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Sample records for radionuclide concentrations abstraction

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  3. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  4. Waste Form and Indrift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary

    Aguilar, R.

    2003-01-01

    This Model Report describes the analysis and abstractions of the colloids process model for the waste form and engineered barrier system components of the total system performance assessment calculations to be performed with the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application model. Included in this report is a description of (1) the types and concentrations of colloids that could be generated in the waste package from degradation of waste forms and the corrosion of the waste package materials, (2) types and concentrations of colloids produced from the steel components of the repository and their potential role in radionuclide transport, and (3) types and concentrations of colloids present in natural waters in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. Additionally, attachment/detachment characteristics and mechanisms of colloids anticipated in the repository are addressed and discussed. The abstraction of the process model is intended to capture the most important characteristics of radionuclide-colloid behavior for use in predicting the potential impact of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport on repository performance

  5. Waste Form and Indrift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary

    R. Aguilar

    2003-06-24

    This Model Report describes the analysis and abstractions of the colloids process model for the waste form and engineered barrier system components of the total system performance assessment calculations to be performed with the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application model. Included in this report is a description of (1) the types and concentrations of colloids that could be generated in the waste package from degradation of waste forms and the corrosion of the waste package materials, (2) types and concentrations of colloids produced from the steel components of the repository and their potential role in radionuclide transport, and (3) types and concentrations of colloids present in natural waters in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. Additionally, attachment/detachment characteristics and mechanisms of colloids anticipated in the repository are addressed and discussed. The abstraction of the process model is intended to capture the most important characteristics of radionuclide-colloid behavior for use in predicting the potential impact of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport on repository performance.

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  8. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  9. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    Mertz, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M and O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types

  10. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  11. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M.; Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are 40 K, as well as, 238 U and 232 Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The 238 U and 232 Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  12. Radionuclides concentration in foods in Peninsular Malaysia

    Zalina Laili; Muhamat Omar; Mohd Nahar Othman; Md Suhaimi Elias; Esther Philip, Mohd Zaidi Ibrahim; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Azmi Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of natural radionuclides (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40) and artificial radionuclides (Cs-137) in fresh, dried and cooked foodstuffs from 30 major towns in Peninsular Malaysia were determined by gamma spectrometry system and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. A total of 232 samples representing a typical Malaysian community diet were analysed. The results showed that most of the samples contained only natural radionuclides. The percentage of radionuclides detected in the samples were found about 2% for U-238, 9% for Th-232, 49% for Ra-226, 77% for Ra-228, 99% for K-40 and 15% for Cs-137. The radionuclide concentrations were in the ranges of <6.1 - 29.3, <2.0 - 55.8, <0.1 - 34.4, <0.1 - 41, <0.1- 2552.3 and < 0.1 - 6.6 Bq/Kg dry weight for U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40 and Cs-137 respectively. The study revealed that most of the foodstuffs did not contain U-238. Lentils were found to contain significant concentration of Th-232 (4 - 49 Bq/kg) and can be considered as thorium accumulators. The concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in leafy vegetables were higher than the fruit and root vegetables. These data can be used as a reference for future food radioactivity monitoring. As edible mushroom and fern had high concentrations of Cs-137, indicating their high ability to accumulate Cs-137, they could be used as indicator plants in the event of radioactive fall outs

  13. Concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms

    Nakamura, Ryoichi

    1995-01-01

    The Japanese, who have ever been confronted with atomic bombs, are said to be very sensitive to the nuclear power, radioactivity and so on. However, the peaceful uses of the nuclear power are closely related to our daily lives. Consequently, we should recognize correctly the nuclear power, radioactivity and so on, without refusing emotion-ally or admitting uncritically. Many marine organisms have abilities to accumulate radionuclides to very high concentrations. But, the levels of man-made radioactivity of marine organisms in the sea around Japan have been decreased in recent years compared with those in the past. So, the annual internal dose equivalent for Japanese from seafood (marine organisms) are originated mainly from the natural radionuclides like 210 Po, 210 Pb and 40 K. Nevertheless, study on the marine radioecology must be progressed against the inadvertent radioactive contamination of the surrounding sea, due to the increase of nuclear facilities and nuclear weapons. (author)

  14. Concentration parameters for radionuclides by marine molluscs

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Makamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Matsuba, Mitsue

    1994-01-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine molluscs was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were 57 Co, 95m Tc, 103 Ru, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into nonradioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus) were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except 137 Cs and 54 Mn. Retention of 137 Cs and 54 Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25% of the radioactivity dosed. (author)

  15. Concentration parameters for radionuclides by marine molluscs

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Makamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Matsuba, Mitsue [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Nakaminato, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Branch Office

    1994-03-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine molluscs was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were {sup 57}Co, {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 65}Zn and {sup 54}Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into nonradioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus) were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except {sup 137}Cs and {sup 54}Mn. Retention of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 54}Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25% of the radioactivity dosed. (author).

  16. Concentration factors of radionuclides in the marine organisms

    1996-03-01

    Parameters related to the bioconcentration of radionuclides in the marine were shown by 'Assessment and guideline to the target value of dose in the environment of the power light water reactor facilities' (Nuclear Safety Commission), but the guideline data did not contain Ru and Ce relating to the reprocessing plant. So that more new data than these of 'Technical Reports Series No. 247' (published by IAEA in 1985) were mainly collected. Especially the data of nuclides with poor data of concentration factors (CF) and natural radionuclides (Po-210, Pb-210) were gathered. These data were pigeonholed and many tables (element, kinds of organisms, experimental methods) were made by separating the general remarks from the original experimental reports. The contents of this report are given as under, history of concentration factor (CF), determination method of CF, CF calculation method, calculation models related to CF, tables of metabolic parameters, tables of CF, the present conditions of studies for uptake of radionuclides with long half-life into the marine organisms, CF abstract tables and trial calculation of human exposure by eating the marine organisms. (S.Y.)

  17. Radionuclide Activity Concentrations in Spas of Argentina

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Palacios, M.

    2011-01-01

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters often have a very high mineral content because solubility increases with temperature. Ground waters are in close contact with soil and rocks containing radium. Once formed by decay from radium, radon gas (Rn-222) may diffuse through rocks pores and geological discontinuities and may dissolve in these waters. Radon and other natural radionuclides are transported to the surface where radon can easily diffuse into the atmosphere. Then it may be possible to find out significant radon levels at places like geothermal spas. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public. Three passive methods were used to measure radon in air. One of them is an screening method based on the radon adsorption on activated charcoal. The other two methods are time integrated ones, CR-39 or Makrofol tracks detectors, which can be exposed between two and three months. To characterize waters other natural radionuclides have been also measured. Uranium concentration was measured by fluorimetry. Ra-226 and Pb-210 measurements were performed by radiochemical methods and liquid scintillation. The results obtained were compared with the guidelines values recommended by WHO and EPA for drinking waters and, in the case of radon in air, the results were compared with values established by BSS-115. In order to assess worker doses, the higher value measured for radon in air and real scenario data were taken into account. Moreover, in situ dose rate measurements were also performed and then compared with natural background values. In relation with water characterization, almost all values obtained for the geothermal waters analyzed were below the corresponding guidance levels. Taking into account the highest value measured of radon

  18. Radionuclides and selected trace elements in marine protein concentrates

    Beasley, T M; Jokela, T A; Eagle, R J

    1971-12-01

    The concentrations of various trace elements and radionuclides have been measured in marine protein concentrates prepared from surface feeding fishes. As with concentrates prepared from benthic fishes, the /sup 210/Pb-/sup 210/Po pair are the most significant radionuclides present. Concentrations of stable Pb, Co and Ag in certain concentrates are sufficiently high to contribute substantially to estimated current intakes of these elements.

  19. Effect of cooking on radionuclide concentrations in waterfowl tissues

    Halford, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four commercially raised mallar ducks (Anas platyrhyncos) were released at the Test Reactor Area radioactive leaching ponds, and subsequently collected 56 to 188 days later. Liver, gizzard, and carcass were analyzed for radionuclide concentrations before and after cooking. Significant decreases (P 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 60 Co, 140 La and /sup 110m/Ag concentrations in carcass and liver samples occurred after cooking. Radionuclide concentrations in gizzard showed no significant change in radionuclide concentrations after cooking. Cesium-134 and 137 Cs concentrations decreased by 27% in carcass after cooking and reduced the dose commitment to man by that amount

  20. Concentration of some radionuclides in some popular sudanese medicinal plants

    Sagiroun, M. I. A.

    2012-10-01

    In this study was measured concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 2 38U , 2 32T h and 4 0K in samples of sudanese medicinal plants. The radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed ranged from 4.09 to 41.07 Bq kg -1 for 2 38T h and from 353.14 to 2270.21 Bq kg -1 for 4 0k . No trace of artificial radionuclide was determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated and found to be 0.524 mSv/year which is well below the permissible levels. (Author)

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report

  2. Permissible annual depositions and radionuclide concentrations in air

    Belyaev, V.A.; Golovko, M.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    It is established that it necessary to take into account the other ways of radionuclide intake apart from the inhalation one when determining the standards for radionuclide contamination of the atmospheric air. Whereby it is proposed to standardize annual depositions rather than permissible concentration in the atmospheric air for the ways related to radionuclide releases on the ground surface, which is explained by ambiguity of their dry deposition rate from the air. Formulae and results of calculation of standard characteristics are presented. The permissible radionuclide depositions, related to the intake through food chains are calculated with account for diet diversity, agroclimatic and phenological parameters in different regions of the country

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  6. Interpretation of biological-rate coefficients derived from radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity experiments

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Rigorous expressions are derived for the biological-rate coefficients (BRCs) determined from time-dependent measurements of three different dependent variables of radionuclide tracer experiments. These variables, which apply to a single organism, are radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity. The BRCs derived from these variables have different mathematical expressions and, for high growth rates, their numerical values can be quite different. The precise mathematical expressions for the BRCs are presented here to aid modelers in selecting the correct parameters for their models and to aid experiments in interpreting their results. The usefulness of these three variables in quantifying elemental uptakes and losses by organisms is discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Concentration of some radionuclides in Moringa Oliefera plant

    Abd elbagi, W. K. A.

    2013-07-01

    This study has been conducted to determine the radioactivity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 228 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in samples of Moringaoliefera plants in Khartoum Bahry Elsamrab by using γ ray spectrometry sodium iodide detector and high purity germanium detector. A total of 30 samples, 10 samples from leaves, 10 samples from seeds and 10 samples from soil of samples have been collected. For leaves the radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed with the mean of 2767.266±78.6741 Bq kg - 1 for 238 U, 3486.817±80.98811 Bq kg - 1 for 238 Th and 2273.386±54.152 Bq kg - 1 for 40 K. For seeds the radionuclide activity concentration in samples analyzed with the mean of 2839.224±72.6016 Bq kg - 1 for 238 U, 2844.372±78.74919 Bq kg - 1 for 2 38T h and 2377.005±91.8838 Bq kg - 1 for 40 K. No trace of artificial radionuclide has been determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides has been estimated and found 0.89μSv/year and 0.1015μSv/year for 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K, respectively.(Author)

  9. Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water

    2016-04-01

    Requirements for the protection of people from the harmful consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation, for the safety of radiation sources and for the protection of the environment are established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. GSR Part 3 requires that the regulatory body or other relevant authority establish specific reference levels for exposure due to radionuclides in commodities, including food and drinking water. The reference level is based on an annual effective dose to the representative person that generally does not exceed a value of about 1 mSv. International standards have been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission for levels of radionuclides contained in food traded internationally that contains, or could potentially contain, radioactive substances as a consequence of a nuclear or radiological emergency. International standards have also been developed by the WHO for radionuclides contained in drinking water, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. These international standards provide guidance and criteria in terms of levels of individual radiation dose, levels of activity concentration of specific radionuclides, or both. The criteria derived in terms of levels of activity concentration in the various international standards differ owing to a number of factors and assumptions underlying the common objective of protecting public health in different circumstances. This publication considers the various international standards to be applied at the national level for the assessment of levels of radionuclides in food and in drinking water in different circumstances for the purposes of control, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. It collates and provides an overview of the different criteria used in assessing and

  10. Cluster analysis of radionuclide concentrations in beach sand

    de Meijer, R.J.; James, I.; Jennings, P.J.; Keoyers, J.E.

    This paper presents a method in which natural radionuclide concentrations of beach sand minerals are traced along a stretch of coast by cluster analysis. This analysis yields two groups of mineral deposit with different origins. The method deviates from standard methods of following dispersal of

  11. Studies on influence of biological factors on concentration of radionuclides

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Biological factors influencing the concentration of radionuclides were studied from the points of uptake through digestive tract, food as pathways, and metabolic activities. The uptake of radionuclides by marine fishes through digestive tract was determined by whole body counter. 137 Cs, 65 Zn, 131 I, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr, and 144 Ce were used as tracers and was given with solid feed. The feed given was excreated 24 to 48 hours later in small of middle sized fishes, and 20 to 48 hours later in large sized fishes. The uptake rate of 137 Cs and 65 Zn was high absorption of 20 to 80 per cent, that of 131 I, 60 Co and 54 Mn was not remarkable, and that of 85 Sr and 144 Ce was low absorption. The biological concentration of 137 Cs through pathways of food. In fishes taking up radionuclides through contaminated food, concentration factor increased in accordance with contamination level. In addition, radionuclides with small uptake but delayed excretion and those with high concentration rate could be the factors to decide the concentration factors of marine organisms. In order to study the relationship between metabolic activities and concentration, the uptake of one-year old fishes and adult fishes, and fishes fed and those non-fed were compared. One-year fishes took up large amount of 85 Sr during short period, however, concentration by metabolism in adult fishes was slow. Comparing feeding group and non-feeding group, the former showed 85 Sr concentration factor of 1.5 to 2 times that of the later, and the later showed 137 Cs concentration factor of 2 to 4 times that of the former. However, both uptake and excretion were rapid suggesting that taking food activated the metabolism of substances. (Kanao, N.)

  12. Concentration and size distribution of particles in abstracted groundwater

    Van Beek, C.G.E.M.; de Zwart, A.H.; Balemans, M.; Kooiman, J.W.; van Rosmalen, C.; Timmer, H.; Vandersluys, J.; Stuijfzand, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Particle number concentrations have been counted and particle size distributions calculated in groundwater derived by abstraction wells. Both concentration and size distribution are governed by the discharge rate: the higher this rate the higher the concentration and the higher the proportion of

  13. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with low concentrations of radionuclides

    Entry, J A; Vance, N C; Hamilton, M A; Zabowski, D; Watrud, L S; Adriano, D C [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy and Soils

    1996-03-01

    Ecsosytems throughout the world have been contaminated with radionuclides by above-ground nuclear testing, nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear power generation. Radioisotopes characteristics of nuclear fission, such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, that are released into the environment can become more concentrated as they move up the food chain often becoming human health hazards. Natural environmental processes will redistribute long lived radionuclides that are released into the environment among soil, plants and wildlife. Numerous studies have shown that {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are not removed from the top 0.4 metres of soil even under high rainfall, and migration rate from the top few centimetres of soil is slow. The top 0.4 meters of the soil is where plant roots actively accumulate elements. Since plants are known to take up and accumulate {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, removal of these radionuclides from contaminated soils by plants could provide a reliable and economical method of remediation. One approach is to use fast growing plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi combined with soil organic amendments to maximize the plant accumulation and removal of radionuclides from contaminated soils, followed by harvest of above-ground portion of the plants. High temperature combustion would be used to oxidize plant material concentrating {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in ash for disposal. When areas of land have been contaminated with radionuclides are large, using energy intensive engineering solutions to mediate huge volumes of soil is not feasible or economical. Plants are proposed as a viable and cost effective method to remove radionuclides from the soils that have been contaminated by nuclear testing and nuclear reactor accidents. 40 refs.

