procedures then treated and stored about a month before counting. Gamma ray exposure dose for the seven stations studied are between 0.330 μSv/ h - 1.20 μSv/ h. While the range of specific activities obtained for the 40 K, 238 U, 232 Th and 226 Ra were 201 Bq/ kg - 468 Bq/ kg, 0.480 Bq/ kg - 2.57 Bq/ kg, 12.9 Bq/ kg - 74.5 Bq/ kg and 6.64 Bq/ kg - 11.7 Bq/ kg. While the sediment samples were 216 Bq/ kg - 465 Bq/ kg, 18.1 Bq/ kg - 4.43 Bq/ kg, 24.8 Bq/ kg - 65.3 Bq/ kg, 8.53 Bq/ kg - 11.2 Bq/ kg. For water samples, the specific range of their specific activities are 10.5 Bq/ L - 12.1 Bq/ L, 1.40 Bq/ L - 1.63 Bq/ L, 1.57 Bq/ L - 1.65 Bq/ L and 0 Bq/ L - 1.14 Bq/ L. (author)

  10. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  11. Status of radionuclide monitoring stations in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ANSTO) first became involved in the monitoring of radionuclides in the environment in 1955 when assessing the effects on the Australian population of the radioactive releases associated with the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. (At that time ARPANSA was known as the Commonwealth X-ray and Radium Laboratory). The United Kingdom had tested weapons in Australia in 1952 and 1953 and in August 1954 entered into an agreement with the Australian Government to establish a test range at Maralinga in South Australia. The government established a Maralinga Safety Committee and through this Committee ARPANSA became involved in the surveillance of radioactive fallout over Australia. The primary function of this surveillance was to ensure that the nuclear trials would not adversely effect the health of the Australian population. A program was established to reliably assess the deposition of radioactive fallout over Australia so that exposure to the population could be estimated. This task was performed in conjunction with the Bureau of Meteorology and the Department of Supply. Measurements were made on daily samples of fallout dawn from 10 centres throughout Australia. A low level radiochemical facility was established in 1961 for the measurement of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in environmental samples so that the long term distribution of fallout could be tracked. In the 1960s the program was extended to measure fresh fission products reaching Australia from atmospheric testing in other countries, usually originating from test sites in the northern hemisphere. The sampling program that was established was designed so that it could be rapidly expanded when a new testing program started. At this time a permanent fallout monitoring network was established around Australia using high volume air samplers capable of sampling up to 10000 m 3 per week. Approximately six stations have been operated at any one time but the

  12. Estimation of radionuclide releases in atmosphere from Cernavoda NPP based on continuous gaseous effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobric, E.; Murgoci, S.; Popescu, I.; Ibadula, R.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring of gaseous effluents from Cernavoda NPP is performed to assess the environmental impact of the plant operation. The results of the monitoring program are used to evaluate the population doses in order to ensure that the emissions of radionuclides in air are below regulatory limits and radiation doses are maintained ALARA. It complements, but is independent from the Operational Environmental Monitoring Program for Cernavoda NPP. Gaseous effluent monitors provide continuous indication of the radioactivity content in atmospheric emissions. Except for noble gases, these monitors also collect samples for later detailed analysis in the station Health Physics Laboratory. This paper presents the main equipment and the results of the gaseous effluents monitoring program in order to assess the impact of Cernavoda NPP operation and to predict the future releases as function of radionuclides concentrations in CANDU systems, based on the identified trends.(author)

  13. Personnel dosimetry in internal radiation exposure by excretory radionuclide measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.; Bruk, G.Ya.; Korelina, N.F.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Repin, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The collaboration with the SAAS resulted in the development of a mathematical method to calculate radiation doses in human tissues attributed to inhaled radionuclides concerning their retention dynamics in the respiratory system and their uptake into the blood as well as the metabolic pathways in the organs. 'Sanep-stations' and radiation protection service elaborated nomograms for the determination of the commitment doses in the critical organs based on the radionuclide content of a 24-hours urinalysis without intermediate calculations. Recommendations for the use of the method and the nomograms for various radionuclides (solubility classes D and N with MAAD of 1 and 10 μm) are given in the methodological document: 'Indirect dosimetry of inhaled radionuclides in workers'. A calculation method for the annual dose of internal irradiation in tritium workers is also cited

  14. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  15. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  16. Base Station Performance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  17. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  18. Volumes of radionuclide into the basins of water while the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station and a specifics of radiation situation development in the post-accidents periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standritchuk, O.Z.; Maksin, V.I.; Goncharuk, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    There was stated total content of radionuclide pollution, rejected to the environment in consequence of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, specifics of qualitative and quantitative change which supposes the division of post-accident period into five conventional post-accident periods. There were given the data about the levels of main fragmentation radionuclide activity in river water, atmospheric precipitation and sewage of the objects of sanitary treatment in May 1986. According to these data there were estimated the volumes of radioactive pollution rejection to the Kiev basins of water (1.56 centre dot 10 10 Ku, that is equal to 144,57 kg of radionuclides or 3,67 % of their mass in reactor) and their going into the Dnieper river. There was shown an interconnection of all season state of water basins which are near to Chernobyl nuclear power station, with specific development of radiation situation in them after the accident. There was proposed a probated variant of improvement of the traditional technology of drinking water preparation from the open water source within 1-2 post-accident periods

  19. Development of the Arctic radionuclide monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Phillips, G.W.; Aakenes, U.R.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, the world has learned about the dumping of nuclear reactors and other waste into the Arctic seas by the former Soviet Union. Most of the information on the present levels of radioactivity in the region has been obtained by oceanographic expeditions conducted during the brief Arctic summers. Year-round monitoring of the movement of radio-activity during dynamic seasonal and episodic chances is hampered by the difficulties caused by sea ice, logistics and communication constraints associated with deployment and maintenance of monitoring equipment in this remote region. We have designed an autonomous station to measure the benthic gamma-ray emitting radioactivity for periods of at least one year. The station is capable of detecting a 30 Bq/m 3 increase in the 137 Cs activity in a 24 hour period. After a year-long deployment, the station releases its anchor and rises to the surface to transmit the accumulated spectra and oceanographic data via an Argos satellite link. The design and performance characteristics of the prototype station will be discussed

  20. Development of the Arctic radionuclide monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. E.; Aakenes, U. R.; McCoy, K.; Phillips, G. W.

    1997-06-01

    The world has learned about the dumping of nuclear reactors and other waste into the Arctic seas by the former Soviet Union. Most of the information on the present levels of radioactivity in the region has been obtained by oceanographic expeditions conducted during the brief Arctic summers. Year-round monitoring of the movement of radioactivity during dynamic seasonal and episodic changes is hampered by the difficulties caused by sea ice, logistics and communication constraints associated with deployment and maintenance of monitoring equipment in this remote region. The authors have designed an autonomous station to measure the benthic gamma-ray emitting radioactivity for periods of at least one year. The station is capable of detecting a 30 Bq/m/sup 3/ increase in the /sup 137/Cs activity in a 24 hour period. After a year-long deployment, the station releases its anchor and rises to the surface to transmit the accumulated spectra and oceanographic data via an Argos satellite link. The design and performance characteristics of the prototype station are discussed.

  1. Sorbent application on the base of chitosan for radionuclides separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivarciova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste contains enormous amounts of radionuclides, which pollute the environment and can cause serious chemical and radiological toxicity threats to lower and higher living organism. Alternative process for the removal of heavy metal ions and radionuclides is sorption, which utilizes various certain natural materials of biological origin. Amino-polysaccharide-based sorbents e.g. chitosan represent suitable materials for binding of metal oxo-anion species because of numerous functional groups -OH and -NH_2 because of their suitable H-bond donor and acceptor sites. The sorbents on the base chitosan prepared through chemical modification were used for removal and separation certain radionuclides from aqueous media. The aim of this work was the study of physicochemical properties of prepared sorbents. The specific surface of sorbents was characterized with BET methods. Point of zero charge was identified with potentiometric titration. The size of particles and shape of sorbents were determined by scanning electron microscope. The sorption experiments for selected radionuclides were conducted under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of various parameters on the sorption "9"9"mTc, "6"0Co and the effect of pH on the separation of radionuclide mixture in the solution were studied. (author)

  2. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-10-22

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12-23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models.

  3. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric 137Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12–23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric 137Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models. PMID:25335435

  4. Quarterly report on measurements of radionuclides in ground level air in Sweden. Third quarter 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederstroem, C.; Arntsing, R.; Lindh, K.

    2005-04-01

    Filtering of ground level air is performed weekly at six different locations in Sweden: Kiruna, Umeaa, Gaevle, Ursvik, Visby and Ljungbyhed. The filters are pressed and the contents of different radionuclides are measured by gamma spectroscopy. Precipitation is also collected at four of the stations: Kiruna, Gaevle, Ursvik and Ljungbyhed, the samples are ashed and the contents of radionuclides measured. The levels of 7 Be and 137 Cs in air and deposition are presented for the different stations. Other anthropogenic radionuclides detected, if any, are also presented

  5. Communication Base Station Log Analysis Based on Hierarchical Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication base stations generate massive data every day, these base station logs play an important value in mining of the business circles. This paper use data mining technology and hierarchical clustering algorithm to group the scope of business circle for the base station by recording the data of these base stations.Through analyzing the data of different business circle based on feature extraction and comparing different business circle category characteristics, which can choose a suitable area for operators of commercial marketing.

  6. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station was conducted during September 18 to 21, 1998, and encompassed a 53.1-square-kilometer area. The survey was conducted by the U. S. Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The purpose of the survey was to measure and map the general exposure-rate levels that existed within the survey area and to define the areas of man-made radionuclide activity. The inferred exposure rates were generally uniform and typical of the natural background radiation, which varied from less than 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour. Enhanced exposure rates, not attributable to natural background, and activity from man-made radionuclides were detected over the power station. The detected man-made radionuclide activity was due to the presence of cobalt-60, which is a nuclear activation product, and cesium-137, which is a long-lived fission product. The detected man-made radionuclides were generally consistent with those expected from routine plant operations. Areas outside of the power station boundaries were found to be free of any detectable man-made radionuclides. A series of ground-based, pressurized ionization chamber exposure-rate measurements were acquired at four locations within the survey boundaries. The results of these measurements were compared and found to be within 5 to 30 percent of the corresponding 1998 inferred aerial exposure-rate data

  7. Quarterly report on measurements of radionuclides in ground level air in Sweden. Third quarter 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederstroem, C.; Arntsing, R.; Vintersved, I.

    2002-01-01

    Filtering of ground level air is performed weekly at seven different locations in Sweden: Kiruna, Umeaa, Gaevle, Ursvik, Grindsjoen, Visby and Ljungbyhed. The filters are compressed and the contents of different radionuclides are measured by gamma spectroscopy. Precipitation is also collected at four of the stations: Kiruna, Gaevle, Ursvik and Ljungbyhed, the samples are ashed and the contents of radionuclides measured. The levels of 7 Be and 137 Cs in air and deposition are presented for the different stations. Other anthropogenic radionuclides detected, if any, are also presented

  8. The IMS radionuclide network of the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medici, Fausto

    2001-01-01

    A world-wide radionuclide network consisting of 80 stations is under establishment in the framework of the comprehensive nuclear test-ban treaty (CTBT). These monitoring stations are essential for the verification regime of the treaty and they will be able to monitor the airborne particulate as well as xenon isotopes that are produced by nuclear tests. The equipment, the operation and the locations of these stations are chosen in such a way to provide a very high confidence of the compliance of the treaty.

  9. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... base station or a small control station. (a) Except for a GMRS system licensed to a non-individual, one or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any point...

  10. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  11. Natural radionuclides in select matrices of terrestrial food chain around Kudankulam nuclear power station, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, E.M.; Wesley, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Natural radionuclides entering the food chain are mostly derived from the soil. There is a variation in soil radionuclide content in different geographic regions. Uptake of radionuclides by plants also varies from species to species and depends on many factors. Human food and animal feed derived from such regions may have varying levels of radionuclides. Intake of food/feed will be reflected in the next consumer level of the food chain. Such studies are essential around a nuclear power plant where there can be exposure from natural as well as artificial radionuclides. In this study an effort was taken to study the intake and excretion of 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra levels along the soil-grass-cow pathway

  12. Radionuclide data bases available for bioaccumulation factors for freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Aquatic models currently in use for dose assessment simulate the transfer of radionuclides in aquatic environments and the transfer to man. In these models the assimilation of a radionuclide in aquatic biota is calculated by using a simple empirical relationship known as the bioaccumulation factor (BF) to represent the transfer of the radionuclide from water to organism. The purpose of this article is to review data bases that are available for BFs for freshwater biota and to identify the uncertainties associated with them. Data bases for raidoisotopes of Co, Cs, C, H, I, Pu, Ra, Ru, Sr, and U are reviewed. With the exception of ruthenium and carbon, the review is restricted to BFs determined for natural freshwater systems. Factors influencing the variability of BFs are identified, uncertainties associated with the validation of BFs are discussed, and some guidance is given for collecting data and measuring BFs

  13. RADBASE: A PC-based radionuclide data base for environmental site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundon, S.T.; Heger, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A personal computer-based code, RADBASE, is being developed as a tool for reviewing environmental risk data. RADBASE has been designed to display the properties of radionuclides encountered in environmental restoration programs. The code contains five major features that display (a) physical properties, (b) pathways and toxicity data, (c) means of production and common uses, (d) federal radiation protection standards and action levels, and (e) bibliographic information. The benefits of the radionuclide data base contained in this code include time efficiency and update capability. This code separates itself from similar codes on the basis of its interactive data files, windows environment, and content. The user must only be equipped with basic information on a site and possess a minimum amount of user knowledge to operate and access additional data applicable to the constituents at the site

  14. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  15. Dose assessment on natural radiation, natural radionuclide, and artificial radionuclide released by Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Furukawa, Masahide

    2012-01-01

    Various radionuclides are distributed in environmental materials such as soil, rock, and water. People are exposed every day to natural radiation. According to the UNSCEAR 2008 report, Sources of Ionizing Radiation, natural radiation sources are categorized as terrestrial gamma-rays, radon, cosmic rays and food. The effective dose from radon, thoron and its decay products is about 50% of all natural radiation exposure. Consciousness of the Japanese public toward radiation exposure has significantly increased since the start of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In this paper, the nationwide survey and dose estimation for terrestrial gamma-rays and radon are summarized. External dose from artificial radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident are also reported. (author)

  16. Water purification from radionuclides with using fibroid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R. A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purification waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, organic contamination is one of the important problems today. For solving this problem we have created three types of fibroid sorbents on the base of Polyester: cationic and anionic exchange and carbonic. Main properties of these sorbents are described in this article. For example characteristics of the sorbents for removing radionuclides Co-60,57, Zn-65, Sr-89,90, Cs-134,137, etc., radionuclides containing organic molecules M-P-32, M-I-131, M-Mo-99+Tc-99m, M-C-14, etc., heavy metal ions Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Pb, Cd, Cr, U, etc., organic molecules (pesticides, phenols, dioxin, benzene, toluene, etc.) were investigated. Influence of pH on percent removal, influence of K, Na and another ions concentrations in the liquid on the percent removal, decreasing of the saturation capacity from number of regeneration and another characteristics are described. Static exchange capacity of the cationic sorbents is 1-2 mg-equ/g and anionic - 0.5-1 mg-equ/g. Capacity of the carbonic sorbents for benzene is 100 mg/g. Time of chemical balance setting is 1-2 s. The sorbents are effective in removing the low concentrations of contamination from the water (lower than 100-200 mg/l) and the air (lower than 100 mg/m 3 ). The use of sorbents in drinking water filters and mini-systems is described. The industrial water purification system consists of coagulating unit, sorbent unit and disinfectant unit. The systems are used in atomic power stations, electroplating plants, matches plants, leather and skin treating plants, car-washing stations, etc

  17. Arrival of radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Pérez, M.; Ramos-López, R.; Perestelo, Nayra R.; Duarte-Rodriguez, X.; Bustos, J.J.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Hernández-Armas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two weeks after the accident at the Fukushima-Daichi nuclear power plant, 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activities were measured in two different stations located in Tenerife (Canary Islands), situated at 300 (FIMERALL) and 2400 (IZAÑA) m.a.s.l, respectively. Peak measured activity concentrations were: 1.851 mBq/m3 (131I); 0.408 mBq/m3 (137Cs) and 0.382 mBq/m3 (134Cs). The activities measured at the FIMERALL station were always higher than at IZAÑA station, suggesting that the radioactive plume arrived to the island associated with low altitude air masses. Simulations of potential dispersion of the radioactive cloud (137Cs) after the nuclear accident in reactor Fukushima I show that radioactive pollution reached remote regions such as the Canary Islands in the Eastern subtropical North Atlantic. The corresponding effective dose to the local population was 1.17 nSv, a value less than one millionth of the annual limit for the general public. Therefore, there was no risk to public health. - Highlights: ► Arrival of radionuclides to Tenerife following the accident of Fukushima. ► The atmospheric concentration of radionuclides was always higher at low altitude. ► After reaching the peak concentration a sharp decrease of radionuclides was observed. ► Air mass forward trajectory analysis confirms the potential arrival of radionuclides to Tenerife.

  18. A basis for modelling of radionuclide flow in the Forsmark biotest basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notter, M.; Snoeijs, P.; Argaerde, L.; Elert, M.

    1987-01-01

    Certain radionuclides are discharged together with the cooling water of Forsmark power station. Of these, Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65 and Ag-110 m are easily detectable in the environment. This report gives a conceptual five-compartment model for the flows of radionuclides within the basin ecosystem. The available data from biological and radio-ecological investigations in the biotest basin were used to quantify the amounts of radionuclides in each of the reservoirs. The subsystem water-sediment-primary producers was pointed out to be the most interesting part of the ecosystem for studying radionuclides with mathematical modelling in the future. (orig./DG)

  19. Critical pathway studies for selected radionuclides. Part of a coordinated programme on environmental monitoring for radiological protection in Asia and the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.

    1980-04-01

    The programme carried out critical pathway studies for selected radionuclides ( 60 Co, 63 Ni, 59 Fe, 54 Mn, sup(110m)Ag, 106 Ru and 144 Ce) and assessed population exposure in the vicinity of Tarapur Atomic Power Station. The following topics are covered under the programme. (i) Demographic study of dietary habits and consumption data for Tarapur population. (ii) Concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in food products. (iii) Determination of radionuclides in sea water, silt, marine algae and marine organisms at Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) Site. (iv) Behaviour of radionuclides released to marine environment. (v) Evaluation of critical exposure pathway. (vi) Population exposure in the vicinity of Tarapur Atomic Power Station

  20. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-01-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m 3 (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m 3 (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 μBq m -3 and 0.2 μBq m -3 for 137 Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m 3 per week and lowers the detection limit to -3 for 137 Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine)

  1. The results of artificial radionuclides monitoring in the Baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrauskiene, N.; Lukinskiene, M; Zemaitiene, G.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term radionuclides volume activity (v.a.) monitoring (1976-1990) data showed that measurement results obtained in steady observation station give reliable information of the coastal area of the Baltic sea radioactive equilibrium between atmosphere and surface water was observed in the coastal zone. Chernobyl Power Plant accident influenced upon the Baltic sea coastal water by radionuclides 137 Cs and 144 Ce. Radionuclide 90 Sr volume activity was practically unchangerable. The mechanism of radionuclides fallout from atmosphere are various. lt can be illustrated by 137 Cs and 144 Ce a.v. structure field variations in open sea and coastal zone near Juodkrante. The Baltic sea inhomogeneous contamination by radionuclide 137 Cs in 1988-1990 leads to equalization of 137 Cs v.a. in the surface waters and it causes v.a. increase in coastal waters. (author)

  2. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station

  3. Effect of pH on the release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resins collected from operating nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small-scale waste--form specimens collected during solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station were leach-tested and subjected to compressive strength testing in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's ''Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1). Samples of untreated resin waste collected from each solidification vessel before the solidification process were analyzed for concentrations of radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to determine the quantities of these chemicals in the waste-form specimens. The chelating agents included oxalic, citric, and picolinic acids. In order to determine the effect of leachant chemical composition and pH on the stability and leachability of the waste forms, waste-form specimens were leached in various leachants. Results of this study indicate that differences in pH do not affect releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms, but that differences in leachant chemistry and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. Also, this study indicates that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents are similar for waste- form specimens that decomposed and those that retained their general physical form. 36 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs

  4. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L

    1984-06-15

    An experiment was carried out to measure the specific activity of Pb-210 and Po-210 in livers from cattle that had grazed in a field near Didcot coal-fired power station. Livers from cattle in the Cotswold region were measured for comparison. The specific activities of Pb-210 and Po-210 in soil and grass samples from both areas were also measured at 3-monthly intervals over a year. No statistically significant increases were observed in the Pb-210 and Po-210 levels in liver, soil or grass samples which could be attributed to the operation of the power station.

  5. Real-time radionuclide identification in γ-emitter mixtures based on spiking neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, C.; Bichler, O.; Lourenço, V.; Thiam, C.; Thévenin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Portal radiation monitors dedicated to the prevention of illegal traffic of nuclear materials at international borders need to deliver as fast as possible a radionuclide identification of a potential radiological threat. Spectrometry techniques applied to identify the radionuclides contributing to γ-emitter mixtures are usually performed using off-line spectrum analysis. As an alternative to these usual methods, a real-time processing based on an artificial neural network and Bayes’ rule is proposed for fast radionuclide identification. The validation of this real-time approach was carried out using γ-emitter spectra ( 241 Am, 133 Ba, 207 Bi, 60 Co, 137 Cs) obtained with a high-efficiency well-type NaI(Tl). The first tests showed that the proposed algorithm enables a fast identification of each γ-emitting radionuclide using the information given by the whole spectrum. Based on an iterative process, the on-line analysis only needs low-statistics spectra without energy calibration to identify the nature of a radiological threat. - Highlights: • A fast radionuclide identification algorithm applicable in spectroscopic portal monitors is presented. • The proposed algorithm combines a Bayesian sequential approach and a spiking neural network. • The algorithm was validated using the mixture of γ-emitter spectra provided by a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. • The radionuclide identification process is implemented using the whole γ-spectrum without energy calibration.

  6. Kinetic regularities of change in the concentration of radionuclides in the Georgian tea content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Katamadze, N.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Ginturi, Eh.N.

    1990-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of a study of behavior of artificial radionuclides in Georgian tea technological products after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Station. A partial contribution of the activity of radionuclides 141 Ce, 140 La, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 140 Ba, 137 Cs, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, 134 Cs and 90 Sr to the total activity to Georgian tea samples. Maximum tolerated concentrations of radionuclides were assessed provided average annual tea consumption per capita was 1 kg. The maximum of solubility in the water phase falls on Cs radionuclides. The regularities of migration of half-lived radionuclides 3 yrs. After the Chernobyl accident were established

  7. Distribution of 137Cs Radionuclide in Industrial Wastes Effluents of Gresik, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs was measured from industrial waste effluent of Gresik to Gresik Sea in east Java, Indonesia. The activity of 37Cs detected at all stations was much lower than in northeast Japan both before and after NPP Fukushima accident. This indicated that in Gresik industrials waste did not consist of 137Cs. The lowest activity 137Cs occurred at the station nearest to the industrial waste effluent that contained some particle ions that were able to scavenge 137Cs and then precipate this radionuclide. Furthermore, the greatest 137Cs occured at the station that has high current speeds that stirred up sediment to release 137Cs in seawater as a secondary source. The lowest salinity did not effect on the activity of 137Cs even though the lowest salinity and activity 137Cs occured at the same station

  8. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides secreted in milk of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, D.; Williams, W.F.; Rockmann, D.D.; Allen, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    This study simulated experimentally the transfer of radionuclides to milk of dairy cows on a worst-case situation using various radionuclides known to emanate from nuclear power stations and which have been detected on particulates. Two lactating Holstein cows were administered orally one gelatin capsule containing 10 radionuclides in water-soluble form per day for 14 consecutive days. Milk samples were collected and aliquots analyzed in a germanium lithium-drifted detector coupled to a 2048-multichannel gamma-ray analyzer to measure small amounts of complex mixtures of radionuclides. The transfer coefficients of the radionuclides were calculated when their secretion in milk reached or approached a plateau of concentration. The radionuclides and their transfer coefficients to milk were: chromium 51 less than 0.01%; manganese 54 0.033 +- 0.005%; cobalt 60 0.01 +- 0.002%; iron 59 0.0048 +- 0.002%; zinc 65 0.31 +- 0.07%; selenium 75 0.29 +- 0.1%; antimony 125 0.011 +- 0.003%; iodine 131 0.88 +- 0.05%; and cesium 137 0.79 +- 0.08%

  9. Fate of major radionuclides in the liquid wastes released to coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.; Verma, P.C.; Iyer, R.S.; Chandramouli, S.

    1980-01-01

    131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 60 Co have been reported as the major radionuclides in the low level liquid wastes released to coastal waters from atomic power stations. Silt absorption and desorption of the radionuclides were investigated. The exchangeability of the silt absorbed radionuclides and its dependence on particle size were also studied. More than 80% instantaneous absorpt;.on of 60 Co by suspended silt and less than 5% exchangeability of absorbed 60 Co were observed. Biological uptake of the radionuclides by the marine organisms present in sea waters was studied to evaluate radiation exposure pathways. A few benthic and crustacean organisms wnich are consumed by coastal population as fresh sea food, were observed to concentrate the radionuclides to a greater extent than other organisms. (H.K.)

  10. Radioactive aerosol detection station for near real-time atmospheric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A radionuclide aerosol detection station has been developed to measure radioactivity in the environment. The objective is to monitor the atmosphere for anthropogenic radioactivity that could be indicative of nuclear weapons tests to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Eighty stations will form the backbone of the International Monitoring System in which stations are linked to a central analysis facility called the International Data Centre. Data are transmitted to this centre in near real-time to facilitate rapid detection. Principal process of the field measurement are collection, separation, and assay. Collection of airborne radioactivity is achieved through high-volume air sampling. Aerosols separation is accomplished by high-efficiency particulate filtration. Radionuclides assay is achieved by in-situ high resolution gamma spectrometry. These modules are integrated into a unit that provides power, control, and communication support subsystems. Station operation is semi-automatic requiring only minimal human interaction. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Informal workshop on radionuclide laboratories. Issue 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The network of radionuclide stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will be comprised of 80 monitoring stations and 16 laboratories acting in support of the monitoring stations. The 16 radionuclide laboratories have been designated but there are issues to resolve in several areas: - Fee structure and payments to the laboratories from the PTS; - Agreement on Detailed requirements for certification of the laboratories; - Duties of the laboratory To help provide technical information in these and other areas an Informal Workshop was held on January 29th - February 2nd 2001 at Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) United Kingdom. It was agreed that a common fee structure would make for a more efficient operation if one could be agreed. One possible fee structure for payment to the laboratories was considered to be an annual fixed fee for service (estimated at $38,000) plus a charge for each individual analysis (estimated at $1,200). These estimated values were based on the laboratory replies to a questionnaire organised by the PTS in December 2000. An average of 40 samples/year/ laboratory was considered to be the number required to maintain support to the monitoring station network and also maintain the laboratory capability. Based on this number the overall cost, payable to the laboratories, of running a network of 16 radionuclide laboratories was estimated at $1.38M per year, when all 80 radionuclide stations are operational. The first proficiency test exercise had been carried out in November 2000 and was discussed. Overall the results were highly encouraging and any minor problems found were being addressed. The technical areas requiring further consideration were uncertainty values and cascade summing corrections. The basis for an ongoing programme of such exercises was discussed and agreed by participants. One recommendation that came out of this meeting was the desirability of using a common nuclear data

  12. Environmental radiological studies downstream from Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.W.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1984 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides in aquatic releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station. Gamma-emitting radionuclides discharged since 1981 are found in many of the dietary components derived from the creeks receiving the effluent wastewater. Some soils and crops are found to contain radionuclides that originate from the contaminated water that was transferred to land during the irrigation season. 134 Cs and 137 Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of fish from the creeks. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased exponentially with distance from the plant. No significant differences in the 137 Cs activity were found between male and female fish of equal size, but concentrations may vary in fish of different size, with the season and diet. 21% of the total 137 Cs and 134 Cs discharged between 1981 and 1984 is associated with the creek sediments to a distance of 27 km from the plant. Fractions of the missing inventory have been transferred to land during the irrigation season or to downstream regions more distant than 27 km from the plant. The radiocesium content of the sediments in 1984 decreased significantly in a downstream direction, much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. Radioactivity originating from the plant was not above detection limits in any terrestrial food item sampled beyond 6.5 km from the plant. Based on the usage factors provided by individuals interviewed in a 1984 survey, the fish and aquatic-organism ingestion pathway contributed the largest radiological dose to humans utilizing products contaminated with the radionuclides in the liquid wastes discharged from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station in 1984

  13. Enhancing the effect of radionuclide tumor targeting, using lysosomotropic weak bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Asa Liljegren; Steffen, Ann-Charlott

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate if treatment with lysosomotropic weak bases could increase the intracellular retention of radiohalogens and thereby increase the therapeutic effect of radionuclide tumor targeting. Methods and Materials: Four different lysosomotropic bases, chloroquine, ammonium chloride, amantadine, and thioridazine, were investigated for their ability to increase radiohalogen retention in vitro. The two most promising substances, chloroquine and ammonium chloride, were studied in several cell lines (A431, U343MGaCl2:6, SKOV-3, and SKBR-3) in combination with radiolabeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) or the HER2 binding affibody (Z HER2:4 ) 2 . Results: The uptake and retention of radionuclides was found to be substantially increased by simultaneous treatment with the lysosomotropic bases. The effect was, however, more pronounced in the epidermal growth factor:epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF:EGFR) system than in the (Z HER2:4 ) 2 :HER2 system. The therapeutic effect of ammonium chloride treatment combined with 211 At-EGF was also studied. The effect obtained after combined treatment was found to be much better than after 211 At-EGF treatment alone. Conclusions: The encouraging results from the present study indicate that the use of lysosomotropic weak bases is a promising approach for increasing the therapeutic effect of radionuclide targeting with radiohalogens

  14. User Context Aware Base Station Power Flow Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  15. Activities of radionuclides in the Pacific coastal area of Fukushima since the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident - Activities of radionuclides in the coast area off Fukushima after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aono, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Miho; Yoshida, Satoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan); Sohtome, Tadahiro; Mizuno, Takuji [Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, 970-0316, Fukushima (Japan); Igarashi, Satoshi [Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, 970-0316, Fukushima (Japan); Fukushima Prefecture Sea-Farming Association, 970-8044, Fukushima (Japan); Ito, Yukari; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi [Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 108-0075, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) has caused the release of the huge quantities of radionuclide by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, and then the serious problems gave rise to pollution in marine environment widely in the coast area off Fukushima. Monitoring of radioactivity in seawater and biota are important for understanding the dispersion of radionuclides and the effects of radioecology in the marine environment around the coast of Fukushima and the Pacific. The activities of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in seawater decreased exponentially and then were almost same levels before the accident around off Fukushima after about three years from the accident. However, the high activities of radio caesium (Cs) have been monitored in marine biota off Fukushima. The aims of the present study were to examine the temporal changes in radioactivity and to clarify the variation factor and the effect of radioecology in marine biota. Cs-134 and Cs-137, and Ag-110m, were released by this accident, determined in biota sample such as the plankton, fish and benthos, although it is well-known that molluscs and crustaceans concentrate silver in visceral parts. However, Sr-90 was not detected and the activities of plutonium were almost same level before this accident in the marine biota around off Fukushima. Concentration ratios of Cs (CR-Cs) in marine organism were from 2.6 E+1 in the muscle part of squid to 1.0 E+4 in the viscera of clam. The large differences in CR-Cs by the parts of marine organism were not observed. It is suggested that rapid change in the activities of radio Cs and silver in seawater, resuspension of particles from sediments and food chain effects led to high radionuclide activities in marine biota after this accident. CR-Cs in plankton was also calculated with the activities in seawater, which were collected around sampling area during this monitoring period. These resulting values ranged from 5.8 E+1 to 7.8 E+2

  16. Use of aquatic mosses for monitoring artificial radionuclides downstream of the nuclear power plant of Bugey (River Rhone, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Brottet, D.

    1994-01-01

    The detection of radionuclides in water, downstream of nuclear installations located on river banks, is often very difficult notably because of their low concentrations. Thus the use of biological indicators is an interesting process to detect radioactive contamination of an aquatic ecosystem. From 1986 to 1990, artificial radionuclides were measured in freshwater mosses sampled downstream of the nuclear power station of Bugey. These field data on the whole, have shown a comparatively good qualitative and quantitative relationship between radioactive composition of liquid waste and radionuclides detected in mosses. In other respects, the results showed up a relatively clear hierarchical structure in the affinity of the different radionuclides for the mosses. To specify these relations, mesh bags containing allochtonous mosses were immersed at four stations downstream of the power plant and regularly sampled during a 10-h waste discharge period. (author)

  17. Anthropogenic radionuclide fluxes and distribution in bottom sediments of the cooling basin of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marčiulionienė, D.; Mažeika, J.; Lukšienė, B.; Jefanova, O.; Mikalauskienė, R.; Paškauskas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Based on γ-ray emitting artificial radionuclide spectrometric measurements, an assessment of areal and vertical distribution of 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn activity concentrations in bottom sediments of Lake Drūkšiai was performed. Samples of bottom sediments from seven monitoring stations within the cooling basin were collected in 1988–1996 and 2007–2010 (in July–August). For radionuclide areal distribution analysis, samples from the surface 0–5 cm layer were used. Multi sample cores sliced 2 cm, 3 cm or 5 cm thick were used to study the vertical distribution of radionuclides. The lowest 137 Cs activity concentrations were obtained for two stations that were situated close to channels with radionuclide discharges, but with sediments that had a significantly smaller fraction of organic matter related to finest particles and consequently smaller radionuclide retention potential. The 137 Cs activity concentration was distributed quite evenly in the bottom sediments from other investigated monitoring stations. The highest 137 Cs activity concentrations in the bottom sediments of Lake Drūkšiai were measured in the period of 1988–1989; in 1990, the 137 Cs activity concentrations slightly decreased and they varied insignificantly over the investigation period. The obtained 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratio values in the bottom sediments of Lake Drūkšiai represented radioactive pollution with plutonium from nuclear weapon tests. Higher 60 Co and 54 Mn activity concentrations were observed in the monitoring stations that were close to the impact zones of the technical water outlet channel and industrial rain drainage system channel. 60 Co and 54 Mn activity concentrations in the bottom sediments of Lake Drūkšiai significantly decreased when operations at both INPP reactor units were stopped. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in bottom sediments revealed complicated sedimentation features, which may have been affected by a number of natural and

  18. Calculation of risk-based detection limits for radionuclides in the liquid effluents from Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak

    2017-01-01

    In order to review if present detection limits of radionuclides in liquid effluent from nuclear power plants are effective enough to warrant compliance with regulatory discharge limits, a risk-based approach is developed to derive a new detection limit for each radionuclide based on radiological criteria. Equations and adjustment factors are also proposed to discriminate the validity of the detection limits for multiple radionuclides in the liquid effluent with or without consideration of the nuclide composition. From case studies to three nuclear power plants in Korea with actual operation data from 2006 to 2015, the present detection limits have turned out to be effective for Hanul Unit 1 but may not be sensitive enough for Kori Unit 1 (8 out of 14 radionuclides) and Wolsong Unit 1 (9 out of 42 radionuclides). However, it is shown that the present detection limits for the latter two nuclear power plants can be justified, if credit is given to the radionuclide composition. Otherwise, consideration should be given to adjustment of the present detection limits. The risk-based approach of this study can be used to determine the validity of established detection limits of a specific nuclear power plant. (author)

  19. Limitation of radioactive discharges from NPP based on radionuclide specific monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucina, I.; Malatova, I.; Vidlakova, J.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring of gaseous and liquid discharges from nuclear power plants based on particulate-iodine-gas measurements and gross beta or gamma plus tritium measurements is being improved by performing radionuclide specific measurements using semiconductor gamma and beta spectrometers and radiochemical methods. A new concept of regulatory effluent limits is being developed. The activities of all the relevant radionuclides discharged during a years, multiplied by the appropriate Sv/Bq conversion coefficient based on a standard multi-pathway model, are summed up, and the effective dose is compared with the new limit. Such limits should be laid down as the per capita collective commitment effective dose in the plant surroundings for atmospheric discharges, and as the committed effective dose to a critical group member for the hydrospheric releases

  20. Mojave Base Station Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscielski, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    A 12.2 meter diameter X-Y mount antenna was reconditioned for use by the crustal dynamic project as a fixed base station. System capabilities and characteristics and key performance parameters for subsystems are presented. The implementation is completed.

  1. Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ademola, J.A.; Atare, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th varied from 30.1 ± 3.0 to 59.0 ± 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 ± 2.3 and 7.9 ± 3.7 to 10.9 ± 1.9 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 μSv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 μSv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 Bq.kg-1 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

  2. Evaluation and selection of aqueous-based technology for partitioning radionuclides from ICPP calcine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, A.L.; Schulz, W.W.; Burchfield, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Swanson, J.L.; Thompson, M.C.

    1993-02-01

    Early in 1993 Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) chartered a Panel of Nuclear Separations Experts. The purpose of this Panel was to assist WINCO scientists and engineers in selecting, evaluating, and ranking candidate aqueous-based processes and technologies for potential use in partitioning selected radionuclides from nitric acid solutions of retrieved Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcine. Radionuclides of interest are all transuranium elements, 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 129 I, and 137 Cs. The six man Panel met for 4 days (February 16--19, 1993) on the campus of the Idaho State University in Pocatello, Idaho. Principal topics addressed included: Available radionuclide removal technology; applicability of separations technology and processes to ICPP calcine; and potential integrated radionuclide partitioning schemes. This report, prepared from contributions from all Panel members, presents a comprehensive account of the proceedings and significant findings of the February, 1993 meeting in Pocatello

  3. REDISTRIBUTION OF BASE STATIONS LOAD IN MOBILE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ruban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the processes of load distribution in mobile communication networks. The object of research is the handover. The goal is to develop a method for redistributing the load between neighboring areas for mobile nodes. The considered base stations are supposed to have the signal-to-noise ratios that are equal or close. The methods that are used: methods of system analysis, methods of digital signal processing. The following results are obtained. The method that allows mobile nodes, whose signal-to-noise ratios are equal or close, to switch to a less loaded base station. This method allows the base station to launch the handover process enabling more even distribution of the load from mobile nodes among neighboring base stations in wireless and mobile networks. In the suggested modification of the method, the function assessing the bandwidth of the uplink channel is added to the base stations, as well a threshold value for using its bandwidth. Thus, when the current value of bandwidth reaches the threshold, the base station starts sending out a message to all mobile nodes and verifies free neighboring areas for switching over mobile nodes. If there are adjacent areas with a lower load, the base station notifies all potential candidates about the necessity of their switching over. The handover process is launched when the available bandwidth of the base station decreases below a certain threshold. Therefore, it is possible to optimize the operation of the WiMAX network with respect to the criterion of the total bandwidth capacity of the base stations. Besides, the results of the comparative analysis of the handover process in networks based on the WiMAX technology that are obtained using the OpNet simulation environment are presented. Conclusions.The suggested approach can be used to improve the basic software of mobile communication networks. When moving a node from one area to another one in access servers, the

  4. Airborne anthropogenic radioactivity measurements from an international radionuclide monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, J.D.; Williams, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Anthropogenic radioactivity is being measured in near-real time by an international monitoring system designed to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Airborne radioactivity measurements are conducted in-situ by stations that are linked to a central data processing and analysis facility. Aerosols are separated by high-volume air sampling with high-efficiency particulate filters. Radio-xenon is separated from other gases through cryogenic methods. Gamma-spectrometry is performed by high purity germanium detectors and the raw spectral data is immediately transmitted to the central facility via Internet, satellite, or modem. These highly sensitive sensors, combined with the automated data processing at the central facility, result in a system capable of measuring environmental radioactivity on the microbecquerel scale where the data is available to scientists within minutes of the field measurement. During the past year, anthropogenic radioactivity has been measured at approximately half of the stations in the current network. Sources of these measured radionuclides include nuclear power plant emissions, Chernobyl resuspension, and isotope production facilities. The ability to thoroughly characterize site-specific radionuclides, which contribute to the radioactivity of the ambient environment, will be necessary to reduce the number of false positive events. This is especially true of anthropogenic radionuclides that could lead to ambiguous analysis. (author)

  5. Perception of mobile phone and base station risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Earle, Timothy C; Gutscher, Heinz; Keller, Carmen

    2005-10-01

    Perceptions of risks associated with mobile phones, base stations, and other sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF) were examined. Data from a telephone survey conducted in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland are presented (N = 1,015). Participants assessed both risks and benefits associated with nine different sources of EMF. Trust in the authorities regulating these hazards was assessed as well. In addition, participants answered a set of questions related to attitudes toward EMF and toward mobile phone base stations. According to respondents' assessments, high-voltage transmission lines are the most risky source of EMF. Mobile phones and mobile phone base stations received lower risk ratings. Results showed that trust in authorities was positively associated with perceived benefits and negatively associated with perceived risks. People who use their mobile phones frequently perceived lower risks and higher benefits than people who use their mobile phones infrequently. People who believed they lived close to a base station did not significantly differ in their level of risks associated with mobile phone base stations from people who did not believe they lived close to a base station. Regarding risk regulation, a majority of participants were in favor of fixing limiting values based on the worst-case scenario. Correlations suggest that belief in paranormal phenomena is related to level of perceived risks associated with EMF. Furthermore, people who believed that most chemical substances cause cancer also worried more about EMF than people who did not believe that chemical substances are that harmful. Practical implications of the results are discussed.

