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Sample records for radionuclide myelography case

  1. Intracranial haemorrhage following lumbar myelography: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, O.; Stendel, R.; Baur, S.; Schilling, A.; Brock, M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a subacute intracranial subdural haematoma following lumbar myelography. This rare but potentially life-threatening complication has been reported both after lumbar myelography and following lumbar puncture for spinal anaesthesia. We review 16 previously reported cases of intracranial haemorrhage following lumbar myelography, and discuss the pathogenesis. In all reported cases post-puncture headache was the leading symptom and should therefore be regarded as a warning sign. (orig.)

  2. Severe aseptic meningitis with hydrocephalus following iotrolan myelography: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Ha, Choong Kun; Ahn, In Oak [Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-15

    A case of severe aseptic meningitis with communicating hydrocephalus following iotrolan myelography is presented. The patient's condition improved very quickly after corticosteroid therapy. Rapid improvement and absence of pathogenic organisms in the CSF culture strongly favor an aseptic meningitis. This is the first reported case of aseptic meningitis with the secondary development of hydrocephalus caused by iotrolan myelography.

  3. Severe aseptic meningitis with hydrocephalus following iotrolan myelography: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Ha, Choong Kun; Ahn, In Oak

    1993-01-01

    A case of severe aseptic meningitis with communicating hydrocephalus following iotrolan myelography is presented. The patient's condition improved very quickly after corticosteroid therapy. Rapid improvement and absence of pathogenic organisms in the CSF culture strongly favor an aseptic meningitis. This is the first reported case of aseptic meningitis with the secondary development of hydrocephalus caused by iotrolan myelography

  4. Three-dimensional MR myelography of the lumbar spine: comparative case study to X-ray myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, K.E.W.; Hollenbach, H.P.; Tomandl, B.; Huk, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Conventional myelography was compared with a new type of MR technique using a fat-suppressing 3D fast imaging with steady precession (FISP) sequence for diagnosis of the lumbar root compression syndrome. 80 patients with discogenic disease in the lumbar spine were examined with a 1.0-T whole-body MR system (Siemens Magnetom Impact, Erlangen, Germany). A strongly T2 * -weighted 3D FISP sequence was applied in the sagittal orientation. To obtain fat suppression, a frequency-selective 1-3-3-1 prepulse was applied prior to the imaging sequence. The acquired 3D data set was evaluated using a maximum intensity projection (MIP) program. The measurement time was 7 min, 47 s. Magnetic resonance myelography has significant advantages over conventional myelography, particularly in cases of extreme spinal canal stenosis. Compared with the conventional method, this new MR technique shows comparable sensitivity in the visualization of the spinal nerve roots in the lumbar spine. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Stress myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, M.

    1986-01-01

    To optimize functional diagnostics in lumbar syndromes a new myelographic technique was developed termed 'loading myelography'. During the procedure the patient stands with a 10 kg weight on his out-stretched arms. Based on the law of leverage the load exercised on the vertebral column is more than two and a half times of one-half of the body weight. The author tested the efficacy of the method in 119 patients suffering from disc prolapse, spinal canal stenosis, spondylolisthesis or arachnitis. The results of the conventional myelogram compared with myelography under load conditions demonstrate the value of the method: without load the diagnosis would have remained uncertain in 25% and in 18% load myelogram revealed a pathological finding although conventional myelography was normal. We consider as indications for load myelography: Discrepancy between clinical and conventional myelographic findings; clinically expected multisegmental lesions; spinal canal stenosis; and spondylolisthesis. (orig.) [de

  6. Two cases of cervical disc disease with intramedullary pathological changes, which are responsible for their neurological syndromes, on delayed CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Abe, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Kunio; Murai, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    We report two cases of cervical disc disease with myelopathy classified as of motor system syndrome type showing small contrast accumulation within the spinal cord on delayed CT myelography. In our two cases, high density spots on delayed CT myelography were bilaterally localized within the spinal cord, and believed represent pathological changes of the spinal cord, such as collection of microcavities or cystic necrosis. In case 1, the high density areas seemed to be localized in the anterior horn and corticospinal tract, and in case 2, they seemed to be localized in the corticospinal tract. The patient in case 1 produced signs and symptoms resembling motor neurone disease and lesion could not be differentiated from the latter. Delayed CT myelography showed that the cause of the upper limb amyotrophy was attributed to an anterior horn disorder and that of pyramidal tract sign to a corticospinal tract disorder. Therefore, we could differentiate the lesion from motor neurone disease on delayed CT myelography in case 1. In conclusion, we emphasize that delayed CT myelography can demonstrate the intramedullary pathological changes in the cervical disc disease and is useful in distinguishing between cervical disc disease simulating motor neurone disease and the latter. (author)

  7. Spasticity complicating metrizamide myelography

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    Earl, H M; Earl, C J; Kendall, B E

    1985-09-01

    Temporary but considerable increase in spasticity following myelography using metrizamide at 300 mgsI/ml concentration occurred in 4 patients. In 3 of the patients the diagnosis is uncertain, but it is likely to be some form of degenerative disease involving motor pathways in two of them; the fourth case has cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The spasticity might be related to the anticholinesterase activity of metrizamide or to competative inhibition by the deoxyglucose component of the metrizamide molecule of endogenous glucose metabolism.

  8. Detection of cerebrospinal fluid leakage: initial experience with three-dimensional fast spin-echo magnetic resonance myelography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Y; Korogi, Y; Aoki, T; Morioka, T; Takahashi, H; Ohno, M; Takeshita, I

    2008-03-01

    The pathogenesis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia is supposed to be caused by CSF leakage through small dural defects. To compare source three-dimensional (3D) fast spin-echo (FSE) images of magnetic resonance (MR) myelography with radionuclide cisternography findings, and to evaluate the feasibility of MR myelography in the detection of CSF leakage. A total of 67 patients who were clinically suspected of CSF hypovolemia underwent indium-111 radionuclide cisternography, and 27 of those who had direct findings of CSF leakage were selected for evaluation. MR myelography with 3D FSE sequences (TR/TE 6000/203 ms) was performed at the lumbar spine for all patients. We evaluated source images and maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of MR myelography, and the findings were correlated with radionuclide cisternography findings. MR myelography of five healthy volunteers was used as a reference. The MR visibility of the CSF leakage was graded as definite (leakage clearly visible), possible (leakage poorly seen), or absent (not shown). CSF leakage was identified with source 3D FSE images in 22 (81.5%) of 27 patients. Of the 22 patients, 16 were graded as definite and six were graded as possible. For the definite cases, 3D FSE images clearly showed the extent of the leaked CSF in the paraspinal structures. In the remaining five patients with absent findings, radionuclide cisternography showed only slight radionuclide activity out of the arachnoid space. Source 3D FSE images of MR myelography seem useful in the detection of CSF leakage. Invasive radionuclide cisternography may be reserved for equivocal cases only.

  9. Chemical meningitis in metrizamide myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Hesselberg, J.P.; Anda, S.; Dale, L.; Hellum, K.

    1986-01-01

    Seven patients with acute chemcial meningitis after metrizamide myelography are described. Five of the cases occurred within a time span of two months. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings in the acute stage of the illness were similar to findings in acute bacterial meningitis. Possible causes of this complication are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Motor aphasia after cervical myelography with Metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeker, D.K.; Sartor, K.; Winkler, D.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Altona, Hamburg

    1980-01-01

    Two cases of transient motor aphasia after cervical myelography with Metrizamide are described. A possible mechanism is thought to be prolonged contact of contrast with a brain already damaged by a pre-existing vascular abnormality. (orig.) [de

  11. Myelography for nerve root avulsion in birth palsy

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    Hashimoto, Tsutomu; Mitomo, Masanori; Hirabuki, Norio; Miura, Takashi; Kawai, Ryuji; Imakita, Satoshi; Harada, Koshi; Nakamura, Hironobu; Kozuka, Takahiro (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1990-04-01

    Myelography and CT myelography (CMT) were reviewed in 18 cases of birth palsy with clinically suspected avulsion injury. Root-somatosensory evoked potential (root-SEP) was also reviewed for myelographic evaluation of the nerve root avolusion in birth palsy. Root-SEP is not induced in case of avulsed nerve roots, but is induced in case of both normal and incompletely avulsed roots. Myelography demonstrated 58 abnormal nerve roots in 18 cases (19 limbs); 45 (78%) complete and 13 (22%) incomplete nerve root avulsions. Each of complete and incomplete avulsions was defined as total absence and partial presence of rootlets on myelography, respectively. Traumatic meningoceles were detected at 46 roots (79%) on myelography and/or CTM; 35 roots on myelography and 45 roots on CTM. CTM could not detect only a very small meningocele at one root. At 11 roots CTM was superior to myelography in delineating a meningocele because CTM is sensitive to a poorly enhanced meningocele. CTM, however, could not diagnose nerve root avulsions so accurately as myelography, since myelography detected 12 (7 completely and 5 incompletely) avulsed roots without meningocele, whereas CTM could not delineate the nerve roots clearly. Thus, myelography is indispensable to evaluate nerve root avulsions without meningocele. Root-SEP was examined in 9 patients who underwent branchial plexus exploration. SEP was negative at 22/25 roots with complete avulsion and was positive at 7/7 roots with myelographically incomplete avulsion, regardless of presence or absence of any traumatic meningocele. Myelography and root-SEP correlated well at 29 (92%) out of 32 roots in evaluating complete and incomplete avulsion injuries. Myelography and root-SEP were not considered in 3 roots. Though myelography demonstrated complete avulsions with traumatic meningocele, SEP was positive in these three roots, which were interpreted as partially avulsed roots. (J.P.N.).

  12. Myelography for nerve root avulsion in birth palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tsutomu; Mitomo, Masanori; Hirabuki, Norio; Miura, Takashi; Kawai, Ryuji; Imakita, Satoshi; Harada, Koshi; Nakamura, Hironobu; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1990-01-01

    Myelography and CT myelography (CMT) were reviewed in 18 cases of birth palsy with clinically suspected avulsion injury. Root-somatosensory evoked potential (root-SEP) was also reviewed for myelographic evaluation of the nerve root avolusion in birth palsy. Root-SEP is not induced in case of avulsed nerve roots, but is induced in case of both normal and incompletely avulsed roots. Myelography demonstrated 58 abnormal nerve roots in 18 cases (19 limbs); 45 (78%) complete and 13 (22%) incomplete nerve root avulsions. Each of complete and incomplete avulsions was defined as total absence and partial presence of rootlets on myelography, respectively. Traumatic meningoceles were detected at 46 roots (79%) on myelography and/or CTM; 35 roots on myelography and 45 roots on CTM. CTM could not detect only a very small meningocele at one root. At 11 roots CTM was superior to myelography in delineating a meningocele because CTM is sensitive to a poorly enhanced meningocele. CTM, however, could not diagnose nerve root avulsions so accurately as myelography, since myelography detected 12 (7 completely and 5 incompletely) avulsed roots without meningocele, whereas CTM could not delineate the nerve roots clearly. Thus, myelography is indispensable to evaluate nerve root avulsions without meningocele. Root-SEP was examined in 9 patients who underwent branchial plexus exploration. SEP was negative at 22/25 roots with complete avulsion and was positive at 7/7 roots with myelographically incomplete avulsion, regardless of presence or absence of any traumatic meningocele. Myelography and root-SEP correlated well at 29 (92%) out of 32 roots in evaluating complete and incomplete avulsion injuries. Myelography and root-SEP were not considered in 3 roots. Though myelography demonstrated complete avulsions with traumatic meningocele, SEP was positive in these three roots, which were interpreted as partially avulsed roots. (J.P.N.)

  13. Characteristic MRI and MR Myelography Findings for the Facet Cyst Hematoma at T12-L1 Spine: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Seung Eun; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Tae Hong; Choi, Gun; Paeng, Sung Suk

    2011-01-01

    A facet cyst is a very rare condition in the thoracolumbar spine and more so, hemorrhage into a cyst is extremely rare. We present a case of a facet cyst hematoma in the T12-L1 spine. A 69-year-old woman complained of chronic back pain with right lower extremity pain, and weakness for 3 years. MRI and MR myelography showed an extradural mass at the T12-L1 level with heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1-and T2-weighted images, which was continuous to the right T12-L1 facet joint. The neighboring facet joint showed severe degeneration on the CT scan. The mass a was simple hematoma covered with a thin fibrous membrane and connected with facet joint macroscopically and microscopically. The pathogenesis of the facet cyst hematoma is not clear but it can compress nerve roots or dura mater and cause radiculopathy or cauda equina syndrome. Surgical removal should be recommended for symptomatic relief.

  14. Characteristic MRI and MR Myelography Findings for the Facet Cyst Hematoma at T12-L1 Spine: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seung Eun [Dept of Diagnostic Radiology, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Gun [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Seoul Wooridul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paeng, Sung Suk [Dept of Radiology, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    A facet cyst is a very rare condition in the thoracolumbar spine and more so, hemorrhage into a cyst is extremely rare. We present a case of a facet cyst hematoma in the T12-L1 spine. A 69-year-old woman complained of chronic back pain with right lower extremity pain, and weakness for 3 years. MRI and MR myelography showed an extradural mass at the T12-L1 level with heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1-and T2-weighted images, which was continuous to the right T12-L1 facet joint. The neighboring facet joint showed severe degeneration on the CT scan. The mass a was simple hematoma covered with a thin fibrous membrane and connected with facet joint macroscopically and microscopically. The pathogenesis of the facet cyst hematoma is not clear but it can compress nerve roots or dura mater and cause radiculopathy or cauda equina syndrome. Surgical removal should be recommended for symptomatic relief.

  15. Lumbar myelography with iohexol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestvold, K.; Sortland, O.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1983 iohexol has been routinely used for myelography in our hospital and 1 650 myelographies have been performed. The first 331 patients with lumbar myelography were included in a follow-up study. Headache was observed in 26 per cent, nausea in 12 per cent and vertigo in 6 per cent of the patients, a frequency very similar to that observed in an earlier study of side effects following spinal puncture. Severe reactions were not seen. Three patients had radicular symptoms and 3 patients had minor mental symptoms possibly caused by the contrast medium. It is concluded that most side effects are related to the spinal puncture and that iohexol probably can be used with safety in out-patients. (orig.)

  16. Persistent dural cerebrospinal fluid leak shown by retrograde radionuclide myelography: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadrie, H.; Driedger, A.A.; McInnis, W.

    1976-01-01

    Following inadvertent spinal anesthesia for delivery, a patient developed incapacitating post-lumbar puncture headache that persisted for 9 weeks. Scintigrams of the lumbar region, obtained after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-human serum albumin into the cisterna magna, showed the cerebrospinal fluid leak. Blood patch repair was carried out, with immediate relief of all symptoms. Because of subsequent atypical headaches, a second cisternogram was done by the same technique. This study confirmed that there was no further dural leak, and other evidence indicated that the recurrent headache was related to functional problems

  17. Myelography and headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, B.

    1985-01-01

    The side effects associated with the use of Metrizamide, Iopamidol and Iotrol in two double blind studies on lumbar myelography were determined. The cause of headache is explained on the one hand as the result of the distribution of the contrast substance in the CSF space (early headache) and on the other hand due to the CSF leak through the puncture lesion. Peculiar hints are given for a safe examination technique. Iotrol seems to be the safest contrast substance for intrathecal use, however it should be used in the smallest possible amount to reduce even further contrast-related effects in myelography. (Author)

  18. MR-myelography in patients with spinal canal stenosis; MR-Myelographie bei Spinalkanalstenosen

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    Freund, M.; Hutzelmann, A.; Steffens, J.C.; Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany); Buhl, R. [Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical value of 3D-MR-myelography (3D-MRM) in comparison to myelography and intra-operative findings. Material and Methods: 25 patients with suspected lumbar spinal canal stenosis were studied via myelography and 3D-MRM (volume-data set, 3D-FISP sequenz, T{sub R} 73 ms, T{sub E} 21 ms, flipangle 7 , sagittal slices) besides the routinely acquired sagittal and axial T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted images. Diagnoses were made by two radiologists and one neurosurgeon without knowing the clinical history and symptoms, in two separate sessions. Results were compared to intraoperative findings. Results: 3D-MRM has the same diagnostic sensitivity (25/25=100%) as conventional X-ray myelography (25/25=100%) compared to intraoperative findings, but is not invasive and shows more diagnostic details than myelography. Especially in cases of high-grade spinal canal stenosis there is often a lack of intrathecal contrast medium distally of the stenosis. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Ziel: Bewertung der 3D-MR-Myelographie (3D-MRM) in der Diagnostik lumbaler Spinalkanalstenosen im Vergleich zu Myelographie und Korrelation mit intraoperativem Befund. Material und Methode: In einer fortlaufenden, prospektiven Studie wurden 25 Patienten mit den Symptomen einer lumbalen Spinalkanalstenose kernspintomographisch untersucht. Neben den ueblichen sagittalen und axialen T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}-gewichteten Aufnahmen wurde ein Volumendatensatz mit einer 3D-FISP Sequenz (T{sub R} 73 ms, T{sub E} 21 ms, Flipwinkel 7 ) akquisiert. Die Nachverarbeitung erfolgte mittels Maximum Intensitaets-Projektion (MIP): 18 Projektionen von 0 -180 . Die 3D-MRM wurde der Myelographie gegenuebergestellt, beide Untersuchungen wurden getrennt von drei Untersuchern blind ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Sowohl die 3D-MRM als auch die der Myelographie zeigten bei Patienten mit lumbaler Spinalkanalstenose in Korrelation zum intraoperativen Befund eine Uebereinstimmung

  19. Iohexol in paediatric myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, B.

    1986-01-01

    Iohexol was introduced by lumbar puncture in a series of 148 consecutive children aged between 5 days and 16 years referred for myelography; no patient was excluded. Initially, iohexol 180 mgI/ml was used in dosage proportional to body weight varying between 5 ml and 15 ml. During the later part of the trial concentration of iodine was increased to 240 mg/ml for cases in which the dorsal region was of particular interest (69 patients) and to 300 mg/ml for 8 cervical studies. The total dose ranged up to 4.8 g and varied between 0.03 g and 0.51 gI/kg body weight. In all patients, neurological examinations were performed before and at 24 h and observations for adverse reactions continued over a period of 48 h. The contrast medium was run up to the foramen magnum of basal cisterns in 128 patients and to the upper dorsal region in the other 20. In the first 62 patients vital studies were performed over the period of the myelogram and for 24 h following, and an additional limited neurological examination was made at 6 h, and in the first 26 cases of the series EEG's were done before and at 24 h after the myelogram. Minor variations in pulse rate and blood pressure were observed but these were not of sufficient magnitude to be of clinical significance. In 7 patients there was minor, generally slow wave abnormality on the EEG taken after the procedure, but no spike or epileptogenic activity was observed.

  20. Functional cervical myelography with iohexol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakstad, P.; Aaserud, O.; Nyberg-Hansen, R.; Ganes, T.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty patients underwent functional cervical myelography, i.e. radiographs in the lateral view were obtained in extension as well as in flexion of the neck. Sagittal tomography was performed in both positions. Narrowing of the subarachnoid space and increased sagittal diameter of the spinal cord due to shortening were demonstrated in the lateral view in extension. In flexion a widening of the subarachnoid space was seen in almost all. In some cases with advanced narrowing or spinal block in extension, such widening in flexion resulted in better diagnostic images by providing passage of the contrast medium caudally. Although iohexol (Omnipaque, Nyegaard and Co., Oslo) was regularly forced into the posterior cranial fossa by the movements, the frequency of side effects was approximately the same as in our former trials with iohexol in conventional cervical myelography. EEG changes occurred in two patients (7%). A sitting position for 3-4 min after the examination followed by an elevated head end of the bed was probably important for preventing side effects from the contrast medium. Specific questioning revealed twice as many subjective side effects as reported after general questions alone. (orig.)

  1. Metrizamide CT myelography of Hirayama's diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kiichiro; Inoue, Kiyoharu; Yagishita, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    We reported two cases of Hirayama's disease of about one year history. Case 1 had muscular weakness and atrophy of the upper extremity in the C7, C8, and Th1 segmental levels bilaterally but much more conspicuously on the left side. Case 2 had the same problem in the same segmental levels of the left upper extremity. In both cases the needle EMG showed neurogenic patterns in the atrophic muscles. Plain cervical X-rays and metrizamide myelographies were unremarkable in both cases. In case 1, metrizamide CT myelography showed a marked flattening and a loss of the normal rounded configuration of the antero-lateral aspects of the cervical spinal cord bilaterally but with a left sided emphasis. This was most prominent in the C6 vertebral body level, and was strictly localized to the C5, C6, and C7 vertebral body levels, which correspond to the C6, C7, C8, and Th1 spinal cord levels. There was however no physical compression of the spinal cord to explain the deformity. In case 2, metrizamide CT myelography showed a straightening and a loss of the normal rounded shape of the antero-lateral aspect of the cervical spinal cord on the left side, which was localized to the C6 and C7 vertebral body levels (corresponding to the C7, C8, and Th1 spinal cord levels). Taking the physical and EMG findings into account, we considered that the findings of the metrizamide CT myelography of the two cases represent the anterior horn atrophy localized to the lower cervical spinal cord. (author)

  2. Complaints of the lumbar spine: The value of myelography and computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittmeyer, K.; Dralle, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the radiological examination of the lumbar spine and vertebral canal there are currently two methods of choice, computer tomography and myelography. Comparing the advantages of one method over another reveals that computer tomography is particularly useful in especially diagnosing a lateral process of the intervertebral disk, whereas myelography is especially applicable in the case of an intervertebrals disk prolapse within the narrow confines of the spinal canal proper. Myelography also has the additional advantage of visualizing a number of segments at once, although repeated use increases the risk of arachnitis despite the high tolerance of current contrast medium. However, myelography should be performed, if there is clinical evidence of nerve root compression even though the computer tomography was negative. The reverse is also true. Myelography is also useful initially, due to the lower radiation dosis, if the clinical symptoms don't allow a specific localisation of the process. (orig.) [de

  3. Adverse side effects of metrizamide and iopamidolo in myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carella, A.; Di Cuonzo, F.; Vinjau, E.; Federico, F.; Lamberti, P.

    1982-01-01

    Nonionic water-soluble contrast medium, at first metrizamide and later Iopamidolo was used for lumbar myelography. Three serious neurological complications were noted: one case of total aphasia, one case of generalized seizures, and one of myoclonic jerking of the legs. (orig.)

  4. Cervical myelography in dogs using iohexol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.K.; Farrow, B.R.H.; Fairburn, A.J.; Sydney Univ.; Sydney Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Iohexol, a non-ionic water-soluble radiographic contrast medium, was used for cervical myelography in dogs (10-17 kg). The animals remained clinically normal following myelography, with no evidence of seizures. At 10 days after myelography there was a slight, but significant (p<0.05) increase in neutrophils in the cerebrospinal fluid; these cell numbers had returned to normal by the time of necropsy at 60 days after myelography. This investigation suggests that iohexol may be suitable for clinical myelography in the dog. (orig.)

  5. Lumbar myelography with omnipaque (iohexol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilleaas, F.; Weber, H.

    1986-01-01

    Lumbar myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed in 103 consecutive adult patients with low back pain or sciatica. The patients were observed for 48 h with registration of possible adverse reactions. Mild or moderate transient side effects were recorded in 24 patients. No serious adverse reactions were noted, and EEG recorded in 25 patients showed no changes. (orig.)

  6. Lumbar myelography with Omnipaque (iohexol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilleaas, F.; Bach-Gansmo, T.; Weber, H.

    1986-07-01

    Lumbar myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed in 103 consecutive adult patients with low back pain or sciatica. The patients were observed for 48 h with registration of possible adverse reactions. Mild or moderate transient side effects were recorded in 24 patients. No serious adverse reactions were noted, and EEG recorded in 25 patients showed no changes.

  7. A review of the usefulness of myelography in 50 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, S.J.; Gibbs, C.

    1992-01-01

    Fifty dogs showing clinical signs of spinal disease were investigated by myelography, using iopamidol. In 27 cases the technique was considered worthwhile. Of the 19 dogs not subjected to surgery or euthanasia as a result of the findings, three suffered seizures during recovery from anaesthesia, eight deteriorated in neurological condition and one suffered permanent respiratory arrest as a result of extensive subarachnoid haemorrhage

  8. Experience of computed tomographic myelography and discography in cervical problem

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    Nakatani, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Uratsuji, Masaaki; Suzuki, Kunio; Matsui, Eigo [Hyogo Prefectural Awaji Hospital, Sumoto, Hyogo (Japan); Kurihara, Akira

    1983-06-01

    CTM (computed tomographic myelography) was performed on 15 cases of cervical lesions, and on 5 of them, CTD (computed tomographic discography) was also made. CTM revealed the intervertebral state, and in combination with CTD, providing more accurate information. The combined method of CTM and CTD was useful for soft disc herniation.

  9. Assessment of the narrow cervical spinal canal: a prospective comparison of MRI, myelography and CT-myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reul, J.; Gievers, B.; Weis, J.; Thron, A.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), myelography and computed tomography in the assessment of degenerative cervical spinal stenosis. We prospectively examined a total of 75 spinal segments in 18 patients with suspected cervical spinal canal stenosis, using sagittal spin-echo and axial gradient-echo sequences generated by a 1.5 Tesla imager, conventional myelography, and computed tomography with intrathecal contrast medium (CT-myelography). The degree of stenosis was often overestimated using MRI. This error was most prominent in cases of severe stenosis but was significant with minor to moderate stenosis. In these cases, the clinical consequences of such an overestimation can be serious, because treatment is misdirected. The error is probably caused by pulsation of the cerebrospinal fluid and truncation artefact (Gibbs phenomenon). MRI at 1.5 Tesla is thus frequently inadequate for diagnostic assessment of degenerative cervical spinal stenosis. Myelography and myelographic CT are still useful for decisions on operative treatment, especially in cases of moderate stenosis. This may, however, not apply to imagers operating at 0.5 Tesla as below. (orig.)

  10. Late meningeal changes after Dimer-X-myelography in the absence of surgery

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    Assmann, H; Besel, R; Schumann, E; Usbeck, W

    1981-04-01

    Myelography with Amipaque was carried out in a group of 28 patients who had had previous Dimer-X-myelography, but no surgery. In 12 cases there was radiological evidence of a meningeal reaction. In all these cases there were chronic changes in the lumbar subarachnoid space. The original myelograms showed no evidence of adhesive changes in the root pouches. It was not possible to correlate the radiological findings of the meningeal changes with the serverity or type of neurological diseases.

  11. Selective cervical myelography. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The classical ways of subarachnoid puncture - lumbal and suboccipital - require a considerable quantity of air in performing segmental cervical pneumomyelography. An examination technique is described, based on the recently suggested lateral subarachnoid puncture within the interarcus space at C 1 -C 2 level. Emphasis is laid on the possibilities of carrying out various neuro-roentgenological studies through contrast medium introduction in the fashion described, namely: pontocerebellar cistemography and cervical myelography with AMIPAQUE - a water soluble contrast medium. On the basis of literature data and personal experience it is stated that the risk in lateral subarachnoid puncture is by no means higher than in suboccipital puncture. The main advantages of selective cervical myelography effected by contrast medium injection through lateral subarachnoid puncture include the possibility to perform investigation with a minimum amount of air (4-8 cm 3 ) and to study patients with fixed, direct skull fraction after Crutchfield under maximum sparing conditions. (author)

  12. Present status and problems of radionuclide studies in emergency cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kiyoshi

    1983-01-01

    Scintigraphy is just right for diagnosing emergency cases due to its noninvasive and simple method, but emergency radionuclide studies have not become practical as a result of difficulty problems. Recently, nuclear medical devices have become easier to use in operations. It is become of this, that I have submitted this report regarding the problems of radionuclide studies in emergency cases. There were 101 cases (1.4 %) out of 7,310 cases for the year period Sept. 1981 - Aug. 1982. The studies consisted of 12 brain imaging cases, 9 plumonary imaging cases, 22 cardiac study cases (cardio-angiography cases 8, 99m-Tc-PYP myocardium imaging cases 12, 201-Tl myocardium imaging cases 2), 12 renal study cases, 11 G.I. blood loss cases, 35 peripheral angiography cases. In the near future, we will have to be ready to perform emergency radionuclide studies if the need arises. (author)

  13. Side effects after ambulatory lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Myhr, G.; Stovner, L.J.; Dale, L.G.; Tangerud, A.

    1989-01-01

    Side effect incidences after ambulatory (22G needle and two h bed rest) and after non-ambulatory (22 and 20G needles and 20 h bed rest) lumbar iohexol myelography have been estimated and compared. Headache incidence was significantly greater in ambulatory (50%, n=107) as compared to nonambulatory myelography (26%, n=58). Headaches in the ambulatory group tended to be of shorter duration and the difference between severe headaches in ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups was not significant. Serious adverse reactions did not occur and none of the ambulatory patients required readmission because of side effects. The headache was predominantly postural and occurred significantly earlier in the ambulatory group. Headache incidence was significantly greater after 20G needle myelography (44%, n=97) as compared to 22G needle iohexol myelography (26%, n=58). The results support the hypothesis that CSF leakage is a major cause of headache after lumbar iohexol myelography. (orig.)

  14. The role of radionuclide studies in emergency cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Hayashida, Kohei; Uehara, Toshiisa

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide studies have been performed popularly because of its noninvasive and simple method recently. In this study, we applied this technique for the evaluation of emergency cases in cardiovascular diseases. There were 93 cases (1.5%) out of 6163 cases, done during 1981. The subjects were 34 cases of cardiac studies (9 cases of sup(99m)Tc-PYP myocardial imaging, 12 cases of thallium myocardial imaging, 13 cases of cardioangiography), 23 cases of peripheral diseases (12 cases of peripheral angiography, 11 cases of venography), 16 cases of pulmonary imaging, 10 cases of renal studies (6 cases of renal angiography, 9 cases of renal imaging) and 5 cases of brain angiography. These studies were proven to be useful clinically for the evaluation of emergency cases and follow-up studies. In the near future, ''emergency radionuclide studies'' would be benefit for the high-risk patients noninvasively. (author)

  15. Clinical significance of gas myelography and CT gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Haruhiko

    1984-01-01

    Basic and clinical applications relating to air myelography of the cervical spine have already been studied and extensively been used as an adjuvant diagnostic method for diseases of the spine and the spinal cord. However, hardly any application and clinical evaluation have been made concerning gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine. The author examined X-ray findings of 183 cases with diseases of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine, including contral cases. Gas X-ray photography included simple profile, forehead tomography, sagittal plane, and CT section. Morphological characteristics of normal X-ray pictures of the throacic spine and the lumbar spine were explained from 54 control cases, and all the diameters of the subarachnoidal space from the anterior to the posterior part were measured. X-ray findings were examined on pathological cases, namely 22 cases with diseases of the throacic spine and 107 cases with diseases of the lumbar spine, and as a result these were useful for pathological elucidation of spinal cord tumors, spinal carries, yellow ligament ossification, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, hernia of intervertebral disc, etc. Also, CT gas myelography was excellent in stereoobservation of the spine and the spinal cord in spinal cord tumors, yellow ligament ossification, and spinal canal stenosis. On the other hand, it is not suitable for the diagnoses of intraspinal vascular abnormality, adhesive arachinitis, and running abnormality of the cauda equina nerve and radicle. Gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lambar spine, is very useful in clinics when experienced techniques are used in photographic conditions, and diagnoses are made, well understanding the characteristics of gas pictures. Thus, its application has been opened to selection of an operative technique, determination of operative ranges, etc. (J.P.N.)

  16. Clinical significance of gas myelography and CT gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, Haruhiko (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1984-05-01

    Basic and clinical applications relating to air myelography of the cervical spine have already been studied and extensively been used as an adjuvant diagnostic method for diseases of the spine and the spinal cord. However, hardly any application and clinical evaluation have been made concerning gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine. The author examined X-ray findings of 183 cases with diseases of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine, including contral cases. Gas X-ray photography included simple profile, forehead tomography, sagittal plane, and CT section. Morphological characteristics of normal X-ray pictures of the throacic spine and the lumbar spine were explained from 54 control cases, and all the diameters of the subarachnoidal space from the anterior to the posterior part were measured. X-ray findings were examined on pathological cases, namely 22 cases with diseases of the throacic spine and 107 cases with diseases of the lumbar spine, and as a result these were useful for pathological elucidation of spinal cord tumors, spinal carries, yellow ligament ossification, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, hernia of intervertebral disc, etc. Also, CT gas myelography was excellent in stereo observation of the spine and the spinal cord in spinal cord tumors, yellow ligament ossification, and spinal canal stenosis. On the other hand, it is not suitable for the diagnoses of intraspinal vascular abnormality, adhesive arachinitis, and running abnormality of the cauda equina nerve and radicle. Gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lambar spine, is very useful in clinics when experienced techniques are used in photographic conditions, and diagnoses are made, well understanding the characteristics of gas pictures. Thus, its application has been opened to selection of an operative technique, determination of operative ranges, etc.

  17. The usefulness of MR myelography for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Yasumasa; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Miyauchi, Yukio; Niitsu, Mamoru

    2002-01-01

    Myelography has been the most popular and reliable method for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury. However, it is invasive because it requires the use of contrast medium, dural puncture and exposure to radiation. In addition, it has a fault. When a nerve rootlet is not filled with contrast medium, it is impossible to evaluate it. It has sometimes been a problem in the injury to upper roots. Recently, MRI also has been used for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. But it was not until recently that it has had a high resolution to detect affected nerve rootlets. We have used MR myelography with high resolution for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of it. MR myelography was preoperatively performed in 14 cases, consisting of 13 traumatic brachial plexus injuries and an obstetrical palsy. In them, 12 cases had root avulsion injuries and 2 cases had infraclavicular injuries. A 1.5 Tesla MR system (Philips) and a cervical coil were used. Coronal sections with 2 mm-overcontiguous thickness were obtained by heavily T2-weighted sequence fast spin echo (TR/TE=3000/450). The fat signal was suppressed by a presaturation inversion-pulse. The scanning time was about five minutes. The three-dimensional image was reconstructed by using maximum intensity projection (MIP) method. MIP images and individual coronal images were used for evaluation for root avulsion. In evaluation the shape of a nerve sleeve and nerve rootlets was compared on both sides. The abnormal shape of a nerve sleeve or the defect of nerve rootlets was diagnosed as root avulsion. The brachial plexus lesions were exposed operatively and examined with electrophysiologic methods (SEP and/or ESCP) in all cases. Operative findings were compared with MR myelography. Twenty-four roots had been diagnosed as normal and 46 roots had been diagnosed as root avulsion with MR myelography preoperatively. In the former only one root was

  18. Computed tomographic metrizamide myelography in spinal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isu, T.; Ito, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Tsuru, M. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Kitaoka, K.

    1981-03-01

    Methods: Either EMT Head Scanner, CT 1010 (slice thickness 10 mm) or EMI Body Scanner, CT 5005 (slice thickness 13 mm) was used. The concentration of metrizamide was 170 - 250 mgI/ml and the amount was 7 - 10 ml. Either lumbar puncture or lateral C sub(1 - 2) puncture was made. Materials: 26 cases were included in this study. 1) disc disease: 11 cases, 2) spinal cord tumor: 6 cases, 3) Arnold-Chiari malformation: 3 cases, 4) atlantoaxial dislocation: 3 cases, 5) ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (associated with ossification of the ligamentum flavum): 2 cases (1 case), 6) spinal foreign body (acupuncture needle): 1 case. Results: 1) CT metrizamide myelography visualizes the subarachnoid space and makes it possible to know the lesion in the spinal canal in relation to the spinal cord in transverse plane. 2) It is difficult to determine the exact level of the lesion in axial plane. 3) The present technique does not allow to visualize the root sleeves. 4) It is difficult to delineate a compression of the subarachnoid space by small localized lesions (esp., disc diseases) due to overlapping the patent adjacent subarachnoid space within a slice 10 mm to 13 mm thick.

  19. Computed tomographic metrizamide myelography in spinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Ito, Terufumi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Kitaoka, Kenichi.

    1981-01-01

    Methods: Either EMT Head Scanner, CT 1010 (slice thickness 10 mm) or EMI Body Scanner, CT 5005 (slice thickness 13 mm) was used. The concentration of metrizamide was 170 - 250 mgI/ml and the amount was 7 - 10 ml. Either lumbar puncture or lateral C sub(1 - 2) puncture was made. Materials: 26 cases were included in this study. 1) disc disease: 11 cases, 2) spinal cord tumor: 6 cases, 3) Arnold-Chiari malformation: 3 cases, 4) atlantoaxial dislocation: 3 cases, 5) ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (associated with ossification of the ligamentum flavum): 2 cases (1 case), 6) spinal foreign body (acupuncture needle): 1 case. Results: 1) CT metrizamide myelography visualizes the subarachnoid space and makes it possible to know the lesion in the spinal canal in relation to the spinal cord in transverse plane. 2) It is difficult to determine the exact level of the lesion in axial plane. 3) The present technique does not allow to visualize the root sleeves. 4) It is difficult to delineate a compression of the subarachnoid space by small localized lesions (esp., disc diseases) due to overlapping the patent adjacent subarachnoid space within a slice 10 mm to 13 mm thick. (author)

  20. Use of iohexol for myelography in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, A.A.; Jeffcott, L.B.; Lavelle, R.B.; Friend, S.C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The use of iohexol as a contrast agent for myelography is reported in two groups of horses. Group 1 (n = 6) were used only for myelography and to assess the clinical and pathological effects of intrathecal administration of iohexol. A volume of 20 ml at a concentration of 300 or 350 mg iodine/ml gave satisfactory myelographic detail with no serious clinical or neurological side effects. Only a minimal inflammatory response could be demonstrated in cerebrospinal fluid at four and 14 days after injection. At post mortem examination 14 days after myelography there was no evidence of meningitis nor was any other pathological change detected. Group 2 (n = 19) comprised a series of clinical cases of suspected cervical vertebral malformation. The only untoward sequelae recorded involved two horses in which iohexol was diluted with sterile water prior in intrathecal injection. A progressive necrotising meningitis developed in both cases which necessitated euthanasia. It was concluded that the major advantages of iohexol for use in the horse were its diagnostic quality, safety and low cost

  1. Isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis with sciatica; MR imaging vs myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annertz, M.; Holtaas, S.; Cronqvist, S.; Joensson, B.; Stroemqvist, B. (Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopedics)

    1990-09-01

    Seventeen patients with sciatica and isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis were studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In 13, myelography was also performed: 5 had dural sac deformation and root sleeve shortening, 2 had deformation with unilateral root sleeve shortening, one had bilateral root sleeve shortening only, and one had sac deformation only. In 4, myelography was normal. On sagittal MR examinations the neural foramen had an altered shape bilaterally with the long axis horizontal in all cases. In addition to altered shape the following was found in the 33 foramina evaluated. I: Normal nerve (n=8), II: Compressed nerve (n=16); III: Disappearance of fat, nerve not possible to identify (n=9). In patients with unilateral sciatica, the degree of foraminal stenosis correlated well with the side of symptoms. Coronal views showed the course of the nerve and pedicular kinking. Eight patients underwent decompressive surgery which revealed nerve compression by hypertrophic fibrous tissue and pedicular kinking, which correlated well with the findings on MR. Since the site of nerve compression often was peripheral to the root sleeves, myelography did not give complete information. (orig.).