  14. Nondestructive measurement for radionuclide concentration distribution in soil column

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    A nondestructive method has been studied for determining the concentration of radionuclide (Cs-137) distributed in a soil column. The concentration distribution was calculated from the counting rate distribution using the efficiency matrix of a detector. The concentration distribution obtained by this method, with measuring efficiencies of theoretical calculation, coincides well with that obtained by the destructive sampling method. This method is, therefore, found to be effective for the measurement of one dimensional concentration distribution. The measuring limit of this method is affected not only by the radionuclide concentration but also by the shape of concentration distribution in a soil column and also by the way it is divided into concentration blocks. It is found that, the radioactive concentration up to 2.6 x 10 -4 μCi/g (9.62 Bq/g), and also the distribution up to where the concentration reduces to half at every 1 cm of depth, can be measured by this system. The concentration blocks can be divided into 1 cm of thickness as a minimum value. (author)

  15. Natural radionuclides in food in an area with high concentrations of radionuclides

    Pereira, W.S.; Moraes, S.R.; Cavalcante, J.J.V.; Kelecom, A.; Silva, A.X. da; Lopez, J.M.; Filgueiras, R.; Carmo, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Areas of high natural radiation expose the local population to doses greater than the world average. One of the routes of exposure is food intake. The activity concentration (AC) of 5 natural radionuclides in 7 types of foods was analyzed. The highest CA measured was 2.40 Bq.kg -1 for the U nat in the potato. The multivariate statistic identified two groups: (U nat e 232 Th) and [( 210 Pb and 228 Ra) and 226 Ra

  16. Concentration and size distribution of particles in abstracted groundwater.

    van Beek, C G E M; de Zwart, A H; Balemans, M; Kooiman, J W; van Rosmalen, C; Timmer, H; Vandersluys, J; Stuyfzand, P J

    2010-02-01

    Particle number concentrations have been counted and particle size distributions calculated in groundwater derived by abstraction wells. Both concentration and size distribution are governed by the discharge rate: the higher this rate the higher the concentration and the higher the proportion of larger particles. However, the particle concentration in groundwater derived from abstraction wells, with high groundwater flow velocities, is much lower than in groundwater from monitor wells, with minimal flow velocities. This inconsistency points to exhaustion of the particle supply in the aquifer around wells due to groundwater abstraction for many years. The particle size distribution can be described with the help of a power law or Pareto distribution. Comparing the measured particle size distribution with the Pareto distribution shows that particles with a diameter >7 microm are under-represented. As the particle size distribution is dependent on the flow velocity, so is the value of the "Pareto" slope beta. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of concentration limits of radionuclides produced by accelerators

    Shibata, Tokushi; Ohkubo, Tohru; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Iwai, Satoshi; Satoh, Osamu; Rintsu, Yukoh; Fukumoto, Toshiharu.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the evaluation of concentration limits of 78 radionuclides typically produced by accelerator facilities and not listed in ICRP Pub. 30. The evaluation method and system have been developed in the present study. The evaluated values were compared with tremendously severe concentration limits given in the Annex Table 2 of the Science and Technology Agency Notification No. 15 which describes the concentration limits of the nuclides of which concentration limits are not given in the Annex Table 1 of the Agency Notification No. 15. The results show that two to nine order larger limits should be used. The new limits rationalize greatly the internal exposure control and the design of accelerator facilities. Simple and convenient techniques are also discussed for finding concentration limits of very-short-lived nuclides without knowing detail information about the nuclides such as decay scheme and metabolic data. (author)

  18. Assessment of radionuclides in the drone affected soils of North Waziristan Agency and Orakzai Agency (abstract)

    Tabinda, A.B.; Shafi, A.

    2011-01-01

    When the drone affected soils of North Waziristan and Orakzai Agency were exposed to high resolution gamma ray spectrometry technique to determine the activity concentration levels the results were quite alarming. The results revealed that the mean concentration for the activity of the natural radionuclides including /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 40/K were 42.37 +- 1.85, 47.18 +- 3.45 and 471.28 +- 23.77 Bq kg/sup -1/ respectively. On the other hand the anthropogenic activities were adding radioactive Cs 137 to soils of drone affected areas of North Waziristan and Orakzai Agency with the mean activity concentration of 5.95 +- 0.25 Bq kg/sup -1/. The maximum activity concentration of /sup 137/Cs was in North Waziristan affected soil with the value of 15.15 +- 0.39. /sup 137/Cs is an anthropogenic radionuclide produced as a fission product. However the presence of /sup 137/Cs in all the soil samples reveals the anthropogenic changes in the soils. The exact source of the introduction of /sup 137/Cs is assumed to be drone bombardment. /sup 137/Cs has radioactive half life of 30.17 years and it decays by emitting gamma and beta radiations. These gamma radiations can create havoc in our environment. (author)

  19. Radionuclide concentrations in underground waters of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls.

    Mulsow, S; Coquery, M; Dovlete, C; Gastaud, J; Ikeuchi, Y; Pham, M K; Povinec, P P

    1999-09-30

    In 1997 an expedition to Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls was carried out to sample underground waters from cavity-chimneys and carbonate monitoring wells. The aim of this study was to determine the prevailing concentration and distribution status of radionuclides. Elemental analysis of interstitial waters was carried out in the water fraction as well as in particles collected at 11 underground monitoring wells. 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs, 90Sr, 3H, 125Sb, 155Eu and 60Co were analyzed in both fractions by alpha-, beta- and gamma-spectrometry. Measurements showed that at 60% of the sites, pH and Eh seemed to be related to tidal cycles; in contrast HTO was constant during the sampling time. Interstitial waters from carbonates and transition zones shared similar chemical composition that were not different from that of the surrounding seawater. Waters collected from basalt cavities left after nuclear tests, (Aristee and Ceto) have a different chemical signature characterized by a deficiency in Mg, K and SO4 as well as enrichment in Sr, Si, Al and Cl compared to the rest of the stations. Radionuclide concentrations present in both, water and particulate fractions, were significantly higher at Ceto and Aristee than at any other monitoring wells, except for Fuseau and Mitre monitoring wells (Fangataufa) where values similar to Ceto were found (e.g. 239,240Pu: > 20 mBq g-1). Considering that Pu isotopes showed high Kd values compared to non-sorbing radionuclides such as 3H, 90Sr and 137Cs it is very unlikely that migration from cavities to monitoring wells accounts for the concentration of Pu isotopes and Am at Fuseau 30 and Mitre 27. Perhaps the contact of lagoon waters with the well before sealing could be a possible source of the transuranics found at these sites. The 238Pu/239,240Pu ratios measured in the particles were similar to that of the lagoon (0.38), thus supporting this hypothesis. The fact that transuranics were found only in the particle fraction, in the

  20. Technical Work Plan for: Near Field Environment: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report

    J.D. Schreiber

    2006-01-01

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model will be revised to be consistent with

  1. Concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms and their food chain

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1993-01-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine organisms was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were 57 Co, 95m Tc, 103 Ru, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into non-radioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except 137 Cs and 54 Mn. Retention of 137 Cs and 54 Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25 % of the radioactivity dosed. (author)

  2. Seasonal changes on radionuclide concentration in Krusadai Island Mangrove

    Valan, I. Inigo; Stephen, A.; Vijayalakshmi, I.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Jose, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Krusadai Island: The Biologist's Paradise, is situated in Gulf of Mannar (GOM) near Rameswaram of Tamil Nadu, India. It is an ecological sensitive area and act as the breeding zone for a variety of marine species, most of which are consumed by human population. Govt. of India and Govt. of Tamil Nadu jointly declared GOM as Marine National Park under Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. So it is essential to have a periodic radiological survey in this area in order to check the concentrations of various radionuclide. Current study is radioactive report on various seasons of 2013 in Krusadai Island Mangrove

  3. Studies on concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Materials used were more than 20 kinds of fishes. 85 Sr chiefly localized in the hard tissue, such as the scale, bone, and gill, 60 Co in the liver, 65 Zn in the digestive organs, such as the liver, stomach, and intestine, 144 Ce in the gill, scale and liver, 106 Ru in the liver and intestine, and 131 I in the digestive organs, especially in the gallbladder. However, all these nuclides showed only slight localization in the edible parts of fish bodies. The concentration of radionuclides in immature anchovy was examined using 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce and so on, as tracers. The concentration factor of 137 Cs was 10 times that of 85 Sr, though, the loss of 137 Cs was very rapid compared to that of 85 Sr. 144 Ce pollution of immature anchovy was chiefly by adsorption to the surface of fish bodies. As to shells radionuclides were remarkably taken up in the mid-gut gland, among them, 144 Ce taken up in shell bodies was not excreated but accumulated in the bodies. In algae, 85 Sr, 106 Ru, and 59 Fe seemed to pollute algae physico-chemically by adsorption, and 131 I, 137 Cs, and 60 Co seemed to be taken up through inorganic metabolism showing their concentration factor 100 times that in fishes. (JPN)

  4. Protein concentrate production from the biomass contaminated with radionuclides

    Nizhko, V.F.; Shinkarenko, M.P.; Polozhaj, V.V.; Krivchik, O.V.

    1992-01-01

    Coefficients of radionuclides accumulation are determined for traditional and rare forage crops grown on contaminated soils. It is shown that with low concentration of radionuclides in soil minimal level of contamination were found in the biomass of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) and sainfoin (Onobrychis hybridus L.). Relatively high levels of contamination were found in comfrey (Symphytum asperum Lepech.) and bistort (Polygonum divaricatum L.). Comparatively low accumulation coefficients in case of higher density of soil contamination were observed for white and yellow sweetclovers (Melilotus albus Medik. and M. officinalis (L.) Desr.), while higher values of coefficients were found for bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and alsike clover (t. hybridum L.). Biomass of white sweet-clover and alsike clover has been processed to produce leaf protein concentrate. It is shown that with biomass contamination of 1 kBq/kg and above conventional technology based on thermal precipitation of the protein does not provide production of pure product. More purified protein concentrates are obtained after two-stage processing of the biomass

  5. Dependency of soil activity concentration on soil -biota concentration ratio of radionuclides for earthworm

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Kim, Byeong Ho; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The transfer of radionuclides to wildlife (non-human biota) is normally quantified using an equilibrium concentration ratio (CR{sub eq}), defined as the radionuclide activity concentration in the whole organism (fresh weight) divided by that in the media (dry weight for soil). The present study describes the effect of soil radionuclide activity concentration on the transfer of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 65}Zn to a functionally important wildlife group, annelids, using a commonly studied experimental worm (E.andrei). Time-dependent whole body concentration ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 65}Zn for the earthworm were experimentally measured for artificially contaminated soils with three different activity concentrations for each radionuclide which were considerably higher than normal background levels. Two parameters of a first order kinetic model, the equilibrium concentration ratio (CR{sub eq}) and the effective loss rate constant (k), were estimated by comparison of experimental CR results with the model prediction

  6. Nominal Range Sensitivity Analysis of peak radionuclide concentrations in randomly heterogeneous aquifers

    Cadini, F.; De Sanctis, J.; Cherubini, A.; Zio, E.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Uncertainty quantification problem associated with the radionuclide migration. ► Groundwater transport processes simulated within a randomly heterogeneous aquifer. ► Development of an automatic sensitivity analysis for flow and transport parameters. ► Proposal of a Nominal Range Sensitivity Analysis approach. ► Analysis applied to the performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository. - Abstract: We consider the problem of quantification of uncertainty associated with radionuclide transport processes within a randomly heterogeneous aquifer system in the context of performance assessment of a near-surface radioactive waste repository. Radionuclide migration is simulated at the repository scale through a Monte Carlo scheme. The saturated groundwater flow and transport equations are then solved at the aquifer scale for the assessment of the expected radionuclide peak concentration at a location of interest. A procedure is presented to perform the sensitivity analysis of this target environmental variable to key parameters that characterize flow and transport processes in the subsurface. The proposed procedure is exemplified through an application to a realistic case study.

  7. Patterns of radionuclide concentrations in life-cycle of birds

    Lebedeva, N.V.; Beloglazov, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    Breeding populations of Great Tit Parus major and Pied Flycatcher Ficedida hypoleuca was studied to determine radionuclide ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr) concentrations in bodies and foods (contents of gastrointestinal tracts) at different stages of the life-cycle and radiation effects upon the populations. The study was carried out in 1989--1992 near Chernobyl (in two areas with differed contamination levels: 90 Ci/km 2 , 5 Ci/km 2 ) and East-Ural radioactive trace (Russia) (1,500 Ci/km 2 , 2 Ci/km 2 ). Concentrations of 90 Sr in egg shells of Great Tit collected near Chernobyl were 65 times higher in the more radioactive area than in the less contaminated area and varied from 56.6 to 79.7 Bq/g. Concentration of 90 Sr in the contents of gastrointestinal tracts were from 0 to 10.8 Bq/g. Concentrations of radionuclides in the food increased in the sequence ''nestlings 90 Sr content in bodies of nestlings varied from 1 to 5 Bq/g at contaminated site and from 0.2 to 0.5 Bq/g at less polluted area, from 1 to 9 Bq/g and from 0.1 to 0.5 Bq/g in fledglings relatively in two areas. It was assumed that the ration of pairs numbers and breeding success of Pied Flycatcher (East-Ural) on the control site was significantly higher than that on contaminated site. The pathology in development of Pied Flycatcher's nestling was recorded. The radiation influenced on age-structure of bird populations decreasing the ratio of the young

  8. Technical Work Plan for: Near Field Environment: Engineered System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report

    J.D. Schreiber

    2006-12-08

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model

  9. Estimating radionuclide air concentrations near buildings: a screening approach

    Miller, C.W.; Yildiran, M.

    1984-01-01

    For some facilities that routinely release small amounts of radionuclides to the atmosphere, such as hospitals, research laboratories, contaminated clothing laundries, and others, it is necessary to estimate the dose to persons very near the buildings from which the releases occur. Such facilities need simple screening procedures which provide reasonable assurance that as long as the calculated dose is less than some fraction of a relevant dose limit no individual will receive a dose in excess of that limit. Screening procedures have been proposed for persons living within hundreds of meters to a few kilometers from a source of radioactive effluent. This paper examines a screening technique for estimating long-term average radionuclide air concentrations within approximately 100 m of a building from which the release occurs. The technique is based on a modified gaussion plume model (HB model) which considers the influence of the tallest building within 100 m and is independant of atmospheric stability and downwind distance. 4 references, 2 tables

  10. Organic matter linked radionuclide transport in Boom clay - Phenomenological understanding and abstraction to PA

    Maes, N.; Bruggeman, C.; Liu, D.J.; Salah, S.; Van Laer, L.; Wang, L.; Weetjens, E.; Govaerts, J.; Marivoet, J.; Brassinnes, S.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the frame of the Belgian research program on long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive wastes coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, plastic clays (i.e., Boom Clay and Ypresian clays) are investigated for their potential to host a deep geological disposal repository for radioactive waste because of, among others, their ability to significantly retard radionuclide releases to the biosphere. The Boom Clay is characterised by the presence of a relatively high amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM, humic substances) which show a strong interaction with a suite of radionuclides (RN) like lanthanides, actinides and transition metals. This interaction with DOM leads in general to an increased mobility of the radionuclide as the OM can act as a colloidal carrier for the radionuclide. Therefore, the quantification and the understanding of the underlying processes are needed for the demonstration of confidence in the host formation to act as a suitable barrier. However, this is not an easy task, given the multitude of processes involved: complexation/colloid formation, sorption, kinetics, filtration, -. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the research work that leads to a straightforward reactive transport model capturing fairly well the experimental observations. The model can be considered as an intermediate model providing a good basis for further safety abstraction on the one hand and the way to a more detailed phenomenological understanding on the other hand. The research is focussed on the underlying processes that govern speciation, sorption and transport. These underlying processes are investigated in a bottom-up approach, from simple systems to more complex systems. Interpretation is done using thermodynamic based models. Whereas the contribution of Bruggeman et al. focusses mainly on (batch) sorption studies (of trivalent RN), this presentation will provide more details on the

  11. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use following a nuclear emergency

    Hwang, W. T.; Ser, K. S.; Kim, E. H.; Choi, Y. K.; Han, M. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    The optimized derived intervention levels for animal products were evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis. From these results, the radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use were derived. It was shown that radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use depend strongly on animal products, radionuclides and feeding period. In case of the contaminated feedstuffs with long-lived radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr), the feedstuffs with lower contamination should be supplied to animals with increase of feeding period due to the accumulation of radionuclides in animal products. While, in case of the contaminated feedstuffs with short-lived radionuclides ( 131 I), the feeding of higher contaminated feedstuffs was possible with increase of feeding period due to radionuclide decay. It was shown that 137 Cs concentration was lower than 90 Sr concentration in animal feedstuffs for use. It is primarily due to the higher feed-animal products transfer factor of 137 Cs

  12. Assessment of the concentration limits for radionuclides for Posiva

    Grive, M.; Montoya, V.; Duro, L. (Enviros Spain S.L. (Spain))

    2007-01-15

    The present document assesses the near-field concentration limits of the radionuclides of interest for Posiva (C, Ni, Se, Sr, Mo, Zr, Nb, Tc, Pd, Sn, Cs, Sm, Ra, Th, Pa, U, Pu, Np, Am and Cm) under the geochemical composition of the Olkiluoto groundwaters. The limits provided here are intended to be used only in the area close to the fuel given that no major solid phases other than the ones produced by the anoxic corrosion of the canister and the fuel itself are considered. Calculations have been performed by using the PHREEQC code. Three different general cases have been considered when assessing the composition of the groundwater contacting the fuel: a) Groundwater contacts the fuel without any prior interaction with the buffer b) Groundwater is modified by interaction with Bentonite, and c) Glacial meltwater reaches the fuel. The redox state of the system has been considered to cover different evolution of the repository for the different groundwaters. Besides of the given redox potential of the groundwaters, two variations of the redox state have been accounted for in this analysis to consider the evolution of H{sub 2} due to the anoxic corrosion of the cast iron insert: (a) The maximum pH{sub 2} overpressure is limited by the hydrostatic and swelling pressure of bentonite at repository depth, and (b) The pH{sub 2} overpressure is limited by the hematite/magnetite stability boundary. This exemplifies the corrosion of iron to magnetite in a first step, and its further evolution to hematite in a second step. Tables summarizing the solubility and aqueous speciation of the different waters as well as the main uncertainty parameters affecting the results are provided. The concentration limits recommended in this report are based on the following assumptions: (i) radionuclides will form individual solid phases, and (ii) the rate of dissolution of radionuclides from spent fuel is fast enough as to ensure that equilibrium with individual solid phases is achieved for

  13. Assessment of the concentration limits for radionuclides for Posiva

    Grive, M.; Montoya, V.; Duro, L.