  6. Movement of radionuclides from river to ground water in vicinity of location for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Lj.; Lazic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of ground water contamination caused by radionuclide from river water to which liquid effluents were released from a nuclear power station was estimated using one-dimensional transport model. This model is suitable for a homogeneous medium and takes into account hydraulic convection and dispersion as well as physical-chemical retardation for the various radionuclides. (author)

  7. Accumulation of 137Cs in commercial fish of the Belyarsk nuclear power station cooling supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapeznikova, V.N.; Kulikov, N.V.; Trapeznikov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of a comparative study of the accumulation of 137 Cs in basic species of commercial fish of the Beloyarsk reservoir which is used as the cooling supply for the Beloyarsk nuclear power station. Possible reasons for interspecies differences in accumulation of the radionuclide are indicated, and the increased accumulation of 137 Cs by free-living fish in the zone of heated water effluent from the station and the reduced accumulation of the emitter in carp, which are cultivated on artificial food in cages, are noted. Levels of the content of the radionuclide are compared in roach and farm carp from the cooling supplies of the Beloyarsk station and the Reftinsk power plant in the Urals

  8. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rassoul, G; El-Fateh, O Abou; Salem, M Abou; Michael, A; Farahat, F; El-Batanouny, M; Salem, E

    2007-03-01

    There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (Pstation exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public

  9. Exposure to electromagnetic radiation from GSM and UMTS base station antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.; Carpinteiro, G.; Correia, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses processes for measurement of GSM and UMTS signal strength on different scenarios, regarding base stations compliance evaluation with radiation exposure limits. Recommendations to minimize exposure from base station antennas' radiation are also established. Propagation models application and their importance to base stations security evaluation are analysed. An application example of the use of these models in a software tool development is given. A measurement campaign to collect real data from base stations in Lisbon is described, and propagation models applicability is discussed. Radiation reference levels were never exceeded on the analysed base stations. The worst-case detected was about five time (in terms of electric field strength) below security limits adopted by the European Union Council. Nevertheless, in general, the measured stations were at least thirteen times below limits. Scenarios where differences between measurements and limits are lower and exposure on buildings' rooftops with base stations and indoors. (author)

  10. Mobile phone base stations-Effects on wellbeing and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundi, Michael; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2009-08-01

    Studying effects of mobile phone base station signals on health have been discouraged by authoritative bodies like WHO International EMF Project and COST 281. WHO recommended studies around base stations in 2003 but again stated in 2006 that studies on cancer in relation to base station exposure are of low priority. As a result only few investigations of effects of base station exposure on health and wellbeing exist. Cross-sectional investigations of subjective health as a function of distance or measured field strength, despite differences in methods and robustness of study design, found indications for an effect of exposure that is likely independent of concerns and attributions. Experimental studies applying short-term exposure to base station signals gave various results, but there is weak evidence that UMTS and to a lesser degree GSM signals reduce wellbeing in persons that report to be sensitive to such exposures. Two ecological studies of cancer in the vicinity of base stations report both a strong increase of incidence within a radius of 350 and 400m respectively. Due to the limitations inherent in this design no firm conclusions can be drawn, but the results underline the urgent need for a comprehensive investigation of this issue. Animal and in vitro studies are inconclusive to date. An increased incidence of DMBA induced mammary tumors in rats at a SAR of 1.4W/kg in one experiment could not be replicated in a second trial. Indications of oxidative stress after low-level in vivo exposure of rats could not be supported by in vitro studies of human fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells. From available evidence it is impossible to delineate a threshold below which no effect occurs, however, given the fact that studies reporting low exposure were invariably negative it is suggested that power densities around 0.5-1mW/m(2) must be exceeded in order to observe an effect. The meager data base must be extended in the coming years. The difficulties of investigating

  11. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  12. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., 108m Ag, 93 Mo, 36 Cl, 10 Be, 113m Cd, 121m Sn, 126 Sn, 93m Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., 14 C, 129 I, and 99 Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments

  13. Sewage sludge as a sensitive indicator for airborne radionuclides from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemansson, T.

    1982-01-01

    Sewage sludge collected at waste water treatment plants located in the vicinity of nuclear power stations, has been shown to be a sensitive and convenient indicator for airborne locally released activation products, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 58 Co and 54 Mn. We have therefore been able to study the distribution and behaviour of these radionuclides in the terrestrial environment of three Swedish nuclear power stations. Comparative measurements on ground level air and on samples of lichen (Cladonia alpestris) and soil have also been performed. The variation by distance from the power station of 60 Co measured in sludge as well as on air-filters could be described by the same power function. The temporal variation of the activity concentration in sludge samples well reflects the variation of the reported release rate of airborne radionuclides from the power stations if the prevalent wind direction is taken into consideration. The relation between the activity ratio 60 Co/ 7 Be in air and in sludge was investigated and indicated that most of the detected 60 Co and part of 58 Co and 54 Mn activity is released from a local source and is dry deposited on the ground before it is washed off by rain. (Author)

  14. A super base station based centralized network architecture for 5G mobile communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Qian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the ever increasing mobile data traffic demand, the mobile operators are deploying a heterogeneous network with multiple access technologies and more and more base stations to increase the network coverage and capacity. However, the base stations are isolated from each other, so different types of radio resources and hardware resources cannot be shared and allocated within the overall network in a cooperative way. The mobile operators are thus facing increasing network operational expenses and a high system power consumption. In this paper, a centralized radio access network architecture, referred to as the super base station (super BS, is proposed, as a possible solution for an energy-efficient fifth-generation (5G mobile system. The super base station decouples the logical functions and physical entities of traditional base stations, so different types of system resources can be horizontally shared and statistically multiplexed among all the virtual base stations throughout the entire system. The system framework and main functionalities of the super BS are described. Some key technologies for system implementation, i.e., the resource pooling, real-time virtualization, adaptive hardware resource allocation are also highlighted.

  15. Assessment of radionuclide databases in CAP88 mainframe version 1.0 and Windows-based version 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBone, Elizabeth D; Farfán, Eduardo B; Lee, Patricia L; Jannik, G Timothy; Donnelly, Elizabeth H; Foley, Trevor Q

    2009-09-01

    In this study the radionuclide databases for two versions of the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88) computer model were assessed in detail. CAP88 estimates radiation dose and the risk of health effects to human populations from radionuclide emissions to air. This program is used by several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants regulations. CAP88 Mainframe, referred to as version 1.0 on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Web site (http://www.epa.gov/radiation/assessment/CAP88/), was the very first CAP88 version released in 1988. Some DOE facilities including the Savannah River Site still employ this version (1.0) while others use the more user-friendly personal computer Windows-based version 3.0 released in December 2007. Version 1.0 uses the program RADRISK based on International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 30 as its radionuclide database. Version 3.0 uses half-life, dose, and risk factor values based on Federal Guidance Report 13. Differences in these values could cause different results for the same input exposure data (same scenario), depending on which version of CAP88 is used. Consequently, the differences between the two versions are being assessed in detail at Savannah River National Laboratory. The version 1.0 and 3.0 database files contain 496 and 838 radionuclides, respectively, and though one would expect the newer version to include all the 496 radionuclides, 35 radionuclides are listed in version 1.0 that are not included in version 3.0. The majority of these has either extremely short or long half-lives or is no longer in production; however, some of the short-lived radionuclides might produce progeny of great interest at DOE sites. In addition, 122 radionuclides were found to have different half-lives in the two versions, with 21 over 3 percent different and 12 over 10 percent different.

  16. Radionuclide-Based Cancer Imaging Targeting the Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, highly expressed in many cancer types, is an important target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Radionuclide-based imaging techniques (gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] and positron emission tomography [PET] have been extensively explored for CEA-targeted cancer imaging both preclinically and clinically. Briefly, these studies can be divided into three major categories: antibody-based, antibody fragment-based and pretargeted imaging. Radiolabeled anti-CEA antibodies, reported the earliest among the three categories, typically gave suboptimal tumor contrast due to the prolonged circulation life time of intact antibodies. Subsequently, a number of engineered anti-CEA antibody fragments (e.g. Fab’, scFv, minibody, diabody and scFv-Fc have been labeled with a variety of radioisotopes for CEA imaging, many of which have entered clinical investigation. CEA-Scan (a 99mTc-labeled anti-CEA Fab’ fragment has already been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for cancer imaging. Meanwhile, pretargeting strategies have also been developed for CEA imaging which can give much better tumor contrast than the other two methods, if the system is designed properly. In this review article, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art of radionuclide-based cancer imaging targeting CEA. Generally, isotopes with short half-lives (e.g. 18F and 99mTc are more suitable for labeling small engineered antibody fragments while the isotopes with longer half-lives (e.g. 123I and 111In are needed for antibody labeling to match its relatively long circulation half-life. With further improvement in tumor targeting efficacy and radiolabeling strategies, novel CEA-targeted agents may play an important role in cancer patient management, paving the way to “personalized medicine”.

  17. A Management Tool for Improvement (Improving) IMS Stations Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Pantin, A.; Quintana, E.

    2011-01-01

    IMS-Maintenance is a software under development by the personnel of ARN-CTBT office, intended for the technical management of IMS stations under ARN's responsibility. This software integrates the whole control of the equipment in an IMS station, including the management of consumables used in daily or periodic operation. It permits an easy retrieval (access) of the technical features, suppliers, etc. of each item of the equipment, as well as its maintenance history and scheduled task. Although this project is still in a starting phase, a preliminary version of this software is being used in radionuclide station RN01 (Buenos Aires), having already demonstrated its usefulness and potential for the improvement of IMS station management. (authors)

  18. Bioavailability of anthropogenic radionuclides in mussels along the french mediterranean coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, H.; Arnaud, M.; Charmasson, S.; Andral, B.; Dimeglio, Y.; Barker, E.

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the Water Management Master-plan, a bio-indicator network (RINBIO) was deployed all along the French Mediterranean coast (1,800 km), using man-made cages containing mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to assess contamination by heavy metals, persistent organic products and radionuclides. The caging technique compensated for the scarcity of natural shellfish stocks in significant parts of the coast and enable comparison between sites regardless of their physicochemical and trophic characteristics. Among the 103 stations of the entire program, 40 were selected for the measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides by high-efficiency gamma-spectrometry. Biometrics parameters of the each mussel samples, including 'condition index' as an indicator of soft part growth, will be correlated with radionuclides activities, allowing to correct raw data from differences in bioaccumulation between the various sites in relation to their trophic levels. A comprehensive picture of the distribution of radionuclides at a such a large spatial scale will be provided and the contribution of the Rhone river input, so far the main source for the coastal zone, will be investigated. (author)

  19. Bioavailability of anthropogenic radionuclides in mussels along the french mediterranean coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, H.; Arnaud, M.; Charmasson, S.; Andral, B.; Dimeglio, Y.; Barker, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire. IFREMER, Laboratoire d' Etudes Radioecologiques Continentales et de la Mediterranee, 83 - La Seyne-sur-Mer (France)

    2004-07-01

    Within the framework of the Water Management Master-plan, a bio-indicator network (RINBIO) was deployed all along the French Mediterranean coast (1,800 km), using man-made cages containing mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to assess contamination by heavy metals, persistent organic products and radionuclides. The caging technique compensated for the scarcity of natural shellfish stocks in significant parts of the coast and enable comparison between sites regardless of their physicochemical and trophic characteristics. Among the 103 stations of the entire program, 40 were selected for the measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides by high-efficiency gamma-spectrometry. Biometrics parameters of the each mussel samples, including 'condition index' as an indicator of soft part growth, will be correlated with radionuclides activities, allowing to correct raw data from differences in bioaccumulation between the various sites in relation to their trophic levels. A comprehensive picture of the distribution of radionuclides at a such a large spatial scale will be provided and the contribution of the Rhone river input, so far the main source for the coastal zone, will be investigated. (author)

  20. Filters for water purification from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.V.; Khaydarov, R.R.; Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At present purification of waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants is one of the most important problems. One of widely used methods for solving this problem is the ion exchange method based on using of different types of resins and fibroid sorbents. This paper deals with new chemically modified polyester fibroid filters having satisfactory adsorption characteristics. The process of the filter production includes their treatment by acrylonitrilic emulsion for improving mechanical characteristics. An advantage of the fibroid ion-exchange sorbents over resin is in their high sorption rate, effective regeneration and small value of pressure drop of the sorbent layer for purified water. The specific surface of the fibroid sorbents is (2 - 3). 10 4 m 2 / kg, i.e. about 10 2 times greater than that of the resin (10 2 m 2 / kg). Owing to that fact the rate of the sorption process on the developed fibroid sorbents is much greater than that on the resin. The developed cation- and anion-exchange filters can be used for removing metal ions (Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Co, Cd, Cr, etc.) and organic compounds (M- 32 P, M- 131 I, M- 99 Mo+ 99m Tc, etc.) from water. Capacity of the cation-exchange sorbents is 0.25 meq/g (Cu 2+ ) and that of the anion - exchange is 0.45 meq/g (Cr 6+ ). The cation- and anion-exchange filters are also selective for removing radionuclides 134 , 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co and 129 I in presence of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl - ions in water at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. New developed ion-exchange sorbents have been used in drinking water filters and mini-systems for removing organic and inorganic contaminants, in the equipment for waste water purification from oil products (at atomic power stations, car-washing stations, etc), from heavy metal ions (in electronic industry, match fabrics, leather processing plants etc). (author)

  1. Being prepared to verify the CTBT-Atmospheric Transport modeling and radionuclide analysis at the Austrian National Data Centre during the NDC Preparedness Exercise 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Schraick, Irene

    2010-05-01

    An explosion in the Kara-Zhyra mine in Eastern Kazakhstan on 28 November 2009 around 07:20 UTC was recorded by both the CTBTO seismic and infrasound networks. This event triggered a world-wide preparedness exercise among the CTBTO National Data Centres. Within an hour after the event was selected by the German NDC, a computer program developed by NDC Austria based on weather forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and from the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was started to analyse what Radionuclide Stations of the CTBTO International Monitoring System (IMS) would be potentially affected by the release from a nuclear explosion at this place in the course of the following 3-10 days. These calculations were daily updated to consider the observed state of the atmosphere instead of the predicted one. Based on these calculations, automated and reviewed radionuclide reports from the potentially affected stations as produced by the CTBTO International Data Centre (IDC) were looked at. An additional analysis of interesting spectra was provided by the Seibersdorf Laboratories. Based on all the results coming in, no evidence whatsoever was found that the explosion in Kazakhstan was nuclear. This is in accordance with ground truth information saying that the event was caused by the detonation of more than 53 Tons of explosives as part of mining operations. A number of conclusions can be drawn from this exercise. First, the international, bilateral as well as national mechanisms and procedures in place for such an event worked smoothly. Second, the products and services from the CTBTO IDC proved to be very useful to assist the member states in their verification efforts. Last but not least, issues with the availability of data from IMS radionuclide stations do remain.

  2. Level of Radiofrequency (RF) Radiations from GSM Base Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of radiofrequency radiations around two global systems for mobile communication (GSM) base stations located in the vicinity of a residential quarter and workplace complex were measured. The effects of the radiofrequency radiations on albino mice placed in exposure cages and located around the base stations ...

  3. Extended architecture for home base stations with multimedia services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voicu, A.; Jarnikov, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of mobile access points (home node base stations, femtocells) for providing TV streaming to mobile devices inside the home. The research is focused on finding commonalities between architectures of the home node base station for different technologies. The result is a

  4. The accumulation of radionuclides by Dreissena polymorpha molluscs - The Accumulation of Radionuclides from Water and Food in the Dreissena polymorpha Mollusks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefanova, O.; Marciulioniene, D. [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lietuva (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    The specific activity of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 90}Sr was measured in mollusks Dreissena polymorpha samples from lake Drukshiai that is the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP. Item the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 106}Ru in the mollusks from water and from phytoplankton which is a part of their diet was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The data of long-term (1991-2009) studies conducted at six monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai show that in 1991 {sup 137}Cs in mollusks Dreissena polymorpha was found only in that lake's area which was influenced by the effluent that got into lake from the industrial drainage channel of Ignalina NPP. In later periods of the investigation the {sup 137}Cs specific activity was detected in mollusks samples which had been collected at other monitoring stations (the aquatory of lake Drukshiai). Meanwhile {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in Dreissena polymorpha were detected only in that lake's area which was impacted by the industrial drainage channel. The data of long-term investigation show that the major amount of radionuclides has come into lake Drukshiai through the industrial drainage system of Ignalina NPP. Albeit {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 106}Ru get into the mollusks through a large amount of the water rather than from the food (phytoplankton), therefore the food can also be the main source of radionuclides in the organism of these mollusks in aquatic environment when there are low levels of specific activities of these radionuclides. (authors)

  5. Radionuclides in radiation-induced bystander effect; may it share in radionuclide therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widel, M

    2017-01-01

    For many years in radiobiology and radiotherapy predominated the conviction that cellular DNA is the main target for ionizing radiation, however, the view has changed in the past 20 years. Nowadays, it is assumed that not only directed (targeted) radiation effect, but also an indirect (non-targeted) effect may contribute to the result of radiation treatment. Non-targeted effect is relatively well recognized after external beam irradiation in vitro and in vivo, and comprises such phenomena like radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal (out of field) effect. These stress-induced and molecular signaling mediated phenomena appear in non-targeted cells as variety responses resembling that observed in directly hit cells. Bystander effects can be both detrimental and beneficial in dependence on dose, dose-rate, cell type, genetic status and experimental condition. Less is known about radionuclide-induced non-targeted effects in radionuclide therapy, although, based on characteristics of the radionuclide radiation, on experiments in vitro utilizing classical and 3-D cell cultures, and preclinical study on animals it seems obvious that exposure to radionuclide is accompanied by various bystander effects, mostly damaging, less often protective. This review summarizes existing data on radionuclide induced bystander effects comprising radionuclides emitting beta- and alpha-particles and Auger electrons used in tumor radiotherapy and diagnostics. So far, separation of the direct effect of radionuclide decay from crossfire and bystander effects in clinical targeted radionuclide therapy is impossible because of the lack of methods to assess whether, and to what extent bystander effect is involved in human organism. Considerations on this topic are also included.

  6. Public exposure to radio waves near GSM microcell and picocell base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T G; Mann, S M; Khalid, M; Blackwell, R P

    2006-01-01

    Exposures of the general public to radio waves at locations near 20 randomly selected GSM microcell and picocell base stations in the UK have been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Compliance distances were calculated for the antennas of the base stations from their reported radiated powers. Under pessimistic assumptions that would maximise exposures, the minimum height at which the general public reference level could potentially be exceeded near any of the base station antennas was calculated to be 2.4 m above ground level. The power densities of the broadcast carriers transmitted by the base stations have been measured and scaled to include all other possible carriers. Exposures were generally in the range 0.002-2% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure quotient near any of the base stations was 8.6%. Exposures close to microcell base stations were found to be generally greater than those close to macrocell base stations

  7. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  8. Epidemiological evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Vini G; Hardell, Lennart; Everaert, Joris; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Carlberg, Michael; Ahonen, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wireless communication technology, including mobile phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone base stations. Seven of these studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects and three investigated cancer. We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact.

  9. Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  10. Radionuclide concentrations in oil extraction and production processes in Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, Maria Helena Paranhos

    2005-06-01

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) was detected in the water and oil extracted from wells both onshore and offshore. The oil is extracted together with water and sediments which contain radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series. Among the radionuclides present, especial attention should be given to 226 Ra and 228 Ra, due to its long half-life and importance, from the radiological point of view. The objective of this work was to identify the natural radionuclides in the oil industry, to determine their activity concentration, and from these results, to evaluate the risks the employees of the oil industry are exposed to. Samples of sludge, scale and produced water extracted with the oil were collected from three oil processing stations in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined in the solid samples before and after the extraction of the oil. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the samples without oil was evaluated. Water samples, on the other hand, were analyzed for their contents of radionuclides and barium concentration. It was observed that the activity concentrations of the analyzed radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 210 Pb) in sludge and scales were very high when compared with the literature, particularly much higher than the values for 226 Ra and 228 Ra obtained for sludge and scales from the oil platforms near the city of Campos, state of Rio de Janeiro. The maximum concentration values for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 210 Pb (3,500, 2,195, 2,248.6 and 201 kBq kg -1 , respectively) were obtained for the scales after the extraction of the oil. The analysis of the samples showed that barium sulphate (barite) and strontium sulphate (celestite) are the main constituents of the scales, while carbonates and silicates, together with other compounds are the components of sludge. A correlation between barium, 226 Ra and

  11. Phytoremediation of radionuclides: an emerging alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shraddha

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of nuclear power industry, nuclear weapon testing, dismantling of existing nuclear weapons and occasional accidents have contributed to an enhancement in the level of radionuclides in the environment. The radionuclides due to their long half life and transfer through the food chain effect adversely to normal biological systems. Hence, it is essential to effectively remove the radionuclides from contaminated soils and solutions. Phytoremediation - the use of plants for remediation of toxic metals and radionuclides has been recognized as an aesthetically pleasing, low cost and environment friendly in situ method. Phytoremediation is an umbrella term which covers several plant based approaches. Plants have shown the potential of remediation of these radionuclides from spiked solutions, low level nuclear waste and soil. Various aspects of phytoremediation as well as potential of various plants for remediation of radionuclides will be discussed here. (author)

  12. Artificial Radionuclides Database in the Pacific Ocean: HAM Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Aoyama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The database “Historical Artificial Radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean and its Marginal Seas”, or HAM database, has been created. The database includes 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu concentration data from the seawater of the Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas with some measurements from the sea surface to the bottom. The data in the HAM database were collected from about 90 literature citations, which include published papers; annual reports by the Hydrographic Department, Maritime Safety Agency, Japan; and unpublished data provided by individuals. The data of concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu have been accumulating since 1957–1998. The present HAM database includes 7737 records for 137Cs concentration data, 3972 records for 90Sr concentration data, and 2666 records for 239,240Pu concentration data. The spatial variation of sampling stations in the HAM database is heterogeneous, namely, more than 80% of the data for each radionuclide is from the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, while a relatively small portion of data is from the South Pacific. This HAM database will allow us to use these radionuclides as significant chemical tracers for oceanographic study as well as the assessment of environmental affects of anthropogenic radionuclides for these 5 decades. Furthermore, these radionuclides can be used to verify the oceanic general circulation models in the time scale of several decades.

  13. The ENSDF based radionuclide source for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    A utility for generating source code of the Source subroutine of MCNP (a general Monte Carlo NxParticle transport code) on the basis of ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) is described. The generated code performs statistical simulation of processes, accompanying radioactive decay of a chosen radionuclide through a specified decay branch, providing characteristics of emitted correlated particles on its output. At modeling the following processes are taken into account: emission of continuum energy electrons at beta - -decay to different exited levels of a daughter nucleus; annihilation photon emission accompanying beta + -decay; gamma-ray emission; emission of discrete energy electrons resulted from internal conversion process on atomic K- and L I,II,III -shells; K and LX-ray emission at single and double fluorescence, accompanying electron capture and internal conversion processes. Number of emitted particles, their types, energies and emission times are sampled according to characteristics of a decay scheme of a particular radionuclide as well as characteristics of atomic shells of mother and daughter nuclei. Angular correlations, calculated for a particular combination of nuclear level spins, mixing ratios and gamma-ray multipolarities, are taken into account at sampling of directional cosines of emitted gamma-rays. The paper contains examples of spectrometry system response simulation at measurements with real radionuclide sources. (authors)

  14. Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordholt, Jane E.; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T.; Dallmann, Nicholas

    2017-06-14

    Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trust authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.

  15. Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T; Dallman, Nicholas

    2015-04-07

    Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trusted authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.

  16. DMA Reference Base Station Network Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data (15,904 records documenting 9,090 worldwide gravity base stations) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of...

  17. A vector Wiener filter for dual-radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Links, J.M.; Prince, J.L.; Gupta, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    The routine use of a single radionuclide for patient imaging in nuclear medicine can be complemented by studies employing two tracers to examine two different processes in a single organ, most frequently by simultaneous imaging of both radionuclides in two different energy windows. In addition, simultaneous transmission/emission imaging with dual-radionuclides has been described, with one radionuclide used for the transmission study and a second for the emission study. There is thus currently considerable interest in dual-radionuclide imaging. A major problem with all dual-radionuclide imaging is the crosstalk between the two radionuclides. Such crosstalk frequently occurs, because scattered radiation from the higher energy radionuclide is detected in the lower energy window, and because the lower energy radionuclide may have higher energy emissions which are detected in the higher energy window. The authors have previously described the use of Fourier-based restoration filtering in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) to improve quantitative accuracy by designing a Wiener or other Fourier filter to partially restore the loss of contrast due to scatter and finite spatial resolution effects. The authors describe here the derivation and initial validation of an extension of such filtering for dual-radionuclide imaging that simultaneously (1) improves contrast in each radionuclide's direct image, (2) reduces image noise, and (3) reduces the crosstalk contribution from the other radionuclide. This filter is based on a vector version of the Wiener filter, which is shown to be superior [in the minimum mean square error (MMSE) sense] to the sequential application of separate crosstalk and restoration filters

  18. Are people living next to mobile phone base stations more strained? Relationship of health concerns, self-estimated distance to base station, and psychological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Hacker, Gerhard W

    2009-12-01

    Coeval with the expansion of mobile phone technology and the associated obvious presence of mobile phone base stations, some people living close to these masts reported symptoms they attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Public and scientific discussions arose with regard to whether these symptoms were due to EMF or were nocebo effects. The aim of this study was to find out if people who believe that they live close to base stations show psychological or psychobiological differences that would indicate more strain or stress. Furthermore, we wanted to detect the relevant connections linking self-estimated distance between home and the next mobile phone base station (DBS), daily use of mobile phone (MPU), EMF-health concerns, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, and psychological strain parameters. Fifty-seven participants completed standardized and non-standardized questionnaires that focused on the relevant parameters. In addition, saliva samples were used as an indication to determine the psychobiological strain by concentration of alpha-amylase, cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and substance P. Self-declared base station neighbors (DBS base station neighbors are more strained than others. EMF-related health concerns cannot explain these findings. Further research should identify if actual EMF exposure or other factors are responsible for these results.

  19. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  20. Liquid radwaste process optimization at Catawba Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauthen, B.E.; Taylor, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Since commercial operation in 1985, Catawba Nuclear Station has experienced significant filtration problems with the radioactive liquid waste system. The performance of the filtration and ion exchange equipment has been significantly worse than other Duke Power stations. Full scale tests have been performed to investigate the causes and potential solutions to the waste processing difficulties. The initial waste stream characterization study revealed a large percentage of sub-micron particles. This information immediately suggested that the existing filtration equipment was not adequately sized to effectively process the waste stream. New technologies which would effectively enhance the performance of the processing system and reduce both operating and maintenance costs were researched. This included bag filters, depth filtration, custom designed ion exchange vessels and radionuclide specific ion exchange media. The subsequent full scale testing resulted in a processing scheme which resulted in extended filter life, over 100 percent increase in ion exchange bed life, 90 percent reduction in filter media costs and improved radionuclide removal. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals based on the scandium or rhodium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkowska, A.; Pruszynski, M.; Bilewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides 103m Rh, 105 Rh emitting β-radiation or 47 Sc (Auger electrons emitter) are suitable for treatment small tumors spread over the human tissues. Presented communication describes preliminary results obtained in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland) in the field of obtaining new complexes containing the aforementioned radionuclides. The radionuclides can be produced in the laboratory scale from simple and cheap generators. 103m Rh and 105 Rh cations were complexed with the thioetheric ligand (1,5,9,13-tetrathiacyclahexadecane-3,11-diole) and in the future, after funcionalization with certain biomolecules, are promising radiopharmaceuticals. 47 Sc cation was complexes by one from the following tri- or tetraaza macoryclic ligands: 1,4,7,10-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,7-diacetic acid (DO2A) or 1,4,7,10-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Composition and the stability constants of the complexes were determined

  2. Radionuclide release calculations for selected severe accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.; Leonard, M.T.; Cybulskis, P.; Lee, K.W.; Kelly, R.F.; Jordan, H.; Schumacher, P.M.; Curtis, L.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report provides the results of source term calculations that were performed in support of the NUREG-1150 study. ''Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Power Plants.'' This is the sixth volume of a series of reports. It supplements results presented in the earlier volumes. Analyses were performed for three of the NUREG-1150 plants: Peach Bottom, a Mark I, boiling water reactor; Surry, a subatmospheric containment, pressurized water reactor; and Sequoyah, an ice condenser containment, pressurized water reactor. Complete source term results are presented for the following sequences: short term station blackout with failure of the ADS system in the Peach Bottom plant; station blackout with a pump seal LOCA for the Surry plant; station blackout with a pump seal LOCA in the Sequoyah plant; and a very small break with loss of ECC and spray recirculation in the Sequoyah plant. In addition, some partial analyses were performed which did not require running all of the modules of the Source Term Code Package. A series of MARCH3 analyses were performed for the Surry and Sequoyah plants to evaluate the effects of alternative emergency operating procedures involving primary and secondary depressurization on the progress of the accident. Only thermal-hydraulic results are provided for these analyses. In addition, three accident sequences were analyzed for the Surry plant for accident-induced failure of steam generator tubes. In these analyses, only the transport of radionuclides within the primary system and failed steam generator were examined. The release of radionuclides to the environment is presented for the phase of the accident preceding vessel meltthrough. 17 refs., 176 figs., 113 tabs

  3. Radionuclide data analysis in connection of DPRK event in May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkinen, Mika; Becker, Andreas; Zähringer, Matthias; Polphong, Pornsri; Pires, Carla; Assef, Thierry; Han, Dongmei

    2010-05-01

    The seismic event detected in DPRK on 25.5.2009 was triggering a series of actions within CTBTO/PTS to ensure its preparedness to detect any radionuclide emissions possibly linked with the event. Despite meticulous work to detect and verify, traces linked to the DPRK event were not found. After three weeks of high alert the PTS resumed back to normal operational routine. This case illuminates the importance of objectivity and procedural approach in the data evaluation. All the data coming from particulate and noble gas stations were evaluated daily, some of the samples even outside of office hours and during the weekends. Standard procedures were used to determine the network detection thresholds of the key (CTBT relevant) radionuclides achieved across the DPRK event area and for the assessment of radionuclides typically occurring at IMS stations (background history). Noble gas system has sometimes detections that are typical for the sites due to legitimate non-nuclear test related activities. Therefore, set of hypothesis were used to see if the detection is consistent with event time and location through atmospheric transport modelling. Also the consistency of event timing and isotopic ratios was used in the evaluation work. As a result it was concluded that if even 1/1000 of noble gasses from a nuclear detonation would had leaked, the IMS system would not had problems to detect it. This case also showed the importance of on-site inspections to verify the nuclear traces of possible tests.

  4. Radiation safety assessment of mobile telephone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohd Anuar Majid; Mohd Amirul Nizam

    2002-01-01

    Mobile telephone is fast getting popular among users and in fact it has become one of the fastest selling electronic products in the world. More base stations are expected to be built to meet such high demands and this has caused great concerned among members of the public, especially those living close to the stations, about the potential harmful health effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation produced by such facilities. A project was initiated by MINT in early 2000 with aims to assess the radiation levels present in the areas around the base stations and to establish baseline data on the pattern and trend of the radiation emission from each different set up of the facilities. This paper highlights some basics facts about mobile telephones and preliminary findings of the project. The assessment has been carried out at 16 base station sites and the results indicate that the radiation levels present around these sites are very low. Their broadband readings vary between below the detection limit of 0.3μWatts/cm 2 to 11 μWatts/cm 2 and they are comparable to normal background radiation present in places away from any base stations. The highest level observed was 1.5% of the exposure limit recommended for members of the public. However, locations at close distance in front of the the antenna can be very serious in term of radiation exposure since the radiation level here can easily exceed the permissible exposure limit for public. Safety precaution needs to be taken when entering these areas and they should be out of bound for members of the public. (Author)

  5. Measurements and modelling of base station power consumption under real traffic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  6. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  7. Optimal base station placement for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Jianjun; Shi, Yi; Ding, Xu; Wei, Zhenchun

    2015-01-14

    We consider the base station placement problem for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation (SIC) to improve throughput. We build a mathematical model for SIC. Although this model cannot be solved directly, it enables us to identify a necessary condition for SIC on distances from sensor nodes to the base station. Based on this relationship, we propose to divide the feasible region of the base station into small pieces and choose a point within each piece for base station placement. The point with the largest throughput is identified as the solution. The complexity of this algorithm is polynomial. Simulation results show that this algorithm can achieve about 25% improvement compared with the case that the base station is placed at the center of the network coverage area when using SIC.

  8. Organic material in clay-based buffer materials and its potential impact on radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.; Goulard, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Haveman, S.A.; Bachinski, D.B.; Hamon, C.J.; Comba, R.

    1997-03-01

    AECL has submitted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel disposal at depth in crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. In this disposal concept used fuel would be emplaced in corrosion-resistant containers which would be surrounded by clay-based buffer and backfill materials. Once groundwater is able to penetrate the buffer and corrosion-resistant container, radionuclides could be transported from the waste form to the surrounding geosphere, and eventually to the biosphere. The release of radionuclides from the waste form and their subsequent transport would be determined by the geochemistry of the disposal vault and surrounding geosphere. Organic substances affect the geochemistry of radionuclides through complexation reactions that increase solubility and alter mobility, by affecting the redox of certain radionuclides and by providing food for microbes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the buffer and backfill materials proposed for use in a disposal vault contain organics that could be leached by groundwater in large enough quantities to complex with radionuclides and affect their mobility within the disposal vault and surrounding geosphere. Buffer material, made from a mixture of 50 wt.% Avonlea sodium bentonite and 50 wt.% silica sand, was extracted with deionized water to determine the release of dissolved organic carbon, humic acid and fulvic acid. The effect of radiation and heat from the used fuel was simulated by treating samples of buffer before leaching to various amounts of heat (60 deg C and 90 deg C) for periods of 2, 4 and 6 weeks, and to ionizing radiation with doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy. Humic substances were isolated from the leachates to determine the concentrations of humic and fulvic acids and to determine their functional group content by acid-base titrations. The results showed that groundwater would leach significant amounts of organics that would complex with radionuclides such as

  9. Global risk from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides by nuclear power plant accidents in the coming decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoudias, T.; Proestos, Y. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Lelieveld, J. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We estimate the global risk from the release and atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from nuclear power plant accidents using the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model. We included all nuclear reactors that are currently operational, under construction and planned or proposed. We implemented constant continuous emissions from each location in the model and simulated atmospheric transport and removal via dry and wet deposition processes over 20 years (2010-2030), driven by boundary conditions based on the IPCC A2 future emissions scenario. We present global overall and seasonal risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations and ground deposition of radionuclides, and estimate potential doses to humans from inhalation and ground-deposition exposures to radionuclides. We find that the risk of harmful doses due to inhalation is typically highest in the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter, due to relatively shallow boundary layer development and limited mixing. Based on the continued operation of the current nuclear power plants, we calculate that the risk of radioactive contamination to the citizens of the USA will remain to be highest worldwide, followed by India and France. By including stations under construction and those that are planned and proposed, our results suggest that the risk will become highest in China, followed by India and the USA.

  10. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  11. Measurement and on line control of radioactive contamination of the air using ASS-500 stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagielak, J.; Zak, A.; Biernacka, M.; Isajenko, K.; Lipinski, P.

    1998-01-01

    The method of continuous monitoring of artificial radionuclides in the ground-level atmosphere, used for early warning system in care of nuclear emergencies, is presented. The system consist of the scintillation spectrometer AS-01 mounted in the ASS-500 station cabinet. The results of calibrations and operational tests are given. For continuous operation mode the lower activity concentration limit is 0.44 Bq/m 3 for 131 I and 0.79 Bq/m 3 for 137 Cs. The activity concentration in the air of 10 Bq/m 3 for artificial radionuclides is used as the alarm threshold value. The ASS-500 station equipped with AS-01 spectrometer allows obtaining of the immediate information on the presence of artificial radionuclides in the air. The sampling process is not disturbed by AS-01 spectrometer. Therefore, the determination of the activity concentration in the air on the level of few μBq/m 3 by means of HPGe spectrometers is possible (author)

  12. Radionuclide Sensors for Environmental Monitoring: From Flow Injection Solid-Phase Absorptiometry to Equilibration-Based Preconcentrating Minicolumn Sensors with Radiometric Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Devol, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    The development of in situ sensors for ultratrace detection applications in process control and environmental monitoring remains a significant challenge. Such sensors must meet difficult detection limit requirements while selectively detecting the analyte of interest in complex or otherwise challenging sample matrixes. Nowhere are these requirements more daunting than in the field of radionuclide sensing. The detection limit requirements can be extremely low. Nevertheless, a promising approach to radionuclide sensing based on preconcentrating minicolumn sensors has been developed. In addition, a method of operating such sensors, which we call equilibration-based sensing, has been developed that provides substantial preconcentration and a signal that is proportional to analyte concentration, while eliminating the need for reagents to regenerate the sorbent medium following each measurement. While this equilibration-based sensing method was developed for radionuclide sensing, it can be applied to nonradioactive species as well, given a suitable on-column detection system. By replacing costly sampling and laboratory analysis procedures, in situ sensors could have a significant impact on monitoring and long term stewardship applications. The aim of this review is to cover radionuclide sensors that combine some form of selective sorption with a radiometric detection method, and, as a primary aim, to comprehensively review preconcentrating minicolumn sensors for radionuclide detection. As a secondary aim, we will cover radionuclide sensors that combine sorption and scintillation in formats other than minicolumn sensors. We are particularly concerned with the detection of alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides, which present particular challenges for measurements in liquid media

  13. Impact assessment of radionuclides released to environment from the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.; Andersson, K. [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Ene, D. [European Spallation Soure AB - ESS, Lund (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a large science and technology infrastructure project currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, with operation planned by 2019. The facility design and construction includes a linear proton accelerator, a heavy-metal target station, neutron instruments, laboratories, and a data management and software development centre. During operation the ESS will produce a wide range of radionuclides via spallation and activation processes. Radiological assessments are needed to ensure that operational discharges and releases from potential incidents/accidents are within acceptable limits. The spectrum of radionuclides produced at ESS is quite different from that produced in nuclear power plants and assessment work has therefore been challenged by lack of information on less well-known radionuclides. Traditional assessment methodologies have been applied focusing on releases to air and public sewer systems and calculating radiation doses to representative persons living in and near Lund close to the ESS site. Exposure pathways considered include external radiation from radionuclides in air, external radiation from radionuclides deposited on ground and skin, inhalation of radionuclides and ingestion of locally produced contaminated food. Atmospheric dispersion has been simulated with the Gaussian plume model which is considered adequate within a few kilometres. Effects of release height have been investigated and site specific values of other parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, rain fall etc. have been used. Contamination of food has been calculated from the (ECOSYS) food dose model used in the RODOS and ARGOS decision support systems. The food dose model does not contain specific data for a number of ESS relevant radionuclides, e.g. {sup 7}Be, {sup 32}P and {sup 35}S. The data required include mobility of these isotopes, soil-to-plant concentration ratios and equilibrium transfer factors of daily intake by ingestion of meat

  14. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  15. Adaptive downtilt for cellular base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestrom, R.M.C.; Coenen, T.J.; Smolders, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency, reconfigurability, and power consumption are paramount for future communication systems in applications such as cellular handsets, base stations and home networking systems. We present our work in the European PANAMA project which addresses the associated challenges. Our work focuses on

  16. 47 CFR 90.1331 - Restrictions on the operation of base and fixed stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-3700 MHz Band § 90.1331 Restrictions on the operation of base and fixed stations. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, base and fixed stations may not be located within 150 km of... these stations are available at http://www.fcc.gov/ib/sd/3650/. (2) Base and fixed stations may be...