  2. Spinal dermoid cyst. Characteristic CT findings after metrizamide myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yoshihisa; Makita, Yasumasa; Nabeshima, Sachio; Tei, Taikyoku; Keyaki, Atsushi; Takahashi, Jun; Kawamura, Junichiro

    1987-10-01

    A 25-year-old male complained of intermittent, sharp pains about the left eye and in the left side of the chest. Neurological examination revealed paresthesia and impaired perception of touch and pin-pricks in the dermatomes of Th8 and Th9 on the left side. In all four extremities, the muscle stretch reflexes were equal and slightly hyperactive, without weakness or sensory deficits. Metrizamide myelography showed defective filling at the level between the upper 8th and 9th thoracic vertebrae. The lesion was also demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) scan performed 1 hour later, appearing as an oval, radiolucent mass in the left dorsal spinal canal, which compressed the spinal cord forward and toward the right. Serial sections of the spinal canal revealed the lesion to be partly filled with contrast medium. Repeat CT scan 24 hours after metrizamide myelography showed more contrast medium in the periphery of the lesion, giving it a doughnut-shaped appearance. At surgery a smooth-surfaced cyst containing sebum and white hair was totally removed from the intradural extramedullary space. The histological diagnosis was dermoid cyst. There have been a few reported cases of intracranial epidermoid cyst in which filling of the cyst was suggested on metrizamide CT myelography. These findings may complicate the differential diagnosis of arachnoid cyst and dermoid or epidermoid cyst when only CT is used.

  3. Myelography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fluoroscope , which projects radiographic images in a movie-like sequence onto the monitor, to visualize the ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology ...

  4. Lumbar myelography using water-soluble contrast media. Lumbale Myelographie mit wasserloelichen Kontrastmitteln. Lehrbuch und Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlotz, M

    1981-01-01

    With the new water-soluble contrast media developed in the last 10 years, lumbar myelography has become a simple and low-risk diagnostic method of great value which is hardly ever omitted before surgery is undertaken. The book attempts a synopsis of radiology and clinical examinations. In its first part, the pathological, clinical, and radiological aspects of diseases of the lumbosacral spinal duct are reviewed. The second part contains more than 300 myelographic pictures in original size. Each of the myelograms is supplemented by the case history of the patient (anamnesis, neurological examination, therapy and course). Interpretation is facilitated by drawings at the beginning of each chapter which show the major pathological and radiological changes.

  5. 3D-MR myelography (3D-MRM) for the diagnosis of lumbal nerve root compression syndrome. A comparison with conventional myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, K.E.W.; Hollenbach, H.P.; Huk, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    65 patients with nerve root compression syndrome were examined using a new type of MR-technique, which is comparable to the conventional X-ray myelography. The results of the prospective case study were compared with previous clinical experiences (1). For the examinations a 1.0 T whole body MR-system (Siemens Magnetom Impact) was used. A strong T 2 *-weighted 3D-FISP sequence (TR=73 ms, TE=21 ms, α=7 ) was applied in sagittal orientation using a circularly polarized oval spine coil. To obtain fat suppression a frequency selective 1-3-3-1 prepulse was applied prior to the imaging sequence. The acquired 3D-data set was evaluated using a Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) program. Our results confirmed earlier experiences which showed that the diagnostic sensitivity of 3D-MR myelography (3D-MRM) is comparable to that of conventional X-ray myelography. In cases of severe spinal canal stenosis and spondylolisthesis, and in cases of postoperative scar tissue with nerve root compressions, the sensitivity of the 3D-MRM is higher as compared to that of conventional X-ray myelography. (orig.) [de

  6. Aphasia and right hemiplegia after cervical myelography with metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiari, P.; Merli, G.A.; Crisi, G.

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of aphasia and right hemiplegia, developing after myelography with metrizamide and lasting for an unusually long time. The neurological disorders, manifested 1 h after the examination was completed, were due to accidental passage of contrast medium into the basal cisterns. In the light of analogous case reports in the literature, as well as experimental data concerning the biochemical activity of metrizamide, possible aetiopathogenetic mechanisms responsible for such disturbances are indicated. The authors underline the lack of effective therapeutic measures after the onset of the disorders, and thus the importance of preventing such complications that behave functionally as true ictuses although with no anatomic substratum. (orig.)

  7. CT-myelography of cervical cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Izumi; Isu, Toyohiko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    1986-01-01

    We reported seven cases of acute cervical cord injuries who were examined by CT-Myelography (CTM) within 7 days after trauma. The presence or absence of spinal cord enlargement, the initial neurological status and the neurological prognosis of these patients were studied. The neurological status of each patient was graded by the method of Frankel who defined five grades from A to E according to the severity of neurological deficits. Seven patients were all males. The youngest was 18 and the oldest was 73 years old, with a mean age of 40.7 years. Follows up periods ranged from 7 to 23 months. Result: CTM revealed the enlargement of spinal cord in two cases, who had severe neurological deficits and were graded to A. No neurological improvements were obtained in these cases. Five cases without cord enlargement were graded to A in one patient, B in one patient and C in three patients. Four of these five patients improved neurologically. One grade C patient remained grade C. Complete block of subarachnoid space was observed in two out of seven cases. Cord enlargement was present in one of them. Another case of complete block improved from C to D. Conclusion: We consider the presence of cord enlargement which can be demonstrated by CTM well correlates the severity of the cord damage and presume poor neurological prognosis. Internal decompression, such as posterior longitudinal myelotomy may be recommended to the case of cord enlargement. When the cord enlargement is absent, improvement of neurological grade is expected although the initial neurological status shows severe deficits. (author)

  8. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses three case studies of greatly different types of discharges of anthropogenic radionuclides to the marine environment. The SNAP 9A satellite burnup dispersed almost pure 238 Pu into the atmosphere over the Mozambique channel at about 25 deg. S latitude in 1964. A much more heterogeneous mixture of liquids and solids containing a variety of radionuclides of low activity levels were packaged in steel drums and sunk to the sea floor near the Farallon Islands off San Francisco, California, USA between 1994 and 1964. An extensive series of tests of nuclear and thermonuclear devices with a total yield of many megatons was conducted by the U.S. at the remote coral atolls of the Marshall Islands at 110 deg. N and 160-165 deg. E, making them the most radioactively contaminated parts of the marine environment. The chapter briefly summarizes each of these cases, and stresses the major points learned about radionuclide cycling and about environmental processes from each of them. (author)

  9. Role of radionuclide studies in cases of enlarged prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhvi, S.D.; Shrimali, R.; Singhal, N.C.

    1985-01-01

    The present study of radionuclide 131 I hyppuran in 30 positive cases of enlarged prostate and 10 normal subjects has been found effective in giving information about functional status of the kidneys and presence of obstructive unropathy by renography, enlargement of the prostate causing bladder base contour deformity in bladder scan and the presence of residual urine by external counting method over bladder. It is a non-invasive method of investigation and can be undertaken safely in cases sensitive iodine-containing contrast medium. It is also cheap, easy to perform and does not require any pre-examination preparation and can be repeated frequently. (author)

  10. Comparison of side effects in myelography with iopamidol and metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong; Kang, Heung Sik; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Seoul Heui; Kwon, Oh Sung; Myung, Ho Gin

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the side effects in myelography of the two non-ionic water-soluble contrast medias, lopamidol (Niopam) and Metrizamide (Amipaque). A total of 111 patients were examined, 64 with lopamidol and 47 with Metrizamide. Side effects consisted of headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, urinary difficulty, muscular pain, seizure, neurobehavioral disturbance, neurological sign change, vital sign change and etc. The common side effects were headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness in order of frequency. Most of the side effects were subsided within 24 hours following myelography. lopamidol myelography caused fewer and milder side effects than Metrizamide study. The side effects were more commonly observed in cervical, thoracic or total myelography than in lumbar myelography with either lopamidol or Metrizamide. There was no significant correlation between incidence of the side effects and premedication with phenobarbital or valium injection before myelography and CSF sampling during the procedure.

  11. Comparison of side effects in myelography with iopamidol and metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong; Kang, Heung Sik; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Seoul Heui; Kwon, Oh Sung; Myung, Ho Gin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    The study was conducted to compare the side effects in myelography of the two non-ionic water-soluble contrast medias, lopamidol (Niopam) and Metrizamide (Amipaque). A total of 111 patients were examined, 64 with lopamidol and 47 with Metrizamide. Side effects consisted of headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, urinary difficulty, muscular pain, seizure, neurobehavioral disturbance, neurological sign change, vital sign change and etc. The common side effects were headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness in order of frequency. Most of the side effects were subsided within 24 hours following myelography. lopamidol myelography caused fewer and milder side effects than Metrizamide study. The side effects were more commonly observed in cervical, thoracic or total myelography than in lumbar myelography with either lopamidol or Metrizamide. There was no significant correlation between incidence of the side effects and premedication with phenobarbital or valium injection before myelography and CSF sampling during the procedure.

  12. Reliability of myelography in the diagnosis of spinal angiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thron, A.; Mironov, A.; Voigt, K.

    1983-01-01

    Using water-soluble contrast media for thoracic myelography vascular structures can be outlined within the subarachnoid space in about 30% as distinct and in another 30% as faint contrast filling defects. The localization corresponds to the results of anatomical studies demonstrating the largest vessels in the lower thoracic region and at the lumbar enlargement. The extreme variability of size and course of spinal cord vessels can cause difficulties in separating normal and angioma-like vascular pattern in myelographic examinations. Out of 100 unselected cervico-thoracic myelographies, examples of normal vascular patterns are given and compared to pathological findings of angiographically verified angiomatous malformations. The limitations of diagnostic reliability are given by anatomical factors like variability of vessel size or width of the suarachnoid space, by secondary spinal arachinitis or by the differentiation of cord tumours with vascular congestion. Futhermore, inadequate angiographic studies can result in misinterpretation of myelograms. In cases of negative arteriograms other affections leading to raised pressure in the azygos- or caval vein should be considered. (orig.)

  13. Psychic changes following myelography with metrizamide and iohexol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronqvist, S.E.; Holtas, S.L.; Laike, T.; Ozolins, A.; Lund Univ.

    1984-01-01

    Based upon the results of repeated psychologic tests, psychic impairment following myelography has been studied in 60 patients. Thirty of these had lumbar myelography with metrizamide and 30 with iohexol. Psychic impairment was noted in both groups, although with a higher frequency and much more marked in the group which had metrizamide myelography. For this type of examination iohexol is thus to be recommended. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine: MR/MR myelography versus conventional myelography/post-myelography CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiban, Ehab; von Lehe, Marec; Simon, Matthias; Clusmann, Hans; Heinrich, Petra; Ringel, Florian; Wilhelm, Kai; Urbach, Horst; Meyer, Bernhard; Stoffel, Michael

    2016-08-01

    To compare the use of magnetic resonance (MR)/MR myelography (MRM) with conventional myelography/post-myelography CT (convM) for detailed surgery planning in degenerative lumbar disease. Twenty-six patients with suspected complex lumbar degenerative disease underwent MRM in addition to convM as preoperative workup. Surgery was planned based on convM-as usual at our department. Post hoc, surgical planning was repeated planned again-now based on MRM. Furthermore, the MRM-based planning was performed by six independent neurosurgeons (three groups) of different degrees of specialisation. In only 31 % of the patients, post hoc MRM-based planning resulted in the same surgical decision as originally performed, whereas in 69 % (n = 18) a different procedure was indicated. In patients with non-concurring convM- and MRM-based surgical plans, a less extended procedure was the result of MRM in six patients (23 %), a more extended one in five (19 %), and a related to side/level of decompression or nucleotomy different plan in six patients (23 %). In one patient (4 %), the MRM-based planning would have led to a completely different surgery compared to convM. Overall interobserver agreement on the MRM-based planning was substantial. Detailed planning of operative procedures for complex lumbar degenerative disease is highly dependent on the image modality used.

  15. MR myelography of sacral meningeal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Katase, S.; Hachiya, J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the findings of sacral meningeal cysts (SMCs) on MR myelography and assess its value for the diagnosis of SMCs. Material and Methods: We evaluated the MR images and MR myelograms obtained from 10 patients with SMC. MR myelograms were obtained using a 2D or 3D single-shot fast spin-echo sequence. In 5 patients, X-ray myelograms and postmyelographic CT images were compared with the MR myelograms. Results: A total of 33 SMCs were diagnosed within the spinal canal and/or sacral foramen. MR myelograms clearly revealed each cyst as a well-defined mass showing hyperintensity (10 cysts) or isointensity (23 cysts) compared to cerebrospinal fluid. MR myelograms demonstrated SMCs better than X-ray myelograms and postmyelographic CT images in 3 of the 5 patients. Conclusion: MR myelography can be an adjunct to conventional imaging techniques when surgical treatment is indicated, because it can precisely delineate the extent of SMCs. (orig.)

  16. Side effects after lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Myhr, G.; Dale, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Side effects of iohexol lumbar myelography have been analyzed with respect to the influence of the type of radiological abnormality, sex and age in a group of 200 patients. Headache, postural headache, nausea and back/leg pain were significantly more frequent in patients without definite radiological abnormalities. Postural headache, nausea, dizziness and mental symptoms were more frequent in women, while headache, postural headache, nausea, dizziness, minor mental symptoms (i.e. anxiety or depression) and pain became less frequent with age. This pattern is similar to that reported after lumbar puncture. Young women without definite clinical signs of nerve root lesions probably have the greatest risk of experiencing side effects after iohexol lumbar myelography. (orig.)

  17. Myelography conducted on an outpatient basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kausch, W

    1981-03-01

    The introduction of the non-ionogenic product metrizamide made lumbosacral myelography a low-risk, invasive diagnostic procedure. Examination carried out on an outpatient basis does not involve greater risks or side effects than examination on a inpatient basis. However, it is essential that - apart from informing the patient properly - the patient shows discipline and remains available for the examining physician during a period of 36 hours.

  18. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, A.; Dons, K.; Eskesen, V.; Kruse-Larsen, C.; Blatt Lyon, B.; Arlien Soeborg, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Praestholm, J.

    1991-01-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.)

  19. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, A; Dons, K; Eskesen, V; Kruse-Larsen, C; Blatt Lyon, B; Arlien Soeborg, P; Jensen, N O; Praestholm, J [Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Neurosurgery, Neurology, and Clinical Neurophysiology

    1991-09-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.).

  20. Lumbar myelography using water-soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlotz, M.

    1981-01-01

    With the new water-soluble contrast media developed in the last 10 years, lumbar myelography has become a simple and low-risk diagnostic method of great value which is hardly ever omitted before surgery is undertaken. The book attempts a synopsis of radiology and clinical examinations. In its first part, the pathological, clinical, and radiological aspects of diseases of the lumbosacral spinal duct are reviewed. The second part contains more than 300 myelographic pictures in original size. Each of the myelograms is supplemented by the case history of the patient (anamnesis, neurological examination, therapy and course). Interpretation is facilitated by drawings at the beginning of each chapter which show the major pathological and radiological changes. (orig./MG) [de

  1. The Value of Routine MR Myelography at MRI of the Lumbar Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, M. J.; Ryan, M.; Powell, T.; Eustace, S. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital and Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Radiology

    2003-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a commercially available automated MR myelogram sequence improves the interpretation and diagnostic yield at MRI of the lumbar spine. Material and Methods: A total of 207 consecutive patients referred for MR examination of the lumbar spine for evaluation of low back pain or spinal radicular symptoms were included for study. All patients had initial imaging with sagittal T1-W and T2-W scans, followed by axial T2-W images. Subsequently an MR myelogram was acquired in each case in coronal, sagittal and oblique planes. MR myelogram images were evaluated initially and a diagnosis was established and recorded. Subsequently, a diagnosis was established by review of conventional images of the lumbar spine in sagittal and axial planes, in conjunction with the MR myelogram. The utility of the MR myelogram in establishing the diagnosis was graded on a 4-point scale, where grade 0 indicated that it contributed no additional information and grade 3 indicated that it was essential for diagnosis. Analysis of the additional value of myelography in patients with multilevel disease was made. Results: Primary diagnoses were disc herniation in 69 cases (33%), degenerative disc disease in 51 cases (26%), spinal stenosis in 19 cases (9%), isolated lateral recess stenosis in 5 cases (2%), or other diagnoses, including facet degeneration in 48 cases (23%). Scans were normal in 15 cases (7%). MR myelography was graded as grade 0 in 151 cases (73%), grade 1 in 44 cases (21%) and grade 2 in 12 cases (6%). In no case was MR myelography essential for diagnosis (grade 3). In patients with multilevel disease (n=27), in 17 cases MR myelography was graded as grade 1 (63%) and in 8 cases grade 2 (30%). Conclusion: MR myelography when employed in routine practice was of limited value, assisting in establishing a diagnosis in a minority of cases (6%). The technique was of limited additional value in patients with multilevel pathology and to a lesser extent in patients

  2. Conventional myelography - evaluation of risk and benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.

    1989-01-01

    While the benefit and methodic risk of conventional myelography (KMG) are known, a radiation risk of 0.04 to 0.9 annual radiation-induced cancers can be estimated for all inhabitants of the GDR, dependent on the investigated region and the technique used. An optimized technique can reduce the radiation burden to 50 or 25%. With comparable values of benefit and radiation risk spinal CT and KMG are not contradictory but complementary investigations. Alternative methods (MRT, US) must not be discussed from the standpoint of radiation burden, but according to their availability and their methodic limitations. (author)

  3. Lumbar myelography with water-soluble contrast media including comparison with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlotz, M.

    1986-01-01

    The heart of this book lies in the bringing together of clinical data, CT, myelography (at full one to one scale), and early follow-up of individual cases. In order to achieve better visual understanding of the examples, as well as an overview of them, line drawings summarizing the most important pathologic and radiologic changes introduce each section. (orig./MG) With 373 figs

  4. CT myelography in communicating syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamir, M.N.; Ozer, A.F.; Zirh, T.A.; Gurmen, N.; Erzen, C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the etiology of syringomyelia is not clearly understood, many surgical methods have been proposed for its treatment. One widely used technique in cases of communicating syringomyelia is that of posterior fossa decompression and plugging of the obex (Gardner's Operation). In this paper 5 cases of syringomyelia are presented which were investigated using detailed myelo-computerized tomographic techniques, of which 2 appeared to be communicating syringomyelia and which were treated by posterior fossa decompression and obex plugging. The authors also discuss the place of computed tomography in the differential diagnosis of communicating syringomyelia. (author). 42 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. CSF Venous Fistulas in Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension: Imaging Characteristics on Dynamic and CT Myelography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Peter G; Amrhein, Timothy J; Gray, Linda

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the anatomic and imaging features of CSF venous fistulas, which are a recently reported cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with SIH caused by CSF venous fistulas who received treatment at our institution. The anatomic details of each fistula were recorded. Attenuation of the veins involved by the fistula was compared with that of adjacent control veins on CT myelography (CTM). Visibility of the CSF venous fistula on CTM and a modified conventional myelography technique we refer to as dynamic myelography was also compared. Twenty-two cases of CSF venous fistula were identified. The fistulas were located between T4 and L1. Ninety percent occurred without a concurrent epidural CSF leak. In most cases (82%), the CSF venous fistula originated from a nerve root sleeve diverticulum. On CTM, the abnormal veins associated with the CSF venous fistula were seen in a paravertebral location in 45% of cases, centrally within the epidural venous plexus in 32%, and lateral to the spine in 23%. Differences in attenuation between the fistula veins and the control veins was highly statistically significant (p CSF venous fistulas are an important cause of SIH that can be detected on both CTM and dynamic myelograph y and may occur without an epidural CSF leak. Familiarity with the imaging characteristics of these lesions is critical to providing appropriate treatment to patients with SIH.

  6. Heavily T2-weighted MR myelography vs CT myelography in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-F; Lirng, J-F; Fuh, J-L; Hseu, S-S; Wang, S-J

    2009-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Patients with SIH were recruited prospectively, and first underwent MRM and then computed tomographic myelography (CTM). The results of MRM were validated with the gold standard, CTM, focusing on 1) CSF leaks along the nerve roots, 2) epidural CSF collections, and 3) high-cervical (C1-3) retrospinal CSF collections. Comparisons of these 3 findings between the 2 studies were made by kappa statistics and agreement rates. Targeted epidural blood patches (EBPs) were placed at the levels of CSF leaks if supportive treatment failed. Nineteen patients (6 men and 13 women, mean age 37.9 +/- 8.6 years) with SIH completed the study. MRM did not differ from CTM in the detection rates of CSF leaks along the nerve roots (84% vs 74%, p = 0.23), high-cervical retrospinal CSF collections (32% vs 16%, p = 0.13), and epidural CSF collections (89% vs 79%, p = 0.20). MRM demonstrated more spinal levels of CSF leaks (2.2 +/- 1.7 vs 1.5 +/- 1.5, p = 0.011) and epidural collections (12.2 +/- 5.9 vs 7.1 +/- 5.8, p localizing CSF leaks for patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. This noninvasive technique may be an alternative to computed tomographic myelography before targeted epidural blood patches.

  7. Abnormal radionuclide angiogram in cervical lymphadenitis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.S.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    Increased activity over the neck was observed on radionuclide angiograms of two patients with cervical lymphadenitis. This incidental finding should not be confused with other causes of locally increased perfusion

  8. Cervical myelography via C1/C2 lateral puncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, B.

    1981-01-01

    The use of the water soluble, tri-iodinated contrast medium, metrizamide, in cervical myelography via C1/C2 lateral puncture is described. Details of the tomographic apparatus and the technique employed are given. The advantages of water soluble myelography using metrizamide are overwhelming due to its miscibility with CSF, improved anatomical demonstration, radiographic visualisation and diagnostic accuracy and advantageous pharmacological properties with reduced toxicity. This technique provided successful diagnoses in a series of 104 patients. (U.K.)

  9. Evaluation of computed tomographic and radiographic myelography in normal miniature pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, M.H.; Lee, H.Y.; Kim, M.E.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, N.S.; Chang, J.H.; Jung, J.H.; Choi, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of the myelography was studied in miniature pigs. Radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images of the whole spine were obtained at clinically healthy twelve miniature pigs of 4 (8.7-10 kg) and 12 (26-31 kg) months. The assessments of the spinal cord were made in accordance with the Pavlov's method and compared area ratio [at spinal cord (SC), vertebral canal (VC) and vertebral body (VB)]. The Pavlov's ratio in the cervical spine was significant larger than that of thoracolumbar in radiographic myelography. On CT myelography, the area of the spinal cord had a significant difference between the cervical and thoracolumbar spine. Among the cervical spine, the ratios of spinal cord and vertebral body (SC : VB), vertebral canal and vertebral body (VC : VB) were minimum at the level of 4th cervical spine in both ages, while maximum at the level of 6th cervical spine in both months. In case of lumbar spine, the ratios of spinal cord and vertebral body (SC : VB) were the largest at the level of 4th lumbar spine in 4 months and at the level of 3rd lumbar spine in 12 months. In addition, the ratio of spinal cord and vertebral body (SC : VB) of the cervical spinal cord was significant lower at 4 months but the lumbar spinal cord showed lower pattern at 12 months old miniature pigs

  10. Cervical myelography with iohexol in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialho, S.A.G.; Graca, D.L.; Silva, A.M. da; Pellegrine, L.C. de; Oliveira, L.S.S. de; Lopes, S.T.D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Five horses, weighing 337 to 400 kg, were used in this research, one of them being used as control. Cervical myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed on four horses tranquilized with flunitrazepan before induction of anesthesia with sodium thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained with fluothane and oxygen. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed before and after an injection of ioxheol into the subarachnoid space. The animals received 25 to 50 ml of iohexol, after removal of 20 ml cerebrospinal fluid. Radiographies were taken with the horses at lateral recumbency, and the cranial, central and caudal regions of the cervical spine being focalized. No significant changes occurred in the cerebrospinal fluid after injecting the contrast medium. Pathologic changes were not found by gross or microscopic examination of the brain and the cervical spinal cord. Radiographies of good to excellent image quality were obtained. At autopsy, radiographic diagnosis of cervical vertebral instability was confirmed in the animal that had pelvic limb ataxia

  11. Cervical myelography with iohexol in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialho, S. A.G.; Graca, D. L.; Silva, A.M. da; Pellegrine, L.C. de; Oliveira, L. S.S. de; Lopes, S. T.D.A.

    1989-08-15

    Five horses, weighing 337 to 400 kg, were used in this research, one of them being used as control. Cervical myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed on four horses tranquilized with flunitrazepan before induction of anesthesia with sodium thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained with fluothane and oxygen. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed before and after an injection of ioxheol into the subarachnoid space. The animals received 25 to 50 ml of iohexol, after removal of 20 ml cerebrospinal fluid. Radiographies were taken with the horses at lateral recumbency, and the cranial, central and caudal regions of the cervical spine being focalized. No significant changes occurred in the cerebrospinal fluid after injecting the contrast medium. Pathologic changes were not found by gross or microscopic examination of the brain and the cervical spinal cord. Radiographies of good to excellent image quality were obtained. At autopsy, radiographic diagnosis of cervical vertebral instability was confirmed in the animal that had pelvic limb ataxia.

  12. Spinal endoscopy combined with selective CT myelography for dural closure of the spinal dural defect with superficial siderosis: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arishima, Hidetaka; Higashino, Yoshifumi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Akazawa, Ayumi; Arai, Hiroshi; Tsunetoshi, Kenzo; Matsuda, Ken; Kodera, Toshiaki; Kitai, Ryuhei; Awara, Kousuke; Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    The authors describe a new procedure to detect the tiny dural hole in patients with superficial siderosis (SS) and CSF leakage using a coronary angioscope system for spinal endoscopy and selective CT myelography using a spinal drainage tube. Under fluoroscopy, surgeons inserted the coronary angioscope into the spinal subarachnoid space, similar to the procedure of spinal drainage, and slowly advanced it to the cervical spine. The angioscope clearly showed the small dural hole and injured arachnoid membrane. One week later, the spinal drainage tube was inserted, and the tip of the drainage tube was located just below the level of the dural defect found by the spinal endoscopic examination. This selective CT myelography clarifies the location of the dural defect. During surgery, the small dural hole could be easily located, and it was securely sutured. It is sometimes difficult to detect the actual location of the small dural hole even with thin-slice MRI or dynamic CT myelography in patients with SS. The use of a coronary angioscope for the spinal endoscopy combined with selective CT myelography may provide an effective examination to assess dural closure of the spinal dural defect with SS in cases without obvious dural defects on conventional imaging.

  13. A clinical study on diagnostic value of CT-myelography in herniated lumbar disc and related disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tohru

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic value of CT-myelography (CTM) in herniated lumbar disc and related disorders, myelography and CTM were performed on 60 patients with sciatic pain and the findings obtained were compared. Among these patients, operation was undertaken in 30 including 5 reoperated patients, and preoperative findings on CTM were compared with the grades of herniated disc observed at operation. On the basis of abnormal myelographic findings of 55 patients, excluding 5 reoperated patients, morphological changes of the CTM were classified into the following seven types; normal, anterior defect, lateral defect, antero-lateral defect, root defect or thinning, total defect, and anterior plus unilateral root defect or thinning. Agreetment between myelographic and CTM findings was found in 85.1% of the cases. While myelography permitted only an indefinite diagnosis of lumbar disc lesion, CTM permitted a define diagnosis in 8 intervertebral discs including 2 giving nomal results by CTM. In cases of reoperation, CTM provided usefull information for an analysis of the pathological changes included disc herniation, whereas myelography rarely provided usefull findings. A comparative study of CTM and surgical findings revealed that the morphological changes in CTM were closely related with the grades of herniated discs. Consequently, CTM may be performed after myelography. If findings by the two techniques are synthesized, the diagnostic rate of herniated lumbar disc and related disorders will be considerably improved. Furthermore, it is concluded that CTM is an important technique for observing bony and neural changes inside the spinal canal in the axial transverse plane. (author)

  14. Measurement of normal cervical spinal cord in metrizamide CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fumio; Koyama, Tsunemaro; Aii, Heihachirou

    1985-01-01

    The shape of the spinal cord is the most important factor in diagnosis of spinal disorders by metrizamide CT myelography (met. CT). Even in cases where the spinal cord looks normal in shape its size might be abnormal, for example in cases with spinal cord atrophy, syringomyelia, intramedullary tumor and several other conditions. In detecting the slightest abnormality in such cases, it is absolutely necessary to have in hand the knowledge of the nomal size of the spinal cord at each level. We measured, therefore, the sagittal and transverse diameters of the cervical spinal cord in 55 patients with no known lesions on met. CT (Fig. 1). Comparing our results with those by others, we found some differences as to the size of the spinal cord. We assume that these differences are due to the differences in resolution of the CT scanners used. The size of the spinal cord tends to measure larger with a CT scanner with high resolution than with others. Previous authors reported that the size of the spinal cord would vary by window center settings. Our experimental results indicate, however, that window center settings do not significantly affect the measurements. It is concluded that the normal values of the spinal cord dimensions at each level somewhat differ by CT equipments used. One should have normal values with one's own equipment in hand in order to take full advantage of this sophisticated diagnostic technique. (author)

  15. Superior facet syndrome. Findings on metrizamide CT myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-02-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L5 or/and S1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively. Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L5 roots and 11 S1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome.

  16. Complications after lumbar myelography with amipaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Seung Hyun; Oh, Seung Chul; Lee, Yong Chul; Lee, Kwan Seh

    1982-01-01

    Amipaque is a water soluble, non-ionic myelographic contrast media, and owing to its high diagnostic accuracy and safety, its use is gradually increasing. The authors studied the complication after amipaque lumber myelography in 61 patients with low back pain during the period from January 1981 to November 1981 in Chung Ang University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Total complication rate was 52% (32 of 61)and there was no sexual difference in its occurrence. 2. In total, no difference in complication rate was found between head-up positioned group with a degree of 30 .deg. (group I) after procedure and head-up positioned group with a degree of 70 .deg. (group II) but female patients had more complication rate in group I than in group II (75% vs 50%). Headache was more common in group I and nausea was more common in group II. 3. Headache was most common complication (44%) and there was no sexual difference in its occurrence. 4. No significance difference in complication rate was found between patients proved to have HNP and patients to have not. 5. Complications were less common in patients with punctured level of L 4-5 than in patients with L 2-3 or L 3-4 level punture

  17. Mathematical Basis and Test Cases for Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport Modeling in GDSA-PFLOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This report provides documentation of the mathematical basis for a colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport modeling capability that can be incorporated into GDSA-PFLOTRAN. It also provides numerous test cases against which the modeling capability can be benchmarked once the model is implemented numerically in GDSA-PFLOTRAN. The test cases were run using a 1-D numerical model developed by the author, and the inputs and outputs from the 1-D model are provided in an electronic spreadsheet supplement to this report so that all cases can be reproduced in GDSA-PFLOTRAN, and the outputs can be directly compared with the 1-D model. The cases include examples of all potential scenarios in which colloid-facilitated transport could result in the accelerated transport of a radionuclide relative to its transport in the absence of colloids. Although it cannot be claimed that all the model features that are described in the mathematical basis were rigorously exercised in the test cases, the goal was to test the features that matter the most for colloid-facilitated transport; i.e., slow desorption of radionuclides from colloids, slow filtration of colloids, and equilibrium radionuclide partitioning to colloids that is strongly favored over partitioning to immobile surfaces, resulting in a substantial fraction of radionuclide mass being associated with mobile colloids.

  18. Which factors affect reported headache incidences after lumbar myelography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen publications were reviewed and subjected to a combined statistical analysis (meta-analysis) regarding the influence of study design factors upon reported headache and total symptom incidences after lumbar iohexol myelography. A significant association was found between reported side effects on one hand and needle diameter, follow-up time and the method of questioning respectively on the other. The combination of long follow-up time and specific questioning and the combination between larger diameter (20G) needles and long follow-up time, both seemed to be strong predictors for reporting high side effect incidences. Nine studies were similarly analyzed regarding the influence of early ambulation and contrast type upon reported headache incidences. Early ambulation significantly increased headache after iohexol or iopamidol lumbar myelography as opposed to metrizamide myelography. (orig.)

  19. Follow-up CT myelography of severe cervical spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Keiichi; Onoda, Kimio; Kawashima, Yasuhiro; Muto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yoichi

    1987-11-01

    There are many reports describing gross anatomical and microscopical findings of severely injured cervical cords in autopsy of the acute and chronic state, but no morphological findings of a severe cervical spinal cord injury in a chronic state by follow-up CT myelography have been found in the literature so far. The sagittal and transverse diameters of the cervical spinal cord and subarachnoid space of 9 out of 14 severe cervical spinal cord injury patients were measured with CT myelography within 7.5 years after the tranuma and their size compared with a control group which was made up of 29 patients with slight radiculopathy due to cervical spondylosis and whiplash injuries. Injured cord levels were C4 4 cases, C5 4 cases and C6 1 case. Remarkable spinal cord atrophy was recogniged in the sagittal diameter from C1 to C7 and in the transverse diameter below C4 and narrowing of the cervical subarachnoid space in the sagittal diameter from C2 to C5. The significance level was set at 1 - 5 %. From these fingings, we have concluded that atrophy appeared not only in the injured segment but also the whole cervical cord after the trauma. There was less cord atrophy in a good functional prognosis than in a poor prognosis.

  20. Follow-up CT myelography of severe cervical spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Keiichi; Onoda, Kimio; Kawashima, Yasuhiro; Muto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yoichi

    1987-01-01

    There are many reports describing gross anatomical and microscopical findings of severely injured cervical cords in autopsy of the acute and chronic state, but no morphological findings of a severe cervical spinal cord injury in a chronic state by follow-up CT myelography have been found in the literature so far. The sagittal and transverse diameters of the cervical spinal cord and subarachnoid space of 9 out of 14 severe cervical spinal cord injury patients were measured with CT myelography within 7.5 years after the tranuma and their size compared with a control group which was made up of 29 patients with slight radiculopathy due to cervical spondylosis and whiplash injuries. Injured cord levels were C4 4 cases, C5 4 cases and C6 1 case. Remarkable spinal cord atrophy was recogniged in the sagittal diameter from C1 to C7 and in the transverse diameter below C4 and narrowing of the cervical subarachnoid space in the sagittal diameter from C2 to C5. The significance level was set at 1 - 5 %. From these fingings, we have concluded that atrophy appeared not only in the injured segment but also the whole cervical cord after the trauma. There was less cord atrophy in a good functional prognosis than in a poor prognosis. (author)

  1. The significance of both lateral bending view as functional myelography of lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hack Jin; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1989-01-01

    CT and myelography are the most accurate diagnostic tools to define a lumbar herniated disc disease. But they may not demonstrated organic lesion of the cause of clinical symptoms or may not agree the site of lesion and lateralizing sign, so they may give a confusion to radiologist and clinicians. The purpose of this study is to estimate the value of lateral bending as functional myelography in the evaluation of the change of filling of nerve root sleeve compared with that of static myelography. We analysed 84 disc spaces of 28 patients of bulging disc or central HNP who had undergone both lumbar CT and functional myelography at Pusan National University Hospital from Aug.1987 to Aug.1988. The results were as follows: 1. In normal disc, there were tendencies of the same or increased filling of nerve root sleeve in the flexion site of lateral bending in functional myelography compared with that of static myelography, and of the same or decreased filling of nerve root sleeve in the extension site of lateral bending in functional myelography. 2. In bulging disc and central HNP, diagnostic method of functional myelography increased agreement of clinical symptoms and imaging diagnosis regarding the change of filling in nerve root sleeve in functional myelography from static one as a functional impairment of nerve root. 3. Lateral bending in functional myelography was expected as precise and genuine diagnostic tool that might represent functional impairment of nerve root

  2. Radionuclide scanning in the diagnosis of splenic injury: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naga, A.H.; Boyette, E.L.; Broadrick, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma may lead to rupture of the spleen with major bleeding, minor laceration or intracapsular damage with delayed bleeding. At times diagnosis may be difficult delaying treatment. The safety, simplicity, rapidity and accuracy of radionuclide scanning when splenic injury is suspected are demonstrated in the case of a 7-year-old boy

  3. A Case of Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm Associated with Patent Ductus Arteriosus : Detection by Radionuclide Cardiac Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, I.; Lee, M. C.; Cho, B. Y.; Koh, C. S.; Yoon, Y. S.; Hong, C. Y.; Rho, J. R.; Youn, K. M.; Han, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A Case of main pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 9-year-old boy with patent ductus arteriosus is presented. In this case presented with a huge mass density on the chest X-ray, radionuclide cardiac angiography showed a vascular lesion, which was confirmed as an aneurysm of the main pulmonary artery at roentgenologic angiogram. The aneurysm appeared following an episode of bacterial endocarditis and pulmonary hypertension. A successful aneurysmectomy with multiple ligation of ductus arteriosus was performed.

  4. A Case of Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm Associated with Patent Ductus Arteriosus : Detection by Radionuclide Cardiac Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, I; Lee, M C; Cho, B Y; Koh, C S; Yoon, Y S; Hong, C Y; Rho, J R; Youn, K M; Han, M C [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    A Case of main pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 9-year-old boy with patent ductus arteriosus is presented. In this case presented with a huge mass density on the chest X-ray, radionuclide cardiac angiography showed a vascular lesion, which was confirmed as an aneurysm of the main pulmonary artery at roentgenologic angiogram. The aneurysm appeared following an episode of bacterial endocarditis and pulmonary hypertension. A successful aneurysmectomy with multiple ligation of ductus arteriosus was performed.

  5. Myelography in the Age of MRI: Why We Do It, and How We Do It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Ozdoba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelography is a nearly ninety-year-old method that has undergone a steady development from the introduction of water-soluble contrast agents to CT myelography. Since the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging into clinical routine in the mid-1980s, the role of myelography seemed to be constantly less important in spinal diagnostics, but it remains a method that is probably even superior to MRI for special clinical issues. This paper briefly summarizes the historical development of myelography, describes the technique, and discusses current indications like the detection of CSF leaks or cervical root avulsion.

  6. Side effects after diagnostic lumbar puncture and lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Salvesen, R.; Dale, L.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective, controlled study was performed to compare side effect incidences after lumbar iohexol myelography (n=97) and diagnostic lumbar puncture (n=85). No significant side effect incidence differences (iohexol vs. controls) were found regarding number of patients with any side effect (63 vs. 73%), headache (44 vs. 54%), nausea, dizziness, visual, auditory, or psychic symptoms. Early-onset headache occurred significantly more often in the iohexol group (16 vs 5%), while postural headache occurred most frequently after lumbar puncture (25 vs. 41%). These results suggest that apart from the slight early-onset headache, most side effets after lumbar iohexol myelography are related to the puncture per se, not to the contrast agent. (orig.)

  7. A prospective comparison of iotrolan and iohexol in lumar myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.; Jensen, C.; Saebye, A.; Rasmussen, T.B.

    1994-01-01

    In a double-blind study 238 patients were examined with lumbar myelography using iotrolan or iohexol in randomized sequence in order to evaluate the image quality, the safety and tolerance of iotrolan by monitoring the adverse effects with special attention to late reactions. There were no serious complications. On the first day 28 patients (24%) had headache after iotrolan and 41 (34%) after iohexol. This difference was not significant, and these frequencies are similar to those found after spinal puncture alone. The second most frequent side effect was neck pain; the duration of neck pain were significantly longer after myelography with iohexol than with iotrolan. There was a significantly higher frequency of adverse effects in females the first 24 hours, but during examination and on days 2 to 4 there were no differences between males and females. Anamnestic information or myeolographic diagnosis could not predict which patients would have side effects. The image quality was excellent or good in all examinations but one. It is concluded that iotrolan is a safe contrast medium well suited for lumbar myelography. (orig.)