    2008-01-01

    The present document assesses the near-field concentration limits of the radionuclides of interest for Posiva (C, Ni, Se, Sr, Mo, Zr, Nb, Tc, Pd, Sn, Cs, Sm, Ra, Th, Pa, U, Pu, Np, Am and Cm) under the geochemical composition of the Olkiluoto groundwaters. The limits provided here are intended to be used only in the area close to the fuel given that no major solid phases other than the ones produced by the anoxic corrosion of the canister and the fuel itself are considered. Calculations have been performed by using the PHREEQC code. Three different general cases have been considered when assessing the composition of the groundwater contacting the fuel: a) Groundwater contacts the fuel without any prior interaction with the buffer b) Groundwater is modified by interaction with Bentonite, and c) Glacial meltwater reaches the fuel. The redox state of the system has been considered to cover different evolution of the repository for the different groundwaters. Besides of the given redox potential of the groundwaters, two variations of the redox state have been accounted for in this analysis to consider the evolution of H 2 due to the anoxic corrosion of the cast iron insert: (a) The maximum pH 2 overpressure is limited by the hydrostatic and swelling pressure of bentonite at repository depth, and (b) The pH 2 overpressure is limited by the hematite/magnetite stability boundary. This exemplifies the corrosion of iron to magnetite in a first step, and its further evolution to hematite in a second step. Tables summarizing the solubility and aqueous speciation of the different waters as well as the main uncertainty parameters affecting the results are provided. The concentration limits recommended in this report are based on the following assumptions: (i) radionuclides will form individual solid phases, and (ii) the rate of dissolution of radionuclides from spent fuel is fast enough as to ensure that equilibrium with individual solid phases is achieved for times shorter

  14. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet.

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for (137)Caesium, (90)Strontium and (131)Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide (210)Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet

    Pearson, Andrew J.; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N.

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for 137 Caesium, 90 Strontium and 131 Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide 210 Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. - Highlights: • A radionuclide monitoring program was undertaken across the New Zealand food supply. • 40 food types were analysed for 13 radionuclides. • 137 Cs was present in 15% of foods (range: 0.05–0.44Bq/kg). • Anthropogenic radionuclides displayed compliance with international limits. • 210 Po, 234 U and 238 U were present in most foods with large ranges of activities.

  16. Abstracts of papers of International Meeting 'Ecological status of territories polluted by radionuclides'

    1995-04-01

    The collection contains the results of investigations implemented on the territories of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia within the realization of Chernobyl Ecological Science Network: dynamics of radionuclides migration in the environment, state of plant community on the areas polluted by radionuclides, biological changes of biocenoses, metabolic and genetic effects of Chernobyl catastrophe (author)

  17. Rapid determination of radionuclide activity concentrations in contaminated drinking water

    Medley, P.; Ryan, B.; Bollhofer, A.; Martin, P.; International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

    2007-01-01

    As a result of an incident at the Ranger Uranium mine in which drinking water was contaminated with process water, it was necessary to perform quick analysis for naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclide activity concentrations, including 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, U and Th isotopes. The methods which were subsequently used are presented here. The techniques used were high-resolution gamma spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and high-resolution alpha spectrometry. Routine methods were modified to allow for rapid analyses on priority samples in 1-2 days, with some results for highest priority samples available in less than 1 day. Comparison of initial results obtained through standard procedures, is discussed. An emphasis is placed on high-resolution alpha spectrometry of major alpha-emitting nuclides, specifically 226Ra, 230Th and 238U. The range of uranium concentrations in the samples investigated was from background levels to 6.6ppm. Implications for radiological dose assessment in contamination incidents involving process water are presented. The worst-case scenario for the incident at Ranger Uranium Mine indicates that the maximum committed effective dose to workers was well below the ICRP limit for worker-related dose and below the dose limit for a member of the public, with 230Th being the highest contributor

  18. Kinetic regularities of change in the concentration of radionuclides in the Georgian tea content

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Katamadze, N.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Ginturi, Eh.N.

    1990-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of a study of behavior of artificial radionuclides in Georgian tea technological products after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Station. A partial contribution of the activity of radionuclides 141 Ce, 140 La, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 140 Ba, 137 Cs, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, 134 Cs and 90 Sr to the total activity to Georgian tea samples. Maximum tolerated concentrations of radionuclides were assessed provided average annual tea consumption per capita was 1 kg. The maximum of solubility in the water phase falls on Cs radionuclides. The regularities of migration of half-lived radionuclides 3 yrs. After the Chernobyl accident were established

  19. Correlation between meteorological conditions and the concentration of radionuclides in the ground layer of atmospheric air

    Krajny, E.; Osrodka, L.; Wojtylak, M.; Michalik, B.; Skowronek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to find correlation between the concentrations of radionuclides in outdoor air and the meteorological conditions like: atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and amount of precipitation. Because the sampling period of radionuclides concentrations in air was relatively long (7 days), the average levels of meteorological parameters have been calculated within the same time. Data of radionuclide concentrations and meteorological data have been analyzed in order to find statistical correlation. The regression analysis and one of AI methods, known as neural network, were applied. In general, analysis of the gathered data does not show any strong correlation between the meteorological conditions and the concentrations of the radionuclides in air. A slightly stronger correlation we found for radionuclides with relatively short half-lives. The only positive correlation has been found between the 7 Be concentration and air temperature (at the significance level α = 0.05). In our opinion, the lack of correlation was caused by a too long sampling time in measurements of radionuclides in outdoor air (a whole week). Results of analysis received by means of the artificial neuron network are better. We were able to find certain groups of meteorological conditions, related with the corresponding concentrations of particular radionuclides in air. Preliminary measurements of radon progeny concentration support the thesis that the link between changes of meteorological parameters and concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air must exist. (author)

  20. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River. Revision 1

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report.

  1. Proposal of limits for the concentration of radionuclides activity in drinking water for Polish population

    Filipiak, B.; Haratym, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The paper discussed the influence of the radionuclides contents in drinking water on the exposure of the population. The way of transformation of the limits of effective dose into the relevant concentration of radionuclides in drinking water is presented together with the results of these calculations. We propose to approve these limits for particular radionuclides. The suggestion for the methodology and organization of measurements are also given. (author)

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in agricultural products near the Hanford Site, 1982 through 1992

    Antonio, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed monitoring data for agricultural products collected from 1982 through 1992 near the Hanford Site to determine radionuclide concentration trends. While samples were collected and analyzed, and results reported annual in Hanford Site environmental reports, an 11-year data set was reviewed for this report to increase the ability to assess trends and potential Hanford effects. Products reviewed included milk, chicken, eggs, beef, vegetables, fruit, wine, wheat, and alfalfa. To determine which radionuclides were detected sufficiently often to permit analysis for trends and effects, each radionuclide concentration and its associated uncertainty were ratioed. Radionuclides were considered routinely detectable if more than 50% of the ratios were between zero and one. Data for these radionuclides were then analyzed statistically, using analyses of variance. The statistical analyses indicated the following: for the most part, there were no measurable effects for Hanford operations; radionuclide concentrations in all products reviewed remained relatively low when compared to concentrations that would result in a 1-mrem effective dose equivalent to an individual; radionuclide concentrations are decreasing in general; however, 90 Sr concentrations in all media and 129 I in milk increased from 1982 to 1986, then decreased gradually for the remainder of the review period. The 129 I concentrations may be correlated with processing of irradiated reactor fuel at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant

  3. Activity concentration of radionuclides in plants in the environment of western Ghats

    Manigandan, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    A field study on the transfer of primordial radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and fallout radionuclides 210 Po in different plant species in tropical forest of western Ghats environment is presented. Material and Methods: The Top storey, Second storey, Shrubs and epiphytic plant species were chosen and concentration of these radionuclides in plant and soil were measured by employing gamma ray spectrometer and alpha counter. Results: The concentration ratio shows the variation in different species while a wild plant Elaeocarpus oblongus and epiphytic plants indicated preferential uptake of these radionuclides. Conclusion: The dust trapped in the root system of. epiphytic plants could be used as bio indicator to monitor fallout radionuclides in the Western Ghats. The concentration of 232 Th and 40 K in leaves depends on the age of the leaves.

  4. Concentration and speciation of radionuclides in environmental samples

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The paper will describe three examples dealing with the measure of some natural (U, Th, 2 10Pb, 4 0K) and artificial ( 1 37Cs, 9 0Sr, 2 39 +2 40Pu, 2 41Am) radionuclides in environmental samples such as mosses, sediments, soils. Extraction chromatography, liquid extraction, selective precipitation and electroplating were used to isolate the radionuclides, except for gamma emitters which were detected by gamma spectrometry. Alpha spectrometry were used to measure the alpha emitters and low background beta detector to measure the beta emitters

  5. Abstracts of papers of international meeting 'Ecological status of territories contaminated by radionuclides'

    Konoplya, E.F.

    1995-04-01

    The collection contains the results of investigations implemented on the territories of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia within the realization of the Chernobyl Ecological Science Network: dynamics of radionuclides migration in the environment, state of phytocenosis, metabolic and genetic effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe

  6. Studies on influence of environmental factors on concentration on concentration of radionuclides

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Environmental factors which seemed to influence the concentration of radionuclides to marine organisms including illumination, water temperature, coexisting stable elements, salt concentration, suspended matters in sea water and residue were studied. The influence of illumination was examined by algae using 137 Cs, 60 Co, 85 Sr, and 106 Ru as tracers, within 24 hours of illumination. The concentration of 137 Cs and 60 Co revealed remarkable increase of uptake in accordance with increasing illumination intensity, and 24 hours illumination showed 2 times concentration of that by 4 hours'. 85 Sr and 106 Ru showed no effect of illumination, and suggested their concentration was depending on adsorption to the surface. As for water temperature, the concentration factor of 65 Zn, 137 Cs obtained from fishes and shells by 22 0 C breeding was 2 times of that by 12 0 C breeding. Concerning the influence of coexisting stable elements, fishes and shells were examined by 54 Mn, 60 Co, and 65 Zn as tracers. When the stable elements concentration in sea water became 10 times the normal, concentration factor depending on adsorption and metabolism became respective one tenth and one second of the normal value. The influence of salt concentration was examined using 85 Sr, 65 Zn, and 137 Cs, and revealed that 28 to 40 per cent changes of salt level gave slight influence on concentration factor. In order to study the influence of suspended matters and quality of residue, 3 kinds of 106 Ru complex species were added. Concentration factor of Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme) showed no remarkable difference between breeding in filtrated and non-filtrated sea water. However, clams living in the sand should be taken care of the concentration by the residue in the sea bottom. (Kanao, N.)

  7. Airborne remote sensing of estuarine intertidal radionuclide concentrations

    Rainey, M.P.

    1999-08-01

    The ability to map industrial discharges through remote sensing provides a powerful tool in environmental monitoring. Radionuclide effluents have been discharged, under authorization, into the Irish Sea from BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Pic.) sites at Sellafield and Springfields since 1952. The quantitative mapping of this anthropogenic radioactivity in estuarine intertidal zones is crucial for absolute interpretations of radionuclide transport. The spatial resolutions of traditional approaches e.g. point sampling and airborne gamma surveys are insufficient to support geomorphic interpretations of the fate of radionuclides in estuaries. The research presented in this thesis develops the use of airborne remote sensing to derive high-resolution synoptic data on the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in the intertidal areas of the Ribble Estuary, Lancashire, UK. From multidate surface sediment samples a significant relationship was identified between the Sellafield-derived 137 Cs and 241 Am and clay content (r 2 = 0.93 and 0.84 respectively). Detailed in situ, and laboratory, reflectance (0.4-2.5μm) experiments demonstrated that significant relationships exist between Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) simulated reflectance and intertidal sediment grain-size. The spectral influence of moisture on the reflectance characteristics of the intertidal area is also evident. This had substantial implications for the timing of airborne image acquisition. Low-tide Daedalus ATM imagery (Natural Environmental Research Council) was collected of the Ribble Estuary on May 30th 1997. Preprocessing and linear unmixing of the imagery allowed accurate sub-pixel determinations of sediment clay content distributions (r 2 = 0.81). Subsequently, the established relationships between 137 Cs and 241 Am and sediment grain-size enabled the radionuclide activity distributions across the entire intertidal area (92 km 2 ) to be mapped at a geomorphic scale (1.75 m). The accuracy of these maps

  8. Abstracts

    2011-01-01

    The Western Theories of War Ethics and Contemporary Controversies Li Xiaodong U Ruijing (4) [ Abstract] In the field of international relations, war ethics is a concept with distinct westem ideological color. Due to factors of history and reality, the in

  9. Environmental radionuclide concentrations: statistical model to determine uniformity of distribution

    Cawley, C.N.; Fenyves, E.J.; Spitzberg, D.B.; Wiorkowski, J.; Chehroudi, M.T.

    1980-01-01

    In the evaluation of data from environmental sampling and measurement, a basic question is whether the radionuclide (or pollutant) is distributed uniformly. Since physical measurements have associated errors, it is inappropriate to consider the measurements alone in this determination. Hence, a statistical model has been developed. It consists of a weighted analysis of variance with subsequent t-tests between weighted and independent means. A computer program to perform the calculations is included

  10. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeons from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    Dauble, D.D.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    We summarized radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus from the Columbia River during a period when several plutonium-production reactors were operating at the Hanford Site in Washington State and compared these values to those measured several years after reactor shutdown. Studies conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River during 1953-1955 indicated that high concentrations of radionuclides (as total beta) were present in some internal organs on the external surface of white sturgeons. Average concentrations were about 1,480 Bq/kg for liver and kidney and exceeded 2,200 Bq/kg for fins and scutes. The principal radionuclides in the tissues of white sturgeons from the Hanford Reach during 1963-1967, the peak reactor operation interval, were 32 P, 65 Zn, and 51 Cr. Average concentrations of 32 P in muscle ranged from 925 to 2,109 Bq/kg and were typically two to seven times greater than 65 Zn. Average concentrations of radionuclides were usually in the order of gut contents much-gt carcass > muscle. Studies from 1989 to 1990 showed that radionuclide concentrations had decreased dramatically in white sturgeon tissue since the time of reactor operation. Maximum concentrations for artificial radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 60 Co, 137 Cs) in muscle and cartilage of white sturgeons in the Columbia River had declined to less than 4 Bq/kg. Formerly abundant radionuclides, including 32 P, 65 Zn, and 51 Cr, could not be detected in recent tissue samples. Further, radionuclide tissue burden in populations of sturgeons from the Hanford Reach and the upstream or downstream reference locations did not differ significantly. 34 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Transport of radionuclides by concentrated brine in a porous medium with micropore-macropore structure

    Hassanizadeh, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    This work concerns itself with the study of effects of soil aggregation and high salt concentrations on the transport of radionuclides by concentrated brine flowing through an aggregated porous medium. The medium is considered to be composed of porous rock aggregates separated by macropores through which the brine flows and transport of salt and radionuclides takes place. The aggregates contain dead-end pores, cracks, and stationary pockets collectively called micropores. The micropore space does not contribute to the flow, but it serves as a storage for salt and radionuclides. Adsorption of radionuclides takes place at internal surfaces of aggregates where they assume that a linear equilibrium isotherm describes the process. A one-dimensional numerical model is developed which is based on two sets of equations: one set for the flow and transport of salt and another set for transport of radionuclides. Results of numerical experiments clearly indicate that the existence of high salt concentrations markedly reduces the peak of nuclides concentration and slows down their movement. Also, it is found that diffusive mass exchange between macropores and aggregates results in a pronounced lowering of the radionuclides concentration peaks. 9 references, 7 figures

  12. Long-term calculation of radionuclides concentration in the ocean by OGCM

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Maruyama, Koki; Nakashiki, Norikazu; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2000-01-01

    The ocean transports of radioactive materials have been carried out from Europe to Japan through the several routes on the world ocean. To sustain the safety of the transport of radioactive materials and to gain the public acceptance, it is necessary evaluate the radionuclide concentration in the ocean at the hypothetical submergence of radioactive materials into the world ocean. The purpose of this study is to develop a new method to evaluate the radionuclides concentration in the world ocean. A method to calculate the concentration of radionuclides in the ocean was developed using an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). The concentration of radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239+240 Pu) in the ocean was calculated from 1957 to 1994, on the assumption that these radionuclides were injected into the ocean only as the fallout from the atmospheric weapons tests. The calculated concentrations gave a good agreement with the observed data. The concentration of radionuclides in the ocean was estimated by this method in case of the hypothetical submergence of a package of fresh MOX fuel into the ocean on the routes of ocean transport from Europe to Japan. We calculated the concentration of 6 radionuclides ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu and 241 Am) over 1000 years. It takes 3.5 CPU hours for 1000-year calculation by the supercomputer HITACHI S3800. The concentration in the ocean due to the hypothetical submergence of a package of fresh MOX fuel is estimated to be much smaller than the present background concentration of fallout. (author)

  13. Abstracts

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary Short Board: Orderly Cultivate Housing Leasing Market WANG Guangtao (Former Minister of Ministry of Construction) Abstract: In December 2016, Central Economic Work Conference proposed that to promote the steady and healthy development of the real estate market, it should adhere to the “house is used to live, not used to speculate” position. At present, the development of housing leasing market in China is lagging behind. It is urgent to improve the housing conditions of large cities and promote the urbanization of small and medium-sized cities. Therefore, it is imperative to innovate and supplement the short board to accelerate the development of housing leasing market.