  17. Radioanalytical technology for 10 CFR Part 61 and other selected radionuclides: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.W.; Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    A comprehensive literature review and assessment was conducted to identify and evaluate radioanalytical technology and procedures used for measuring 10CFR61 radionuclides and other long-lived isotopes. This review evaluated radiochemical procedures currently in use at a number of laboratories in the US, as well as identifying new advanced methods and techniques which could be adapted for routine radiochemical analyses of low-level radioactive waste. The 10CFR61 radionuclides include 14 C, 60 Cl, 59,63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, and TRU isotopes with half lives greater than 5 years. Other low-level radionuclides of interest include 7,10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 93 Mo, 109,113m Cd, and 121m,126 Sn, which may be present in various types of waste streams from nuclear power stations

  18. Partitioning behaviour of natural radionuclides during combustion of coal in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Tiwari, M.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    All fossil fuels contain low levels of naturally occurring radioactive substances. The environmental impact of radionuclide-containing waste products from coal combustion is an important issue. These radionuclides vaporize in the hot portions of the coal combustor and then return to the solid phase in cooler downstream zones. Indian coal used in power plants generally has high ash yield (35-45%) and is of low quality. In the burning process of coal, minerals undergo thermal decomposition, fusion, disintegration, and agglomeration. A major portion of elements in the boiler enter into slag or bottom ash, and the rest of the inorganic materials find their way into the flue gas, in fly ash or vapor. Fly and bottom ash are significant sources of exposure to these radionuclides. In the present study, coal and ash samples collected from six thermal power stations were analyzed to determine their natural radioactivity content and the partitioning behavior of these radionuclides was carried out by tracing their activities in fly and bottom ashes. The partitioning of radionuclides is strongly dependent on the size of associated ash particle. Polonium-210 was mostly associated with the finest fraction and showed large variation with particle size whereas 232 Th showed least dependence on the particle size. The high activities of all radionuclides in fly ashes than that of bottom ashes thus may be due to strong affinity of the nuclides towards the finer particle fractions. All the radionuclide distribution favored small particle sizes

  19. Antenna unit and radio base station therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Mikio; Doi, Nobukazu; Suzuki, Toshiro; Ishida, Yuji; Inoue, Takashi; Niida, Sumaru

    2007-04-10

    Phase and amplitude deviations, which are generated, for example, by cables connecting an array antenna of a CDMA base station and the base station, are calibrated in the baseband. The base station comprises: an antenna apparatus 1; couplers 2; an RF unit 3 that converts a receive signal to a baseband signal, converts a transmit signal to a radio frequency, and performs power control; an A/D converter 4 for converting a receive signal to a digital signal; a receive beam form unit 6 that multiplies the receive signal by semi-fixed weight; a despreader 7 for this signal input; a time-space demodulator 8 for demodulating user data; a despreader 9 for probe signal; a space modulator 14 for user data; a spreader 13 for user signal; a channel combiner 12; a Tx calibrater 11 for controlling calibration of a signal; a D/A converter 10; a unit 16 for calculation of correlation matrix for generating a probe signal used for controlling an Rx calibration system and a TX calibration system; a spreader 17 for probe signal; a power control unit 18; a D/A converter 19; an RF unit 20 for probe signal; an A/D converter 21 for signal from the couplers 2; and a despreader 22.

  20. Data communications method for mobile network in fourth generation communications system, involves delivering decoded data to mobile station from relay station, where mobile station receives data from both relay and base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The method involves utilizing a base station (BS) (100) to transmit data to a relay station (RS) (110) and a mobile station (MS) (120), where the data includes two messages. The BS is utilized to transmit the two messages by utilizing a linear combination method, and the data is received in the RS...

  1. Effects of indoor residence on radiation doses from routine releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Dose reduction factors from indoor residence during routine releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere were studied using models that are suitable for application to arbitrary source terms. Dose reduction factors for internal exposure to inhaled radionuclides account for air ventilation and deposition on inside building surfaces. Estimated internal dose reduction factors are approx. 0.2 to 0.8 for particulates and 0.07 to 0.4 for radioiodine. Dose reduction factors for external photon exposure from airborne and surface-deposited sources are based on the point-kernel integration method. Values for source terms from a fuel reprocessing plant and a hypothetical reactor accident are within a factor of 2 of the value 0.5 adopted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for population dose assessments. For the release at Three Mile Island nuclear station, however, the external dose reduction factor may be an order of magnitude less than the value adopted by the NRC

  2. 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to Space Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  3. HUMTRN: documentation and verification for an ICRP-based age- and sex-specific human simulation model for radionuclide dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Wenzel, W.J.

    1984-06-01

    The dynamic human simulation model HUMTRN is designed specifically as a major module of BIOTRAN to integrate climatic, hydrologic, atmospheric, food crop, and herbivore simulation with human dietary and physiological characteristics, and metabolism and radionuclides to predict radiation doses to selected organs of both sexes in different age groups. The model is based on age- and weight-specific equations developed for predicting human radionuclide transport from metabolic and physical characteristics. These characteristics are modeled from studies documented by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 23). HUMTRN allows cumulative doses from uranium or plutonium radionuclides to be predicted by modeling age-specific anatomical, physiological, and metabolic properties of individuals between 1 and 70 years of age and can track radiation exposure and radionuclide metabolism for any age group for specified daily or yearly time periods. The simulated daily dose integration of eight or more simultaneous air, water, and food intakes gives a new, comprehensive, dynamic picture of radionuclide intake, uptake, and hazard analysis for complex scenarios. A detailed example using site-specific data based on the Pantex studies is included for verification. 14 references, 24 figures, 10 tables

  4. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

  5. Consequence ranking of radionuclides in Hanford tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.A.; De Lorenzo, T.H.

    1995-09-01

    Radionuclides in the Hanford tank waste are ranked relative to their consequences for the Low-Level Tank Waste program. The ranking identifies key radionuclides where further study is merited. In addition to potential consequences for intrude and drinking-water scenarios supporting low-level waste activities, a ranking based on shielding criteria is provided. The radionuclide production inventories are based on a new and independent ORIGEN2 calculation representing the operation of all Hanford single-pass reactors and the N Reactor

  6. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  7. Atmospheric transport modelling for the CTBT radionuclide network in routine operation and after the Fukushima releases; Atmosphaerische Transportmodellierung fuer das Radionuklidmessnetz zur Ueberwachung des Kernwaffenteststoppvertrages im Regelbetrieb und nach den Freisetzungen in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.O.; Ceranna, L.; Boennemann, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). B4.3; Schlosser, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Freiburg (Germany). SW2.5

    2014-01-20

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all types of nuclear explosions. For verification of compliance with Treaty the International Monitoring System (IMS) is being built up by the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the CTBT-Organisation in Vienna. The IMS observes waveform signals (seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic) of explosions and traces of radionuclides in the atmosphere to proof the nuclear character of an event. The International Data Centre (IDC) provides analysis products for the IMS data such as various event bulletins, radionuclide reports, and atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) results confining the possible source region of detected radionuclides. The judgment on the character of a suspicious event remains with the member states. The German National Data Centre for verification of CTBT is hosted by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) in Hannover. The BGR operates four IMS stations (IS26, IS27, PS19, and AS35) and cooperates closely with the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) who operates the radionuclide station RN33 at mount Schauinsland and supports the NDC with radionuclide expertise. In response to the Fukushima accident caused by the large magnitude 9.0 Tohuku Earthquake and Tsunami the HSYSPLIT model driven by 0.5 degree NCEP data was used at the German NDC to simulate the primary transport pathways of potentially emitted radioisotopes. The analysis focuses on arrival times and dilution ratios at the radionuclide stations of the IMS. The arrival times were predicted correctly at most stations for ten days after the accident. Traces of the Fukushima emissions were detected at all IMS radionuclide stations on the Northern Hemisphere end of March. In April also some stations on the Southern Hemisphere detected some traces which passed the ITCZ. In respect to the CTBT context the influence of the Tohoku earthquake and the Fukushima emissions on the network capability to detect a

  8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE, 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001(EPA, 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2010, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000032 mrem/yr, more than 300,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  11. On organization of medical radionuclides production in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelens'kij, V.F.; Pilipenko, M.Yi.; Shulyika, M.G.; Skibyin, V.Yi.; Kostyin, V.Ya.; Vyikman, Ya.E.; Kalmikov, L.Z.; Nesterov, V.G.; Krasnoperova, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    Annual demand for radiopharmaceuticals in Ukraine is about 50.000 GBq and expenses for their purchase are about 1 - 2 mln US dollars per year. It determines expediency of their production in Ukraine. Taking into consideration the fact that one of the aftereffects of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station is inevitable increase of the number of oncological diseases (including malignant growths of the thyroid gland) the demand for radionuclides will be increasing steadily. Therefore, it is clear that organization of the centre for radiopharmaceuticals production will not solve the problem of providing radiological departments with them. One of the possible ways to solve the problem is creation of a network of regional centres for radioactive isotopes production. Realisation of the suggested program will allow to solve the problem of providing the medical establishments of Ukraine with medical radionuclides. Performed technical and economical evaluation shows that the expenses will be compensated in 2.9 years

  12. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  13. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of radionuclide data analysis results of the CTBTO/IDC and the Finnish NDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansaranta, T.; Ala-Heikkilae, J.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-06-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is to operate a world-wide radionuclide monitoring network consisting of 80 measuring stations that transmit daily gamma-ray spectra measured from air filter samples to the International Data Centre (IDC). All spectra are analysed automatically and the results are reviewed interactively by an analyst. Quality of the automated analysis has a substantial impact on the reliability and efficiency of the analysis operation. The Finnish National Data Centre (FiNDC) receives the analysis results and raw spectral data from the IDC and performs radionuclide analysis of the spectra using dedicated Finnish software packages. This work evaluates the differences between the analysis results of the IDC and the FiNDC. The results are studied with respect to the spectrum peak finding, fitting and explaining performance. Furthermore, nuclides associated with the peaks are considered, and an effort is made to approximate the number of spurious nuclide identifications. The material of this work consists of representative sets containing 500 to 1500 spectra and their respective analysis result pairs. The spectra were measured by the five certified radionuclide stations and three prototype stations that were operating between August 1, 2000 and March 26, 2001. In the set of 1500 spectra from eight stations, the FiNDC analysis software package was found to detect 4.2 more peaks per spectrum and to explain 5.6 more peaks per spectrum than the IDC software package, which, in turn, left 1.4 more peaks per spectrum unexplained. The median peak explanation percentages of the FiNDC and IDC were 96.7 and 92.3, respectively. The FiNDC analysis software package was found to report 0.7 more spurious nuclides than the IDC analysis software package. When only the CTBTO relevant nuclides were considered, the difference decreased to 0.05. The throughput times involved with the IDC raw measuring data transfer and automatic analysis result

  15. Exposure to radio waves near mobile phone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, S.M.; Cooper, T.G.; Allen, S.G.; Blackwell, R.P.; Lowe, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of power density have been made at 17 sites where people were concerned about their exposure to radio waves from mobile phone base stations and where technical data, including the frequencies and radiated powers, have been obtained from the operators. Based on the technical data, the radiated power from antennas used with macrocellular base stations in the UK appears to range from a few watts to a few tens of watts, with typical maximum powers around 80 W. Calculations based on this power indicate that compliance distances would be expected to be no more than 3.1 m for the NRPB guidelines and no more than 8.4 m for the ICNIRP public guidelines. Microcellular base stations appear to use powers no more than a few watts and would not be expected to require compliance distances in excess of a few tens of centimetres. Power density from the base stations of interest was measured at 118 locations at the 17 sites and these data were compared with calculations assuming an inverse square law dependence of power density upon distance from the antennas. It was found that the calculations overestimated the measured power density by up to four orders of magnitude at locations that were either not exposed to the main beam from antennas, or shielded by building fabric. For all locations and for distances up to 250 m from the base stations, power density at the measurement positions did not show any trend to decrease with increasing distance. The signals from other sources were frequently found to be of similar strength to the signals from the base stations of interest. Spectral measurements were obtained over the 30 MHz to 2.9 GHz range at 73 of the locations so that total exposure to radio signals could be assessed. The geometric mean total exposure arising from all radio signals at the locations considered was 2 millionths of the NRPB investigation level, or 18 millionths of the lower ICNIRP public reference level; however, the data varied over several decades. The

  16. Design of an MSAT-X mobile transceiver and related base and gateway stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.; Bhaskar, Udaya; Hemmati, Farhad; Mackenthun, Kenneth M.; Shenoy, Ajit

    This paper summarizes the results of a design study of the mobile transceiver, base station, and gateway station for NASA's proposed Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). Major ground segment system design issues such as frequency stability control, modulation method, linear predictive coding vocoder algorithm, and error control technique are addressed. The modular and flexible transceiver design is described in detail, including the core, RF/IF, modem, vocoder, forward error correction codec, amplitude-companded single sideband, and input/output modules, as well as the flexible interface. Designs for a three-carrier base station and a 10-carrier gateway station are also discussed, including the interface with the controllers and with the public-switched telephone networks at the gateway station. Functional specifications are given for the transceiver, the base station, and the gateway station.

  17. Design of an MSAT-X mobile transceiver and related base and gateway stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.; Bhaskar, Udaya; Hemmati, Farhad; Mackenthun, Kenneth M.; Shenoy, Ajit

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a design study of the mobile transceiver, base station, and gateway station for NASA's proposed Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). Major ground segment system design issues such as frequency stability control, modulation method, linear predictive coding vocoder algorithm, and error control technique are addressed. The modular and flexible transceiver design is described in detail, including the core, RF/IF, modem, vocoder, forward error correction codec, amplitude-companded single sideband, and input/output modules, as well as the flexible interface. Designs for a three-carrier base station and a 10-carrier gateway station are also discussed, including the interface with the controllers and with the public-switched telephone networks at the gateway station. Functional specifications are given for the transceiver, the base station, and the gateway station.

  18. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily 210 Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report

  19. Survey of RF exposure levels from mobile telephone base stations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S I; Bangay, M J

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exposure level survey of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy originating from mobile telephone base station antennas. Measurements of CDMA800, GSM900, GSM1800, and 3G(UMTS) signals were performed at distances ranging over 50 to 500 m from 60 base stations in five Australian cities. The exposure levels from these mobile telecommunications base stations were found to be well below the general public exposure limits of the ICNIRP guidelines and the Australian radiofrequency standard (ARPANSA RPS3). The highest recorded level from a single base station was 7.8 x 10(-3) W/m(2), which translates to 0.2% of the general public exposure limit.

  20. The sources and fate of radionuclides emitted to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalls, J.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis represents an account of the sources and fate of radionuclides entering the atmosphere, and indicates where the candidate, through his own work, has contributed to the overall picture. The sources of the natural and man-made radionuclides found in the atmosphere are identified. New data on emissions from UK coal-fired power stations and UK steel works are reported. Radionuclides produced in nuclear fission and released to the atmosphere in the detonation of nuclear weapons, in nuclear accidents, and through routine discharges from nuclear sites have added to the atmospheric burden of radioactive materials; both acute and chronic low-level emissions are discussed. The various natural processes which remove radionuclides from the atmosphere are described. Soon after release, many radioactive materials become attached to the atmospheric aerosol, but others undergo gas-phase reactions. Some gases are sufficiently long-lived in the troposphere as to find their way into the stratosphere where their fate may be determined by the short-wave radiation from the sun. The nature of the particles of fuel emitted to the atmosphere in the explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 are discussed, together with the associated environmental problems. The ground is the major sink for radionuclides leaving the atmosphere, and the behaviour of the more radiologically important radionuclides following deposition is described with special reference to: (i) fallout in both the urban and living environments; (ii) the pathways which may lead to contamination of the food chain; (iii) how the fuel particle fallout from Chernobyl was unique in nuclear accidents; (iv) soil-to-plant transfer of radioelements and (v) how radiation exposure of man can be mitigated in both the contaminated urban and rural environments. (author)

  1. Limitation of radioactive discharges from NPP based on radionuclide specific monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucina, I; Malatova, I; Vidlakova, J [National Radaition Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Monitoring of nuclear power plants (NPP) discharges into atmosphere and hydrosphere based on particulate-iodine-gas (PIG) measurements and gross beta and gamma plus tritium measurements respectively is being improved by nuclide specific measurements employing semiconductor gamma and alpha spectrometry and radiochemical methods. In connection with the progress new concept of authorized effluent limits and the related regulations is being implemented in the Czech Republic. Activities of all principally contributing to the effective dose radionuclides discharges during a year multiplied by a Sv/Bq conversion coefficient based on a standard model are summed up and the effective dose is compared with the new limit. These limits should be authorized for discharges into atmosphere as per caput collective committed effective dose in the NPP surrounding or as its value multiplied by the number of surrounding segment providing thus committed effective dose to member of a vital critical group and into the hydrosphere as committed effective dose to the critical group member. The criteria for obligatory evaluation of the specific radionuclide contribution and the resulting requirements on minimum detectable activities for both the shorter and longer monitoring intervals are included in the new regulations. The PIG and gross activity measurement results will be compared with investigation levels only and no more used for limitation purposes. (authors).

  2. Developing a personal computer based expert system for radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Hakulinen, T.T.

    1990-01-01

    Several expert system development tools are available for personal computers today. We have used one of the LISP-based high end tools for nearly two years in developing an expert system for identification of gamma sources. The system contains a radionuclide database of 2055 nuclides and 48000 gamma transitions with a knowledge base of about sixty rules. This application combines a LISP-based inference engine with database management and relatively heavy numerical calculations performed using C-language. The most important feature needed has been the possibility to use LISP and C together with the more advanced object oriented features of the development tool. Main difficulties have been long response times and the big amount (10-16 MB) of computer memory required

  3. Securing Localization With Hidden and Mobile Base Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Srivastava, Mani; Cagalj, Mario

    2006-01-01

    localization based on hidden and mobile base stations. Our approach enables secure localization with a broad spectrum of localization techniques: ultrasonic or radio, based on received signal strength or signal time of flight. Through several examples we show how this approach can be used to secure nodecentric...

  4. Monitoring of Electromagnetic Radiation from Cellular Base Stations in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Otaibi, A.H.; Al-Ajmi, D.; Williams, T.; McGee, D.; Dennis, J.A.; Beg, M.U.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of the radio frequency electromagnetic environment in Kuwait was carried out. The primary purpose of this survey was to monitor electromagnetic radiation (EMR) field strength levels emitted by cellular base stations installed and operated by the Kuwait Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC). Measurements were made at 26 cellular-phone base stations, chosen as a representative sample to include 14 school sites, 2 residential sites, 2 hospital sites, 3 ministerial building sites, 3 commercial sites and 1 typical stand-alone site. On all the selected sites measurements were made with a spectrum analyser to determine the emission level in the frequency bands used by the base station transmitters (917-960 MHz). The results indicated that total field strength, specifically due to the MTC base stations, found in public access areas, varied generally between 0.05 and 1.13 V.m -1 . These values are in the order of between 40 and 800 times lower than the new pan-European CENELEC pre-standard ENV 50166-2 'Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields'. In terms of power density the highest observed value (0.34 μW.m -2 ) was more than a thousand times below the prescribed standards. (author)

  5. An Improved Method of Pose Estimation for Lighthouse Base Station Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Weng, Dongdong; Li, Dong; Xun, Hang

    2017-10-22

    In 2015, HTC and Valve launched a virtual reality headset empowered with Lighthouse, the cutting-edge space positioning technology. Although Lighthouse is superior in terms of accuracy, latency and refresh rate, its algorithms do not support base station expansion, and is flawed concerning occlusion in moving targets, that is, it is unable to calculate their poses with a small set of sensors, resulting in the loss of optical tracking data. In view of these problems, this paper proposes an improved pose estimation algorithm for cases where occlusion is involved. Our algorithm calculates the pose of a given object with a unified dataset comprising of inputs from sensors recognized by all base stations, as long as three or more sensors detect a signal in total, no matter from which base station. To verify our algorithm, HTC official base stations and autonomous developed receivers are used for prototyping. The experiment result shows that our pose calculation algorithm can achieve precise positioning when a few sensors detect the signal.

  6. Engineering graphics data entry for space station data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The entry of graphical engineering data into the Space Station Data Base was examined. Discussed were: representation of graphics objects; representation of connectivity data; graphics capture hardware; graphics display hardware; site-wide distribution of graphics, and consolidation of tools and hardware. A fundamental assumption was that existing equipment such as IBM based graphics capture software and VAX networked facilities would be exploited. Defensible conclusions reached after study and simulations of use of these systems at the engineering level are: (1) existing IBM based graphics capture software is an adequate and economical means of entry of schematic and block diagram data for present and anticipated electronic systems for Space Station; (2) connectivity data from the aforementioned system may be incorporated into the envisioned Space Station Data Base with modest effort; (3) graphics and connectivity data captured on the IBM based system may be exported to the VAX network in a simple and direct fashion; (4) graphics data may be displayed site-wide on VT-125 terminals and lookalikes; (5) graphics hard-copy may be produced site-wide on various dot-matrix printers; and (6) the system may provide integrated engineering services at both the engineering and engineering management level.

  7. New best estimates for radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils. Part 3: miscellany of radionuclides (Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, I, Se, Sb, Pu, Am, and others)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Garcia, C.; Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.

    2009-01-01

    New best estimates for the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K d ) for a set of radionuclides are proposed, based on a selective data search and subsequent calculation of geometric means. The K d best estimates are calculated for soils grouped according to the texture and organic matter content. For a limited number of radionuclides this is extended to consider soil cofactors affecting soil-radionuclide interaction, such as pH, organic matter content, and radionuclide chemical speciation. Correlations between main soil properties and radionuclide K d are examined to complete the information derived from the best estimates with a rough prediction of K d based on soil parameters. Although there are still gaps for many radionuclides, new data from recent studies improve the calculation of K d best estimates for a number of radionuclides, such as selenium, antimony, and iodine.

  8. Development of Base Transceiver Station Selection Algorithm for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TEMS) equipment was carried out on the existing BTSs, and a linear algorithm optimization program based on the spectral link efficiency of each BTS was developed, the output of this site optimization gives the selected number of base station sites ...

  9. Method of sharing mobile unit state information between base station routers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul Anthony; Rajkumar, Ajay; Sundaram, Ganapathy S.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of operating a first base station router. The method may include transmitting state information associated with at least one inactive mobile unit to at least one second base station router. The state information is usable to initiate an active session with the

  10. Method of sharing mobile unit state information between base station routers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul Anthony; Rajkumar, Ajay; Sundaram, Ganapathy S.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of operating a first base station router. The method may include transmitting state information associated with at least one inactive mobile unit to at least one second base station router. The state information is usable to initiate an active session with the

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Vernon, Vermont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, R.; Bluitt, C.M.

    1993-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station in Vernon, Vermont, during the period August 7 through August 17, 1989. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 300 feet (91 meters) over a 65-square-mile (168-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Vermont Yankee Power Station and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 10 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) and were attributed to naturally occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based open-quotes benchmarkclose quotes exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Rowe, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.; Bluitt, C.M.

    1993-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station in Rowe, Massachusetts, during the period August 17--24, 1989. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 300 feet (91 meters) over an 87-square-mile (225-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Yankee Rowe Power Station and the surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 10 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based ''benchmark'' exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system

  13. Monitoring Method and Apparatus Using Asynchronous, One-Way Transmission from Sensor to Base Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring system is disclosed, which includes a base station and at least one sensor unit that is separate from the base station. The at least one sensor unit resides in a dormant state until it is awakened by the triggering of a vibration-sensitive switch. Once awakened, the sensor may take a measurement, and then transmit to the base station the measurement. Once data is transmitted from the sensor to the base station, the sensor may return to its dormant state. There may be various sensors for each base station and the various sensors may optionally measure different quantities, such as current, voltage, single-axis and/or three-axis magnetic fields.

  14. The influence of soil type and climate on the uptake of radionuclides into wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.G.

    1992-03-01

    The study investigated the uptake by winter wheat of radionuclides deposited onto the soil surface following a hypothetical accidental release to atmosphere from a nuclear power station. A series of lysimeters were filled with four soil types characteristic of wheat growing areas of Europe. Four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 106 Ru, 125 Sb) were watered onto the soil surface and the subsequent contamination of winter wheat crops was monitored over two seasons. Subsidiary experiments considered: effects of ploughing and pot size on root uptake; movement of radionuclides in soil profiles; soil contamination of wheat plants and of grain leaving the field; the influence of climate on root uptake; and, the availability of radionuclides. Compared with the literature, this study found a smaller range of transfer factors appropriate to agricultural soils that predominate in the wheat growing areas of the EEC. The use of pots or tubes to investigate soil-to-plant transfer was justified. The study showed that resuspension of radionuclides bound to soil particles must be considered when assessing soil-to-plant transfer. It was demonstrated that the contribution of soil-bound activity to the radionuclide content of combine harvested grain is underestimated in existing dose assessment methodologies by at least an order of magnitude on average and by over two orders of magnitude in extreme cases. Climatic conditions simulated in a growth chamber had little impact on radionuclide transfer. The relative availability of radionuclides for extraction by ammonium acetate did not reflect percentage transfer to grain. Ploughing reduced uptake by winter wheat, resulted in different patterns of transfer between cultivation treatments and influenced the distribution of activity between grain and straw. Results of this work were used in the development of a multi-compartmental time-dependent model called WHEAT which predicts radionuclide transfer from soil to winter wheat. (author)

  15. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  16. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  17. Optimalisasi Kinerja (Internet Protocol) Ip Clock Pada Jaringan Base Transceiver Station (Bts)

    OpenAIRE

    Budiyanto, Setiyo; Saputra, Apipi

    2016-01-01

    Pada sistem komunikasi GSM (Global System for Mobile), BTS (Base Transceiver Station) merupakan jantung dari sebuah cell site layanan telekomunikasi. BTS merupakan perangkat pemancar dan penerima yang menangani akses radio dan berinteraksi langsung dengan Mobile Station (MS) melalui air interface. Sebuah optimasi kinerja ip clock pada base transceiver station (BTS) metode untuk sinkronisasi jaringan untuk jam global yang berasal dari jam GPS diakuisisi oleh sejumlah BTS. IP clock didistribusi...

  18. Prospect and problems of gas based power stations of NTPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayana, A.

    1993-01-01

    The policy of the Government of India concerning utilisation of natural gas resources of the country has undergone changes over the last few years. The government decided in 1985 to allocate natural gas for power generation and in the year 1986 approved the setting up of the first series of three gas based combined cycle power projects of National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The problems of gas power stations of NTPC are discussed. These are high cost of generation, completion of transmission line works to match with the commissioning of gas power stations, high price of natural gas, and fixation of tariff for sale of power from gas based power stations. (N.B.)

  19. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  20. A mathematical model of the accumulation of radionuclides by oysters (C. virginica) aquacultured in the effluent of a nuclear power reactor to include major biological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Smith, C.W.; Price, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake, accumulation and loss of radionuclides by the American oyster (C. virginica) aquacultured in the effluent of a nuclear power reactor has been measured monthly for 3 yr at four field stations in the Montsweag Estuary of the Sheepscot River and at a control station in the nearby Damariscotta River Estuary, southern central coastal Maine, U.S.A. A mathematical model for the time variation of the specific activity of the oysters has been developed to include the physical half-lives of the various radionuclides, the biological half-lives of the various radionuclides (biological depuration), the water temperature (oyster hibernation) and shell growth. The resulting first order linear differential equation incorporating these phenomena is driven by the liquid radionuclide effluent release of the Maine Yankee Nuclear Reactor. Comparison of the monthly measurements of the specific activity for 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in oysters with model calculations show close agreement over all ranges of variation observed. A special feature of this mathematical model is its ability to describe the non-chemostatic field situation. (author)

  1. Development of the k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis for short-lived radionuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, H.M.; Blaauw, M.; Beasley, D.; Freitas, M.D.C.

    2011-01-01

    The k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis (k0-CNAA) technique has been studied to explore the applicability at the Portuguese research reactor (RPI). In particular, for the determination of elements which form short-lived radionuclides, particularly fluorine (20F, 11.16 s half-life) and

  2. [Electormagnetic field of the mobile phone base station: case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł; Zubrzak, Bartłomiej; Surma, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents changes in the electromagnetic field intensity in a school building and its surrounding after the mobile phone base station installation on the roof of the school. The comparison of EMF intensity measured before the base station was launched (electromagnetic background measurement) and after starting its operation (two independent control measurements) is discussed. Analyses of measurements are presented and the authors also propose the method of the electromagnetic field distribution adjustment in the area of radiation antennas side lobe to reduce the intensity of the EMF level in the base station proximity. The presented method involves the regulation of the inclination. On the basis of the measurements, it was found that the EMF intensity increased in the building and its surroundings, but the values measured with wide margins meet the requirements of the Polish law on environmental protection.

  3. On the effectiveness of single and multiple base station sleep modes in cellular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Marsan, Marco Ajmone; Chiaraviglio, Luca; Ciullo, Delia; Meo, Michela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study base station sleep modes that, by reducing power consumption in periods of low traffic, improve the energy efficiency of cellular access networks. We assume that when some base stations enter sleep mode, radio coverage and service provisioning are provided by the base stations that remain active, so as to guarantee that service is available over the whole area at all times. This may be an optimistic assumption in the case of the sparse base station layouts typical of ru...

  4. [Level of microwave radiation from mobile phone base stations built in residential districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji; Lu, Yiyang; Zhang, Huacheng; Xie, Hebing; Yang, Xinwen

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the condition of microwave radiation pollution from mobile phone base station built in populated area. Random selected 18 residential districts where had base station and 10 residential districts where had no base stations. A TES-92 electromagnetic radiation monitor were used to measure the intensity of microwave radiation in external and internal living environment. The intensities of microwave radiation in the exposure residential districts were more higher than those of the control residential districts (p station, it would gradually weaken with the increase of the distance. The level of microwave radiation in antenna main lobe region is not certainly more higher than the side lobe direction, and the side lobe direction also is not more lower. At the same district, where there were two base stations, the electromagnetic field nestification would take place in someplace. The intensities of microwave radiation outside the exposure windows in the resident room not only changed with distance but also with the height of the floor. The intensities of microwave radiation inside the aluminum alloys security net were more lower than those of outside the aluminum alloys security net (p 0.05). Although all the measure dates on the ground around the base station could be below the primary standard in "environment electromagnetic wave hygienic standard" (GB9175-88), there were still a minorities of windows which exposed to the base station were higher, and the outside or inside of a few window was even higher beyond the primary safe level defined standard. The aluminum alloys security net can partly shield the microwave radiation from the mobile phone base station.

  5. Intercalibration of selected anthropogenic radionuclides for the GEOTRACES Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenna, Timothy C.; Masqué, Pere; Mas, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    As part of the GEOTRACES Program, six laboratories participated in an intercalibration exercise on several anthropogenic radionuclides of interest. The effort was successful for 239,240Pu activity, 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio, and 137Cs activity measured in filtered seawater samples from the Bermuda...... Atlantic Time Series station (BATS) and a site on the continental slope of the Northeastern U.S. A limited number of analyses were reported for 237Np, 241Am, 90Sr, and 238Pu in filtered seawater. Intercalibration of any of the isotopes of interest in filtered particulate matter was unsuccessful due...... to insufficient size of the samples distributed. Methods used were based on traditional radio-counting techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Although the majority of analyses were performed on samples ≥ 60 L, one lab demonstrated the ability to analyze several of the anthropogenic...

  6. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  7. 47 CFR 90.656 - Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of base station licensees of... Bands § 90.656 Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems. (a) The licensees of base stations that provide Specialized Mobile Radio service on a commercial basis of the use of...

  8. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J; Kowall, B; Schmiedel, S; Reis, U; Potthoff, P; Schüz, J; Berg-Beckhoff, G

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18.7% of participants were concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phone base stations, while an additional 10.3% attributed their personal adverse health effects to the exposure from them. Participants who were concerned about or attributed adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations and those living in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station (500 m) reported slightly more health complaints than others. A substantial proportion of the German population is concerned about adverse health effects caused by exposure from mobile phone base stations. The observed slightly higher prevalence of health complaints near base stations can not however be fully explained by attributions or concerns.

  9. Prediction of Radionuclide transfer based on soil parameters: application to vulnerability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, M.; Vidal, M.; Rauret, G.

    1998-01-01

    The multi factorial character of the radiocaesium and radiostrontium soil-to-plan transfer, which depends on the radionuclide level in the soil solution amplified by a plant factor, prevents from establishing univariate relationships between transfer factors and soil and/or plant parameters. The plant factor is inversely proportional to the level of competitive species in the soil solution (Ca and Mg, for radiostrontium, and K and NH 4 for radiocaesium). Radionuclide level in soil solution depends on the radionuclide available fraction and its distribution coefficient. For radiostrontium, this may be obtained from the Cationic Exchange Capacity (CEC), whereas for radiocaesium the Specific Interception Potential should be calculate, both corrected by the concentrations of the competitive species and selectivity coefficients. Therefore, the transfer factor eventually depends on soil solution composition, the available fraction and the number of sorption sites, as well as on the plant factor. For a given plant, a relative sequence of transfer can be set up based solely on soil parameters, since the plant factor is cancelled. This prediction model has been compared with transfer data from experiments with Mediterranean, mineral soils, contaminated with a thermo generated aerosol, and with podzolic and organic soils, contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. These studies revealed that it was possible to predict a relative scale of transfer for any type of soil, also allowing a scale of soil vulnerability to radiostrontium and radiocaesium contamination to be set up. (Author)

  10. Filters for water purification from oil products and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.R.; Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Malikov, Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Purification of waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants is one of the most important problems at present day. One of widely used methods for solving this problem is the ionic exchange method based on using different types of resins and fibroid sorbents. The paper deals with new chemically modified polyester fibroid filters having satisfactory adsorption characteristics. The process of the filter production includes their treatment by acrylo nitrilic emulsion for improving mechanical characteristics. An advantage of the fibroid ion-exchange sorbents over resin is in high rate of a sorption process, effective regeneration and small value of pressure drop of the sorbent layer for purified water. The specific surface of the fibroid sorbents is (2 - 3). 10'4 m 2 / kg, i.e. about 102 times greater than that of the resin (10 2 m 2 / kg). Owing to that fact the rate of the sorption process on the developed fibroid sorbents is much greater than that on the resin. The developed cation- and anion-exchange filters can be used for removing metal ions (Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Co, Cd, Cr, etc.) and organic compounds (M- P 32, M- I 131, M-Mo 99 mTc+99, etc.) from water. Capacity of the cation-exchange sorbents is 0.25 meq/g (Cu 2 +) and that of the anion - exchange is 0.45 meq/g (Cr 6 +). The cation- and anion-exchange filters are also selective for removing radionuclides Cs 134,137, Sr 90, Co 60 and I 129 in presence of Na + , K + , Ca 2 +, Mg 2 +, Cl - ions in water at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. New developed ionic-exchange sorbents have been used in drinking water filters and mini-systems for removing organic and inorganic contaminants, in the equipment for waste water purification from oil products (at atomic power stations, car-washing stations, etc), from heavy metal ions (in electronic industry, match fabrics, leather processing plants etc)

  11. 78 FR 6344 - Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations... communications base stations and components thereof. The complaint names as respondents Telefonaktiebolaget LM...

  12. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology

  13. 78 FR 13895 - Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications base stations... United States after importation of certain wireless communications base stations and components thereof... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-871] Certain Wireless Communications Base...

  14. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  15. The radionuclide migration model in river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, M.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It was propose the model of radionuclide migration in river system based on principle of the compartmental model at hydraulically stationary and chemically equilibrium conditions of interaction of radionuclides in system water-dredge, water-sediments. Different conditions of radioactive contamination entry in river system were considered. The model was verified on the data of radiation monitoring of Iput' river

  16. Monitoring of radioactivity in the environs of Finnish nuclear power stations in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K.L.; Aaltonen, H.; Klemola, S.; Arvela, H.

    1987-06-01

    Results of the environmental programmes monitoring radioactivity around the Finnish nuclear power stations in 1986 are reported. After the end of April the fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident predominated in all samples taken from the environs of the two power stations Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Radionuclides originating from the Finnish power stations were detected mainly in samples taken from the aquatic environment. The concentrations of the locally discharged nuclides were very low in comparison with the fallout nuclides and their impact on the radiation doses of the population was insignificant. Both nuclear power stations are situated in the main fallout area in Finland. The results of these large monitoring programmes give a good picture of the behaviour of the Chernobyl fallout in the specific areas in Finland

  17. Site selection model for new metro stations based on land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Chen, Xuewu

    2015-12-01

    Since the construction of metro system generally lags behind the development of urban land use, sites of metro stations should adapt to their surrounding situations, which was rarely discussed by previous research on station layout. This paper proposes a new site selection model to find the best location for a metro station, establishing the indicator system based on land use and combining AHP with entropy weight method to obtain the schemes' ranking. The feasibility and efficiency of this model has been validated by evaluating Nanjing Shengtai Road station and other potential sites.

  18. Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)]. E-mail: narayanay@yahoo.com; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Avadhani, D.N.; Mahesh, H.M.; Siddappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)

    2000-09-01

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. As part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. The concentration of {sup 90}Sr is very low in most of the samples. Among the samples analysed for the concentration of {sup 137}Cs, soil samples showed elevated levels of activity in some sampling stations. Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of {sup 90}Sr through diet was 0.42 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the vegetarian population and 0.32 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the non-vegetarian population. The internal dose due to dietary intake of {sup 137}Cs was found to be 0.34 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} and 0.26 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} respectively for the vegetarian and non-vegetarian population. The results are discussed in the light of the literature values reported for other environs of India and abroad and appropriate inferences are drawn. (author)

  19. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  20. The distribution of radionuclides between the sediments and macrophytes in the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP - The Distribution of Radionuclides in Freshwater Hydro Ecosystem's Bottom Sediments and Macrophytes depending on the Ecological Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciulioniene, D.; Jefanova, O.; Mazeika, J.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of 137 Cs, 60 Co, 54 Mn in the aquatory of lake Drukshiai (the monitoring stations), the coastal area of this lake, the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed on the basis of long-term (1988-2009) investigations of radionuclides specific activity in bottom sediments and macrophytes, also the ability of radionuclides falling into lake Drukshiai from the Ignalina NPP through effluents channels was assessed. It was established that 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn in the bottom sediments and the macrophytes were distributed quite differently in the monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai and the coastal area as well as in the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP. The different characteristics of the sediments, various ecological conditions, as well as the existing anthropogenic environmental factors and the different in the ecological groups of the plants could have had impact on the distribution of 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn in the bottom sediments and the aquatic plants in lake Drukshiai and the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. The 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn specific activity's values were significantly higher in macrophytes from the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP than in macrophytes from the cooling water channel. Nevertheless the specific activities level of these radionuclides differed only slightly in the macrophytes from the areas which were impacted by the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. This can be explained by the fact that the phyto-remediation (as the form of auto-purification) of these effluents from the radionuclides had been present in the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP before entering the water into lake Drukshiai. (authors)

  1. Radionuclide identification algorithm for organic scintillator-based radiation portal monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit, E-mail: mpaff@umich.edu; Di Fulvio, Angela; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2017-03-21

    We have developed an algorithm for on-the-fly radionuclide identification for radiation portal monitors using organic scintillation detectors. The algorithm was demonstrated on experimental data acquired with our pedestrian portal monitor on moving special nuclear material and industrial sources at a purpose-built radiation portal monitor testing facility. The experimental data also included common medical isotopes. The algorithm takes the power spectral density of the cumulative distribution function of the measured pulse height distributions and matches these to reference spectra using a spectral angle mapper. F-score analysis showed that the new algorithm exhibited significant performance improvements over previously implemented radionuclide identification algorithms for organic scintillators. Reliable on-the-fly radionuclide identification would help portal monitor operators more effectively screen out the hundreds of thousands of nuisance alarms they encounter annually due to recent nuclear-medicine patients and cargo containing naturally occurring radioactive material. Portal monitor operators could instead focus on the rare but potentially high impact incidents of nuclear and radiological material smuggling detection for which portal monitors are intended.