  8. A prospective comparison of iotrolan and iohexol in lumar myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, A. (Depts. of Radiology and Neurosurgery, Hvidovre Hospital, Univ. Copenhagen (Denmark)); Jensen, C. (Depts. of Radiology and Neurosurgery, Hvidovre Hospital, Univ. Copenhagen (Denmark)); Saebye, A. (Depts. of Radiology and Neurosurgery, Hvidovre Hospital, Univ. Copenhagen (Denmark)); Rasmussen, T.B. (Depts. of Radiology and Neurosurgery, Hvidovre Hospital, Univ. Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1994-03-01

    In a double-blind study 238 patients were examined with lumbar myelography using iotrolan or iohexol in randomized sequence in order to evaluate the image quality, the safety and tolerance of iotrolan by monitoring the adverse effects with special attention to late reactions. There were no serious complications. On the first day 28 patients (24%) had headache after iotrolan and 41 (34%) after iohexol. This difference was not significant, and these frequencies are similar to those found after spinal puncture alone. The second most frequent side effect was neck pain; the duration of neck pain were significantly longer after myelography with iohexol than with iotrolan. There was a significantly higher frequency of adverse effects in females the first 24 hours, but during examination and on days 2 to 4 there were no differences between males and females. Anamnestic information or myeolographic diagnosis could not predict which patients would have side effects. The image quality was excellent or good in all examinations but one. It is concluded that iotrolan is a safe contrast medium well suited for lumbar myelography. (orig.).

  9. Radionuclide migration study in the case of a geological disposal site. Bibliographic research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Sophie

    1997-01-01

    The present bibliographic research deals with the study of radionuclide migration in the case of a geological disposal of spent fuel from PWR nuclear reactors. Bibliography was made with the DIALOG server on the following databases: INSPEC, NTIS, Ei Compendex Plus, SPIN, SciSearch, Pascal et Current Contents Search, and with the INIS and DocTheses CD-Roms. A synthesis based on a few documents is made in the second part of the report. (author) [fr

  10. Distribution functions to estimate radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils: the case of Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Mart i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In the frame of the revision of the IAEA TRS 364 (Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments), a database of radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) in soils was compiled with data coming from field and laboratory experiments, from references mostly from 1990 onwards, including data from reports, reviewed papers, and grey literature. The K{sub d} values were grouped for each radionuclide according to two criteria. The first criterion was based on the sand and clay mineral percentages referred to the mineral matter, and the organic matter (OM) content in the soil. This defined the 'texture/OM' criterion. The second criterion was to group soils regarding specific soil factors governing the radionuclide-soil interaction ('cofactor' criterion). The cofactors depended on the radionuclide considered. An advantage of using cofactors was that the variability of K{sub d} ranges for a given soil group decreased considerably compared with that observed when the classification was based solely on sand, clay and organic matter contents. The K{sub d} best estimates were defined as the calculated GM values assuming that K{sub d} values were always log-normally distributed. Risk assessment models may require as input data for a given parameter either a single value (a best estimate) or a continuous function from which not only individual best estimates but also confidence ranges and data variability can be derived. In the case of the K{sub d} parameter, a suitable continuous function which contains the statistical parameters (e.g. arithmetical/geometric mean, arithmetical/geometric standard deviation, mode, etc.) that better explain the distribution among the K{sub d} values of a dataset is the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF). To our knowledge, appropriate CDFs has not been proposed for radionuclide K{sub d} in soils yet. Therefore, the aim of this works is to create CDFs for

  11. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  12. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmers, H J

    1984-01-01

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new.

  13. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmers, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new. (orig.)

  14. Myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque); a clinical report with special reference to the adverse effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalpe, I.O.; Nakstad, P.

    1988-01-01

    One thousand myelographies (370 cervical, 77 thoracic and 553 lumbar examinations) with iohexol (Omnipaque) were performed in 922 patients. No convulsions were seen. Transient hallucinations were reported in one patient. Headache occurred in 38%. The highest frequency of headache (52%) was reported following cervical myelography with lumbar puncture technique, placing the patient horizontally after the examination. The lowest frequency (20%) occurred following cervical myelography with the C1-C2 puncture technique, placing the patient in bed with the head end elevated 20 degrees. Lumbar myelography was performed on an out-patient basis in 243 patients. The frequency of headache was slightly higher (49%) in this group than in the other lumbar myelography patients (34-44%), but no serious complications were seen. (orig.)

  15. Morphology of the cervical spinal cord on computed myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thijssen, H O.M. [Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Keyser, A; Horstink, M W.M. [Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology; Meijer, E [Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    1979-01-01

    To ensure adequate use of the technique of computed myelography (CM) it is necessary to have an exact picture of the morphology of the normal spinal cord as demonstrated by this technique. This has been obtained by studying the morphology and measuring the frontal and sagittal diameter of the cervical cord in 20 patients. The normal values are presented. The changes of this morphology in one patient with a tumour, one patient with atrophy of the spinal cord and in some patients with congenital malformations are also reported.

  16. Trauma related changes in cervical spine and spinal cord in myelography and MRI; Zmiany pourazowe kregoslupa i rdzenia w odcinku szyjnym, w mielografii i w obrazie NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, E.; Bronarski, J.; Kiwerski, J.; Krasuski, M. [Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw (Poland)]|[Stoleczny Zespol Rehabilitacji, Konstancin (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Myelographic and MRI results in 14 patients treated in 1992 because of cervical spine injury with neurological complications have been presented. Myelography proves to be useful in posttraumatic spine diagnostics but in some cases does not render sufficient information, especially if the trauma superimposes previously existing pathological changes. MRI is exceptionally valuable diagnostic modality in cervical spine injuries offering an advantage of both early and late evaluation of the post-traumatic spinal cord changes. (author). 12 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs.

  17. Radionuclide deflation effects at contaminated environmental area in case of single and steady discharges to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhon'ko, K.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of wind generation of radioactive dust in the area contaminated as a result of single or steady radionuclide discharges to the atmosphere are considered. Calculations are given on changing in time of the deflation coefficient Ksub(α) cm -1 on the base of the radionuclides migration rate account into the depth from a surface dust-forming soil layer and irradiation dose for account of radionuclides penetrated by food chains and into respiratory organs as a result of dusting of the contaminated zone. It is shown that the deflation effects play an essential part in case of emergency discharges owing to the possibility of including radionuclides in food chains through plants. The numerical calculations are performed for 90 Sr and 137 Cs and for light and heavy natural deposit soils

  18. Risk and value of conventional myelography with regard to radiation exposure of the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.

    1989-01-01

    To estimate the effective equivalent dose with reference to the area under examination and the foils employed, fifty patients underwent conventional diagnostic myelography, after which, by means of thermoluminescence surface dosimetry, the mean organ dose was ascertained from the radiation field size, using the computer program ORDOS. Effective equivalent dose can be used to determine the inherent risk of radiation injury involved. The risk-benefit ratios obtained would suggest that conventional myelography, prospectively in the form of digital myelography, and spinal computer tomography are not opposing but complementary approaches to spinal diagnosis. Spinal NMR imaging must not be discussed under the aspect of radiation exposure but under the aspect of availability. (author)

  19. A role for myelography in assessing paraparesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Merwick, A

    2012-02-03

    Imaging of the spine is a fundamental part of assessment of paraparesis. Since the advent of MRI the indications for myelograms have diminished. However, a myelogram, although an invasive test, should still be considered a useful investigation for localising lesions in the spinal cord and for identifying rare causes of myelopathy. This case illustrates how a CT myelogram identified an arachnoid cyst, which is a potentially treatable cause of paraparesis.

  20. Comparison of MR versus CT myelography and plain CT in the diagnosis of nerve compression in acute low-back pain patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornbury, J.R.; Fryback, D.G.; Turski, P.A.; Javid, M.; McDonald, J.V.; Beinlich, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on how to determine if MR could replace CT-myelography or plain CT in the diagnosis of disk-caused nerve compression in patients with acute low back pain. Ninety-five outpatients were recruited from surgical and nonsurgical clinics. Each patient underwent MR (n = 95) and either CT-myelography (n = 63) or plain Ct (n = 32). Patients were followed up for 6-12 months. Fifty-six patients underwent surgical intervention, while 39 patients were treated conservatively. Retrospective blinded readings were done by using forced choice diagnoses and probability estimates. An expert panel (neurosurgeon and neurologist) determined the true diagnosis and probability of nerve compression in each case. Diagnosis was based on all record information including surgical findings (but excluding imaging results to reduce incorporation bias). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on the blinded reading results and panel-determined true diagnoses. Subgroup analysis also will be presented

  1. Assessment Lumboperitoneal or Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Patency by Radionuclide Technique: A Review Experience Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiewvit, Sunanta; Nuntaaree, Sarun; Kanchaanapiboon, Potjanee; Chiewvit, Pipat

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocephalus-related symptoms that worsen after shunt placement may indicate a malfunctioning or obstructed shunt. The assessment of shunt patency and site of obstruction is important for planning of treatment. The radionuclide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt study provides a simple, effective, and low-radiation-dose method of assessing CSF shunt patency. The radionuclide CSF shuntography is a useful tool in the management of patients presenting with shunt-related problems not elucidated by conventional radiological examination. This article described the imaging technique of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt and lumbar puncture (LP) shunt. The normal finding, abnormal finding of completed obstruction and partial obstruction is present by our cases experience. The radiopharmaceutical (Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) was injected via the reservoir for VP shunt and via lumbar puncture needle in subarachnoid space for LP shunt, then serial image in the head and abdominal area. The normal function of VP and LP shunt usually rapid spillage of the radioactivity in the abdominal cavity diffusely. The patent proximal tube VP shunt demonstrates ventricular reflux. The early image of patent LP shunt reveals no activity in the ventricular system contrast to distal LP shunt reveals early reflux of activity in the ventricular system. The completed distal VP and LP shunt obstruction show absence of tracer in the peritoneal area or markedly delayed appearance of abdominal activity. The partial distal VP and LP shunt obstruction recognized by slow transit or accumulation of tracer at the distal end or focal tracer in the peritoneal cavity near the tip of distal shunt. The images of the normal and abnormal CSF shunt as describe before are present in the full paper. Radionuclide CSF shuntography is a reliable and simple procedure for assessment shunt patency

  2. Judgment on the presence of radionuclides in sample analysis: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples require good judgment from the analysts. These two aspects in gamma spectrometric analysis of Proficiency Test and solid radioactive waste samples for the determination of radionuclides are discussed. It is vital to judge and decide what energy peaks belong to which radionuclides prior to the creation of customized radionuclide library for the analysis of specific samples. Corrections due to radionuclide decay and growth, and the half-life assigned to a particular radionuclide in the uranium and thorium series are also discussed. Discussion on judgment to confirm the presence of thorium in food samples based on gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis is also provided. (author)

  3. The diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia. The comparison between CT myelography and RI cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Keisuke; Hashizume, Keiji; Inoue, Satoki; Fujiwara, Aki; Furuya, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    The comparison in the title is performed in cases with suspicious hypovolemia of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and its leak at the lumbar region is also examined in whiplash injury. Subjects are 25 cases (M 14/F 11, av. age 36.9 y) with traffic (13 cases), whiplash (4) and null (8) injuries. CT myelography (CTM) is conducted by injection of iotrolan through the lumbar puncturing needle to get 700 images of the whole spine of 1 mm slice thickness, which after animated, are observed visually. RI cisternography (RIC) is done immediately, 2 and 24 hr after injection of 10 MBq of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-In through the puncturing needle. In 15 cases exhibiting positive RIC findings, CTM gives a positive leak at cervical and thoracic regions only in 2 cases and a false positive in other 13. In contrast, RIC fails to detect 2 cases of 4 with a leak at cervical and thoracic regions. Thus RIC is less reliable, and often observable RI accumulation at the lumbar area in RIC is not always a leak. (R.T.)

  4. Use of pentobarbital sodium to reduce seizures in dogs after cervical myelography with metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.R.; Indrieri, R.J.; Lowrie, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study to examine the effect of pentobarbital administration on the development of seizures in dogs that had undergone cervical myelography with metrizamide while anesthetized with halothane. Thirty dogs scheduled for cervical myelography were assigned to 3 groups. Dogs in group 1 received no pentobarbital. Those in group 2 were administered pentobarbital (5 mg/kg, IM) before induction of anesthesia, and those in group 3 received pentobarbital at the end of the procedure when the anesthetic vaporizer was turned off. Anesthesia was induced with thiamylal sodium in all dogs and was maintained with halothane. Dogs that underwent surgery immediately after the myelography were not included in the study. A significant difference was not found among the 3 groups in terms of number of dogs that had seizures, mean body weight of the dogs, duration of anesthesia after injection of metrizamide, time from extubation to first seizure, volume of metrizamide injected, or clinician performing the myelography

  5. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  6. CT in three cases of syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Sakuta, Manabu; Yagishita, Akira; Inoue, Kiyoharu.

    1983-01-01

    We presented the results of our experience with metrizamide computed tomographic myelography (MCTM) and myelography in three cases of syringomyelia. In case 1, MCTM revealed Chiari malformation, even though this malformation was not clear in the myelography. In case 3, Chiari malformation was apparent in MCTM and in the myelography. In case 1, CT of the spinal cord without enhancement (plain CT) showed a syrinx in the cervical spinal cord, and MCTM made the syrinx clearer with enhancement. MCTM also demonstrated a cavity at the levels of Th 6 and L 1 of the vertebra. In case 2, a syrinx was disclosed in MCTM, in spite of normal myelography. In case 3, myelography demonstrated a spinal cord swelling. MCTM made a syrinx less clear than plain CT. Not only MCTM but also plain CT is an excellent method for the recognition of syringomyelia. The non-invasive plain CT is the first choice of the examinations in cases with syrinogomyelia, because MCTM may make a syrinx obscure. CT and MCTM have to be performed at many levels of the spinal cord in case with syringomyelia. CT or MCTM may demonstrate a syrinx or a cavity at the levels of the spinal cord, where no syrinx is suspected to exist by clinical features, as well as at the levels appearing normal in the myelography. (author)

  7. Organic complexation of radionuclides in cement pore water: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, W.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of the organic ligands EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), NTA (nitrilotriacetate), citrate and oxalate on the speciation of Cs, Sr, Ra, Ni, Pd, Tc, Sn, Zr, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm in cement pore waters is studied by means of chemical equilibria. Emphasis is laid on the development of a complete and consistent thermodynamic data base for the high pH range beyond pH 11. Missing data are estimated using free-energy relationships derived from a large number of experimentally determined stability constants compiled from the literature. In case where a sound estimation of stability constants is not possible due to the scarcity of quantitative information, at least upper limits are assessed for the stability of all possibly important species. Chemical equilibria were computed within the range of pH 11 to 13 and a range of Ca concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1 mol -1 (M). ETDA complexes predominate only in the case of Ni. In all other cases, the competition of Ca-organic or metal-hydroxo complexes successfully prevent any significant influence of EDTA, NTA, citrate or oxalate on the speciation of these radionuclides. (author) 10 figs., 9 refs

  8. Ocean disposal option for bulk wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides: an assessment case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stull, E.A.; Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-01-01

    There are 180,000 m 3 of slightly contaminated radioactive wastes (36 pCi/g radium-226) currently stored at the US Department of Energy's Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), near Lewiston, New York. These wastes resulted from the cleanup of soils that were contaminated above the guidelines for unrestricted use of property. An alternative to long-term management of these wastes on land is dispersal in the ocean. A scenario for ocean disposal is presented for excavation, transport, and emplacement of these wastes in an ocean disposal site. The potential fate of the wastes and impacts on the ocean environment are analyzed, and uncertainties in the development of two worst-case scenarios for dispersion and pathway analyses are discussed. Based on analysis of a worst-case pathway back to man, the incremental dose from ingesting fish containing naturally occurring radionuclides from ocean disposal of the NFSS wastes is insignificant. Ocean disposal of this type of waste appears to be a technically promising alternative to the long-term maintenance costs and eventual loss of containment associated with management in a near-surface land burial facility

  9. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Formulation of radionuclide release scenarios 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. This report presents the radionuclide release scenarios and the methodology followed in formulating them. The formulation of scenarios takes into account the regulatory framework, the knowledge acquired in the present safety case as well as in previous safety assessments, the safety functions of the barriers of the repository system and the uncertainties in the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that may affect the entire disposal system (i.e. repository system plus the surface environment) from the emplacement of the first canister until the far future. In the report Performance Assessment, the performance of the engineered and natural barriers has been assessed against the loads expected during the evolution of the repository system and the site. Uncertainties have been identified and these are taken into account in the formulation of radionuclide release scenarios. The uncertainties in the FEPs affecting the characteristics and evolution of the surface environment are taken into account in formulating the surface environment scenarios used ultimately for assessing radiation exposure. Formulating radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system links the reports Performance Assessment and Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System. The formulation of radionuclide release scenarios for the surface environment brings together Biosphere Description and the surface environment FEPs and is the link to the assessment of the surface environment scenarios analysed in Biosphere Assessment. (orig.)

  10. Comparative study of myelography with postmyelographic CT in cervical spondylosis and herniated disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyoon Soon; Park, Yong Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    Eight patients, who had symptoms and signs of cervical spondylosis and/or disk were studied with myelography (using Omnipaque) followed by postmyelographic computed tomography to evaluate the relative efficacy of these two methods in the determination of cervical herniation and spondylosis. Thirty nine levels in 26 patients were confirmed by surgery. Of these, 20 levels proved to have operative evidence of herniated disk. Postmyelographic CT adds useful information to the myelographic findings. Cord and root compression are better evaluated and osteopathy can be differentiated from disk herniation. In osteopathy, myelography was as diagnostic as postmyelographic CT. But, disk herniation was identified in 70% (14/20 levels) with postmyelographic CT and only in 15% (3/20 levels) with myelography.

  11. Comparative study of myelography with postmyelographic CT in cervical spondylosis and herniated disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyoon Soon; Park, Yong Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1988-01-01

    Eight patients, who had symptoms and signs of cervical spondylosis and/or disk were studied with myelography (using Omnipaque) followed by postmyelographic computed tomography to evaluate the relative efficacy of these two methods in the determination of cervical herniation and spondylosis. Thirty nine levels in 26 patients were confirmed by surgery. Of these, 20 levels proved to have operative evidence of herniated disk. Postmyelographic CT adds useful information to the myelographic findings. Cord and root compression are better evaluated and osteopathy can be differentiated from disk herniation. In osteopathy, myelography was as diagnostic as postmyelographic CT. But, disk herniation was identified in 70% (14/20 levels) with postmyelographic CT and only in 15% (3/20 levels) with myelography.

  12. Relationship among the myelography, MRI and EMG in young patients with low back pain or radiating pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ji Youn; Kim, Dong Hun; Park, Young Jae

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the relationship among the myelography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electromyography (EMG) findings in young patients with low back pain, and we wanted to assess the significance of the spinal geometric measurements as well as type of disc herniation seen on MRI. Forty-four young men with lower back pain were included, and they were all clinically suspected of suffering with lumbar disc herniation. All of them underwent myelography, MRI and EMG. We measured spinal geometry including the anteroposterior diameters of the central canal and thecal sac, the interlaminar distance, the width of the lateral recess and the thickness of the ligamentum flavum, and we evaluated for root deviation as well as disc herniation on the MRIs. We compared the types of disc herniation on MRI with the myelography and EMG findings. Also, we investigated the correlation of the spinal geometric measurements on MRI with the EMG and myelography findings. The types of disc herniation on MRI were not significantly related to the myelography (ρ = 0.298) and EMG findings (ρ = 0.372). The EMG findings were not related to either the myelography findings (ρ = 0.435) or the spinal geometric measurements (ρ > 0.05) on MRI. Nerve root compression that was noted on myelography was related to the thecal sac AP diameter (ρ = 0.016) and the width of the lateral recess (ρ = 0.011). There were no correlations between myelography and the findings of root deviation on MRI (ρ = 0.052). MRI can play an excellent diagnostic role for young patients with radiculopathy or lower back pain. It could increase the diagnostic accuracy if it is used in conjunction with myelography and EMG. The narrowing of thecal sac AP diameter and the width of lateral recess rather than the type of disc herniation on MRI were well correlated with the myelography and EMG findings

  13. Effect of levomepromazine on EEG and on clinical side effects after lumbar myelography with metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standnes, B.; Oftedal, S.-I.; Weber, H.

    1982-01-01

    In patients with lumbago-sciatica levomepromazine is a potent supplement to analgetics in pain treatment. The hypothesis that neuroleptics increase the risk of epileptic seizures after metrizamide myelography was not comfirmed in a series of 77 patients, 26 with and 51 without levomepromazine medication, before and after lumbar metrizamide myelography. No differences existed between the groups with regard to the appearance of EEG abnormalities such as slow waves or spikes. Mild side effects were more frequent in the levomepromazine group, except nausea and vomiting. Lumbar metrizamide epidurography in 30 patients did not cause any abnormal EEG. (Auth.)

  14. Effect of levomepromazine on EEG and on clinical side effects after lumbar myelography with metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standnes, B.; Oftedal, S.I.; Weber, H. (Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1982-01-01

    In patients with lumbago-sciatica levomepromazine is a potent supplement to analgesics in pain treatment. The hypothesis that neuroleptics increase the risk of epileptic seizures after metrizamide myelography was not comfirmed in a series of 77 patients, 26 with and 51 without levomepromazine medication, before and after lumbar metrizamide myelography. No differences existed between the groups with regard to the appearance of EEG abnormalities such as slow waves or spikes. Mild side effects were more frequent in the levomepromazine group, except nausea and vomiting. Lumbar metrizamide epidurography in 30 patients did not cause any abnormal EEG.

  15. Iohexol and iopamidol myelography in the dog: a clinical trial comparing adverse effects and myelographic quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmer, W.R.; Blevins, W.E.; Jakovljevic, S.; Teclaw, R.F.; Han, C.M.; Hurd, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    In a blind clinical trial, adverse effects after iohexol and iopamidol myelography were evaluated in 151 dogs. Eighty-one dogs were given iohexol (240 mgI/ml) and 70 dogs were given iopamidol (200 mgI/ml) by pre-determined assignment. Each dog was evaluated postmyelographically for seizures, hyperthermia, prolonged recovery from anesthesia and intensification of pre-existing neural signs. Myelographic quality was evaluated with a subjective scoring method. In comparing iohexol and iopamidol groups, there was not a statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse effects or in myelographic quality. Iopamidol and iohexol appeared to be equally efficacious for routine canine myelography

  16. Cisternal myelography in dogs. Comparative study between Iopamidol and Metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibaut, J.; Silva, C.G.; Vargas, L.; Born, R.; Deppe, R.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of comparing two contrast medium utilized in myelography 12 adult dogs of both sexes and grouped into two groups (G1 and G2) of six dog each, were used. Both groups were previously anesthetized with sodium thiopental (20 mg/kg). Group 1 was injected via Cisterna magna into the subarachnoid space with metrizamide (Amipaque 6.75) in doses of 0,33 cc/kg. Group 2 was injected with iopamidol (Niopam 300) in doses of 0,26 cc/kg. For each animal, three series of four radiographs each were taken in ventro-dorsal and lateral projections at 5, 15 and 20 minutes after administering the contrast medium. During the course of the study, the dogs remained inclined in 20 deg in craneo-caudal direction in order to promote the caudal migration of the contrast medium. Radiographic plates of each dog obtained with the different treatments were simultaneously analyzed, comparing the characteristics of: advance speed of the contrast medium, the radiographic density and outlines and the possible appearance of adverse effects. Advance speed of the contrast medium into the subarachnoid space was greater with iopamidol, reaching an average of 20 vertebrae in the ventro-dorsal projection and an average of 21 vertebrae in the lateral projection. On the other hand metrizamide reached an average of 14 vertebrae in the ventro-dorsal projection and 16 vertebrae in the lateral projection. Radiographic density was lower with iopamidol, especially at 15 minutes allowing a greater contrast and therefore a better sight of the medullar structure. With regard to the outlines, these were neater with iopamidol, while with metizamide the outline was neat after 5 minutes, then became diffuse 15 and 20 minutes after being injected. No side effects were observed with the use of both contrast media

  17. ACCI38 XL 2: a useful tool for dose assessment in case of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassin, A.; Merle-Szeremeta, A.

    2002-01-01

    In the scope of its assignments in the field of nuclear risks, the French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) develops tools to assess the impact of nuclear facilities on their environment and surrounding populations. The code ACCI38 XL 2 is a tool dedicated to the assessment of integrated concentrations in the environment and of dosimetric consequences on man, in case of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides (up to 170 radionuclides). This code is widely used by IRSN for studies on accidents, mainly for the analysis of regulatory documents from nuclear operators. The aim of this communication is to present the main features of the model used in the code ACCI38 XL 2, and to give details about the code. After a general presentation of the model, a detailed description of atmospheric dispersion, transfer in the environment and radiological impact is given. Then, some information on parameters and limitations of the model and the code are presented

  18. Comparing the cost of spinal MR with conventional myelography and radiculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Boulay, G.H.; Teather, B.A.; Teather, D.; Hawkes, S.; Lee, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    All spinal magnetic resonance imaging examinations carried out during a three month period were analysed retrospectively in order to determine the clinical reasons for the scan requests. Costs were compared with those for patients submitted for myelography and radiculography at the adjacent hospital during the same period. The comparison indicated that spinal MR was less costly than myelography and radiculography. The most important element of the extra cost of myelography related to the need to admit patients to hospital for at least one night for this examination because of the linkelihood of headache and other common (though usually minor) complications following lumbar puncture and/or the injection of contrast medium. From the limited information that it was possible to obtain in the period of follow up, it appeared that MR had either been superior or equivalent to myelography or radiculography in all the clinical groups of patients where both could be tested. There were a number of groups in which no myelograms had been requested, presumably because clinical suspicions had pointed toward conditions like tumours, developmental abnormalities and demyelinating diseases in which neurologists and neurosurgeons have already made up their minds about the superiority of MR. (orig./MG)

  19. Box model of radionuclide dispersion and radiation risk estimation for population in case of radioactivity release from nuclear submarine number-sign 601 dumped in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yefimov, E.I.; Pankratov, D.V.; Ignatiev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    When ships with nuclear reactors or nuclear materials aboard suffer shipwreck or in the case of burial or dumping of radioactive wastes, atmospheric fallout, etc., radionuclides may be released and spread in the sea, contaminating the sea water and the sea bottom. When a nuclear submarine (NS) is dumped this spread of activity may occur due to gradual core destruction by corrosion over many years. The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model of radionuclide dispersion and to assess the population dose and radiation risk for radionuclide release from the NS No. 601, with Pb-Bi coolant that was dumped in the Kara Sea

  20. Strategy for a consistent selection of radionuclide migration parameters for the Belgian safety and feasibility case-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.; Salah, S.; Brassinnes, S.; Van Geet, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the strategy for the selection of retention and migration parameters for safety-relevant nuclides that was developed in the framework of the Belgian Safety and Feasibility Case SFC-1. A geochemical database containing state-of-the-art retention and migration parameters of all safety-relevant radionuclides, is ideally based on a thermodynamic understanding and an ability to accurately describe the geochemical and transport behaviour of all these radionuclides under the geochemical conditions that are considered for a reference host formation. In Belgium, this reference formation is Boom Clay. The parameters will be used in Performance Assessment (PA) calculations, and therefore must also be adapted to PA models. Since these models currently use only a four parameters for every radionuclide, the whole geochemical and transport behaviour must be comprised to a very limited parameter set that describe on the one hand chemical retention within the Boom Clay formation, and on the other hand transport through the Boom Clay formation. Chemical retention considers two concepts: 1) a concentration limit (S), which represents the mobile concentration of a nuclide present in the aqueous phase under undisturbed far field Boom Clay conditions; 2) a retardation (R/Kd) factor, which represents the uptake of a mobile nuclide by the inorganic and organic phases present in the Boom Clay formation. For mobility/migration two additional concepts are introduced: 3) the diffusion accessible porosity (η), which is the total physical space available for transport of a nuclide. The maximum value of η is limited by the water content of the formation; 4) the pore diffusion coefficient (Dp), which represents the transport velocity of a nuclide in a diffusion-dominated system. Within the framework of SFC-1, primary focus is laid on the compilation of parameter ranges, instead of individual &apos

  1. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  2. The cervical cord in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A comparison of the CT-myelography with pathological observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugamiya, Hitoshi; Tokumaru, Yukio; Arai, Kimihito; Hirayama, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    The spinal cord with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was macroscopically examined in five patients using CT-myelography (CTM) and autopsied specimens. The autopsied ages were from 48 to 75 years old (average: 64), and their clinical follow-up periods were from 0.8 to 4.0 years (average: 1.9). Muscular atrophy developed from an upper limb in three patients, whereas from a lower limb in one case and from bulbar muscles in another case. Cervical CTM was performed at C3 to C7 cervical vertebrae less than one year (four cases) and 1.9 years (one case) prior to autopsy. The macroscopical examination of the CTM and autopsied specimens showed the following characteristics: Two patients, whose clinical courses were less than one year from the onset, showed no abnormalities. Three patients, whose clinical courses were more than one year from the onset, showed a marked cervical flattening and concave of the posterolateral fissure, especially at the lower cervical level. It was supposed that this lower cervical abnormalities caused pronounced amyotrophy in the upper limbs and pyramidal tract sign of the lower limbs. Although muscular atrophy was asymmetric in one case, the spinal cord was symmetric in macroscopic appearance in both CTM and autopsied specimens. It was concluded that marked flattening and concave at the posterolateral fissure of the lower cervical spinal cord were revealed by CTM in patients whose clinical courses of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were more than one year from the onset. (author)

  3. The cervical cord in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A comparison of the CT-myelography with pathological observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugamiya, Hitoshi; Tokumaru, Yukio; Arai, Kimihito; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-08-01

    The spinal cord with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was macroscopically examined in five patients using CT-myelography (CTM) and autopsied specimens. The autopsied ages were from 48 to 75 years old (average: 64), and their clinical follow-up periods were from 0.8 to 4.0 years (average: 1.9). Muscular atrophy developed from an upper limb in three patients, whereas from a lower limb in one case and from bulbar muscles in another case. Cervical CTM was performed at C3 to C7 cervical vertebrae less than one year (four cases) and 1.9 years (one case) prior to autopsy. The macroscopical examination of the CTM and autopsied specimens showed the following characteristics: Two patients, whose clinical courses were less than one year from the onset, showed no abnormalities. Three patients, whose clinical courses were more than one year from the onset, showed a marked cervical flattening and concave of the posterolateral fissure, especially at the lower cervical level. It was supposed that this lower cervical abnormalities caused pronounced amyotrophy in the upper limbs and pyramidal tract sign of the lower limbs. Although muscular atrophy was asymmetric in one case, the spinal cord was symmetric in macroscopic appearance in both CTM and autopsied specimens. It was concluded that marked flattening and concave at the posterolateral fissure of the lower cervical spinal cord were revealed by CTM in patients whose clinical courses of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were more than one year from the onset. (author).

  4. MR imaging of the pediatric spine: Comparison of myelography, MCT, and surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.C.; Hoffman, J.C.; Ball, T.I.; Wyly, J.B.; Braun, I.F.; Fry, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Results of MR imaging of 53 pediatric patients with suspected spinal abnormalities were compared findings on metrizamide myelography, MCT, and surgery. Prototype surface coil studies with multisection multiplanar imaging (0.5 and 1.5 T) using T1-weighted sequences were optimum for anatomic definition, while T2-weighted sequences were utilized for intramedullary pathology. Diseases studied included neoplasia, infection, trauma, scoliosis, and dysrhaphsium. Surface coils were essential for imaging the thoracic and lumbar spine. MR imaging yielded approximately equivalent information to that obtained on myelography or MCT in 25 of 31 patients. Limitations to MR imaging included bony spurs, small eccentric lesions, tumor seeding, metal artifacts, postoperative scarring, and motion. With further refinements, MR imaging may replace more invasive techniques for pediatric spinal imaging

  5. Incidence of postural headache following lumbar myelography in in- and outpatients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urso, S.; Giannini, S.; Migliorini, A.; Donnetti, L.

    1989-01-01

    The incidence is reported of postural headache and other types of headache arisen after myelography in a pilot sample of 540 patients, divided into3 groups. The myelographic study was performed on the first two groups using 20 and 22 gauge needles, and with 25 gauge needles on the third group. 140 patients in the third group were treated on an outpatient basis, and 25 of them underwent myelo-CT. Myelography was performed on all the patients in the second and third group in erect position. In the authors' opinion, the erect position and the use of a fine needle determined a considerable reduction in post-myelographic side effects, i.e. postural headache

  6. Complications of the lateral C1-C2 puncture myelography for cervical spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihale, J.; Traubner, P.

    1998-01-01

    This reviewed the complications of 106 patients of the lateral C1-C2 puncture myelography for cervical spinal canal and cervical spinal cord disorders. Spinal cord puncture and contrast injection, puncture between the occiput and C1, and blood vessel puncture were the main complications. These principally depended on the misdirection of the X ray beam. For preventing major arterial puncture determined the pathway of the vertebral arteries and incidence of anomaly. (authors)

  7. Functional and quantitative magnetic resonance myelography of symptomatic stenoses of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, Knut [District Hospital Castle of Werneck, MRI Center of Excellence, Werneck (Germany); Ganslandt, Oliver [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany); Stadlbauer, Andreas [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that functional, quantitative magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) allows standardized diagnosis of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenoses which show at least equal detectability compared to functional myelography and postmyelographic CT (pmCT) based on intra- and postoperative findings. We investigated 43 volunteers and 47 patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenoses using MRM in normal position as well as in flexion and extension in a standard whole-body MR scanner. Twenty volunteers were additionally examined under axial loading. All patients were investigated by functional myelography and pmCT and 10 patients had a functional lumbar MRM postoperatively. Range of motion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes in normal position, flexion, extension, and under axial loading (volunteers) were assessed for each segment. Detectability was determined by using intraoperative findings, and postoperative freedom of symptoms was correlated with CSF volume changes in MRM. The ranges of motion in a standard whole-body MR scanner provide adequate scope for investigations into function (flexion and extension) in both volunteers and patients. Axial loading was associated with a mechanism of extension, albeit to a far smaller extent. Detectability of lumbar stenoses was 100 % for MRM, 58 % for conventional myelography, and 68 % for pmCT. Postoperative changes in CSF volume of levels with stenoses in MRM strongly correlated with freedom of symptoms (R = 0.772). This MRM method allows for exact diagnosis and reproducible quantification of stenoses, motion-related changes, and spondylolistheses of the lumbar spine. It may be useful for early detection of alterations in order to avoid neuronal compression. (orig.)

  8. Morphology of the cervical spinal cord with myelopathy on computed myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Hiroaki; Asano, Masafumi; Yokota, Hidemaro

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between morphological changes in the spinal cord shown on computer-assisted myelography and symptoms was investigated in 73 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Flatness of the spinal cord was seen in many of the patients. Symptoms were likely to be severer with increasing the degree of flatness of the spinal cord. The length of the flat spinal cord will help to select the operative method for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  10. In-Situ Assay Of Transuranic Radionuclides In The Vadose Zone Using High-Resolution Spectral Gamma Logging - A Hanford Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.; Henwood, P.; McCain, R.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution spectral gamma logging in steel-cased boreholes is used to detect and quantify transuranic radionuclides in the subsurface. Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-241, and Np-237 are identified based on characteristic decay gammas. Typical minimum detectable levels are on the order of 20 to 40 nCi/g. In intervals of high transuranic concentrations, gamma rays from other sources may complicate analysis and interpretation. Gamma rays detected in the borehole may originate from three sources: decay of the parent transuranic radionuclide or a daughter; alpha interactions; and interactions with neutrons resulting from either spontaneous fission or alpha particle interactions.

  11. Effects of soil properties on natural radio-nuclides concentration in arid environment: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.F.M.; Al-Sewaidan, H.A.I.; Al-Saif, A.S.; Diab, H.I.

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from an arid environment in the central region of Saudi Arabia, 28 samples from selected 14 locations in an agricultural farm. Two samples, one from cultivated land and the second from uncultivated land, of the same origin were collected from each location. This work aims at investigating the changes of soil properties due to dry-land use and its effects on naturally occurring radio-nuclides (NOR) concentration and distribution. The specific activity, in Bq/kg, of 226 Ra ( 238 U series), 228 gRa ( 232 Th series), 40 K and 137 Cs were measured using calibrated gamma-ray spectrometer. The soil physical and chemical properties [e.g. pH, EC, particle size distribution (clay, silt and sand percentages), CaCO 3 %, soluble cations (Ca, Mg, Na and K) and soluble anions (CO 3 , HCO 3 , Cl and SO 4 )] were determined. The radium equivalent activity, in Bq/kg, and absorbed dose rate one meter above the ground, in nGy/y, were calculated. Generally, there are not noticeable changes in soil properties due to agricultural activities or strong correlations between soil properties and NOR specific activities. That could be due to the sandy nature of the soil and the effects of adsorption-filtration processes on the behavior and the distribution pattern of NOR in arid environment. Therefore, the environmental impacts of different man-made activities on underground resources should be carefully considered due to the possible filtration behavior of different pollutants in dry-land environment. (author)(tk)

  12. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  13. Myelography, CT and MRI in leukaemic infiltration of the lumbar theca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.C.; Lee, S.K.; Ho, Y.J.; Lee, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, while in remission, developed paraparesis, with faecal and urinary incontinence. CT demonstrated increased density of the lumbar theca and enlargement of the nerve roots. Myelography showed complete obstruction below the L3 level. MRI showed increased signal intensity in the lumbar sac on T1 weighting, and the cauda equina enhanced with gadolinium-DTPA. Lymphoblasts were seen in the lumbar spinal fluid. After chemoterhapy, these abnormalities resolved, as did the paraparesis and incontinence. (orig.)

  14. The International intraval project. Phase 1 case 2. Radionuclide migration in single natural fractures in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.

    1992-01-01

    The INTRAVAL study addresses validation of geosphere transport models for use in repository performance assessment by examining various test cases relevant to radioactive waste disposal. This report describes the results from INTRAVAL test case 2 which is based on a set of laboratory experiments studying migration of non-sorbing as well as sorbing tracers in a single fracture in granitic cores. Three project teams have investigated this test case. Models including advection, dispersion, sorption to the fracture surface, matrix diffusion and sorption within the rock matrix were calibrated against the experimental breakthrough curves. Obtained best-fit values of the parameters determining the interaction between tracer and rock were in fair agreement with independently measured data. Models neglecting matrix diffusion and sorption within the rock matrix gave poor fits to the experimental data. These results suggest the need to include matrix diffusion and matrix sorption in the model to represent data for this test case. Furthermore, it was not possible to distinguish between hydrodynamic dispersion and channelling dispersion since equally good fits were obtained with both models. Equally good fits were also obtained with models assuming constant fracture aperture and variable fracture aperture. In the context of performance assessment of repositories in fractured rock, the major outcome from this test case is additional support for the inclusion of matrix diffusion and matrix sorption in the transport models. 17 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Ultrafast dynamic computed tomography myelography for the precise identification of high-flow cerebrospinal fluid leaks caused by spiculated spinal osteophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Kent R; Sillery, John C; Morris, Jonathan M; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Diehn, Felix E; Wald, John T; Rosebrock, Richard E; Yu, Lifeng; Luetmer, Patrick H

    2015-03-01

    Precise localization and understanding of the origin of spontaneous high-flow spinal CSF leaks is required prior to targeted treatment. This study demonstrates the utility of ultrafast dynamic CT myelography for the precise localization of high-flow CSF leaks caused by spiculated spinal osteophytes. This study reports a series of 14 patients with high-flow CSF leaks caused by spiculated spinal osteophytes who underwent ultrafast dynamic CT myelography between March 2009 and December 2010. There were 10 male and 4 female patients, with an average age of 49 years (range 37-74 years). The value of ultrafast dynamic CT myelography in depicting the CSF leak site was qualitatively assessed. In all 14 patients, ultrafast dynamic CT myelography was technically successful at precisely demonstrating the site of the CSF leak, the causative spiculated osteophyte piercing the dura, and the relationship of the implicated osteophyte to adjacent structures. Leak sites included 3 cervical, 11 thoracic, and 0 lumbar levels, with 86% of the leaks occurring from C-5 to T-7. Information obtained from the ultrafast dynamic CT myelogram was considered useful in all treated CSF leaks. Spinal osteophytes piercing the dura are a more frequent cause of high-flow CSF leaks than previously recognized. Ultrafast dynamic CT myelography adds value beyond standard dynamic myelography or digital subtraction myelography in the diagnosis and anatomical characterization of high-flow spinal CSF leaks caused by these osteophytes. This information allows for appropriate planning for percutaneous or surgical treatment.