  14. Influence of the composition of radionuclide mixtures on the maximum permissible concentration

    Schillinger, K.; Schuricht, V.

    1975-08-01

    By dividing radionuclides according to their formation mechanisms it is possible to assess the influence of separate partial mixtures on the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of the total mixture without knowing exactly their contribution to the total activity. Calculations showed that the MPC of a total mixture of unsoluble radionuclides, which may occur in all fields of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, depends on the gastrointestinal tract as the critical organ and on the composition of the fission product mixture. The influence of fractionation on the MPC can be reglected in such a case, whereas in case of soluble radionuclides this is not possible

  15. Abstracts

    2012-01-01

    Strategic Realism: An Option for China' s Grand Strategy Song Dexing (4) [ Abstract] As a non-Western emerging power, China should positively adapt its grand strategy to the strategic psychological traits in the 21st century, maintain a realist tone consistent with the national conditions of China, and avoid adventurist policies while awaring both strategic strength and weakness. In the 21st century, China' s grand strategy should be based on such core values as security, development, peace and justice, especially focusing on development in particular, which we named "strategic realism". Given the profound changes in China and the world, strategic realism encourages active foreign policy to safe- guard the long-term national interests of China. Following the self-help logic and the fun- damental values of security and prosperity, strategic realism concerns national interests as its top-priority. It advocates smart use of power, and aims to achieve its objectives by optimizing both domestic and international conditions. From the perspective of diplomatic phi- losophy, strategic realism is not a summarization of concrete policies but a description of China' s grand strategy orientations in the new century. [ Key Words] China, grand strategy, strategic realism [ Author]Song Dexing, Professor, Ph.D. Supervisor, and Director of the Center for International Strategic Studies, University of International Studies of PLA.

  16. Radionuclide concentrations in wild waterfowl using the test reactor area radioactive leaching pond

    Halford, D.K.; Millard, J.B.; Markham, O.D.

    1978-01-01

    Waterfowl use the Test Reactor Area (TRA) Radioactive Leaching Pond on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site (INEL Site) as a resting area. Daily observations of waterfowl were made to determine species composition and numbers. Eight ducks and one coot were collected from the TRA pond during 1976 and 1977. Seven background samples were also collected. Each bird was dissected and tissue samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Duck tissues contained 25 radionuclides. Average and maximum radionuclide concentrations were highest in gut followed by feathers, liver, and muscle, Chromium-51 had the highest concentrations of all radionuclides identified 130,000 pCi/g (4800 Bq/g) in the gut and 37,500 pCi/g (1390 Bq/g) on the feathres). Neodymium-147 had the highest concentration on feathers of any radionuclide (104,000 pCi/g, 3850 Bq/g). Cesium-137 was the predominant radionuclide in muscle with a maximum concentration of 4,070 pCi/g (150 Bq/g). The ducks had lower radionuclide concentrations in the edible tissues than in the non-edible tissues. Potential whole-body and thyroid dose commitments to man consuming contaminated ducks were calculated using muscle concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137, and I-131. Although assumptions used for dose calculations maximized the dose commitment to man, results indicated that consumption of contaminated duck tissue is not a radiation hazard to humans. Even the highest dose commitments were below the limits recommended for individuals of the general population by the Internatioal Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The highest potential dose commitment to man would result from the consumption of an American coot known to have spent 20 days on the TRA pond. The average dose commitment to man would be 20 mrem

  17. abstract

    . user

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM, being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants. Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks. Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%, three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water, and four almond rootstocks including GF

  18. abstract

    abstract abstract

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strawberry (fragaria×ananassa Duch. fruit characterized by short storage life, often estimated last less than one week even under optimum conditions at 8°C. The loss of fruit quality is often caused by gray mold (Botrytis cinerea that is the most frequent reported postharvest disease in strawberry during storage (6. In recent years, considerable attention has given to elimination of synthetic chemical and fungicides application and development of various alternative strategies for controlling fruit and vegetables diseases (2. One strategy is replacement of natural products with plant origin such as essential oil and methyl salicylate (MeSA. Essential oils are volatile, natural and complex compounds characterized by a strong odor formed by aromatic plants in form of secondary metabolites. In nature, essential similar oils that extract from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia play an important role in protection of the plants against pathogen incidence that can be replaced by synthetic fungicides (1, 4 and 14. MeSA is also a volatile natural compound synthesized from salicylic acid which has an important role in the plant defense-mechanism, as well as plant growth and development (5, 19 and 20. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to study the effects of MeSA and lavender essential oil (LEO on decay control caused by Botrytis cinerea as well as post-harvest quality indices of strawberry fruits during cold storage. Material and Methods: First, antifungal activity was studied by using a contact assay (in vitro, which produces hyphal growth inhibition. Briefly, potato dextrose agar (PDA plates were prepared using 8 cm diameter glass petri dishes and inhibitory percentage was determined. For in-vivo assessment of LEO and MeSA effects on Botrytis-caused fungal disease control, the experiment was conducted as factorial in completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replicates. The treatments were 3 concentration of LEO including

  19. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    Hedvall, R.

    1997-04-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected radionuclide in fuels. It's activity concentration in Bq/kg normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from K in emission from combustion is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to man are the U- and Th-isotopes and 210 Pb and 210 Po. 137 Cs is the most common nuclide among the fission products in fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137 Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approx. only a few μSv from inhalation can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 manSv/year. 143 refs

  20. Comparison of marine dispersion model predictions with environmental radionuclide concentrations

    Johnson, C.E.; McKay, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of marine dispersion model results with measurements is an essential part of model development and testing. The results from two residual flow models are compared with seawater concentrations, and in one case with concentrations measured in marine molluscs. For areas with short turnover times, seawater concentrations respond rapidly to variations in discharge rate and marine currents. These variations are difficult to model, and comparison with concentrations in marine animals provides an alternative and complementary technique for model validation with the advantages that the measurements reflect the mean conditions and frequently form a useful time series. (author)

  1. Environmental parameters series. 3. Concentration factors of radionuclides in freshwater organisms

    1994-03-01

    This report outlines recent research activities of Radioactive Waste Management Center. Aiming to estimate the radiation dose of man exposed to radioactive materials in an environment, construction of a calculation model on the transfer of radionuclide in the environment was attempted. This issue, Environmental parameter series No.3 includes six reports on the factors related to environmental concentration for radionuclides. The title of the reports are as follows; Factors modifying the concentration factor (CF), Evaluation of accumulation of radionuclides in brackish water organisms, Dose assessment, CF derived from Japanese limnological data, Data table of CF and Metabolic parameters in relation to bioaccumulation of elements by organisms. In addition to collect and arrange the existing data, CF was calculated based on the concentration of stable elements in various lakes and rivers in Japan. (M.N.)

  2. Concentration of radionuclides in uranium tailings and its uptake by plants at Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India

    Singh, Lal; Soni, Prafulla

    2010-01-01

    Mining and processing of uranium ore was started in several parts of eastern Singhbhum, viz. Jaduguda, Bhatin and Narwapahar (Jharkhand) in 1968. Radioactivity in the mine tailings has to be consolidated so that it does not emanate in the atmosphere or enter the food chain. Hence, the area has been covered with 30 cm thick soil cover followed by development of plant species that do not have any socioeconomic relevance in the area. Seven native plant species of forestry origin, viz. Colebrookea oppositifolia, Dodonaea viscosa, Furcraea foetida, Imperata cylindrica, Jatropha gossypifolia, Pogostemon benghalense and Saccharum spontaneum have been selected for experimental trials. Distribution and concentration of radionuclides have been evaluated in a tailing pond at different depths in soil and tailings. Radionuclide uptake in each of the selected plant species has been evaluated and discussed in this article. The highest concentration of radionuclides has been found in tailings > soil cover on tailings > roots of selected plant species > shoots of all the selected species. These results show that among the seven species tried, J. gossypifolia and F. foetida have the lowest uptake (below detectable limits), while S. spontaneum and P. benghalense have comparatively higher uptake. However, radionuclide concentration in all the tried species is significantly low compared to species of natural occurrence which have higher radionuclides uptake and accumulation. (author)

  3. Concentration of radionuclides in uranium tailings and its uptake by plants at Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India

    Singh, Lal; Soni, Prafulla [Ecology and Environment Div., Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India)

    2010-01-10

    Mining and processing of uranium ore was started in several parts of eastern Singhbhum, viz. Jaduguda, Bhatin and Narwapahar (Jharkhand) in 1968. Radioactivity in the mine tailings has to be consolidated so that it does not emanate in the atmosphere or enter the food chain. Hence, the area has been covered with 30 cm thick soil cover followed by development of plant species that do not have any socioeconomic relevance in the area. Seven native plant species of forestry origin, viz. Colebrookea oppositifolia, Dodonaea viscosa, Furcraea foetida, Imperata cylindrica, Jatropha gossypifolia, Pogostemon benghalense and Saccharum spontaneum have been selected for experimental trials. Distribution and concentration of radionuclides have been evaluated in a tailing pond at different depths in soil and tailings. Radionuclide uptake in each of the selected plant species has been evaluated and discussed in this article. The highest concentration of radionuclides has been found in tailings > soil cover on tailings > roots of selected plant species > shoots of all the selected species. These results show that among the seven species tried, J. gossypifolia and F. foetida have the lowest uptake (below detectable limits), while S. spontaneum and P. benghalense have comparatively higher uptake. However, radionuclide concentration in all the tried species is significantly low compared to species of natural occurrence which have higher radionuclides uptake and accumulation. (author)

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in fish and invertebrates from Bikini Atoll

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    As in other global studies, 137 Cs was found in the highest concentrations in edible flesh of all species of fish and in the lowest concentrations in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of 137 Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global-fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, IL, USA, in 1982. Strontium-90 is associated generally with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of 60 Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of 60 Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of 207 Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of 207 Bi were consistently detected in the muscle and other tissues of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, 207 Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of 207 Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither 239+240 Pu nor 241 Am is accumulated significantly in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, 238 Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than 239+240 Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 g of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines. 24 refs., 1 fig., 27 tabs

  5. Concentrations of radionuclides in reef and lagoon pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Marsh, K.V.

    1981-07-01

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent man-made radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands of the Northern Marshall Islands. The atolls and islands include Rongelap, Utirik, Taka, Bikar, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Likiep, Jemo, Ailuk, Mejet, Wotho, Ujelang and Bikini. Over 4000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef fish, pelagic species, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. A report is given of all available concentration data for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, /sup 239+240/Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am as well as naturally occurring 40 K and other gamma emitting radionuclides in tissues and organs of different species of fish collected from the atolls

  6. An international database of radionuclide concentration ratios for wildlife: development and uses

    Copplestone, D.; Beresford, N.A.; Brown, J.E.; Yankovich, T.

    2013-01-01

    A key element of most systems for assessing the impact of radionuclides on the environment is a means to estimate the transfer of radionuclides to organisms. To facilitate this, an international wildlife transfer database has been developed to provide an online, searchable compilation of transfer parameters in the form of equilibrium-based whole-organism to media concentration ratios. This paper describes the derivation of the wildlife transfer database, the key data sources it contains and highlights the applications for the data. -- Highlights: • An online database containing wildlife radionuclide transfer parameters is described. • Database underpins recent ICRP and IAEA data wildlife transfer compilations. • Database contains equilibrium based whole organism to media concentration ratios

  7. Models and data to predict radionuclide concentrations in river basin systems

    Fleming, G.; Rufai, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of land may result from the detonation of nuclear weapons or nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl. The deposition of fallout on soil and/or plants, and subsequent erosion by rainsplash and overland flow, could introduce radioactive isotopes into the water and soil resources of the environment. A model to simulate the transport and deposition of concentrated pollutants and radionuclides within the river basin is proposed. The proposed model is built on an existing Strathclyde River Basin Model, (SRBM), which has the potential to simulate runoff and erosion and the distribution of eroded soil particle sizes. An algorithm of the processes of concentration of pollutants and radionuclides can be developed based on the current understanding of the process of radionuclide attachment to soil particles. (author)

  8. Activity concentration of various radionuclides in tubificids living in the biobeds of a sewage treatment plant

    Erlandsson, A.; Erlandsson, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1988-04-01

    Oligochaeta belonging to the family Tubificidae are used in the biobeds of waste water treatment plants in the decomposition process of organic matter. Waste water treatment plants also receive radionuclides in the form of radiopharmaceuticals. The most commonly used radionuclides are 131 I and 99 Tc m . In this investigation the role of the Tubificids in the accumulation of these radionuclides has been studied. The activity concentration of 131 I in Tubificids was found to be 1-20 times higher than in the incoming waste water which is only 5-20% of the concentration factor between incoming water and outgoing sludge. Sludge is thus a more sensitive bioindicator, but Tubificids respond faster. (authors)

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in terrestrial vegetation and soil on and around the Hanford Site, 1983 through 1993

    Poston, T.M.; Antonio, E.J.; Cooper, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    This report reviews concentrations of 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, U isotopes, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, and 241 Am in soil and vegetation samples collected from 1983 through 1993 during routine surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling locations were grouped in study areas associated with operational areas on the Site. While radionuclide concentrations were very low and representative of background concentrations from historic fallout, some study areas on the Site contained slightly elevated concentrations compared to other study areas onsite and offsite. The 100 Areas had concentrations of 60 Co comparable to the minimum detectable concentration of 0.02 pCi/g in soil. Concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, and 241 Am in 200 Area soils were slightly elevated. The 300 Area had a slight elevation of U in soil. These observations were expected because many of the sampling locations were selected to monitor specific facilities or operations at the operational areas. Generally, concentrations of the radionuclides studied were greater and more readily measured in soil samples compared to vegetation samples. The general pattern of concentrations of radionuclide concentrations in vegetation by area mirrored that observed in soil. Declines in 90 Sr in soil appear to be attributed to radioactive decay and possibly downward migration out of the sampling horizon. The other radionuclides addressed in this report strongly sorb to soil and are readily retained in surface soil. Because of their long half-lives compared to the length of the study period, there was no significant indication that concentrations of U isotopes and Pu isotopes were decreasing over time

  10. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than 137 Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms

  11. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada))

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than {sup 137}Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium {times} V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms.

  12. Radioactivity in papers: the concentration and source of naturally occurring radionuclides

    Kobashi, Asaya

    2005-01-01

    The radioactivities of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K) in papers such as magazines, newspapers, and copying papers produced in Japan were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry to obtain information on radioactivity level of papers. The X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples was also carried out to elucidate the source of radionuclides contained in them. The average 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K contents of pocket-sized books were 6.4, 21.5, 23.7, and 18.8 Bq kg -1 , respectively, and those of other kinds of samples were near to or less than the values. The 228 Th content was generally somewhat higher than the 228 Ra content. Possibly 228 Ra was leached from the raw materials of the papers to water during their production in preference to 228 Th. The concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides were correlated to each other. The X-ray diffraction study showed that kaolinite, talc, and calcite were contained in the papers. The kaolinite content of the samples was correlated to the concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides, indicating that the naturally occurring radionuclides in the paper samples were mainly brought with kaolinite used as filler or coating pigment in the papers. The regression analysis of the data showed that the natural radioactivity content of filler kaolinite was higher than that of pigment kaolinite. (author)

  13. FOOD II: an interactive code for calculating concentrations of radionuclides in food products

    Zach, R.