  2. Radionuclide identification algorithm for organic scintillator-based radiation portal monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit; Di Fulvio, Angela; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed an algorithm for on-the-fly radionuclide identification for radiation portal monitors using organic scintillation detectors. The algorithm was demonstrated on experimental data acquired with our pedestrian portal monitor on moving special nuclear material and industrial sources at a purpose-built radiation portal monitor testing facility. The experimental data also included common medical isotopes. The algorithm takes the power spectral density of the cumulative distribution function of the measured pulse height distributions and matches these to reference spectra using a spectral angle mapper. F-score analysis showed that the new algorithm exhibited significant performance improvements over previously implemented radionuclide identification algorithms for organic scintillators. Reliable on-the-fly radionuclide identification would help portal monitor operators more effectively screen out the hundreds of thousands of nuisance alarms they encounter annually due to recent nuclear-medicine patients and cargo containing naturally occurring radioactive material. Portal monitor operators could instead focus on the rare but potentially high impact incidents of nuclear and radiological material smuggling detection for which portal monitors are intended.

  3. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  4. Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A Concern for Public ... as well as safety guidelines relating to exposure of non-ionizing radiation. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) operators claimed that their ...

  5. System of wireless base stations employing shadow prices for power load balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    In one aspect, a system is provided. In one embodiment, the system includes a plurality of wireless base stations that are located in a contiguous spatial coverage region of a cellular communication system. Each wireless base station that is configured to generate a coverage pilot beam to enable

  6. Radionuclide power source for artificial heart autonomic apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarenko, Yu V; Gusev, V V; Pustovalov, A A

    1988-02-01

    Works on creating autonomous artificial heart devices with radionuclide heat source are described. Calculated and experimental parameters of /sup 238/Pu base radionuclide thermoelectric RITEG generators designed for supplying perspective blood pump electric drives are presented. RITEG structure is described and the prospects of increasing its efficiency are shown.

  7. Development of a portable equipment for identification of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Marcos Santana; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R. de; Nedjah, Nadia; Mourelle, Luiza de Macedo

    2014-01-01

    The rapid and automatic identification of radionuclides present in a radioactive sample detected in the field, is information that helps in decision making. In areas of high traffic of people and materials, such as ports and airports as well as at major events, radiation monitoring, together with the identification of the radionuclide, it is advisable within protective standards to the public. The correct identification of radionuclides depends on the ability to determine whether specific peaks energy sources are present in the spectrum of gamma radiation sources. Radionuclides can be identified by these energy characteristics in the sense that the energy value associated with these peaks in the spectrum corresponds to the radiation sources present in the sample. There are many methods that can be used for automatic identification of radionuclides. Most of them are based on software algorithms for the detection of peaks in the energy spectrum. Processing time of these tasks can be very long for applications requiring quick responses, as in equipment portable. A dedicated digital hardware offers better performance for tasks with high processing demand like this. This work shows the development of a handle Portable radionuclides based on a digital hardware solution using a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) for implementing a clustering algorithm for the detection of energy peaks. (author)

  8. Properties of Douglas Point Generating Station heat transport corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, B.; Rummery, T.E.

    1975-09-01

    Chemical, radiochemical and structural properties of circulating and fixed corrosion products from the Douglas Point Generating Station are documented. Interaction of Monel-400 and carbon steel corrosion products is described, and the mechanisms of Monel-400 surface deposit release, and activity buildup in the coolant system, are briefly discussed. Efficiencies of filters and ion-exchangers for the removal of released radionuclides are given. (author)

  9. Aerial radiological survey of the creeks and tributaries near the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generation Station, Clay Station, California. Date of survey: December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    Radiological contamination due to man-made radionuclides was detected using hand-held instruments in the summer of 1984 in the creeks and tributaries near the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station at Clay Station, California. To help determine the extent of the contamination an aerial radiological survey centered over the creeks and tributaries and including the Rancho Seco facility was conducted during the period 3 to 15 December 1984. Radiological contaminants were detected along a 9-mile segment of the system of creeks in the area. These contaminants included cesium-134, cesium-137, and cobalt-60. Radiation measurements away from the contaminated areas were the same as those made during the aerial radiological survey conducted in 1980

  10. Criteria of reference radionuclides for safety analysis of spent fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    1998-01-01

    Study on the criteria for reference radionuclides selection for assessment on spent fuel disposal have done. The reference radionuclides in this study means radionuclides are predicted to contribute of the most radiological effect for man if spent fuel waste are discharged on deep geology formation. The research was done by investigate critically of parameters were used on evaluation a kind of radionuclide. Especially, this research study of parameter which relevant disposal case and or spent fuel waste on deep geology formation . The research assumed that spent fuel discharged on deep geology by depth 500-1000 meters from surface of the land. The migration scenario Radionuclides from waste form to man was assumed particularly for normal release in which Radionuclides discharge from waste form in a series thorough container, buffer, geological, rock, to fracture(fault) and move together with ground water go to biosphere and than go into human body. On this scenario, the parameter such as radionuclides inventory, half life, heat generation, hazard index based on maximum permissible concentration (MPC) or annual limit on intake (ALI) was developed as criteria of reference radionuclides selection. The research concluded that radionuclides inventory, half live, heat generated, hazard index base on MPC or ALI can be used as criteria for selection of reference Radionuclide. The research obtained that the main radionuclides are predicted give the most radiological effect to human are as Cs-137, Sr-90, I-129, Am-243, Cm-244, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240. The radionuclides reasonable to be used as reference radionuclides in safety analysis at spent fuel disposal. (author)

  11. Establishment of bases for joint study and cooperation on long-lived radionuclides transmutation between Korea and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Jik; Shim, Joon Bo; Choi, Chang Joo; Park, Won Seok; Song, Tae Young; Kim, Chang Kyu; Kil, Choong Sup

    2003-02-01

    The most important technical fields related to transmutation are partitioning of long-lived radionuclides and transmutation system to be used for converting them into short-lived or stable radionuclides. Technical cooperation between Korea and Russia is needed because Russia has an unequalled position in the fields of development of the fast reactors and pyrochemical processes around the world. The aim of this project is an establishment of bases for coordination on transmutation technology between Korea and Russia. State of the art of domestic and foreign countries upon partitioning of long-lived radionuclides, transmutation system and Gen IV development was summarized. Also, the 7th Korea-Russia joint coordination committee meeting and the 1st joint workshop were held as a result of this project. Technical fields and scheme on future cooperation between Korea and Russia were discussed and agreed in the course of the meetings

  12. Radionuclide analysis and scaling factors verification for LLRW of Taipower Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.-Y.; Liu, K.-T.; Chen, S.-C.; Chang, T.-M.; Pung, T.-C.; Men, L.-C.; Wang, S.-J.

    2004-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Council of the Republic of China (CAEC) final disposal policy for Low Level Radwaste (LLRW) will be carried on in 1996. Institute of Nuclear Energy Research has the contract to develop the Radionuclide analysis method and to establish the scaling factors for LLRW of Taipower reactors. The radionuclides analyzed including: Co-60, Cs-137, Ce-144, γ-nuclides; H-3, C-14, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, Tc-99, I-129, Pu-238, Pu-239/240, Pu-241, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244 α, β and low energy γ nuclides. 120 samples taken from 21 waste streams were analyzed and the database was collected within 2 years. The scaling factors for different kind of waste streams were computed with weighted log-mean average method. In 1993, the scaling factors for each waste stream has been verified through actual station samples. (author)

  13. Radionuclide concentrations in ground level air and precipitation in South Germany from 1976 to 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1983-08-01

    The activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear test explosions and of Be-7 in ground level air and precipitation have been determined by the Institut fuer Strahlenschutz at Munich-Neuherberg since 1970. While methods and results from 1970 to 1975 have been published in a previous report, the present report describes the revised program which includes now the naturally occurring nuclides Pb-210 and Po-210, as well as H-3. Sampling methods, analytical techniques and measuring procedures are given. The results up to the end of 1982 are reported and seasonal and long-term variations of radionuclide concentrations as well as frequency distributions of the data are discussed. The data are compared with those of other stations. As a consequence of some recent atmospheric nuclear test explosions by the People's Republic of China also short-lived radionuclides have been detected in ground level air and precipitation. The radiation exposure due to the radioactivity in ground level air and precipitation is estimated. (orig.)

  14. Research on Single Base-Station Distance Estimation Algorithm in Quasi-GPS Ultrasonic Location System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X C; Su, S J; Wang, Y K; Du, J B [Instrument Department, College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, ChangSha, Hunan, 410073 (China)

    2006-10-15

    In order to identify each base-station in quasi-GPS ultrasonic location system, a unique pseudo-random code is assigned to each base-station. This article primarily studies the distance estimation problem between Autonomous Guide Vehicle (AGV) and single base-station, and then the ultrasonic spread-spectrum distance measurement Time Delay Estimation (TDE) model is established. Based on the above model, the envelope correlation fast TDE algorithm based on FFT is presented and analyzed. It shows by experiments that when the m sequence used in the received signal is as same as the reference signal, there will be a sharp correlation value in their envelope correlation function after they are processed by the above algorithm; otherwise, the will be no prominent correlation value. So, the AGV can identify each base-station easily.

  15. Research on Single Base-Station Distance Estimation Algorithm in Quasi-GPS Ultrasonic Location System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X C; Su, S J; Wang, Y K; Du, J B

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify each base-station in quasi-GPS ultrasonic location system, a unique pseudo-random code is assigned to each base-station. This article primarily studies the distance estimation problem between Autonomous Guide Vehicle (AGV) and single base-station, and then the ultrasonic spread-spectrum distance measurement Time Delay Estimation (TDE) model is established. Based on the above model, the envelope correlation fast TDE algorithm based on FFT is presented and analyzed. It shows by experiments that when the m sequence used in the received signal is as same as the reference signal, there will be a sharp correlation value in their envelope correlation function after they are processed by the above algorithm; otherwise, the will be no prominent correlation value. So, the AGV can identify each base-station easily

  16. Polycapillary based μXRF station for 3D colour tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampai, D.; Cherepennikov, Yu. M.; Liedl, A.; Cappuccio, G.; Capitolo, E.; Iannarelli, M.; Azzutti, C.; Gladkikh, Yu. P.; Marcelli, A.; Dabagov, S. B.

    2018-04-01

    The "Rainbow X-Ray" (RXR) experimental station at XLab Frascati of the Frascati's National Laboratories (LNF) INFN is a dedicated station for X-ray fluorescence studies based on the use of polycapillary lenses in a confocal geometry. The flexible RXR layout allows investigating specimens of the dimensions ranging from several millimeters up to half meter and weighting up to several tens of kilograms. Compared to similar existing XRF stations, apart of the possibility for investigating large samples, the main advantage of this equipment is the detection system with two spectrometers optimized to work separately at high and at low X-ray energies. The confocal geometry combined with a 3-axes fine motion system makes possible 3D μXRF elemental tomographic acquisitions (colour tomography). At present this station in operation at high XRF energies is used for cultural heritage and geological applications. We present and discuss here the analytical performances of this experimental station pointing out the advantages in different application areas.

  17. Base Station Antenna Pattern Distortion in Practical Urban Deployment Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2014-01-01

    In real urban deployments, base station antennas are typically not placed in free space conditions. Therefore, the radiation pattern can be affected by mounting structures and nearby obstacles located in the proximity of the antenna (near-field), which are often not taken into consideration. Also...... presents a combination of near-field and far-field simulations aimed to provide an overview of the distortion experienced by the base station antenna pattern in two different urban deployment scenarios: rooftop and telecommunications tower. The study illustrates how, in comparison with the near...

  18. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  19. Electromagnetic fields from base stations for cellular mobile telephones. Measurements around base stations in the Oslo area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannevik, Merete

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of radio frequent radiation from base station antennas for cellular mobile telephony have been performed. Measurements were performed inside the buildings in the area just behind or below antennas mounted on the wall or rooftop on buildings and on the ground below tower-mounted antennas. Except from the area 2-3 meters just in front of the antennas the electrical field levels were well below the international guidelines. (Author)

  20. Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Distribution around Mobile Base Stations in Makurdi, Benue State

    OpenAIRE

    J.T. Iortile; E.H. Agba

    2014-01-01

    The radiofrequency field levels of selected MTN and ZAIN base stations in Makurdi were measured using electromagnetic field tester (EMF 827, Lutron). Measurements were done at distances of approximately 5.00, 10.00, 15.00 and 20.00 metres for each base station at the North, South, West, and East directions. Results shows that the average magnetic field levels of MTN and ZAIN base station ranged between 0.09 μT to 0.15 μT. The mean electric field values for eye, brain and muscles ranged betwee...

  1. Public safety assessment of electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhekail, Z O; Hadi, M A; Alkanhal, M A

    2012-09-01

    Exposure of the general public to electromagnetic radiation originating from randomly selected GSM/WCDMA base stations in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The purpose of the measurement was to record the maximum power density of signals to estimate possible worst case exposure at each measurement location. These power density measurements were carried out at 60 mobile base stations located in different regions of the city. For each of these sites, three sectors were operational, yielding a total of 180 sectors. Two positions were identified per site with the greatest power density values. Exposures from these base stations were generally found to be in the range of 0.313 to 0.00000149% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure near any of the base stations was 21.96 mW m(-2) for a wideband measurement in the 75-3000 MHz frequency range. Analysis of the measured data reveals several trends for different mobile bands with respect to maximum exposure in those locations. Additionally, a simplified calculation method for the electromagnetic fields was used to compare calculated and the measured data. It was determined, on the basis of both results of the measurements and calculations carried out for these selected base stations, that members of the public would not be exposed to in excess of a small fraction of the ICNIRP guidelines at any of those sites. These are first such measurements to be made in the Middle East and provide assurance that exposures in this region of the world do not seem to be any greater than elsewhere.

  2. Improving global laboratory capabilities for emergency radionuclide bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.; Jourdain, J.; Kramer, G. H.

    2012-01-01

    During a radiological or nuclear emergency, first-responders and the general public may be internally contaminated with the radionuclide(s) involved. A timely radionuclide bioassay provides important information about contamination, for subsequent dose assessment and medical management. Both technical and operational gaps are discussed in this paper. As many people may need to be assessed in a short period of time, any single laboratory may find its capabilities insufficient. Laboratories from other regions or other countries may be called upon for assistance. This paper proposes a road-map to improve global capabilities in emergency radionuclide bioassay, suggesting a phased approach for establishing a global laboratory network. Existing international collaboration platforms could provide the base on which to build such a network. (authors)

  3. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  4. Contaminants and nutrients in variable sea areas (Canvas). Application of automatic monitoring stations in the German marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, H.; Bruegge, B.; Sterzenbach, D.; Knauth, H.D.; Schroeder, F.

    1999-01-01

    Permanent observation of parameters at sea stations can only be obtained by automatic sampling. The MERMAID technique developed in former projects provides a possibility to run automatic stations within the German MARNET measuring stations to obtain data on nutrients concentration on line and to collect organic micropollutants and the radionuclide 137 Cs by solid phase extraction from seawater and subsequent analysis in the laboratory. The BSH MARNET consists of ten stations located in the German Bight sector of the North Sea and the western Baltic. First results from the time series of nutrient and organic micropollutant concentrations has been presented

  5. Measurements of MIMO Indoor Channels at 1800 MHz with Multiple Indoor and Outdoor Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaldén Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes several configurations for multiple base stations in indoor MIMO systems and compares their performance. The results are based on channel measurements realized with a MIMO testbed. The receiver was moved along several routes and floors on an office building. Both outdoor and indoor locations are considered for the transmitters or base stations, which allow the analysis of not only indoor but also outdoor-to-indoor environment. The use of 2 base stations with different system level combinations of the two is analyzed. We show that the configuration with base station selection provides almost as good performance as a full water-filling scheme when the 2 base stations are placed at different locations. Also the spatial correlation properties for the different configurations are analyzed and the importance of considering path loss when evaluating capacity is highlighted.

  6. Greening radio access networks using distributed base station architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Several actions for developing environmentally friendly technologies have been taken in most industrial fields. Significant resources have also been devoted in mobile communications industry. Moving towards eco-friendly alternatives is primarily a social responsibility for network operators....... However besides this, increasing energy efficiency represents a key factor for reducing operating expenses and deploying cost effective mobile networks. This paper presents how distributed base station architectures can contribute in greening radio access networks. More specifically, the advantages...... energy saving. Different subsystems have to be coordinated real-time and intelligent network nodes supporting complicated functionalities are necessary. Distributed base station architectures are ideal for this purpose mainly because of their high degree of configurability and self...

  7. Programmable Ultra-Lightweight System Adaptable Radio Satellite Base Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta; Sims, Herb

    2015-01-01

    With the explosion of the CubeSat, small sat, and nanosat markets, the need for a robust, highly capable, yet affordable satellite base station, capable of telemetry capture and relay, is significant. The Programmable Ultra-Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) is NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) software-defined digital radio, developed with previous Technology Investment Programs and Technology Transfer Office resources. The current PULSAR will have achieved a Technology Readiness Level-6 by the end of FY 2014. The extensibility of the PULSAR will allow it to be adapted to perform the tasks of a mobile base station capable of commanding, receiving, and processing satellite, rover, or planetary probe data streams with an appropriate antenna.

  8. Research on Application of Automatic Weather Station Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianyun, Chen; Yunfan, Sun; Chunyan, Lin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the Internet of Things is briefly introduced, and then its application in the weather station is studied. A method of data acquisition and transmission based on NB-iot communication mode is proposed, Introduction of Internet of things technology, Sensor digital and independent power supply as the technical basis, In the construction of Automatic To realize the intelligent interconnection of the automatic weather station, and then to form an automatic weather station based on the Internet of things. A network structure of automatic weather station based on Internet of things technology is constructed to realize the independent operation of intelligent sensors and wireless data transmission. Research on networking data collection and dissemination of meteorological data, through the data platform for data analysis, the preliminary work of meteorological information publishing standards, networking of meteorological information receiving terminal provides the data interface, to the wisdom of the city, the wisdom of the purpose of the meteorological service.

  9. Radionuclide getters in the near-field chemistry of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, T.R.; Lee, D.J.

    1991-06-01

    The solubility of many radionuclides in a radwaste repository will be limited by the high pH of the cement based system. However, the inclusion of specific sorbing media, within the cement backfill, offers the ability to improve the retention of the more mobile radionuclides, such as caesium and iodine; thereby further reducing their environmental impact. This programme of work is intended to assess the radionuclide sorption efficiency of selected inorganic getters incorporated in cement. (author)

  10. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1988-12-01

    The study of radionuclide migration through rock is currently of great interest due to its relevance to the possible escape paths into the biosphere of radionuclides released from high level radioactive wastes burried in deep geological repositories. While water will provide the vehicle for transportation, interaction with geological material may greatly influence the radionuclide movement relative that of water. A flow system for laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in natural fissures in granitic rock under reducing conditions is described. The system based on the use of synthetic ground water equilibrated with granitic rock in a well sealed system, allow experiments to be carried out at -240 mV reduction potential. In flow experiments with technetium the retardation was found to be dependent on the method used for reducing TcO 4 - . The preparation of the tracer solutions is crucial, as some of the redox-reactions may be very slow. The dynamics of the Tc(VII) reduction and also speciation need to be carried out in separate experiments. (4 illustrations, 5 tables)

  11. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  12. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  13. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  14. Radionuclide ratios of cesium and strontium in Tarapur marine environment, west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, A.; Rao, D.D.; Chandramouli, S.; Iyer, R.S.; Hegde, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Marine environment of Tarapur located 100 km north of Mumbai on the west coast, receives low level liquid waste from Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) and Fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP). Radionuclide ratios of cesium and strontium were obtained in source term (the quantum of radioactive liquid waste available for discharge) and different marine samples viz, seawater, sediment, seaweed and marine organisms. A constant ratio of 137 Cs: 134 Cs was observed in seawater and source term. But the ratio of 137 Cs: 90 Sr had wide variation due to selective scavenging of 137 Cs by sedimentary particles at the discharge location. Among the other matrices, sediment showed a higher value of 137 Cs: 134 Cs and 137 Cs: 90 Sr reflecting the cumulative effects of releases from TAPS and FRP and higher distribution coefficient of radiocesium from seawater to sediment. Marine algae indicate a discrimination against sorption of 90 Sr due to the isotopic dilution by stable strontium present in seawater (8mg/l). The marine organisms preying on sediment containing microflora and fauna exhibited radionuclide ratios similar to seawater as the sediment sorbed cesium is not available for assimilation due to the mineral nature of the sediment. The matrices other than sediment indicated the equilibrated activity ratio of radionuclides in seawater which is the recipient medium and reflected the influence of continuous discharge. The sedimentary radionuclide ratio is largely dependent on sorption characteristics of radionuclides and their retention. (author)

  15. Radionuclide withdrawal from animal and human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A.S.; Sidorova, T.F.

    1995-01-01

    The authors review the history of the problem of radionuclide withdrawal from animal and human body and discuss methodological approaches to it. Results of studies of radionuclide elimination by means of chemical and bioactive substances are analyzed. Special attention is paid to decorporation of radioactive elements which are the most hazardous as regards intoxication in connection with the Chernobyl accident: 131 I, 89 St and 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, and 241 Am. The authors analyze the results of studies of radionuclide withdrawal based on the dissolution effect, ionic antagonism, and by means of complexons, carried out in humans and animals. Efficacies of alimentary fibers and other adsorbents, foodstuffs and drinks are demonstrated. 48 refs

  16. Enhancing base station connectivity with directional information of movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High-performance smartphones with various sensor capabilities, including the inertial measurement unit, allow us to have higher freedom to localize our movements and utilize them for other applications. In this paper, we present a simple method to estimate the heading of a user using only a digital compass, accelerometer, and gyroscope. Several experiments were conducted using an Apple iPhone. In addition, we also present an algorithm to reduce the number of handover attempts in a dense base station environment. A series of simulations were conducted on OPNET in various emulated environments to present the effectiveness of the proposed method. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm effectively reduces the ping-pong effect in a dense base station environment.

  17. Application of radionuclide imaging in hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yumin; Yan Jue

    2011-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormone. Excessive parathyroid hormone secretion may be due to problems in the glands themselves, or may be secondary HPT. The diagnosis is mainly based on the patient's medical history and biochemical tests. The best treatment nowadays is surgical removal of the overactive parathyroid glands or adenoma. The imaging methods for the preoperative localization diagnosis include radionuclide imaging,ultrasonography, CT, MRI, etc. This article was a summary of HPT radionuclide imaging. (authors)

  18. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  19. Relating β+ radionuclides' properties by order theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, N.Y.; Guillermo Restrepo; Cohen, I.M.; Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires

    2013-01-01

    We studied 27 β + radionuclides taking into account some of their variants encoding information of their production, such as integral yield, threshold energy and energy of projectiles used to generate them; these radionuclides are of current use in clinical diagnostic imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). The study was conducted based on physical, physico-chemical, nuclear, dosimetric and quantum properties, which characterise the β + radionuclides selected, with the aim of finding meaningful relationships among them. In order to accomplish this objective the mathematical methodology known as formal concept analysis was employed. We obtained a set of logical assertions (rules) classified as implications and associations, for the set of β + radionuclides considered. Some of them show that low mass defect is related to high and medium values of maximum β + energy, and with even parity and low mean lives; all these parameters are associated to the dose received by a patient subjected to a PET analysis. (author)

  20. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Ghazzai, Hakim; Kadri, Abdullah; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two

  1. Internal exposure profile of occupational workers of a BWR type atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.G.; Bhat, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    The internal exposure profile of major radionuclides, for Tarapur Atomic Power Station (India) occupational staff for the last 9 years (1970-1978) of station operation, is presented. This power station has two boiling water reactor units. The occupational staff were monitored for internal exposure with the whole body counter. It has been observed that 60 Co, 134 Cs and 137 Cs are major contaminants. The highest yearly average of internal exposure was less than 1% of maximum permissible body burden recommended by ICRP. Depending on the nature of exposures the power station employees were classified under four different groups, (i) maintenance, (ii) operations, (iii) techanical and (iv) non-technical. This study revealed that maintenance group had highest incidence of internal exposure among these. It is also observed that contribution of 60 Co is maximum in the exposure of this group. (B.G.W.)

  2. Twenty-five years of environmental radionuclide concentrations near a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles; Kreeger, Danielle; Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John

    2015-05-01

    The areas in and along a 262-km length of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania were monitored for the presence of radioactive materials. This study began two months after the 1979 Three Mile Island (TMI) partial reactor meltdown; it spanned the next 25 y. Monitoring points included stations at the PPL Susquehanna and TMI nuclear power plants. Monthly gamma measurements document concentrations of radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic sources. During this study, various series of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentration measurements were made in many general categories of animals, plants, and other inorganic matter. Sampling began in 1979 before the first start-up of the PPL Susquehanna power plant. Although all species were not continuously monitored for the entire period, an extensive database was compiled. In 1986, the ongoing measurements detected fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. These data may be used in support of dose or environmental transport calculations.

  3. IAEA-RML-2014-02 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) has been providing quality support products and services for the past 50 years. These include the organization of proficiency tests and laboratory comparisons, and the production of certified reference materials, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a third proficiency test was organized in the framework of the technical cooperation project entitled Marine Benchmark Study on the Possible Impact of the Fukushima Radioactive Releases in the Asia-Pacific Region, to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. This exercise was initiated to support Member States in seawater analyses of tritium, strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment

  4. Mobile phone base stations and early childhood cancers: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B; Bennett, J; Beale, L; de Hoogh, K; Best, N; Briggs, D J

    2010-06-22

    To investigate the risk of early childhood cancers associated with the mother's exposure to radiofrequency from and proximity to macrocell mobile phone base stations (masts) during pregnancy. Case-control study. Cancer registry and national birth register data in Great Britain. 1397 cases of cancer in children aged 0-4 from national cancer registry 1999-2001 and 5588 birth controls from national birth register, individually matched by sex and date of birth (four controls per case). Incidence of cancers of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and all cancers combined, adjusted for small area measures of education level, socioeconomic deprivation, population density, and population mixing. Mean distance of registered address at birth from a macrocell base station, based on a national database of 76,890 base station antennas in 1996-2001, was similar for cases and controls (1107 (SD 1131) m v 1073 (SD 1130) m, P=0.31), as was total power output of base stations within 700 m of the address (2.89 (SD 5.9) kW v 3.00 (SD 6.0) kW, P=0.54) and modelled power density (-30.3 (SD 21.7) dBm v -29.7 (SD 21.5) dBm, P=0.41). For modelled power density at the address at birth, compared with the lowest exposure category the adjusted odds ratios were 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.18) in the intermediate and 1.02 (0.88 to 1.20) in the highest exposure category for all cancers (P=0.79 for trend), 0.97 (0.69 to 1.37) and 0.76 (0.51 to 1.12), respectively, for brain and central nervous system cancers (P=0.33 for trend), and 1.16 (0.90 to 1.48) and 1.03 (0.79 to 1.34) for leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (P=0.51 for trend). There is no association between risk of early childhood cancers and estimates of the mother's exposure to mobile phone base stations during pregnancy.

  5. Chernobyl'-92. Reports of the 3. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 1. Radiation monitoring. Migration of radionuclides in natural environment. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    Section Radiation monitoring comprises: atlas of area radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station accident, state of computerized radiation control system, hydrological monitoring, radiation situation in different areas, problems of radioactive monitoring and protection of water objects, methods for determining radionuclides content, radiochemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration mobility of the Chernobyl' effluents, the results of investigations into migration of radionuclides in soils, landscapes, bottom depositions, in the soil-plant chain

  6. Impact of Base Station Cooperation on Cell Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dexter Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation (BSC has been identified as a key radio access technology for next-generation cellular networks such as LTE-Advanced. BSC impacts cell planning, which is the methodical selection of base station (BS sites, and BS equipment configuration for cost-effective cellular networks. In this paper, the impact of BSC on cell plan parameters (coverage, traffic, handover, and cost, as well as additional cell planning steps required for BSC are discussed. Results show that BSC maximizes its gains over noncooperation (NC in a network wherein interference from cooperating BSs is the main limitation. Locations exist where NC may produce higher throughputs, therefore dynamic or semistatic switching between BSC and NC, called fractional BSC, is recommended. Because of interference from noncooperating BSs, the gains of BSC over NC are upper bounded, and diminishes at greater intersite distances because of noise. This encourages smaller cell sizes, higher transmit powers, and dynamic clustering of cooperative BSs.

  7. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  8. EME assessments using telstra's mobile base station field intensity plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.; Hurren, S.; Vinnal, E.; Armstrong, M.

    2001-01-01

    Public interest in the potential health issues arising from mobile phone base stations has highlighted the importance of having accessible and easy to understand information on electromagnetic energy (EME) emission levels. A range of groups including residents, community groups, businesses, schools, site owners and local governments are often interested in knowing what EME levels a particular base station is capable of producing and how these compare to safety standards regulated by the Australian Communications Authority (ACA). Performing the complex mathematical calculations to predict these levels requires significant expertise, is time consuming and relatively costly. A new software tool, born out of Telstra's EME Research and Development Program, is set to revolutionise EME assessments by facilitating the provision of this information in a more timely, standardised and cost effective manner. Telstra has taken the decision to commercialise the software, which is a world first, because of expressions of interest from other carriers, EME assessment specialists, government agencies and regulatory organisations both in Australia and overseas. Significantly, the software should improve the flow of easy to understand and accurate information on emission levels from base stations. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  9. Population dose commitment associated with various radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Robert E.; Baratta, Edmond J.; Tanner, James T.

    1978-01-01

    The radionuclides in foods monitoring program initiated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1973 was expanded in 1975 to include the analysis for hydrogen-3 in selected foods originating from the vicinity of nuclear power stations. Also, in 1975 the analysis for radium-226 was initiated in food samples from areas adjacent to the phosphate mines in Florida. In October 1976 a special survey of milk was performed to determine the levels of fission product contamination from the fallout produced by the detonation of a nuclear device by the People's Republic of China. Results from the analysis of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in the general foods survey for the years 1973 through 1977 indicated intake levels well within range I of the Radiation Protection Guides (RPG) [FRC 1: Range I at 0.1xRPG dose, periodic surveillance; Range II at the RPG dose, quantitative surveillance and routine control; Range III 10xRPG dose, evaluation and additional controls]. The levels of hydrogen-3 in foods from nuclear power station areas were slightly above the tritium background. The radium-226 levels in foods from Florida phosphate mining areas were about double that of the controls. In both cases, however, the radium-226 intake from the total diet was in range II of the RPGs. The iodine-131 levels in the special milk survey in HEW regions I and III were in range III of the RPGs. The levels of barium-lanthanum-140, cesium-137 and strontium-89-90 were all within range I. The clearance half-time from milk for these radionuclides was about 5, 7 and 9 days respectively. (author)

  10. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  11. Recommendations concerning classification of and discharge standards for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In the report recommendations are made for the limitation of the radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents from radionuclide laboratories. The recommended values are based on a radiation exposure for members of a critical group in the population corresponding to 1% of the dose limit for individual members of the public as recommended by the ICRP. Based on these standards a classification of radionuclide laboratories is proposed. It is recommended to retain the present Dutch classification in A-, B-, C- and D-laboratories. The report contains appendices with detailed data about the transport routes of radionuclides in the environment and the subsequent irradiation of members of the public. (orig.)

  12. A fuzzy approach for modelling radionuclide in lake system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, H.K.; Christian, R.A.; Banerjee, J.; Patra, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive liquid waste is generated during operation and maintenance of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). Generally low level liquid waste is diluted and then discharged into the near by water-body through blowdown water discharge line as per the standard waste management practice. The effluents from nuclear installations are treated adequately and then released in a controlled manner under strict compliance of discharge criteria. An attempt was made to predict the concentration of 3 H released from Kakrapar Atomic Power Station at Ratania Regulator, about 2.5 km away from the discharge point, where human exposure is expected. Scarcity of data and complex geometry of the lake prompted the use of Heuristic approach. Under this condition, Fuzzy rule based approach was adopted to develop a model, which could predict 3 H concentration at Ratania Regulator. Three hundred data were generated for developing the fuzzy rules, in which input parameters were water flow from lake and 3 H concentration at discharge point. The Output was 3 H concentration at Ratania Regulator. These data points were generated by multiple regression analysis of the original data. Again by using same methodology hundred data were generated for the validation of the model, which were compared against the predicted output generated by using Fuzzy Rule based approach. Root Mean Square Error of the model came out to be 1.95, which showed good agreement by Fuzzy model of natural ecosystem. -- Highlights: • Uncommon approach (Fuzzy Rule Base) of modelling radionuclide dispersion in Lake. • Predicts 3 H released from Kakrapar Atomic Power Station at a point of human exposure. • RMSE of fuzzy model is 1.95, which means, it has well imitated natural ecosystem

  13. Assessment of radionuclide contents in food in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Mao, S.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Baseline values of concentrations of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra/ 232 Th, 210 Pb) and artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 60 Co) in food and drinks (tap water, milk, and water-based drinks) were determined by gamma spectroscopy. All food and drinks were found to contain detectable 40 K contents: 0.1 to 160 Bq Kg -1 for food and 0.006 to 61 Bq L -1 for drinks. Most of the other natural radionuclides in solid food were found to have contents below the minimum detectable activities (MDA). More samples in the leafy vegetable, tomato, carrot and potato categories contained detectable amounts of 228 Ra than the meat, cereal, and fish categories, with concentrations up to 1.2 Bq kg -1 for the former categories and 0.35 Bq kg -1 for the latter categories. The 238 U and 226 Ra radionuclides were detectable in most of the water-based drink samples, and the 228 Ra and 210 Pb radionuclides were detectable in fewer water-based drink samples. The 137 Cs contents in solid food were detectable in most of the solid food samples (reaching 0.59 Bq kg -1 ), but in drinks the 137 Cs contents were very low and normally lower than the MDA values. Nearly all the 60 Co contents in food and drinks were below the MDA values and their contents were below those of 137 Cs

  14. CRRIS, Health Risk Assessment from Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CRRIS consists of eight fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport of atmospheric releases of radionuclides and resulting doses and health risks to individuals or populations. Each code may be used alone for various assessment applications. Because of its modular structure, CRRIS allows assessments to be tailored to the user's needs. Radionuclides are handled by CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or the exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and decay products that build up during environmental transport. Atmospheric dispersion calculations are performed by the ANEMOS computer code for distances less than 100 km and the RETADD-II computer code regional-scale distances. Both codes estimate annual-average air concentrations and ground deposition rates by location. SUMIT will translate and scale multiple ANEMOS runs onto a master grid. TERRA reads radionuclide air concentrations and deposition rates to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in food and surface soil. Radiologic decay and ingrowth, soil leaching, and transport through the food chain are included in the calculations. MLSOIL computes an effective radionuclide ground-surface concentration to be used in computing external health effects. The five-layer model of radionuclide transport through soil in MLSOIL provides an alternative to the single-layer model used in TERRA. DFSOIL computes dose factors used in MLSOIL to compute doses from the five soil layers and from the ground surface. ANDROS reads environmental concentrations of radionuclides computed by the other CRRIS codes and produces tables of doses and risks to individuals or populations from atmospheric releases of radionuclides. 2 - Method of solution: SUMIT performs geometric interpolation. TERRA and MLSOIL are terrestrial transport compartment models. DFSOIL computes soil-layer-specific dose factors based on the point-kernel method

  15. Assessment of radiofrequency/microwave radiation emitted by the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile phone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keow, M. A.; Radiman, S.

    2006-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation exposures from the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile telephone base stations have become a serious issue in recent years due to the rapidly evolving technologies in wireless telecommunication systems. In Malaysia, thousands of mobile telephone base stations have been erected all over the country, most of which are mounted on the rooftops. In view of public concerns, measurements of the RF/MW levels emitted by the base stations were carried out in this study. The values were compared with the exposure limits set by several organisations and countries. Measurements were performed at 200 sites around 47 mobile phone base stations. It was found that the RF/MW radiation from these base stations were well below the maximum exposure limits set by various agencies. (authors)

  16. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  17. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Ronald; Grossman, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    -critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2008a). At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2008, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.9 mrem/yr; well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six pseudo-critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61 (CFR, 2008a). Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 19 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. Potential dose to the public from NLVF was also very low at 0.00006 mrem/yr; more than 160,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  18. Database for long lived radionuclides (LLRN). CEA working group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report constitutes a data base for long lived radionuclides (with half lives ranging from 30 to 10 14 years) presenting informations on seven different topics: 'Radioactive data' gathers fundamental data characterising radioactive properties of considered radionuclides (half-life, disintegration mode, radiation energy,...); 'Formation and inventory' collects data on radionuclide formation ways as well as quantities formed during fuel irradiation; 'Biological effects' gives data characterising both radiotoxicity for each radionuclide and chemical toxicity for the considered element; 'Partitioning' specifies element repartition according to the different ways of Purex reprocessing and complementary partitioning processes possible for isolating chemical elements corresponding to the considered radionuclides; 'Transmutation' provides data allowing in part to evaluate the feasibility and destruction performances of radionuclides by transmutation with neutrons; 'Behaviour in waste packages' gathers some data relative to the properties of waste packages confinement. Only data on vitrified waste packages are given there; 'Behaviour in diluted solution' provides data used for element migration calculations. (author)

  19. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  20. Design of a base station for MEMS CCR localization in an optical sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Gook; Jeon, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Hyoun Jin; Kim, Jae Yoon

    2014-05-08

    This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC). The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR) is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF) data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS) methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR.

  1. Design of a Base Station for MEMS CCR Localization in an Optical Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Gook Park

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC. The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR.

  2. Comparison of radioactivity data measured in PM10 aerosol samples at two elevated stations in northern Italy during the Fukushima event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tositti, Laura; Brattich, Erika; Cinelli, Giorgia; Previti, Alberto; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2012-12-01

    The follow-up of Fukushima radioactive plume resulting from the 11th March 2011 devastating tsunami is discussed for two Italian stations in the northern Apennines: Mt. Cimone (Modena) and Montecuccolino (Bologna). Radioactivity data collected at both stations are described, including comparison between local natural background of airborne particulate and artificial radioactivity referable to the arrival of the radioactive plume and its persistence and evolution. Analysis of back-trajectories was used to confirm the arrival of artificial radionuclides following atmospheric transport and processing. The Fukushima plume was first detected on 3rd April 2011 when high volume sampling revealed the presence of the artificial radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs. The highest activity concentrations of these nuclides were detected on 5th April 2011 at the Montecuccolino site. Fukushima radioactivity data at the two stations were usually comparable, suggesting a good vertical mixing of the plume; discrepancies were occasional and attributed to different occurrence of wet removal, typically characterized by a scattered spatial pattern. To understand the relevance to the local population of the extra dose due to the Fukushima plume, atmospheric activities of the related artificial nuclides were compared to those of the main natural radionuclides in ambient particulate, and found to be lower by over one order of magnitude. Radiation doses referable to Fukushima, maximized for a whole year occurrence at the highest activity level observed at our stations in the weeks affected by the Japanese plume, were estimated at 1.1 μSv/year. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Possibility of some radionuclides production using high energy electron Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzhinnyam, N.; Belov, A.G.; Gehrbish, Sh; Maslov, O.D.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Ganbold, G.