  16. Definition of the Radionuclide Inventory for the DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Used in the TSPA-VA Base Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.J. Smith

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the details of the calculations used to define the radionuclide inventory for the Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) used in the TSPA-VA calculations

  17. Value of functional myelography with both lateral bending anterior-posterior views in lumbar radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Joon; Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Kun Il; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1993-01-01

    There are considerable discrepancies between clinical symptoms and imaging diagnosis in the localization of the responsible rediculopathy. The purpose of this study are to analyze the dynamic alteration of contrast filling of the spinal nerve sleeves during positional changes and determine how the abnormalities of nerve sleeves on lateral bending A-P views correlate with sciatica. The criteria indicating the root abnormality in functional myelography were (1) bad filling of ipsolateral root to sciatica and (2) good filling of contralateral root compared with those in neutral A-P view. Of total 77 patients, 67 had radiculopathy and 10 had no radiculopathy. In 23 (34.3%) of 67 patients with radiculopathy and 6 (60%) of 10 patients with no radiculopathy, their clinical symptoms well correlated with conventional myelographic findings. However, in 35 (52.2%) of 67 patients with radiculopathy and 6 (60%) of 10 patients with no radiculopathy, their symptoms well correlated with functional myelographic findings. This study suggest that the functional myelography using both lateral bending A-P views can be used as a complementary tool in the evaluation of the radiculopathy

  18. Value of functional myelography with both lateral bending anterior-posterior views in lumbar radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Joon; Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Kun Il; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    There are considerable discrepancies between clinical symptoms and imaging diagnosis in the localization of the responsible rediculopathy. The purpose of this study are to analyze the dynamic alteration of contrast filling of the spinal nerve sleeves during positional changes and determine how the abnormalities of nerve sleeves on lateral bending A-P views correlate with sciatica. The criteria indicating the root abnormality in functional myelography were (1) bad filling of ipsolateral root to sciatica and (2) good filling of contralateral root compared with those in neutral A-P view. Of total 77 patients, 67 had radiculopathy and 10 had no radiculopathy. In 23 (34.3%) of 67 patients with radiculopathy and 6 (60%) of 10 patients with no radiculopathy, their clinical symptoms well correlated with conventional myelographic findings. However, in 35 (52.2%) of 67 patients with radiculopathy and 6 (60%) of 10 patients with no radiculopathy, their symptoms well correlated with functional myelographic findings. This study suggest that the functional myelography using both lateral bending A-P views can be used as a complementary tool in the evaluation of the radiculopathy.

  19. Comparison of CT myelography performed in the prone and supine positions in the detection of cervical spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blease Graham, Cole III; Wippold, Franz J. II; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Shaibani, Ali; Kido, Daniel K.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To quantify the change in the cross-sectional area of the cervical spinal cord and subarachnoid space (SAS) in the supine neutral vs prone extension positions in patients with myelopathy undergoing cervical CT myelography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT myelgrams of 21 myelopathic patients were performed in both the supine neutral and prone extension positions. The SAS and cord cross-sectional areas were then measured at the disk spaces and mid-pedicle levels from C2 to T1 in both the supine and prone positions using a public domain NIH Image program, version 156b18. Mean area measurements in both positions were then compared for each level examined. RESULTS: Mean SAS cross-sectional area in the prone position was notably reduced compared with the supine position at C4-C5 [128.8 mm 2 vs 168.1 mm 2 (P 2 vs 143.2 mm 2 (P< .05)] disk levels. The mean cord cross-sectional area failed to change signficantly with positioning. CONCLUSIONS: Prone myelography may demonstrate a greater degree of cervical spine stenosis compared with CT myelography performed in the supine position in myelopathic patients. Imaging with the patient prone with neck extended in both myelography and CTM may improve precision in the results of measurements of the stenotic spinal canal when comparing these two methods. Blease Graham III, C. (2001)

  20. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  1. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  2. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  3. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R.

    2008-08-01

    West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 232Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for 232Th, 228Ra and 40K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

  4. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R.

    2008-01-01

    West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides 40 K, 235 U, 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 232 Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for 232 Th, 228 Ra and 40 K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose

  5. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  6. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  7. Iotrolan versus Iopamidol. A controlled double-blind study in the framework of lumbar myelography. Iotrolan versus Iopamidol. Eine kontrollierte Doppelblindstudie bei lumbaler Myelographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, B.; Gerber, U.; Koenig, M. (Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin); Stetter, G. (Knappschafts-Krankenhaus Recklinghausen (Germany). Strahleninstitut)

    1992-08-01

    Within the frame work of lumbal myelography, 158 patients were entired in a double-blind study in order to test a dimeric contrast medium (iotrolan) against a monomeric one (iopamidol), both of them non-ionic. A three-step scheme was applied to evaluate the X-ray pictures with respect ot contrast quality. Particular attention was paid to the visibility of details, i.e. the nerve root and its course, as well as to its how well it could be distinguished in the nerve root sheath. On the basis of a high level of significance (P<0.05), comparison of the two contrast media showed no difference in contrast quality. Sixty-nine percent of the examinations using iotrolan resulted in excellent contrast quality, whereas the corresponding very good results using iopamidol lay at 76%. Twenty-nine percent of the patients examined with iotrolan and 27% of those examined with iopamidol showed side effects. Headache occurred most frequently, followed by nausea, dizziness and neck pain. Sixty percent of the patients suffering from postmyelographic reactions reported delayed headache, which occurred most often with iotrolan rather than iopamidol. As for manifestation of other postmyelographic side effects, there were no significant differences (P<0.05, Fischer's test) between the two groups of contrast media. (orig.).

  8. Contrast myelography in the diagnosis of posterior hernias of lumbar intervertebral disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maratkanova, T.V.; Morozova, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the results of 297 contrast myelographies (MG) by means of water soluble agents made in patients with posterior hernias of lumbar intervertebral disks (PHLID), the authors define the potentialities of this technique in the diagnosis of PHLID. Additionally, two oblique X-ray films have been included into the exicting filming routine, which may detect all specific features of intervertebral disk damage at MG. The authors make additions into the wellknown myelographic symptomatology of PHLID, by outlining the abnormal anterior configuration of a contrast column at the level of a diseased disk in PHLID at the foraminal site. The findings suggest that contrast MG with nonionic water-soluble agents is a rather effective technique in the diagnosis of PHLID

  9. Side-effects in ascending cervical myelography using iopamidol and metrizamide - a double blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockenheimer, S.; Eichenlaub, H.

    1986-01-01

    A double blind study was performed to examine the side-effects of Metrizamide (group 1) and of Jopamidol (group 2) in ascending cervical myelography. Both groups were compared to a control group (group 3) comprising patients who had undergone lumbar puncture only. EEG was taken of the patients in groups 1 and 2 before as well as 6 and 24 h after intervention. Side-effects were collected by means of a questionnaire. Response time, concentration, memory and mood were examined psychometrically. Training effects or defensive attitudes in the multiple test examinations were checked against another control group of patients (group 4) which had no myelographic nor lumbar-puncture-induced impairment. Statistical findings corroborated our clinical impression that side-effects occurred after Metrizamide administration at a more than simply random rate. (orig.) [de

  10. Sex and age related differences in postmyelographic adverse reactions. A prospective study of 1765 myelographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maly, P

    1989-09-01

    Differences in frequency of postmyelographic adverse reactions were analyzed with respect to sex and age in a prospective study including 1026 patients injected with metrizamide and 739 injected with iohexol. Regardless of the type of contrast medium or myelography, all types of adverse reactions were 1.4-3.8 times as frequent in women as in men. Most of the differences were statistically significant. Headache was more frequent, while vomiting and dizziness were less frequent in both women and men aged 26-50 years compared with those over 50 years of age. Dizziness and increased low back pain were consistently reported spontaneously by the patients less frequently than emerged via formal interview. The large differences between the sexes suggest that further research on contrast media toxicity would be best performed with separation of the data by gender. (orig.).

  11. Influence of certain factors on the manifestations of the adverse effects of metrizamide myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y L; Du Boulay, G H; Paul, E

    1986-07-01

    Although metrizamide is now being superseded by other contrast media, the mechanisms of its side effects may be of fundamental importance. One hundered and four consecutive patients with suspected cervical cord or root lesion were studied prospectively for factors which might influence the side effects of metrizamide myelography. Elderly patients were more prone to develop mental confusion. An earlier onset of dizziness and/or vertigo was associated with the lumbar route of intrathecal injection. Perhaps surprisingly, phenobarbitone prophylaxis shortened the duration of confusion and delayed the onset of headaches. Other factors, viz. sex, excess intracranial flow of metrizamide and myelographic blockage were not shown to have a signifiant influence on the adverse reactions.

  12. Area 11 case study of radionuclide movement by storm channel erosion: A baseline method and initial evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.; Gouveia, F.J.; Patton, S.E.; Fry, C.O.

    1993-04-01

    At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), where radionuclide contamination is found in surface soils, there is potential for water erosion to move radionuclides beyond the boundaries of controlled areas and into channels cut by infrequent storms. This loss of control and the increased risk of further movement are issues which require the development of a method for the quantitative monitoring of contamination and calculation of the radionuclide-movement rate. In this report the authors develop a method which is used to measure the amount and rate of movement of americium-241 ( 241 Am) in a storm channel, and which offers special features for establishment of baseline concentrations. This method was applied to the standing problem of the erosion of the plutonium contaminated open-quotes ground zeroclose quotes area of site open-quotes 11Dclose quotes in Area 11 of NTS. By establishing 241 Am concentrations in the storm channel, the concentrations of 239+240 Pu can also be calculated using a previously determined 239+240 Pu/ 241 Am ratio from soil samples collected in Area 11. The method utilizes systematic field surveys with a field instrument for detection of low-energy radiation (FIDLER), and provides a computational method which, when validated, could become a standard procedure for monitoring radionuclide movement in the washes and storm channels throughout the NTS

  13. A method of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment using environmental radionuclides. A case study of Tsuzura river watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizugaki, Shigeru; Onda, Yuichi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Koga, Satoko; Hiramatsu, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    To study the fluvial sediment sources in forested watershed in Shikoku Island, Japan, the concentration of Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex and U decay series radionuclides were analyzed. The study area in the midstream of Shimanto River basin, located 700 km southwest of Tokyo. The 0.33 km 2 area watershed ranges in elevation from 170 m to 560 m above sea level. The soil sampling was conducted in hillslopes in various locations such as landslide scar, soil surface in unmanaged Hinoki (Chamacecyparis obtusa) plantation and unsealed forest road, and detailed sampling in the stream bed and bank was also conducted in several tributaries. Time-integrated suspended sediment sampler was adopted to obtain enough volume of sample to determine the radionuclides. The activities of Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-214 and Bi-214 of soils and fluvial sediments were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Correction for the effect of particle size distribution and organic matter content on the radionuclides were conducted to compare the radionuclides concentration between the soils of potential suspended sediment sources and fluvial sediments. It was found that there were significant differences of Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex concentration between forest floor or runoff sediment and forest road or stream bank. The Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex concentration of suspended sediment varied among them, suggesting the possibility of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment by Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex . (author)

  14. Environmental monitoring for radionuclides, chemicals, fish and wildlife at a US energy research facility: A case story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.H.

    1989-09-01

    Environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the US Department of Energy's 560 m 2 Hanford Site in southeastern Washington, USA, for 45 years. Objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of site operations on air, surface and ground water, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soils and vegetation. Data from monitoring efforts are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. In 1988, measured Hanford Site perimeter concentrations of airborne radionuclides were below applicable guidelines. Tritium and nitrate continued to be the most widespread constituents in onsite ground water. Concentrations of radionuclides and nonradiological water quality in the Columbia River were in compliance with applicable standards. Foodstuffs irrigated with river water downstream of the Site showed low levels of radionuclides that were similar to concentrations found in foodstuffs from control areas. Low levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in some onsite wildlife samples and concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation from onsite and offsite locations were typical of those attributable to worldwide fallout. The calculated dose potentially received by a maximally exposed individual (i.e., based on hypothetical assumptions for all routes of exposure) in 1988 (0.08 mrem/yr) was similar to that calculated for 1985 through 1987. 31 refs., 3 figs

  15. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  16. Carcinoid crisis induced by receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC in a case of liver metastases from bronchial neuroendocrine tumor (atypical carcinoid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davì, M V; Bodei, L; Francia, G; Bartolomei, M; Oliani, C; Scilanga, L; Reghellin, D; Falconi, M; Paganelli, G; Lo Cascio, V; Ferdeghini, M

    2006-06-01

    SS receptors are overexpressed in many tumors, mainly of neuroendocrine origin, thus enabling the treatment with SS analogs. The clinical experience of receptor radionuclide therapy with the new analog [90Y-DOTA0-Tyr3 ]-octreotide [90Y-DOTATOC] has been developed over the last decade and is gaining a pivotal role in the therapeutic workout of these tumors. It is well known that some procedures performed in diagnostic and therapeutic management of endocrine tumors, such as agobiopsy and hepatic chemoembolization, can be associated with the occurrence of symptoms related to the release of vasoactive amines and/or hormonal peptides from tumor cell lysis. This is the first report of a severe carcinoid crisis developed after receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC administered in a patient affected by liver metastases from bronchial neuroendocrine tumor (atypical carcinoid). Despite protection with H1 receptor antagonists, octreotide and corticosteroids, few days after the therapy the patient complained of persistent flushing of the face and upper trunk, severe labial and periocular oedema, diarrhoea and loss of appetite. These symptoms increased and required new hospitalisation. The patient received iv infusion of octreotide associated with H1 and H2 receptor antagonists and corticosteroid therapy, which induced symptom remission within few days. The case here reported confirms that radionuclide therapy is highly effective in determining early rupture of metastatic tissue and also suggests that pre-medication should be implemented before the radiopeptide administration associated with a close monitoring of the patient in the following days.

  17. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  18. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Establishment of control site baseline data for erosion studies using radionuclides: a case study in East Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabit, Lionel, E-mail: L.Mabit@iaea.or [Soil Science Unit, FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, PO Box 100, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Martin, Paul [Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, PO Box 100, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jankong, Patcharin; Toloza, Arsenio [Soil Science Unit, FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, PO Box 100, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Padilla-Alvarez, Roman [Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, PO Box 100, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Zupanc, Vesna [Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to establish a reference site and its soil characteristics for use of fallout radionuclides in erosion studies in Slovenia. Prior to this study, no reference site and baseline data existed for Slovenia for this purpose. In the agricultural area of Goricko in East Slovenia, an undisturbed forest situated in Salamenci (46{sup o}44'N, 16{sup o}7'E), was selected to establish the inventory value of fallout {sup 137}Cs and to establish a baseline level of multi-elemental fingerprint (major, minor, trace elements including heavy metals) and naturally occurring radionuclides in soils. A total of 20 soil profiles were collected at four 10 cm depth increments for evaluation of baseline level of {sup 137}Cs inventory. An exponential distribution for {sup 137}Cs was found and the baseline level inventory was established at 7300 {+-} 2500 Bq m{sup -2} with a coefficient of variation of 34%. Of this mean present-day inventory, approximately 45% is due to the Chernobyl contribution. The physical degradation of soils through erosion is linked with biochemical degradation. This study introduces an approach to establishment of the naturally occurring radionuclide and elemental fingerprints baseline levels at a reference site which can provide comparative data to those from neighbouring agricultural fields for assessment of soil redistribution magnitude using fallout radionuclides. In addition, this information will be used to determine the impact of soil erosion processes and agricultural practices on soil quality and redistribution within agricultural landscapes in Slovenia.

  20. Use of computed tomography and computed tomographic myelography for assessment of spinal tumoral calcinosis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, L.M. van; Bree, H.J. van; Tshamala, M.; Thoonen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Spinal tumoral calcinosis is reported in a Berner sennenhund puppy. The condition was manifested clinically as a non-ambulatory tetraparesis associated with neck pain. On survey radiographs there was a focal calcified mass at the atlantoaxial articulation. Computed tomography and computed tomographic myelography gave additional information on the extent of the mass and on the degree of spinal cord compression. The mass was removed surgically and the dog made a complete recovery

  1. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  2. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Assessment of radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective of presenting an assessment of the repository system scenarios leading to radionuclide releases that have been identified in Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios. A base scenario, variant scenarios and disturbance scenarios are considered. For each scenario, a range of calculation cases, also identified in Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, has been analysed, complemented by Monte Carlo simulations, a probabilistic sensitivity analysis and other supporting calculations. The calculation cases and analyses take into account major uncertainties in the initial state of the barriers and possible paths for the evolution of the repository system identified in Performance Assessment. Quality control and assurance measures have been adopted to ensure transparency and traceability of the calculations performed and hence to promote confidence in the analysis of the calculation cases. The calculation cases each consider a single, failed canister, where three possible modes of failure are addressed: (1) the presence of an initial penetrating defect in the copper overpack of the canister, (2) corrosion of the copper overpack, which occurs most rapidly in scenarios in which buffer density is reduced, e.g. by erosion, (3) shear movement on a fracture intersecting a deposition hole. The likelihood and consequences of multiple canister failure occurring during the assessment time frame are also considered. In particular, the analyses consider: The likelihood and consequences of there being multiple canisters with initial penetrating defects; The consequences if canister failure due to corrosion following buffer erosion were to occur; and The low annual probability of there being an earthquake large enough to give rise to canister failure due to rock shear movements and the potential consequences of such an earthquake, taking into

  3. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Assessment of radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective of presenting an assessment of the repository system scenarios leading to radionuclide releases that have been identified in Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios. A base scenario, variant scenarios and disturbance scenarios are considered. For each scenario, a range of calculation cases, also identified in Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, has been analysed, complemented by Monte Carlo simulations, a probabilistic sensitivity analysis and other supporting calculations. The calculation cases and analyses take into account major uncertainties in the initial state of the barriers and possible paths for the evolution of the repository system identified in Performance Assessment. Quality control and assurance measures have been adopted to ensure transparency and traceability of the calculations performed and hence to promote confidence in the analysis of the calculation cases. The calculation cases each consider a single, failed canister, where three possible modes of failure are addressed: (1) the presence of an initial penetrating defect in the copper overpack of the canister, (2) corrosion of the copper overpack, which occurs most rapidly in scenarios in which buffer density is reduced, e.g. by erosion, (3) shear movement on a fracture intersecting a deposition hole. The likelihood and consequences of multiple canister failure occurring during the assessment time frame are also considered. In particular, the analyses consider: The likelihood and consequences of there being multiple canisters with initial penetrating defects; The consequences if canister failure due to corrosion following buffer erosion were to occur; and The low annual probability of there being an earthquake large enough to give rise to canister failure due to rock shear movements and the potential consequences of such an earthquake

  4. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  5. Diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, L.S.; Yaylali, Ilker; Zurakowski, David; Ruiz, Jennifer; Altman, Nolan R.; Grossman, John A.I.

    2006-01-01

    Detailed evaluation of a brachial plexus birth injury is important for treatment planning. To determine the diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury. Included in the study were 31 children with perinatal brachial plexus injury who underwent surgical intervention. All patients had cervical and brachial plexus MRI. The standard of reference was the combination of intraoperative (1) surgical evaluation and (2) electrophysiological studies (motor evoked potentials, MEP, and somatosensory evoked potentials, SSEP), and (3) the evaluation of histopathological neuronal loss. MRI findings of cord lesion, pseudomeningocele, and post-traumatic neuroma were correlated with the standard of reference. Diagnostic performance characteristics including sensitivity and specificity were determined. From June 2001 to March 2004, 31 children (mean age 7.3 months, standard deviation 1.6 months, range 4.8-12.1 months; 19 male, 12 female) with a brachial plexus birth injury who underwent surgical intervention were enrolled. Sensitivity and specificity of an MRI finding of post-traumatic neuroma were 97% (30/31) and 100% (31/31), respectively, using the contralateral normal brachial plexus as the control. However, MRI could not determine the exact anatomic area (i.e. trunk or division) of the post-traumatic brachial plexus neuroma injury. Sensitivity and specificity for an MRI finding of pseudomeningocele in determining exiting nerve injury were 50% and 100%, respectively, using MEP, and 44% and 80%, respectively, using SSEP as the standard of reference. MRI in infants could not image well the exiting nerve roots to determine consistently the presence or absence of definite avulsion. In children younger than 18 months with brachial plexus injury, the MRI finding of pseudomeningocele has a low sensitivity and a high specificity for nerve root avulsion. MRI and MR myelography cannot image well the exiting nerve roots to determine

  6. Measurement of radionuclide activities of uranium-238 series in soil samples by gamma spectrometry: case of Vinaninkarena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrianantenaina, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the activity level of radionuclides of uranium-238 series. Eight soil samples are collected at Rural Commune of Vinaninkarena. After obtaining secular equilibrium, these samples have been measured using gamma spectrometry system in the Nuclear Analyses and Techniques Department of INSTN-Madagascar, with HPGe detector (30 % relative efficiency) and a Genie 2000 software. Activities obtained vary from (78±2)Bq.kg -1 to (49 231 ± 415)Bq.kg -1 . Among these eight samples, three activity levels are shown. Low activity is an activity which has value lower or equal to (89±3)Bq.kg -1 . Average activity is an activity which has value between (186± 1)Bq.kg -1 and (1049 ±7)Bq.kg -1 . And high activity is an activity which has value higher or equal to (14501±209)Bq.kg -1 . According to UNSCEAR 2000, these value are all higher than the world average value which is 35 Bq.kg -1 .It is due to the localities of sampling points. The variation of the activity level depends on radionuclide concentration of uranium-238 series in the soil. [fr

  7. Computed tomographic myelography characteristics of spinal cord atrophy in juvenile muscular atrophy of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabuki, Norio; Mitomo, Masanori; Miura, Takashi; Hashimoto, Tsutomu; Kawai, Ryuji; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1991-01-01

    Although atrophy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic cord in juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity has been reported, the atrophic patterns of the cord, especially in the transverse section, have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study is to clarify the atrophic patterns of the cord by CT myelography (CTM) and to discuss the pathogenesis of cord atrophy. Sixteen patients with juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity were examined by CTM. Atrophy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic cord, consistent with the segmental weakness, was seen in all patients. Flattening of the ventral convexity was a characteristic atrophic pattern of the cord. Bilateral cord atrophy was commonly observed; 8/12 patients with unilateral clinical form and all 4 patients with bilateral form showed bilateral cord atrophy with dominance on the clinical side. There was no correlation between the degree of cord atrophy and duration of symptoms. Flattening of the ventral convexity, associated with purely motor disturbances, reflects selective atrophy of the anterior horns in the cord, which is attributable to chronic ischemia. Cord atrophy proved to precede clinical manifestations. The characteristic atrophy of the cord provides useful information to confirm the diagnosis without long-term observation. (author). 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. Neutral tissue uptake and clearance of iohexol following lumbar myelography in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.E.; Foley, M.; Morris, T.W.; Sahler, L.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion of water-soluble contrast media (CM) into the extracellular space of the central nervous system following injection into the subarachnoid space has previously been shown. As a result of this, water-soluble CM will come in direct contact with the neurons and may interfere with their normal function. The toxic effects would thus be a result both of the molecular properties of the CM as well as the local tissue concentration. The neuronal tissue uptake and clearance of metrizamide in rabbits following lumbar myelography was described in a previous study by our group. This study indicated some retention of metrizamide in the spinal cord probably as a result of binding of the CM to the cell membrane. The mechanism for this has not yet been shown although it may relate to the binding of metrizamide via its 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) portion and the specific glucose membrane carrier. The present investigation was performed to evaluate the diffusion kinetics of a new non-ionic CM. With iohexol, which lacks a 2-DG component in its molecule a direct relationship between the neural tissue and CSF concentration was found which seems to follow a simple diffusion model. Since iohexol shows no sign of entrapment in the tissue, the contact time for neurons will be shorter than that seen with metrizamide assuming that their rate of drainage from the SCF is identical. (orig.)

  9. Side effects after myelography with Dimer Xsup(R) (Iocarmat) with subsequent positioning of the patients in the sitting or lying position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norstedt, M.

    1982-01-01

    92 patients were examined after lumbar myelography with the water-soluble contrast medium Iocarmat (Dimer Xsup(R)) in order to find out if side effects have any relation with the patient's position after the myelographic examination. In one group, the patients were laid with their upper part of the body positioned higher while the others were allowed to lie flat. The comparative investigation covering both groups of patients revealed the following results: 1) In 11% of the flat-lying patients there were generalised spasms which was not the case as far as the sitting patients were concerned. This is why the author advises against a flat positioning of the patient. 2) The frequency of headache decreased when the patients were lying flat which, however, does not mean a statistical significance. 3) Other side effects registered (myoclonus, tonic spasm in the legs, paraesthesia, increase in existing root pain and neck pain, nausea and vomiting) occurred in both groups nearly to the same extent, independently of the position of the patient. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  11. Two-dimensional MRI at 1.5 and 0.5 T versus CT myelography in the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.V.; Rowland Hill, C.A.; Devlin, R.; Gardiner, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    A prospective comparison was made of standard two-dimensional MRI sequences, at both high and midfield strength, with CT myelography in 23 patients with cervical spondylosis. MRI is adequate for assessment of cord compression, where high field strength is superior to midfield strength. MRI using 4-mm sections is inadequate for presurgical assessment of root compression. It remains to be proven whether thin-section white-CSF volume sequences or gadolinium-enhanced volume studies can replace CT myelography. (orig.). With 6 tabs

  12. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis

  13. Effect of intravenous administration of dextrose or lactated Ringer's solution on seizure development in dogs after cervical myelography with metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.R.; Lowrie, C.T.; Wetmore, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of fluid (5% dextrose in water or lactated Ringer's solution) administered intravenously on the development of seizures after cervical myelography with metrizamide was studied in 10 dogs. In a crossover experimental design, 8 dogs were used twice. Urine output was measured during the second part of the study to determine whether diuresis was a factor affecting seizure development. Dogs given 5% dextrose in water had significantly (P less than 0.05) fewer seizures than did dogs given lactated Ringer's solution. This was attributed to an increase in CSF glucose concentration and was not associated with diuresis

  14. Dynamics and balance of natural and anthropic radionuclide particulates in the Gulf of Lion: the case of Rhone river transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and understand particulate transfers dynamics and balances of radionuclides in the Gulf of Lion, particularly at the Rhone River mouth. Due to its 30.2 year half-life and of its great affinity with silts and clays, 137 Cs was used as a Rhone River inputs tracer. Rhone pro-delta sediments recorded values of 137 Cs activities originated by nuclear power plants releases, global fallout and Chernobylsk accident (peak at 600 Bq.kg-1). A sharp decrease in liquid radioactive effluents releases and the dismantlement of the Marcoule fuel reprocessing plant in 1997 induced 137 Cs fluxes decrease to the Mediterranean Sea. At present time, mean concentrations are around 10 Bq.kg-1 in the pro-delta sediments. Sedimentary records of different oceanographic campaigns achieved between 2001 and 2008 enabled to map a 20 km 2 137 Cs accumulation area close to the Rhone River mouth and to estimate a store of 3.35 TBq, i.e. the eighth of the Gulf of Lions store, which area is about 15000 km 2 . Other campaigns carried out in the framework of the CARMA and EXTREMA projects (2006-2008) allowed to observe surface and bottom nepheloids behaviours and to link them to the pro-delta sedimentation. Radio-chronological analyses coupling 137 Cs and 210 Pb depth activity profiles allowed to estimate pluri-deci-metric accumulation rates next to the mouth. Short-live radionuclides like 7 Be and 234 Th were used to estimate sedimentary deposits thicknesses generated by some Rhone River floods. These results were confirmed by an experiment which induced an instruments deployment at the Rhone River mouth during the winter 2006-2007. Altimeter data showed 8 cm thick sediment total accretion during two mean floods recorded by a current profiler. They also showed an important erosion phase linked to a south-east swell episode with a bottom shear stress reaching 5 Pa. An erodimeter enabled to evaluate the erosion shear stress threshold to 0.35 Pa next to the mouth

  15. Dual-energy CT myelography on detection of spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leaks: initial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiaowei; Wang Dan; Zhang Jinhua; Wang Jin; Zhang Shizheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of dual-energy computed tomography myelography (CTM) on detecting leaks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Methods: Six patients with SIH underwent spinal CTM on a 2nd generation dual-source CT with tube voltage set at 100 and 140 kVp (with tin filter). The virtual non-contrast (VNC) and iodine map images were calculated from dual-energy images. The average weighted (AW) CTM images were mixed from two kVp images with mix factor of 0.5. Two radiologists evaluated CSF leak using two sets of images respectively: VNC + iodine map images and AW-CTM images. The results from two reading methods were compared. The level of CSF leaks along the nerve roots, C1-2 retrospinal CSF collections, epidural CSF collections and spinal epidural venous plexus were marked. The consensus about leak sites and CSF collections was made by two radiologists in the third session. Kappa statistics were used to measure the agreement between the two methods. Results: Forty-one leaks were detected using VNC + iodine map images. Forty-three leaks were detected on AW images. The agreement between two methods was excellent (Kappa = 0.997, P<0.01). There were no differences in the detection of C1-2 retrospinal CSF collections (n=2), epidural CSF collections (n=3) or spinal epidural venous plexus (n=1). VNC and iodine map images demonstrated superior visual effects than AW images. Conclusion: Dual-energy CTM can be used to diagnose spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leaks in SIH patient, (authors)

  16. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  17. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  18. Normal measurement of spinal cord and dural sac by CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Ku Sub; Choi, Yo Won; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1988-01-01

    The data on the normal measurement of spinal cord are essential for an objective assessment of equivocal change of spinal cord size in the various clinical settings. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate normal range of spinal cord dimensions in Koreas. CT myelography of the cervical and thoracic region was performed in 60 patients who had symptoms referable to lumbosacral region and then computed tomographic measurement of spinal cord and dural sac was performed. The results are as follows: 1. The anteroposterior diameter of spinal cord was maximum at C1 level (8.6±1.4mm) and minimum at T6 level (6.4±1.7mm). 2. The transverse diameter of spinal cord was maximum at C4 and C5 levels (13.3±1.6mm) and minimum at T8 (8.1±1.9mm) and T10 (8.1±1.3mm) levels. 3. The area of spinal cord was maximum at C5 level (76±16mm 2 ) and minimum at T6 (40±24mm 2 ) and T8 (40±23mm 2 ) levels. 4. The ratio of anteroposterior diameter/transverse diameter of spinal cord was smallest at C4 (0.57±0.11) and C5 (0.57±0.09) levels and largest at T12 (0.9±0.17) level. 5. The ratio of anteroposterior diameter of spinal cord/dural sac was maximum at C4 level (0.73±0.14) and minimum at T12 level (0.52±0.15). The ratio of transverse diameter of spinal cord/dural sac was maximum at C3 (0.66±0.10) and C4 (0.66±0.14) levels and minimum at T12 level (0.46±0.18). The ratio of area of spinal cord/dural sac was maximum at C3 level (0.48±0.13) and minimum at T12 level (0.29±0.20). 6. The location of cervical cord in dural sac was mainly ventral (56%) at C1 level, middle (40-73%) from C2 to C6 level and dorsal (44%) at C7 level. The location of thoracic cord in dural sac was chiefly middle (61%) at T2 level and lower thoracic level (T10: 60% and T12: 51%) and mainly ventral (59-84%) at other levels.

  19. Intervention procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    As in the case of smoking and lung cancer, for large radionuclide releases, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. On the other hand, we feel compelled to do something sensible after an accident even if the principal benefit of intervention may be to comfort the population at risk. Of course, for populations near the site of an accident, evacuation should be considered, but it is unreasonable to apply this measure to distant populations, e.g., large segments of the European community could not be moved about as we observe the shifting of a radioactive cloud in response to changing winds. If the radionuclides are delivered as particulates, bringing people indoors and employing primitive air filters can temporarily reduce exposures, but these stratagems are not very effective against gaseous or volatile elements. What, then, can be done for populations downwind of a radioactive release whose air, water, and/or food supply are, or are about to become contaminated? 5 refs

  20. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzerman, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  1. Radionuclide Treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP is Effective for the Palliation of Bone Pain in the Context of Extensive Bone Marrow Metastases: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairemo, Kalevi; Rasulova, Nigora; Suslaviciute, Justina; Alanko, Tuomo

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is widely used as an effective modality in the management of bone pain. The main indication for this treatment is symptomatic bone metastases, confirmed by bone scintigraphy. We present a case of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) stage T 4 N 2 M 1b , with a good metabolic response to systemic therapy and radiotherapy of the primary tumor and locoregional disease, which became metabolically less active and remarkably smaller in size (reduction to 1/6 of the original volume). In spite of the good overall response, the patient developed a syndrome with severe bone pain and had progression in the bone marrow metastases, confirmed by 18 F-FDG PET/CT. The patient received 153 Sm-EDTMP treatment with a good clinical response. However, in the whole body bone scan with the therapeutic dose, there was no visual evidence of bone metastasis. Retrospectively, by drawing the region of interest, it was possible to identify one metastatic site. The possible mechanisms of the efficacy of this treatment modality, in this specific setting, are also discussed

  2. Extraperitoneal urine leak after renal transplantation: the role of radionuclide imaging and the value of accompanying SPECT/CT - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Hongju; Heiba, Sherif; Kostakoglu, Lale; Machac, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The differentiation of the nature of a fluid collection as a complication of kidney transplantation is important for management and treatment planning. Early and delayed radionuclide renography can play an important role in the evaluation of a urine leak. However, it is sometimes limited in the evaluation of the exact location and extent of a urine leak. A 71-year-old male who had sudden anuria, scrotal swelling and elevated creatinine level after cadaveric renal transplantation performed Tc-99 m MAG3 renography to evaluate the renal function, followed by an ultrasound which was unremarkable. An extensive urine leak was evident on the planar images. However, an exact location of the urine leak was unknown. Accompanying SPECT/CT images confirmed a urine leak extending from the lower aspect of the transplant kidney to the floor of the pelvic cavity, presacral region and the scrotum via right inguinal canal as well as to the right abdominal wall. Renal scintigraphy is very useful to detect a urine leak after renal transplantation. However, planar imaging is sometimes limited in evaluating the anatomical location and extent of a urine leak accurately. In that case accompanying SPECT/CT images are very helpful and valuable to evaluate the anatomical relationships exactly

  3. Spatial distribution and risk assessment of radionuclides in soils around a coal-fired power plant: A case study from the city of Baoji, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Lijun; Wei Haiyan; Wang Lingqing

    2007-01-01

    Coal burning may enhance human exposure to the natural radionuclides that occur around coal-fired power plants (CFPP). In this study, the spatial distribution and hazard assessment of radionuclides found in soils around a CFPP were investigated using statistics, geostatistics, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in soils range from 12.54 to 40.18, 38.02 to 72.55, and 498.02 to 1126.98 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Ordinary kriging was carried out to map the spatial patterns of radionuclides, and disjunctive kriging was used to quantify the probability of radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) higher than the threshold. The maps show that the spatial variability of the natural radionuclide concentrations in soils was apparent. The results of this study could provide valuable information for risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision support

  4. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  5. Radiological fundamentals for decision making on public radiation protection measures in case of accident caused radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genkel, Simone

    2009-01-01

    Following the accepted revised version of the recommendations concerning in the frame of emergency management by the German SSK (radiation protection commission) the radiological fundamentals dating from 1990 were revised. The corrections of the dose benchmarks for children and juveniles for the case of iodine tablets intake that were included, in the chapter on radiation protection for the field and rescue personnel of fire brigade and police the new regulations of the radiation protection ordinance were added. The volume includes two parts: Guidelines for emergency planning in the environment of nuclear facilities; guideline on public information in nuclear emergency situations.

  6. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  7. Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasennykh, M.Yu.; Apps, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions)

  8. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  9. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  10. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  11. Environmental evolution records reflected by radionuclides in the sediment of coastal wetlands: A case study in the Yellow River Estuary wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qidong; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Ning; Cao, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Vertical profiles of environmental radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 4 0 K) in a sediment core (Y1) of the Yellow River Estuary wetland were investigated to assess whether environmental evolutions in the coastal wetland could be recorded by the distributions of radionuclides. Based on 210 Pb and 137 Cs dating, the average sedimentation rate of core Y1 was estimated to be 1.0 cm y -1 . Vertical distributions of natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K) changed dramatically, reflecting great changes in sediment input. Concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K all had significant positive relationships with organic matter and clay content, but their distributions were determined by different factors. Factor analysis showed that 238 U was determined by the river sediment input while 226 Ra was mainly affected by the seawater erosion. Environmental changes such as river channel migrations and sediment discharge variations could always cause changes in the concentrations of radionuclides. High concentrations of 238 U and 226 Ra were consistent with high accretion rate. Frequent seawater intrusion decreased the concentration of 226 Ra significantly. The value of 238 U/ 226 Ra tended to be higher when the sedimentation rate was low and tide intrusion was frequent. In summary, environmental evolutions in the estuary coastal wetland could be recorded by the vertical profiles of natural radionuclides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A study of the global and regional ventricle function using radionuclide ventriculography in the cases of patients with and without KHK under nitrate and placebo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroth, B.

    1983-01-01

    In a controlled study of 74 patients with coronary heart disease (KHK) or without provable heart disease the ventricle function at rest and under ergonomic load before and after oral administration of nitrates, respectively placebos was studied with the help of radionuclide ventriculography. Radionuclide ventriculography proved itself thereby as a valuable method of high sensitivity for the recognition of KHK. The stress test increases the sensitivity and allows inferences to be made on the extent of the ischemia. The global function at rest is more a parameter for the functional restriction by infarct scars. A quantitative regional evaluation also makes possible the recognition of minor local changes. The additional study after nitrate administration allows a basis for the extent of reversibility in the stress-dependent functional restriction. The effects of a drug therapy become extrinsically presentable as a result of radionuclide ventriculography. (TRV) [de

  13. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  14. Clinical potential and limitation of MRI for degenerative lumbar spinal diseases. Comparison of MRI, myelography, CT and selective nerve root infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Michihiro; Kikuchi, Shinichi [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    To assess the clinical potential and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in degenerative lumbar spinal diseases, the findings of MR imaging were compared with those of myelography and CT. The subjects were 80 patients with intervertebral disc herniation (46), spondylosis (28), degenerative spondylolisthesis (5), and spondylolysis (one). There was a good correlation between sagittal MRI (T1-weighted images) and myelography in measuring the anteroposterior diameter and the compression rate of the injured dural canal in all disease categories. However, MRI was inferior, irrespective of sagittal and coronal images, to myelography in detecting blocking of the dural canal and intradural findings such as redundant nerve roots. MRI was inferior to selective nerve root infiltration in visualizing the compression of the nerve root, irrespective of diseases; however, there was no difference in abnormal findings of the running of nerve root between the two modalities. Transverse MRI was superior to CT in visualizing the nerve root. Thus, MRI alone is insufficient for the diagnosis of degenerative lumbar spinal diseases, and the other modalities should be supplementary for pathophysiological understanding of these diseases. (N.K.).