    1978-11-01

    An interactive code, FOOD II, has been written in FORTRAN IV for the PDP 10 to allow calculation of concentrations of radionuclides in food products and internal doses to man under chronic release conditions. FOOD II uses models unchanged from a previous code, FOOD, developed at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The new code has different input and output features than FOOD and a number of options have been added to increase flexibility. Data files have also been updated. FOOD II takes into account contamination of vegetation by air and irrigation water containing radionuclides. Contamination can occur simultaneously by air and water. Both direct deposition of radionuclides on leaves, and their uptake from soil are possible. Also, animals may be contaminated by ingestion of vegetation and drinking water containing radionuclides. At present, FOOD II provides selection of 14 food types, 13 diets and numerous radionuclides. Provisions have been made to expand all of these categories. Six additional contaminated food products can also be entered directly into the dose model. Doses may be calculated for the total body and six internal organs. Summaries of concentrations in food products and internal doses to man can be displayed at a local terminal or at an auxiliary high-speed printer. (author)

  14. Concentration of radionuclides in fresh water fish downstream of Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.M.; Brunk, J.L.; Wong, X.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fish were collected for radionuclide analysis over a 5-month period in 1984 from creeks downstream of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant, which has been discharging quantities of some fission and activation products to the waterway since 1981. Among the fish, the bluegill was selected for intensive study because it is very territorial and the radionuclide concentrations detected should be representative of the levels in the local environment at the downstream locations sampled. Among the gamma-emitting radionuclides routinely released, only 134 Cs and 137 Cs were detected in the edible flesh of fish. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased with distance from the plant. The relationship between concentration and distance was determined to be exponential. Exponential equations were generated to estimate concentrations in fish at downstream locations where no site-specific information was available. Mean concentrations of 137 Cs in bluegill collected during April, May, July and August from specific downstream stations were not significantly different in spite of the release of 131 mCi to the creeks between April and August. The concentrations in fish are not responding to changes in water concentrations brought about by plant discharges. Diet appears to be a more significant factor than size or weight or water concentration in regulating body burdens of 137 Cs in these fish

  15. An international database of radionuclide concentration ratios for wildlife: development and uses.

    Copplestone, D; Beresford, N A; Brown, J E; Yankovich, T

    2013-12-01

    A key element of most systems for assessing the impact of radionuclides on the environment is a means to estimate the transfer of radionuclides to organisms. To facilitate this, an international wildlife transfer database has been developed to provide an online, searchable compilation of transfer parameters in the form of equilibrium-based whole-organism to media concentration ratios. This paper describes the derivation of the wildlife transfer database, the key data sources it contains and highlights the applications for the data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ground depositions and air concentrations of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides at Munich-Neuherberg

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1987-01-01

    Southern Bavaria has received a comparatively high deposition of fallout radionuclides from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. As a result, in addition to the measurement of numerous gamma emitting nuclides and of strontium isotopes, the determination of several actinides, including isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and curium was possible. The observed radionuclide composition of the fallout and the time course of ground deposition and air concentration at the site of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF) at Neuherberg, 10 km north of Munich, are reported and discussed.

  17. Ground depositions and air concentrations of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides at Munich-Neuherberg

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1987-01-01

    Southern Bavaria has received a comparatively high deposition of fallout radionuclides from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. As a result, in addition to the measurement of numerous gamma emitting nuclides and of strontium isotopes, the determination of several actinides, including isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and curium was possible. The observed radionuclide composition of the fallout and the time course of ground deposition and air concentration at the site of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF) at Neuherberg, 10 km north of Munich, are reported and discussed. (orig.)

  18. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values for spontaneously fissioning radionuclides

    Ford, M.R.; Snyder, W.S.; Dillman, L.T.; Watson, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation hazards involved in handling certain of the transuranic nuclides that exhibit spontaneous fission as a mode of decay were reaccessed using recent advances in dosimetry and metabolic modeling. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values in air and water for occupational exposure (168 hr/week) were calculated for 244 Pu, 246 Cm, 248 Cm, 250 Cf, 252 Cf, 254 Cf, /sup 254m/Es, 255 Es, 254 Fm, and 256 Fm. The half-lives, branching ratios, and principal modes of decay of the parent-daughter members down to a member that makes a negligible contribution to the dose are given, and all daughters that make a significant contribution to the dose to body organs following inhalation or ingestion are included in the calculations. Dose commitments for body organs are also given

  19. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    Hedvall, Robert Hans

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radiation is a natural phenomenon and radionuclides occur naturally. The first man-made spread of concentrated radioactivity occurred some 100,000 years ago when the first fireplace was lit, with fallout as a later consequence. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected nuclide in fuels. Its activity concentration in Bq kg-1 normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from potassium in the emission is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to humans are the U- and Th-isotopes and also 210Pb and 210Po. Of fission products in fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests and after the Chernobyl accident, 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approximately a few μSv from inhalation only can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 person Sv a-1.

  20. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the Lebanese diet

    Nasreddine, L.; Hwalla, N.; El Samad, O.; Baydoun, R.; Hamze, M.; Parent-Massin, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since the primary factor contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism is contaminated food, the control of radionuclides in food represents the most important means of protection. This study was conducted to determine the levels of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to gamma-emitting radioisotopes. The activity concentrations of gamma-emitting radioisotopes have been measured in food samples that represent the market basket of an adult urban population in Lebanon. The artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was measured above detection limits in only fish, meat and milk-based deserts. The most abundant natural radionuclide was 40 K (31-121 Bq kg -1 ), with the highest content in fish and meat samples. The annual mean effective dose contributed by 40 K in the reference typical diet was estimated equal to 186 μSv y -1 , a value reasonably consistent with findings reported by several other countries. (authors)

  1. The concentration of fission products and other radionuclides in the surface air between 1971 and 1973

    Kolb, W.

    1974-01-01

    The aerosols collected with high-efficiency portable dust samplers in Brunswick and Tromsoe are analyzed in a Ge(Li) spectrometer. The mean monthly activity concentrations are given for a number of cosmogenic and induced radionuclides from nuclear weapons tests as well as for some cosmogenic and natural radionuclides. The annual curve exhibits marked seasonal variations with a pronounced peak - caused by an influx from the stratospheric reservoir - in late spring for all radionuclides studied except for 35 S, 210 Pb and 226 Ra. This peak decreases continuously from 1971 - 1973 for the fission products and induced radionuclides which for the most part had been produced in Chinese nuclear weapons tests. In contrast to 7 Be and 22 Na, the behaviour of 35 S suggests that it is partly anthropogenic in origin. The activity concentration of 226 Ra in air has been measured directly for the first time. The findings are discussed and finally compared with the maximum permissible concentration for the population. (orig./AK) [de

  2. Analytical evaluation of the radionuclide concentration through the aquifer for the Abadia de Goias Repository

    Alves, Antonio Sergio de Martin

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the radionuclide concentration though the aquifer has been determined by an analytical process considering that the radionuclide migration is influenced by two kinds of radionuclides releases from the repository during an overflow. In the first release it is assumed that when the radionuclides reach the aquifer there is no contamination in it and the release rate is a constant. For this case it is utilized the model of Reference. For the subsequent releases there will be a contamination in the aquifer provenient from the former releases; it is considered that the subsequent releases are a function of the time which, for the Abadia de Goias Repository, was determined in the Reference. The Laplace transform Method has been utilized to solve the Radionuclide Migration Transport Equation in the aquifer region for the subsequent releases and the resulting function is expressed in terms of exponential and complementary error functions. The improvement in the calculation model, presented in this paper, can be used in the safety analysis of repositories, contributing thus in the nuclear waste management field and particularly, being connecting also to the environmental protection concern. (author)

  3. Alternative procedure to determine radionuclide concentrations for marine sediment dating

    Palacios, D; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Alfonso, J.; Perez, K.; Trujillo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The development of an alternative method to prepare and to measure marine sediment samples for dating purpose using high resolution gamma spectrometry is given. To calculate the 137 Cs and the supported and unsupported 210 Pb concentrations, cylindrical tablets subjected to different pressures were analyzed. Mass attenuation coefficients (MAC) were determined by our variant of the transmission method, the Bragg law (using MACs provided by the web program XCOM) and the method of average composition of the analyzed sediment samples. The differences between obtained results are smaller than the experimental error (10%). The influence of pressure and sediment mass on the MAC, mechanical stability of the sample, and self-absorption corrections for different gamma energies is studied. Optimal dimensions of the tablets were determined from considerations on the infinite thickness, minimum detectable activity, precision of results, radiation self-absorption and geometric efficiency. Based on the differential peak absorption analysis, through a relative efficiency curve, a new method to evaluate the existence of radioactive equilibrium between 226 Ra, 222 Rn and its progeny is given. Experimental error of the proposed methodology is evaluated, as well as accuracy, precision and detection limit. With the use of developed methodology, the 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 137 Cs activities in recent sediment samples from near shore of the Orinoco River Delta were determined. The results were comparable with the obtained by two of the most used methods, while precision is improved and radiation self-absorption in sample container is avoided since sample encapsulation is not required. (Full Text)

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in oil extraction and production processes in Northeast Brazil

    Gazineu, Maria Helena Paranhos

    2005-06-01

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) was detected in the water and oil extracted from wells both onshore and offshore. The oil is extracted together with water and sediments which contain radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series. Among the radionuclides present, especial attention should be given to 226 Ra and 228 Ra, due to its long half-life and importance, from the radiological point of view. The objective of this work was to identify the natural radionuclides in the oil industry, to determine their activity concentration, and from these results, to evaluate the risks the employees of the oil industry are exposed to. Samples of sludge, scale and produced water extracted with the oil were collected from three oil processing stations in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined in the solid samples before and after the extraction of the oil. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the samples without oil was evaluated. Water samples, on the other hand, were analyzed for their contents of radionuclides and barium concentration. It was observed that the activity concentrations of the analyzed radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 210 Pb) in sludge and scales were very high when compared with the literature, particularly much higher than the values for 226 Ra and 228 Ra obtained for sludge and scales from the oil platforms near the city of Campos, state of Rio de Janeiro. The maximum concentration values for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 210 Pb (3,500, 2,195, 2,248.6 and 201 kBq kg -1 , respectively) were obtained for the scales after the extraction of the oil. The analysis of the samples showed that barium sulphate (barite) and strontium sulphate (celestite) are the main constituents of the scales, while carbonates and silicates, together with other compounds are the components of sludge. A correlation between barium, 226 Ra and

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in bird tissues, their foods and feeding areas near Ravenglass

    Lowe, V.P.W.

    1987-08-01

    Since 1983, concern has been expressed about an apparent decline in the numbers of waterfowl, waders and gulls in the Ravenglass estuary, particularly of the black-headed gulls nesting on the Drigg dunes; it was suggested this might be due to the radionuclide concentrations in their diet and general environment. Oystercatchers and shelduck had some of the highest concentrations of Cs-137 in their tissues, yet their breeding and numbers remained unaffected. Calculations of the total dose equivalent to the whole body of gulls spending 4 months in the estuary before laying eggs, amounted to 2.8 mSv (≅ 2.4 m Gy), and to the gut lining 40.3 mSv. As a minimum chronic dose of 1000 m Gy d -1 has been found to be necessary to retard the growth of chicks or cause 50% mortality among gull chick embryos before full development, radionuclide concentrations at Ravenglass were at least three orders of magnitude too low to have any effect. 12 species of marine invertebrates were also analysed, but no evidence was found that radionuclides from Sellafield were being accumulated in any species to the point where concentrations were of potential importance to birds feeding on them. (author)

  6. Radionuclide concentrations and dose assessment of cistern water and groundwater at the Marshall Islands

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Robison, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. More than 70 cistern and groundwater samples were collected at the atolls; the volume of each sample was between 55 and 100 l. The concentration of 90 Sr in cistern water at most atolls is that expected from world-wide fallout in wet deposition. Except for Bikini and Rongelap, 137 Cs concentrations in cistern water are in agreement with the average predicted concentrations from wet deposition. The 239+240 Pu concentrations are everywhere less than the predicted fallout concentrations except at Rongelap, Ailinginae, and Bikini where the measured and predicted concentrations are in general agreement. During the period sampled, most groundwater concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were everywhere higher than the concentrations in cistern water. Concentrations of the transurancies in filtered groundwater solution were everywhere comparable to or less than the concentrations in cistern water. It is concluded that the concentrations of radionuclides detected during any single period may not necessarily reflect the long-term average concentrations or the concentrations that might be observed if a lined well were extended above the surface. In any case, at all atolls the 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in groundwater are below the concentration guidelines for drinking water recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. The maximum annual dose rates and the 30- and 50-y integral doses are calculated for the intake of both cistern water and groundwater for each of the atolls

  7. Radionuclide Concentrations in Honey Bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1999

    T. K. Haarmann; P. R. Fresquez

    2000-06-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jemez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for various radionuclides. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 3}H. Sample results from one colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for total uranium, while sample results from the other colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 90}Sr.

  8. Radionuclide Concentrations in Honey Bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1999

    Haarmann, T. K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jemez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for various radionuclides. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for 3 H. Sample results from one colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for total uranium, while sample results from the other colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for 90 Sr

  9. Air concentrations of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides in the area Debrecen (Hungary)

    Daroczy, S.; Dezsoe, Z.; Pazsit, A.; Buczko, Cs.M.; Somogyi, A.; Papp, Z.; Bolyos, A.; Nagy, J.; Raics, P.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol activity from the Chernobyl reactor accident are reported. The concentrations of 14 radionuclides were obtained by gamma spectrometry for the period 30 April - 9 May, 1986. Gross beta measurements were also done through 11 August 1986 of which 137 Cs activity concentrations were derived. 90 Sr activity concentrations were also determined for selected aerosol samples using nondestructive procedure. The time course of contamination observed in Debrecen (Hungary) is discussed in terms of trajectory analysis. Isotopic ratios are also used to trace down routes of contamined air. In addition, such ratios are also used to characterize the status of the damaged reactor at different times. (author) 15 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Twenty-five years of environmental radionuclide concentrations near a nuclear power plant.

    Harris, Charles; Kreeger, Danielle; Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John

    2015-05-01

    The areas in and along a 262-km length of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania were monitored for the presence of radioactive materials. This study began two months after the 1979 Three Mile Island (TMI) partial reactor meltdown; it spanned the next 25 y. Monitoring points included stations at the PPL Susquehanna and TMI nuclear power plants. Monthly gamma measurements document concentrations of radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic sources. During this study, various series of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentration measurements were made in many general categories of animals, plants, and other inorganic matter. Sampling began in 1979 before the first start-up of the PPL Susquehanna power plant. Although all species were not continuously monitored for the entire period, an extensive database was compiled. In 1986, the ongoing measurements detected fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. These data may be used in support of dose or environmental transport calculations.

  11. Evaluation of maximum radionuclide concentration from decay chains migration in aquifers

    Aquino Branco, O.E. de.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical formulation of the mechanisms involved in the transport of contaminants in aquifers is presented. The methodology employed is described. A method of calculation the maximum concentration of radionuclides migrating in the underground water, and resulting from one decay chain, is then proposed. As an example, the methodology is applied to a waste basin, built to receive effluents from a hypothectical uranium ore mining and milling facility. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Annual limits on intake for members of the public and derived reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment

    Mason, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    A proposal is presented recommending the introduction in Australia of Annual Limits on Intake of radionuclides for members of the public and of corresponding reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The proposal is related to recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and draft recommendations under consideration by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  13. A qualitative evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in Hanford Site Wildlife, 1983 through 1992

    Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    Environmental monitoring has been conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State since 1945. Fish and wildlife have been monitored since 1945, however, a major emphasis on mammals did not occur until the 1970s. This report focuses on the 10-year period from 1983 through 1992. The objectives of this report are to evaluate 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in Site wildlife populations and, when possible, evaluate trends in concentrations over this period of time. No distinct trends in radionuclide concentrations were apparent in most species sampled. Many measurements were at or below the analytical limit of detection. This evaluation found that concentrations of 90 Sr in rabbit and deer bone were elevated in animals collected from areas adjacent to industrialized areas. Similarly, radionuclide concentrations in duck muscle from waterfowl collected at B Pond were elevated with 137 Cs when compared to background concentrations. None of the measured concentrations were high enough to pose any risk to theoretical human consumers of game animals inhabiting the Hanford Site. Estimates of the annual dose from the consumption of 40 kg (88 lb) of Hanford Site wildlife were less than 0.001 times the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and the DOE guideline of 100 mrem/yr

  14. A qualitative evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in Hanford Site Wildlife, 1983 through 1992

    Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    Environmental monitoring has been conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State since 1945. Fish and wildlife have been monitored since 1945, however, a major emphasis on mammals did not occur until the 1970s. This report focuses on the 10-year period from 1983 through 1992. The objectives of this report are to evaluate {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in Site wildlife populations and, when possible, evaluate trends in concentrations over this period of time. No distinct trends in radionuclide concentrations were apparent in most species sampled. Many measurements were at or below the analytical limit of detection. This evaluation found that concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in rabbit and deer bone were elevated in animals collected from areas adjacent to industrialized areas. Similarly, radionuclide concentrations in duck muscle from waterfowl collected at B Pond were elevated with {sup 137}Cs when compared to background concentrations. None of the measured concentrations were high enough to pose any risk to theoretical human consumers of game animals inhabiting the Hanford Site. Estimates of the annual dose from the consumption of 40 kg (88 lb) of Hanford Site wildlife were less than 0.001 times the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and the DOE guideline of 100 mrem/yr.