    2008-01-01

    The method of some radionuclides production using high energy Bremsstrahlung of electron accelerators and determination of photonuclear reaction yield and specific activities for some radionuclides is described. Photonuclear reaction yield and specific activities for some radionuclides are determined for 117m Sn, 111 In and 195m Pt. Based on the experimental data obtained at low energy (E e- e- = 75 MeV) of the IREN facility (FLNR, JINR) at irradiation of high purity platinum and tin metals

  4. Radionuclide cisternographic findings in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Jae Seung; Ryu, Jin Sook; Shin, Jung Woo; Im, Joo Hyuk; Lee, Myoung Chong; Jung, Sung Joo; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography may be helpful in understanding pathophysiology of postural headache and low CSF pressure in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The purpose of this study was to characterize radionuclide cisternogrpahic findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The study population consists of 15 patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Diagnosis was based on their clinical symptoms and results of lumbar puncture. All patients underwent radionuclide cisternography following injection of 111 to 222 MBq of Tc-99m DTPA into the lumbar subarachnoid space. Sequential images were obtained between 1/2 hour and 24 hour after the injection of Tc-99m DTPA. Radioactivity of the bladder, soft tissue uptake, migration of radionuclide in the subarachnoid space, and extradural leakage of radionuclide were evaluated according to the scan time. Radionuclide cisternogram showed delayed migration of radionuclide into the cerebral convexity (14/15), increased soft tissue uptake (11/15), and early visualization of bladder activity at 30 min (6/10) and 2 hr (13/13). Cisternography also demonstrated leakage site of CSF in 4 cases and 2 of these were depicted at 30min. Epidural blood patch was done in 11 patients and headache was improved in all cases. The characteristics findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension were delayed migration of radionuclide and early visualization of the soft tissue and bladder activity. These scintigraphic findings suggest that CSF leakage rather than increased CSF absorption or decreased production may be the main pathophysiology of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Early and multiple imaging including the bladder and soft tissue is required to observe the entire dynamics of radionuclide migration

  5. Radionuclide transfer onto ground surface in surface water flow, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Kamiyama, Hideo

    1991-07-01

    Radionuclides migration in ground surface water flow is considered to be one of the important path way in the scenario for environmental migration of radionuclides leaked from low level radioactive waste repository. Simulating the slightly sloped surface on which contaminated solution is flowing downward, testing for radionuclide migration on ground surface had been started. As it's first step, an experiment was carried out under the condition of restricted infiltration in order to elucidate the adsorption behavior of radionuclides onto the loamy soil surface in related with hydraulic conditions. Radionuclides concentration change in effluent solution with time and a concentration distribution of radionuclides adsorbed on the ground surface were obtained from several experimental conditions combining the rate and the duration time of the water flow. The radionuclides concentration in the effluent solution was nearly constant during each experimental period, and was reduced under the condition of lower flow rate. The surface distribution of radionuclides concentration showed two distinctive regions. The one was near the inlet vessel where the concentration was promptly reducing, and the other was following the former where the concentration was nearly constant. The characteristic surface distribution of radionuclides concentration can be explained by a two dimensional diffusion model with a first order adsorption reaction, based on the advection of flow rate distribution in perpendicular direction. (author)

  6. Radiological impact of atmospheric releases from a coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, J.; Chalabreysse, J.; Coulon, R.; Grauby, A.; Uzzan, G.

    1982-01-01

    As the first stage of a study carried out under contract with the Commission of the European Communities for the comparative assessment of the risks to which the individuals of a regional population are exposed, the paper seeks to evaluate atmospheric releases from a coal-fired thermal power station. The station is of traditional design with an installed capacity of 415MW(e) and uses only lignite-type coal produced from a coal basin situated nearby. Gaseous effluents are released from four stacks. The area close to the station is rural in nature: there are a number of small farms, fairly abundant natural vegetation and some fairly well-populated zones with various industries. The main feature of the weather conditions is the strong prevailing winds in the optimum direction. A radiation measurement campaign involving the main 238 U and 232 Th daughter products was carried out focussing on: (1) the coal burnt in the power station; (2) the solid residues resulting from combustion (fly ash, wet ash); (3) gaseous effluents by means of direct sampling from the two release stacks. The information obtained on the releases has made it possible, with the help of dispersion and transfer models, to evaluate the atmospheric concentration of the different radionuclide released as well as their deposition and presence in the biotope in the plant vicinity. The effective dose equivalents received by persons living in the zone of maximum exposure and consuming food produced in that zone were assessed at approximately 7x10 -5 Sv.a -1 at the end of the plant's operating period. Finally, the main radionuclides were measured at a number of points near the plant with the aim of verifying the model evaluations for a particular situation. (author)

  7. Radiological impact of atmospheric releases from a coal-fired power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigueperse, J; Chalabreysse, J; Coulon, R; Grauby, A [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection; Uzzan, G [Association EURATOM-CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection

    1982-01-01

    As the first stage of a study carried out under contract with the Commission of the European Communities for the comparative assessment of the risks to which the individuals of a regional population are exposed, the paper seeks to evaluate atmospheric releases from a coal-fired thermal power station. The station is of traditional design with an installed capacity of 415MW(e) and uses only lignite-type coal produced from a coal basin situated nearby. Gaseous effluents are released from four stacks. The area close to the station is rural in nature: there are a number of small farms, fairly abundant natural vegetation and some fairly well-populated zones with various industries. The main feature of the weather conditions is the strong prevailing winds in the optimum direction. A radiation measurement campaign involving the main /sup 238/U and /sup 232/Th daughter products was carried out focussing on: (1) the coal burnt in the power station; (2) the solid residues resulting from combustion (fly ash, wet ash); (3) gaseous effluents by means of direct sampling from the two release stacks. The information obtained on the releases has made it possible, with the help of dispersion and transfer models, to evaluate the atmospheric concentration of the different radionuclide released as well as their deposition and presence in the biotope in the plant vicinity. The effective dose equivalents received by persons living in the zone of maximum exposure and consuming food produced in that zone were assessed at approximately 7x10/sup -5/Sv.a/sup -1/ at the end of the plant's operating period. Finally, the main radionuclides were measured at a number of points near the plant with the aim of verifying the model evaluations for a particular situation.

  8. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  9. A Pseudorange Measurement Scheme Based on Snapshot for Base Station Positioning Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jun; Deng, Zhongliang; Jia, Buyun; Bian, Xinmei

    2017-12-01

    Digital multimedia broadcasting signal is promised to be a wireless positioning signal. This paper mainly studies a multimedia broadcasting technology, named China mobile multimedia broadcasting (CMMB), in the context of positioning. Theoretical and practical analysis on the CMMB signal suggests that the existing CMMB signal does not have the meter positioning capability. So, the CMMB system has been modified to achieve meter positioning capability by multiplexing the CMMB signal and pseudo codes in the same frequency band. The time difference of arrival (TDOA) estimation method is used in base station positioning receivers. Due to the influence of a complex fading channel and the limited bandwidth of receivers, the regular tracking method based on pseudo code ranging is difficult to provide continuous and accurate TDOA estimations. A pseudorange measurement scheme based on snapshot is proposed to solve the problem. This algorithm extracts the TDOA estimation from the stored signal fragments, and utilizes the Taylor expansion of the autocorrelation function to improve the TDOA estimation accuracy. Monte Carlo simulations and real data tests show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the TDOA estimation error for base station positioning receivers, and then the modified CMMB system achieves meter positioning accuracy.

  10. Experimental research of variable rotation speed ICE-based electric power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar’enkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing variable rotation speed ICE-based stand-alone electric power stations which can supply distant regions and autonomous objects with electricity are of scientific interest due to the insufficient study. The relevance of developing such electric power stations is determined by their usage is to provide a significant fuel saving as well as increase ICE motor service life. The article describes the electric station of autonomous objects with improved fuel economy. The article describes multivariate characteristic. Multivariate characteristic shows the optimal frequency of rotation of the internal combustion engine. At this rotational speed there is the greatest fuel economy.

  11. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  12. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, S; Osores, J; Jara, R [Direccion General de Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    1998-07-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40.

  13. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.; Osores, J.; Jara, R.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40

  14. Determination of artificial and natural radionuclides and others trace elements in environmental samples form Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.; Godoy, J.M.; Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the radioactive elements concentrations, determined by gamma spectrometry and the others trace elements determined by neutron activation analysis of several environmental samples (soils, marine sediments, algae mosses and lichens) in Comandante Ferraz Antartica Station are presented. The high concentrations of Cs-137 were found in lichens and mosses samples and the soils and sediments showed concentrations of natural radionuclides. (C.G.C.). 8 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  15. Stochastic analysis of radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Moto

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, LLRW (low level radioactive wastes) generated from nuclear power plants shall be started to store concentrically in the Shimokita site from 1990, and those could be transformed into land disposal if the positive safety is confirmed. Therefore, it is hoped that the safety assessment method shall be successed for the land disposal of LLRW. In this study, a stochastic model to analyze the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils was constructed. The principal results are summarized as follows. 1) We presented a generalized idea for the modeling of the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils as an advective-dispersion phenomena followed by the decay of radionuclides and those adsorption/desorption in soils. 2) Based on the radionuclide migration model mentioned above, we developed a stochastic analysis model on radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. 3) From the comparison between the simulated results and the exact solution on a few simple one-dimensional advective-dispersion problems of radionuclides, the good validity of this model was confirmed. 4) From the comparison between the simulated results by this model and the experimental results of radionuclide migration in a one-dimensional unsaturated soil column with rainfall, the good applicability was shown. 5) As the stochastic model such as this has several advantages that it is easily able to represent the image of physical phenomena and has basically no numerical dissipation, this model should be more applicable to the analysis of the complicated radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. (author)

  16. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger

    2017-01-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  17. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  18. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  19. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  20. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  1. Judgment on the presence of radionuclides in sample analysis: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples require good judgment from the analysts. These two aspects in gamma spectrometric analysis of Proficiency Test and solid radioactive waste samples for the determination of radionuclides are discussed. It is vital to judge and decide what energy peaks belong to which radionuclides prior to the creation of customized radionuclide library for the analysis of specific samples. Corrections due to radionuclide decay and growth, and the half-life assigned to a particular radionuclide in the uranium and thorium series are also discussed. Discussion on judgment to confirm the presence of thorium in food samples based on gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis is also provided. (author)

  2. Effects of Containment on Radionuclide Releases from Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Confirming the occurrence of an underground nuclear explosion can require capturing short-lived noble gas radioisotopes produced by the explosion, sometimes referred to as the "smoking gun" for nuclear explosion detection. It is well known that the radioisotopic distribution resulting from the detonation evolves with time in the explosion cavity. In effect, the explosion cavity or chimney behaves as a chemical reactor. As long as the parent and daughter radionuclides remain in a closed and well-mixed cavity, parameters, such as radioxenon isotopic ratios, can be calculated analytically from a decay-chain network model. When gases from the cavity migrate into the containment regime, consideration of a "leaky reactor" model is more appropriate. We consider several implications of such a leaky reactor model relevant to interpretations of gas samples from the subsurface during an on-site inspection that could potentially be carried out under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Additionally, we have attempted to validate our leaky reactor model against atmospheric observations of radioactive xenon isotopes detected by radionuclide monitoring stations in Japan and Russia following the February 2013 DPRK underground nuclear explosion (Carrigan et al., 2016). While both model uncertainty and observational error are significant, our model of isotopic evolution appears to be in broad agreement with radionuclide observations, and for the first time links atmospheric measurements of radioxenon isotopic ratios to estimates of seismic yield. Carrigan et al., Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 23032 (2016) doi:10.1038/srep23032

  3. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for (137)Caesium, (90)Strontium and (131)Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide (210)Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation Measurement from Mobile Base Stations at a University Campus in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Md. R. Islam; Othman O. Khalifa; Liakot Ali; Amir Azli; Mohd Zulkarnain

    2006-01-01

    The tremendous growth of telecommunication industry results the number of hand phone users increases everyday. In order to support the growing number of users, the mobile base stations can be seen in almost everywhere. This scenario has created uncomfortable feelings to the people that they may be affected by the radiations from antennas. A measurement was done at student hostels and office premises near to base stations in International Islamic University Malaysia, Gombak campus. Measured va...

  5. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Paunovic, George

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m(-1), which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were <1 and 2 V m(-1), respectively.

  6. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprivica, M.; Neskovic, N.; Neskovic, A.; Paunovic, G.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m -1 , which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were -1 , respectively. (authors)

  7. A random walk model to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Jun; Huang, Liuxing; Niu, Shengli; Xie, Honggang; Kuang, Feihong

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide in large-medium scale, a numerical simulation method based on random walk model for radionuclide atmospheric dispersion was established in the paper. The route of radionuclide migration and concentration distribution of radionuclide can be calculated out by using the method with the real-time or historical meteorological fields. In the simulation, a plume of radionuclide is treated as a lot of particles independent of each other. The particles move randomly by the fluctuations of turbulence, and disperse, so as to enlarge the volume of the plume and dilute the concentration of radionuclide. The dispersion of the plume over time is described by the variance of the particles. Through statistical analysis, the relationships between variance of the particles and radionuclide dispersion characteristics can be derived. The main mechanisms considered in the physical model are: (1) advection of radionuclide by mean air motion, (2) mixing of radionuclide by atmospheric turbulence, (3) dry and wet deposition, (4) disintegration. A code named RADES was developed according the method. And then, the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) in 1994 is simulated by the RADES and FLEXPART codes, the simulation results of the concentration distribution of tracer are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Report on the 1. research coordination meeting on 'Development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on 177Lu for radionuclide therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals Based on 177 Lu for Radionuclide Therapy' aims at developing therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for bone pain palliation and targeted therapy of cancer

  9. Main characteristics of the radioactive enrichment in ashes produced in coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, Antonio; Corbacho, Jose A.; Cancio, David; Robles, Beatriz; Mora, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Under contract with the Spain's 'Nuclear Safety Council', a study is being conducted of the nation's largest nominal output coal-fired power stations. Its purpose is to assess the radiological impact on workers and local populations due to this source of NORM activity. One of the aspects of particular interest is the study of the radioactive enrichment in the combustion wastes relative to the different coals used as fuel (usually local bituminous coal or lignite, or imported coal). These wastes consist of fly ash (mostly fine particles collected in electrostatic precipitators), and bottom ash (larger in size, and collected wet or dry in hoppers below the boilers). In general terms, the enrichment factors measured were between 2 and 18 for the radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 210 Po. The magnitude of this enrichment factor depended mainly on the ash content of each coal, and hence on the type of coal used as fuel and the specific operation cycle in the different power stations. For the radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th, the enrichment was relatively similar in value in the fly and bottom ashes produced by the different types of coal used in the power stations studied. For 210 Po, however, as was expected, the enrichment was much greater in the fly ash than in the bottom ash for each coal analyzed. (author)

  10. Lunar base mission technology issues and orbital demonstration requirements on space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space Station has been the object of considerable design, redesign, and alteration since it was originally proposed in early 1984. In the intervening years the station has slowly evolved to a specific design that was thoroughly reviewed by a large agency-wide Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF). As space station designs continue to evolve, studies must be conducted to determine the suitability of the current design for some of the primary purposes for which the station will be used. This paper concentrates on the technology requirements and issues, the on-orbit demonstration and verification program, and the space station focused support required prior to the establishment of a permanently manned lunar base as identified in the National Commission on Space report. Technology issues associated with the on-orbit assembly and processing of the lunar vehicle flight elements are also discussed.

  11. Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1980-01-01

    Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock

  12. User's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard code INVENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Thorne, M.C.

    1986-05-01

    This report constitutes the user's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard index code INVENT and provides an explanation of the mathematical basis of the code, the database used and operation of the code. INVENT was designed to facilitate the post-closure radiological assessment of land-based repositories for low and intermediate-level wastes. For those radionuclides identified to be of potential significance, it allows the calculation of time-dependent radionuclide activities, hazard indices for both inhalation and ingestion of activity, and photon spectra. (author)

  13. Radionuclides in sediments and seawater at Rongelap Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    The present concentrations and distributions of long-lived, man-made radionuclides in Rongelap Atoll lagoon surface sediments, based on samples collected and analyzed in this report. The radionuclides were associated with debris generated with the 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test at Bikini Atoll. Presently, only {sup 90}Sr and the transuranic radionuclides are found associated with the surface sediments in any quantity. Other radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs, are virtually absent and have either decayed or migrated from the deposits to the overlying seawater. Present inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 249+240}Pu in the surface layer at Rongelap are estimated to be 3% of the respective inventories in surface sediments from Bikini Atoll. There is a continuous slow release of the transuranics from the sediments back to the water column. The inventories will only slowly change with time unless the chemical-physical processes that now regulate this release to the water column are changed or altered.

  14. A modular Space Station/Base electrical power system - Requirements and design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements and procedures necessary for definition and specification of an electrical power system (EPS) for the future space station are discussed herein. The considered space station EPS consists of a replaceable main power module with self-contained auxiliary power, guidance, control, and communication subsystems. This independent power source may 'plug into' a space station module which has its own electrical distribution, control, power conditioning, and auxiliary power subsystems. Integration problems are discussed, and a transmission system selected with local floor-by-floor power conditioning and distribution in the station module. This technique eliminates the need for an immediate long range decision on the ultimate space base power sources by providing capability for almost any currently considered option.

  15. 47 CFR 0.434 - Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stations and pending broadcast applications. 0.434 Section 0.434 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Commission § 0.434 Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications... broadcast stations, pending applications for such stations, and rulemaking proceedings involving amendments...

  16. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  17. The distribution of radionuclides between the sediments and macrophytes in the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP - The Distribution of Radionuclides in Freshwater Hydro Ecosystem's Bottom Sediments and Macrophytes depending on the Ecological Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciulioniene, D.; Jefanova, O.; Mazeika, J. [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lietuva (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    The distribution of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn in the aquatory of lake Drukshiai (the monitoring stations), the coastal area of this lake, the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed on the basis of long-term (1988-2009) investigations of radionuclides specific activity in bottom sediments and macrophytes, also the ability of radionuclides falling into lake Drukshiai from the Ignalina NPP through effluents channels was assessed. It was established that {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in the bottom sediments and the macrophytes were distributed quite differently in the monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai and the coastal area as well as in the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP. The different characteristics of the sediments, various ecological conditions, as well as the existing anthropogenic environmental factors and the different in the ecological groups of the plants could have had impact on the distribution of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in the bottom sediments and the aquatic plants in lake Drukshiai and the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. The {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn specific activity's values were significantly higher in macrophytes from the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP than in macrophytes from the cooling water channel. Nevertheless the specific activities level of these radionuclides differed only slightly in the macrophytes from the areas which were impacted by the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. This can be explained by the fact that the phyto-remediation (as the form of auto-purification) of these effluents from the radionuclides had been present in the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP before entering the water into lake Drukshiai. (authors)

  18. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  19. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Baumgartner, A.; Rechberger, F.; Seidel, C.; Stietka, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. - Highlights: • Dose models for indoor radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials. • Strategies and methods in radionuclide metrology, activity measurement and dose modelling. • Selection of appropriate parameters in radiation protection standards for building materials. • Scientific-based limitations of indoor exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials

  20. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  1. A study on the radionuclide transport through fractured porous media based on the network resistance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ki Ha

    2000-02-01

    Before the actual construction of radioactive waste repository, analysis of radionuclide transport is required to predict the radiological effect on public and environment. Many models have been developed to predict the realistic radionuclide transport through the repository. In this study, Network Resistance Model (NRM) that is similar to electrical circuit network is adopted to simulate the radionuclide transport. NRM assume the media of repository as the resistance of the radionuclide transport and describes the transport phenomena of radionuclide by connecting the resistance as network. NRM is easy to apply to describe complex system and take less calculation time compared to the other model. The object of this study is to develop the fast, simple and efficient calculation method to simulate the radionuclide with the newly adopted concept using network resistance. New system configuration specially focused on rock edge region is introduced by dividing the rock matrix. By dividing the rock edge from the main rock matrix region, the rock edge region is more carefully analyzed and compared. Rock edge region can accelerate radionuclide transport due to the reducing effect on the total resistivity of rock matrix. Therefore, increased radioactive dose is expected when we apply NRM methodology in the performance assessment of the repository. Result of the performance assessment can be more conservative and reliable. NRM can be applied to other system configuration and for more complex pathways. NRM is simple to us e and easy to modify than any other modeling method

  2. Computer-based radionuclide analyzer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Kengo; Ishizuka, Akira; Kobayashi, Akira; Ohhashi, Hideaki; Tsuruoka, Kimitoshi.

    1978-01-01

    The radionuclide analysis in nuclear power plants, practiced for the purpose of monitoring the quality of the primary loop water, the confirmation of the performance of reactor cleanup system and monitoring the radioactive waste effluent, is an important job. Important as it is, it requires considerable labor of experts, because the samples to be analyzed are multifarious and very large in number, and in addition, this job depends much on manual work. With a view of saving the labor, simplifying and standardizing the work, reducing radiation exposure, and automatizing the work of analysis, the computerized analyzer system has been worked out. The results of its performance test at the operating power plant have proved that the development has fairly accomplished the objects and that the system is well useful. The developmental work was carried out by the cooperation between The Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Toshiba in about 4 years from 1974 to this year. (auth.)

  3. Observation-based estimate of the Fukushima radionuclide in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiko; Jayne, Steven; Macdonald, Alison; Buesseler, Ken; Rypina, Irina

    2014-05-01

    Contaminated waters from Fukushima nuclear power plant (FNPP) were discharged directly into the North Pacific Ocean in March 2011. Coastal current system in this region and time scale of the water exchange with the open ocean is not well understood, however both observational evidence and numerical model simulation results indicate relatively rapid advection of contaminants eastward into the highly energetic mixed water region in the confluence of the Kuroshio and Oyashio. Surface drifters deployed near the FNPP in early summer 2011 show trajectories crossing the North Pacific generally following the large scale ocean circulation after one year. Previously obtained cesium (Cs) samples from multiple cruises near FNPP and off shore region between 2011 and 2013 are collected and evaluated to diagnose the propagating Cs signal crossing North Pacific Ocean. In this presentation, we use radionuclides of Fukushima origin as a tracer to understand the North Pacific circulation and mixing process after two years of release. Large numbers of the observation are repeatedly took place near shore where Cs shows still relatively higher about 10-30 Bq/m3 in 2013. Temperature-salinity (T-S) properties for the available hydrographic data indicate that the majority of the samples were obtained in the region where the water is highly influenced by the warm-salty Kuroshio origin water. Depth profiles of 35N section in March-May 2013 cruise of the U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability and Carbon (CLIVAR) repeat Hydrography sections are examined to track the radionuclide penetration into the subsurface ocean and the subduction pathways along isopycnal surfaces. Available large drifter datasets that accumulated over decades of field work can guide us in estimating the spread of these radionuclides. By applying an innovative statistical analysis to the drifter data, we investigate the spreading of radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean over 5-year time scales.

  4. Automatic Classification of Station Quality by Image Based Pattern Recognition of Ppsd Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B.; Herrnkind, S.

    2017-12-01

    The number of seismic stations is growing and it became common practice to share station waveform data in real-time with the main data centers as IRIS, GEOFON, ORFEUS and RESIF. This made analyzing station performance of increasing importance for automatic real-time processing and station selection. The value of a station depends on different factors as quality and quantity of the data, location of the site and general station density in the surrounding area and finally the type of application it can be used for. The approach described by McNamara and Boaz (2006) became standard in the last decade. It incorporates a probability density function (PDF) to display the distribution of seismic power spectral density (PSD). The low noise model (LNM) and high noise model (HNM) introduced by Peterson (1993) are also displayed in the PPSD plots introduced by McNamara and Boaz allowing an estimation of the station quality. Here we describe how we established an automatic station quality classification module using image based pattern recognition on PPSD plots. The plots were split into 4 bands: short-period characteristics (0.1-0.8 s), body wave characteristics (0.8-5 s), microseismic characteristics (5-12 s) and long-period characteristics (12-100 s). The module sqeval connects to a SeedLink server, checks available stations, requests PPSD plots through the Mustang service from IRIS or PQLX/SQLX or from GIS (gempa Image Server), a module to generate different kind of images as trace plots, map plots, helicorder plots or PPSD plots. It compares the image based quality patterns for the different period bands with the retrieved PPSD plot. The quality of a station is divided into 5 classes for each of the 4 bands. Classes A, B, C, D define regular quality between LNM and HNM while the fifth class represents out of order stations with gain problems, missing data etc. Over all period bands about 100 different patterns are required to classify most of the stations available on the

  5. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  6. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  7. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  8. Analysis of Peach Bottom station blackout with MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.E.; Cole, R.K.; Haskin, F.E.; Summers, R.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration analysis of station blackout at Peach Bottom has been performed using MELCOR and the results have been compared with those from MARCON 2.1B and the Source Term Code Package (STCP). MELCOR predicts greater in-vessel hydrogen production, earlier melting and core collapse, but later debris discharge than MARCON 2.1B. The drywell fails at vessel breach in MELCOR, but failure is delayed about an hour in MARCON 2.1B. These differences are mainly due to the MELCOR models for candling during melting, in-core axial conduction, and continued oxidation and heat transfer from core debris following lower head dryout. Three sensitivity calculations have been performed with MELCOR to address uncertainties regarding modeling of the core-concrete interactions. The timing of events and the gas and radionuclide release rates are somewhat different in the base case and the three sensitivity cases, but the final conditions and total releases are similar

  9. Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, N.Q.; Giap, T.V.; Phan, N.T.; Truong, Y.; Binh, N.T; Sieu, L.N.; Hien, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclides from the reactor accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were observed in the surface air at stations in Hanoi, Dalat and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam, about 4500 km southwest of Japan, during the period from March 27 to April 22, 2011. The maximum activity concentrations in the air measured at those three sites were 193, 33 and 37 μBq m -3 for 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs, respectively. Peaks of radionuclide concentrations in the air corresponded to arrival of the air mass from Fukushima to Vietnam after traveling for 8 days over the Pacific Ocean. Cesium-134 was detected with the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity ratio of about 0.85 in line with observations made elsewhere. The 131 I/ 137 Cs activity ratio was observed to decrease exponentially with time as expected from radioactive decay. The ratio at Dalat, where is 1500 m high, was higher than those at Hanoi and HCMC in low lands, indicating the relative enrichment of the iodine in comparison to cesium at high altitudes. The time-integrated surface air concentrations of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the Southeast Asia showed exponential decrease with distance from Fukushima. (author)

  10. Monitoring of radionuclides in the environs of the Finnish nuclear power stations in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemola, S.; Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K.L.; Arvela, H.; Blomqvist, L.

    1991-03-01

    Monitoring of radionuclides around Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 1988 with the regular programmes. About 1000 samples were analysed from both terrestrial and aquatic environments.The dominant artificial radioactive substances in the vicinity of power plants were still the fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident, but the concentrations in all the objects monitored are lower than in the previous year. Trace amounts of activation products originating from the airborne releases of local power plants were detected in some air and deposition samples. Discharged nuclides were more abundant in the aquatic environment, especially in samples of indicator organisms. However, their contribution to the radiation doses received by the the public was very small. (orig.)

  11. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of indoor microcell GSM/UMTS base stations in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Petrić, Majda; Nešković, Nataša; Nešković, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    To determine the level of radiofrequency radiation generated by base stations of Global System for Mobile Communications and Universal Mobile Telecommunication System, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out in the vicinity of 664 base station locations. These were classified into three categories: indoor, masts, and locations with installations on buildings. Although microcell base stations with antennas installed indoors typically emit less power than outdoor macrocell base stations, the fact that people can be found close to antennas requires exposure originating from these base stations to be carefully considered. Measurement results showed that maximum recorded value of electric field strength exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels at 7% of indoor base station locations. At the same time, this percentage was much lower in the case of masts and installations on buildings (0% and 2.5%, respectively). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Field surveying of radionuclide contamination in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turunen, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Ammann, M.

    2009-01-01

    Field measurements of radionuclides after an accidental contamination of forests assume the capacity for identification of a number of nuclides in varying source geometries. The continuous redistribution of radionuclides in forests through natural processes implies a decrease of prevailing surface contamination of trees and an increase in activity density on the ground. Portable gamma spectrometers have long been based on Na(I) detectors which, due to their low energy resolution, are not the tool for analysis of contamination from accidental releases of fission and activation products in the first days or weeks after a deposition. Data of airborne radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 were used for demonstration of initial and later distribution of radionuclides as sources of air Kerma in forests. Forest model (FDMF, PV. 6.0) of the RODOS system was used for the assessment of time-dependent Kerma rate from different forest compartments. The results show the fast reduction of activities of short-lived nuclides and their contributions to the Kerma rate in the first weeks and months. The results also give an estimate for the time needed until a gamma spectrometer with a low energy resolution would give useful information about long-lived radioactivity on the forest floor. An example is given on a portable high resolution semiconductor spectrometer that has suitable characteristics for field surveying also during occurrence of a great number of radionuclides contributing to the gamma spectrum. The needs for further research of a recently deposited radionuclide contamination on forest vegetation and soil, and the efforts for improvement of portable radiation meters and their use in management planning and radioecological research on contaminated forests are discussed. (au)

  13. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  14. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests; Forests ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  15. Chernobyl nuclear accident hydrologic analysis and emergency evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Dnieper River, Ukraine, during the 1993 summer flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, O.V.; Zheleznyak, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes joint activities of Program 7.1.F, ''Radionuclide Transport in Water and Soil Systems,'' of the USA/Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety to study the hydrogeochemical behavior of radionuclides released to the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. These joint activities included rapid evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Pripyat and Dnieper river system and field data evaluation and modeling for the 1993 summer flood to assist the Ukrainian government in their emergency response during the flood. In July-August 1993, heavy rainfall over the Pripyat River Catchment in Belarus and Ukraine caused severe flooding, significantly raising 90 Sr concentrations in the river. Near the Chernobyl area, the maximum 90 Sr concentration in the Pripyat River reached 20--25 PCi/L in early August; near the Pripyat River mouth, the concentration rose to 35 pCi/L. The peak 90 Sr concentration in the Kiev Reservoir (a major source of drinking water for Kiev) was 12 pCi/L. Based on these measured radionuclide levels, additional modeling results and the assumption of water purification in a water treatment station, 90 Sr concentrations in Kiev's drinking water were estimated to be less than 8 pCi/L. Unlike 90 Sr, 137 Cs concentrations in the Pripyat River during the flood did not rise significantly to the pre-flood levels. Estimated 137 Cs concentrations for the Kiev drinking water were two orders of magnitude lower than the drinking water standard of 500 pCi/L for 137 Cs

  16. Behaviour and fate radionuclides in soils. Mathematical modelling and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovdan, E.N.

    2003-01-01

    The uncontrolled release of radionuclides as result of Chernobyl accident has led to contamination of 23% of territory of Republic of Belarus. Soil has high capacity to adsorb radionuclides and their intensive sorption provides the creation of a long-lived radionuclide source in a terrestrial environment. In the management of the contaminated areas and application of a countermeasure strategy it is extremely important to know the environmental mechanisms governing the behaviour of radionuclides in soils. Basic attention in the work is paid to the study of 137 Cs and 90 Sr because they are the main radionuclides from the view point of radioactive danger in polluted areas. The main features and processes that control radionuclide behaviour in soil have been analysed. On the basis of natural researches, lab test and mathematical modelling the impact of physical-chemical factors and the soil component composition changes upon the radionuclides migration and sorption in natural dispersed systems (peat, sand, bentonite, kaolin, sapropel) has been investigated. The investigations done allowed to substantiate the mathematical models of the radionuclides migration in the regions of positive and negative temperatures, to develop methods of experimental identification of main transfer characteristics and to compile a data base for these models. (orig.)

  17. Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

  18. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  19. A soil-based model to predict radionuclide transfer in a soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, M.; Vidal, M.; Tent, J.; Rauret, G.; Roca, M.C.; Vallejo, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to check if the main soil parameters predefined as ruling soil-plant transfer were sufficient to predict a relative scale of radionuclide mobility in mineral soils. Two agricultural soils, two radionuclides ( 85 Sr and 134 Cs), and two crops (lettuce and pea) were used in these experiments following radioactive aerosol deposition simulating the conditions of a site some distance far away from the center of a nuclear accident, for which condensed deposition would be the more significant contribution. The available fraction of these radionuclides was estimated in these soils from experiments in which various reagents were tested and several experimental conditions were compared. As a general conclusion, the soil parameters seemed to be sufficient for prediction purposes, although the model should be improved through the consideration of physiological aspects, especially those depending of the plant selectivity according to the composition of the soil solution

  20. Which radionuclide, carrier molecule and clinical indication for alpha-immunotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerard, F.; Barbet, J.; Cherel, M.; Chatal, J.-F.; Haddad, F.; Kraeber-Bodere, F.

    2015-01-01

    Beta-emitting radionuclides are not able to kill isolated tumor cells disseminated in the body, even if a high density of radiolabeled molecules can be targeted at the surface of these cells because the vast majority of emitted electrons deliver their energy outside the targeted cells. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides may overcome this limitation. It is thus of primary importance to test and validate the radionuclide of choice, the most appropriate carrier molecule and the most promising clinical indication. Four α-particle emitting radionuclides have been or are clinically tested in phase I studies namely 213 Bi, 225 Ac, 212 Pb and 211 At. Clinical safety has been documented and encouraging efficacy has been shown for some of them ( 213 Bi and 211 At). 211 At has been the most studied and could be the most promising radionuclide but 225 Ac and 212 Pb are also of potential great interest. Any carrier molecule that has been labeled with β-emitting radionuclides could be labeled with alpha particle-emitting radionuclide using, for some of them, the same chelating agents. However, the physical half-life of the radionuclide should match the biological half-life of the radioconjugate or its catabolites. Finally everybody agrees, based on the quite short range of alpha particles, on the fact that the clinical indications for alpha-immunotherapy should be limited to the situation of disseminated minimal residual diseases made of small clusters of malignant cells or isolated tumor cells.

  1. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the environment at accident sites, a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, A.C.; Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. The authors intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of the literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments

  2. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondas Buckus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF electromagnetic radiation (EMR in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF intensity parameters in the environment are discussed in this article. The research methodology is applied according to the requirements of safety norms and Lithuanian Standards in English (LST EN. The article presents and analyses RF EMFs generated by mobile telephony base station antennas in areas accessible to the general public. Measurements of the RF electric field strength and RF EMF power density were conducted in the near- and far-fields of the mobile telephony base station antenna. Broadband and frequency-selective measurements were performed outside (on the roof and on the ground and in a residential area. The tests performed on the roof in front of the mobile telephony base station antennas in the near-field revealed the presence of a dynamic energy interaction within the antenna electric field, which changes rapidly with distance. The RF EMF power density values on the ground at distances of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m from the base station are very low and are scattered within intervals of 0.002 to 0.05 μW/cm2. The results were compared with international exposure guidelines (ICNIRP.

  3. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckus, Raimondas; Strukčinskienė, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas; Šidlauskienė, Aurelija; Čerkauskienė, Rimantė; Isopescu, Dorina Nicolina; Stabryla, Jan; Cretescu, Igor

    2017-03-01

    During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation) from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF) intensity parameters in the environment are discussed in this article. The research methodology is applied according to the requirements of safety norms and Lithuanian Standards in English (LST EN). The article presents and analyses RF EMFs generated by mobile telephony base station antennas in areas accessible to the general public. Measurements of the RF electric field strength and RF EMF power density were conducted in the near- and far-fields of the mobile telephony base station antenna. Broadband and frequency-selective measurements were performed outside (on the roof and on the ground) and in a residential area. The tests performed on the roof in front of the mobile telephony base station antennas in the near-field revealed the presence of a dynamic energy interaction within the antenna electric field, which changes rapidly with distance. The RF EMF power density values on the ground at distances of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m from the base station are very low and are scattered within intervals of 0.002 to 0.05 μW/cm². The results were compared with international exposure guidelines (ICNIRP).

  4. Determination of exposure due to mobile phone base stations in an epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzke, H. P.; Osterhoff, J.; Peklo, K.; Voigt, H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate a supposed relationship between exposure by mobile phone base stations and well-being, an epidemiological cross sectional study is carried out within the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Program. In a parallel project, a method for the classification of electromagnetic exposure due to mobile phone base stations has been developed. This is based on the results of measurements of high frequency immissions in the interior of more than 1100 rooms and at outdoor locations, the calculation of the emissions of mobile phone antennas under free space propagation conditions and empirically determined transmission factors for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in different types of residential areas for passage of walls and windows. Standard tests (correlation-test, kappa-test, Bland-Altman-Plot, analysis of sensitivity and specificity) show that the method for computational exposure assessment developed in this project is applicable for a first classification of exposures due to mobile phone base stations in epidemiological studies. (authors)

  5. Radionuclide production for PET with a linear electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefer, R.E.; Hughey, B.J.; Klinkowstein, R.E.; Welch, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of linear electrostatic accelerator for the production of short-lived radionuclides for PET has been developed at Science Research Laboratory. The tandem cascade accelerator (TCA) is a low energy (3.7 MeV) proton and deuteron accelerator which can generate the four short-lived PET radionuclides in the quantities required for clinical use. The compact size, low weight, low power consumption and reduced radiation shielding requirements of the TCA result in a significant reduction in capital and operating costs when compared with higher energy cyclotron-based systems. Radioisotope target for the production of O-15, F-18, N-13 and C-11 have been designed specifically for use with the low energy TCA beam. A simple to use PC-based computer control system allows fully automated system operation and advanced scheduling of isotope production. Operating experience with the TCA and its PET radionuclide targets is described

  6. A study on the radionuclide transport by bacteria in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byoung Sub

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to develop a predictive model based on a conceptual three phase system and to investigate the influence of bacteria and their generation on the transport of radionuclide in porous and fractured media. The mass balance for bacteria, substrate and radionuclide were formulated. To illustrate the model simply, an equilibrium condition was assumed to partition the substrate, bacteria and radionuclide concentrations between the solid soil matrix, aqueous phase, rock matrix and bacterial surface. From the numerical calculation of the radionuclide transport in the presence of bacteria, it was found that the growth of bacteria and supplied primary substrate as limiting or stimulating growth factor of bacteria are the most important factors of the radionuclide transport. We also found that, depend on the transport of bacteria the temporal and spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration was significantly altered. The model proposed in this study will improve the evaluation of the role of the bacteria in the transport of radionuclide in groundwater systems. Furthermore, this model would be usefully utilized in analyzing the important role of colloidal particulate on the overall performance of radioactive waste safety

  7. Critical Radionuclide and Pathway Analysis for the Savannah River Site, 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hartman, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-08

    During the operational history of Savannah River Site, many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, as shown in this analysis, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses to the offsite public. This report is an update to the 2011 analysis, Critical Radionuclide and Pathway Analysis for the Savannah River Site. SRS-based Performance Assessments for E-Area, Saltstone, F-Tank Farm, H-Tank Farm, and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis have been completed. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in those extensive reports are also detailed and included in this analysis.

  8. Investigation of the exposure level of electromagnetic fields produced by mobile telephone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.; Kharita, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the real values of microwave level distribution and propagation in the locality around samples of mobile phone base station, and to compare the results with the exposure restriction limits recommenced by the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Measurements were performed using special meters for microwaves; the first (Narda SRM-3000) is used for electromagnetic waves frequency spectrum scanning and the second (NARDA) emr 300) determine the level of electric and magnetic fields and the power density of these waves nearby any sort of transmitters. Samples of different kinds of mobile phone base station were chosen to cover important zones of Damascus, and the region around each base station was also scanned in the emission direction and according to accessibility into the studies positions. Results showed that the signal level in all measured points is lower than the ICNIRP restriction level, but for few points the detected microwave level has relatively important values. The signal level inside building situated partially in the emission direction of the base station transmitters decreases stepwise and walls reduce considerably the signal intensity. To realize these kind of field studies in the best way and obtain the maximum profits for all people, the properties and operating system of transmitters used in mobile phone base station must be known, and therefore, it is very important to achieve a transparent collaboration between research laboratory and mobile phone company. (author)

  9. Ways of solving the problems of radiation safety and environmental protection in handling radioactive waste at atomic power stations in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, D.I.; Belitskij, A.S.; Turkin, A.D.; Kozlov, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    Requirements of the State Sanitary Supervision on radiation safety of the personnel and population and on protection of the environment in handling radioactive wastes from nuclear power stations in the USSR are regulated by the Standards of Radiation Safety, the Main Sanitary Rules for Handling Radioactive Materials and by the Sanitary Rules for Designing Nuclear Power Stations. The regulations contained in these documents are obligatory for all the establishments at the stages of design, building and operation of nuclear power stations. The main requirement for handling radioactive wastes from nuclear power stations in the USSR is to dispose of them near the place of their production. In nuclear power station siting and designing the special territory is provided for liquid and solid radioactive wastes storage taking into account the whole period of nuclear power station operation. These storage sites are located within the controlled area. They are built as required, usually for five years. The report contains hygienic and hydrological requirements to the radiation waste burial sites and data on the accepted system of controlling leak-proof qualities of the disposal cavities and radioactivity of the ground water in this region. The results of long-term studies on radionuclide leaching from the bituminic blocks are given and it is shown that the bituminizing method used for solidification of intermediate activity wastes is very promising. In the USSR much attention is given to the problem of sanitary protection of the cooling ponds at nuclear power stations. No limits to the national-economic use of these ponds outside the nuclear power station site are established. Therefore in determining the requirements to the discharge of effluents into the cooling ponds of nuclear power stations the possibility of radionuclide transfer to the population through the aquaeous and terrestrial biological chains is taken into account. The possibility of human diet contamination

  10. Radionuclide limits for vault disposal at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is developing a facility called the E-Area Vaults which will serve as the new radioactive waste disposal facility beginning early in 1992. The facility will employ engineered below-grade concrete vaults for disposal and above grade storage for certain long-lived mobile radionuclides. This report documents the determination of interim upper limits for radionuclide inventories and concentrations which should be allowed in the disposal structures. The work presented here will aid in the development of both waste acceptance criteria and operating limits for the E-Area Vaults. Disposal limits for forty isotopes which comprise the SRS waste streams were determined. The limits are based on total facility and vault inventories for those radionuclides which impact groundwater) and on waste package concentrations for those radionuclides which could affect intruders. (author)

  11. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Andrew J.; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N.