  15. Clinical potential and limitation of MRI for degenerative lumbar spinal diseases. Comparison of MRI, myelography, CT and selective nerve root infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Michihiro; Kikuchi, Shinichi

    1994-01-01

    To assess the clinical potential and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in degenerative lumbar spinal diseases, the findings of MR imaging were compared with those of myelography and CT. The subjects were 80 patients with intervertebral disc herniation (46), spondylosis (28), degenerative spondylolisthesis (5), and spondylolysis (one). There was a good correlation between sagittal MRI (T1-weighted images) and myelography in measuring the anteroposterior diameter and the compression rate of the injured dural canal in all disease categories. However, MRI was inferior, irrespective of sagittal and coronal images, to myelography in detecting blocking of the dural canal and intradural findings such as redundant nerve roots. MRI was inferior to selective nerve root infiltration in visualizing the compression of the nerve root, irrespective of diseases; however, there was no difference in abnormal findings of the running of nerve root between the two modalities. Transverse MRI was superior to CT in visualizing the nerve root. Thus, MRI alone is insufficient for the diagnosis of degenerative lumbar spinal diseases, and the other modalities should be supplementary for pathophysiological understanding of these diseases. (N.K.)

  16. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestr, Christopher J.; North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY; Love, Charito

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  17. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  18. Radionuclide cinematography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Sigel, H.; Geffers, H.; Bitter, F.; Meyer, G.; Kampmann, H.; Stauch, M.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide cinematography is described as a procedure making use of radiation-level variations above the heart after equipartitioning of sup(99m)Tc-labelled human serum albumin in the blood pool. Regional ventricular and vestibular variations are phase-shifted. This procedure permits delineation of aneurysmas with interphasic course, cicatrization of the cardiac wall not producing any cyclical variation. The study included normal subjects and 16 patients with full course infarction. Characteristic disturbances of motility distribution were found in all cases of scarred or aneurysmic alterations in the frontal and side walls of the left ventricle. The procedure was unable to detect two small infarction scars on the rear wall. The possibility of using radionuclide cinematography to prove coronary insufficiency as well as a comparison with other methods are discussed

  19. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Wirth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.) [de

  20. The potential of two Salix genotypes for radionuclide/heavy metal accumulation. A case study of Rovinari ash pit (Gorj District, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernea, Cornelia; Neţoiu, Constantin; Corneanu, Gabriel; Crăciun, Constantin; Corneanu, Mihaela; Cojocaru, Luminiţa; Rovena Lăcătuşu, Anca; Popescu, Ion

    2014-05-01

    Thermo Electric Power Plants (TEPP) produce a high amount of ash, that contains heavy metals and radionuclides. Ash is usually stored in ash-pits, in mixture with water and contains U235, Th 234 and their decay products, that are released from the coal matrix, during combustion, as well as heavy metals. Warm weather dried the ash and it can be spread by the wind in surrounded area. This paper presents the results of an experiment with two Salix genotypes, cultivated on an old closed ash-pit, nearby the Rovinari TEPP, in the middle Jiu valley (Gorj District, Romania), in order to evaluate its tolerance to heavy metals and radionuclides. Ash analysis revealed the presence of natural radionuclides, beloging from ash and coal dust, as well as of Cs 137, of Chernobil provenance. Radionuclides content over the normal limits for Romania were registered for Th 234, Pb210, U235 and Ra226. The heavy metals level in ash was over the normal limits, but under the alerts limits. In order to establish the woody plants tolerance to heavy metals and radionuclides, it is important to study the seedlings behavior. In this respect Salix alba and Salix viminalis whips and cuttings culture have been establish on Rovinari ash-pit. The observations made on survival and growth rate pointed out the superiority of Salix viminalis behaviour. After a period of three years Salix viminalis registered a 96% survival rate, while in Salix alba annual decreases, reaching to 14%. These results are supported by the radionuclides content in leaves and by the electron microscopy studies. In Salix alba the leaves parenchimatic cells present a low sinthesis activity. The exogenous particles are accumulated in parenchima cells vacuola, the chloroplasts are usually agranal, with few starch grains and mitocondria presents slightly dillated crista. The ultrastructural features of the mature leaf cells, evidenced the natural adaptation of Salix viminalins for development in an environment with a big amount of

  1. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  2. Radionuclide distribution of Holocene sediments and its effects on the habitat of recent foraminifers: A case study from the Western Marmara Sea (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal Yumun, Zeki; Kam, Erol; Murat Kılıc, Ali

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Radionuclides cause radioactive contamination in aquatic environments just as other non-biodegradable pollutants, such as heavy metals, sink to the seafloor and accumulate in the sediments. These radioactive pollutants especially affect benthic foraminifera living on the sediment surface or in the sediments in the seafloor. Foraminifera were used as bioindicators to analyze the effect of radioactivity pollution on ecosystems. In this study, we have investigated natural and artificial radionuclide (232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs) distribution in sediment samples taken in the living areas of benthic foraminifera in the Western Marmara Sea by means of gamma spectrometry. Accordingly, 29 core samples taken in 2016 from depths of about 20-35 m close to the shores of the Marmara Sea were used. Core samples representing the pollution of the study area were collected at locations such as discharge points for domestic and industrial areas, port locations, and others. Other samples were taken from areas unaffected or less affected by pollution. The radionuclide concentration activity values in the sediment samples obtained from the locations, in Bq/kg, were 137Cs, 0.9-9.4; 232Th, 18.9-86; 226Ra, 10-50; 40K, 24.4-670. These values were compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) data, and an environmental analysis was carried out. The 226Ra series, the 232Th series, and the 40K radionuclides accumulate naturally, and they are also increasing continuously due to anthropogenic pollution. Although the 226Ra values obtained throughout the study areas remained within normal limits according to the UNSCEAR values, the 40K and 232Th series values were found to be higher in almost all locations. According to these results, the main causes of radioactive pollution in the investigation area are agricultural and mining activities. Keywords: Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, Cs-137, radionuclide, Western Marmara Sea, Foraminifera

  3. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  4. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  5. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  6. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  7. Detection of subdural empyema with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKillop, J.H.; Holtzman, D.S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is now the standard method of confirming a diagnosis of suspected subdural empyema. We report a case in which the radionuclide brain scan was abnormal at a time when the CT scan was normal. An 111 In-labeled leukocyte scan was also performed in this patient and demonstrated abnormal uptake in the empyema. The scintigraphic findings in a second case of subdural empyema are also described. The relative roles of radionuclide studies and CT scans in the patient with suspected subdural empyema are discussed

  8. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  9. Prediction of the recovery rate after surgery for cervical myelopathy from the view of CT-myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Takahiro; Satomi, Kazuhiko; Asazuma, Takahito; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Fujimura, Shoichi; Hirabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hamano, Yasuyuki; Shiraishi, Takeshi.

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed to prepare a formula for predicting postoperative recovery in cervical myelopathy. Preoperative CT-myelography (CT-M) was performed in a total of 103 patients, consisting of 44 with cervical spinal myelopathy (CSM), 39 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), and 20 with cervical disk herniation (CDH). Multivariate analyses were used to obtain correlations between CT-M findings (spinal cord area and the rate of spinal cord flatness) and clinical items (age, disease duration, preoperative JOA score, and postoperative recovery rate). There was a strong positive correlation between spinal cord area and postoperative recovery rate. Because both spinal cord area and disease duration for the CSM and OPLL groups had a strong positive correlation with the recovery rate, they were found to predict postoperative recovery. In the CDH group, there was no predictive index. Spinal cord area was more potential index than preoperative severity. Disease duration may also serve as an index complementing spinal cord area in the evaluation of postoperative recovery. (N.K.)

  10. A biomonitoring plan for assessing potential radionuclide exposure using Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Nelson Hall, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Kosson, D.S. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Powers, Charles W. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2007-12-15

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US and other nations were faced with a legacy of nuclear wastes. For some sites where hazardous nuclear wastes will remain in place, methods must be developed to protect human health and the environment. Biomonitoring is one method of assessing the status and trends of potential radionuclide exposure from nuclear waste sites, and of providing the public with early warning of any potential harmful exposure. Amchitka Island (51{sup o} N lat, 179{sup o} E long) was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. Following a substantive study of radionuclide levels in biota from the marine environment around Amchitka and a reference site, we developed a suite of bioindicators (with suggested isotopes) that can serve as a model for other sites contaminated with radionuclides. Although the species selection was site-specific, the methods can provide a framework for other sites. We selected bioindicators using five criteria: (1) occurrence at all three test shots (and reference site), (2) receptor groups (subsistence foods, commercial species, and food chain nodes), (3) species groups (plants, invertebrates, fish, and birds), (4) trophic levels, and (5) an accumulator of one or several radionuclides. Our major objective was to identify bioindicators that could serve for both human health and the ecosystem, and were abundant enough to collect adjacent to the three test sites and at the reference site. Site-specific information on both biota availability and isotope levels was essential in the final selection of bioindicators. Actinides bioaccumulated in algae and invertebrates, while radiocesium accumulated in higher trophic level birds and fish. Thus, unlike biomonitoring schemes developed for heavy metals or other contaminants, top-level predators are not sufficient to evaluate potential radionuclide exposure at Amchitka. The process described in this paper resulted in the selection of Fucus, Alaria fistulosa, blue

  11. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  12. Underground radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimz, G.J.; Thompson, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This document reviews results from a number of studies concerning underground migration of radionuclides from nuclear test cavities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Discussed are all cases known to the Department of Energy's Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program where radionuclides have been detected outside of the immediate vicinity of nuclear test cavities that are identifiable as the-source of the nuclides, as well as cases where radionuclides might have been expected and were intentionally sought but not fixed. There are nine locations where source-identifiable radionuclide migration has been detected, one where migration was purposely induced by pumping, and three where migration might be expected but was not found. In five of the nine cases of non-induced migration, the inferred migration mechanism is prompt fracture injection during detonation. In the other four cases, the inferred migration mechanism is water movement. In only a few of the reviewed cases can the actual migration mechanism be stated with confidence, and the attempt has been made to indicate the level of confidence for each case. References are cited where more information may be obtained. As an aid to future study, this document concludes with a brief discussion of the aspects of radionuclide migration that, as the present review indicates, are not yet understood. A course of action is suggested that would produce a better understanding of the phenomenon of radionuclide migration

  13. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  14. Radionuclide shuntography in a hydrocephalic patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard Esfahani, A.; Taghavi, M.; Eftekhari, M.; Saghari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Radionuclide shuntography is a safe and simple method to determine shunt patency and analyze changes in cerebro- spinal fluid flow. We present a case of complicated cerebro- spinal fluid shunt, in which radioisotopic scan correctly identified disconnection of the shunt tubing system localizing the site of extravasation accurately. The findings were confirmed by surgery performed for correction of the shunt system

  15. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  16. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  17. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  18. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  19. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  20. Technical compliance to standard guidelines for lumbar puncture and myelography: survey of academic neuroradiology attendings and fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi C; Chandler, Alexander J; Kagetsu, Nolan J

    2014-05-01

    To assess technical compliance among neuroradiology attendings and fellows to standard guidelines for lumbar puncture and myelography to minimize procedural complications such as iatrogenic meningitis and spinal headache. We surveyed academic neuroradiology attendings and fellows in the e-mail directory of the Association of Program Directors in Radiology. We queried use of face masks, use of noncutting needles, and dural puncture practices. All data were collected anonymously. A total of 110 survey responses were received: 75 from neuroradiology attendings and 34 from fellows, which represents a 14% response rate from a total of 239 fellows. Forty-seven out of 101 (47%) neuroradiologists do not always wear a face mask during myelograms, and 50 out of 105(48%) neuroradiologists do not always wear a face mask during lumbar punctures, placing patients at risk for iatrogenic meningitis. Ninety-six out of 106 neuroradiologists (91%) use the Quincke cutting needle by default, compared to only 17 out of 109 neuroradiologists (16%) who have ever used noncutting needles proven to reduce spinal headache. Duration of postprocedure bed rest does not influence incidence of spinal headache and may subject patients to unnecessary monitoring. Only 15 out of 109 (14%) neuroradiologists in our study do not prescribe bed rest. There was no statistically significant difference in practice between attendings and fellows. Iatrogenic meningitis and spinal headache are preventable complications of dural puncture that neuroradiologists can minimize by conforming to procedural guidelines. Wearing face masks and using noncutting spinal needles will reduce patient morbidity and lower hospitalization costs associated with procedural complications. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  2. Production of radionuclides with generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Egamediev, S.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    (75-85%) independently of the 99 Mo activity (250 - 1000 mCi) at the beginning and the end (up to 15 days) of the period of use. 188 W- 188 Re generator. 188 Re (T 1/2 =16.9 hours, β - m ax=2.12 MeV; γ=155 keV, 15%) is currently attractive radionuclide for radiotherapeutic applications. Rhenium-188 is produced by decay of tungsten-188 (T 1/2 =69.4 d) which can be produced by double neutron capture on enriched 188 W targets with high neutron flux. The specific activity of 188 W is reached up to 2 Ci/g. The optimal conditions for separation of 188 Re from the parent nuclide 188 W are studied. It is shown that the optimal separation condition is using acid-treated aluminium-oxide column to adsorb 188 W as isopolytungstate at pH solution of 2-4. 188 Re is eluted with 0.9% NaCl solution. The characteristics of the sodium perrhenate obtained from our generator are: radiochemical purity is 99.8%; pH 4.0-6.0; yield of 188 Re is 70-75%; breakthrough of 188 W is less than 10 -3 %. 68 Ge- 68 Ga generator. The nuclide 68 Ga (T 1/2 =68.3 min) produced by the electron capture decay of 68 Ge (T 1/2 =288 d) is useful for calibrating positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The 68 Ge is normally produced by both 66 Zn(α,2n) 68 Ge and 69 Ga(p,2n) 68 Ge nuclear reactions. The separation of daughter 68 Ga from parent 68 Ge on both aluminium oxide and tin dioxide are studied. In case of tin dioxide the optimal separation of daughter 68 Ga from parent 68 Ge can be achieved by using 1 M HCl as the eluent. It is shown that the tin dioxide - 1 M HCl generator system provides high yields of 68 Ga (75-80%) with low levels of breakthrough of 68 Ge (2 · 10 -4 %). However, the obtained final product - 68 Ga eluate in 1 M HCl can not be used for direct preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. In case of aluminium oxide we have found that preliminary annealing of aluminium oxide at 1000 deg C provides the best conditions for separation of 68 Ge- 68 Ga radionuclide chain in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid

  3. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  4. Prospective outcome of the influence of complexation by natural organic matter on enhanced or retarded transport of radionuclides: case of humic substances retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiller, P.

    2010-01-01

    This document takes a prospective stock of the natural organic matter influence on the possible effects on radionuclide migration, as well as a brief critical analysis of the literature data. A comparison with the retention of the 'simple' organic complexing agents is done in order to fix the limit of the 'simplistic' analogies done in the literature very often. It appears that the magnitude of the effects is function of the residence time in the medium, and of the possibilities for the organic complexes to be retained on the mineral surfaces. The contact time between radionuclides and the natural organic matter is also an influent parameter, as it influences part of the reversibility of this interaction vis-a-vis surface retention. Modelling of the metal-organic-surface systems is only satisfying up to now when accounting fractions of organic matter that are less susceptible to form colloidal aggregates, i.e., fulvic acids. These non-aggregated fractions could be considered as simple ligands in a first approximation. Conversely, when it comes to aggregated colloids of organic origin, i.e., humic acids, modelling are limited by the lack of theoretical understanding of their structure and of their evolution in response to geochemical condition variations, as ionic strength (harsh meteoric events), acidity or water composition (non-saturated water table). (author)

  5. Transport and accumulation of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frissel, M.J.; Jakubick, A.T.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H.

    1979-01-01

    The movement of radioactive isotopes through the water phase of soils is by far the most important. Most of the water-transported radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) occur via their dissolved salts, while the rest is carried by small soil particles to which the radionuclides are adsorbed. In the case of many chemicals, it is possible to calculate the movement or migration through soil from adsorption measurements made in the laboratory and from knowledge of the flow pattern of soil water. With increasing complexity of the chemical-soil-water system predictions become more uncertain. In the case of radionuclides the amounts expressed in units of weight are extremely small. This renders terms such as 'soluble' or 'insoluble' inapplicable. In these cases transport of 'radiocolloids' and adsorbed particles as 'insoluble' compounds may be more significant. For fallout strontium and cesium reliable predictive models have been developed. For fallout plutonium such models are under development. For calculations or predictions of the migration of radioactive material from deep soil layers to the soil surface fewer mathematical models are available. Many laboratory studies cannot yet be made due to lack of suitable soil samples from the sites under study. Nevertheless safety studies already carried out in a preliminary way are reliable, since factos such as adsorption of radionuclides on soils are neglected; consequently most safety studies overestimate possible risks. Further studies are required to ascertain how 'pessimistic' are the present safety criteriy. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  7. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  8. Soil burden by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  9. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  10. Radionuclide body function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus is claimed. It comprises: a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; means for rotating the array about the scan field and means for imparting travel to the collimators

  11. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  12. Sedimentary Processes. Quantification Using Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Lerche, I.

    2003-01-01

    The advent of radionuclide methods in geochronology has revolutionized our understanding of modern sedimentary processes in aquatic systems. This book examines the principles of the method and its use as a quantitative tool in marine geology, with emphasis on the Pb-210 method. The assumptions and consequences of models and their behaviour are described providing the necessary background to assess the advantages and trade-offs involved when choosing a particular model for application. One of the purposes of this volume is to disentangle the influences of complicating factors, such as sediment flux variations, post-depositional diffusion of radionuclides, and bio-irrigation of sediments, to arrive at sediment ages and to properly assess the attendant data uncertainty. Environmental impacts of chemical, nuclear, or other waste material are of concern in a variety of areas around the world today. A number of relevant examples are included, demonstrating how dating models are useful for determining sources of contaminants and interpreting their influence on the environment. The book is set at a level so that an able student or professional should have no difficulty in following the procedures and methods developed. Each chapter includes case histories showing the strengths and weaknesses of a given procedure with respect to a data example. Included with this volume is the computer source code of a new generation of modelling tools based on inverse numerical analysis techniques. This first generation of the modelling tool is included, along with detailed instructions and examples for its use, in an appendix

  13. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities

  14. Risk assessment due to ingestion of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in the milk samples: a case study from a proposed uranium mining area, Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Gurdeep; Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M

    2011-04-01

    Ingestion of radionuclides and heavy metals through drinking water and food intake represents one of the important pathways for long-term health considerations. Milk and milk products are main constituents of the daily diet. Radionuclides and heavy metals can be apprehended in the ecosystem of the East Singhbhum region which is known for its viable grades of uranium, copper and other minerals. For the risk assessment studies, samples of milk were collected from twelve villages around Bagjata mining area and analysed for U(nat), 226Ra, 230Th, 210Po, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni. Analysis of the results of the study reveals that the geometric mean of U(nat), 226Ra, 230Th and 210Po was 0.021, 0.24, 0.23 and 1.08 Bq l(-1), respectively. The ingestion dose was calculated to be 12.34 μSvY(-1) which is reflecting the natural background dose via the route of ingestion, and much below the 1 mSv limit set in the new ICRP recommendations. The excess lifetime cancer risk was estimated to be 1.72×10(-4) which is within the acceptable excess individual lifetime cancer risk value of 1×10(-4). The geometric mean of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Ni was 4.91, 0.29, 4.77, 0.56 and 0.48 mgl(-1), respectively; whereas the daily intake was computed to be 0.44, 0.03, 0.43, 0.05 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively. Pb was not detected in any of the samples. The hazard quotient revealed that the intake of the heavy metals through the ingestion of milk does not pose any apparent threat to the local people as none of the HQ of the heavy metals exceeds the limit of 1.

  15. An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamponnet, C.; Martin-Garin, A.; Gonze, M.-A.; Parekh, N.; Vallejo, R.; Sauras-Yera, T.; Casadesus, J.; Plassard, C.; Staunton, S.; Norden, M.; Avila, R.; Shaw, G.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K d for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance its

  16. An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamponnet, C. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SECRE, CADARACHE, B.P. 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France)], E-mail: christian.tamponnet@irsn.fr; Martin-Garin, A.; Gonze, M.-A. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SECRE, CADARACHE, B.P. 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Parekh, N. [Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Vallejo, R.; Sauras-Yera, T.; Casadesus, J. [Department of Plant Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Plassard, C.; Staunton, S. [INRA, UMR Rhizosphere and Symbiosis, Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier (France); Norden, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, 171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Avila, R. [Facilia AB, Valsgaerdevaegen 12, 168 53 Bromma, Stockholm (Sweden); Shaw, G. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K{sub d} for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance

  17. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  18. Effects of sorption hysteresis on radionuclide releases from waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Reed, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    A one-dimensional, numerical transport model was used to calculate radionuclide releases from waste packages emplaced in a nuclear waste repository in basalt. The model incorporates both sorption and desorption isotherm parameters measured previously for sorption of key radionuclides on the packing material component of the waste package. Sorption hysteresis as described by these isotherms lowered releases of some radionuclides by as much as two orders of magnitude. Radionuclides that have low molar inventories (relative to uranium), high solubility, and strongly sorbed, are most affected by sorption hysteresis. In these cases, almost the entire radionuclide inventory is sorbed on the packing material. The model can be used to help optimize the thickness of the packing material layer by comparing release rate versus packing material thickness curves with Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits

  19. The difference of contrast effects of myelography in normal dogs: Comparison of iohexol (180 mgI/ml), iohexol (240 mgI/ml) and iotrolan (240 mgI/ml)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, J.; Yamada, K.; Kishimoto, M.; Iwasaki, T.; Miyake, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The contrast effects of three different contrast media preparations (iohexol 180 mgI/ml, iohexol 240 mgI/ml and iotrolan 240 mgI/ml) in conventional and CT myelography were compared. Three beagle dogs were used and the study employed a cross-over method (total of 9) for each contrast media. The result of CT myelography showed that the contrast effect of iohexol (180 mgI/ml), which had low viscosity, was highest in cranial sites, and the contrast effect of high-viscosity iotrolan (240 mgI/ml) was highest in caudal sites 5 min after injection of the contrast media preparations. This shows that the diffusion of contrast media preparations in the subarachnoid space is influenced by viscosity. The results of conventional myelography also showed that the diffusion of contrast media preparations is influenced by viscosity. Therefore, it is important to identify the location of spinal lesions in veterinary practice, and low viscosity contrast medium preparation with wide spread contrast effects is considered suitable for myelography

  20. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  1. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M.; Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are 40 K, as well as, 238 U and 232 Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The 238 U and 232 Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  2. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-01-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium ( 20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  3. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  4. TURVA-2012: Formulation of radionuclide release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, Nuria; Hjerpe, Thomas; Snellman, Margit; Ikonen, Ari; Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. This paper gives a summary of the scenarios and the methodology followed in formulating them as described in TURVA-2012: Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios (Posiva, 2013). The scenarios are further analysed in TURVA-2012: Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment (Posiva, 2012a, 2012b). The formulation of scenarios takes into account the safety functions of the main barriers of the repository system and the uncertainties in the features, events, and processes (FEP) that may affect the entire disposal system (i.e. repository system plus the surface environment) from the emplacement of the first canister until the far future. In the report TURVA-2012: Performance Assessment (2012d), the performance of the engineered and natural barriers has been assessed against the loads expected during the evolution of the repository system and the site. Uncertainties have been identified and these are taken into account in the formulation of radionuclide release scenarios. The uncertainties in the FEP and evolution of the surface environment are taken into account in formulating the surface environment scenarios used ultimately in estimating radiation exposure. Formulating radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system links the reports Performance Assessment and Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System. The formulation of radionuclide release scenarios for the surface environment brings together biosphere description and the surface environment FEP and is the link to the assessment of the surface environment scenarios summarised in TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment. (authors)

  5. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  9. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  10. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  11. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  12. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  13. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  14. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use following a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Ser, K. S.; Kim, E. H.; Choi, Y. K.; Han, M. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    The optimized derived intervention levels for animal products were evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis. From these results, the radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use were derived. It was shown that radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use depend strongly on animal products, radionuclides and feeding period. In case of the contaminated feedstuffs with long-lived radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr), the feedstuffs with lower contamination should be supplied to animals with increase of feeding period due to the accumulation of radionuclides in animal products. While, in case of the contaminated feedstuffs with short-lived radionuclides ( 131 I), the feeding of higher contaminated feedstuffs was possible with increase of feeding period due to radionuclide decay. It was shown that 137 Cs concentration was lower than 90 Sr concentration in animal feedstuffs for use. It is primarily due to the higher feed-animal products transfer factor of 137 Cs

  15. Geochemistry and radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretically, the geochemical barrier can provide a major line of defense in protecting the biosphere from the hazards of nuclear waste. The most likely processes involved are easily identified. Preliminary investigations using computer modeling techniques suggest that retardation is an effective control on radionuclide concentrations. Ion exchange reactions slow radionuclide migration and allow more time for radioactive decay and dispersion. For some radionuclides, solubility alone may limit concentrations to less than the maximum permissible now considered acceptable by the Federal Government. The effectiveness of the geochemical barrier is ultimately related to the repository site characteristics. Theory alone tells us that geochemical controls will be most efficient in an environment that provides for maximum ion exchange and the precipitation of insoluble compounds. In site selection, consideration should be given to rock barriers with high ion exchange capacity that might also act as semi-permeable membranes. Also important in evaluating the site's potential for effective geochemical controls are the oxidation potentials, pH and salinity of the groundwater

  16. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  17. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  18. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  19. One-dimensional radionuclide transport under time-varying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbard, F.; Olague, N.E.; Longsine, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses new analytical and numerical solutions presented for one-dimensional radionuclide transport under time-varying fluid-flow conditions including radioactive decay. The analytical solution assumes that all radionuclides have identical retardation factors, and is limited to instantaneous releases. The numerical solution does not have these limitations, but is tested against the limiting case given for the analytical solution. Reasonable agreement between the two solutions was found. Examples are given for the transport of a three-member radionuclide chain transported over distances and flow rates comparable to those reported for Yucca Mountain, the proposed disposal site for high-level nuclear waste

  20. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, Filip; Dumarey, Nicolas; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99m Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67 Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [ 18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  1. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  2. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  3. Radionuclide cisternographic findings in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Jae Seung; Ryu, Jin Sook; Shin, Jung Woo; Im, Joo Hyuk; Lee, Myoung Chong; Jung, Sung Joo; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography may be helpful in understanding pathophysiology of postural headache and low CSF pressure in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The purpose of this study was to characterize radionuclide cisternogrpahic findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The study population consists of 15 patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Diagnosis was based on their clinical symptoms and results of lumbar puncture. All patients underwent radionuclide cisternography following injection of 111 to 222 MBq of Tc-99m DTPA into the lumbar subarachnoid space. Sequential images were obtained between 1/2 hour and 24 hour after the injection of Tc-99m DTPA. Radioactivity of the bladder, soft tissue uptake, migration of radionuclide in the subarachnoid space, and extradural leakage of radionuclide were evaluated according to the scan time. Radionuclide cisternogram showed delayed migration of radionuclide into the cerebral convexity (14/15), increased soft tissue uptake (11/15), and early visualization of bladder activity at 30 min (6/10) and 2 hr (13/13). Cisternography also demonstrated leakage site of CSF in 4 cases and 2 of these were depicted at 30min. Epidural blood patch was done in 11 patients and headache was improved in all cases. The characteristics findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension were delayed migration of radionuclide and early visualization of the soft tissue and bladder activity. These scintigraphic findings suggest that CSF leakage rather than increased CSF absorption or decreased production may be the main pathophysiology of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Early and multiple imaging including the bladder and soft tissue is required to observe the entire dynamics of radionuclide migration

  4. Use of i.v. radionuclide total body arteriography to evaluate arterial bypass shunts--a new method--a review of several cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.C.; Jain, C.U.; Patel, D.; Gould, L.; Schaefer, H.; Maghazeh, P.; Giovanniello, J.

    1990-01-01

    Currently, Doppler ultrasound and contrast angiography are the main imaging procedures being used to evaluate arterial bypass shunts. IV radionuclide total body arteriography (TBA) is another useful imaging procedure for evaluation of bypass shunts. The authors reviewed 33 patients, 19 women and 14 men, ranging in age from forty-three to eighty-five, who had TBA done after arterial bypass surgery. Ten patients had multiple shunts and 5 had multiple follow-up studies. In total there were 80 shunts, including 43 femoropopliteal, 16 axillofemoral, 1 axillopopliteal, 13 crossover femorofemoral, and 7 aortofemoral shunts. Sixty-two of the 80 shunts were patent, 14 were occluded, and 4 had partial occlusion. The results were confirmed by Doppler studies, contrast angiograms, and/or surgical exploration without false positives or false negatives. Since the radiotracer used was 99mTc-labeled red blood cells, a MUGA study can also be performed immediately following TBA in the same injection. Twenty-eight patients had gated cardiac blood pool studies (MUGA) done; 16 had abnormal wall motion and diminished ventricular function. TBA requires only a single IV injection of radiotracer (less than 1 cc) in the upper limb. The imaging times for total body arterial and perfusion images are seventy seconds and five minutes respectively. Both total body arterial and perfusion images clearly demonstrated the entire course of shunts (single or multiple); underlying and coexisting arterial abnormalities, e g, occlusive disease (27 patients), or aneurysm (3 patients); and related perfusion changes in the extremities. TBA has unique features. It permits a complete, excellent visualization of the bypass graft without the hazard of contrast media injection. It is a simple and a virtually noninvasive procedure, particularly useful for preoperative workups and postoperative follow-ups

  5. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  6. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  9. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  10. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  11. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  12. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindstroem, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10{sup -5} per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10{sup -5} per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10{sup -5} Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10{sup -7} Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable

  13. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, Maria; Lindstroem, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10 -8 Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10 -5 per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10 -5 per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10 -5 Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10 -7 Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable values. In that case almost all

  14. New radionuclide generator systems for use in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atcher, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A current emphasis in nuclear medicine is to better match the physical lifetime of the radionuclides used in vivo for diagnosis and treatment to the biological lifetime of the diagnostic procedure or to minimize radiation dose to areas other than those to be treated. In many cases the biological lifetime is on the order of minutes. Since the direct production of radionuclides with half lives of minutes requires the user to be near a suitable reactor or accelerator, this study was undertaken to produce short-lived radionuclides indirectly. If a long-lived radionuclide decays into a short-lived radionuclide, quick separation of the daughter activity from the parent enables the user to have a short-lived daughter while freeing him from the constraint of proximity to a cyclotron. Systems where a short-lived daughter is separated from a long-lived parent are called radionuclide generators. Two generator systems were developed for use in nuclear medicine, one in diagnostic work and the other for therapeutic work. The yield and breakthrough characteristics were within the limits required to minimize unnecessary radiation exposure in patients. Two parent radionuclides were produced using 4 He beams available from medium energy cyclotrons. The yield was high enough to produce generators that would be useful in clinical applications

  15. Exchange of certain radionuclides between environment and freshwater algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchyulenene, E. D.P.

    1978-01-01

    Data on the dynamics and levels of accumulation of strontium, cesium, cerium and ruthenium radionuclides by Charophyta and Cladophora fresh-water algae are presented. An attempt has been made to investigate some processes that accompany the accumulation of radionuclides by plants. Under experimental conditions, the intensity and levels of radionuclide accumulation can be presented in the following order: 144 Ce> 106 Ru> 90 Sr> 137 Cs. The dynamics of radionuclide accumulation varied greatly with the radionuclide and the algae species studied. The 144 Ce accumulation coefficients (AC) in the course of experiment (from 3 hours to 16 days) increased 8-, 9-, 23.4-, 27-, 14.3- and 20.4-fold for Cladophora glomerata, Nitella syncarpa, Nitellopsis obtusa, Chara vulgaris, Ch. rudis, and Ch. aspera, respectively. In the case of 106 Ru, AC for C.glomerata, N. syncarapa, Ch. vulgaris and Ch. rudis increased 34-, 18-,24- and 23-fold, respectively. In all algae species studied the equilibrium of radionuclide accumulation was attained after 2-4 days of experiment. Levels of accumulated 90 Sr and 137 Cs in most species depended on the season while that of 144 Cs and 106 Ru remained constant throughout the vegetation period. The levels of radionuclide elimination, like the accumulation levels, are shown to depend on both isotopes and algae species

  16. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  17. Emissions of the corrosion radionuclides in an atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanyan, M.

    2010-01-01

    In area of Armenian nuclear power plant location, in atmospheric air in majority of cases log two technogenic radionuclides: l 37 C s and 9 0 S r. Presence of these radionuclides basically is caused by global fall out (consequences of tests of the nuclear weapon and Chernobyl NPP accident), whose contribution to the contents of these radionuclides in atmosphere is incomparably greater, than emissions from the NPP. However there are some cases when in an atmosphere are registered the technogenic radionuclides, caused by emissions from NPP. In the present work such case is considered. Gas-aerosol releases of NPP in the atmosphere are carefully purified by means of various high-efficiency filters and gas-cleaning systems. Nevertheless, one should forecast and measure, the possible impact of these releases on the environment in the regions surrounding the NPP. Radioactive releases of the Armenian NPP (ANPP) contain the set of radionuclides characteristic for NPPs of this type. They may be divided into three groups: 1 31 I , 1 37 C s, 1 34 C s, 9 0 S r and 8 9 S r fission fragments, isotopes of noble gases krypton and xenon and other radionuclides; corrosion originated radionuclides: 6 0 C o, 1 10m A g, 5 4 M n, 5 l C r and others; activation products of the heat-transfer agent itself. It should be noted that the amount of radioactive materials released in the environment by the ANPP during the whole period of its operation was much lower than the admissible quantities specified in the corresponding legal documents (RSN, NPPSP) acting in Armenia, which are practically identical to the internationally accepted norms. The amounts of releases and their radionuclides composition for the ANPP are given

  18. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  19. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  20. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  1. CT and MRI findings in HAM. A report on five cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaura, Hikoaki; Tashiro, Kunio; Maruo, Yasunori; Moriwaka, Fumio; Itoh, Kazunori; Matsuura, Tooru; Togashi, Takehiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Hamada, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Akihisa

    1989-02-01

    The findings of the spinal MR imagings and the CT myelography of 5 cases with HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM) were presented. One case who showed transverse myelopathy with a multiple sclerosis-like abrupt onset showed spinal-cord swelling at the early stage on CT myelography; its disappearance was documented 4 months after corticosteroid therapy. The other 4 cases, all with slowly progressive myelopathy, clinically revealed spinal-cord atrophy, especially at the thoracic level, on MR imagings. The degree of spinal-cord atrophy seemed not have any correlation with the clinical and laboratory data or with the corticosteroid therapy. The clinical entity of HAM has not yet been determined, and its relationship with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) as well as that with some form of multiple sclerosis is controversial. The neuroradiological findings of MR imaging and CT myelography, including spinal-cord swelling at the early stage, in a case diagnosed as HAM with atypical clinical features or as spinal-cord atrophy in typical chronic cases might contribute to its resolution. (author).

  2. Radionuclide speciation in the environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, V.; Moulin, C.

    2001-01-01

    Speciation determination is of prime importance to explain and evaluate the mobility, the toxicity and the risk resulting from the presence of trace elements in natural systems, in particular in the case of radionuclides, in the framework of environment and waste management purposes. The present paper will then focus more specifically on the physico-chemical speciation of radionuclides, and more particularly of actinides, in the environment, with emphasis on the behavior in solution: from a chemical point of view (with important ligands including colloidal phases) using experimental data and speciation calculations, as well as from a more technical point of view (with analytical methods for in situ speciation determination and thermodynamic data determination). A review of recent papers (mainly from CEA) is presented. (orig.)

  3. Behaviors of radionuclides in wet underground soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Morisawa, S.

    Experimental studies were made of the variations of the distribution coefficient of 65 Zn, 60 Co, and /sup 110 m/Ag with Ca ion contents in sand--water and resin--water systems. It is concluded that: (1) The distribution coefficient of a radionuclide is not constant but varies greatly especially with calcium ion concentration in underground water. (2) The Saturation Index I=pH-pHs can be used as a parameter to indicate such variations. (3) Some radionuclides, existing as radiocolloids like (sup 110m/Ag and 59 Fe, are inactive toward ion exchange reactions as with hydroxide. In such cases, the nuclides migrate underground as fast as underground water

  4. Limitations of radionuclide flow studies in bilateral carotid thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messert, B.; Tyson, I.B.; Barron, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide angiography as a noninvasive procedure has become an important tool in the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. Determinations of arm-to-brain circulation times complemented by the transit times of the radionuclide bolus through the brain afford insight into the functional status of the vascular system of the brain. Delays in perfusion, asymmetries in appearance, and washout of the radionuclide material can be correlated with disease entities. However, as with many procedures elevated to the status of a screening test, the possibility of false-positive and false-negative results exists. Two cases of bilateral carotid occlusion are presented, showing normal or only delayed, fairly symmetrical brain perfusion. The appearance of the radionuclide flow in the neck in AP and lateral views gave no suggestion of the involved deficits. Even multiple-projection imaging might fail to demonstrate major vascular obstructions. However, attentive study of these projections might yield interesting evidence of unexpected collateral flow systems. (U.S.)

  5. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  6. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  7. Deep sea radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.; Vobach, M.

    1993-01-01

    Every year since 1979, either in sping or in summer, the fishing research vessel 'Walther Herwig' goes to the North Atlantic disposal areas of solid radioactive wastes, and, for comparative purposes, to other areas, in order to collect water samples, plankton and nekton, and, from the deep sea bed, sediment samples and benthos organisms. In addition to data on the radionuclide contents of various media, information about the plankton, nekton and benthos organisms living in those areas and about their biomasses could be gathered. The investigations are aimed at acquiring scientifically founded knowledge of the uptake of radioactive substances by microorganisms, and their migration from the sea bottom to the areas used by man. (orig.) [de

  8. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  9. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  10. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  11. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Radionuclide imaging in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, C.A.; Robinson, R.G.; Hinthorn, D.R.; Liu, C.

    1978-01-01

    Eight patients with herpes simplex encephalitis among the 10 cases diagnosed at the University of Kansas Medical Center from 1966 to 1976 were studied with /sup 99m/Tc early in their diagnostic work-up. The images were unilaterally positive in the temporal lobe area in all 8 patients. Radionuclide studies can suggest herpes simplex as the specific etiology in cases of encephalitis and can also indicate the best site for brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis by fluorescent antibody techniques. Appropriate antiviral therapy should be instituted as soon as possible to alter the course of this destructive form of viral encephalitis

  13. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  14. CRRIS, Health Risk Assessment from Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    . ANEMOS employs a Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model. RETADD-II is based on long-range trajectory estimates using upper-air wind data. ANEMOS, RETADD, TERRA, MLSOIL and ANDROS solve differential equations that describe decay and ingrowth. PRIMUS and ANDROS can be characterized as bookkeeping rather than computational programs. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: ANEMOS is not to be used for short-term or accidental releases. It is appropriate only for chronic releases. It models only one source per run. Multiple ANEMOS results may be combined using SUMIT. MLSOIL does not allow upward transport of radionuclides. MLSOIL will truncate radionuclide chains of length greater than 20. All sample cases in this package are to be considered demonstration assessments. No special significance should be attached to the choices of parameters and options for these jobs

  15. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  16. Imaging of thoracic and lumbar spinal extradural arachnoid cysts: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Clouet, P.L.; Salatino, S.; Kehrli, P.; Maitrot, D.; Stephan, M.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Extradural arachnoid cysts are uncommon expanding lesions in the spinal canal which may communicate with the subarachnoid space. Usually in the lower thoracic spine, they may cause symptoms by compressing the spinal cord or nerve roots. We report cases of thoracic and lumbar arachnoid cysts studied by cystography, myelography, CT and MRI. These techniques showed extradural cystic lesions containing cerebrospinal fluid, with variable communication with the subarachnoid space, causing anterior displacement and flattening of the spinal cord. (orig.)