  15. Vegetation concentration and inventory of metals and radionuclides in the old F-area seepage basin, 904-49G

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Measured concentrations of radionuclides and toxic metals are used to calculate the total inventory of in the vegetation growing on the Old F-Area Seepage Basin. Air concentrations and inhalation doses from exposure to smoke from burning the vegetation are calculated to evaluate the effect of open air burning. Radionuclide inventory is one order of magnitude (10 x) less than those necessary to produce a 1 mrem dose. Air concentrations of toxic metals are less than one third the permissible occupational dose

  16. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Aasa; Laudon, Hjalmar [Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Koehler, Stephan J. [Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. 7050, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  17. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-01-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m 3 (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m 3 (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 μBq m -3 and 0.2 μBq m -3 for 137 Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m 3 per week and lowers the detection limit to -3 for 137 Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine)

  18. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1998

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes and evaluates the concentrations of 3 H, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, 90 Sr, and total U in understory and overstory vegetation collected from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), its perimeter, and regional background areas in 1998. Comparisons to conservative toxicity reference value safe limits were also made. The arithmetic mean LANL radionuclide concentrations in understory were 501 pCi L -1 for 3 H, 0.581 pCi ash g -1 for 137 Cs, 0.001 pCi ash g -1 for 238 Pu, 0.008 pCi ash g -1 for 239,240 Pu, 0.007 pCi ash g -1 for 241 Am, 1.46 pCi ash g -1 for 90 Sr, and 0.233 microg ash g -1 for total uranium. The mean LANL radionuclide concentrations in overstory were 463 pCi L -1 for 3 H, 1.51 pCi ash g -1 for 137 Cs, 0.0004 pCi ash g -1 238 Pu, 0.008 pCi ash g -1 for 239,240 Pu, 0.014 pCi ash g -1 for 241 Am, 1.97 pCi ash g -1 for 90 Sr, and 0.388 microg ash g -1 for total uranium. Concentrations of radionuclides and total U in both understory and overstory vegetation at LANL generally were not statistically higher than in perimeter and regional background vegetation (α = 0.05). The exceptions were LANL 3 H > perimeter 3 H (understory) and LANL 3 H background 3 H (overstory). All maximum radionuclide concentrations were lower than toxicity reference values. With the exception of total U, the relationship between contaminant concentration in soil vs. vegetation was insignificant (α = 0.05). Generally, as the concentration of total U in soil decreased, the concentration in vegetation increased. This held true for both understory and overstory and regardless of whether data were separated by general location (LANL, perimeter, and background) or not. There was no apparent relationship between contaminant concentrations in understory vs. overstory

  19. Radionuclide concentrations in benthic invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain, Alaska.

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jewett, Stephen C

    2007-05-01

    Concentrations of 13 radionuclides (137Cs, 129I, 60Co, 152Eu, 90Sr, 99Tc, 241Am, 238Pu, 239,249Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U) were examined in seven species of invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska, using gamma spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and alpha spectroscopy. Amchitka Island was the site of three underground nuclear test (1965-1971), and we tested the null hypotheses that there were no differences in radionuclide concentrations between Amchitka and the reference site (Kiska) and there were no differences among species. The only radionuclides where composite samples were above the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) were 137Cs, 241Am, 239,249Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U. Green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus polyacanthus), giant chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri), plate limpets (Tectura scutum) and giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) were only tested for 137Cs; octopus was the only species with detectable levels of 137Cs (0.262 +/- 0.029 Bq/kg, wet weight). Only rock jingle (Pododesmus macroschisma), blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) were analyzed for the actinides. There were no interspecific differences in 241Am and 239,240Pu, and almost no samples above the MDA for 238Pu and 236U. Horse mussels had significantly higher concentrations of 234U (0.844 +/- 0.804 Bq/kg) and 238U (0.730 +/- 0.646) than the other species (both isotopes are naturally occurring). There were no differences in actinide concentrations between Amchitka and Kiska. In general, radionuclides in invertebrates from Amchitka were similar to those from uncontaminated sites in the Northern Hemisphere, and below those from the contaminated Irish Sea. There is a clear research need for authors to report the concentrations of radionuclides by species, rather than simply as 'shellfish', for comparative purposes in determining geographical patterns, understanding possible effects, and for

  20. Radionuclides concentration in marine environmental samples along the coast of Vietnam

    Nguyen Trong Ngo; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Nguyen Van Phuc; Le Nhu Sieu; Truong Y; Mai Thi Huong; Nguyen Thi Linh; Nguyen Mong Sinh; Phan Son Hai; Le Ngoc Chung; Dang Duc Nhan; Nguyen Quang Long; Nguyen Hao Quang; Tran Tuyet Mai

    2009-01-01

    Studies on radioactivity inventories in environmental samples are necessary as they will serve as baseline data for assessing any environmental impact usage of nuclear-based activities. Approximately 700 data on 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu activity concentrations in 150 samples i.e. sea water, sediment, fish, mollusc, crustaceans, oyster and weeds samples collected from 7 various locations in Vietnam (Hai Phong, Nghe An, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Vung Tau, Tien Giang) throughout 1999-2008 are summarised and presented in this paper. Generally, the levels of artificial radionuclides in the studied marine environmental samples are lower as compared to other Asia-Pacific countries while naturally occurred radionuclides activity concentrations obtained were found to be in accordance with respective data from other studies within Pacific region. The radionuclides bioaccumulation factors studied in Red laver and oyster were mostly found to be high; therefore, further reinvestigation should be done for these biota that will be used as bio-fingerprint indicators in monitoring the marine environment from nuclear-based pollutions. The data set obtained from this study is available to the Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database. (author)

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in ground level air and precipitation in South Germany from 1976 to 1982

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1983-08-01

    The activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear test explosions and of Be-7 in ground level air and precipitation have been determined by the Institut fuer Strahlenschutz at Munich-Neuherberg since 1970. While methods and results from 1970 to 1975 have been published in a previous report, the present report describes the revised program which includes now the naturally occurring nuclides Pb-210 and Po-210, as well as H-3. Sampling methods, analytical techniques and measuring procedures are given. The results up to the end of 1982 are reported and seasonal and long-term variations of radionuclide concentrations as well as frequency distributions of the data are discussed. The data are compared with those of other stations. As a consequence of some recent atmospheric nuclear test explosions by the People's Republic of China also short-lived radionuclides have been detected in ground level air and precipitation. The radiation exposure due to the radioactivity in ground level air and precipitation is estimated. (orig.)

  2. Radionuclide Concentrations in Honey Bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1998

    Haarmann, T.K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1999-06-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jemez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for various radionuclides. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 3}H, and total uranium. Sample results from one colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 238}Pu.

  3. Reconstructing historical radionuclide concentrations along the east coast of Ireland using a compartmental model

    Smith, C.N.; Clarke, S.; McDonald, P.; Goshawk, J.A.; Jones, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented that simulates the annually averaged transport of radionuclides, originating from the BNFL reprocessing plant at Sellafield, throughout the Irish Sea. The model, CUMBRIA77, represents the processes of radionuclide transport and dispersion in the marine environment and allows predictions of radionuclide concentration in various environmental media, including biota, to be made throughout the whole of the Irish Sea. In this paper we describe the use of the model to reconstruct the historical activity concentrations of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in a variety of environmental media in the western Irish Sea and along the Irish east coast back to 1950. This reconstruction exercise is of interest because only limited measurements of 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity are available prior to the 1980s. The predictions were compared to the available measured data to validate their accuracy. The results of the reconstruction indicate that activity concentrations of 137Cs in the western Irish Sea follow a similar, though slightly delayed and smoothed, profile to the discharges from the Sellafield site, with concentrations at the time of peak discharge (the mid-1970s) being around an order of magnitude higher than those measured in the 1980s and 1990s. By contrast, the concentrations of 239+240Pu at the time of peak discharges were similar to those presently measured. These differences reflect the distinct marine chemistries of the two nuclides, in particular the higher propensity of plutonium to bind to sediments leading to extended transport times. Despite these differences in behaviour the doses to Irish seafood consumers from 137Cs remain significantly higher than those from 239+240Pu

  4. A Study on the Determination of Radionuclide Concentrations in Animal Feedstuffs for Use Following a Nuclear Emergency

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Choi, Young Gil; Han, Moon Hee

    2001-01-01

    The optimized derived intervention levels for animal products were evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis. From these results, the radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use were derived. It was shown that radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use depend strongly on animal products, radionuclides and feeding period (period from the starting time to be fed with contaminated feedstuffs to production time of animal products). In case of feedstuffs contaminated with long-lived radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr), the feedstuffs with lower contamination should be supplied to animals with increase of feeding period due to the bioaccumulation of radionuclides. While, in case of feedstuffs contaminated with short-lived radionuclides ( 131 I), the feeding of higher contaminated feedstuffs was possible with increase of feeding period due to radionuclide decay. It was shown that 137 Cs concentration in animal feedstuffs for use was lower than 90 Sr concentration. It is primarily due to the higher feed-animal product transfer factor of 137 Cs

  5. Activity concentration of some anthropogenic radionuclides in the surface marine sediments near the Saudi coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf

    Al-Kheliewi, A.S.; Shabana, E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Activity concentrations of some anthropogenic radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am) have been measured in the surface of marine sediments along the Saudi coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf. The samples were collected at different locations and water depths. The spatial distribution of the concentrations of the measured radionuclides showed a heterogeneous pattern and is independent of location or water depth. The obtained results are discussed and some conclusions are drawn. (author)

  6. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  7. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well

  8. Concentrations of radionuclides in imported foods from foreign countries in Japan (2000-2003)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Hirata, Asumi; Sakurai, Kasane; Miyata, Masahiro; Goto, Shigeo

    2004-01-01

    Japanese law concerning prohibition against marketing insanitary foods, etc, has defined the limit of radioactivity level in imported foods (370 Bq/kg in total of 137 Cs and 134 Cs radioactivities) post Chernobyl accident and check for this has been performed by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The present report describes results of additional examination, conducted by National Institute of Public Health, or the Kobe or Yokohama Quarantine Station, of radionuclide (γ-emitters) concentration in imported foods during the period 2000-2003. Foods examined are from northern (40 samples) and southern (8) America, Asia (66), Oceania (9), Africa (8) and Europe (12), and are 13 kinds of grains, 12 nuts/seeds, 1 potato, 17 fruits, 12 green/yellow vegetables, 13 other vegetables, 19 mushrooms, 4 seaweeds, 15 nonessential taste items like tea leaves, 19 fishes and 12 meats. Samples are those homogenized, freeze-dried or mineralized. The Ge-semiconductor detector connected with a pulse-height analyzer is used for γ-ray detection, mainly that of 137 Cs and 134 Cs, and for 40 K as a natural radionuclide. Sample weights are 1,000-2,000 g and counting times, 100,000-300,000 seconds. Results reveal that 137 Cs alone is detectable as a artificial radionuclide but its level is as low as that in similar Japanese foods. Thus the annual effective dose due to intake of 137 Cs in imported foods is evaluated enough low in adults. (N.I.)

  9. The Concentration Levels Of Some Isotopic Radionuclides In The Coastal Sediments Of The Red Sea, Egypt

    EL SAHARTY, A.A.; DAR, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The radionuclide activities of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry system. The total organic matter (TOM) and carbonate contents were also measured in the surface sediments of three valleys downstream at the southern Egyptian Red Sea coast. These localities are characterized by the presence of mangrove swamps with dense aerobic roots that provide calm conditions for particulate and fine sediments settlement. 238 U and 232 Th recorded almost equal activity values in the studied localities and their occurrence in the localities indicated that the metal accumulation are due to the complex and multiple processes that characterize the mangrove environments including accumulation in particulate form with the fine sediments, absorption on iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides from the sea water, incorporation inside the carbonate frameworks and as detrital phase. 40 K showed obvious radioactivity in the three localities indicating the presence of terrestrial radionuclide. 137 Cs concentrations were not evident in the studied localities which may indicate non-significant artificial source of radionuclide activity.

  10. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo Gardens

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1995-05-01

    Radionuclide ( 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and total uranium) concentrations were determined in soils and produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens. All radionuclides in soils from Pueblo areas were within or just above regional statistical (natural and/or worldwide fallout) reference levels. Similarily, the average levels of radionuclides in produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens were not significantly different in produce collected from regional (background) locations. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 352 lb of produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.036 (±0.016), 0.072 (±0.051), 0.012 (±0.027), and 0.110 (±0.102) mrem/yr, respectively. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 std dev (95% confidence level), was 0.314 mrem/yr; this was <0.4% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public

  11. Effects of water treatment processes used at waterworks on natural radionuclide concentrations

    Haemaelaeinen, K.; Vesterbacka, P.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Arvela, H.

    2004-08-01

    The occurrence of uranium and other natural radionuclides in waters of waterworks and the effects of the conventional water treatment processes on radionuclide concentrations were investigated. Water samples were collected from 17 waterworks. Radionuclide concentrations of the collected samples were compared to the currently valid concentrations according to the Finnish regulation, ST guide 12.3. Similarly the measured concentrations were compared to the values presented in the 98/83/EC directive and in the Commission recommendation, 2001/928/Euratom. The guidelines based on chemical toxicity of uranium were also considered. This report presents a summary of the radionuclide concentrations in waters distributed by waterworks. Short-term and logn-term temporal variation of radionuclide levels in raw water were also investigated. Waterworks selected to this study used different kinds of raw water sources and a variety of water treatment processes. Water samples were collected from 46 water catchments which used groundwater in soil, artificial groundwater or groundwater in bedrock as a source of raw water. The most common water treatment used in these catchments was alkalization. Other treatment processes used were various types of filtrations (sand, anthracite, slow sand and membrane filtration) and aeration. Four of the catchments distributed water without treatment. Sampling was carried out in co-operation with local health inspectors and waterworks staff in spring 2002. Later that autumn, monitoring samples were collected from eight catchments. The maximum value for radon, presented in ST guide 12.3, was exceeded in three water catchments that used groundwater in bedrock as a source of raw water. No exceedings were found in those water catchments that use groundwater in soil or artificial groundwater. The limits of uranium and radium calculated from the total indicative dose (98/83/EC) were not exceeded but the guidelines for lead and polonium, given in the

  12. Natural radionuclides concentration in agricultural products and water from the Monte Alegre region

    Gouvea, Vandir A.; Melo, Vicente P.; Binns, Donald A.C.; Santos, Pedro L. dos

    1997-01-01

    Measurements to determine the content of natural radionuclides were performed in agricultural products in the brazilian Central Amazon Basin Monte Alegre region, for the soil-plant transfer calculation. these measurements were concentrated in the Ingles de Souza agricultural settlement, were several uranium and thorium occurrences exist in geological formations called Monte Alegre and Faro. The values obtained in foodstuff cultivated in the anomalous region are 10 times higher than those ones observed in the Alenquer region, which is the chosen region due to its low level natural radioactivity and its proximity to the anomalous region. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  13. Radionuclide concentrations in the northern part of The Netherlands after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    de Meijer, R.J.; Aldenkamp, F.J.; Brummelhuis, M.J.; Jansen, J.F.; Put, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl reactor accident were measured as a function of time in air, rainwater, grass, cow's milk, vegetables and dust by means of high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Special attention was paid to grass and milk originating from the same meadows. Also, milk of cows temporarily kept inside after the accident was monitored until a few days after their release from the stables. Activity ratios in various types of samples and the implication of the sheltering measures for cows are discussed

  14. Sediment Ksub(d)s and concentration factors for radionuclides in the marine environment

    1985-01-01

    Both the biological and geochemical processes, which are dependent on the chemical form of the element in question, and the radioactive decay of the nuclide are important parameters in the models used for the calculation of dumping limits for radioactive wastes disposed of in the deep sea. The geochemical processes were not adequately represented in earlier models and only rough approximations of parameters were used in the calculations. This report provides an approach for the calculation of deep-sea sediment distribution coefficients and coastal sediment concentration factors for radionuclides in marine biological materials based, whenever possible, on field data

  15. A database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region uranium province.

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) uranium province in the Australian wet-dry tropics. The database contains 5060 sample records and 57,473 concentration values. The data are for animal, plant, soil, sediment and water samples collected by the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) as part of its statutory role to undertake research and monitoring into the impacts of uranium mining on the environment of the ARR. Concentration values are provided in the database for 11 radionuclides ( 227 Ac, 40 K, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 238 U) and 26 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn). Potential uses of the database are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Contributions by emissions from nuclear installations to concentrations of radionuclides in milk

    Green, N

    1983-01-01

    A year-long study has been carried out to determine whether milk produced near nuclear sites contains concentrations of radionuclides that can be attributed to discharges from the installations, and, as a consequence, whether there is enhanced exposure of those members of the public who consume this milk. Eight creameries were chosen and monthly samples of milk were taken for analysis. The concentrations of caesium-137 and strontium-90 were measured and compared with results from a national survey conducted as part of the Board's environmental radioactivity surveillance programme. No effect attributable to discharges from the nuclear establishments was identified. The activity concentrations ranged between 0.1 and 3 times the national average; the variation relates mainly to rainfall in the area, although other factors may also have an effect. However, milk contributes only a small fraction of the total dietary intake of caesium-137 and strontium-90, and so the exposure of persons consuming the milk varies on...

  17. Radionuclide concentration in ground-level air in 1991 in North Germany

    Kolb, W.; Wershofen, H.