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for 137 Caesium, 90 Strontium and 131 Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide 210 Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. - Highlights: • A radionuclide monitoring program was undertaken across the New Zealand food supply. • 40 food types were analysed for 13 radionuclides. • 137 Cs was present in 15% of foods (range: 0.05–0.44Bq/kg). • Anthropogenic radionuclides displayed compliance with international limits. • 210 Po, 234 U and 238 U were present in most foods with large ranges of activities.

  12. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use following a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Ser, K. S.; Kim, E. H.; Choi, Y. K.; Han, M. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    The optimized derived intervention levels for animal products were evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis. From these results, the radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use were derived. It was shown that radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use depend strongly on animal products, radionuclides and feeding period. In case of the contaminated feedstuffs with long-lived radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr), the feedstuffs with lower contamination should be supplied to animals with increase of feeding period due to the accumulation of radionuclides in animal products. While, in case of the contaminated feedstuffs with short-lived radionuclides ( 131 I), the feeding of higher contaminated feedstuffs was possible with increase of feeding period due to radionuclide decay. It was shown that 137 Cs concentration was lower than 90 Sr concentration in animal feedstuffs for use. It is primarily due to the higher feed-animal products transfer factor of 137 Cs

  13. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  14. Chernobyl is still haunting us. Radionuclides in Estonian mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Vilde, R.; Martin, L.; Aaspollu, J.; Tekko, S.

    1993-01-01

    The disaster that happened at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in 1986 caused a sharp rise in radioactive pollution over an extensive area in the region of the Baltic Sea. To estimate the distribution and the concentration of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in Estonian ecosystems, samples of mushrooms, mosses, lichens and the upper horizons of soil were gathered from 63 test sites during 1991. We were particularly interested in the amounts of radionuclides in mushrooms because these are used as food by people. Dangerously high radionuclide concentrations were found in mushrooms gathered in North-East Estonia. Heightened concentrations were registered here and there all over the territory of Estonia, especially in mushrooms gathered in Central and South-Western Estonia. The Cs-137 content in mushrooms depends on its content in other components of the ecosystems, first and foremost on the concentrations of radiocaesium in mosses and litter, which, therefore, can be used as indicators in prognostication the radioactive pollution of mushrooms in a certain region. As Cs-137 migrates between various ecosystem components, it is necessary to check the radioactivity of the forest products used for food for still a number of years to come. The Sr-90 level was low in all the ecosystem components examined. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  15. ROOTS: a program to generate radionuclide decay chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1985-11-01

    A set of algorithms has been developed to support dosimetric and transport calculations. These subroutines read a radionuclide data file and prepare a decay chain showing branching fractions and radioactive half-lives of each member. One application of these subroutines has been their implementation as a set of FORTRAN subroutines for application in the PREREM code (Ryan and Fields, 1981). Recent use of these subroutines in stand-alone form required their expansion to print branching fractions. An expanded data set based on ICRP-38 radionuclide data (ICRP, 1983) was also prepared. This subroutine package is called Radionuclide Origin and Ontogeny Tracing Subroutines (ROOTS). The package is intended for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 Computer System, and may require modification to run on other machines. 6 refs

  16. Developmental state and perspectives of USSR power stations, espec. nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    According to the resolutions of the 25th and 26th party congresses of the CPSU, the Soviet electric and thermal energy economy envisages as the mainstreams in development: Energy projects based on nuclear fuel, i.e. nuclear power stations (NPS), nuclear heat- and -power stations (NHPS) and nuclear heat stations (NHS); fuel-energy complexes: Ekibastuz, Kansk-Achinsk, West-Siberian complex (Tyumen); power stations utilizing non-conventional regenerative energy sources, i.e. solar, geothermal, MHD power stations. Further down, an overview is given on the developmental perspectives of nuclear-heat and nuclear-power economy and on the development of energy management based on fossil fuels. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Database for long lived radionuclides (LLRN). CEA working group report; Base de donnees sur les radionucleides a vie longue (RNVL). Rapport du groupe de travail CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This report constitutes a data base for long lived radionuclides (with half lives ranging from 30 to 10{sup 14} years) presenting informations on seven different topics: 'Radioactive data' gathers fundamental data characterising radioactive properties of considered radionuclides (half-life, disintegration mode, radiation energy,...); 'Formation and inventory' collects data on radionuclide formation ways as well as quantities formed during fuel irradiation; 'Biological effects' gives data characterising both radiotoxicity for each radionuclide and chemical toxicity for the considered element; 'Partitioning' specifies element repartition according to the different ways of Purex reprocessing and complementary partitioning processes possible for isolating chemical elements corresponding to the considered radionuclides; 'Transmutation' provides data allowing in part to evaluate the feasibility and destruction performances of radionuclides by transmutation with neutrons; 'Behaviour in waste packages' gathers some data relative to the properties of waste packages confinement. Only data on vitrified waste packages are given there; 'Behaviour in diluted solution' provides data used for element migration calculations. (author)

  18. Model of the long-term transfer of radionuclides in forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo [Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    . The model assumes that the fluxes of radionuclides are driven by fluxes of water and nutrients and hence the TCs are expressed as function of ecological parameters, such as biomass growth, and evapotranspiration. The following radionuclide fluxes are included in the model: flux from soil to tree wood via root uptake, flux from soil to tree leaves via root uptake, flux from soil to understorey (plants and mushrooms) via root (mycelia) uptake, flux from tree leaves to litter by leaves fall, flux from tree wood to litter by wood fall, flux from understorey plants to litter by plant senescence, flux from litter to soil following litter decomposition. In the report alternative approaches to describe the transfer from soil to plants are presented. In the simpler approach, applicable when soil to plant concentration ratios (CR) are available for the radionuclide or its stable analogue, the root uptake rates are calculated by multiplying the concentration in the plant, obtained with the help of the CR, by the biomass production. A second approach is based on the assumption that some elements are taken-up passively with the transpiration flux. For them, the total flux from soil to plants can be expressed as a function of the transpiration rate and the radionuclide concentration in the pore water. The CRs from soil to understorey plants as well as the CRs from soil to tree leaves and tree wood were estimated by performing probabilistic simulations. It was assumed that roots have the same permeability for radionuclides and water. It should be taken into account, that the literature data used in the comparison were obtained at different sites and using different methods. A better agreement could be achieved if the model parameters and the empirical data of CRs are obtained for the same site. In some cases the differences might abide more fundamental reasons, for instance that the implicit assumption of linear proportionality of the radionuclide uptake rates to the transpiration

  19. Model of the long-term transfer of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Rodolfo

    2006-05-01

    . The model assumes that the fluxes of radionuclides are driven by fluxes of water and nutrients and hence the TCs are expressed as function of ecological parameters, such as biomass growth, and evapotranspiration. The following radionuclide fluxes are included in the model: flux from soil to tree wood via root uptake, flux from soil to tree leaves via root uptake, flux from soil to understorey (plants and mushrooms) via root (mycelia) uptake, flux from tree leaves to litter by leaves fall, flux from tree wood to litter by wood fall, flux from understorey plants to litter by plant senescence, flux from litter to soil following litter decomposition. In the report alternative approaches to describe the transfer from soil to plants are presented. In the simpler approach, applicable when soil to plant concentration ratios (CR) are available for the radionuclide or its stable analogue, the root uptake rates are calculated by multiplying the concentration in the plant, obtained with the help of the CR, by the biomass production. A second approach is based on the assumption that some elements are taken-up passively with the transpiration flux. For them, the total flux from soil to plants can be expressed as a function of the transpiration rate and the radionuclide concentration in the pore water. The CRs from soil to understorey plants as well as the CRs from soil to tree leaves and tree wood were estimated by performing probabilistic simulations. It was assumed that roots have the same permeability for radionuclides and water. It should be taken into account, that the literature data used in the comparison were obtained at different sites and using different methods. A better agreement could be achieved if the model parameters and the empirical data of CRs are obtained for the same site. In some cases the differences might abide more fundamental reasons, for instance that the implicit assumption of linear proportionality of the radionuclide uptake rates to the transpiration

  20. Assesment of Carbon Credits for Power Generation Systems at GSM Base Station Site

    OpenAIRE

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu; Ani, Emmanuel Onyeka

    2016-01-01

    Electricity production is often a source of CO2 emissions, for instance when fossil fuel is combusted in power plants. Therefore the root cause of pollution coming from telecommunication industry is the source of energy (diesel genset) the network operators used in running their Base station sites. Energy consumption of using diesel to power base station by telecom networks is a contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper presents the comparative carbon credits of hybrid ...

  1. Radionuclides in air, water, and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection

  2. The principal radionuclides in high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanto

    1998-01-01

    The principal radionuclides in high level radioactive waste management. The selection of the principal radionuclides in the high level waste (HLW) management was developed in order to improve the disposal scenario of HLW. In this study the unified criteria for selection of the principal radionuclides were proposed as; (1) the value of hazard index estimated by annual limit of intake (ALI) for long-term tendency,(2) the relative dose factor related to adsorbed migration rate transferred by ground water, and (3) heat generation in the repository. From this study it can be concluded that the principal radionuclides in the HLW management were minor actinide (MA=Np, Am, Cm, etc), Tc, I, Cs and Sr, based on the unified basic criteria introduced in this study. The remaining short-lived fission product (SLFPs), after the selected nuclides are removed, should be immobilized and solidified in a glass matrix. Potential risk due to the remaining SLFPs can be lower than that of uranium ore after about 300 year. (author)

  3. The Mediterranean Oscillation Teleconnection Index: Station-Based versus Principal Component Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Criado-Aldeanueva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different paradigms of the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO teleconnection index have been compared in this work: station-based definitions obtained by the difference of some climate variable between two selected points in the eastern and western basins (i.e., Algiers and Cairo, Gibraltar and Israel, Marseille and Jerusalem, or south France and Levantine basin and the principal component (PC approach in which the index is obtained as the time series of the first mode of normalised sea level pressure anomalies across the extended Mediterranean region. Interannual to interdecadal precipitation (P, evaporation (E, E-P, and net heat flux have been correlated with the different MO indices to compare their relative importance in the long-term variability of heat and freshwater budgets over the Mediterranean Sea. On an annual basis, the PC paradigm is the most effective tool to assess the effect of the large-scale atmospheric forcing in the Mediterranean Sea because the station-based indices exhibit a very poor correlation with all climatic variables and only influence a reduced fraction of the basin. In winter, the station-based indices highly improve their ability to represent the atmospheric forcing and results are fairly independent of the paradigm used.

  4. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the accumulation of radionuclides in Fucus vesiculosus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Lena.

    1990-01-01

    Fucus vesiculosus has been used as an indicator for the occurrence of radionuclides in the marine environment. A prerequisite in using biological organisms as indicators is that the autecology of the organisms in question be well known. Growth, reproduction and individual biomass changes of tissues of different ages were studied in a Fucus vesiculosus population from the Oeresund, southern Sweden. The new vegetative fronds grown during the year accounted for about 80% of the total plant biomass in the autumn and this could affect the total activity concentration of long-lived radionuclides measured in whole plants of F. vesiculosus. Thus, a discharge of long-lived radionuclides during winter or spring gives a higher increase than a discharge during autumn. Differences in uptake and release of 54 Mn and 60 Co were observed between F. vesiculosus and its epiphytes but also between different tissues within the Fucus plant. Highest uptake and release were measured for the filamentous epiphyte Pilayella littoralis followed by the new vegetative fronds of F. vesiculosus after transplantation in situ from an area outside Barsebaeck nuclear power station, southern Sweden, to an area with low concentration of the radionuclides studied and vice versa. Salinity effects on the accumulation of radionuclides in F. vesiculosus were studied experimentally. Accumulation of 137 Cs, 54 Mn, 65 Zn and 60 Co was significantly higher in algae grown at 8 permille than at 15 and 24 permille, respectively. Most pronounced salinity effects were observed for 137 Cs. The impact of the Chernobyl accident was investigated in the Baltic Sea using F. vesiculosus. The Chernobyl accident contributed to the radioactivity in the Baltic Sea primarily concerning radiocaesium. (author)

  5. Migration of radionuclides in fissured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1982-01-01

    Some computed results of radionuclide migration in fissured rock are presented. The computations are based on a model which describes flow as occurring in a multitude of independent fissures (stratified flow). This gives rise to strong dispersion of channeling. The radionuclide migration in the individual fissures is modelled by the advection equation on a parallel walled channel with porous walls. The nuclides may diffuse into the pores and sorb reversibly on the pore surfaces. The effluent rates of 23 important nuclides are presented as functions of distance and time for various of important parameters such as rock permeability, diffusion coefficients, release rates, time of first release, fissure spacing and fissure width distribution. (Author)

  6. Automation for a base station stability testing

    OpenAIRE

    Punnek, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    This Batchelor’s thesis was commissioned by Oy LM Ericsson Ab Oulu. The aim of it was to help to investigate and create a test automation solution for the stability testing of the LTE base station. The main objective was to create a test automation for a predefined test set. This test automation solution had to be created for specific environments and equipment. This work included creating the automation for the test cases and putting them to daily test automation jobs. The key factor...

  7. Detection of radionuclides originating from a nuclear power plant in sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Suomela, M.

    1999-01-01

    Sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides entering the environment. Radionuclides originating in nuclear power stations have been detected in sludge found at wastewater treatment plants in communities near the power plants (NPP). The main contributor is the radionuclide discharges of the NPPs into the atmosphere, but workers may transmit small amounts through their clothes or skin, or from internal contamination. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the amounts of radionuclides in sewage sludge and to obtain information on transport of the radionuclides from the NPPs to the wastewater treatment plants. Under normal operating conditions and during annual maintenance and refuelling outages at the Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs, sewage sludge samples were taken at wastewater treatment plants in communities located in the vicinity of the plants. With the exception of 131 I, the most significant activities in discharges into the air from the Loviisa NPP were due to 110 mAg. The latter was also noted most frequently in the sewage sludge at the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Loviisa about 10 km from the Loviisa pressurised water reactor (PWR) NPP. The other nuclides probably originating from the Loviisa NPP were 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 58 Co, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 110 mAg and 124 Sb. In the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Rauma, about 10 km from the Olkiluoto boiling water reactor (BWR) NPP, the only nuclides possibly origination from the NPP were 54 Mn, 58 Co and 60 Co. In the wastewater treatment plant, the variation in concentration of 60 Co in sludge did not correlate with the activities measured in precipitation. The occurrence of the nuclide in the treatment plant did not correlate over time with the amounts of discharge from the NPP. This suggests that at least some of the activity was transported to the wastewater treatment plant via routes other than precipitation. Small amounts may be transported within NPP workers to sewage

  8. Availability of uranium present in the sludge generated at two stations of potable water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Serrano, A.; Baeza, A.; Salas, A.; Guillen, J.

    2013-01-01

    During the treatment is carried out in a Station Potable Water Treatment Plant sludge enriched are produced in components that have been removed from the water. The concentration and availability of radionuclides accumulated in a sludge during coagulation-flocculation will condition possible later use, so it is essential to carry out the characterization of sludge and its chemical speciation. (Author)

  9. Volume reduction/solidification of liquid radioactive waste using bitumen at Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.E.; Baker, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Ontario Hydro at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A' has undertaken a program to render the station's liquid radioactive waste suitable for discharge to Lake Huron by removing sufficient radiological and chemical contaminants to satisfy regulatory requirements for emissions. The system will remove radionuclide and chemical contaminants from five different plant waste streams. The contaminants will be immobilized and stored at on-site radioactive waste storage facilities and the purified streams will be discharged. The discharge targets established by Ontario Hydro are set well below the limits established by the Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) and are based on the Best Available Technology Economically Achievable Approach (B.A.T.E.A.). ADTECHS Corporation has been selected by Ontario Hydro to provide volume reduction/solidification technology for one of the five waste streams. The system will dry and immobilize the contaminants from a liquid waste stream in emulsified asphalt using thin film evaporation technology

  10. Objective structured clinical examination "Death Certificate" station - Computer-based versus conventional exam format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolik, A; Heide, S; Lessig, R; Hachmann, V; Stoevesandt, D; Kellner, J; Jäschke, C; Watzke, S

    2018-04-01

    One option for improving the quality of medical post mortem examinations is through intensified training of medical students, especially in countries where such a requirement exists regardless of the area of specialisation. For this reason, new teaching and learning methods on this topic have recently been introduced. These new approaches include e-learning modules or SkillsLab stations; one way to objectify the resultant learning outcomes is by means of the OSCE process. However, despite offering several advantages, this examination format also requires considerable resources, in particular in regards to medical examiners. For this reason, many clinical disciplines have already implemented computer-based OSCE examination formats. This study investigates whether the conventional exam format for the OSCE forensic "Death Certificate" station could be replaced with a computer-based approach in future. For this study, 123 students completed the OSCE "Death Certificate" station, using both a computer-based and conventional format, half starting with the Computer the other starting with the conventional approach in their OSCE rotation. Assignment of examination cases was random. The examination results for the two stations were compared and both overall results and the individual items of the exam checklist were analysed by means of inferential statistics. Following statistical analysis of examination cases of varying difficulty levels and correction of the repeated measures effect, the results of both examination formats appear to be comparable. Thus, in the descriptive item analysis, while there were some significant differences between the computer-based and conventional OSCE stations, these differences were not reflected in the overall results after a correction factor was applied (e.g. point deductions for assistance from the medical examiner was possible only at the conventional station). Thus, we demonstrate that the computer-based OSCE "Death Certificate" station

  11. DEPDOSE: An interactive, microcomputer based program to calculate doses from exposure to radionuclides deposited on the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, D.A.; Hull, A.P.

    1991-12-01

    DEPDOSE is an interactive, menu driven, microcomputer based program designed to rapidly calculate committed dose from radionuclides deposited on the ground. The program is designed to require little or no computer expertise on the part of the user. The program consisting of a dose calculation section and a library maintenance section. These selections are available to the user from the main menu. The dose calculation section provides the user with the ability to calculate committed doses, determine the decay time needed to reach a particular dose, cross compare deposition data from separate locations, and approximate a committed dose based on a measured exposure rate. The library maintenance section allows the user to review and update dose modifier data as well as to build and maintain libraries of radionuclide data, dose conversion factors, and default deposition data. The program is structured to provide the user easy access for reviewing data prior to running the calculation. Deposition data can either be entered by the user or imported from other databases. Results can either be displayed on the screen or sent to the printer

  12. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  13. Predictors of suicide and suicide attempt in subway stations: a population-based ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Sonneck, Gernot; Dervic, Kanita; Nader, Ingo W; Voracek, Martin; Kapusta, Nestor D; Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Dorner, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Suicidal behavior on the subway often involves young people and has a considerable impact on public life, but little is known about factors associated with suicides and suicide attempts in specific subway stations. Between 1979 and 2009, 185 suicides and 107 suicide attempts occurred on the subway in Vienna, Austria. Station-specific suicide and suicide attempt rates (defined as the frequency of suicidal incidents per time period) were modeled as the outcome variables in bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression models. Structural station characteristics (presence of a surveillance unit, train types used, and construction on street level versus other construction), contextual station characteristics (neighborhood to historical sites, size of the catchment area, and in operation during time period of extensive media reporting on subway suicides), and passenger-based characteristics (number of passengers getting on the trains per day, use as meeting point by drug users, and socioeconomic status of the population in the catchment area) were used as the explanatory variables. In the multivariate analyses, subway suicides increased when stations were served by the faster train type. Subway suicide attempts increased with the daily number of passengers getting on the trains and with the stations' use as meeting points by drug users. The findings indicate that there are some differences between subway suicides and suicide attempts. Completed suicides seem to vary most with train type used. Suicide attempts seem to depend mostly on passenger-based characteristics, specifically on the station's crowdedness and on its use as meeting point by drug users. Suicide-preventive interventions should concentrate on crowded stations and on stations frequented by risk groups.

  14. Novel Base Station MIMO Antennas with Enhanced Spectral Efficiencies Using Angular Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mora-Andreu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The true polarization diversity (TPD technique is combined with the spatial diversity technique in novel MIMO antenna array geometries with a large number of elements. The use of a large number of elements requires some angular reuse within the array for polarization diversity. With designs compatible with existing base station antenna array configurations, the novel geometries with combining diversity schemes are shown to be able to achieve near the maximum spectral efficiencies. True polarization diversity (TPD schemes are found to be an excellent complement to more conventional spatial diversity schemes for obtaining optimum MIMO array performance in base station antennas.

  15. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  16. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  17. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.

    1982-11-01

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by members of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter which has the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The annual limit of intake (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake figures in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experiment animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbation factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increases for plutonium and protactinium, and decreases for neptunium. (Author)

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities radionuclide inventory assessment CY 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    Assessments for evaluating compliance with airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subparts H and I) were performed for 33 buildings at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the Hanford Site, and for five buildings owned and operated by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1992 and 1993. Results of the assessments are summarized in Table S.1 for DOE-PNL buildings and in Table S.2 for Battelle-owned buildings. Based on the radionuclide inventory assessments, four DOE-PNL buildings (one with two emission points) require continuous sampling for radionuclides per 40 CFR 61. None of the Battelle-owned buildings require continuous emission sampling

  19. Guidebook for the treatment of accidental internal radionuclide contamination of workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M H [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Breitenstein, B D [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Metivier, H [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Muggenburg, B A [ITRI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stradling, G N [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Volf, V [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)

    1992-01-01

    This book is intended as a guide to the treatment of victims following an accident in which radionuclides have entered the body. It is a practical guide based on a review of current treatments to remove radionuclides from the body and prevent radiation-induced disease. This book should be used by occupational physicians, emergency room physicians, health physicists, paramedics and emergency personnel, nurses, and other related medical personnel. It is intended to provide an overview of the subject and practical information for treating and caring for persons exposed to radionuclides. (author).

  20. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. METHODS: The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross......-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations...... affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. RESULTS: Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18...

  1. Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated--therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129 Xe + for the determination of 129 I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass

  2. CASCADER: An M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.; Donahue, M.E.

    1993-02-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and diffusion. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. CASCADER is a gas-phase, one-space dimensional transport and fate model for M-chain radionuclides in very dry homogeneous or heterogeneous soil. This model contains barometric pressure-induced advection and diffusion together with linear irreversible and linear reversible sorption for each radionuclide. The advection velocity is derived from an embedded air-pumping submodel. The air-pumping submodel is based on an assumption of isothermal conditions, which is driven by barometric pressure. CASCADER allows the concentration of source radionuclides to decay via the classical Bateman chain of simple, first-order kinetic processes. The transported radionuclides also decay via first-order processes while in the soil. A mass conserving, flux-type inlet and exit set of boundary conditions are used. The user must supply the initial distribution for the parent radionuclide in the soil. The initial daughter distribution is found using equilibrium rules. The model is user friendly as it uses a prompt-driven, free-form input. The code is ANSI standard Fortran 77

  3. CASCADER: An m-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.; Donahue, M.E.

    1992-06-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes as they are advected and/or dispersed. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. CASCADER is a gas-phase, one space dimensional transport and fate model for an m-chain of radionuclides in very dry soil. This model contains barometric pressure-induced advection and diffusion together with linear irreversible and linear reversible sorption for each radionuclide. The advocation velocity is derived from an embedded air-pumping submodel. The airpumping submodel is based on an assumption of isothermal conditions and is barometric pressure driven. CASCADER allows the concentration of source radionuclides to decay via the classical Bateman chain of simple, first-order kinetic processes. The transported radionuclides also decay via first-order processes while in the soil. A mass conserving, flux-type inlet and exit set of boundary conditions is used. The user must supply the initial distribution for the parent radionuclide in the soil. The initial daughter distribution is found using equilibrium rules. The model is user friendly as it uses a prompt-driven, free-form input. The code is ANSI standard Fortran 77

  4. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  5. Amelioration of soils contaminated with radionuclides: exploiting biodiversity to minimise or maximise soil to plant transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, N. [University of the West of England, Centre for Research in Plant Science, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Managing the transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants and thence food chains is an important immediate post-accident challenge for radio-ecologists. In the longer term, soil remediation is often necessary to eliminate the environmental impacts of accidents. Until the recent advent of molecular phylogenies for flowering plants there was no scientific framework through which to analyse the contribution of inter-species differences in radionuclide uptake by plants to these processes. We have already carried out such analyses for a variety of heavy metals and here report new biodiversity landscapes across the flowering plant phylum for radionuclides of Cs, Sr, S, Cl, I, Co and Ru that identify groups of plants with particularly low and high uptake. The plant groups are an untapped reservoir of biodiversity that might be exploited for minimising food chain contamination or maximising phyto-extraction of radionuclides. We have recently demonstrated the importance of biodiversity in minimising food chain contamination with {sup 137}Cs and exploiting biodiversity has recently brought spectacular and unexpected advances in phyto-extraction of As. The UK Food Standards Agency food chain model and recent advances in our phyto-extraction field trial at Bradwell Nuclear Power Station, UK will be used to illustrate for the first time the use of biodiversity landscapes for post-accident management and soil remediation. Biodiversity landscapes of inter-species differences in radionuclide uptake are also a foundation for a variety of developments in the genetic engineering of plant uptake and response to radionuclides. Results building on recent work we have carried out using K transport mutants of Arabidopsis and its implications for transport processes and engineering them in flowering plants will be discussed. Further, novel ongoing genomic and proteomic work into the molecular responses of Arabidopsis to ionising radiation and its implications for selecting plants from

  6. Amelioration of soils contaminated with radionuclides: exploiting biodiversity to minimise or maximise soil to plant transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willey, N.

    2004-01-01

    Managing the transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants and thence food chains is an important immediate post-accident challenge for radio-ecologists. In the longer term, soil remediation is often necessary to eliminate the environmental impacts of accidents. Until the recent advent of molecular phylogenies for flowering plants there was no scientific framework through which to analyse the contribution of inter-species differences in radionuclide uptake by plants to these processes. We have already carried out such analyses for a variety of heavy metals and here report new biodiversity landscapes across the flowering plant phylum for radionuclides of Cs, Sr, S, Cl, I, Co and Ru that identify groups of plants with particularly low and high uptake. The plant groups are an untapped reservoir of biodiversity that might be exploited for minimising food chain contamination or maximising phyto-extraction of radionuclides. We have recently demonstrated the importance of biodiversity in minimising food chain contamination with 137 Cs and exploiting biodiversity has recently brought spectacular and unexpected advances in phyto-extraction of As. The UK Food Standards Agency food chain model and recent advances in our phyto-extraction field trial at Bradwell Nuclear Power Station, UK will be used to illustrate for the first time the use of biodiversity landscapes for post-accident management and soil remediation. Biodiversity landscapes of inter-species differences in radionuclide uptake are also a foundation for a variety of developments in the genetic engineering of plant uptake and response to radionuclides. Results building on recent work we have carried out using K transport mutants of Arabidopsis and its implications for transport processes and engineering them in flowering plants will be discussed. Further, novel ongoing genomic and proteomic work into the molecular responses of Arabidopsis to ionising radiation and its implications for selecting plants from

  7. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-01

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development of this

  8. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development

  9. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  10. 238U-series radionuclides in Finnish groundwater-based drinking water and effective doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterbacka, P.

    2005-09-01

    The thesis deals with the occurrence of 238 U-series radionuclides and particle-bound 210 Pb and 210 Po in Finnish groundwater-based drinking water, methods used for removing 234 U, 238 U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, and the annual effective doses caused by 238 U-series radionuclides in drinking water. In order to reduce radiation exposure and avoid high doses, it is important to examine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in groundwater. In this work, the activity concentrations of radon ( 222 Rn), radium ( 226 Ra), uranium ( 238 U and 234 U), lead ( 210 Pb) and polonium ( 210 Po) were determined from 472 private wells, which were selected randomly from across Finland. On the basis of the results, the activity concentrations in groundwater and the radiation exposure from drinking water of people living outside the public water supply in Finland was specified. The efficiency of 238 U, 234 U, 210 Pb and 210 Po removal from drinking water was examined at ten private homes. In order to obtain accurate results and correct estimates of effective doses, attention was paid to the sampling of 222 Rn and 210 Pb, and the determination of 210 Pb. The results revealed that the median activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were as much as ten times higher in drilled wells than in wells dug in soil. The average activity concentration of 222 Rn in drilled wells was 460 Bq/l and in dug wells 50 Bq/l. The highest activity concentrations were found in Southern Finland. In addition, occasional high activity concentrations were found all over Finland. The average activity concentrations of 234 U and 238 U in drilled wells were 0.35 and 0.26 Bq/l and in dug wells 0.020 and 0.015 Bq/l, respectively. The spatial distribution of 234 U, 238 U, 210 Pb and 210 Po was essentially similar to that of 222 Rn. In contrast to other natural radionuclides, the highest 226 Ra activity concentrations were found in coastal areas, since drilled well water near the sea has a higher salinity

  11. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  12. Distribution of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium series in the process of artesian water treatment for drinking consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashchenko, S.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Shishkunova, L.V.

    1997-01-01

    Distribution of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium series during the treatment of artesian water for drinking consumption is studied using vacuum-emanation and gamma spectrometry methods. During the water treatment hydroxide precipitates are produced at the station, which are isolated using a sand filter, radium isotopes being coprecipitated alongside with them. As a result of this radioactive waste is accumulated at the station, radium isotope concentration in it being equivalent to radium isotope concentration in uranium-thorium ores with 0:11% uranium and 0.56% thorium content. radium isotope concentration in water, delivered to the user do not exceed the established domestic normatives do not exceed the established domestic normatives

  13. Analyzing mobile WiMAX base station deployment under different frequency planning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, M. K.; Ahmad, R. B.; Ali, Ziad G.; Aldhaibani, Jaafar A.; Fayadh, Rashid A.

    2015-05-01

    The frequency spectrum is a precious resource and scarce in the communication markets. Therefore, different techniques are adopted to utilize the available spectrum in deploying WiMAX base stations (BS) in cellular networks. In this paper several types of frequency planning techniques are illustrated, and a comprehensive comparative study between conventional frequency reuse of 1 (FR of 1) and fractional frequency reuse (FFR) is presented. These techniques are widely used in network deployment, because they employ universal frequency (using all the available bandwidth) in their base station installation/configuration within network system. This paper presents a network model of 19 base stations in order to be employed in the comparison of the aforesaid frequency planning techniques. Users are randomly distributed within base stations, users' resource mapping and their burst profile selection are based on the measured signal to interference plus-noise ratio (SINR). Simulation results reveal that the FFR has advantages over the conventional FR of 1 in various metrics. 98 % of downlink resources (slots) are exploited when FFR is applied, whilst it is 81 % at FR of 1. Data rate of FFR has been increased to 10.6 Mbps, while it is 7.98 Mbps at FR of 1. The spectral efficiency is better enhanced (1.072 bps/Hz) at FR of 1 than FFR (0.808 bps/Hz), since FR of 1 exploits all the Bandwidth. The subcarrier efficiency shows how many data bits that can be carried by subcarriers under different frequency planning techniques, the system can carry more data bits under FFR (2.40 bit/subcarrier) than FR of 1 (1.998 bit/subcarrier). This study confirms that FFR can perform better than conventional frequency planning (FR of 1) which made it a strong candidate for WiMAX BS deployment in cellular networks.

  14. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  15. Applicability of an exposure model for the determination of emissions from mobile phone base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, J; Neitzke, H P; Bornkessel, C

    2008-01-01

    Applicability of a model to estimate radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) strength in households from mobile phone base stations was evaluated with technical data of mobile phone base stations available from the German Net Agency, and dosimetric measurements, performed in an epidemiologi......Applicability of a model to estimate radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) strength in households from mobile phone base stations was evaluated with technical data of mobile phone base stations available from the German Net Agency, and dosimetric measurements, performed...... in an epidemiological study. Estimated exposure and exposure measured with dosemeters in 1322 participating households were compared. For that purpose, the upper 10th percentiles of both outcomes were defined as the 'higher exposed' groups. To assess the agreement of the defined 'higher' exposed groups, kappa...... coefficient, sensitivity and specificity were calculated. The present results show only a weak agreement of calculations and measurements (kappa values between -0.03 and 0.28, sensitivity between 7.1 and 34.6). Only in some of the sub-analyses, a higher agreement was found, e.g. when measured instead...

  16. Radiation protection aspects of the trafficking radionuclides contaminated metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouza, Z.

    1999-01-01

    This paper covers the legal base of the release in the environment of radionuclides containing materials and the radiation protection aspects of trafficking in radionuclides contaminated materials. Materials, substance and objects containing radionuclides or contaminated by them may be released into the environment, if they do not exceed values authorized by SONS (State Office of Nuclear Safety). Legislative measures should be taken against illicit trafficking of the nuclear material in all the areas. The creation of a sophisticated system for the control and regulation of all important radionuclides released into the environment should be based on the radiation protection limits, constraints, reference and exemption levels which are introduced in the legislative documents; the strong supervision of producers and users of the sealed sources by SONS side, in addition to the requirements of the licensing process of their sources; a complete data-base and information exchange system related to illicit trafficking in contaminated material; in this system all the authorities with jurisdiction should be involved. The responsibilities of the persons involved in metal scrap trafficking should include arrangement of appropriate monitoring, rules for transport of the metal scrap, an adequate measuring system to monitor metal scrap including monitoring to prevent processing or smelting of the radioactive material, control measures, etc. All of the above items of legislation are an important challenge for the Czech Republic. (author)

  17. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  18. SISTEM PAKAR TROUBLESHOOTING BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION UNTUK EFISIENSI KINERJA TEKNISI (STUDI KASUS : PT.KMS TELECOM PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogi Yunefri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakBase Transceiver Station (BTS terdiri dari modul-modul yang memiliki indikator alarm untuk mengindikasikan adanya error pada komponen dalam sistemnya. Kurangnya tenaga ahli alarm BTS, menyebabkan para operator harus terlebih dahulu membuka buletin atau referensi lainnya untuk mengetahui penanganan dari tiap alarm sehingga tidak terjadi kesalahan fatal. Keterbatasan itulah yang menyebabkan PT.KMS Pekanbaru cukup kesulitan untuk melakukan troubleshooting dengan cepat.Kata Kunci : Base Transceiver Station, expert systems, TelecomunicationAbstractBase Transceiver Station ( BTS consists From the module - The module has an alarm indicator to indicate an error review their hearts IN Component system. Lack Expert BTS alarm , the operator causes the first Must Opens bulletin Other references to review the handling From each alarm know that NOT fatal error occurred.The limitations that cause PT.KMS Pekanbaru Quite difficult to review conduct tips Quick WITH .Keywords: Base Transceiver Station, expert systems, Telecomunication

  19. An international database of radionuclide concentration ratios for wildlife: development and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.; Beresford, N.A.; Brown, J.E.; Yankovich, T.

    2013-01-01

    A key element of most systems for assessing the impact of radionuclides on the environment is a means to estimate the transfer of radionuclides to organisms. To facilitate this, an international wildlife transfer database has been developed to provide an online, searchable compilation of transfer parameters in the form of equilibrium-based whole-organism to media concentration ratios. This paper describes the derivation of the wildlife transfer database, the key data sources it contains and highlights the applications for the data. -- Highlights: • An online database containing wildlife radionuclide transfer parameters is described. • Database underpins recent ICRP and IAEA data wildlife transfer compilations. • Database contains equilibrium based whole organism to media concentration ratios

  20. Application of accelerator-produced short-lived radionuclides in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupsch, H.

    1986-01-01

    Several problems such as corrosion, catalysis, wear, process optimization and diagnosis, damage analysis, arising in idustry can be solved using short-lived radioisotopes. Some examples of technological target designs which have been developed are demonstrated for the radionuclide production based on p,n; d,α; α,n; α,2n; α,p; γ,n; γ,p nuclear reactions. Applications of short-lived radionuclides in plants and processes of electrodeposition and gas concrete production are described. (author)

  1. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  2. Measurements of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Cellular Base Stations in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With increasing the usage of mobile communication devices and internet network information, the entry of private telecommunications companies in Iraq has been started since 2003. These companies began to build up cellular towers to accomplish the telecommunication works but they ignore the safety conditions imposed for the health and environment that are considered in random way. These negative health effects which may cause a health risk for life beings and environment pollution. The aim of this work is to determine the safe and unsafe ranges and discuss damage caused by radiation emitted from Asia cell base stations in Shirqat city and discuses the best ways in which can be minimize its exposure level to avoid its negative health effects. Practical measurements of power density around base stations has been accomplished by using a radiation survey meter type (Radio frequency EMF Strength Meter 480846 in two ways. The first way of measurements has been accomplished at a height of 2 meters above ground for different distances from (0-300 meters .The second way is at a distance of 150 meters for different levels from (2-15 meters above ground level. The maximum measured power density is about (3 mW/m2. Results indicate that the levels of power density are far below the RF radiation exposure of USSR safety standards levels. And that means these cellular base station don't cause negative the health effect for life being if the exposure is within the acceptable international standard levels.

  3. Vertical soil migration of radionuclide fallout from the Chernobyl' accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silant'ev, A.N.; Shkuratova, I.G.; Bobovnikova, T.I.

    1989-01-01

    The most suitable model for describing the behavior of radionuclide fallout on a soil surface is quasidiffusion transfer with directional transfer taken into account. The parameter values for this have been determined previously and are supplemented by the results of this work. To investigate the initial radionuclide distribution along the soil profile, monolithic soil samples 5 cm thick were taken in June-September 1986 in areas which had been subjected to contamination due to the Chernobyl' accident. The samples taken were cut up into layers. The first layer, 0.5 cm thick, was cut off from the surface of the soil monolith together with the grass. The next layer cut off was also 0.5 cm thick. Then two layers, each 1 cm in thickness, were cut off. The thickness of the last layer was 2 cm. The vertical distribution of radionuclides along the soil profile which was examined may be called the initial distribution, which will then change due to nonimmediate migration of radionuclides in the soil. Based on the research which has been performed, the following conclusions may be drawn. One portion of the radionuclides resulting from fallout is trapped by plant cover, while the other enters immediately into the soil. For a thick plant covering, about 80% of the radionuclide fallout is sorbed by the grass; for sparse cover, about 40%. The radionuclides entering the soil along with rainwater penetrate into the soil depths, producing contamination which falls off exponentially with depth. The exponent index is close to 1 cm -1 . In a forest, the main amount of radionuclide fallout is trapped by litter. Approximately 10% of the contamination fallout penetrates beneath the litter

  4. Transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere during complex meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Telenta, B.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclides from various sources (nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, nuclear facilities, medical facilities, etc.) are being released to the atmosphere. The meteorological conditions determine the atmospheric turbulence, dispersion, and removal processes of the radionuclides. A two-dimensional version of the cloud model based on the Klemp-Wilhelmson dynamic and Lin et al.'s microphysics and thermodynamics has been adapted and used to simulate the transport of radionuclides emitted from a power plant or other source to the atmosphere. Calculations of the trajectories and radii for a few puffs are included in this paper. These numerical investigations show that the presented model can be used for the transport simulation of radionuclides and for the assessment of the radiological impact of power plants and other sources in safety assessments and comparative studies. Because it can simulate puff trajectories, this model is especially valuable in the presence of complex meteorological conditions

  5. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  6. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark

    2005-11-01

    Two sites in Sweden are currently under investigation by SKB for their suitability as places for deep repository of radioactive waste, the Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar area. As a part of the safety assessment, SKB has formulated a biosphere model with different sub-models for different parts of the ecosystem in order to be able to predict the dose to humans following a possible radionuclide discharge from a future deep repository. In this report, a new model concept describing radionuclide transport in streams is presented. The main difference from the previous model for running water used by SKB, where only dilution of the inflow of radionuclides was considered, is that the new model includes parameterizations also of the exchange processes present along the stream. This is done in order to be able to investigate the effect of the retention on the transport and to be able to estimate the resulting concentrations in the different parts of the system. The concentrations determined with this new model could later be used for order of magnitude predictions of the dose to humans. The presented model concept is divided in two parts, one hydraulic and one radionuclide transport model. The hydraulic model is used to determine the flow conditions in the stream channel and is based on the assumption of uniform flow and quasi-stationary conditions. The results from the hydraulic model are used in the radionuclide transport model where the concentration is determined in the different parts of the stream ecosystem. The exchange processes considered are exchange with the sediments due to diffusion, advective transport and sedimentation/resuspension and uptake of radionuclides in biota. Transport of both dissolved radionuclides and sorbed onto particulates is considered. Sorption kinetics in the stream water phase is implemented as the time scale of the residence time in the stream water probably is short in comparison to the time scale of the kinetic sorption. In the sediment

  7. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-11-15

    Two sites in Sweden are currently under investigation by SKB for their suitability as places for deep repository of radioactive waste, the Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar area. As a part of the safety assessment, SKB has formulated a biosphere model with different sub-models for different parts of the ecosystem in order to be able to predict the dose to humans following a possible radionuclide discharge from a future deep repository. In this report, a new model concept describing radionuclide transport in streams is presented. The main difference from the previous model for running water used by SKB, where only dilution of the inflow of radionuclides was considered, is that the new model includes parameterizations also of the exchange processes present along the stream. This is done in order to be able to investigate the effect of the retention on the transport and to be able to estimate the resulting concentrations in the different parts of the system. The concentrations determined with this new model could later be used for order of magnitude predictions of the dose to humans. The presented model concept is divided in two parts, one hydraulic and one radionuclide transport model. The hydraulic model is used to determine the flow conditions in the stream channel and is based on the assumption of uniform flow and quasi-stationary conditions. The results from the hydraulic model are used in the radionuclide transport model where the concentration is determined in the different parts of the stream ecosystem. The exchange processes considered are exchange with the sediments due to diffusion, advective transport and sedimentation/resuspension and uptake of radionuclides in biota. Transport of both dissolved radionuclides and sorbed onto particulates is considered. Sorption kinetics in the stream water phase is implemented as the time scale of the residence time in the stream water probably is short in comparison to the time scale of the kinetic sorption. In the sediment

  8. Evaluation of Radionuclide Release from Aluminum-Based SNF in Basin Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Burke, S.D.; Howell, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the release rates of radionuclides from breached A1-SNF assemblies and evaluates the effect of direct storage of breached fuel at a conservative upper bound reference condition on the SRS basin water activity levels

  9. PC-based control of the internal target station at the Nuclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilman, J [and others

    1996-12-31

    A PC-based control system of the internal target at the Nuclotron is described. The system is based on CAMAC-control of the step motor of the station and screen representation of information about needed beam parameters and space-time position of targets relative to a beam. 6 refs.; 4 figs.