  17. Radionuclide study of thyroid function in pediatrics, using sup(99m)Tc, 123I or 131I: 150 case-reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P.; Guillet, G.

    1981-01-01

    THe best radioisotope for in vivo thyroid investigations is the one which provides the highest quality scintigrams with the least radiation exposure. The choice of 131 I, 123 I or sup(99m)Tc in 150 children is discussed. Cases included 25 dysgenesis, 4 goiters with hypothyroidism, 56 goiters without thyroid dysfunction, 3 thyroiditis, and 11 cold nodules. When thyroid scanning is performed with 131 I, the gland's radiation exposure is high. 123 I is preferable since a fairly high activity can be obtained without delivering an excessive radiation dose. (approximately 2 rad to the thyroid for 50 microCi/m 2 ). sup(99m)Tc which is readily available is not a true iodine analog. It does not give a true picture of iodine metabolism. 123 I was generally used in cases of hypothyroidism, goiter (whenever a defect in thyroid hormone synthesis was suspected) and hyperthyroidism. sup(99m)Tc was generally used in other cases. The low radiation doses delivered by these radioisotopes allows study of thyroid function in the neonate [fr

  18. Radionuclide study of thyroid function in pediatrics, using sup(99m)Tc, /sup 123/I or /sup 131/I: 150 case-reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, J.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P. (Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France)); Guillet, G. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA). Div. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1981-11-01

    THe best radioisotope for in vivo thyroid investigations is the one which provides the highest quality scintigrams with the least radiation exposure. The choice of /sup 131/I, /sup 123/I or sup(99m)Tc in 150 children is discussed. Cases included 25 dysgenesis, 4 goiters with hypothyroidism, 56 goiters without thyroid dysfunction, 3 thyroiditis, and 11 cold nodules. When thyroid scanning is performed with /sup 131/I, the gland's radiation exposure is high. /sup 123/I is preferable since a fairly high activity can be obtained without delivering an excessive radiation dose. (approximately 2 rad to the thyroid for 50 microCi/m/sup 2/). sup(99m)Tc which is readily available is not a true iodine analog. It does not give a true picture of iodine metabolism. /sup 123/I was generally used in cases of hypothyroidism, goiter (whenever a defect in thyroid hormone synthesis was suspected) and hyperthyroidism. sup(99m)Tc was generally used in other cases. The low radiation doses delivered by these radioisotopes allows study of thyroid function in the neonate.

  19. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  20. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  1. Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1980-01-01

    Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock

  2. Movement of radionuclides through unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Sousa, F.N.C.

    1985-01-01

    The advantages of the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in the unsaturated zone above the fluctuations of the water table have been recognized for some time. However, most the numerical models used to simulate the environmental impact of a shallow land burial site assume that the soils surrounding the waste forms are saturated; this assumption may lead, in many cases, to unrealistic large leach and water flow rates. The main purpose of this study was the development of a procedure which could give a reliable prediction on the movement of radionuclides from shallow land burial sites located in the unsaturated zone. In order to accomplish this objective three different soils having different sand, silt, and clay fractions were selected and characterized. These soils were then used to fill a number of flow columns that were used in tests designed to provide input data for the flow and transport models. A one-dimensional finite element model was developed in order to simulate the water flow and radionuclide transport through unsaturated soils. The results obtained showed that the model accurately described the transport of radionuclides through saturated-unsaturated soils. Simulations were done, for all three soils, involving different degrees of soil saturation, and the results showed that assuming the soils are always saturated may lead to nuclide transport times which are orders of magnitude larger than the real ones, depending on the clay percentage present in the soil

  3. The role of particulates in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.; Bachinski, D.B.; Vandergraaf, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    The colloid program at AECL Research is focused on characterizing natural particles in groundwater to evaluate their potential role in radiocolloid formation and to form a database for particle migration studies. The main objective of this program has been the study of colloids (1 to 450 nm) and suspended particles (> 450 nm) in fractured granites and sandstone in various locations in Canada and Switzerland. Groundwater particles were found to consist of clay minerals, micas, quartz, feldspar, iron-silica oxides and organic material. In groundwaters from granite, sandstone and clay-rich rock colloid concentrations were less than 5 mg/L. Some of these groundwaters may contain up to 260 mg/L of suspended particles. However, these particles are not expected to be mobile under the natural flow regimes of deep groundwaters. Provided radiocolloid formation is reversible, it is shown that the colloid concentrations observed in groundwaters from granites will have a negligible effect on radionuclide transport even when making the conservative assumption that these particles travel with the velocity of groundwater. For the case of irreversible radiocolloid formation, an equation is presented to calculate the fraction of total radionuclides in the geosphere which will form radiocolloids. The significance of these radiocolloids will depend upon the total amount of radionuclides released to the geosphere and on particle migration properties. (author)

  4. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Palestro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of "complicating osteomyelitis" such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose.Estudos através de imagens com o uso de radionuclídeos são rotineiramente usadas para avaliar pacientes suspeitos de terem infecção músculo-esquelética. A imagem óssea em tridimensional é facilmente avaliável, relativamente de baixo custo, e muito precisa na localização de alterações ósseas. Imagem com leucócito marcado poderia ser usada nos casos de "osteomielite com complicações" tais como infecção prostética articular. Esse teste também é útil na não suspeita clinica de osteomielite associada ao pé diabético tanto quanto nas junções neuropáticas. É sempre necessário, por outro lado, realizar imagem complementar da medula óssea para aumentar a precisão da imagem com leucócito marcado. Em contraste com outras regiões no esqueleto, imagem com leucócito marcado não é útil para diagnosticar osteomielite da coluna vertebral. Até agora, o gálio é o radionuclídeo preferido para

  5. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  6. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides secreted in milk of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, D.; Williams, W.F.; Rockmann, D.D.; Allen, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    This study simulated experimentally the transfer of radionuclides to milk of dairy cows on a worst-case situation using various radionuclides known to emanate from nuclear power stations and which have been detected on particulates. Two lactating Holstein cows were administered orally one gelatin capsule containing 10 radionuclides in water-soluble form per day for 14 consecutive days. Milk samples were collected and aliquots analyzed in a germanium lithium-drifted detector coupled to a 2048-multichannel gamma-ray analyzer to measure small amounts of complex mixtures of radionuclides. The transfer coefficients of the radionuclides were calculated when their secretion in milk reached or approached a plateau of concentration. The radionuclides and their transfer coefficients to milk were: chromium 51 less than 0.01%; manganese 54 0.033 +- 0.005%; cobalt 60 0.01 +- 0.002%; iron 59 0.0048 +- 0.002%; zinc 65 0.31 +- 0.07%; selenium 75 0.29 +- 0.1%; antimony 125 0.011 +- 0.003%; iodine 131 0.88 +- 0.05%; and cesium 137 0.79 +- 0.08%

  7. Radionuclide chain migration in fissured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, A.; Neretnieks, I.

    1982-04-01

    Diffusion into the rock matrix has a large impact on the migration of radionuclides in the geosphere. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of this mechanism on radionuclide chain migration. For this purpose a previously used numerical code TRUMP is extended to incorporate chain decay. The algorithm is also changed to directly include the decay terms. The extended version was given the acronym TRUCHN. Numerical solutions from TRUCHN are compared with the analytical solutions developed by Lester et al. A good agreement is obtained. To illustrate the impact of matrix diffusion on the arrival times to the biosphere of the members of a radionuclide chain a number of numerical calculations were done for the two chains U-238 to Th-230 to Ra-226 and Pu-239 to U-235 to Pa-231. The resulting curves are compared with the results for surface sorption (penetration depth 10 - 4 m) and volume sorption (complete penetration) obtained with the computer program GETOUT. The difference in first arrival times are very large. The arrival times in the surface and volume sorption cases, differ with as much as four orders of magnitude. The corresponding times for instationary diffusion are located between these extreme values. A daughter nuclide which is strongly sorbed may be heavily retarded if it is produced far inside the rock matrix and has a long way to diffuse before it reaches the flowing water. This effect is investigated, by considering diffusion only of a radionuclide chain, with analytical and numerical (TRUCHN) methods. Finally, in connection with the reconcentration effect, some means of describing the outflow of a daughter nuclide in terms of the outflow of its parent nuclide are proposed. (Authors)

  8. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Gavin; Miller, Alex; Smith, Graham; Jackson, Duncan

    2008-04-01

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  9. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Gavin; Miller, Alex; Smith, Graham; Jackson, Duncan (Enviros Consulting Ltd, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom))

    2008-04-15

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  10. Radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Ruth, C.; Samanek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology is discussed for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial function and perfusion, regional lung perfusion and ventilation, and for measuring central and peripheral hemodynamics. (H.W.). 16 refs

  11. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  12. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  13. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  14. Surface diffusion of sorbed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Surface diffusion has in the past been invoked to explain rates of radionuclide migration which were greater than those predicted. Results were generally open to interpretation but the possible existence of surface diffusion, whereby sorbed radionuclides could potentially migrate at much enhanced rates, necessitated investigation. In this work through-diffusion experiments have shown that although surface diffusion does exist for some nuclides, the magnitude of the phenomenon is not sufficient to affect repository safety assessment modelling. (author)

  15. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Molinski, V.J.; Hupf, H.B.; Kramer, H.

    1983-10-01

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  16. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, M [Ingenieurgesellschaft Bonnenberg und Drescher, Juelich (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10/sup -3/) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10/sup -2/) and one tenth (10/sup -1/) that of T respectively.

  17. Radionuclide migration in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10 -3 ) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10 -2 ) and one tenth (10 -1 ) that of T respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  19. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  20. Radionuclides migration or isolation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Grambow, B.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    After 20 years of research, the chemical behaviour of actinides and fission products in nuclear waste disposal environments is much better understood. Consistent thermodynamic data have been gathered and allow much more accurate previsions. Through the considerable development of analytical spectroscopy, including time resolved laser fluorescence and X ray absorption, a better understanding of the chemical reactivity (complexation, sorption) of actinides and fission products at a molecular scale has been possible. Chemically reducing conditions are found in most selected disposal host rock formations, generally chosen for their high sorption capacity (clays); such conditions favour the chemical confinement of most radionuclides through precipitation or sorption. Low permeability host rocks participate to this confinement, as convective fluxes are lower than diffusive fluxes. The most recent performance assessment exercises have taken into account the recent progress of knowledge in the chemical evolution of the near field. They show that the dose rates at the outlet are far lower than existing recommendations for normal and most altered evolution scenarios. (authors)

  1. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  2. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  3. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  4. Improved radionuclide method for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in children (milk scan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, S.; Kirkpatrick, J.A.; Winter, H.S.; Treves, S.

    1979-01-01

    A radionuclide study using technetium-99m-labelled milk feeding is described for the detection of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in children. A comparison of findings in 39 patients referred for both radiographic and radionuclide studies showed that barium studies were positive in 25.6% and radionuclide studies in 59% of cases, reflecting the sensitivity of the radionuclide technique. This technique is also physiological and allows prolonged patient monitoring. It is simple to perform and should prove useful in the evaluation of patients suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration

  5. Leakage detection on CT myelography for targeted epidural blood patch in spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks: calcified or ossified spinal lesions ventral to the thecal sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroki; Takai, Keisuke; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe significant CT myelography findings for determination of the leak site and outcome of targeted epidural blood patch (EBP) in patients with spontaneous CSF leaks. During 2005-2013, spontaneous CSF leaks were diagnosed for 12 patients with orthostatic headaches. The patients received targeted EBP on the basis of CT myelography assessments. Computed tomography myelograms revealed ventral extradural collection of contrast medium distributed over multiple spinal levels (average 16 levels). Intraforaminal contrast medium extravasations were observed at multiple spinal levels (average 8.2 levels). For 8 (67%) of 12 patients, spinal lesions were noted around the thecal sac and included calcified discs with osteophytes, an ossified posterior longitudinal ligament, and an ossified yellow ligament; lesions were mostly located ventral to the thecal sac and were in close contact with the dura mater. The levels of these spinal lesions were considered potential leak sites and were targeted for EBP. For the remaining 4 patients who did not have definite spinal lesions around the thecal sac, leak site determination was based primarily on the contrast gradient hypothesis. The authors hypothesized that the concentration of extradural contrast medium would be the greatest and the same as that of intradural contrast medium at the leak site but that it would decrease with increased distance from the leak site according to the contrast gradient. Epidural blood patch was placed at the level of spinal lesions and/or of the greatest and same concentration of contrast medium between the intradural and extradural spaces. For 10 of the 12 patients, the orthostatic headaches decreased significantly within a week of EBP and disappeared within a month. For the remaining 2 patients, headaches persisted and medical treatment was required for several months. For 3 patients, thick chronic subdural hematomas caused severe headaches and/or disturbed

  6. Radionuclide renal dynamic and function study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Liang

    1991-01-01

    The radionuclide dynamic and function study, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were reported in 14 cases of renal and ureteral calculi patients before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). In 12 cases with normal renal blood flow, within 3 months after ESWL, the GFR of shock and non-shock side decreased with different extent, while the individual ERPF had little change. In 5 cases followed up 1 year after ESWL, the individual GFR and ERPF were normal. In 2 cases of severe renal function insufficiency, there was no improvement in renal function in shock side, after 5 months and 1 year, the renal function was still at low level. Thereby it is considered that ESWL is not suitable for the renal calculi patients with severe renal function insufficiency

  7. Radionuclide arthrogram to evaluate knee prostheses loosening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, U.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:This case is about a 78 year old lady who had 3TKRs on her left knee. The 2nd revision surgery was performed due to infection. After 6 weeks long procedure, that patient was discharged with satisfactory movement without sign of infection. 15 months after the surgery, the orthopaedic surgeon found that some pressure wave effects and pain with walking. There was no sign of infection clinically. Once X-ray could not confirm any micro-loosening, the surgeon wanted to investigate with radionuclide arthrogram for this difficult case. 40 MBq in 2mls of Calcium phytate colloid (from RADPHARM Australia) was injected into the knee joint space. 30 minutes static views revealed the tracer started to travel below the tibial component. 4 hours statics views clearly indicate the tibial component loosening also there was leakage of tracer through anterior tibial osteotomy screws into the level of ankle subcutaneously. Cobalt57 flood images provided the anatomical localisation. While the surgeon was planning new component for the 3rd revision surgery, the patient's pain disappeared with time. No more revision was considered with satisfactory level of movement. This was the first and only case of radio arthogram to our department, although we perform many bone scans with same reason. On published articles, overall sensitivity and specificity are variable from 85% to 100%. When we take look at other clinical experience, there are a number of reasons in the high accuracy and reliability of radionuclide arthrogram especially for knee prosthesis loosening. Therefore I want to emphasise the benefit of radionuclide arthrogram for both patient and surgeon as a reliable diagnosis with minimum discomfort.

  8. A meshless approach to radionuclide transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, J.; Sarler, B.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past thirty years numerical modelling has emerged as an interdisciplinary scientific discipline which has a significant impact in engineering and design. In the field of numerical modelling of transport phenomena in porous media, many commercial codes exist, based on different numerical methods. Some of them are widely used for performance assessment and safety analysis of radioactive waste repositories and groundwater modelling. Although they proved to be an accurate and reliable tool, they have certain limitations and drawbacks. Realistic problems often involve complex geometry which is difficult and time consuming to discretize. In recent years, meshless methods have attracted much attention due to their flexibility in solving engineering and scientific problems. In meshless methods the cumbersome polygonization of calculation domain is not necessary. By this the discretization time is reduced. In addition, the simulation is not as discretization density dependent as in traditional methods because of the lack of polygon interfaces. In this work fully meshless Diffuse Approximate Method (DAM) is used for calculation of radionuclide transport. Two cases are considered; First 1D comparison of 226 Ra transport and decay solved by the commercial Finite Volume Method (FVM) and Finite Element Method (FEM) based packages and DAM. This case shows the level of discretization density dependence. And second realistic 2D case of near-field modelling of radionuclide transport from the radioactive waste repository. Comparison is made again between FVM based code and DAM simulation for two radionuclides: Long-lived 14 C and short-lived 3 H. Comparisons indicate great capability of meshless methods to simulate complex transport problems and show that they should be seriously considered in future commercial simulation tools. (author)

  9. Criteria of reference radionuclides for safety analysis of spent fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    1998-01-01

    Study on the criteria for reference radionuclides selection for assessment on spent fuel disposal have done. The reference radionuclides in this study means radionuclides are predicted to contribute of the most radiological effect for man if spent fuel waste are discharged on deep geology formation. The research was done by investigate critically of parameters were used on evaluation a kind of radionuclide. Especially, this research study of parameter which relevant disposal case and or spent fuel waste on deep geology formation . The research assumed that spent fuel discharged on deep geology by depth 500-1000 meters from surface of the land. The migration scenario Radionuclides from waste form to man was assumed particularly for normal release in which Radionuclides discharge from waste form in a series thorough container, buffer, geological, rock, to fracture(fault) and move together with ground water go to biosphere and than go into human body. On this scenario, the parameter such as radionuclides inventory, half life, heat generation, hazard index based on maximum permissible concentration (MPC) or annual limit on intake (ALI) was developed as criteria of reference radionuclides selection. The research concluded that radionuclides inventory, half live, heat generated, hazard index base on MPC or ALI can be used as criteria for selection of reference Radionuclide. The research obtained that the main radionuclides are predicted give the most radiological effect to human are as Cs-137, Sr-90, I-129, Am-243, Cm-244, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240. The radionuclides reasonable to be used as reference radionuclides in safety analysis at spent fuel disposal. (author)

  10. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  11. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  12. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-11-15

    , however, the approximation of equilibrium chemistry is assumed to be sufficient for order of magnitude predictions when a constant inflow of radionuclides is considered. A first sensitivity analysis of the model is performed in which different model parameters have been varied. At the time for the model development, almost no detailed site-specific information about e.g. channel geometry or sediment characteristics were available. Simulations were therefore performed for a hypothetical case, where the ranges of possible parameter values was based on literature information, generalizations from other stream systems and some site-specific information such as large-scale information of the morphology at the present sites. For order of magnitude predictions of the concentration or amount of radionuclides in the different parts of the stream ecosystem, a yearly mean value of the water flow was assumed to be sufficient. Therefore, the further sensitivity analyses were performed for constant flow conditions. The sensitivity analyses indicated that the main retention along the stream is due to uptake within the sediment. Initially, the uptake will cause a retardation of the solute transport. The sediment capacity is however limited and after saturation, the outflow of radionuclides in the longitudinal direction will be completely determined by the inflow to the system. The time for reaching this equilibrium and the equilibrium concentration in the sediment varies however with different conditions and radionuclides, e.g. due to sorption characteristics, sedimentation velocity and advective velocity within the sediment. The degree of variation caused by different factors is, however, different. In the simulations performed in this study, the time for reaching equilibrium ranges from less than a year to a couple of hundred years. For predictions of the dose to humans, the accumulated amount in the sediment should also be considered and not only the concentration in the stream water

  13. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark

    2005-11-01

    , however, the approximation of equilibrium chemistry is assumed to be sufficient for order of magnitude predictions when a constant inflow of radionuclides is considered. A first sensitivity analysis of the model is performed in which different model parameters have been varied. At the time for the model development, almost no detailed site-specific information about e.g. channel geometry or sediment characteristics were available. Simulations were therefore performed for a hypothetical case, where the ranges of possible parameter values was based on literature information, generalizations from other stream systems and some site-specific information such as large-scale information of the morphology at the present sites. For order of magnitude predictions of the concentration or amount of radionuclides in the different parts of the stream ecosystem, a yearly mean value of the water flow was assumed to be sufficient. Therefore, the further sensitivity analyses were performed for constant flow conditions. The sensitivity analyses indicated that the main retention along the stream is due to uptake within the sediment. Initially, the uptake will cause a retardation of the solute transport. The sediment capacity is however limited and after saturation, the outflow of radionuclides in the longitudinal direction will be completely determined by the inflow to the system. The time for reaching this equilibrium and the equilibrium concentration in the sediment varies however with different conditions and radionuclides, e.g. due to sorption characteristics, sedimentation velocity and advective velocity within the sediment. The degree of variation caused by different factors is, however, different. In the simulations performed in this study, the time for reaching equilibrium ranges from less than a year to a couple of hundred years. For predictions of the dose to humans, the accumulated amount in the sediment should also be considered and not only the concentration in the stream water

  14. A study of measurement of the spinal cord of cervical myelopathy with CT-myelography and forecast of operative result from the size of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosawa, Yoshimitsu

    1985-01-01

    The antero-posterior (AP) and transverse (T) diameter and the T area of the spinal canal, dural canal, and spinal cord were measured using CT-myelography (CT-M) in 44 patients with cervical myelopathy (CM) and 20 control subjects. The AP diameter of these canals and cord and the T diameter of the spinal canal were smaller in the CM group than in the control group. Postoperative CT-M showed that the dural canal and spinal cord had an increase in the AP diameter and T area and a decrease in the T diameter. Preoperative symptoms were well correlated with the AP diameter and the T area of the spinal canal, dural canal, and spinal cord, and spinal cord compression. The symptoms tended to be milder with larger AT diameter and T area of the spinal canal, dural canal, and spinal cord and with smaller spinal cord compression and deformity. Functional damage was reversible in patients with slight spinal cord compression. Favorable operative outcome tended to be achieved when the preoperative AP diameter and T area of the spinal cord were ≥ 5 mm and ≥ 50 mm 2 , respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  17. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  18. Radionuclide diagnosis of splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezina, W.C.; Nicholson, R.L.; Cohen, P.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but serious complication of infectious mononucleosis. Although radionuclide spleen imaging is a well accepted method for diagnosis of traumatic rupture, interpretation can be difficult in the setting of mononucleosis, as tears may be ill-defined and diagnosis hampered by inhomogeneous splenic uptake. Four proven cases of spontaneous rupture are presented, three of which illustrate these diagnostic problems

  19. Radionuclide migration in soil within the estrangement zone of ChNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalkin, G.S.; Arkhipov, A.N.; Arkhipov, N.P.; Sukhoruchkin, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of the radionuclide migration and redistribution in soil within the estrangement zone of ChNPP have been discussed. It has been demonstrated that the surface radioactive contamination of soil that has been represented principally by the particles of the waste nuclear fuel eventually migrates into soil depth. In this case the radionuclides remain principally the fuel matrix components, the fuel matrix decomposing gradually and releasing the radionuclides. The mechanisms of the radionuclide migration can be described with the quasi-diffusion migration model in most cases. On the 5th year since the accident the major portion of the radionuclides (95-99%) is still kept within 0-5 cm layer of soil. 3 figs.; 7 tabs

  20. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  1. Alcohol and radionuclide metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Hess, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of ethanol administration on the deposition and retention of polymeric 239 Pu and 241 Am citrate was studied in the rat. Only in the case of polymeric Pu was there an effect of alcohol administration

  2. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  3. Current status of radionuclide imaging in valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.

    1980-12-18

    The current state-of-the-art in radionuclide imaging of valvular heart disease is based on different angiographic patterns in three left-sided valve abnormalities: pressure overload, volume overload, and inflow obstruction. In pressure overload, the left ventricle has normal dimensions or is minimally dilated the volume overload involves a left ventricular dilatation with a normal or reduced ejection fraction at rest the left ventricular function in inflow obstruction is normal, but in some cases may be depressed. Radionuclide angiography evaluates the effect of a valve abnormality on cardiac chamber and function thallium-201 imaging diagnoses regional myocardial blood flow and cell integrity and can evaluate the associated coronary artery disease.

  4. Transfer of radionuclides into and their removal from agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Takizawa, Yukio

    1996-12-31

    Transfer of radionuclides to agricultural products and their removal before ingestion are reviewed briefly. Ingestion of {sup 137}Cs through various food groups were intensively has been studied from 1960s. The results of these studies indicated that cereals were relatively important food groups in Japan, while dairy products were a critical food group in Western countries. However, Westernization of Japanese diet and other factors recently make dairy products more important. In the case of {sup 137}Cs ingestion from the Chernobyl accident, 43% of total {sup 137}Cs intake was ingested through dairy products. The removal of radionuclides from food by washing, preparing and cooking is also discussed. (author)

  5. Current status of radionuclide imaging in valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in radionuclide imaging of valvular heart disease is based on different angiographic patterns in three left-sided valve abnormalities: pressure overload, volume overload, and inflow obstruction. In pressure overload, the left ventricle has normal dimensions or is minimally dilated the volume overload involves a left ventricular dilatation with a normal or reduced ejection fraction at rest the left ventricular function in inflow obstruction is normal, but in some cases may be depressed. Radionuclide angiography evaluates the effect of a valve abnormality on cardiac chamber and function thallium-201 imaging diagnoses regional myocardial blood flow and cell integrity and can evaluate the associated coronary artery disease

  6. Holistic assessment to put mobile radionuclides in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeki, H.

    2009-01-01

    Some radionuclides are inherently more mobile than others in the near- and far-field of repository systems and hence, if long-lived, tend to dominate the calculated doses in normal evolution scenarios. High mobility generally a consequence of high solubility coupled to low sorption does not, however, necessarily mean that a particular radionuclide is problematic in terms of repository safety. A more holistic approach, considering the entire safety case, gives a better indication of the critical nuclides and the R and D required to strengthen the assurance of safety. (author)

  7. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  8. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  9. Radionuclide techniques for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.J.; Moody, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past decade, many of the prime indications for radionuclide brain scanning have become instead indications for CCT, and nuclear medicine studies of the brain have assumed more of a complementary, supportive role. However, there is great promise for improvement in central nervous system radionuclide applications with advances anticipated in both radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation. Nuclear medicine is continuing to function as a powerful research tool and, in the relatively near future, may regain its role as a major clinical test of the central nervous system

  10. Recent research involving the transfer of radionuclides to milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The radionuclides in milk, which result from exposure of dairy cows to radioactive fallout, are a major factor in assessment of internal radiation of humans. To evaluate the radionuclide intake of people from fallout-contaminated milk requires information about feed sources and milk distribution. Pasture intake and the shelf-life of milk are important factors in the case of a short-lived radionuclide like 131 I. Large-scale human radiation assessment studies are underway, all of which consider the dairy food chain as a critical component. These include retrospective studies of fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada site in the 1950s and the impact of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986

  11. Natural radionuclide distribution in phosphate fertilizer and superphosphate production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisachenko, Eh P; Ponikarova, T M; Lisitsyna, Yu Z

    1987-01-01

    The obtained data on the natural radionuclide distribution by phosphate fertilizer and superphosphate production process stages testify to phosphate fertilizer enrichment 2-4 times in relation to initial ore, depending in the raw material used. In this case uranium and thorium series element concentration value (in equilibrium with their decomposition products), proposed as a regulating one in phosphorus-containing fertilizers, is not achieved. However, the fact of lurichment as it is and the enrichment factor, stated in the course of the work, should be taken into account for evaluation of phosphorite new deposit raw material with higher concentrations of natural radionuclides. Natural radionuclide separation in the enrichment process and superphosphate production is not revealed.

  12. Radionuclide therapy for true polycythemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasieva, N.I.; Grushka, G.V.; Vasiliev, L.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: True polycythemia (Vaquez' disease) is the disease of the hemopoietic system of an unknown origin accompanied by increase of erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood with absolute and relative increase in the mass of circulating erythrocytes. True polycythemia is treated with bloodletting and myelosuppressing drugs. This treatment is not always effective. A special place among myelo-depressants is occupied by P-32. Its main therapeutic effect is mediated by the participation in the metabolic processes. Besides DNA damage with beta-radiation, P-32 incorporation by DNA followed by decay and transformation to a stable sulphur isotope (S-32) results in the damage of the structure of nucleic acids, which is main mechanism of cellular proliferation inhibition. Therefore, P-32 is considered a powerful myelosuppressive agent. The indication to P-32 administration is true polycythemia, which, in contrast to secondary polycythemia accompanying numerous diseases, requires special cytostatic treatment. The study involved 152 patients with true polycythemia (76 men and 76 women aged 48) treated with P-32. The treatment was administered in case when bloodletting proved to be ineffective and hematocrit level exceeded 75%. P-32 was administered orally in 100 ml of 10% glucose solution on an empty stomach at a dose of 37-111 MBq with a 4-10-day intervals (mean 6 days). The blood count was checked for 12 weeks. If the number of thrombocytes and leukocytes decreased less than by 25% and the level of hematocrit did not normalize, repeated P-32 treatments were performed. In 13 (8.6%) patients, haematocrit parameters became normal after a single P-32 administration, in 15 (9.9%) patients two treatments with P-32 were necessary to normalize the blood count. In 134 (88.1%) cases P-32 treatment was administered more then two times (maximum 10 treatments). Total P-32 activity ranged from 37 to 740 MBq. Of all the patients who were administered P- 32 treatment, hematological

  13. Macrocyclic complexes of radionuclides in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkowska, A.; Bilewicz, A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of radiometal-labeled small complexes and biomolecules as diagnostic and therapeutic agents is a relatively new area of medical research. Radiopharmaceuticals are radiolabeled molecules designed to deliver ionizing radiation doses to specific disease sites. Between the targeting biomolecule and a radionuclide a bifunctional ligand is inserted, one end of which is covalently attached to the targeting molecule either directly or through a linker whereas the other strongly coordinates a metallic radionuclide. Selection of a bifunctional ligand is largely determined by the nature and oxidation state of a metal ion. The metal chelate can significantly affect the tumor uptake and biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals based on small biomolecules. This is because in many cases the metal chelate contributes greatly to the overall size and lipophilicity of the radiopharmaceutical. Therefore, the design and selection of the ligand is very important for the development of a clinically useful therapeutic agent. The requirement for high thermodynamic and kinetic stability of the metal complex is often achieved through the use of macrocyclic ligands with a functionalized arm for covalent bonding to the biomolecule. In this review synthesis of bifunctional macrocyclic ligands and properties of radionuclide macrocyclic complexes used in nuclear medicine are presented. We describe results in two areas: substituted macrocyclic aza ligands for chelation of hard metal cations, and macrocycles containing sulphur for complexation of soft metal cations. Special attention was paid to stability of the complexes as well as to their lipophilicity, which affect biological properties of the formed radiopharmaceuticals. We also include a forecast of the near-term opportunities that are likely to determine practice in the next few years. (authors)

  14. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  15. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  16. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  17. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  18. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author) [pt

  19. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  20. Influence of the composition of radionuclide mixtures on the maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillinger, K.; Schuricht, V.

    1975-08-01

    By dividing radionuclides according to their formation mechanisms it is possible to assess the influence of separate partial mixtures on the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of the total mixture without knowing exactly their contribution to the total activity. Calculations showed that the MPC of a total mixture of unsoluble radionuclides, which may occur in all fields of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, depends on the gastrointestinal tract as the critical organ and on the composition of the fission product mixture. The influence of fractionation on the MPC can be reglected in such a case, whereas in case of soluble radionuclides this is not possible

  1. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem at Oeregrundsgrepen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erichsen, Anders Christian; Moehlenberg, Flemming; Closter, Rikke Margrethe; Sandberg, Johannes

    2010-06-01

    -stationary equilibrium within the model area. The coupled ecosystem and radionuclide models were used to simulate present conditions, i.e. 2020 AD. Six radionuclides were modelled explicitly in addition to C-14. They represent a wide range of accumulation potentials and partition coefficients (K d , distribution of radionuclides between water, sediment and biota). The ecosystem and associated radionuclide model include a detailed sediment module where radionuclides can be bound by adsorption to the organic and inorganic fractions, be precipitated, be transported by resuspension and later deposited at larger depths. With the exception of radionuclides with very low particle affinity, such as Cl-35, the majority of radionuclides released in basins where they were introduced via groundwater flow remained in the sediments even after a simulation period of eight years. The spread of radionuclides with high partition coefficients for sediments from areas with groundwater flow takes place by sediment resuspension and subsequent transport and sedimentation. In the case of radionuclides with lower partition coefficients, release from the sediments to the water column followed by transport of dissolved radionuclides by currents plays a larger role. A significant result of the modelling was the quantification of the seasonal and spatial variation in radionuclide accumulation and in bioconcentration factors (BCFs) with spatial variation of BCFs often ranging 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. This variation was dominated by spatial differences in concentrations of radionuclides in water. In basins where radionuclides were introduced by groundwater flow, BCFs were typically 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than in deep basins without radionuclide release in the groundwater. In phytoplankton and grazers, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) scaled linearly to partition coefficients (Kd), underlining the fact that adsorption is an important process for radionuclide accumulation in the lower parts of the food web

  3. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem at Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erichsen, Anders Christian; Moehlenberg, Flemming; Closter, Rikke Margrethe; Sandberg, Johannes [DHI, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2010-06-15

    -stationary equilibrium within the model area. The coupled ecosystem and radionuclide models were used to simulate present conditions, i.e. 2020 AD. Six radionuclides were modelled explicitly in addition to C-14. They represent a wide range of accumulation potentials and partition coefficients (K{sub d}, distribution of radionuclides between water, sediment and biota). The ecosystem and associated radionuclide model include a detailed sediment module where radionuclides can be bound by adsorption to the organic and inorganic fractions, be precipitated, be transported by resuspension and later deposited at larger depths. With the exception of radionuclides with very low particle affinity, such as Cl-35, the majority of radionuclides released in basins where they were introduced via groundwater flow remained in the sediments even after a simulation period of eight years. The spread of radionuclides with high partition coefficients for sediments from areas with groundwater flow takes place by sediment resuspension and subsequent transport and sedimentation. In the case of radionuclides with lower partition coefficients, release from the sediments to the water column followed by transport of dissolved radionuclides by currents plays a larger role. A significant result of the modelling was the quantification of the seasonal and spatial variation in radionuclide accumulation and in bioconcentration factors (BCFs) with spatial variation of BCFs often ranging 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. This variation was dominated by spatial differences in concentrations of radionuclides in water. In basins where radionuclides were introduced by groundwater flow, BCFs were typically 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than in deep basins without radionuclide release in the groundwater. In phytoplankton and grazers, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) scaled linearly to partition coefficients (Kd), underlining the fact that adsorption is an important process for radionuclide accumulation in the lower parts of the food web

  4. Cisternal myelography in dogs. Comparative study between Iopamidol and Metrizamide; Mielografia en caninos. Estudio comparativo entre Iopamidol y Metrizamida via cisterna magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibaut, J.; Silva, C. G.; Vargas, L.; Born, R.; Deppe, R.

    1992-07-01

    With the aim of comparing two contrast medium utilized in myelography 12 adult dogs of both sexes and grouped into two groups (G1 and G2) of six dog each, were used. Both groups were previously anesthetized with sodium thiopental (20 mg/kg). Group 1 was injected via Cisterna magna into the subarachnoid space with metrizamide (Amipaque 6.75) in doses of 0,33 cc/kg. Group 2 was injected with iopamidol (Niopam 300) in doses of 0,26 cc/kg. For each animal, three series of four radiographs each were taken in ventro-dorsal and lateral projections at 5, 15 and 20 minutes after administering the contrast medium. During the course of the study, the dogs remained inclined in 20 deg in craneo-caudal direction in order to promote the caudal migration of the contrast medium. Radiographic plates of each dog obtained with the different treatments were simultaneously analyzed, comparing the characteristics of: advance speed of the contrast medium, the radiographic density and outlines and the possible appearance of adverse effects. Advance speed of the contrast medium into the subarachnoid space was greater with iopamidol, reaching an average of 20 vertebrae in the ventro-dorsal projection and an average of 21 vertebrae in the lateral projection. On the other hand metrizamide reached an average of 14 vertebrae in the ventro-dorsal projection and 16 vertebrae in the lateral projection. Radiographic density was lower with iopamidol, especially at 15 minutes allowing a greater contrast and therefore a better sight of the medullar structure. With regard to the outlines, these were neater with iopamidol, while with metizamide the outline was neat after 5 minutes, then became diffuse 15 and 20 minutes after being injected. No side effects were observed with the use of both contrast media.

  5. Projected radionuclide inventories of DWPF glass from current waste at time of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require that the DWPF estimate the inventory of long-lived radionuclides present in the waste glass, and report the values in the Waste Form Qualification Report. In this report, conservative (biased high) estimates of the radionuclide inventory of glass produced from waste currently in the Tank Farm are provided. In most cases, these calculated values compare favorably with actual data. In those cases where the agreement is not good, the values reported here are conservative

  6. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the oxygen

  7. Stabilization of radionuclides applied in radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielcarski, M.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt of comprehensive treatment of problems connected with the production of sealed radiation sources is made. In the introductory part of this work the basic information and definitions are contained. The classification systems currently applied are discussed. Attention was paid to the main fields of application. The methods of stabilization of radionuclides used for preparing radiation sources are discussed. The results of own investigations are presented, comprising the adsorption of some radionuclides on anodic Al 2 O 3 layers, stabilization in glazes and enamels, and the preparation of radioactive ceramics. In the adsorption investigations, these problems were considered as predominant which could form the basis for technological solutions. The results obtained allowed to establish the most favourable conditions of performing the process of stabilization by the use of this technique. In the case of radioactive enamels, the effect of glass composition on the yield of ionization has been investigated. Lowering of the content of radioactive component with simultaneous preserving the useful ionization ability was considered as being important. The mechanism of the observed increase of ionization caused by some inactive glass components is discussed. As concerns radioactive ceramics, a simplified method for preparing the ceramic core of cesium-137 sources is presented. This synthesis is based on the thermal transformation of moulded zeolite pellets into radioactive pollucite. Practical usefulness of different methods for the stabilization is discussed with emphasis given to those elaborated and applied in Poland. 131 refs., 37 figs., 20 tabs. (author)

  8. Transfer soil-wood of radionuclides of uranium decay series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, P.; Petschat, U.; Schmidt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclide transfer soil-plant is an essential feature for radioecological characterisation of the biosphere. Beside of plants used only for nutrition purposes also plants have to be investigated which are used otherwise intensively or over long periods by humans. This e.g. comes true in the case of wood which as timber or furniture in buildings could be the reason of radiation expositions of inhabitants. In this work by means of experimental investigations for 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 227 Ac transfer factors of wood grown on areas used formerly by uranium mining are estimated. The dependence of transfer factors on specific activity in soil is determined. It is shown that in the case of higher soil activities transfer factors of wood are comparable with factors published for other vegetation. As a rule no linear dependence of plant activity on soil activity has been found. As known from other radionuclides saturations take place which result in an upper level of activity in the plants. An effective dose estimation in the case of typical applications shows as a rule no remarkable radioecological risk due to wood grown on mining areas with the exception of processes including radionuclide enrichment. In latter cases and for wood grown on areas with soil activities >1 000 Bq/kg with respect to a general radiation protection precaution duty and aspects of licence problems, however, a case-to-case decision is recommended. (orig.) [de

  9. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  10. Noninvasive assessment of right ventricular wall motion by radionuclide cardioangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Naito, Hiroaki; Hayashida, Kohei; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide cardioangiography is a useful method to evaluate the left ventricular wall motion in various heart diseases. It has been also attempted to assess the right ventricular wall motion simultaneously by radionuclide method. In this study, using the combination of first-pass (RAO 30 0 ) and multi-gate (LAO 40 0 ) method, the site of right vetricle was classified in five. (1 inflow, 2 sinus, 3 outflow, 4 septal, 5 lateral) and the degree of wall motion was classified in four stages (dyskinesis, akinesis, hypokinesis, normal) according to the AHA committee report. These methods were applied clinically to forty-eight patients with various heart diseases. In the cases with right ventricular pressure or volume overload such as COLD, pulmonary infarction, the right ventricle was dilated and the wall motion was reduced in all portions. Especially, in the cases with right ventricular infarction, the right ventricular wall motion was reduced in the infarcted area. The findings of radionuclide method were in good agreement with those of contrast right ventriculography or echocardiography. In conclusion, radionuclide cardioangiography is a useful and noninvasive method to assess not only the left but also the right ventricular wall motion. (author)

  11. Current technology in sampling for airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    Sampling for airborne radionuclides is an important part of assessing the occupational environment and that of the public or out-plant environment. Both of these are important to the operation of any nuclear facility. Most such facilities do not emit radionuclides continuously to any extent and hence both the occupational and environmental sampling system is designed to detect deviations from normal conditions or untoward events. Work with materials of a low degree of radioactivity or with nonradioactive materials may involve operations which are not enclosed and significant contaminating material may always exist in the air. In this case, the sampling is directed toward measuring this ambient level and assessing its continued impact on the worker and on the environment. Publication No. 12 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection specifies the types of operations where sampling is necessary for worker protection and the American National Standards Institute publication N 13.1-1969 is a guide to the methods used. Increasingly, this field is covered by various regulations which specify when sampling must be done and, in some cases, how it shall be done. These include requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Needless to say, where these have specified methods they must be followed although in most cases exact procedures are not detailed as requirements. Within the plant, needs for sampling are often suggested by surface monitoring results and by bioassay, and outside by analysis of plants, soils, and material from fallout trays. 15 references

  12. The distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides from ores processing to the environment - a case study of milling and treatment of ores for gold in Golden Star Resources of Bogoso Prestea Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbadago, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    This research work was geared towards studying the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides from the processing stages of oxide and sulphide ores for gold to the critical environment of the Golden Star Resources of Bogoso Prestea Limited in the Western region of Ghana. The study was carried out by measuring the natural radionuclide contents of raw feed ore and pulp samples from physical and chemical processing stages of oxide and sulphide ore treatment plants; tailings; de-silted sediments of a run-off from the tailings dam vicinity through a critical community and; soils and drinking water from the critical community. Also, as part of a comprehensive approach, the geochemical compositions were measured to determine any possible influence on the radionuclide distributions. Amongst the radionuclide decay chains, 238 U-series were the dominant throughout all the measurements. However, the concentrations are lower than the world permissible limits. The indicative doses associated with the activity concentration distributions in the processed feed ores at various processing stages ranged from 2 to 70 μSv/y in the oxide plant and from 2 to 108 μSv/y for the sulphide plant. If effective dose of ≤ 10 μSv/y recommended by IAEA for exemption from regulatory control is applied, the processing of ores in the plants must be regulated. However, the estimated annual effective dose received by the workers from any of these stages of operation did not exceed the range of 1-2 mSv recommended by the ICRP-75 (10 μSv/y ≤ Effective dose ≤ 1-2 mSv/y) for the exemption of a practice. This range is far lower than the annual occupational dose limit of 20 mSv/y recommended by IAEA for artificial radioactive sources. Imposing the IAEA recommendation of effective dose of ? 10 μSv/y for exemption from regulatory control of practices could result in many mining and other NORMs industries being regulated without any net benefit in terms of risk reduction. Conversely, Sn, As

  13. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    studied radionuclides. (4) The biokinetics of a radionuclide in the human body typically represents the greatest source of uncertainty or variability in dose per unit intake. (5) Characterization of uncertainty in dose per unit exposure is generally a more straightforward problem for external exposure than for intake of a radionuclide. (6) For many radionuclides the most important outcome of a large-scale critical evaluation of databases and biokinetic models for radionuclides is expected to be the improvement of current models. Many of the current models do not fully or accurately reflect available radiobiological or physiological information, either because the models are outdated or because they were based on selective or uncritical use of data or inadequate model structures. In such cases the models should be replaced with physiologically realistic models that incorporate a wider spectrum of information.