    1992-03-01

    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in ground-level air were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Weekly and mean monthly activity concentrations measured in Brunswick and Berlin are tabulated. From 1990 to 1991 the Cs-137 concentration in Brunswick decreased only slightly. It was less than 0.1% of that in 1986 but due to resuspended soil dust still three times higher than in 1985. Occasionally, traces of activation products were detected such as Cr-51, Mn-54 or Co-60 in Januray and February in Brunswick and Berlin. The effective equivalent dose due to the inhalation of fission products is estimated to be less than 0.1% of the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig.) [de

  18. Measurement of the terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bafra Kizilirmak delta (bird sanctuary) in Turkey

    Mutuk, H.; Guemues, H.; Turhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclides in the soil samples collected from Bafra Kizilirmak Delta were measured by using gamma spectrometry with an NaI(Tl) detector. The average values of activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were found to be 37.2±2.8, 33.7±3.1 and 413.0±59.8 Bq kg -1 , respectively. 137 Cs was also measured in some samples. It has a mean value of 13.8±1.0 Bq kg -1 . From the activity concentrations, the absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and external hazard index (Hex) were estimated. (authors)

  19. Measurement of the terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bafra Kizilirmak delta (bird sanctuary) in Turkey.

    Mutuk, Halil; Gümüs, Hasan; Turhan, Seref

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclides in the soil samples collected from Bafra Kızılırmak Delta were measured by using gamma spectrometry with an NaI(Tl) detector. The average values of activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 37.2±2.8, 33.7±3.1 and 413.0±59.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. (137)Cs was also measured in some samples. It has a mean value of 13.8±1.0 Bq kg(-1). From the activity concentrations, the absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and external hazard index (Hex) were estimated.

  20. Modeling the dynamics of radionuclide concentration in animal derived products after an accident in tropical areas

    Vinhas, Denise M.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Conti, Luiz F.C.

    2005-01-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere with the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed to estimate radiological consequences and optimize decisions to the protection of the public. The German model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM - Integrated Emergency System, developed by IRD/CNEN to assess the doses to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The use the model demands a considerable effort in adapting scenarios to fit the specific conditions of a location, considering the differences related to climate, environmental characteristics, agricultural calendar and practices, along with population diet. The area selected to start this adaptation considers the characteristics of the 50 km radius area surrounding the nuclear power plants at Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. At a first stage, the concentration on vegetal food products has been studied. This work describes the methodology used to select scenarios and presents results of the dynamics of the predicted concentration of radionuclides in different kinds of animal derived food products. The work provides guidance to the need of radioecological research needed to improve the adequacy of the estimates to actual Brazilian scenarios. (author)

  1. The concentration of natural radionuclides in various types of building materials in Slovakia

    Cabanekova, H [Inst. of Peventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The concentration of the natural radionuclides in various types of building materials was determined by the gamma spectrometry analysis using 130 cm{sup 3} high purity germanium detector and MCA LIVIUS 2000. Radium-226 and thorium-232 was assessed through their progeny photo peaks. The specific activity of both nuclides as weighted average of their photo peaks was determined. Potassium-40 was measured directly via its 1460 keV peak. The radium equivalent activity was calculate from specific activities of radium-226, thorium-232 and potassium-40. All samples were measured in 4{sup p}i{sup g}eometry. The building materials and products were milled and screened with 2-3 mm sieve. After drying the samples were stored in 450 cm{sup 3} sealed polyethylene container for 30 days ingrowing period. The results of analysis are corrected to the background distribution and to the self absorption in the volume of the samples. The efficiency calibration is realized using the reference sources distributed by IAEA in Vienna and by the Institute for Radionuclide Production in Prague The measured activity concentrations of the buildings materials are given. There are shown the minimum and maximum values for different investigated materials. (J.K.) 4 tabs., 5 refs.

  2. Fins coloration of perch in relation to external activity concentration of radionuclides

    Yegoreichenkov, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Rudolfsen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and University of Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Techa River is significantly polluted by radionuclides. This time the content of {sup 90}Sr varies from 5 Bq/l in water of lower Techa to 40 Bq/l in higher Techa, and the concentration of {sup 137}Cs fluctuates from background content to 0,5 Bq/l, and tritium from 100 Bq/l to 450 Bq/l. Miass River are not polluted in the same extent. The perch in these rivers are suitable for examine the potential effect of environmental perturbation on carotenoid based coloration. As vertebrates could not produce carotenoids themselves, and would use more carotenoids due to oxidative stress when exposed radiation, we hypothesized that fish caught in upper part of Techa River will be more pale than fish from lower part and the control river Miass. We used a cost effective method to estimate coloration by photographing the fins in standardized setting. The measuring of fish fins as performed under standardized condition by Adobe Photoshop software in color spaces CIE 1976 L*a*b* and sRGB IEC61966-2.1 was used. In sRGB color space the values of Red, Green, Blue channels were measured and an average wave length was calculated as a function of three elementary light streams of different intensity, appeared as reflection from a fin. In L*a*b color space the values of *a and *b channels shows the position of a color in a color space. To evaluate the red color of a perch fin the most usable channel is the *a channel which shows the position of the color on the red-green axis. Due to low sample size we pooled males and females in our analysis. We used three different station in the Techa: RT-1 in the higher Techa, RT-2 in the middle Techa, and RT-3 in lower Techa. As a control group was taken the fish from Miass river (RM station). Our results shows that perch from RT-3 (570.7 nm) significantly differ in coloration from the perch from RT-2 and RT-1 (p=0.00001 and p=0.0014 respectively, hereinafter used Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test with Nemenyi-Damico-Wolfe-Dunn test as post

  3. Radionuclide concentration in drinking water from public supplies in the metropolitan area of Recife, Brazil

    Melo, N.P.; Amaral, R.S.; Silva, C.M.; Hazin, C.A.; Lima, R.A.; Valentim, E.

    2000-01-01

    There has been an increasing concern with the assessment of human exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides as they account for around 70% of the total dose received by the population. Most of the exposure derived from natural terrestrial sources comes from the radionuclides in the uranium series, which is headed by the long-lived isotope 238 U. Radionuclides pertaining to this decay chain, such as, 226 Ra, 222 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po are the most important to be studied, as far as the dose to the population is concerned. In order to verify if the levels of radioactive contaminants in the water from public supplies are in compliance with the limits set by the Ministry of Health, a survey has been carried out in the metropolitan area of Recife, Brazil. This paper reports the results of this survey for both, superficial and groundwater supplies. Water samples collected from 107 sampling points were analyzed to determine their content of natural uranium, 226 Ra, 222 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po. Uranium concentrations were determined by fluorimetry after extraction with an organic solvent and deposition in LiF/NaF pellets, which were fused at 1000degC. Radium-226 was determined by the emanation technique, whereas 222 Rn was determined by liquid scintillation counting. Polonium-210, on the other hand, was determined by alpha spectrometry, following its spontaneous plating in copper disks immersed in the water samples. Measured concentrations ranged from 43 to 1330 mBq/L for natural uranium, 5.3 to 83.7 Bq/L for 222 Rn and from below the MDL (22 mBq/L) to 337 mBq/L for 210 Po. The annual intake of each radionuclide was calculated by considering an ingestion of 2L of water per day. The dose to each organ considered important to the ingestion pathway was calculated by using the masses given in the ICRP 23 for the standard man and by applying the appropriate dose conversion factors. (author)

  4. Radon concentration, absorbed dose rate in air and concentration of natural radionuclides in soil in the Osaka district of Japan

    Megumi, K.; Matsunami, T.; Ishiyama, T.; Abe, M.; Kimura, S.; Yamazaki, K.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1992-01-01

    Radon concentrations in outdoor air at 18 sites in the Osaka district, in the central part of Japan's main island, were measured with electrostatic integrating radon monitors which were developed by Y Ikebe et al of the Osaka survey centre as part of a nationwide survey of radon indoors and outdoors in Japan conducted by the National Institute of Radiological Science. The mean radon concentration in outdoor air during 2-month periods was measured over a period of a year and a half. In addition, the absorbed dose rate in air and the concentration of natural radionuclides in soil were measured at 40 sites in Osaka Prefecture which is located in the central part of the Osaka district using thermoluminescence dosemeters and with gamma ray spectrometry, respectively. Radon concentration in outdoor air showed a seasonal pattern, reaching its maximum during the winter and its minimum during the summer, but this variation was not significant at the coastal sites. It was concluded that this variation is correlated with a seasonal wind which blows from the continental interior to the ocean in winter and in the opposite direction in summer, as well as with geographical factors. Radon concentration in outdoor air in the Osaka district ranged from 0.6 to 17.9 Bq.m -3 and mean annual radon concentration in outdoor air at the 18 sites ranged from 2.7 to 6.9 Bq.m -3 . It was discovered that radon concentration in outdoor air decreased with wind speed in both winter and summer. The absorbed dose rate in air ranged from 66 to 114 nGy.h -1 , and the concentration of 226 Ra in soil ranged from 20 to 60 Bq.kg -1 respectively. (author)

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in fish collected from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso Tribal Lakes

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1995-02-01

    Radionuclide concentrations ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu,and total uranium) were determined in fish collected from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso tribal lakes. With the exception of 137 Cs, all other radionuclides were not significantly different in (stocked) rainbow trout collected from Jemez and Nambe as compared with game fish collected from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado Reservoirs. Although 137 Cs levels in trout from Jemez (3.2 x 10 -2 pCi per dry gram) and Nambe (7.5 x 10 -2 pCi per dry gram) were significantly higher than 137 Cs concentrations in fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado, they were still well below the regional statistical (worldwide fallout) reference level (i.e., -2 pCi per dry gram). Game and nongame fish collected from San Ildefonso contained higher and significantly higher concentrations of uranium, respectively, as compared with fish collected from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado. The higher uranium concentrations in fish from San Ildefonso as compared with fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado were attributed to the higher natural soil uranium contents in the area as compared with the geology of the area upstream of San Ildefonso. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent (EDE) from consuming 46 lb of game fish from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso lakes, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.013 (±0.002), 0.019 (±0.012), and 0.017 (±0.028) mrem/yr, respectively. Similarly, the EDE from consuming nongame fish from San Ildefonso was 0.0092 (±0.0084) mrem/yr. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 standard deviation (95% confidence level), was 0.073 mrem/yr; this was <0.08% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public

  6. Modeling the dynamics of radionuclide concentration in food after an accident in tropical areas

    Vinhas, Denise M.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica; Conti, Luiz Fernando C.

    2005-01-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences as a base to propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The German model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM - Integrated Emergency System, developed by IRD/CNEN to assess the doses to the public at the short, medium and long term after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The use of such a model demands a considerable effort in adapting the scenarios to fit the specific conditions of the location where it is to be applied, in particular considering the differences on climate, environmental characteristics, agricultural calendar and practices, along with population diet. The area selected as reference to start this adaptation process is the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, at Angra dos Reis County, in Rio de Janeiro State. Radionuclides included in this study were 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I. This work describes the methodology used to select scenarios and describes the results related to the dynamics of the predicted concentration of radionuclides in different kinds of vegetable foods. It also discusses the relevance of criteria, parameter values and site specific aspects that are to be considered in performing assessments of public exposure. The work provides guidance to the need of radioecological research and on the database needed to perform the simulations, in order to improve the adequacy of the estimates to actual Brazilian scenarios. (author)

  7. Radionuclide concentration in fuels and ash products from biofuel heating plants

    Erlandsson, B.; Hedvall, R.; Mattsson, S.

    1995-01-01

    The activity concentration of the radionuclides K-40, Ac-228, Pa-234, Mn-54, Co-60, Zr-95, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Sb-125, Cs-134, Cs-137 and Ce-144 have been investigated in peat wood chips and ash products from 13 Swedish district heating plants during the winter seasons of 1986/1987, 1988/89, 1989/90 and 1990/91. There is a significant decrease in the activity concentration of Cs-137 in the fuel which is especially pronounced between the first two seasons, 86/87 and 88/89 after the Chernobyl accident. In spite of the varying deposition of Cs-137 over the country it has been possible to give a relation between the activity concentration in the peat and wood chips as a function of the deposition. The Swedish biofuel heating plants of which 35-40 are burning peat and 70-75 chips have been divided in three groups according to the activity concentration in the ash products. The mean Cs-137 concentration in ash and the total activity 'produced' per year in Sweden have been calculated. The maximum concentration in air at ground level and the corresponding effective dose rate of inhaled Cs-137 as a function of the emission rates of flue gases from stacks with varying heights and during different weather conditions has been calculated. 16 refs, 18 tabs, 4 figs

  8. Concentration peculiarities of radionuclides by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    Gudkov, D.I.; Kuz'menko, M.I.; Nazarov, A.B.; Derevets, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The results of radionuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs content in molluscs tissue of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. The age dynamics of radionuclides content in some species of Gastropoda was studied

  9. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009

    Delistraty, Damon; Van Verst, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site. - Highlights: → Radionuclides evaluated in bird tissues on the Hanford Site

  10. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009

    Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: DDEL461@ecy.wa.gov [Washington State Department of Ecology, N. 4601 Monroe Street, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States); Van Verst, Scott [Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, WA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site. - Highlights: > Radionuclides evaluated in bird tissues on the Hanford Site

  11. Phase 1 summaries of radionuclide concentration data for vegetation, river water, drinking water, and fish

    Denham, D.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Poston, T.M.; Thiede, M.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. As part of the HEDR Project, the Environmental Monitoring Data Task (Task 05) staff assemble, evaluate, and summarize key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment as a result of Hanford operations. The scope of work performed during Phase I included initiating the search, recovery, and inventory of environmental reports. Summaries of the environmental monitoring data that were recovered and evaluated are presented for specific periods of interest. These periods include vegetation monitoring data (primarily sagebrush) for the years 1945 through 1947, Columbia River water and drinking water monitoring data for the years 1963 through 1966, and fish monitoring data for the years 1964 through 1966. Concern was limited to those radionuclides identified as the most likely major contributors to the dose potentially received by the public during the times of interest: phosphorous-32, copper-64, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239 in Columbia River fish and drinking water taken from the river, and iodine-131 in vegetation. This report documents the achievement of the Phase I objectives of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task

  12. Measurement of activity concentration of primordial radionuclides in the soil samples of Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

    Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Saiyad Musthafa, M.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.; Shahul Hameed, M.M.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uranium ( 238 U), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K) are considered to be Primordial radionuclides which are widely distributed in the earth's crust. Gamma-radiation from these radionuclides represents the main external source of irradiation for the human body. Human beings are exposed outdoors to the natural terrestrial radiation that originates predominantly from the upper 30 cm of the soil. A pilot project was therefore initiated aiming at systematically measuring the terrestrial gamma radiation in Tiruchirappalli city, Tamil Nadu, South India and to establish baseline data on the terrestrial background radiation level determining its contribution to the annual effective dose equivalent to the human population. The natural radioactivity concentrations were studied in soil samples collected from 50 locations in Tiruchirappalli city. The concentration varies significantly over different soil types and the highest radioactivity was measured over soil types of granite origin followed by red soil and alluvial loam. The mean activity concentrations of 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K in soil samples are found to be 81.78 Bq.kg -1 , 32.62 Bq.kg -1 , and 551.35 Bq.kg -1 respectively. The calculated gamma dose from the soil is in the range between 38.86nGy.h -1 and 240.59 nGy.h -1 with a mean value of 89.76 nGy.h -1 . The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.11mSv.y -1 which is low as compared with the maximum permissible effective dose equivalent of 1mSv.y -1 (ICRP,1991). In the present study it is observed that the major sources of gamma radiation in soils are mainly derived from rocky area with granite basement. (author)

  13. Trends in radionuclide concentrations in Hanford Reach fish, 1982 through 1992

    Poston, T.M.