  10. Preliminary Test Results of Heshe Hydrogeological Experimental Well Station in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, P.; Liu, C.; Lin, M.; Chan, W.; Lee, T.; Chia, Y.; Teng, M.; Liu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Safe disposal of radioactive waste is a critical issue for the development of nuclear energy. The design of final disposal system is based on the concept of multiple barriers which integrate the natural barriers and engineering barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive wastes. As groundwater is the major medium that can transport radionuclides to our living environment, it is essential to characterize groundwater flow at the disposal site. Taiwan is located at the boundary between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. Geologic formations are often fractured due to tectonic compression and extension. In this study, a well station for the research and development of hydrogeological techniques was established at the Experimental Forest of the National Taiwan University in central Taiwan. There are 10 testing wells, ranging in depth from 25 m to 100 m, at the station. The bedrock beneath the regolith is highly fractured mudstone. As fracture is the preferential pathway of the groundwater flow, the focus of in-situ tests is to investigate the location of permeable fractures and the connection of permeable fractures. Several field tests have been conducted, including geophysical logging, heat-pulse flowmeter, hydraulic test, tracer test and double packer test, for the development of advanced technologies to detect the preferential groundwater flow in fractured rocks.

  11. Environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behaviour of the radionuclides making the major contribution to man's irradiation through diet is described. The following stages are emphasized: transfer of radionuclides to plants; transfer of radionuclides to animals; metabolism of inhaled or ingested radionuclides in animals providing food for man; transfer of radionuclides through the aquatic environment; application of food chain models. (43 references)

  12. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  13. Interaction between water, sediments and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodgrass, W.J.; McKee, P.; Garnett, J.; Stieff, L.

    1988-08-01

    A model-based measurements program was carried out to evaluate the primary mechanisms controlling transport of uranium 238 and thorium 232 decay chain radionuclides in Quirke Lake, a water body draining much of the uranium mining and milling district near Elliot Lake, Ontario. This program included studies of radionuclide accumulation in sediments, particle settling and lake mass-balance studies. Also, sediment studies were undertaken to evaluate chemical fractionation, mineralogical associations, and sediment-water adsorption and release. A limnocorral experiment was conducted in an isolated portion of a lake to measure radium 226 removal from the water column and diffusion from the sediments back to the water. Modelling studies were made to assess the data. Substantial agreement was obtained using the model originally developed for the AECB between model predictions and observations for Quirke Lake and for the limnocorrals. Further work is required to complete the studies undertaken in this project to assess the significance of the efflux of radionuclides from the sediments. These studies include a laboratory program to measure kinetics of adsorption, sediment-water modelling studies of the results and a field measurement program to develop a mass-balance analysis for thorium. (numerous refs)

  14. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  15. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  17. Report on the 1. research coordination meeting on 'Development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on {sup 177}Lu for radionuclide therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    radiopharmaceuticals with lower cost ensuring higher availability in MS. The CRP 'Development of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals Based on {sup 177}Lu for Radionuclide Therapy' aims at developing therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for bone pain palliation and targeted therapy of cancer.

  18. Radio frequency electromagnetic field compliance assessment of multi-band and MIMO equipped radio base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, Björn; Thielens, Arno; Fridén, Jonas; Colombi, Davide; Törnevik, Christer; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, different methods for practical numerical radio frequency exposure compliance assessments of radio base station products were investigated. Both multi-band base station antennas and antennas designed for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) transmission schemes were considered. For the multi-band case, various standardized assessment methods were evaluated in terms of resulting compliance distance with respect to the reference levels and basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Both single frequency and multiple frequency (cumulative) compliance distances were determined using numerical simulations for a mobile communication base station antenna transmitting in four frequency bands between 800 and 2600 MHz. The assessments were conducted in terms of root-mean-squared electromagnetic fields, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) and peak 10 g averaged SAR. In general, assessments based on peak field strengths were found to be less computationally intensive, but lead to larger compliance distances than spatial averaging of electromagnetic fields used in combination with localized SAR assessments. For adult exposure, the results indicated that even shorter compliance distances were obtained by using assessments based on localized and whole-body SAR. Numerical simulations, using base station products employing MIMO transmission schemes, were performed as well and were in agreement with reference measurements. The applicability of various field combination methods for correlated exposure was investigated, and best estimate methods were proposed. Our results showed that field combining methods generally considered as conservative could be used to efficiently assess compliance boundary dimensions of single- and dual-polarized multicolumn base station antennas with only minor increases in compliance distances. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Spatio-temporal distribution of 3H in air moisture around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.P.; Patra, A.K.; Jain, A.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Sarkar, P.K.; Gadhia, M.

    2012-01-01

    Tritium ( 3 H) is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It decays to helium by emission of beta particle with a maximum energy of 18.6 keV. 3 H is most environmentally mobile radionuclide. To accomplish the task of estimating human exposure to tritium, it is necessary to know the tritium concentration in the atmosphere. Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL) of Health Physics Division (HPD) of Bhabha Atomic Power Station (BARC) located at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) site is regularly monitoring the activity of tritium in the environment to ensure the safety of the public. This paper presents the result of analysis of tritium in atmospheric environment covering an area up to 30 km radius around KAPS site

  20. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 240 Pu, and 3 H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  1. Robustness of a TETRA base station receiver against intentional EMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, G.S.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA) is a digital radio standard that was developed to meet the needs of professional mobile radio systems. TETRA is vulnerable to intentional electromagnetic interference (EMI) because of the wireless link. The EMI can easily be front door coupled to the base station

  2. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.

    1982-10-01

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by means of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter that have the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The 'annual limit of intake' (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experimental animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbtion factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increase for plutonium and protactinium, and decrease for neptunium. An attempt to predict possible future changes of the ALI for members of the general public is also made. (Author)

  3. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  4. Behaviour of U-Series Radionuclides in an Estuary Affected by Acid Mine Drainage and Industrial Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, A.; Bolivar, J. P.; Vaca, F. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    The estuary formed by the Tinto and Odiel rivers is an ecosystem of great interest because it is seriously affected by the acid mine drainage (AMD) produced by the high mining activity in the watersheds of these rivers, generating in their waters an extremely low pH (2.5- 3.5), and consequently high concentrations of heavy metals and natural radionuclides in dissolution. Secondly, in their estuary there is a large chemical industrial complex, and in particular two phosphoric acid production plants, which use a sedimentary phosphate rock from Morocco as raw material containing at approximately 1.5 Bq/g of U-series radionuclides, which produce annually about 2.5-3 millions of tonnes of a byproduct, called phosphogypsum (PG). PG contains high concentrations of some U-series radionuclides as {sup 226}Ra (650 Bq/kg), {sup 210}Pb-{sup 210}Po (600 Bq/kg) or {sup 230}Th (450 Bq/kg). Seventeen sampling stations along the end of these rivers and this estuary were selected to study the behaviour of U-series radionuclides in the recent surface sediments and its waters. The most relevant results show a non-conservative behaviour of Uisotopes, precipitating in the zone where large pH changes (3-5) are produced. This behaviour is different from the majority of typical estuaries where only salinity changes are produced, and therefore, a conservative behaviour of uranium is observed. (author)

  5. Radioecological investigations of the Bilibino Nuclear Power Station area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelyanova, L.; Neretin, L. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Geographical Faculty]|[Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology

    1995-12-31

    The landscape structure of the territory and the current radioactive state of ecosystems in the vicinity of Bilibino Nuclear Power Station (Western Chukotka Peninsula) within the area of its potential influence on the environment were studied in 1989--1990. Accumulation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 radionuclides in several key biological members of the ecosystems has been analyzed. Maximal weighted content of cesium-137 was revealed in mountain pine cones (Pinus pumila) -- 9,200 Bq/kg.d.w., cowberry fruits have demonstrated considerable contamination by strontium and cesium isotopes. The purification of first two components of food chain ``lichen-reindeer-man`` was pointed out in the investigated area. Besides the chemical characteristics, visual biological anomalies of biocomponents nearby the Bilibino NPS ecosystems are observed. On the basis of field radioecological investigations and future work, programs were developed for the conditions of the Bilibino Nuclear Power Station area. This experience could be applied to the researches of radioactive contamination in ecosystems of other northern territories.

  6. GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurekli, Ali Ihsan; Ozkan, Mehmed; Kalkan, Tunaya; Saybasili, Hale; Tuncel, Handan; Atukeren, Pinar; Gumustas, Koray; Seker, Selim

    2006-01-01

    The ever increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. In this study, a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell was used as an exposure environment for plane wave conditions of far-field free space EM field propagation at the GSM base transceiver station (BTS) frequency of 945 MHz, and effects on oxidative stress in rats were investigated. When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity under EM exposure.

  7. Evaluation of natural radionuclide contents in the building industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnustik, J.

    1990-01-01

    A model was adopted to calculate the effective annual dose equivalent for inhabitants of rooms built from three combinations of building materials with different natural radionuclide contents. The mean natural radionuclide contents of Czech building materials were assessed based on extensive data. The vast majority of materials satisfy the requirement that the annual dose equivalent lie within the 1-2 mSv range. Materials with average radionuclide contents contribute to the radiation burden of the population approximately twofold with respect to the natural background, which is acceptable. Raw materials used for the production of building materials must be checked for radioactivity, this checking, however, should be sensible; hasty purchases of expensive measuring instrumentation, establishment of specialized institutions, etc., as a response to public phobia is unreasonable. (P.A.). 2 tabs

  8. Confirmation of selected milk and meat radionuclide transfer coefficients. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.M.; Johnson, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives are to determine transfer coefficients to milk, beef and chicken of four radionuclides for which transfer coefficients were either indetermined or based upon secondary data. The radionuclides are 99 Mo, 99 Tc, 140 Ba, and 131 Te. The transfer coefficient for 133 I to eggs was also determined, because again only limited data was available in the literature

  9. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  10. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  11. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2012, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 0.5% to a maximum of 11.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2013, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from 0.2% to a maximum of 10.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000011 mrem/yr, more than 900,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  14. Tritium in groundwater investigation at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWilde, J.; Yu, L.; Wootton, R.; Belanger, D.; Hansen, K.; McGurk, E.; Teare, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) investigated tritium in groundwater at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). The objectives of the study were to evaluate and define the extent of radionuclides, primarily tritium, in groundwater, investigate the causes or sources of contamination, determine impacts on the natural environment, and provide recommendations to prevent future discharges. This paper provides an overview of the investigations conducted in 1999 and 2000 to identity the extent of the tritium beneath the site and the potential sources of tritium released to the groundwater. The investigation and findings are summarized with a focus on unique aspects of the investigation, on lessons learned and benefits. Some of the investigative techniques discussed include process assessments, video inspections, hydrostatic and tracer tests, Helium 3 analysis for tritium age dating, deuterium and tritium in soil analysis. The investigative techniques have widespread applications to other nuclear generating stations. (author)

  15. Mathematical modelling and radionuclide behaviour analysis in system Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Industrial Complex - Yenisei - Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platovskikh, Yu.A.; Sergeev, I.V.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Legin, V.K.; Shishlov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Equations describing radioisotope transfers in the suspension river water-bottom sediments based on radionuclide migration from industrial wastes and washing off reservoir are formulated. Coefficients of the equations were determined by means of measured data processing. On this base floodplaine sediments were estimated, dependence of radionuclide waste from time for all period of functioning of the plant was determined and their concentrations in water and bottom sediments were calculated. Balances between wastes, washing off the reservoir and radionuclide migration in bottom sediments, bottom land and the Kara Sea were formulated for the past. Procedure for the estimation of the migration of radionuclide exchange forms from bottom sediments following sharp decrease of waste in 1992 was developed. On the base of this effect and redistribution of radionuclides between bottom sediments and floodplaine sediments the rate of self-purification of the river in the future was evaluated [ru

  16. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  17. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration have been studied in natural fissures orieted parallel to the axis of granite drill cores. A short pulse of the radionuclides solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. After several hundred fissure volumes water had been pumped through the fissure following the radionuclide pulse the activity distribution on the fissure surfaces was measured. From the retardation of 152 Eu, 235 Np and 237 Pu it is concluded that these radionuclides are transported in the oxidation states Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(V). The distribution coefficients K sub (d) calculated from flow and activity distribution data on the basis of geometric surface area/volume ratios are of the same order as published K sub (d) values obtained from batch equilibrium experiments. (Author)

  18. [Study on atmospheric VOCs in Gongga Mountain base station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Ke; Wang, Yue-Si; Wu, Fang-Kun; Sun, Jie

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the atmosphere as precursors of secondary air pollutants. The regional background concentrations and variation characteristics of VOCs in the atmosphere of southwestern China were studied. Meanwhile, a receptor model based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the major sources of VOCs. Weekly samples were collected in 2007 in the Gongga Mountain base station and analyzed with a three-stage preconcentration method coupled with GC-MS. The annual mean concentration of TVOCs and NMHCs were 9.40 x 10(-9) +/- 4.55 x 10(-9) and 7.73 x 10(-9) +/- 4.43 x 10(-9), respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbons provided the largest contribution to TVOCs (37.3%), follow by alkanes (30.0%) and halogenated hydrocarbons (19.8%), the smallest contribution was from alkenes (12.9%). Three major sources were resolved by the receptor model, traffic sources, biogenic sources and combustion sources. The seasonal variation of TVOCs in this area was obviously, and the order was autumn > winter > spring > summer. TVOCs concentration in autumn was very significantly higher than that in summer (P station emission characteristic.

  19. Regulatory Technology Development Plan - Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term - Metal Fuel Radionuclide Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabaskas, David; Bucknor, Matthew; Jerden, James

    2016-01-01

    The development of an accurate and defensible mechanistic source term will be vital for the future licensing efforts of metal fuel, pool-type sodium fast reactors. To assist in the creation of a comprehensive mechanistic source term, the current effort sought to estimate the release fraction of radionuclides from metal fuel pins to the primary sodium coolant during fuel pin failures at a variety of temperature conditions. These release estimates were based on the findings of an extensive literature search, which reviewed past experimentation and reactor fuel damage accidents. Data sources for each radionuclide of interest were reviewed to establish release fractions, along with possible release dependencies, and the corresponding uncertainty levels. Although the current knowledge base is substantial, and radionuclide release fractions were established for the elements deemed important for the determination of offsite consequences following a reactor accident, gaps were found pertaining to several radionuclides. First, there is uncertainty regarding the transport behavior of several radionuclides (iodine, barium, strontium, tellurium, and europium) during metal fuel irradiation to high burnup levels. The migration of these radionuclides within the fuel matrix and bond sodium region can greatly affect their release during pin failure incidents. Post-irradiation examination of existing high burnup metal fuel can likely resolve this knowledge gap. Second, data regarding the radionuclide release from molten high burnup metal fuel in sodium is sparse, which makes the assessment of radionuclide release from fuel melting accidents at high fuel burnup levels difficult. This gap could be addressed through fuel melting experimentation with samples from the existing high burnup metal fuel inventory.

  20. Regulatory Technology Development Plan - Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term - Metal Fuel Radionuclide Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The development of an accurate and defensible mechanistic source term will be vital for the future licensing efforts of metal fuel, pool-type sodium fast reactors. To assist in the creation of a comprehensive mechanistic source term, the current effort sought to estimate the release fraction of radionuclides from metal fuel pins to the primary sodium coolant during fuel pin failures at a variety of temperature conditions. These release estimates were based on the findings of an extensive literature search, which reviewed past experimentation and reactor fuel damage accidents. Data sources for each radionuclide of interest were reviewed to establish release fractions, along with possible release dependencies, and the corresponding uncertainty levels. Although the current knowledge base is substantial, and radionuclide release fractions were established for the elements deemed important for the determination of offsite consequences following a reactor accident, gaps were found pertaining to several radionuclides. First, there is uncertainty regarding the transport behavior of several radionuclides (iodine, barium, strontium, tellurium, and europium) during metal fuel irradiation to high burnup levels. The migration of these radionuclides within the fuel matrix and bond sodium region can greatly affect their release during pin failure incidents. Post-irradiation examination of existing high burnup metal fuel can likely resolve this knowledge gap. Second, data regarding the radionuclide release from molten high burnup metal fuel in sodium is sparse, which makes the assessment of radionuclide release from fuel melting accidents at high fuel burnup levels difficult. This gap could be addressed through fuel melting experimentation with samples from the existing high burnup metal fuel inventory.

  1. Concentration of radionuclides in fresh water fish downstream of Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.M.; Brunk, J.L.; Wong, X.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fish were collected for radionuclide analysis over a 5-month period in 1984 from creeks downstream of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant, which has been discharging quantities of some fission and activation products to the waterway since 1981. Among the fish, the bluegill was selected for intensive study because it is very territorial and the radionuclide concentrations detected should be representative of the levels in the local environment at the downstream locations sampled. Among the gamma-emitting radionuclides routinely released, only 134 Cs and 137 Cs were detected in the edible flesh of fish. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased with distance from the plant. The relationship between concentration and distance was determined to be exponential. Exponential equations were generated to estimate concentrations in fish at downstream locations where no site-specific information was available. Mean concentrations of 137 Cs in bluegill collected during April, May, July and August from specific downstream stations were not significantly different in spite of the release of 131 mCi to the creeks between April and August. The concentrations in fish are not responding to changes in water concentrations brought about by plant discharges. Diet appears to be a more significant factor than size or weight or water concentration in regulating body burdens of 137 Cs in these fish

  2. Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasennykh, M.Yu.; Apps, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions)

  3. Analysis of Synchronization Impairments for Cooperative Base Stations Using OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Manolakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation is envisioned as a key technology for future cellular networks, as it has the potential to eliminate intercell interference and to enhance spectral efficiency. To date, there is still lack of understanding of how imperfect carrier and sampling frequency synchronization between transmitters and receivers limit the potential gains and what the actual system requirements are. In this paper, OFDM signal model is established for multiuser multicellular networks, describing the joint effect of multiple carrier and sampling frequency offsets. It is shown that the impact of sampling offsets is much smaller than the impact of carrier frequency offsets. The model is extended to the downlink of base-coordinated networks and closed-form expressions are derived for the mean power of users’ self-signal, interuser, and intercarrier interference, whereas it is shown that interuser interference is the main source of degradation. The SIR is inverse to the base stations’ carrier frequency variance and to the square of time since the last precoder update, whereas it grows with the number of base stations and drops with the number of users. Through user selection, the derived SIR upper bound can be approached. Finally, system design recommendations for meeting synchronization requirements are provided.

  4. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the oxygen

  5. Radionuclides from past uranium mining in rivers of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Lopes, Irene; Batista, Aleluia

    2007-01-01

    During several decades and until a few years ago, uranium mines were exploited in the Centre of Portugal and wastewaters from uranium ore milling facilities were discharged into river basins. To investigate enhancement of radioactivity in freshwater ecosystems, radionuclides of uranium and thorium series were measured in water, sediments, suspended matter, and fish samples from the rivers Vouga, Dão, Távora and Mondego. The results show that these rivers carry sediments with relatively high naturally occurring radioactivity, and display relatively high concentrations of radon dissolved in water, which is typical of a uranium rich region. Riverbed sediments show enhanced concentrations of radionuclides in the mid-section of the Mondego River, a sign of past wastewater discharges from mining and milling works at Urgeiriça confirmed by the enhanced values of (238)U/(232)Th radionuclide ratios in sediments. Radionuclide concentrations in water, suspended matter and freshwater fish from that section of Mondego are also enhanced in comparison with concentrations measured in other rivers. Based on current radionuclide concentrations in fish, regular consumption of freshwater species by local populations would add 0.032 mSv a(-1) of dose equivalent (1%) to the average background radiation dose. Therefore, it is concluded that current levels of enhanced radioactivity do not pose a significant radiological risk either to aquatic fauna or to freshwater fish consumers.

  6. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  7. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  8. Exposure level from selected base station tower around Kuala Nerus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health risk due to RF radiation exposure from base station tower (BST) has been debated for years leading to public concerns. Thus, this preliminary study aims to measure, evaluate and analyze the exposure level on three selected BST around Kuala Nerus. The measurement of exposure level in terms of voltage ...

  9. Radionuclide transport in the repository near-field and far-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Smith, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a background report of the TURVA-2012 safety case report 'Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System'. This report gives a comprehensive account of the modelling of radionuclide release from a defective canister and the subsequent migration to the surface groundwater system. The focus of this report is in the radionuclide migration both in the repository near-field and in the repository far-field. Radionuclide releases from the canister and migration through the repository near-field and far-field have also been analysed in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis based on the Monte Carlo simulation method. Those simulations are discussed in a separate report by Cormenzana. Calculation cases are derived from three different types of scenarios: (i) The base scenario that assumes a single initially defective canister located in a cautiously selected canister position, i.e. selecting the failed canister location such that radionuclide release and transport properties are conservative compared to the statistics over all canister locations. Migration processes and parameter values follow the most likely lines of evolution. Repository safety functions are assumed to perform according to the design basis. Calculation cases defined in the Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios report are also supplemented by additional calculation cases that are aimed to study variability between different DFN realisations (additional BS-ALL cases), longitudinal dispersion (BS-RC-ld cases) and alternative realisations of the transport classes along the release paths (BS-RC-tc cases), (ii) Variant scenarios that study declined performance of the repository safety functions. These include enhanced corrosion failure and degradation of the buffer under variant geochemical conditions (iii) Disturbance scenarios that analyse influences of unlikely events on the radionuclide release and migration. Analysis of the variant and disturbance scenarios

  10. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  11. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  12. The effect of bacterial generation on the transport of radionuclide in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.S.; Lee, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to develop a predictive model based on a conceptual three-phase system and to investigate the influence of bacteria and their generation on the radionuclide transport in porous media. The mass balance equations for bacteria, substrate and radionuclide were formulated. To illustrate the model simply, an equilibrium condition was assumed to partition the substrate, bacteria and radionuclide concentrations, between the solid soil matrix, aqueous phase and bacterial surface. From the numerical calculation of radionuclide transport in the presence of bacteria, it was found that the growth of bacterial and supplied primary substrate as a limiting or stimulating growth factor of bacteria are the most important factors of the radionuclide transport. It was also found that, depending on the transport of bacteria, the temporal and spatial distribution of the radionuclide concentration was significantly affected. The model proposed in this study will improve the evaluation of the role of the bacteria to the transport of radionuclide in groundwater systems. Furthermore, this model can be usefully utilized in analyzing the important role of colloidal particulate on the overall performance of radioactive waste safety. (Author)

  13. Integrated base stations and a method of transmitting data units in a communications system for mobile devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Narlikar, G.J.; Samuel, L.G.; Yagati, L.N.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated base stations and a method of transmitting data units in a communications system for mobile devices. In one embodiment, an integrated base station includes a communications processor having a protocol stack configured with a media access control layer and a physical layer.

  14. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolevatov, Yu.I.; Trykov, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252 Cf base with the activity from 10 6 to 10 9 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  15. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  16. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Shao, Qing; Yang, Lei; Qi, Dianyuan; Lin, Jun; Lin, Xiaojun; Yu, Zongying

    2013-06-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge.

  17. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  18. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  19. Concentrations of radionuclides in imported foods from foreign countries in Japan (2000-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Hirata, Asumi; Sakurai, Kasane; Miyata, Masahiro; Goto, Shigeo

    2004-01-01

    Japanese law concerning prohibition against marketing insanitary foods, etc, has defined the limit of radioactivity level in imported foods (370 Bq/kg in total of 137 Cs and 134 Cs radioactivities) post Chernobyl accident and check for this has been performed by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The present report describes results of additional examination, conducted by National Institute of Public Health, or the Kobe or Yokohama Quarantine Station, of radionuclide (γ-emitters) concentration in imported foods during the period 2000-2003. Foods examined are from northern (40 samples) and southern (8) America, Asia (66), Oceania (9), Africa (8) and Europe (12), and are 13 kinds of grains, 12 nuts/seeds, 1 potato, 17 fruits, 12 green/yellow vegetables, 13 other vegetables, 19 mushrooms, 4 seaweeds, 15 nonessential taste items like tea leaves, 19 fishes and 12 meats. Samples are those homogenized, freeze-dried or mineralized. The Ge-semiconductor detector connected with a pulse-height analyzer is used for γ-ray detection, mainly that of 137 Cs and 134 Cs, and for 40 K as a natural radionuclide. Sample weights are 1,000-2,000 g and counting times, 100,000-300,000 seconds. Results reveal that 137 Cs alone is detectable as a artificial radionuclide but its level is as low as that in similar Japanese foods. Thus the annual effective dose due to intake of 137 Cs in imported foods is evaluated enough low in adults. (N.I.)

  20. Chemistry of groundwater and the migration process of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olteanu, Mirela; Popa, Aurelia; Crina, Bucur

    2001-01-01

    Establishing the criteria of selection of a host site for final repository of low and intermediate radioactive waste is based upon the study of two major components, the radioactivity diffusion in disposal site and the environmental impact. The hydrological characteristics of geological formation are the main factors that control radionuclides moving (migration), because, in general, the water is the natural way for dissolving and transport of these in environment. In interaction of the water with environment, the water is present like a dynamic and complex system, which contents dissolved or suspension of mineral and organic substances. Knowing the water-soil system interaction mechanism, the physical-chemical characteristics of each component in this system, the mobility in time of radionuclides, from the repository in environment can be estimated. In migration, the main problem is determination of transport rate of radionuclides in environment. (authors)

  1. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Buckus, Raimondas; Struk?inskien?, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas; ?idlauskien?, Aurelija; ?erkauskien?, Rimant?; Isopescu, Dorina Nicolina; Stabryla, Jan; Cretescu, Igor

    2017-01-01

    During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation) from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF) intensity p...

  2. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Transient Simulations in Hydropower Stations Based on a Novel Turbine Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most accidents in hydropower stations happened during transient processes; thus, simulation of these processes is important for station design and safety operation. This study establishes a mathematical model of the transient process in hydropower stations and presents a new method to calculate the hydraulic turbine boundary based on an error function of the rotational speed. The mathematical derivation shows that the error function along the equal-opening characteristic curve is monotonic and has opposite signs at the two sides, which means that a unique solution exists to make the error function null. Thus, iteration of the transient simulation is unique and monotonous, which avoids iterative convergence or false solution and improves the solution efficiency compared with traditional methods. Simulation of an engineering case illustrates that the results obtained by the error function are reasonable. Then, the accuracy and feasibility of the mathematical model using the proposed solution are verified by comparison with model and field tests.

  4. Throughput of Cellular Systems with Conferencing Mobiles and Cooperative Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somekh O

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an enhancement to multicell processing for the uplink of a cellular system, whereby the mobile stations are allowed to exchange messages on orthogonal channels of fixed capacity (conferencing. Both conferencing among mobile stations in different cells and in the same cell (inter- and intracell conferencing, resp. are studied. For both cases, it is shown that a rate-splitting transmission strategy, where part of the message is exchanged on the conferencing channels and then transmitted cooperatively to the base stations, is capacity achieving for sufficiently large conferencing capacity. In case of intercell conferencing, this strategy performs convolutional pre-equalization of the signal encoding the common messages in the spatial domain, where the number of taps of the finite-impulse response equalizer depends on the number of conferencing rounds. Analysis in the low signal-to-noise ratio regime and numerical results validate the advantages of conferencing as a complementary technology to multicell processing.

  5. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  6. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  7. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  8. A computer-based system for environmental impact assessment (EIA) applications to energy power stations in Turkey: CEDINFO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Say, Nuriye Peker; Yuecel, Muzaffer [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Department of Landscape Architecture; Yilmazer, Mehmet [Bogazici University, Kandilli, Istanbul (Turkey). Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute

    2007-12-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a tool for decision makers to take into account the possible effects of a proposed project on the environment and is also a process for collecting the data related to a project design and project area. Different techniques are used for the EIA process. In recent years, including the design and development of databases, classification systems, computer models and expert systems have been used extensively in impact assessment studies. Knowledge-based systems referred to as expert systems and different computer-based systems are an emerging technology in information processing and are becoming increasingly useful tools in different applications areas including EIA studies. Their use for EIA has been quite limited in developing countries, because of the constraints on resources, particularly in expertise and data. In this study, a knowledge-based software - CEDINFO - developed by authors was introduced. CEDINFO to be used for EIA practices on energy-generating stations was designed based on the legal EIA process in Turkey. According to the EIA Regulation enacted in Turkey in 1993, energy-generating stations (thermal power station, hydraulic station, nuclear station) in different categories require mandatory EIA reports duly approved by The Ministry of Environment and Forestry before their construction. CEDINFO primarily aims to provide educational support for EIA practices and decision-makers on energy-generating stations. (author)

  9. A computer-based system for environmental impact assessment (EIA) applications to energy power stations in Turkey: CEDINFO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuriye Peker Say; Muzaffer Yucel; Mehmet Yilmazer [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Department of Landscape Architecture

    2007-12-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a tool to enable decision makers to account for the possible effects of a proposed project on the environment and is also a process for collecting the data related to a project design and project area. Different techniques are used for the EIA process. In recent years, including the design and development of databases, classification systems, computer models and expert systems have been used extensively in impact assessment studies. Knowledge-based systems referred to as expert systems and different computer-based systems are an emerging technology in information processing and are becoming increasingly useful tools in different applications areas including EIA studies. Their use for EIA has been quite limited in developing countries, because of the constraints on resources, particularly in expertise and data. In this study, a knowledge-based software CEDINFO developed by authors was introduced. CEDINFO to be used for EIA practices on energy-generating stations was designed based on the legal EIA process in Turkey. According to the EIA Regulation enacted in Turkey in 1993, energy-generating stations (thermal power stations, hydroelectric power stations, nuclear power stations) in different categories require mandatory EIA reports duly approved by The Ministry of Environment and Forestry before their construction. CEDINFO primarily aims to provide educational support for EIA practices and decision-makers on energy-generating stations. 23 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. A computer-based system for environmental impact assessment (EIA) applications to energy power stations in Turkey: CEDINFO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Say, Nuriye Peker; Yuecel, Muzaffer; Yilmazer, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a tool for decision makers to take into account the possible effects of a proposed project on the environment and is also a process for collecting the data related to a project design and project area. Different techniques are used for the EIA process. In recent years, including the design and development of databases, classification systems, computer models and expert systems have been used extensively in impact assessment studies. Knowledge-based systems referred to as expert systems and different computer-based systems are an emerging technology in information processing and are becoming increasingly useful tools in different applications areas including EIA studies. Their use for EIA has been quite limited in developing countries, because of the constraints on resources, particularly in expertise and data. In this study, a knowledge-based software-CEDINFO-developed by authors was introduced. CEDINFO to be used for EIA practices on energy-generating stations was designed based on the legal EIA process in Turkey. According to the EIA Regulation enacted in Turkey in 1993, energy-generating stations (thermal power station, hydraulic station, nuclear station) in different categories require mandatory EIA reports duly approved by The Ministry of Environment and Forestry before their construction. CEDINFO primarily aims to provide educational support for EIA practices and decision-makers on energy-generating stations

  11. Energy-Saving Optimization of Water Supply Pumping Station Life Cycle Based on BIM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Miao; Wang, Jiayuan; Liu, Chao

    2017-12-01

    In the urban water supply system, pump station is the main unit of energy consumption. In the background of pushing forward the informatization in China, using BIM technology in design, construction and operations of water supply pumping station, can break through the limitations of the traditional model and effectively achieve the goal of energy conservation and emissions reduction. This work researches the way to solve energy-saving optimization problems in the process of whole life cycle of water supply pumping station based on BIM technology, and put forward the feasible strategies of BIM application in order to realize the healthy and sustainable development goals by establishing the BIM model of water supply pumping station of Qingdao Guzhenkou water supply project.

  12. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  13. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M.; Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are 40 K, as well as, 238 U and 232 Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The 238 U and 232 Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  14. A new simulation model for calculating the internal exposure of some radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrous Ayman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model based on a series of mathematical functions for estimating excretion rates following the intake of nine different radionuclides is presented in this work. The radionuclides under investigation are: cobalt, iodine, cesium, strontium, ruthenium, radium, thorium, plutonium, and uranium. The committed effective dose has been calculated by our model so as to obtain the urinary and faecal excretion rates for each radionuclide. The said model is further validated by a comparison with the widely spread Mondal software and a simulation program. The results obtained show a harmony between the Mondal package and the model we have constructed.

  15. UMTS base station-like exposure, well-being, and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, Sabine J; Negovetic, Sonja; Röösli, Martin; Berdiñas, Veronica; Schuderer, Jürgen; Huss, Anke; Lott, Urs; Kuster, Niels; Achermann, Peter

    2006-08-01

    Radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) of mobile communication systems are widespread in the living environment, yet their effects on humans are uncertain despite a growing body of literature. We investigated the influence of a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station-like signal on well-being and cognitive performance in subjects with and without self-reported sensitivity to RF EMF. We performed a controlled exposure experiment (45 min at an electric field strength of 0, 1, or 10 V/m, incident with a polarization of 45 degrees from the left back side of the subject, weekly intervals) in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. A total of 117 healthy subjects (33 self-reported sensitive, 84 nonsensitive subjects) participated in the study. We assessed well-being, perceived field strength, and cognitive performance with questionnaires and cognitive tasks and conducted statistical analyses using linear mixed models. Organ-specific and brain tissue-specific dosimetry including uncertainty and variation analysis was performed. In both groups, well-being and perceived field strength were not associated with actual exposure levels. We observed no consistent condition-induced changes in cognitive performance except for two marginal effects. At 10 V/m we observed a slight effect on speed in one of six tasks in the sensitive subjects and an effect on accuracy in another task in nonsensitive subjects. Both effects disappeared after multiple end point adjustment. In contrast to a recent Dutch study, we could not confirm a short-term effect of UMTS base station-like exposure on well-being. The reported effects on brain functioning were marginal and may have occurred by chance. Peak spatial absorption in brain tissue was considerably smaller than during use of a mobile phone. No conclusions can be drawn regarding short-term effects of cell phone exposure or the effects of long-term base station-like exposure on human health.

  16. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Shao, Q.; Yang, L.; Qi, D.; Lin, J.; Lin, X.; Yu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge. (authors)

  17. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  18. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  19. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fissures running parallel to the axes of granitic drill cores. A short pulse of radionuclide solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. At the end of each experiment the fissure was opened and the radionuclide distribution on the fissure surfaces measured. The retardation of 241 Am(III) at pH 8.2 as well as the variation in 235 Np(V) retardation with pH are found to be in good agreement with K d-values obtained in batch experiments. The reduction of (TcO - 4 ) to Tc(IV) leads as expected to increasing retardation.(author)

  20. Coal-fired power stations - the radiological impact of effluent discharges to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.

    1980-06-01

    An assessment is made of the radiological impact of atmosphere discharges from a hypothetical 2000 MWe power station sited in Great Britain. The exposure pathways considered are external irradiation from the plume and from activity deposited on the ground, inhalation of material in the plume and material resuspended from land surfaces, and ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. The reduction in radiation exposure due to naturally-occurring 14 C by releases of stable carbon from the power station is also considered. The ingestion pathway is found to result in the highest individual doses, whereas the inhalation pathway makes the dominant contribution to collective dose. The most important radionuclides are 210 Pb, 210 Po and the thorium isotopes 232 Th, 230 Th and 228 Th. For 30 years operation of the power-station, the collective effective dose equivalent commitment truncated to 500 years is estimated to be 340 man Sv. The maximum annual committed effective dose equivalent to an individual is evaluated as 230 μSv, though it is considered improbable that this level of dose would be found in practice. (author)

  1. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  2. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from...

  3. Unidirectional Magneto-Electric Dipole Antenna for Base Station: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idayachandran, Govindanarayanan; Nakkeeran, Rangaswamy

    2018-04-01

    Unidirectional base station antenna design using Magneto-Electric Dipole (MED) has created enormous interest among the researchers due to its excellent radiation characteristics like low back radiation, symmetrical radiation at E-plane and H-plane compared to conventional patch antenna. Generally, dual polarized antennas are used to increase channel capacity and reliability of the communication systems. In order to serve the evolving mobile communication standards like long term evolution LTE and beyond, unidirectional dual polarized MED antenna are required to have broad impedance bandwidth, broad half power beamwidth, high port isolation, low cross polarization level, high front to back ratio and high gain. In this paper, the critical electrical requirements of the base station antenna and frequently used frequency bands for modern mobile communication have been presented. It is followed by brief review on broadband patch antenna and discussion on complementary antenna concepts. Finally, the performance of linearly polarized and dual polarized magneto-electric dipole antennas along with their feeding techniques are discussed and summarized. Also, design and modeling of developed MED antenna is presented.

  4. Experimental and modelling studies of radionuclide migration from contaminated groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, J. A.; Butler, A. P.; Wheater, H. S.; Shaw, G.; Wadey, P.; Bell, J. N. B.