  14. Radionuclides in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I in cow's milk from all Nordic countries for the NWF and the post-Chernobyl periods have previously been collated in an excel database. In 2004 the database was further extended by including new data from Finland, Sweden and Norway. In order to explain the time development of contamination in different Nordic regions dual regression analyses of some selected time-series were performed. Since the NWF period was subject to similar investigations in previous year's report, the present study focused on the post-Chernobyl period (1986-). Effective ecological half lives of Cs- 137 in milk from 12 regions were estimated. The fast component (T1) was about 1 year for all series (except Sandnessjoeen in Norway), while the slow component (T2) was more variable (7-13 years) - and in some cases not applicable. (au)

  15. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy as a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, the post-Cold War era, and the transition between the two. This provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified. (author)

  16. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  17. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.; Jungerman, J.A.; DeNardo, G.L.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Cole, W.C.; Meares, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  18. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  19. Applications of radionuclides in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1955-01-01

    After a brief recall of a few concepts (mass number, charge and beams properties) and the description of used detectors (ionization chamber, Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counters), some radionuclides applications are described. In a first part, the well-developed applications are presented in three distinct groups: continuous applications such as β and γ gauges (determination hydrogen content of an hydrocarbon and content of an emulsion; discharge of static electricity), discontinuous applications such as radiography and autoradiography, wear or manufacture problems (distribution of a fungicide on tobacco) and finally, applications in research laboratories such as diffusion, exchange and solubility. It also describes the applications which are still in development such as the action of beams on matter (reticulation and degradation of polymers, monomers polymerisation, cold sterilization). In conclusion, few advices on the opportunity of such applications and the choice of the radionuclides are given. (M.P.)

  20. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  1. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  2. Comparison in myelography between iodixanol 270 and 320 mgI/ml and iotrolan 300 mgI/ml: a multicentre, randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, phase III trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmers, Yvan; Kuhn, Fritz-Peter; Petersen, Dirk; De Greef, Danielle

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the trial was to compare the safety and efficacy of the non-ionic, dimeric, isotonic contrast medium iodixanol (Visipaque 270 and 320 mgI/ml) with those of iotrolan (Isovist 300 mgI/ml) in myelography. After lumbar or cervical puncture, 315 patients were examined in a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, comparative myelography study. Image quality, changes in vital signs, immediate and delayed adverse events were registered. There was a tendency for better images with iodixanol 320 than with iodixanol 270 and iotrolan 300, but the overall quality was good or excellent with all products. The frequency of patients reporting adverse events and headache varied much across centres, but there was no statistically significant difference between the contrast media. The incidence of events was higher after lumbar puncture than after cervical puncture, in women rather than in men, and after puncture with a 22-gauge (G) bevel-tipped needle compared with a 24 G Sprotte needle. The frequency of headache did not correlate with the absence of pathology. The higher iodine concentration in iodixanol 320 could be an advantage for film quality. When compared with iotrolan 300, iodixanol 320 and 270 give similar incidences of adverse events, including headache. (orig.)

  3. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolevatov, Yu.I.; Trykov, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252 Cf base with the activity from 10 6 to 10 9 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  4. Radionuclide diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL

    1980-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum can be detected with a high degree of accuracy by radionuclide scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate. The technique is without risk and should precede roentgenographic studies when the diagnosis is suspected. The method is described and the causes for false positive and false negative examinations are discussed. False negatives are rare and false positives are usually secondary to other surgical entities. Overall accuracy is 85 to 90%. (orig.) [de

  5. Radionuclides for therapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, H.; Noelpp, U.; Triller, K.J.; Steffen, R.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in angiographic techniques has been a gradual evolutionary development which now permits the selective and superselective access to a tumor's vascular bed. A diagnostic angiographic procedure can be supplemented by a one-step, quick application of embolizing radioactive material. This endoarterial radionuclide embolizing tumor therapy has the maximum selectivity among radiotherapeutic methods, with the highest radiation doses to the tumor and neglectible exposure of normal tissue. Spread of radioactivity by diffusion or leaching can be prevented

  6. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Amorim, E.S. do; Panetta, J.

    1979-05-01

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author) [pt

  7. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  8. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  9. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  10. Retention of Radionuclides in Halite and Anhydrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Platz, O.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction between a series of radionuclides, comprising **1**3**4Cs** plus , **8**5Sr**2** plus , **6**0Co**2** plus , **1**5**4Eu**3** plus , **2**4**1Am**3** plus , and **9**9Tc (as TcO//4** minus ) and halite (NaCl) and anhydrite (CaSO//4), respectively, has been investigated. It appears...... for europium and americium, respectively. Impuritites in the halite, such as hematite or anhydrite strongly increase the sorption efficiency. In these cases also cobalt, and to a minor extent cesium and strontium, was found to be sorbed. Anhydrite was found to sorb all metal cations studied. The sorption...

  11. Volcanic emission of radionuclides and magma dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, G.; Le Cloarec, M.F.; Ardouin, B.; Le Roulley, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po, the last decay products of the 238 U series, are highly enriched in volcanic plumes, relative to the magma composition. Moreover this enrichment varies over time and from volcano to volcano. A model is proposed to describe 8 years of measurements of Mt. Etna gaseous emissions. The lead and bismuth coefficients of partition between gaseous and condensated phases in the magma are determined by comparing their concentrations in lava flows and condensated volatiles. In the case of volatile radionuclides, an escaping time is calculated which appears to be related to the volcanic activity. Finally, it is shown that that magma which is degassing can already be partly degassed; it should be considered as a mixture of a few to 50% of deep non-degassed magma with a well degassed superficial magma cell. (orig.)

  12. Numerical solution of the radionuclide transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, J.; Roesel, F.

    1983-11-01

    A numerical solution of the one-dimensional geospheric radionuclide chain transport equation based on the pseudospectral method is developed. The advantages of this approach are flexibility in incorporating space and time dependent migration parameters, arbitrary boundary conditions and solute rock interactions as well as efficiency and reliability. As an application the authors investigate the impact of non-linear sorption isotherms on migration in crystalline rock. It is shown that non-linear sorption, in the present case a Freundlich isotherm, may reduce concentration at the geosphere outlet by orders of magnitude provided the migration time is comparable or larger than the half-life of the nuclide in question. The importance of fixing dispersivity within the continuum approach is stressed. (Auth.)

  13. Radionuclide fractionation in a forest soil profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.; Rauret, G.

    1996-01-01

    Two alternative approaches, a sequential extraction scheme and the calculation of the variation of the distribution coefficient of radiocaesium in different K-Ca N H 4 scenarios, were used to study the behaviour and fractionation of this radionuclide in a forest soil profile. The first approach was applied to samples originating from an experiment in which the original L(litter) layer was replaced by an L layer contaminated with a radioactive aerosol, allowing a downward migration of radiocaesium. The samples belonged to different stages after the contamination. The second approach was applied to samples contaminated with soluble radiocaesium. The results indicate that the mineral matter seems to govern the behaviour of radiocaesium in case of direct condensed deposition or when radiocaesium is released from structural components of the organic matter phase. (author). 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  15. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  16. Compilation of data for radionuclide transport analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This report is one of the supporting documents to the updated safety assessment (project SAFE) of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste, SFR 1. A number of calculation cases for quantitative analysis of radionuclide release and dose to man are defined based on the expected evolution of the repository, geosphere and biosphere in the Base Scenario and other scenarios selected. The data required by the selected near field, geosphere and biosphere models are given and the values selected for the calculations are compiled in tables. The main sources for the selected values of the migration parameters in the repository and geosphere models are the safety assessment of a deep repository for spent fuel, SR 97, and the preliminary safety assessment of a repository for long-lived, low- and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5. For the biosphere models, both site-specific data and generic values of the parameters are selected. The applicability of the selected parameter values is discussed and the uncertainty is qualitatively addressed for data to the repository and geosphere migration models. Parameter values selected for these models are in general pessimistic in order not to underestimate the radionuclide release rates. It is judged that this approach combined with the selected calculation cases will illustrate the effects of uncertainties in processes and events that affects the evolution of the system as well as in quantitative data that describes this. The biosphere model allows for probabilistic calculations and the uncertainty in input data are quantified by giving minimum, maximum and mean values as well as the type of probability distribution function.

  17. Compilation of data for radionuclide transport analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    This report is one of the supporting documents to the updated safety assessment (project SAFE) of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste, SFR 1. A number of calculation cases for quantitative analysis of radionuclide release and dose to man are defined based on the expected evolution of the repository, geosphere and biosphere in the Base Scenario and other scenarios selected. The data required by the selected near field, geosphere and biosphere models are given and the values selected for the calculations are compiled in tables. The main sources for the selected values of the migration parameters in the repository and geosphere models are the safety assessment of a deep repository for spent fuel, SR 97, and the preliminary safety assessment of a repository for long-lived, low- and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5. For the biosphere models, both site-specific data and generic values of the parameters are selected. The applicability of the selected parameter values is discussed and the uncertainty is qualitatively addressed for data to the repository and geosphere migration models. Parameter values selected for these models are in general pessimistic in order not to underestimate the radionuclide release rates. It is judged that this approach combined with the selected calculation cases will illustrate the effects of uncertainties in processes and events that affects the evolution of the system as well as in quantitative data that describes this. The biosphere model allows for probabilistic calculations and the uncertainty in input data are quantified by giving minimum, maximum and mean values as well as the type of probability distribution function

  18. A dynamic phantom for radionuclide renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and test a dynamic phantom simulating radionuclide renography. The phantom consisted of five partly lead covered plastic containers simulating kidneys, heart, bladder and background (soft tissues, liver and spleen). Dynamics were performed with multiple movable steel plates between containers and a gamma camera. Control of the plates is performed manually with a stopwatch following exact time schedules. The containers were filled with activities ( 99m Tc) which produce count rates close to clinical situations. Count rates produced by the phantom were compared with ten clinical renography cases: five 99m Tc MAG3 and five 99m Tc DTPA examinations. Two phantom simulations were repeated three times with separate fillings, acquisitions and analyses. Precision errors as a coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated measurements were calculated and theoretical values were compared with the corresponding measured ones. A multicentre comparison was made between 19 nuclear medicine laboratories and three clinical cases were simulated with the phantom. Correlations between count rates produced by the phantom and clinical studies were r=0.964 for 99m Tc MAG3 (p 99m Tc DTPA (p max was 4.0±1.6%. Images and curves of the scanned phantom were close to a real patient in all 19 laboratories but calculated parameters varied: the difference between theoretical and measured values for T max was 6.8±6.2%. The difference between laboratories is most probably due to variations in acquisition protocols and analysis programs: 19 laboratories with 18 different protocols and 8 different programs. The dynamics were found to be repeatable and suitable for calibration purposes for radionuclide renography programs and protocols as well as for multicentre comparisons. (author)

  19. Reuse of Material Containing Natural Radionuclides - 12444

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.J. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    radioactive waste containing natural radionuclides. All materials originated from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village are subjected to the obligatory radiation control. The decision to use the wooden beams shall enter into force after agreement with the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision bodies. Conclusions: 1 - The wooden beam originated from the house demolition in Octyabrsky village might be used as the construction material only in case of compliance with the requirements of the regulatory documents, as well as under approval of the authorities responsible for the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision in this area. 2 - The industrial control is introduced to verify the compliance with the current regulations. 3 - The material originated from the house demolition might be used only if such usage does not cause increasing radiation exposure to the public. (authors)

  20. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  1. Effect of organic complexants on the mobility of low-level-waste radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1982-02-01

    The effect of certain organic complexants on the distribution of some radionuclides between solution and soil has been measured. The complexants and radionuclides examined are some of those most likely to be present in low-level waste disposal sites; Cs, Sr, Ni, Co, and Eu radionuclides, and EDTA, DTPA, oxalate, and citrate complexants. The effect of complexants was found to vary widely; in some systems there was no effect and in other systems there were large effects. In some cases slow rates of reaction have not allowed equilibrium measurements to be made

  2. Analysis of radionuclide transport through fissured porous media with a perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banat, M [JGC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents a specific procedure for obtaining solutions for the transport of radionuclides in a fissured porous media. The concentration profiles are deduced for a wide range of Peclet numbers using a perturbation method with a multiscale of time. Results show clearly that because of an increase of longitudinal dispersion, the radionuclide moves faster with respect to the case of zero dispersion (i.e. an infinite Peclet number). The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the practical advantage of the present calculation method with respect to the classical numerical and analytical methods used for radionuclide transport. (author).

  3. MIGFRAC - a code for modelling of radionuclide transport in fracture media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyanarayana, S.V.M.; Mohankumar, N.; Sasidhar, P.

    2002-05-01

    Radionuclides migrate through diffusion process from radioactive waste disposal facilities into fractures present in the host rock. The transport phenomenon is aided by the circulating ground waters. To model the transport of radionuclides in the charnockite rock formations present at Kalpakkam, a numerical code - MIGFRAC has been developed at SHINE Group, IGCAR. The code has been subjected to rigorous tests and the results of the build up of radionuclide concentrations are validated with a test case up to a distance of 100 meter along the fracture. The report discusses the model, code features and the results obtained up to a distance of 400 meter are presented. (author)

  4. Elimination of radionuclides and heavy metals from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarcik, I.; Cipakova, A.; Palagyl, S.

    1994-01-01

    Sorption and desorption of radionuclides and heavy metals, their vertical migration and gradual extraction from soils were studied. Tessier sequential extraction method was used for determination the physicochemical forms of radionuclides and heavy metals absorbed by root system of plants and leached into ground water. Fixed forms of heavy metals and radionuclides are prevailing in soils. As to artificial ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs) isotope ratio of fixed forms bound with soil components, it is higher for 137 Cs (black earth - 95%, sandy soil - 62%) as compared to 90 Sr. Mobilization procedures for elimination of unfavourable influence of these pollutants in soils were used. The bacteria Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus l. are applied for this purpose. At the same time the growing of technical plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Brassica napus L. var.) was studied as a method for mobilizing the heavy metals and radionuclides from soils. Retardation influence of bacteria on 85 Sr was noticed after as much as 3 months. The sum of water-soluble and exchangeable fractions reached 60%. Values of Cs distribution proved that microorganisms or plants used had no appreciable influence on Cs-mobility. After 3 months the relative ratio of accessible fraction increased with about 5%. As to heavy metals, both bacteria and plant growing influenced their retardation. In the case of Cd, one month operation of microorganisms resulted in important increase of easily available Cd-ratio (about 25%) in soils. (author)

  5. Modeling of radionuclide migration through porous material with meshless method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrankar, L.; Turk, G.; Runovc, F.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the long term safety of a radioactive waste disposal system, mathematical models are used to describe groundwater flow, chemistry and potential radionuclide migration through geological formations. A number of processes need to be considered when predicting the movement of radionuclides through the geosphere. The most important input data are obtained from field measurements, which are not completely available for all regions of interest. For example, the hydraulic conductivity as an input parameter varies from place to place. In such cases geostatistical science offers a variety of spatial estimation procedures. Methods for solving the solute transport equation can also be classified as Eulerian, Lagrangian and mixed. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is usually obtained by finite difference methods (FDM), finite element methods (FEM), or finite volume methods (FVM). Kansa introduced the concept of solving partial differential equations using radial basis functions (RBF) for hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic PDEs. Our goal was to present a relatively new approach to the modelling of radionuclide migration through the geosphere using radial basis function methods in Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates. Radionuclide concentrations will also be calculated in heterogeneous and partly heterogeneous 2D porous media. We compared the meshless method with the traditional finite difference scheme. (author)

  6. Risk-informed assessment of radionuclide release from dissolution of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae M., E-mail: tae.ahn@nrc.gov

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Dissolution of HLW waste form was assessed with long-term risk informed approach. • The radionuclide release rate decreases with time from the initial release rate. • Fast release radionuclides can be dispersed with discrete container failure time. • Fast release radionuclides can be restricted by container opening area. • Dissolved radionuclides may be further sequestered by sorption or others means. - Abstract: This paper aims to detail the different parameters to be considered for use in an assessment of radionuclide release. The dissolution of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste glass was considered for risk and performance insights in a generic disposal system for more than 100,000 years. The probabilistic performance assessment includes the waste form, container, geology, and hydrology. Based on the author’s previous extended work and data from the literature, this paper presents more detailed specific cases of (1) the time dependence of radionuclide release, (2) radionuclide release coupled with container failure (rate-limiting process), (3) radionuclide release through the opening area of the container and cladding, and (4) sequestration of radionuclides in the near field after container failure. These cases are better understood for risk and performance insights. The dissolved amount of waste form is not linear with time but is higher at first. The radionuclide release rate from waste form dissolution can be constrained by container failure time. The partial opening area of the container surface may decrease radionuclide release. Radionuclides sequestered by various chemical reactions in the near field of a failed container may become stable with time as the radiation level decreases with time.

  7. Phytoremediation of radionuclides: an emerging alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shraddha

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of nuclear power industry, nuclear weapon testing, dismantling of existing nuclear weapons and occasional accidents have contributed to an enhancement in the level of radionuclides in the environment. The radionuclides due to their long half life and transfer through the food chain effect adversely to normal biological systems. Hence, it is essential to effectively remove the radionuclides from contaminated soils and solutions. Phytoremediation - the use of plants for remediation of toxic metals and radionuclides has been recognized as an aesthetically pleasing, low cost and environment friendly in situ method. Phytoremediation is an umbrella term which covers several plant based approaches. Plants have shown the potential of remediation of these radionuclides from spiked solutions, low level nuclear waste and soil. Various aspects of phytoremediation as well as potential of various plants for remediation of radionuclides will be discussed here. (author)

  8. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  9. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  10. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  11. Evaluation of the specificity of radionuclide myocardial imaging for detecting CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiujie

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate the specificity of radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD), 50 patients with normal coronary arteriography and radionuclide myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were analysed. The results from 201 T1 (20 cases) and 99m Tc-MIBI (30 cases) studies showed that out of 33 patients with no organic cardiovascular disease, 29 had normal myocardial imaging, and the specificity of radionuclide myocardial imaging for detecting CAD was 87.8%. 4 normal young women had false positive myocardial imaging. Out of 17 patients with cardiovascular disease and normal coronary arteriography, 15 patients had abnormal myocardial imaging. The final clinical diagnoses of these 15 patients were: 4 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 3 with old myocardial infarction, 2 with myocarditis, 3 with small coronary vessel disease, 1 with congestive cardiomyopathy, and 2 with other cardiac disorder. The points of differentiation between CAD and other cardiovascular disease using radionuclide techniques were discussed

  12. DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2

  13. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  14. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajzikova, Anna; Smrcek, Stanislav; Kozempel, Jan; Vlk, Martin; Barta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide ( 227 Ac, 227 Th, 223 Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  15. Radionuclide Activity Concentrations in Spas of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Palacios, M.

    2011-01-01

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters often have a very high mineral content because solubility increases with temperature. Ground waters are in close contact with soil and rocks containing radium. Once formed by decay from radium, radon gas (Rn-222) may diffuse through rocks pores and geological discontinuities and may dissolve in these waters. Radon and other natural radionuclides are transported to the surface where radon can easily diffuse into the atmosphere. Then it may be possible to find out significant radon levels at places like geothermal spas. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public. Three passive methods were used to measure radon in air. One of them is an screening method based on the radon adsorption on activated charcoal. The other two methods are time integrated ones, CR-39 or Makrofol tracks detectors, which can be exposed between two and three months. To characterize waters other natural radionuclides have been also measured. Uranium concentration was measured by fluorimetry. Ra-226 and Pb-210 measurements were performed by radiochemical methods and liquid scintillation. The results obtained were compared with the guidelines values recommended by WHO and EPA for drinking waters and, in the case of radon in air, the results were compared with values established by BSS-115. In order to assess worker doses, the higher value measured for radon in air and real scenario data were taken into account. Moreover, in situ dose rate measurements were also performed and then compared with natural background values. In relation with water characterization, almost all values obtained for the geothermal waters analyzed were below the corresponding guidance levels. Taking into account the highest value measured of radon

  16. Environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behaviour of the radionuclides making the major contribution to man's irradiation through diet is described. The following stages are emphasized: transfer of radionuclides to plants; transfer of radionuclides to animals; metabolism of inhaled or ingested radionuclides in animals providing food for man; transfer of radionuclides through the aquatic environment; application of food chain models. (43 references)

  17. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  18. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  19. Considering clay rock heterogeneity in radionuclide retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.; Montavon, G.; Tournassat, C.; Giffaut, E.; Altmann, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock formation has a strong retention capacity for radionuclides, a favorable condition for the implementation of a nuclear waste repository. Principal retaining minerals are illite, and inter-stratified illite/smectite (I/S). Radionuclide retention has been studied on illite, illite/smectite and on clay rock obtained from different locations and data for retention on bentonite (80% smectite) are available. Sorption depends on the type of mineral, composition of mineralogical assemblages, individual mineral ion exchange capacities, ion distribution on exchange sites, specific surface areas, surface site types and densities for surface complexation as well as on water/rock ratios, temperature etc. As a consequence of mineralogical and textural variations, radionuclide retention properties are expected to vary with depth in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation. Using a simple additivity approach for the case of sorption of Cs and Ni it is shown that models and databases for illite and bentonite can be used to describe sorption in heterogeneous clay rock systems. A surface complexation/ion-exchange model as proposed by Bradbury and Baeyens without electrostatic contributions, was used directly as far as acid base properties are concerned but was modified with respect to sorption constants, in order to describe Na-, Ca, and Cs montmorillonite and bentonite MX-80 with a single set of surface complexation constants and also to account for carbonate and sulphate concentrations in groundwater. The model is integrated into the geochemical code PHREEQC considering dissolution/ precipitation/solubility constraints of accessory minerals (calcite, illite, celestite, quartz). Site densities for surface complexation and ion exchange are derived from the mass fractions of illite and of smectite in illite/smectite obtained from an overall fit of measured CEC data from all samples of the EST205 drill core

  20. Use of radioanalytical methods for the control of contamination of environmental objects with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimakov, E.I.; Lazarev, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Stable isotope and non isotope carriers (their chemical form and quantity) exert: strong influence on regularities of radionuclide migration by biologic and food chains. The method of multiple isotope dilution enables one to identify and quantitatively estimate radionuclide and its isotope carrier content and in a number of cases to find out chemical form of element dislocation in the determined sample also with quantitative estimation

  1. Medical application of radionuclides and the resulting radiation exposure of parts of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, K.D.; Gloebel, B.; Andres, C.

    1985-01-01

    In a big hospital an investigation was made to find out to what extent the radionuclides used there contribute to the radiation exposure of the population living in the vicinity. The hospital used about 100 Ci of short-lived radionuclides a year. By applying the calculation basis stipulated by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, the radiation exposure was calculated for unfavourable cases. As a result, up to 30 mrem/a can theoretically be reached. (orig.) [de

  2. Application and validation of predictive computer programs describing the chemistry of radionuclides in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, M.; Duffield, J.R.; Griffiths, P.J.F.; Williams, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Chemval is an international project concerned with improving the data used to model the speciation chemistry of radionuclide migration from underground waste disposal sites. Chemval has two main aims: to produce a reliable database of thermodynamic equilibrium constants for use in such chemical modelling; to perform a series of test-case modelling exercises based upon real site and field data to verify and validate the existing tools used for simulating the chemical speciation and the transport of radionuclides in the environment

  3. Radionuclide transport through heteogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, J.

    1980-01-01

    One-dimensional radionuclide migration for conevective water transport with sorption and longitudinal dispersion is investigated. A semianalytic solution for layered media with piecewise constant parametes can be written when taking into account mass conservation and approximate flux conservation at interlayer boundaries. The solution is analytic in the first layer and allows for a recursive calculation in the following layers. Scaling laws for the relevant parameters can be formulated. Numerical examples exhibit the importance of at least a single highly sorbing layer. Small values of dispersivity may not lead to a conservative estimate of conservation at the geological column's end

  4. Radionuclide transfer to meadow vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Matsko, N.; Zhebrakova, I.; Montik, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper results of radioecological monitoring of natural plant populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Polesky State Radioecological Reserve) during the period from 1987 to 1998 are presented. The level of radiation background in experimental areas varied from 0.1 to 30 mR/h that correspond to the total soil activity of 300-24000 kBq/m 2 (for May 1997). Monitoring was carried out including the radionuclide migration in natural plant complexes and transfer of 137 Cs between some plant organs. Refs. 3 (author)

  5. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loessner, V.

    1983-01-01

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  6. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Bradley, E J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)

    1984-09-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3..mu..Sv, 41..mu..Sv and 13..mu..Sv respectively.

  7. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.; Bradley, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3μSv, 41μSv and 13μSv respectively. (U.K.)

  8. Generalized skeletal pathology: Results of radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueger, G.F.; Aigner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Generalized pathological changes may involve the skeleton systematically (bone tissue, bone marrow) or at multiple sites involving destruction or infiltration. Appropriate radionuclide studies include total-body bone or bone marrow scintigraphy, absorptiometry (osteodensitometry) and the 24 h whole-body retention measurement. Established radioindicators are 99m-Tc-(hydroxy)methylendiphosphonate (HMDP or MDP) and 99m-Tc-human serumalbumin-nanocolloid. Absorptiometry of the forearm, extended by computer-assisted transaxial tomography, may be expected to prove as the most efficient method of bone density measurement. The 24 h whole-body retention measurement is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of metabolic and endocrine osteopathies, if the very same osteotropic 99m-Tc-chelate is used. Whole-body bone scintigraphy today is one of the most important radionuclide studies for diagnosis and follow-up of skeletal metastases. Scintigraphy provides evidence of skeletal metastases several months earlier than radiological examinations. In about 40 percent of patients with cancer of the prostate, scintigraphy provided positive findings of skeletal metastases in the absence of both pain and increased levels of phosphatase. In patients with a history of malignancy, 60 percent of solitary findings on skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy ranges from 2 to 4%. Compared to skeletal scintigraphy, bone marrow scintigraphy frequently yields significant additional findings in cases of plasmocytoma, histiocytoma, lymphoma and haemoblastoses. (orig.) [de

  9. Dosimetry techniques for applications of incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Haydock, C.

    1989-01-01

    Beta particle emitters are attracting attention as the radiolabels of choice for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Their use in cancer therapy has drawn attention to a variety of problems in estimating the absorbed dose to primary tumors and metastases from incorporated Β-emitters. Experimental evidence indicates that the distribution of radiopharmaceutical, such as radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, is highly nonuniform in tumor tissue. Three levels of nonuniformity may be noted: (1) inhomogeneity at the macroscopic level due to poor penetration of the radiopharmaceutical into the tumor, (2) microscopic inhomogeneity due to large variations in the number of binding sites on the tumor cells, and (3) nonuniformity at the subcellular level. Conventional application of the MIRD Schema for calculating absorbed doses from incorporated radionuclides may be inadequate under these circumstances since this approach assumes that the, distribution of radioactivity in the organ is uniform. The conventional dosimetry may be modified to handle inhomogeneous activity distributions by dividing the tumor into a number of subregions. At the macroscopic level a spherical tumor may be broken up into a group of concentric annular regions of tissue. At the microscopic level the tumor or metastasis may be considered as a multicellular cluster which in essence divides the tumor into many subtumors of cellular dimensions. Finally, at the subcellular level, a cancer cell may be viewed as consisting of several compartments: the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. In each case absorbed fractions, and therefore the total absorbed doses, may be calculated for the various subregions of the tumor using standard MIRD procedures. Using macroscopic and multicellular dosimetry models, the relative importance of these various levels of inhomogeneity in radionuclide distribution is examined. A dosimetry model which accounts for the possible time dependence of the tumor mass is formulated

  10. Radionuclide imaging of non osseous infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; New York, Yeshiva Univ., NY; Torres, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is an important tool in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with a variety of non osseous infections. In the immunocompetent population labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice, with Gallium imaging reserved for those situations in which the leukocyte study is non diagnostic or cannot be performed. Fever of unknown origin is caused by infection in less than one-third of cases, and therefore the number of positive leukocyte studies will be relatively low. The negative leukocyte study is also useful as it has been demonstrated that a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, focal infection as the cause of an FUO. In the cardiovascular system, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is very useful for diagnosing mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. The specificity of the study is somewhat more variable. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging can provide important information about the etiology of contrast enhancing brain lesions identified on computed tomography. In the immunocompromised population, typified by the AIDS patient, Gallium scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing opportunistic diseases. In the thorax, a normal Gallium scan, in the setting of a negative chest X-ray, virtually excludes pulmonary disease. In the abdomen, Gallium is also useful for detecting nodal disease, but is not reliable for detecting large bowel disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be performed when colitis is a concern. Both 18 FDG PET and 201 T1 SPECT imaging of the brain are useful for distinguishing between central nervous system lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in the HIV (+) patient. On both studies, lymphoma manifests as a focus of increased tracer uptake, whereas toxoplasmosis shows little or no uptake of either tracer

  11. Radionuclide imaging of non osseous infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY, (United States). Dept. Nuclear Medicine New York, Yeshiva Univ., NY (United States). Albert Einstein College of Medicine); Torres, M.A. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY, (United States). Dept. Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear medicine is an important tool in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with a variety of non osseous infections. In the immunocompetent population labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice, with Gallium imaging reserved for those situations in which the leukocyte study is non diagnostic or cannot be performed. Fever of unknown origin is caused by infection in less than one-third of cases, and therefore the number of positive leukocyte studies will be relatively low. The negative leukocyte study is also useful as it has been demonstrated that a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, focal infection as the cause of an FUO. In the cardiovascular system, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is very useful for diagnosing mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. The specificity of the study is somewhat more variable. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging can provide important information about the etiology of contrast enhancing brain lesions identified on computed tomography. In the immunocompromised population, typified by the AIDS patient, Gallium scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing opportunistic diseases. In the thorax, a normal Gallium scan, in the setting of a negative chest X-ray, virtually excludes pulmonary disease. In the abdomen, Gallium is also useful for detecting nodal disease, but is not reliable for detecting large bowel disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be performed when colitis is a concern. Both [sup 18]FDG PET and [sup 201]T1 SPECT imaging of the brain are useful for distinguishing between central nervous system lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in the HIV (+) patient. On both studies, lymphoma manifests as a focus of increased tracer uptake, whereas toxoplasmosis shows little or no uptake of either tracer.

  12. Radionuclide metrology: traceability and response to a radiological accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauhata, L.; Cruz, P.A.L. da; Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Oliveira, E.M. de; Poledna, R.; Loureiro, J. dos S.; Ferreira Filho, A.L.; Silva, R.L. da; Filho, O. L.T.; Santos, A.R.L. dos; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J. de A.; Quadros, A.L.L.; Araújo, M.T.F. de; Souza, P.S. de; Ruzzarim, A.; Conceição, D.A. da; Iwahara, A., E-mail: palcruz@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes

    2017-07-01

    In the case of a radiological accident, there are characteristic phases: discovery and initial assistance with first aid; the triage and monitoring of the affected population; the release of the affected people; forward the victims to medical care; as well as the preparation of the report on the accident. In addition, studies and associated researches performed in the later period. Monitors, dosimeters and measuring systems should be calibrated by contaminating radionuclide standards. The radioactive sources used must be metrologically reliable. In Brazil, this function is performed by LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, designated by INMETRO, which Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory is responsible for the standardization and supply of radioactive sources in diverse geometries and matrices. This laboratory has a stock of radionuclide solutions with controlled environmental variables for the preparation of sources, which are calibrated and standardized by mean of primary and secondary systems. It is also responsible for the dissemination of standards and, in order to establish the metrological traceability of national standards, participates in international key-comparisons promoted by BIPM and regional metrology organizations. Internally, it promotes the National Comparison Programs for laboratories for the analysis of environmental samples and the traceability for producing centers of radiopharmaceuticals and Nuclear Medicine Services in the country. The paper presents the demand for {sup 137}Cs related to the radioactive accident in Goiania/Brazil and the significant results for the main radionuclides standardized by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory for international key-comparisons and national comparisons to provide metrological traceability. With the obtained results, the LNMRI of Brazil integrates the international metrology BIPM network and fulfills its function of supplying, with about a hundred of radioactive standards, the country's needs in different applications

  13. Radionuclide metrology: traceability and response to a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Cruz, P.A.L. da; Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Oliveira, E.M. de; Poledna, R.; Loureiro, J. dos S.; Ferreira Filho, A.L.; Silva, R.L. da; Filho, O. L.T.; Santos, A.R.L. dos; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J. de A.; Quadros, A.L.L.; Araújo, M.T.F. de; Souza, P.S. de; Ruzzarim, A.; Conceição, D.A. da; Iwahara, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the case of a radiological accident, there are characteristic phases: discovery and initial assistance with first aid; the triage and monitoring of the affected population; the release of the affected people; forward the victims to medical care; as well as the preparation of the report on the accident. In addition, studies and associated researches performed in the later period. Monitors, dosimeters and measuring systems should be calibrated by contaminating radionuclide standards. The radioactive sources used must be metrologically reliable. In Brazil, this function is performed by LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, designated by INMETRO, which Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory is responsible for the standardization and supply of radioactive sources in diverse geometries and matrices. This laboratory has a stock of radionuclide solutions with controlled environmental variables for the preparation of sources, which are calibrated and standardized by mean of primary and secondary systems. It is also responsible for the dissemination of standards and, in order to establish the metrological traceability of national standards, participates in international key-comparisons promoted by BIPM and regional metrology organizations. Internally, it promotes the National Comparison Programs for laboratories for the analysis of environmental samples and the traceability for producing centers of radiopharmaceuticals and Nuclear Medicine Services in the country. The paper presents the demand for 137 Cs related to the radioactive accident in Goiania/Brazil and the significant results for the main radionuclides standardized by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory for international key-comparisons and national comparisons to provide metrological traceability. With the obtained results, the LNMRI of Brazil integrates the international metrology BIPM network and fulfills its function of supplying, with about a hundred of radioactive standards, the country's needs in different applications

  14. Mobilization of radionuclides from sediments. Potential sources to Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.; Boerretzen, P.; Mathisen, B.; Salbu, B.; Tronstad, E.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments can act as secondary sources of radionuclides to Arctic waters. In cases where the original source of contamination has ceased or been greatly reduced (e.g., weapons' testing, waste discharges from Mayak and Sellafield) remobilization of radionuclides from preciously contaminated sediments increases in importance. With respect to Arctic waters, potential secondary sources include sediments contaminated by weapons' testing, by discharges from nuclear installations to seawater, e.g., the Irish Sea, or by leakages from dumped waste containers. The major land-based source is run-off from soils and transport from sediments in the catchment areas of the Ob and Yenisey rivers, including those contaminated by Mayak discharges. Remobilization of radionuclides is often described as a secondary source of contamination. Whereas primary sources of man-made radionuclides tend to be point sources, secondary sources are usually more diffuse. Experiments were carried out on marine (Kara Sea, Irish Sea, Stepovogo and Abrosimov Fjords), estuarine (Ob-Yenisey) and dirty ice sediments. Total 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentrations were determined using standard radiochemical techniques. Tracer studies using 134 Cs and 85 Sr were used to investigate the kinetics of radionuclide adsorption and desorption. It is concluded that 90 Sr is much less strongly bound to marine sediments than 137 Cs, and can be chemically mobilized through ion exchange with elements is seawater. Radiocaesium is strongly and rapidly fixed to sediments. Discharges of 137 Cs to surface sediments (i.e., from dumped containers) would be expected to be retained in sediments to a greater extent than discharges to sea-waters. Physical mobilization of sediments, for example resuspension, may be of more importance for transport of 137 Cs than for 90 Sr. 7 refs., 4 figs

  15. Studies on uptake and loss of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Suzuki, Hamaji; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Ishii, Toshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Uptake and loss of 137 Cs, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 59 fe by marine fishes were observed by the radio-isotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors and biological half-lives for these radionuclides by the fishes were estimated. Concentration factors of 137 Cs by fish muscles calculated at 200th day as 17.5 - 27.5 were lower than the values obtained by the field survey on stable or radioactive cesium suggesting slow turnover in fish muscles and contribution of food to the accumulation of the nuclide. Transfer of radionuclides associated with sediment to marine benthic organisms was examined by rearing the organisms in contaminated sediment or administering the sediment orally to the organisms. The transfer ratios of the nuclides from sediment to organisms were less than the concentration factors based on seawater by the factors ranging from around 100 to about 5,000 depending on the species of organisms or radionuclides. Accumulation of radionuclides through food chain in marine ecosystem was studied by feeding shellfishes with labelled phytoplankton and seaweeds by feeding fishes with assorted feeds labelled by radioisotopes. Absorption of 60 Co by abalones was affected by the species of the seaweeds as food and 47% of the administered dose was retained through Laminaria japonica, whereas 31% through Undaria and 26% through Eisenia. Absorption of the radionuclides by the fishes fed with labelled feeds was most significant in the case of 137 Cs and 65 Zn and transfer rate showed the maximum values at 48 hours after feeding as 100 and 24%, respectively. About 45% of the former distributed in muscle and 52% of the latter in digestive tract and blood of the fishes. (author)

  16. An analysis of cervical myelopathy due to cervical spondylosis or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament by CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Keiju; Yonenobe, Sakuo; Ebara, Sohei; Yamashita, Kazuo; Ono, Keiro

    1988-01-01

    CT-myelographic (CTM) findings of 20 patients with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and 24 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were reviewed for the evaluation of (1) contributing factors to preoperative neurologic symptoms and therapeutic prognosis in OPLL, and (2) differences in pathology between OPLL and CSM. In OPLL, the severity of preoperative neurologic symptoms was not related to the degree of deformed spinal cord - as expressed by the transverse area of the spinal cord and the rate of flatness - nor the degree of ossification - as expressed by the rate of stricture, and the transverse areas of the effective spinal canal and ossification. The transverse areas of the spinal cord and effective spinal canal were correlated with both postoperative scores for neurologic symptoms and the recovery rate. Osseous compression to the spinal cord was severer in OPLL than OSM. Regarding other factors, such as size and shape of the spinal cord and therapeutic prognosis, there was no difference between the two diseases. This implied the association of dynamic compression to the spinal cord that resulted from the unstable cervical spine in the case of CSM. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Joint Regulation of Radionuclides at Connecticut Yankee Haddam Neck Plant - Finding Common Ground and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, J.; Glucksberg, N.; Fogg, A.; Couture, B.

    2006-01-01

    During the site closure of nuclear facilities where both radionuclides and chemicals are present in environmental media, state and federal regulatory agencies other than the Nuclear Regulatory Commission often have a stake in the regulation of the site closure process. At the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (CYAPCO) Haddam Neck Plant in Haddam, Connecticut, the site closure process includes both radiological and chemical cleanup which is regulated by two separate divisions within the state and two federal agencies. Each of the regulatory agencies has unique closure criteria which pertain to radionuclides and, consequently, there is overlapping and in some cases disparate regulation of radionuclides. Considerable effort has been expended by CYAPCO to find common ground in meeting the site closure requirements for radionuclides required by each of the agencies. This paper discusses the approaches that have been used by CYAPCO to address radionuclide site closure requirements. Significant lessons learned from these approaches include the demonstration that public health cleanup criteria for most radionuclides of concern at nuclear power generation facilities are protective for chemical toxicity concerns and are protective for ecological receptors and, consequently, performing a baseline ecological risk assessment for radionuclides at power generation facilities is not generally necessary. (authors)

  18. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates

  19. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  20. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  1. Radionuclide diagnostics of right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaorska-Rajca, J.

    1993-01-01

    Difficulties in evaluating the right ventricle function motivate to making research into new non-invasive methods. Four radionuclide methods that are used to access the right ventricle have been discussed in this paper: first-pass angiocardiography, gated equilibrium ventriculography with red blood cells labelled in vivo technetium- 99 Tc, ventriculography with radioactive xenon 133 and a computerized single probe. Advantages and disadvantages of using each method have been discussed. RNV 99m Tc method has been recognized as the best one to evaluate RV function. Results of the right ventricle assessment in patients have been discussed in the following clinical groups: chronic cor pulmonale (CP), chronic lung disease without pulmonary arterial hypertension (LD), coronary artery disease (CAD), in patients after infarction (IMA and IMi), dilated cardiomyopathy (KZ) and valvular heart diseases (Wm and Wa). Abnormals in right ventricle function occur with different intensity in all groups, although they no specificity. The highest abnormality occurs in patients with KZ, CP, IMi and Wm, the lowest one - in patients with CAD. Abnormalities are higher in patients with congestive heart failure. In most pathological groups the right ventricle dysfunction is connected with the left ventricle insufficiency. The interdependence between the dysfunction of both ventricles is differs in particular diseases. Assessment of right ventricle function with radionuclide methods plays an important role in diagnosis and control therapy of cardiopulmonary diseases. (author). 385 refs, 48 figs, 6 tabs

  2. Miscellaneous applications of radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures discussed in this chapter are either developmental, in limited clinical use, or frankly moribund. A number of radionuclide imaging techniques have proved disappointing when approached from a purely anatomic point of view. This is particularly evident to our colleagues with the explosive growth of the noninvasive imaging procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), CT, and ultrasound, and the introduction of the less invasive digital radiographic approach to vascular opacification, all of which are capable of providing exquisite anatomic or tissue detail beyond the reach of current or reasonably priced nuclear medicine imaging systems. Yet, most nuclear medicine procedures possess the unique advantage of portraying a physiologic function without interfering with that function. Moreover, the procedures can be employed under conditions of stress, which are likely to bring out pathophysiologic abnormalities that remain masked when unchallenged. Information concerning form without functional data has less meaning than both together. The physiologic information inherent in nuclear medicine imaging may often provide not only key diagnostic information but also illuminate a therapeutic trail. Yet, it is often slighted in favor of the anatomic quest. While mastery of the nuances of imaging details remains critical, radionuclide image interpretation must rest upon a firm physiologic foundation. For this reason, this chapter emphasizes the physiologic approach

  3. Stochastic approach for radionuclides quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, A.; Saurel, N.; Perrin, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is a passive non-destructive assay used to quantify radionuclides present in more or less complex objects. Basic methods using empirical calibration with a standard in order to quantify the activity of nuclear materials by determining the calibration coefficient are useless on non-reproducible, complex and single nuclear objects such as waste packages. Package specifications as composition or geometry change from one package to another and involve a high variability of objects. Current quantification process uses numerical modelling of the measured scene with few available data such as geometry or composition. These data are density, material, screen, geometric shape, matrix composition, matrix and source distribution. Some of them are strongly dependent on package data knowledge and operator backgrounds. The French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing a new methodology to quantify nuclear materials in waste packages and waste drums without operator adjustment and internal package configuration knowledge. This method suggests combining a global stochastic approach which uses, among others, surrogate models available to simulate the gamma attenuation behaviour, a Bayesian approach which considers conditional probability densities of problem inputs, and Markov Chains Monte Carlo algorithms (MCMC) which solve inverse problems, with gamma ray emission radionuclide spectrum, and outside dimensions of interest objects. The methodology is testing to quantify actinide activity in different kind of matrix, composition, and configuration of sources standard in terms of actinide masses, locations and distributions. Activity uncertainties are taken into account by this adjustment methodology.

  4. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford-Lister, P.G.; Lambert, B.E.; Milner, A.C.; Kang, X.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239 Pu or 147 Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239 Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.; Bywater, J.

    1985-01-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  6. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperski, J; Bywater, J [Ranger Uranium Mines Proprietary Ltd., Chatswood (Australia)

    1985-04-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty. Ltd. during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish.

  7. The influence of the unsaturated zone on the upward transport of radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, M.; Lindgren, M.

    1993-07-01

    The transport of radionuclides from the deep soil to the surface soil is an important part of biosphere modelling. In this study the effect of transient hydrological conditions on the upward transport of radionuclides through soils has been studied. The effect of varying soil properties, climate conditions have been considered as well as the effect of a fluctuating groundwater level. It was shown that the soil characteristics influences the radionuclide concentration; an increased hydraulic conductivity leads to increase in the concentration in the root zone. The climate conditions were shown to be of major importance. A dispersion dependent on both velocity and saturation leads to a more effective upward transport of radionuclides to the root zone than if dispersion is assumed to be dependent only on the saturation. The boundary condition used in the case with varying groundwater level may be more realistic than the boundary condition applied for the case with a constant groundwater level. All calculations with varying groundwater level gave lower radionuclide concentration in the root zone. Sorption is redox sensitive for many radionuclides and the redox potential in the soil will be affected by the degree of water saturation. The performed calculations did, however, not result in any significant change in the radionuclide concentration in the root zone due to variation in sorption. A comparison between the results of the two models show that the compartment model in all studied cases predicts a higher annual average radionuclide concentration in the root zone than the numerical model. Annual variation in soil water flow were not included in the compartment model. During the summer the concentration in the root zone may be several times higher than the annual average. This may be important for plant uptake, since this increased concentrations coincides with the plant growing season. The calculations made with the simple compartment model also show that these

  8. Influence of fracture networks on radionuclide transport from solidified waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetharam, S.C., E-mail: suresh.seetharam@sckcen.be [Performance Assessments Unit, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Perko, J.; Jacques, D. [Performance Assessments Unit, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Mallants, D. [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Road – Gate 4, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Magnitude of peak radionuclide fluxes is less sensitive to the fracture network geometry. • Time of peak radionuclide fluxes is sensitive to the fracture networks. • Uniform flow model mimics a limiting case of a porous medium with large number of fine fractures. • Effect of fracture width on radionuclide flux depends on the ratio of fracture to matrix conductivity. • Effect of increased dispersivity in fractured media does not always result in a lower peak flux for specific fracture networks due to higher concentrations adjacent to the fracture plane. - Abstract: Analysis of the effect of fractures in porous media on fluid flow and mass transport is of great interest in many fields including geotechnical, petroleum, hydrogeology and waste management. This paper presents sensitivity analyses examining the effect of various hypothetical fracture networks on the performance of a planned near surface disposal facility in terms of radionuclide transport behaviour. As it is impossible to predict the initiation and evolution of fracture networks and their characteristics in concrete structures over time scales of interest, several fracture networks have been postulated to test the sensitivity of radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Fluid flow through concrete matrix and fracture networks are modelled via Darcy's law. A single species radionuclide transport equation is employed for both matrix and fracture networks, which include the processes advection, diffusion, dispersion, sorption/desorption and radioactive decay. The sensitivity study evaluates variations in fracture network configuration and fracture width together with different sorption/desorption characteristics of radionuclides in a cement matrix, radioactive decay constants and matrix dispersivity. The effect of the fractures is illustrated via radionuclide breakthrough curves, magnitude and time of peak mass flux, cumulative mass flux and concentration profiles. For the

  9. Influence of fracture networks on radionuclide transport from solidified waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetharam, S.C.; Perko, J.; Jacques, D.; Mallants, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Magnitude of peak radionuclide fluxes is less sensitive to the fracture network geometry. • Time of peak radionuclide fluxes is sensitive to the fracture networks. • Uniform flow model mimics a limiting case of a porous medium with large number of fine fractures. • Effect of fracture width on radionuclide flux depends on the ratio of fracture to matrix conductivity. • Effect of increased dispersivity in fractured media does not always result in a lower peak flux for specific fracture networks due to higher concentrations adjacent to the fracture plane. - Abstract: Analysis of the effect of fractures in porous media on fluid flow and mass transport is of great interest in many fields including geotechnical, petroleum, hydrogeology and waste management. This paper presents sensitivity analyses examining the effect of various hypothetical fracture networks on the performance of a planned near surface disposal facility in terms of radionuclide transport behaviour. As it is impossible to predict the initiation and evolution of fracture networks and their characteristics in concrete structures over time scales of interest, several fracture networks have been postulated to test the sensitivity of radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Fluid flow through concrete matrix and fracture networks are modelled via Darcy's law. A single species radionuclide transport equation is employed for both matrix and fracture networks, which include the processes advection, diffusion, dispersion, sorption/desorption and radioactive decay. The sensitivity study evaluates variations in fracture network configuration and fracture width together with different sorption/desorption characteristics of radionuclides in a cement matrix, radioactive decay constants and matrix dispersivity. The effect of the fractures is illustrated via radionuclide breakthrough curves, magnitude and time of peak mass flux, cumulative mass flux and concentration profiles. For the

  10. The radionuclide migration model in river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, M.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It was propose the model of radionuclide migration in river system based on principle of the compartmental model at hydraulically stationary and chemically equilibrium conditions of interaction of radionuclides in system water-dredge, water-sediments. Different conditions of radioactive contamination entry in river system were considered. The model was verified on the data of radiation monitoring of Iput' river

  11. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  12. Fire fighting in a radionuclide laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, H.

    1991-01-01

    A fire-brigade was called to a laboratory which held a handling licence for the radionuclides C-14, T, P-32, Se-75, Mo-99, and S-35. The fire-brigade was unaware of a release of radionuclides. Therefore they used respiratory equipment, and all persons present were subsequently examined for contamination. (DG) [de

  13. Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacyna, J.

    1974-01-01

    Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in various elements of the environment have been dealt with in an ecological aspect. The knowledge of the radionuclide propagation tracks will make possible to ascertain precisely causes and effects of the radiation and to reduce the contamination value. Particular attention has been paid to test methods. (author)

  14. The influence of soil type and climate on the uptake of radionuclides into wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.G.

    1992-03-01

    The study investigated the uptake by winter wheat of radionuclides deposited onto the soil surface following a hypothetical accidental release to atmosphere from a nuclear power station. A series of lysimeters were filled with four soil types characteristic of wheat growing areas of Europe. Four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 106 Ru, 125 Sb) were watered onto the soil surface and the subsequent contamination of winter wheat crops was monitored over two seasons. Subsidiary experiments considered: effects of ploughing and pot size on root uptake; movement of radionuclides in soil profiles; soil contamination of wheat plants and of grain leaving the field; the influence of climate on root uptake; and, the availability of radionuclides. Compared with the literature, this study found a smaller range of transfer factors appropriate to agricultural soils that predominate in the wheat growing areas of the EEC. The use of pots or tubes to investigate soil-to-plant transfer was justified. The study showed that resuspension of radionuclides bound to soil particles must be considered when assessing soil-to-plant transfer. It was demonstrated that the contribution of soil-bound activity to the radionuclide content of combine harvested grain is underestimated in existing dose assessment methodologies by at least an order of magnitude on average and by over two orders of magnitude in extreme cases. Climatic conditions simulated in a growth chamber had little impact on radionuclide transfer. The relative availability of radionuclides for extraction by ammonium acetate did not reflect percentage transfer to grain. Ploughing reduced uptake by winter wheat, resulted in different patterns of transfer between cultivation treatments and influenced the distribution of activity between grain and straw. Results of this work were used in the development of a multi-compartmental time-dependent model called WHEAT which predicts radionuclide transfer from soil to winter wheat. (author)

  15. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  16. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  17. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration have been studied in natural fissures orieted parallel to the axis of granite drill cores. A short pulse of the radionuclides solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. After several hundred fissure volumes water had been pumped through the fissure following the radionuclide pulse the activity distribution on the fissure surfaces was measured. From the retardation of 152 Eu, 235 Np and 237 Pu it is concluded that these radionuclides are transported in the oxidation states Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(V). The distribution coefficients K sub (d) calculated from flow and activity distribution data on the basis of geometric surface area/volume ratios are of the same order as published K sub (d) values obtained from batch equilibrium experiments. (Author)

  18. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  19. Radionuclide sorption from the safety evaluation perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Research and development directed towards the assessment of the long-term performance of radioactive waste disposal systems has been recognised as a priority area with a strong need for international co-operation and co-ordination. The ultimate aims is to promote the quality and credibility of safety assessment techniques for radioactive waste disposal. Sorption in the geosphere is one of the key processes for retarding the transport of radionuclide from the underground disposal facility to the biosphere. In many cases, sorption in the near field and in the biosphere is also important. A workshop, organised to favor discussion around a small number of invited papers, was held in October 1991: - to evaluate critically the way sorption processes are incorporated in performance assessment models; - to identify open issues of high priority, and; - to propose future activities to resolve these issues. These proceedings reproduce the invited papers and the conclusions and recommendations adopted by the workshop. Eight papers are in the INIS SCOPE. The main subjects studied are: sorption database comparison, sorption database development and three case studies, experimental techniques, adsorption models

  20. Migration of radionuclide through two-layered geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Takagi, Ikuji; Nakai, Kunihiro; Higashi, Kunio

    1984-01-01

    For the safety assessment of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, an analytical solution was obtained for one-dimensional migration of radionuclide through two-layered geologic media without dispersion. By applying it to geologic media composed of granite and soil layers, the effect of interlayer boundary on the discharge profile of radionuclides in decay chains into biological environment is examined. The time-space profiles of radionuclides in the vicinity of interlayer boundary are much complicated as shown in the results of calculation. Those profiles in case that the groundwater flows through granite followed by soil are quite different from those in case that the groundwater flows through soil followed by granite. Each of complicated dependence of profiles on time and space can be physically explained. The characteristic profiles in the vicinity of interlayer boundary have not been discussed previously. Recently, numerical computer codes has been developed to apply to much more realistic geologic situations. However, the numerical accuracies of the codes are necessary to be confirmed. This is achieved by comparing computational results with results from analytical solutions. The analytical solution presented will serve as a bench-mark for numerical accuracy. (author)

  1. Case of myocardial abscess evaluated by radionuclide techniques: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, S.M.; Meyers, S.N.; Barresi, V.; Grais, I.M.; DeBoer, A.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with infective endocarditis was evaluated by Ga-67 citrate imaging, Tc-99m pyrophosphate imaging, equilibrium gated blood pool imaging, and Tl-201 imaging of the chest. The diagnosis of ventricular abscess was first suggested by an abnormal gallium scan. At surgery, an abscess was identified in the area where the scan was abnormal, and postoperatively a repeat scan was normal

  2. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders

  3. Regularities of food stuffs and ration contamination with radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhudarov, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Modelling of the process of contamination of food stuffs and rations as a whole in the case of aerial and soil ways of administration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs long-living radionuclides is presented. A modified formula which takes into account radionuclide content in the soil in the previous year and levels of precipitation for 2 years is given. A modified equation of 137 Cs content in soils and fallouts expressed through the value of the initial stratospheric reservoir is given. It is shown that since 1972 137 Cs has come in the ration as a whole and in milk primarily through the aerial way, while 137 Cs has come in bread and bakery products by a soil way in a practically equal amount. The data presented are mean values in the country. 137 Cs contamination in recent years occurs mainly by the soil way

  4. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  5. Organic migration forms of radionuclides and performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gouqing

    2010-01-01

    Much attention is paid to inorganic migration forms of radionuclides in groundwater during performance assessment before and organic migration forms, are seldom noted. Therefore some question may come into confidence level in performance assessment. This paper mainly discusses the distribution of organic substances in groundwater and their potential effect on performance assessment. The results obtained in recent years show that clay rocks are generally impermeable to water, but in some cases the interstitial water may be observed in them and the concentration of DOC, HA and FA is rather higher than that in granitic groundwater. The concentration of DOC is relatively low in granitic groundwater, but up to now the effect of organic migration forms of radionuclides in granitic groundwater on performance assessment is not finally determined, it is necessary to make further investigations. (authors)

  6. The availability of soil-associated radionuclides for uptake after inadvertent ingestion by humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.; Green, N.

    2002-01-01

    Assessments of the radiological impact of radionuclides released into the environment generally take into account the inadvertent ingestion of radionuclides associated with soil or sediment. Such assessments often assume that gut uptake factors for radionuclides that are biologically incorporated in food are also applicable when the ingested activity is associated with soil. Studies of the availability of soil-associated radionuclides after ingestion have been mainly conducted on ruminant animals and few data exist for humans. The digestive tract of ruminants is totally different from that of a mono-gastric animal and so the availability estimated from the animal studies may not be valid in the case of man. A simple in-vitro enzymolysis procedure was therefore developed to simulate human digestion closely. The measured availability of 137 Cs, 241 Am, 239 PU and 90 Sr associated with loam, sand and peat soils was about 3%, 3%, 10% and 50% respectively. (author)

  7. Realistic assessment of the radiological impact due to radionuclide releases to the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.

    2007-01-01

    Radioecological models are inherently associated with uncertainties, since ecological parameters are subject to a more or less pronounced variability; furthermore, the knowledge of the exposure conditions is - even in the best case - incomplete. To keep models simple and widely applicable and to avoid at the same time underestimations, parameters are selected with a conservative bias. However, conservative results are not appropriate for decision making and optimisation. To discuss the prevention of overly conservative models, in this paper, some selected processes are analysed that are involved in the transfer of radionuclides in the environment as e.g. interception of radionuclides deposited during precipitation by vegetation, systemic transport of radionuclides, migration of radionuclides in soil and speciation in soil. These processes are characterized, and it is discussed which factors should be integrated in modelling to achieve more realistic results. (author)

  8. Position Paper on Practicable Performance Criteria for the Removal Efficiency of Volatile Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. T. Jubin; N. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan

    2012-03-01

    As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides may be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. The question we attempted to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examined the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012). These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and to a particular organ - the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, we provided several cases. We first looked at the inventories for these radionuclides for three fuel types (PWR UOX, PWR MOX, and AHTGR), several burn-up values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculated doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) with the EPA code CAP-88 (Rosnick 1992). Finally, we looked at two dose cases. Allocating all of the allowable dose to be used by the volatile radionuclides is one case, but, perhaps, unrealistic. In lieu of this, we arbitrarily selected a value of 10% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. We calculated the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I were the main contributors. With respect to 129I doses, we found that the highest dose was calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scaled as the fraction of the total 129I that was particulate. Therefore, we assumed for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I was particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs.

  9. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.

    1987-09-01

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  10. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  11. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and 67 Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of 111 In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation

  12. Quality assurance in radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.; Voelkle, H.; Wershofen, H.; Wilhelm, C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors are members of an ad-hoc working group preparing a contribution to the procedures manual (''Loseblattsammlung'') dealing with quality assurance and quality control in radionuclide laboratories. The Loseblattsammlung is edited by the working group ''Environmental Monitoring'' of the German-Swiss Radiological Protection Association. The intention of the manual under preparation is not to give a procedure on how to establish a quality management system allowing for an accreditation in accordance with the international standard DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 04 (''ISO 17025'') [1] but to compile routine quality control procedures necessary for reliable measurements and to give tips to the practitioner on how to keep both the extent and the frequency of procedures on a reasonable level. A short version of the Loseblatt is presented here. (orig.)

  13. Placental transfer of other radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.-E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper comments upon some basic principles of the transfer of radioactive substances in human beings to the embryo and fetus and their age-dependence. These principles may apply to the main effects currently known from the uptake, accumulation, retention and excretion of those radioactive substances, which may be of special interest in assessing the dose and therefore the risk of exposure in nuclear medicine, in connection with environmental problems of nuclear power production as well as nuclear explosions. As an example the age-dependence of several typical radionuclides and their age-dependence during the development of the human embryo and fetus and its correlation to observations on several animal species are presented. 30 refs.; 5 figs

  14. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  15. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pjura, G.A.; Kim, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  16. Radionuclide diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, A.I.; Gerasimov, V.G.; Lenskaya, O.P.; Narkevich, B.Ya.; Bogdasarov, Yu.B.; Krotovskij, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    Pathogenesis of vasculogenic impotence is most adequately revealed by modern methods of the investigation of the hemodynamic mechanisms of erection with the enhancement of arterial perfusion of corpora cavernosa by artificial sexual stimulation. Radionuclide diagnostic methods effectively differ from the methods of radiocontrast phalloangiography by the simplicity of investigation and the absence of traumatism for a patient. The authors have proposed a mathematical model of a process of filling in the functioning volume of the penile vascular bed with a radiopharmaceutical prepation against the background of erection induced by intracavernous administration of papaverine hydrochloride solution. Parameters of the model determine the ratio of blood flow volumetric rates in the penis at rest and when erect

  17. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author).

  18. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1994-01-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  19. Thin-target excitation functions: a powerful tool for optimizing yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity of cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonardi, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    In accelerator production of radionuclides, thin-target yield, y(E), is defined as a function of the projectile energy E, at the End Of an Instantaneous Bombardment (EOIB), as the slope at the origin of the growing curve of the activity per unit beam current (A/I) of a specific radionuclide vs. irradiation time, for a target in which the energy loss is negligible with respect to the projectile energy itself. In practice, y(E) is defined as the second derivative of A/I with respect to particle energy and irradiation time, calculated when the irradiation time tends to zero (EOIB). The thin-target yields of different radionuclides, produced by direct and side reactions, are numerically fitted, taking into account the overall statistical errors as weights. The 'effective' cross-section σ ± (E) as a function of projectile energy is proportional to thin-target yield, but the physical meaning of this parameter is poor, being only a raw summation of the several cross sections of the reaction channels concerned, weighted on target isotopic composition. Conversely, Thick-Target Yield, Y(E,ΔE), is defined as a two parameter function of the incident particle energy E(MeV) onto the target and the energy loss ΔE (MeV), in the target itself, obtained by integration of thin-target excitation function, y(E). This approach holds in the strict approximation of a monochromatic beam of energy E, not affected by either intrinsic energy spread or straggling. The energy straggling is computed by Monte Carlo computer codes, like TRIM 2001. In case of total particle energy absorption in the target, for a nuclear reaction of energy threshold E th , the function Y(E,ΔE) reaches a value Y(E,E- E th ), for ΔE=E- E th , that represents mathematically the envelope of the Y(E,ΔE) family of curves. This envelope is a monotonically increasing curve, never reaching either a maximum or a saturation value, even if its slope becomes negligible for high particle energies and energy losses. Some

  20. A case of chronic progressive radiation myelopathy with a CT myelogram simulating intramedullary tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Kamo, Hisaki; Yamao, Satoshi; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Kameyama, Masakuni

    1985-01-01

    A 58-year-old man underwent a right middle lobectomy in June, 1975, for poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung. Postoperative irradiation was given to the hilus (6100 rads), and to the right supraclavicular area (6000 rads). In 1980, 60 months after completion of irradiation, the patient noticed weakness of his legs particularly on the left side. In 1982, he noticed the girdle sensation in the upper thoracic region, and paresthesia in the lateral side of the right thigh. In Dec 1983, micturition disturbance appeared, and gait disturbance progressed, he was admitted to the Kyoto University Hospital. Neurological examination revealed an incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome with diminution of pain and thermal sensation on the right lower limb, and weakness and spasticity particularly on the left lower limb. Conventional myelogram with CT myelogram showed spinal cord swelling from T-2 through T-5. No extramedullary lesion was found. Laminectomy was performed through T-1 to T-6. When the dura was opened, the cord was swollen and necrotic with a cyst formation. Microscopic examination of the thickened part of the cord showed necrosis and gliosis. The lesion was correspond to the cord segments exposed to the radiation, and a diagnosis of radiation myelopathy was made. Several cases of radiation myelopathy with definite swelling of the cord at myelography were reported, but myelography in these cases was performed at most within 11 months after the onset. In this case, myelography was performed three years after the onset, and revealed difinite swelling of the cord due to a cyst formation. (author)

  1. Case of chronic progressive radiation myelopathy with a CT myelogram simulating intramedullary tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Kamo, Hisaki; Yamao, Satoshi; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Kameyama, Masakuni

    1985-05-01

    A 58-year-old man underwent a right middle lobectomy in June, 1975, for poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung. Postoperative irradiation was given to the hilus (6100 rads), and to the right supraclavicular area (6000 rads). In 1980, 60 months after completion of irradiation, the patient noticed weakness of his legs particularly on the left side. In 1982, he noticed the girdle sensation in the upper thoracic region, and paresthesia in the lateral side of the right thigh. In Dec 1983, micturition disturbance appeared, and gait disturbance progressed, he was admitted to the Kyoto University Hospital. Neurological examination revealed an incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome with diminution of pain and thermal sensation on the right lower limb, and weakness and spasticity particularly on the left lower limb. Conventional myelogram with CT myelogram showed spinal cord swelling from T-2 through T-5. No extramedullary lesion was found. Laminectomy was performed through T-1 to T-6. When the dura was opened, the cord was swollen and necrotic with a cyst formation. Microscopic examination of the thickened part of the cord showed necrosis and gliosis. The lesion was correspond to the cord segments exposed to the radiation, and a diagnosis of radiation myelopathy was made. Several cases of radiation myelopathy with definite swelling of the cord at myelography were reported, but myelography in these cases was performed at most within 11 months after the onset. In this case, myelography was performed three years after the onset, and revealed difinite swelling of the cord due to a cyst formation. (author).

  2. Model of the long-term transfer of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Rodolfo

    2006-05-01

    . The model assumes that the fluxes of radionuclides are driven by fluxes of water and nutrients and hence the TCs are expressed as function of ecological parameters, such as biomass growth, and evapotranspiration. The following radionuclide fluxes are included in the model: flux from soil to tree wood via root uptake, flux from soil to tree leaves via root uptake, flux from soil to understorey (plants and mushrooms) via root (mycelia) uptake, flux from tree leaves to litter by leaves fall, flux from tree wood to litter by wood fall, flux from understorey plants to litter by plant senescence, flux from litter to soil following litter decomposition. In the report alternative approaches to describe the transfer from soil to plants are presented. In the simpler approach, applicable when soil to plant concentration ratios (CR) are available for the radionuclide or its stable analogue, the root uptake rates are calculated by multiplying the concentration in the plant, obtained with the help of the CR, by the biomass production. A second approach is based on the assumption that some elements are taken-up passively with the transpiration flux. For them, the total flux from soil to plants can be expressed as a function of the transpiration rate and the radionuclide concentration in the pore water. The CRs from soil to understorey plants as well as the CRs from soil to tree leaves and tree wood were estimated by performing probabilistic simulations. It was assumed that roots have the same permeability for radionuclides and water. It should be taken into account, that the literature data used in the comparison were obtained at different sites and using different methods. A better agreement could be achieved if the model parameters and the empirical data of CRs are obtained for the same site. In some cases the differences might abide more fundamental reasons, for instance that the implicit assumption of linear proportionality of the radionuclide uptake rates to the transpiration

  3. Model of the long-term transfer of radionuclides in forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo [Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    . The model assumes that the fluxes of radionuclides are driven by fluxes of water and nutrients and hence the TCs are expressed as function of ecological parameters, such as biomass growth, and evapotranspiration. The following radionuclide fluxes are included in the model: flux from soil to tree wood via root uptake, flux from soil to tree leaves via root uptake, flux from soil to understorey (plants and mushrooms) via root (mycelia) uptake, flux from tree leaves to litter by leaves fall, flux from tree wood to litter by wood fall, flux from understorey plants to litter by plant senescence, flux from litter to soil following litter decomposition. In the report alternative approaches to describe the transfer from soil to plants are presented. In the simpler approach, applicable when soil to plant concentration ratios (CR) are available for the radionuclide or its stable analogue, the root uptake rates are calculated by multiplying the concentration in the plant, obtained with the help of the CR, by the biomass production. A second approach is based on the assumption that some elements are taken-up passively with the transpiration flux. For them, the total flux from soil to plants can be expressed as a function of the transpiration rate and the radionuclide concentration in the pore water. The CRs from soil to understorey plants as well as the CRs from soil to tree leaves and tree wood were estimated by performing probabilistic simulations. It was assumed that roots have the same permeability for radionuclides and water. It should be taken into account, that the literature data used in the comparison were obtained at different sites and using different methods. A better agreement could be achieved if the model parameters and the empirical data of CRs are obtained for the same site. In some cases the differences might abide more fundamental reasons, for instance that the implicit assumption of linear proportionality of the radionuclide uptake rates to the transpiration

  4. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  5. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  6. Radionuclides in air, water, and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection

  7. Radionuclides of Chernobyl origin in the plants of Western Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrabovskyy, V.; Dzendzelyuk, O.; Kateryncuk, I.; Furgala, Yu.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of studies for the radionuclide contents in the plants originated from the territories under the influence of Chernobyl disaster, which have been performed for 1994-2003 with gamma-spectrometric methods. Samples of plants for researches have been taken from the territories of Volyn and Rivne regions and analysed by using a gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a low-level Ge(Li) detector. The radiocaesium contamination density of the soils varies from 2 kBq/m 2 up to 18 kBq/m 2 . The features of radiocaesium accumulation by the representatives of different kinds of plants from the Shatsk National Natural Park (Volyn region) and the soil-to-plant radiocaesium transition have been analysed, including mosses and lichens, medicinal herbs, as well as some kinds of berries. For eliminating the influence of seasonal variations, the samples for testing the radionuclide contamination have been taken annually at the first half of July. In order to determine the soil-to-plant radiocaesium transfer factors (defined as a ratio of isotope content in the plant to the relevant content in the top 20 cm layer of the soil), the soil samples from the places of vegetation of the plants have been selected and their contamination density have been determined, too. The values of the obtained transfer factors has allowed us to arrange the plants under test into a number of groups according to the capacity of radiocaesium absorption, with very weak, weak, moderate, strong and very strong accumulation levels. In particular, the leaves of blueberry, red blueberry, great blueberry, crystal tea ledum and ling should be referred to the group of plants with a strong accumulation level. Different vegetative organs of plants also manifest different capacities to absorb the radiocaesium. In case of blueberry, for example, the vegetative organs can be arranged in a following series: leaf-root-berry-corms, according to decreasing accumulation of the radio-caesium. As a matter of

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhagen, J.D.; Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  9. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  10. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  11. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  12. Manual of bioassay procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskach, S.; Petkau, A.

    1986-06-01

    A monitoring program is described by which atomic radiation workers ar monitored for internal contamination with radionuclides in the workplace. The program involves analytical procedures for measuring alpha, beta and gamma activity in biological specimens, usually urine. Radionuclides are identified by their characteristic radiation using liquid scintillation counting, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. Examples of calculating the minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are given and used to derive call-in-criteria in accordance with which the different groups of workers are monitored each month

  13. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R.I.; Dulama, C.N.; Toma, Al.

    2006-01-01

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  14. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Zhao Jingyong; Hong Chengjiao; Lao Qinhua; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  15. Case report 357: Chordoma of the fourth lumbar vertebra metastasizing to the thoracic spine and ribs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, I.F.; Zwass, A.; O' Leary, P.F.; Steiner, G.C.

    1986-03-01

    In summary a fascinating case is presented in a 54-year-old man who developed a chordoma of the fourth lumbar vertebra which was treated by radiotherapy, with good results. The man remained asymptomatic relatively for several years and then presented with recurrence of back pain and neurological deficits. Plain films, CT and myelography showed considerable destruction of the body of L4 with a sclerotic pattern suggesting the effects of previous radiotherapy. A large paraspinal tissue mass extending into the spinal canal was present. Most interestingly the patient developed metastatic disease in the thoracic spine and ribs but no metastases other than in the skeleton. (orig./SHA).

  16. Uptake of radionuclides caesium and cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, P.; Foldesova, M.

    1995-01-01

    By means of chemical treatment ammonium, potassium, sodium and H-form of zeolite were prepared. The chemical modifications of zeolite were carried out with: 2M solution of NaNO 3 , NH 4 NO 3 , KNO 3 ; 0,1M solution of HCl; NaOH solution of different concentration. The method of model radioactive solution was used to find the sorption ability for cesium and cobalt every modified zeolite. The model solution were 0.05M solution of cobalt labelled by 60 Co or cesium labelled by 137 Cs. The highest sorption ability was observed for zeolite modified by NaOH. The influence of pH on uptake of cesium and cobalt by modified zeolite was searched as well. The experimental data (leaching tests, compressive strength measurement and porosity) were measured for the case the Cs and Cs from model water solution and radioactive waste water were up taken on chemically modified zeolite and were subsequently incorporated into cement casts on blast furnace cement slags basis. The leachability was tested in water, in basis solution and in acid solution. The leachability in water and basic solution was negligible, in acid solution it was less than 4% which is inside of value of applied measure method. The compressive strength, porosity and leaching experiment are hopefully and show good mechanical stability and good retention of observed radionuclides in samples exposed in leaching solutions. (J.K.)

  17. Natural systems prediction of radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the application (and limitations) of data from natural systems to the verification of performance assessments, particularly as they apply to the evaluation of the long-term performance of waste forms, backfill, canister materials, and finally, the integrity of the repository itself. Two specific examples, the corrosion of borosilicate glass and the formation of alteration products of spent fuel, will be discussed. In both cases, inferences are of three types: 1) directly applicable data (i.e. radiation effects, stable phase assemblages): 2) inferences based on the analogous behaviour of the natural and repository systems (e.g. long-term corrosion rate); 3) specific identification of new phenomena that could not have been anticipated from the short term laboratory data (i.e. new mechanisms for the retention or release of radionuclides). The latter can only be derived from the observation of natural systems. Finally, specific attention will be paid to the limitations in the use of natural systems, particularly as the spatial and temporal scales expand, and to the inherent limitations of prediction and verification. (J.P.N.)

  18. Interactions of radionuclides with marine biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Uptake of radioactivity by marine biota can occur through consumption of radioactive food or via direct incorporation from the seawater. As uptake occurs, radioactivity begins to distribute into and onto various body tissues, or ''compartments'', at different rates. A composite uptake curve therefore is curvilinear with time. Elimination can occur via various pathways, including fecal deposition, molting, and excretion of dissolved substances, and therefore a composite loss curve also is curvilinear. Uptake and elimination can occur simultaneously, and under constant conditions over a long time period a steady-state body burden will be achieved. Many factors can affect uptake and loss rates, as well as steady-state body burdens, and some major ones are discussed. Design of radioactivity experiments involving marine biota is explored, and a case study of a ''natural experiment'' involving both reactor-produced and fallout radionuclides in a coastal environment is presented to show how much nuclide introductions can be used to learn about nuclide biomagnification, trophic level relationships, and biological distribution of radioactivity in the sea. (author)

  19. Uptake of radionuclides caesium and cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukac, P; Foldesova, M [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    By means of chemical treatment ammonium, potassium, sodium and H-form of zeolite were prepared. The chemical modifications of zeolite were carried out with: 2M solution of NaNO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}; 0,1M solution of HCl; NaOH solution of different concentration. The method of model radioactive solution was used to find the sorption ability for cesium and cobalt every modified zeolite. The model solution were 0.05M solution of cobalt labelled by {sup 60}Co or cesium labelled by {sup 137}Cs. The highest sorption ability was observed for zeolite modified by NaOH. The influence of pH on uptake of cesium and cobalt by modified zeolite was searched as well. The experimental data (leaching tests, compressive strength measurement and porosity) were measured for the case the Cs and Cs from model water solution and radioactive waste water were up taken on chemically modified zeolite and were subsequently incorporated into cement casts on blast furnace cement slags basis. The leachability was tested in water, in basis solution and in acid solution. The leachability in water and basic solution was negligible, in acid solution it was less than 4% which is inside of value of applied measure method. The compressive strength, porosity and leaching experiment are hopefully and show good mechanical stability and good retention of observed radionuclides in samples exposed in leaching solutions. (J.K.).

  20. Radionuclide partitioning in environmental systems: a critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, A.; Maes, A.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of some of the important processes involved in the solid-liquid distribution behaviour of radionuclides in both well-defined adsorbents and multicomponent natural systems. The thermodynamic significance of distribution coefficients is analyzed and the various parameters affecting partition behaviour are discussed in relation to possible retention mechanisms. Attention is being given to factors such as solid/liquid ratio, pH-Eh, reversibility, liquid phase composition and speciation effects. Various processes are discussed such as ion exchange and complex formation involving clays, oxides, humic acids. It is shown that, only in rare cases, Ksub(D) values can be rationalized in terms of process mechanistics. In addition, it is indicated that, in general, radionuclide distribution coefficients cannot be considered as constants unless the conditions are restricted to very small loading intervals. It is furthermore suggested that, in order to produce meaningful data on radionuclide partitioning behaviour, efforts should be made to operate under conditions which are representative for the 'in situ' situation. (author)