    1994-01-01

    Lysimeter-based studies of radionuclide uptake by winter wheat are being undertaken to investigate soil-to-plant transfer processes. A five year multi-disciplinary research project has concentrated on the upward migration of contaminants from near surface water-tables and their subsequent uptake by a winter wheat crop. A weighted transfer factor approach and a physically based modelling methodology, for the simulation and prediction of radionuclide uptake, have been developed which offer alternatives to the traditional transfer factor approach. Integrated hydrological and solute transport models are used to simulate contaminant movement and subsequent root uptake. This approach enables prediction of radionuclide transport for a wide range of soil, plant and radionuclide types. This paper presents simulated results of 22 Na plant uptake and soil activity profiles, which are verified with respect to lysimeter data. The results demonstrate that a simple modelling approach can describe the variability in radioactivity in both the harvested crop and the soil profile, without recourse to a large number of empirical parameters. The proposed modelling technique should be readily applicable to a range of scales and conditions, since it embodies an understanding of the underlying physical processes of the system. This work constitutes part of an ongoing research programme being undertaken by UK Nirex Ltd., to assess the long term safety of a deep level repository for low and intermediate level nuclear waste. (author)

  5. Derived intervention levels for radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1986, many countries were affected by widespread radioactive contamination. It became clear that the available guidance on dealing with the consequences of a nuclear accident was inappropriate for the long term and for areas far removed from the accident site. A particular concern was the safety of radioactively contaminated food and drinking-water in the ''far field'' region. The present guidelines, based on health protection principles, have been prepared by the World Health Organization in response to this concern. For various food categories, recommendations are made on levels of contamination by radionuclides at which corrective action might be justified to reduce the health risk to the population. The guidelines are based on accepted radiation dose criteria, on food consumption data from different parts of the world, and on dosimetric information for the relevant radionuclides. They are intended to assist in national decision-making in the event of another major nuclear accident. Refs, 1 fig., 14 tabs

  6. Analysis of the effect of mobile phone base station antenna loading on localized SAR and its consequences for measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Björn; Thors, Björn; Törnevik, Christer

    2011-12-01

    In this work, the effect of antenna element loading on the localized specific absorption rate (SAR) has been analyzed for base station antennas. The analysis was conducted in order to determine whether localized SAR measurements of large multi-element base station antennas can be conducted using standardized procedures and commercially available equipment. More specifically, it was investigated if the antenna shifting measurement procedure, specified in the European base station exposure assessment standard EN 50383, will produce accurate localized SAR results for base station antennas larger than the specified measurement phantom. The obtained results show that SAR accuracy is affected by the presence of lossy material within distances of one wavelength from the tested antennas as a consequence of coupling and redistribution of transmitted power among the antenna elements. It was also found that the existing standardized phantom is not optimal for SAR measurements of large base station antennas. A new methodology is instead proposed based on a larger, box-shaped, whole-body phantom. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Radionuclide supply of the progeny via mother's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharenko, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    While examining transition of radioactive substances from material organism to milk and then radionuclide administration with milk to progeny, a number of relationships had been revealed. They are similar to those discovered by the author during his study on transplacental radionuclide kinetics. The quantity of transition through placental and milk barriers of group 2 Periodical system radionuclides is inversally proportional to radionuclide mass number. There is evidence for the increase of radionuclide transition per different kinds of animal progeny mass unit during pregnancy as well as during lactation [ru

  8. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  9. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  10. Cosmogenic radionuclides. Theory and applications in the terrestrial and space environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, Juerg; Steiger, Rudolf von; McCracken, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. The book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any field of modern science, and how these tools may assist in the solution of many present and future problems that we face here on Earth. The book provides a comprehensive discussion of the basic principles behind the applications of cosmogenic (and other) radionuclides as environmental tracers and dating tools. The second section of the book discusses in some detail the production of radionuclides by cosmic radiation, their transport and distribution in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, their storage in natural archives, and how they are measured. The third section of the book presents a number of examples selected to illustrate typical tracer and dating applications in a number of different spheres (atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, solar physics and astronomy). At the same time the authors have outlined the limitations of the use of cosmogenic radionuclides. Written on a level understandable by graduate students without specialist skills in physics or mathematics, the book addresses a wide audience, ranging from archaeology, biophysics, and geophysics, to atmospheric physics, hydrology, astrophysics and space science.

  11. Cosmogenic radionuclides. Theory and applications in the terrestrial and space environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Juerg [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Steiger, Rudolf von [International Space Science Insitute, Bern (Switzerland); McCracken, Ken [Maryland Univ., College Park (United States). IPST

    2012-07-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. The book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any field of modern science, and how these tools may assist in the solution of many present and future problems that we face here on Earth. The book provides a comprehensive discussion of the basic principles behind the applications of cosmogenic (and other) radionuclides as environmental tracers and dating tools. The second section of the book discusses in some detail the production of radionuclides by cosmic radiation, their transport and distribution in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, their storage in natural archives, and how they are measured. The third section of the book presents a number of examples selected to illustrate typical tracer and dating applications in a number of different spheres (atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, solar physics and astronomy). At the same time the authors have outlined the limitations of the use of cosmogenic radionuclides. Written on a level understandable by graduate students without specialist skills in physics or mathematics, the book addresses a wide audience, ranging from archaeology, biophysics, and geophysics, to atmospheric physics, hydrology, astrophysics and space science.

  12. Radionuclides in Tissues of Marine Birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, N.; Matishov, D.

    2004-01-01

    The birds are higher links of trophic nets of marine ecosystems and are capable to store in organs and tissues radionuclides. We can inspect radionuclides contents in marine ecosystems on a their contents of in birds. Objects of our research were marine birds, including seagull (the Herring gull Larus aregentatus, the Great Blackback Larus marinus), the Black guillemot Cepphus grylle, the Eider Somateria mollissima, the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and the Arctic Stercorarius parasiticus. Researches were conducted in August 2000 and 2001 near to the biological station of Murmansk Marine Biological Institute in a point Dalnije Zelentsy on the cost of the Sea Barents. Contents of plutonium-239, 240, cesium-137 and strontium-90 in bones, skin and fatherless and muscles of birds were researched. The contents of cesium - 137 varied from 0,99 Bq/kg in a skin and feathers of the Herring gull up to 177 Bq/kg in muscles of the Great Blackback, the contents strontium-90 varied from 25 mBq/kg in a skin and feathers of the Cormorant up to 7140 mBq/kg in bones the Eider. The contents of plutonium-239,240 varied from 1,8 mBq/kg in muscles of the Eider up to 23 mBq/kg in skeleton of the Great Blackback. The content of this radionuclide was higher for adult, i.e. was enlarged with age. Higher concentrations in tissues are founded for the Eider and the Great Blackback. So, the average concentrations of cesium - 137 in muscles the Eider have constituted 1,5 Bq/kg, the Great Blackback -73,5 Bq/kg, the Black guillemot -16 Bq/kg, the Arctic scua - 1,3 Bq/kg, the Herring gull - 8,7 Bq/kg. Average concentrations of cesium - 137 in bones of the Eider were1,6 Bq/kg, the Great Blackback - 19,8Bq/kg, the Herring gull - 2,2 Bq/kg. The average concentrations strontium-90 in a skin and feathers of the Cormorant were 20 mBq/kg, the Great Blackback - 1288 mBq/kg, the Herring gull - 690 mBq/kg. It is founded that distribution the contents of strontium-90 in bones significantly varies from species

  13. Water, soil, crops and radionuclides. Studies on the behavior of radionuclides in the terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    In order to predict the migration of artificially-produced radionuclides into a human body and its radiation dose rates of human body and to decrease the exposed radiation doses of human body, the behavior of radionuclides in the environment must be elucidated. In National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the environmental radioecological research group of Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology has progressed the survey and research on the behavior of artificially-produced radionuclides in the terrestrial environment. This article describes the research results (the radioactivity of water, soil, and crops) made so far at Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology. (M.H.)

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Level, From Mobile Base Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Kogi State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushie, P. O.; Nwankwo, U.J.V.; Osahun, O. D.; Ayinmode, B.

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs using radio frequency (RF) meter (electromoge meter). The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of unavoidable factors suspected to be interferences from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is far below the standard limit (10W/cm 2 or 10 7 μW/m 2 ) set by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory agencies. The assessment was done in about ten (10) base stations in Ajaokuta, Kogi state. The position and elevation of the base stations were noted using a global positioning system (GPS) to ascertain the position of such stations on the world map. It was discovered that the limit of exposure to radio frequency radiation set by International Commission on Non-ionizing, Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) of 900MHz band expressed in the same unit as 10W/cm 2 or 10 7 μW/m 2 was not exceeded, the values were also influenced by some inevitable factors. Positions of most of the stations are sited close to homes.

  15. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  16. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL's Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed

  17. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  18. Chilean Antarctic Stations on King George Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutada Kaminuma

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of my visit to Chilean Antarctic Stations was to assess the present status of geophysical observations and research, as the South Shetland Island, West Antarctica, where the stations are located, are one of the most active tectonic regions on the Antarctic plate. The Instituto Antartico Chileno (INACH kindly gave me a chance to stay in Frei/Escudero Bases as an exchange scientist under the Antarctic Treaty for two weeks in January 2000. I stayed in Frei Base as a member of a geological survey group named "Tectonic Evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula" which was organized by Prof. F. Herve, University of Chile, from January 05 to 19,2000. All my activity in the Antarctic was organized by INACH. During my stay in Frei Base, I also visited Bellingshausen (Russian, Great Wall (China and Artigas (Uruguay stations. All these stations are located within walking distance of Frei Base. King Sejong Station (Korea, located 10km east from Frei Base, and Jubany Base (Argentine, another 6km south-east from King Sejong Station, were also visited with the aid of a zodiac boat that was kindly operated for us by King Sejong Station. All stations except Escudero Base carry out meteorological observations. The seismological observations in Frei Base are operated by Washington State University of the U. S. monitoring of earthquake activity and three-component geomagnetic observations are done at King Sejong and Great Wall stations. Earth tide is monitored at Artigas Base. Continuous monitoring of GPS and gravity change are planned at King Sejong Station in the near future. Scientific research activities of each country in the area in the 1999/2000 Antarctic summer season were studied and the logistic ability of all stations was also assessed for our future international cooperation.

  19. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments of weathering of glass waste form and the reacted sediments with simulated glass leachates show that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of secondary precipitates. In addition, synthetic phosphate-bearing nanoporous material exhibits high stability at temperature and has a very high K d value for U(VI) removal. Both natural and synthetic barrier materials can be used as additional efficient adsorbents for retarding transport of radionuclides for various contaminated waste streams and waste forms present at U. S. Department of Energy clean-up sites and the proposed geologic radioactive waste disposal facility. In the radioactive waste repository facility, natural or synthetic materials are planned to be used as a barrier material to immobilize and retard radionuclide release. The getter material can be used to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream and subsequently incorporate the loaded getters in a cementitious or various monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides form monolithic waste forms by being emplaced as a backfill barrier material around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential hazard of leached radioactive wastes. The barrier material should be highly efficient to sequester radionuclides and possess physical and chemical stability for long-term exposure to severe weathering conditions. Because potential leaching of radionuclides depends on various environmental and weathering conditions of the near-field repository, the barrier materials must be durable and not disintegrate under a range of moisture, temperature, pressure, radiation, Eh, ph. and

  20. Aerosol Characterization at the WMO-GAW Station of Mt. Cimone (2165 m a.s.l.) by 7Be, 210Pb and PM10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tositti, Laura; Brattich, Erika; Cinelli, Giorgia; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The importance of environmental radionuclides in the study of atmosphere and climate dynamics has long been recognized in the course of the last decades. The radiotracer method provides a powerful tool for the basic characterization of transfer and transformation mechanisms occurring both at local and large scale. For this reason several radionuclides, namely 7 Be, 210 Pb, 222 Rn and others are included among the key atmospheric components that are routinely monitored within the WMO-GAW network. In this work we will describe the long term monitoring activity of 7 Be, 210 Pb in the PM 10 fraction at Mt. Cimone station, a global WMO-GAW station in the Northern Italian Apennines hosting a complex activity of atmospheric research. Investigations in progress is aimed at characterizing the phenomenologies of ozone as well as of mineral dust incursions, two parameters of outstanding climatological relevance by means of several statistical methods including: time series analysis, multivariate analysis and source apportionment techniques

  1. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  2. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at efficient phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, we examined the effect of soil microbes on the uptake ability of plants using the multitracer technique to find that tomato rhizofungi in Fusarium spp. can stimulate the uptake of 85 Sr and 137 Cs by the plants. The synergic effect of a nonpathogenic strain of F. oxysporum on the uptake of radionuclides by plants proved to be enhanced by introducing a phytochelatin synthase gene into the fungus. Since soil contamination by radionuclides is still an unsolved problem in many parts of the world. Studies on phytoremediation of polluted soil environment will be important for developing effective strategies and devising adequate techniques to reduce human risks caused by food contamination of radionuclides. (author)

  3. Elucidating key factors affecting radionuclide aging in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, M. [Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); Rigola, A.; Vidal, M.; Rauret, G. [Barcelona Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Mechanistic studies allow at present to describe the processes governing the short-term interaction of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in soils. The initial sorption step can be described through the estimation of the soil-soil solution distribution coefficient from soil parameters, as cationic exchange capacity, radiocaesium interception potential and concentration of competing ions in the soil solution. After the initial soil-radionuclide interaction, a fraction of radionuclide is no longer available for exchange with the solution, and it remains fixed in the solid fraction. At present, the initial fixed fraction of a radionuclide in a given soil cannot be predicted from soil properties. Besides, little is known about soil and environmental factors (e.g., temperature; hydric regime) provoking the increase in the fixed fraction with time, the so-called aging process. This process is considered to control the reduction of food contamination with time at contaminated scenarios. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to predict the radionuclide aging in the medium and long term for a better risk assessment, especially when a decision has to be made between relying on natural attenuation versus implementing intervention actions. Here we study radiostrontium and radiocaesium aging in a set of soils, covering a wide range of soil types of contrasting properties (e.g., loamy calcareous; podzol; chernozem, organic). Three factors are separately and simultaneously tested: time elapsed since contamination, temperature and hydric regime. Changes in the radionuclide fixed fraction are estimated with a leaching test based on the use of a mild extractant solution. In addition to this, secondary effects on the radiocaesium interception potential in various soils are also considered. (author)

  4. Cosmogenic radionuclides as a synchronisation tool - present status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscheler, Raimund; Adolphi, Florian; Mekhaldi, Florian; Mellström, Anette; Svensson, Anders; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran

    2014-05-01

    Changes in the flux of galactic cosmic rays into Earth's atmosphere produce variations in the production rates of cosmogenic radionuclides. The resulting globally synchronous signal in cosmogenic radionuclide records can be used to compare time scales and synchronise climate records. The most prominent example is the 14C wiggle match dating approach where variations in the atmospheric 14C concentration are used to match climate records and the tree-ring based part of the 14C calibration record. This approach can be extended to other cosmogenic radionuclide records such as 10Be time series provided that the different geochemical behaviour of 10Be and 14C is taken into account. Here we will present some recent results that illustrate the potential of using cosmogenic radionuclide records for comparing and synchronising different time scales. The focus will be on the last 50000 years where we will show examples how geomagnetic field, solar activity and unusual short-term cosmic ray changes can be used for comparing ice core, tree ring and sediment time scales. We will discuss some unexpected offsets between Greenland ice core and 14C time scale and we will examine how far back in time solar induced 10Be and 14C variations presently can be used to reliably synchronise ice core and 14C time scales.

  5. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  6. Radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (131I, 99mTc e 99Tc) in sewage system and in the marine environment of Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Daniele Santos de

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear medicine is a specialty that uses radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. In Brazil there are around 340 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), 27 of them, are located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The most widely used radionuclides in the country are 131 I and 99m Tc. The radionuclide 99m Tc decays to 99 Tc, which is a beta emitter with a long half-life (10 5 years). The aim of this study is to perform a survey to estimate the 131 I and 99 Tc discharged levels at the Canal do Cunha, the main pathways for environmental dispersion and evaluate the radiological impact to non-human biota and to the populations exposed to these radionuclides. The Alegria Station receives sewage from most clinics of Rio de Janeiro mid was therefore chosen as a study case. The station receives approximately 4.50 x 10 5 Bq/year of 99 Tc e 7.12 x 10 12 Bq/year of 131 I. After passing through all stages of treatment, the effluent is discharged into the Canal do Cunha and flows into the Guanabara Bay. To assess the radiological impact of these radionuclide discharges, a comparative study was made considering three computational models: the CROM, which is based on a model of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the PC-CREAM, widely used by the European Union and the GENII, which is the most widely used model in the United States. Two exposure scenarios were considered: 1 - people that bathe directly in the discharge of the effluent; 2 - community living 1200 meters from the discharge point, bathing in the river and consuming local fish. Concentration and doses values for the scenarios according to the applicability of each computer code were estimated. The dose values at the discharge point were 7.47 x 10 -6 mSv for 131 I and 2.87 x 10 -14 mSv for 99 Tc, while for scenario II the value of the total dose was approximately 10 -1 mSv/year for 131 I and 10 -10 mSv/year for 99 Tc, and fish consumption is the main responsible for the dose. An analysis by gamma

  7. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process

  8. Bio-inspired digital signal processing for fast radionuclide mixture identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenin, M.; Bichler, O.; Thiam, C.; Bobin, C.; Lourenço, V.

    2015-05-01

    Countries are trying to equip their public transportation infrastructure with fixed radiation portals and detectors to detect radiological threat. Current works usually focus on neutron detection, which could be useless in the case of dirty bomb that would not use fissile material. Another approach, such as gamma dose rate variation monitoring is a good indication of the presence of radionuclide. However, some legitimate products emit large quantities of natural gamma rays; environment also emits gamma rays naturally. They can lead to false detections. Moreover, such radio-activity could be used to hide a threat such as material to make a dirty bomb. Consequently, radionuclide identification is a requirement and is traditionally performed by gamma spectrometry using unique spectral signature of each radionuclide. These approaches require high-resolution detectors, sufficient integration time to get enough statistics and large computing capacities for data analysis. High-resolution detectors are fragile and costly, making them bad candidates for large scale homeland security applications. Plastic scintillator and NaI detectors fit with such applications but their resolution makes identification difficult, especially radionuclides mixes. This paper proposes an original signal processing strategy based on artificial spiking neural networks to enable fast radionuclide identification at low count rate and for mixture. It presents results obtained for different challenging mixtures of radionuclides using a NaI scintillator. Results show that a correct identification is performed with less than hundred counts and no false identification is reported, enabling quick identification of a moving threat in a public transportation. Further work will focus on using plastic scintillators.

  9. A meshless approach to radionuclide transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, J.; Sarler, B.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past thirty years numerical modelling has emerged as an interdisciplinary scientific discipline which has a significant impact in engineering and design. In the field of numerical modelling of transport phenomena in porous media, many commercial codes exist, based on different numerical methods. Some of them are widely used for performance assessment and safety analysis of radioactive waste repositories and groundwater modelling. Although they proved to be an accurate and reliable tool, they have certain limitations and drawbacks. Realistic problems often involve complex geometry which is difficult and time consuming to discretize. In recent years, meshless methods have attracted much attention due to their flexibility in solving engineering and scientific problems. In meshless methods the cumbersome polygonization of calculation domain is not necessary. By this the discretization time is reduced. In addition, the simulation is not as discretization density dependent as in traditional methods because of the lack of polygon interfaces. In this work fully meshless Diffuse Approximate Method (DAM) is used for calculation of radionuclide transport. Two cases are considered; First 1D comparison of 226 Ra transport and decay solved by the commercial Finite Volume Method (FVM) and Finite Element Method (FEM) based packages and DAM. This case shows the level of discretization density dependence. And second realistic 2D case of near-field modelling of radionuclide transport from the radioactive waste repository. Comparison is made again between FVM based code and DAM simulation for two radionuclides: Long-lived 14 C and short-lived 3 H. Comparisons indicate great capability of meshless methods to simulate complex transport problems and show that they should be seriously considered in future commercial simulation tools. (author)

  10. Assessment of electromagnetic fields intensity emitted by cellular phone base stations in surrounding flats - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmyslony, M.; Politanski, P.; Mamrot, P.; Bortkiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid development of mobile telecommunications (MT) has resulted in an increased concern about possible detrimental health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by MT systems, and by MT base stations in particular. Research into EMFs effects on the health of inhabitants living in their vicinity requires first of all a solid assessment of the exposure level. Up to now, the reports in this field have been rather scant. This article presents the results of preliminary measurements of EMFs fields in selected flats around selected base stations in the city of Lodz. Measurements of electric field strength, E, to assess EMF exposure were based on the standard procedures currently in force in Poland. As the study is regarded as a preliminary one, the measurements were conducted in buildings with the expected largest radiation. The measurements show that in the flats located up to 500 m from the base station, EMFs are within the limits specified by relevant Polish regulations on the general public and environmental protection. It was also observed that in a few (less than 10%) flats the field with E exceeded 0.8 V/m. The results show that there are no correlations between electric field strength and distance between the flat and the base station. Therefore, the distance from the base station cannot be used to represent the exposure rate; to determine the latter, EMF measurements are necessary. (author)

  11. Geochemical effects on the behavior of LLW radionuclides in soil/groundwater environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, K.M.; Sterne, R.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Assessing the migration potential of radionuclides leached from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and decommissioning sites necessitates information on the effects of sorption and precipitation on the concentrations of dissolved radionuclides. Such an assessment requires that the geochemical processes of aqueous speciation, complexation, oxidation/reduction, and ion exchange be taken into account. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing technical support to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for defining the solubility and sorption behavior of radionuclides in soil/ground-water environments associated with engineered cementitious LLW disposal systems and decommissioning sites. Geochemical modeling is being used to predict solubility limits for radionuclides under geochemical conditions associated with these environments. The solubility limits are being used as maximum concentration limits in performance assessment calculations describing the release of contaminants from waste sources. Available data were compiled regarding the sorption potential of radionuclides onto {open_quotes}fresh{close_quotes} cement/concrete where the expected pH of the cement pore waters will equal to or exceed 10. Based on information gleaned from the literature, a list of preferred minimum distribution coefficients (Kd`s) was developed for these radionuclides. The K{sub d} values are specific to the chemical environments associated with the evolution of the compositions of cement/concrete pore waters.

  12. Using ecosystem modelling techniques in exposure assessments of radionuclides - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, L.

    2005-01-01

    The risk to humans from potential releases from nuclear facilities is evaluated in safety assessments. Essential components of these assessments are exposure models, which estimate the transport of radionuclides in the environment, the uptake in biota, and transfer to humans. Recently, there has been a growing concern for radiological protection of the whole environment, not only humans, and a first attempt has been to employ model approaches based on stylized environments and transfer functions to biota based exclusively on bioconcentration factors (BCF). They are generally of a non-mechanistic nature and involve no knowledge of the actual processes involved, which is a severe limitation when assessing real ecosystems. in this paper, the possibility of using an ecological modelling approach as a complement or an alternative to the use of BCF-based models is discussed. The paper gives an overview of ecological and ecosystem modelling and examples of studies where ecosystem models have been used in association to ecological risk assessment studies for other pollutants than radionuclides. It also discusses the potential to use this technique in exposure assessments of radionuclides with a few examples from the safety assessment work performed by the Swedish nuclear fuel and waste management company (SKB). Finally there is a comparison of the characteristics of ecosystem models and traditionally exposure models for radionuclides used to estimate the radionuclide exposure of biota. The evaluation of ecosystem models already applied in safety assessments has shown that the ecosystem approach is possible to use to assess exposure to biota, and that it can handle many of the modelling problems identified related to BCF-models. The findings in this paper suggest that both national and international assessment frameworks for protection of the environment from ionising radiation would benefit from striving to adopt methodologies based on ecologically sound principles and

  13. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  14. Chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in aquatic plants of the Yenisei River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    The Yenisei River is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian nuclear plants. The aquatic plants growing in the radioactively contaminated parts of the river contain artificial radionuclides. The aim of the study was to investigate accumulation of artificial radionuclides and stable elements by submerged plants of the Yenisei River and estimate the strength of their binding to plant biomass by using a new sequential extraction scheme. The aquatic plants sampled were: Potamogeton lucens, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Batrachium kauffmanii. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of the samples of aquatic plants has revealed more than 20 radionuclides. We also investigated the chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in the biomass and rated radionuclides and stable elements based on their distribution in biomass. The greatest number of radionuclides strongly bound to biomass cell structures was found for Potamogeton lucens and the smallest for Batrachium kauffmanii. For Fontinalis antipyretica, the number of distribution patterns that were similar for both radioactive isotopes and their stable counterparts was greater than for the other studied species. The transuranic elements (239)Np and (241)Am were found in the intracellular fraction of the biomass, and this suggested their active accumulation by the plants.

  15. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  16. Automated guidance algorithms for a space station-based crew escape vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanary, R; Hammen, D G; Ito, D; Rabalais, B W; Rishikof, B H; Siebold, K H

    2003-04-01

    An escape vehicle was designed to provide an emergency evacuation for crew members living on a space station. For maximum escape capability, the escape vehicle needs to have the ability to safely evacuate a station in a contingency scenario such as an uncontrolled (e.g., tumbling) station. This emergency escape sequence will typically be divided into three events: The first separation event (SEP1), the navigation reconstruction event, and the second separation event (SEP2). SEP1 is responsible for taking the spacecraft from its docking port to a distance greater than the maximum radius of the rotating station. The navigation reconstruction event takes place prior to the SEP2 event and establishes the orbital state to within the tolerance limits necessary for SEP2. The SEP2 event calculates and performs an avoidance burn to prevent station recontact during the next several orbits. This paper presents the tools and results for the whole separation sequence with an emphasis on the two separation events. The first challenge includes collision avoidance during the escape sequence while the station is in an uncontrolled rotational state, with rotation rates of up to 2 degrees per second. The task of avoiding a collision may require the use of the Vehicle's de-orbit propulsion system for maximum thrust and minimum dwell time within the vicinity of the station vicinity. The thrust of the propulsion system is in a single direction, and can be controlled only by the attitude of the spacecraft. Escape algorithms based on a look-up table or analytical guidance can be implemented since the rotation rate and the angular momentum vector can be sensed onboard and a-priori knowledge of the position and relative orientation are available. In addition, crew intervention has been provided for in the event of unforeseen obstacles in the escape path. The purpose of the SEP2 burn is to avoid re-contact with the station over an extended period of time. Performing this maneuver requires

  17. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  18. Remediation of radionuclide pollutants through biosorption - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nilanjana [Environmental Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2012-01-15

    The development of nuclear science and technology has led to the increase of nuclear wastes containing radionuclides to be released and disposed in the environment. Pollution caused by radionuclides is a serious problem throughout the world. To solve the problem, substantial research efforts have been directed worldwide to adopt sustainable technologies for the treatment of radionuclide containing wastes. Biosorption represents a technological innovation as well as a cost effective excellent remediation technology for cleaning up radionuclides from aqueous environment. A variety of biomaterials viz. algae, fungi, bacteria, plant biomass, etc. have been reported for radionuclide remediation with encouraging results. This paper reviews the achievements and current status of radionuclide remediation through biosorption which will provide insights into this research frontier. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Removal of natural radionuclides from drinking water from private wells in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huikuri, Pia; Salonen, Laina; Turtiainen, Tuukka

    1999-01-01

    Removal of natural radionuclides is often necessary in Finland when household water is taken from a drilled well. Removal of radionuclides by various methods from Finnish groundwaters were studied in a EU-research project, TENAWA. The results indicated that radon can be removed very efficiently (up to 99%) by applying aeration or granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Uranium and radium were also removed (over 94%) by using strong base anion (SBA) and strong acid cation (SAC) resins. The capability of reverse osmosis (RO) equipment to remove radionuclides was over 90% for uranium, radium and polonium. The water quality analyses indicated that water quality remained mostly good during the water treatment. (au)

  20. A Potential Transmitter Architecture for Future Generation Green Wireless Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Faulkner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current radio frequency power amplifiers in 3G base stations have very high power consumption leading to a hefty cost and negative environmental impact. In this paper, we propose a potential architecture design for future wireless base station. Issues associated with components of the architecture are investigated. The all-digital transmitter architecture uses a combination of envelope elimination and restoration (EER and pulse width modulation (PWM/pulse position modulation (PPM modulation. The performance of this architecture is predicted from the measured output power and efficiency curves of a GaN amplifier. 57% efficiency is obtained for an OFDM signal limited to 8 dB peak to average power ratio. The PWM/PPM drive signal is generated using the improved Cartesian sigma delta techniques. It is shown that an RF oversampling by a factor of four meets the WLAN spectral mask, and WCDMA specification is met by an RF oversampling of sixteen.

  1. A Potential Transmitter Architecture for Future Generation Green Wireless Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cijvat Ellie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current radio frequency power amplifiers in 3G base stations have very high power consumption leading to a hefty cost and negative environmental impact. In this paper, we propose a potential architecture design for future wireless base station. Issues associated with components of the architecture are investigated. The all-digital transmitter architecture uses a combination of envelope elimination and restoration (EER and pulse width modulation (PWM/pulse position modulation (PPM modulation. The performance of this architecture is predicted from the measured output power and efficiency curves of a GaN amplifier. 57% efficiency is obtained for an OFDM signal limited to 8 dB peak to average power ratio. The PWM/PPM drive signal is generated using the improved Cartesian sigma delta techniques. It is shown that an RF oversampling by a factor of four meets the WLAN spectral mask, and WCDMA specification is met by an RF oversampling of sixteen.

  2. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in underground waters of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulsow, S; Coquery, M; Dovlete, C; Gastaud, J; Ikeuchi, Y; Pham, M K; Povinec, P P

    1999-09-30

    In 1997 an expedition to Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls was carried out to sample underground waters from cavity-chimneys and carbonate monitoring wells. The aim of this study was to determine the prevailing concentration and distribution status of radionuclides. Elemental analysis of interstitial waters was carried out in the water fraction as well as in particles collected at 11 underground monitoring wells. 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs, 90Sr, 3H, 125Sb, 155Eu and 60Co were analyzed in both fractions by alpha-, beta- and gamma-spectrometry. Measurements showed that at 60% of the sites, pH and Eh seemed to be related to tidal cycles; in contrast HTO was constant during the sampling time. Interstitial waters from carbonates and transition zones shared similar chemical composition that were not different from that of the surrounding seawater. Waters collected from basalt cavities left after nuclear tests, (Aristee and Ceto) have a different chemical signature characterized by a deficiency in Mg, K and SO4 as well as enrichment in Sr, Si, Al and Cl compared to the rest of the stations. Radionuclide concentrations present in both, water and particulate fractions, were significantly higher at Ceto and Aristee than at any other monitoring wells, except for Fuseau and Mitre monitoring wells (Fangataufa) where values similar to Ceto were found (e.g. 239,240Pu: > 20 mBq g-1). Considering that Pu isotopes showed high Kd values compared to non-sorbing radionuclides such as 3H, 90Sr and 137Cs it is very unlikely that migration from cavities to monitoring wells accounts for the concentration of Pu isotopes and Am at Fuseau 30 and Mitre 27. Perhaps the contact of lagoon waters with the well before sealing could be a possible source of the transuranics found at these sites. The 238Pu/239,240Pu ratios measured in the particles were similar to that of the lagoon (0.38), thus supporting this hypothesis. The fact that transuranics were found only in the particle fraction, in the

  4. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in a Ribble Estuary saltmarsh: transport and deposition of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; McDonald, P.; Parker, A.; Rae, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Routine discharges of low-level liquid radioactive waste by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfields have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. Variations in radionuclide concentrations ( 137 Cs, 230 Th, and 239240 Pu) with depth in a mature saltmarsh core were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends and waste-dispersal mechanisms. Core samples from Longton/Hutton Marsh were analysed by gamma-spectrometry and α-spectrometry for radionuclides and by laser granulometry to establish grain-size variations with depth. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137 Cs and 239240 Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs and 600 Bq kg -1 for 239240 Pu. Thorium-230 exhibited complex activity profiles with depth, specific activities ranging between 200 and 2400 Bq kg -1 . The vertical distributions of Sellafield-derived radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 239240 Pu) in mature saltmarsh deposits reflect the time-integrated discharge pattern from Sellafield, implying a transport mechanism that has involved the mixing of sediment labelled with radioactivity from recent discharges and sediment labelled from historical discharge events before deposition. A mechanism involving the transport of contaminated silt therefore seems to dominate. The vertical distribution of Springfields-derived 230 Th in the same areas reflects the annual gross-α discharge pattern from BNFL Springfields. In contrast to the Sellafield-derived radionuclides, a fairly rapid transport mechanism from source to sink is implied, with little or no time for mixing with radionuclides discharged years earlier. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Forecast of radionuclides release from actual waste form geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, A.A.; Rzyski, B.M.; Sato, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    The complete understanding of the leaching mechanism of radionuclides from solid comentitious waste forms is still far from being reached. Much effort has been devoted, however, to identifying and explaining the main components which contribute to the dispersal of radionuclides out of the waste form to the environment. This is of prime importance when short term results are extrapolated into the future. The diffusion coefficient evaluation, based on experimental leaching data obtained from samples produced from the same batch was performed using the exact diffusion formulation applied to real geometric sample shape. This paper discusses the evaluation

  6. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  7. Radiocarbon mass balance for a Magnox nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, M.P.; Mills, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First comprehensive assessment of C-14 arisings in a Magnox nuclear power station. • C-14 production in graphite and coolant gas quantified by activation modelling. • Principal C-14 production pathway is via C-13 with a small contribution from N-14. • C-14 mass balance model provides a basis for analyses on other reactors. - Abstract: Nuclear power generation in the United Kingdom is based principally on graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactors. The mass of irradiated graphite associated with these reactors, including material from associated experimental, prototype and plutonium production reactors, exceeds 96,000 tonnes. One of the principal long-lived radionuclides produced during graphite irradiation is radiocarbon (C-14). Its potential as a hazard must be taken into account in decommissioning and graphite waste management strategies. While C-14 production processes are well-understood, radionuclide distributions and concentrations need to be characterised. A common misconception is that generic statements can be made about C-14 precursors and their location. In fact, the composition of the original manufactured material, the chemical environment of the graphite during service and its irradiation history will all influence C-14 levels. The analysis presented here provides the first assessment of the principal C-14 activation pathways for a UK Magnox reactor. Activation modelling has been used to predict C-14 production rates in both the graphite core and the carbon dioxide coolant over a selected period of operation and the results compared with monitored site C-14 discharges. Principal activation routes have been identified, which should inform future graphite waste management strategies relating to radiocarbon

  8. Risk-based screening analysis of ground water contaminated by radionuclides introduced at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Andricevic, R.; Jacobson, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in the southwestern part of Nevada, about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. Underground tests of nuclear weapons devices have been conducted at the NTS since late 1962 and ground water beneath the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides produced by these tests. This concern prompted this examination of the potential health risk to these individuals from drinking the contaminated ground water either at a location on the NTS (assuming loss of institutional control after 100 y) or at one offsite (considering groundwater migration). For the purpose of this assessment, a representative mix of the radionuclides of importance and their concentrations in ground water beneath the NTS were identified from measurements of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater samples-of-opportunity collected at the NTS. Transport of radionuclide-contaminated ground water offsite was evaluated using a travel-time-transport approach. At both locations of interest, potential human-health risk was calculated for an individual ingesting radionuclide-contaminated ground water over the course of a 70-y lifetime. Uncertainties about human physiological attributes, as well as about estimates of physical detriment per unit of radioactive material, were quantified and incorporated into the estimates of risk. The maximum potential excess lifetime risk of cancer mortality estimated for an individual at the offsite location ranges from 7 x 10 -7 to 1 x 10 -5 , and at the onsite location ranges from 3 x 10 -3 to 2 x 10 -2 . Both the offsite and the onsite estimates of risk are dominated by the lifetime doses from tritium. For the assessment of radionuclides in ground water, the critical uncertainty is their concentration today under the entire NTS

  9. Interpretation of biological-rate coefficients derived from radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Rigorous expressions are derived for the biological-rate coefficients (BRCs) determined from time-dependent measurements of three different dependent variables of radionuclide tracer experiments. These variables, which apply to a single organism, are radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity. The BRCs derived from these variables have different mathematical expressions and, for high growth rates, their numerical values can be quite different. The precise mathematical expressions for the BRCs are presented here to aid modelers in selecting the correct parameters for their models and to aid experiments in interpreting their results. The usefulness of these three variables in quantifying elemental uptakes and losses by organisms is discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food and drinking water from a thorium-rich area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Lauria, Dejanira da; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Godoy, Maria Luisa D.P.; Santos, Eliane E.; Hacon, Sandra S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on a survey of uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides in food and drinking water from the thorium-rich (monazite-bearing) region of Buena, which is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The radionuclide concentration values in the food and drinking water from Buena reached values higher than 100-fold the international reference values. The daily intake of radionuclides by the local population is similar to that of another high background radiation area in Brazil, but the intake is higher than that of residents from a normal background radiation area. Approximately 58 % of the food consumed by Buena inhabitants is produced locally. Based on that figure, locally produced food and the dilution of total radionuclides in the diet of residents caused by food importation are both highly relevant to a population's intake of radionuclides. The concentration values for 210 Pb and the radium isotopes in drinking water from Buena are among the highest values to be reported in the literature. 228 Ra is the most important radionuclide ingested with both food and water among the inhabitants of Buena. (orig.)

  11. Research on sorption behavior of radionuclides under shallow land environment. Mechanism and standard methodologies for measurement of distribution coefficients of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Tadao; Takebe, Shinichi; Nagao, Seiya; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Hagiwara, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    This study consists of two categories' research works. One is research on sorption mechanism of radionuclides with long half-life, which are Technetium-99, TRU elements and U series radionuclides, on soil and rocks, including a development of database of distribution coefficients of radionuclides. The database on the distribution coefficients of radionuclides with information about measurement conditions, such as shaking method, soil characteristics and solution composition, has been already opened to the public (JAERI-DATABASE 20001003). Another study is investigation on a standard methodology of the distribution coefficient of radionuclide on soils, rocks and engineering materials in Japan. (author)

  12. Methods of Increasing the Performance of Radionuclide Generators Used in Nuclear Medicine: Daughter Nuclide Build-Up Optimisation, Elution-Purification-Concentration Integration, and Effective Control of Radionuclidic Purity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of “early elution schedule” was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement

  13. Estimation of doses to individuals from radionuclides disposed of in Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Huff, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    A simple methodology has been applied to estimate maximum possible doses to individuals from exposure to radionuclides released from Solid Waste Storage Area No. 6. This is the only operating shallow-land disposal site for radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The methodology is based upon simple, conservative assumptions. A data base of radionuclides disposed of in trenches and auger holes was prepared, and several radionuclide transport and ingestion scenarios were considered. The results of these simulations demonstrate the potential for adverse health effects associated with this waste disposal area, and support the need for further calculations using more complete and realistic assumptions

  14. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzerman, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  15. The release of organic material from clay based buffer materials and its potential implications for radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Goulard, M.; Haveman, S.A.; Bachinski, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    In the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept used fuel would be placed in corrosion resistant containers which would be surrounded by clay-based buffer and backfill materials in an engineered vault excavated at 500 to 1000 m depth in crystalline rock formations in the Canadian shield. Organic substances could affect radionuclide mobility due to the effects of redox and complexation reactions that increase solubility and alter mobility. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the buffer and backfill materials, proposed for use in a disposal vault, contain organics that could be leached by groundwater in large enough quantities to affect radionuclide mobility within the disposal vault and surrounding geosphere complex. Buffer material, made from a mixture of 50 wt.% Avonlea sodium bentonite and 50 wt.% silica sand, was extracted with deionized water to determine the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), humic acid and fulvic acid. The effect of radiation and heat from the used fuel was simulated by treating samples of buffer before leaching to various amounts of heat (60 and 90 C) for periods of 2, 4 and 6 weeks, and to ionizing radiation with doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy. The results showed that groundwater would leach significant amounts of organics from buffer that complex with radionuclides such as the actinides, potentially affecting their solubility and transport within the disposal vault and possibly the surrounding geosphere. In addition, the leached organics would likely stimulate microbial growth by several orders of magnitude. Heating and radiation affect the amount and nature of leachable organics. (orig.)

  16. Models and data to predict radionuclide concentrations in river basin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, G.; Rufai, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of land may result from the detonation of nuclear weapons or nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl. The deposition of fallout on soil and/or plants, and subsequent erosion by rainsplash and overland flow, could introduce radioactive isotopes into the water and soil resources of the environment. A model to simulate the transport and deposition of concentrated pollutants and radionuclides within the river basin is proposed. The proposed model is built on an existing Strathclyde River Basin Model, (SRBM), which has the potential to simulate runoff and erosion and the distribution of eroded soil particle sizes. An algorithm of the processes of concentration of pollutants and radionuclides can be developed based on the current understanding of the process of radionuclide attachment to soil particles. (author)

  17. RIVER-RAD, Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RIVER-RAD assesses the potential fate of radionuclides released to rivers. The model is simplified in nature and is intended to provide guidance in determining the potential importance of the surface water pathway, relevant transport mechanisms, and key radionuclides in estimating radiological dose to man. 2 - Method of solution: A compartmental linear transfer model is used in RIVER-RAD. The river system model in the code is divided into reaches (compartments) of equal size, each with a sediment compartment below it. The movement of radionuclides is represented by a series of transfers between the reaches, and between the water and sediment compartments of each reach. Within each reach (for both the water and sediment compartments), the radionuclides are assumed to be uniformly mixed. Upward volatilization is allowed from the water compartment, and the transfer of radionuclides between the reaches is determined by the flow rate of the river. Settling and resuspension velocities determine the transfer of absorbed radionuclides between the water and sediment compartments. Radioactive decay and decay-product buildup are incorporated into all transport calculations for all radionuclide chains specified by the user. Each nuclide may have unique input and removal rates. Volatilization and radiological decay are considered as linear rate constants in the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None noted

  18. Evaluation of metals and radionuclides in water