    1994-06-01

    Environmental monitoring has been conducted at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State since 1945. Fish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, which borders the Site, are monitored annually. The two objectives of this report were (1) to evaluate trends in the concentrations of radionuclides [e.g., 90 Sr and 137 Cs] in two species of Columbia River fish [smallmouth bass and mountain whitefish] sampled from the Hanford Reach from 1982 through 1992; and (2) to determine the impact of Hanford Site releases on these two species and carp and fall chinook salmon collected during this time frame. The evaluation found gradual reductions of 137 Cs in bass muscle and 90 Sr in bass and whitefish carcass from 1982 through 1992. Concentrations of 90 Sr in bass and whitefish followed the pattern established by reported Hanford Site releases from 1982 through 1992 and was supported by significant regression analyses comparing annual releases to sample concentration. Because data for carp have been collected only since 1990, the data base was inadequate for determining trends. Moreover, fall chinook salmon were only sampled once in this 11-year period. Concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in fish samples collected from distant background locations exceeded concentrations in Hanford Reach fish. Estimates of the dose from consumption of Hanford Reach fish were less than 0.001 times the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and the US Department of Energy guideline of 100 mrem/yr

  14. Estimation of radionuclide concentration of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th in air in Wuhan city

    Shi Jinhua; Chen Changhua

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th in air in Wuhan area were estimated by assuming that they originate from resuspended particles of soil and investigating the dust content in air and the concentrations of these radionuclides in soil. 60 soil samples were collected from April to October, 1984, and 7346 air dust samples during 1981-1985. The estimated mean air concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th were 24.0 x 10 -9 , 18.9 x 10 -9 and 28.7 x 10 -9 , Bq/L, respectively. Their highest values were observed of 30.4 x 10 -9 , 23.9 x 10 -9 and 36.2 x 10 -9 Bq/L in 1983. Seasonal change of the concentrations was clear as shown in the data of 1984 and 1985, which was related to the meterological conditions. Among the 6 districts of Wuhan city, the highest concentration was in Qingshan and the lowest in Wuchang

  15. Concentration Of 228Th, 226Ra, And 40K Radionuclides In Drinking Water In Southern Sumatera

    Sutarman; Warsono, Asep; Wahyudi

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of 228 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K concentrations in drinking water on several places in Southern Sumatera (1997-1999) have been carried out. The sample were collected from the Province of Lampung (Kalianda, Bandar Lampung, Kotabumi, Talangpadang, Kotaagung, Liwa, Manggala, and Pakuanratu), and the Province of Southern Sumatera (Palembang-1, Palembang-2, Plaju, Lahat, and Sekayu). Measurements of 228 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K concentrations in drinking water using the gamma spectrometer with the HP-Ge detector. The results of measurement showed that the concentration was the range of undetectable ( 228 Th concentration, the range of undetectable ( 226 Ra, radionuclide and the range of undetectable (< 128.96 mBq/l) to (880.54 n 22.75) mBq/l with average of (412.12 n 5.02) mBq/l, and the data mentioned above were still far under the maximum permissible concentration. The estimated of annual dose equivalent effective in drinking water was 0.03 mSv/year for public (5 mSv/year)

  16. Trends in radionuclide concentrations for wildlife and food products near Hanford for the period 1971 through 1988

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Cadwell, L.L.; Price, K.R.; Carlile, D.W.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of this summary investigation was to identify trends in radionuclide concentrations for wildlife and food products sampled from 1971 through 1988 as part of the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Program. No upward trends in radionuclide concentrations were detected for any wildlife or food products. Several sample types demonstrated significantly declining radionuclide concentrations. Three factors appeared to be responsible for the trends. First, the cessation of atmospheric testing by the United States and Soviet Union in 1971 contributed to the decline of radionuclides in some samples. Second, contaminants discharged to the Columbia River were reduced subsequent to the 1971 shutdown of the last Hanford nuclear reactor that used a once-through cooling water design. The reactor closing resulted in declines in activation products in oysters from Willapa Bay and in whitefish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Third, reductions in radionuclide concentrations in Hanford wildlife suggested a decreasing availability of environmental contaminants to wildlife. Remediation of areas having environmental surface contaminants on the Hanford Site was identified as a probable cause. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Effect of Pumping Strategies on Pesticide Concentrations in Water Abstraction Wells

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Pesticide use in agriculture is one of the main sources of groundwater contamination and poses an important threat to groundwater abstraction. Pesticides have been detected in 37% of Danish monitoring wells sampled, with 12 % exceeding drinking water guidelines. Field data captured in monitoring...... and pumping wells show that pesticide concentrations vary greatly in both time and space. This study aimed to use models to determine how pumping affects pesticide concentrations in drinking water wells placed in two hypothetical aquifer systems; a homogeneous layered aquifer and a layered aquifer...... in a pumping well capture zone were constructed using COMSOL Multiphysics. A series of simulations were conducted to examine the effect of pumping strategies (constant versus varying pumping rate), pesticide properties and aquifer hydrogeology on the concentration in drinking water wells. The results...

  18. Comparison of radionuclide concentrations in 1956 and 1973 Enewetak beach material

    Cohen, N.; Rahon, T.E.; Hirshfield, H.

    1985-02-01

    During the period 1948-1958, approximately 40 nuclear weapons tests were performed on the Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands of the central Pacific Ocean. In 1973, the results of a survey contracted by the US Atomic Energy Commission specified that extensive decontamination of the land areas would be necessary before the people of Enewetak could return to the atoll. During Operation Redwing in 1956, several members of the New York University Departments of Biology and Environmental Medicine visited the atoll and collected water, plankton and beach coral samples to study the distribution of foraminifera among the islands of Enewetak and other nearby atolls. Of the specimens collected, 22 samples of beach material from the highly contaminated northern islands of Enewetak remained intact and were available for study. Analyses of the radionuclide concentrations of these samples have provided interesting information regarding the levels of contamination that existed on Enewetak at that time.

  19. Distribution of radionuclides in leaf-stem biomass of lupine and clover under production of protein concentrates

    Novikov, Yu.F.; Lobach, G.A.; Buzenko, T.A.; Zaretskaya, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    The basic regularities of radionuclide distribution between the obtained products have been studied using the fractionation of lupine and clover phytomass as an example. The content of radionuclides in protein concentrates has been shown to be strongly related to the crop species. A scheme and a regime of the fractionation of leaf-stem lupine biomass contaminated with cesium radioisotopes and strontium-90 which ensured the minimizing of their residual content in protein-vitaminic and protein concentrates have been selected with due accout of experimental data

  20. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Cementitious Near-Field of an ILW Repository

    Berner, U.

    2003-05-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from ILW wastes, disposed of in a chemically reducing, cementitious environment. From a chemical point of view, the pore waters of hydrated cement matrices provide an exceptional environment. Compared with usual ground waters exhibiting pH-values of around 8, cement pore waters are strongly alkaline with pH-values from 12.5 to 13.5 and contain nearly no carbonate and only little sulfate. Oxides and hydroxides mainly determine solubility and speciation of the elements. Solubility and speciation calculations in cementitious pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 36 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Wherever possible, maximum concentrations compiled in this report were based on geochemical calculations. In order to ensure full traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the TDB are explicitly specified in the document. For similar reasons the compilation of results (Table 1) clearly distinguishes between calculated and recommended items. The heading 'CALCULATED' lists maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the TDB; results under the heading 'RECOMMENDED' include data from other sources. The pH sensitivity of the results was examined by performing calculations at pH 13.4, in accordance with the pH of non-altered cement pore water. Solubility increases predominantly for elements that tend to form anionic hydroxide complexes (Sn, Pd, Zr, Ni, Eu, Cd, Mo, Co). Oxidizing conditions around +350 mV might be expected in the environment of nitrate-containing wastes. In this case, significant

  1. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Cementitious Near-Field of an ILW Repository

    Berner, U

    2003-05-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from ILW wastes, disposed of in a chemically reducing, cementitious environment. From a chemical point of view, the pore waters of hydrated cement matrices provide an exceptional environment. Compared with usual ground waters exhibiting pH-values of around 8, cement pore waters are strongly alkaline with pH-values from 12.5 to 13.5 and contain nearly no carbonate and only little sulfate. Oxides and hydroxides mainly determine solubility and speciation of the elements. Solubility and speciation calculations in cementitious pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 36 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Wherever possible, maximum concentrations compiled in this report were based on geochemical calculations. In order to ensure full traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the TDB are explicitly specified in the document. For similar reasons the compilation of results (Table 1) clearly distinguishes between calculated and recommended items. The heading 'CALCULATED' lists maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the TDB; results under the heading 'RECOMMENDED' include data from other sources. The pH sensitivity of the results was examined by performing calculations at pH 13.4, in accordance with the pH of non-altered cement pore water. Solubility increases predominantly for elements that tend to form anionic hydroxide complexes (Sn, Pd, Zr, Ni, Eu, Cd, Mo, Co). Oxidizing conditions around +350 mV might be expected in the environment of nitrate-containing wastes. In

  2. Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, 137 Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of 137 Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. 90 Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of 60 Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of 60 Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of 207 Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of 207 Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, 207 Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of 207 Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither 239+240 Pu nor 241 Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, 238 Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than 239+240 Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines

  3. Equilibrium concentration of radionuclides in cement/groundwater/carbon steel system

    Keum, D. K.; Cho, W. J.; Hahn, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    Equilibrium concentration of major elements in an underground repository with a capacity of 100,000 drums have been simulated using the geochemical computer code (EQMOD). The simulation has been carried out at the conditions of pH 12 to 13.5, and Eh 520 and -520 mV. Solubilities of magnesium and calcium decrease with the increase of pH. The solubility of iron increases with pH at Eh -520 mV of reducing environment, while it almost entirely exists as the precipitate of Fe(OH) 3 (s) at Eh 520 mV of oxidizing environment. All of cobalt and nickel are predicted to be dissolved in the liquid phase regardless of pH since the solubility limit is greater than the total concentration. In the case of cesium and strontium, all forms of both ions are present in the liquid phase because they have negligible sorption capacity on cement and large solubility under disposal atmosphere. And thus the total concentration determines the equilibrium concentration. Adsorbed amounts of iodide and carbonate are dependent on adsorption capacity and adsorption equilibrium constant. Especially, the calcite turns out to be a solubility-limiting phase on the carbonate system. In order to validate the model, the equilibrium concentrations measured for a number of systems which consist of iron, cement, synthetic groundwater and radionuclides are compared with those predicted by the model. The concentrations between the model and the experiment of nonadsorptive elements - cesium, strontium, cobalt, nickel and iron, are well agreed. It indicates that the assumptions and the thermodynamic data in this work are valid. Using the adsorption equilibrium constant as a free parameter, the experimental data of iodide and carbonate have been fitted to the model. The model is in a good agreement with the experimental data of the iodide system. (author)

  4. Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, /sup 137/Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. /sup 90/Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of /sup 60/Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of /sup 60/Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of /sup 207/Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of /sup 207/Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, /sup 207/Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of /sup 207/Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither /sup 239 +240/Pu nor /sup 241/Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, /sup 238/Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than /sup 239 +240/Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines.

  5. Correlations between Natural Radionuclide Concentrations in Soil and Vine-Growth Potential

    Modisane, T.G.D.

    2008-01-01

    Stellenbosch district is known as one of the best wine-producing regions in South Africa and lies 45 km east of Cape Town. It has a large number of estates, of which one of them was earmarked for vineyard development and is of much importance to this study. Soil plays an important role in the development of the vine and ultimately the grapes harvested from the vine. It is therefore important to characterise vineyard soils (quantitatively and qualitatively) and to study the impact of soil properties on the vine. These properties include among others and of importance to this study, the soil ph, concentrations of trace elements, clay content and natural radioactivity concentrations (1). In this study correlations between radiometric data and traditional chemical data in vineyard soils used to infer growth potential were studied. Discussed below are experimental techniques used in the determination of activity concentration of natural radionuclide ( 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U) in soil, data analysis, results and conclusions

  6. Analysis of radionuclide concentrations and movement patterns of Hanford-site mule deer

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Hanson, E.E.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-10-01

    From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and 90 Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and 90 Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km 2 . In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years

  7. Determination of radionuclide concentration of landfill at Eliozu, Port Harcourt, Rivers State

    Avwiri, G.O.; Nte, F.U.; Olanrewaju, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the radionuclide concentration from landfill around Eliozu in Port-Harcourt area of River State has been carried out. This study assessed the level of terrestrial gamma radiation and associated dose rates from the naturally occurring radionuclide: 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K. 10 soil and 10 water samples collected from the respective reclaimed part of the Eliozu landfill were analyzed using the gamma-ray spectrometry Nal(TI) detector system. The mean activity concentration for soil was found to be 27.41±9.97Bq/kg for 238 U, 19.27±8.14 Bq/Kg for 232 Th and 326.08±66.74Bq/Kg for 40 K. The average specific activity concentration obtained for 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K for the water samples were 7.92±2.69Bq/l, 6.96±2.37Bq/l and 24.77±8.33 Bq/l. Absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be between the range of 23.53nGy.h -1 and 50.39nGy.h -1 with a mean of 38.17±12.45nGy.h -1 for soil and between the range of 6.62nGy.h -1 and 10.71nGy.h -1 with a mean 9.03±3.07nGy.h -1 for water. This value is less than the world average of 55nGy.h -1 for soil. Inhabitants around the landfill are subjected to equivalent radiation exposure (effective dose rate) ranging between 0.2061 and 0.4414mSv.y -1 with a mean of 0.3344±0.1091mSv.y -1 and ranging between 0.0580 and 0.0938mSv.y -1 with a mean of 0.0791±0.0269mSv.y -1 for soil and water. The results comparable to those reported for environment in Nigeria and the world is relatively high due to the presence of medical wastes co-disposed with other wastes in these areas. The results indicated that the observed radiation dose of the terrestrial soils and water from Eliozu reclaimed landfill is minimal and seem to have no high exposure for either inhabitant in and around the landfill.

  8. Biological concentration of radionuclides in plants and animals after Chernobyl catastrophe

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Ryo, Haruko; Nomura, Taisei; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Tadashi; Yeliseeva, K.G.; Piskunov, V.S.; Krupnova, E.V.; Voitovich, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The 137 Cs radioactivity and its distribution in plants (trees, mushrooms, berries, duckweed, and etc.) and animals (insects, mice, fish, and etc.) were measured in contaminated areas of southern Belarus, which was highly polluted by radionuclides as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Ukraine in 1986. Gamma spectrometry of 137 Cs was carried out, and a computer graphic imaging analysis was performed to visualize the distribution of radioactive nuclides in the organisms. The specimen was placed on the imaging plate, the plate was exposed for 20 h. High 137 Cs radioactivity was detected in both the animals (mice, moles, dragonflies, grasshoppers, and fish) and the plants (pine trees, oak leaves, mushrooms, berries, duckweed). The 137 Cs radioactivity in the organisms was proportional to the radioactivity in the soil. Assessment of its distribution showed that 137 Cs was highly concentrated in muscle, but there were no substantial differences in 137 Cs radioactivity according to organ or species. Computer graphic imaging analysis clearly revealed non-uniform distribution of 137 Cs radioactivity in the animals and plants. In pine trees, the highest level of radioactivity was found in the bark, and it decreased toward the center of the tree. In conclusion, the authors suggest that self-cleaning of the soil will require a very long time and that the biological concentrations will persist and increase in higher animals for a long time, resulting in accumulation of both external and internal radiation exposure in animals. (K.H.)

  9. Concentrations of radionuclides in cassava growing in high background radiation area and their transfer

    Jialin, Huang; Yongru, Zha; Yicao, Guo

    1985-04-01

    The concentrations of several natural radionuclides in common cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing in Yangjiang County, a high background radiation area in Guangdong Province, and their uptake from soil and distribution in the plant were investigated. The results show that the concentrations of natural uranium and thorium in cassava root are of the order of 10/sup -6/ g/kg, and those of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210 and polonium-210 are of the order of 10/sup -11/ Ci/kg. The highest level is 9.30 +- 0.30 x 10/sup -11/ Ci/kg (lead-210), and the lowest is 3.99 +- 0.20 x 10/sup -11/ Ci/kg (radium-226). The levels of natural uranium, thorium, radium-226 and polonium-210 in cassava are below the limits stipulated by the regulations for food hygiene in China, while the lead-210 level approaches the limit. It is noticeable that the highest level of radium-228 is 7.28 +- 1.03 x 10/sup -11/ Ci/kg, 10.4 times higher than the limit. The transfer of all the nuclides from soil to different parts of cassava shows a pattern contrary to that of he nuclides in the other regions where uranium-and radium-containing waste water and phosphate fertilizer are used in agriculture.

  10. Concentrations of radionuclides in cassava growing in high background radiation area and their transfer

    Huang Jialin; Zha Yongru; Guo Yicao

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations of several natural radionuclides in common cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing in Yangjiang County, a high background radiation area in Guangdong Province, and their uptake from soil and distribution in the plant were investigated. The results show that the concentrations of natural uranium and thorium in cassava root are of the order of 10 -6 g/kg, and those of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210 and polonium-210 are of the order of 10 -11 Ci/kg. The highest level is 9.30 +- 0.30 x 10 -11 Ci/kg (lead-210), and the lowest is 3.99 +- 0.20 x 10 -11 Ci/kg (radium-226). The levels of natural uranium, thorium, radium-226 and polonium-210 in cassava are below the limits stipulated by the regulations for food hygiene in China, while the lead-210 level approaches the limit. It is noticeable that the highest level of radium-228 is 7.28 +- 1.03 x 10 -11 Ci/kg, 10.4 times higher than the limit. The transfer of all he nuclides from soil to different parts of cassava shows a pattern contrary to that of he nuclides in the other regions where uranium-and radium-containing waste water and phosphate fertilizer are used in agriculture

  11. Trends in radionuclide concentrations for wildlife and food products near Hanford for the period 1971-1988

    Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Price, K.R.; Carlile, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated the Hanford environmental data base for trends in radionuclide concentrations in wildlife and food products sampled from 1971 through 1988 on or near the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Although statistical analyses showed short-term changes, no upward trends in radionuclide concentrations were detected. Many samples showed a significant decline in some radionuclides, particularly for 137 Cs. Concentrations of 65 Zn also showed a downward trend in many samples. Cessation of atmospheric testing by the United States and the USSR in 1971 contributed to the decline in radionuclide levels in some samples. Contaminants discharged to the Columbia River at Hanford were reduced after shutdown of the last once-through cooling-water reactor in 1971. A decline in concentrations of 65 Zn in oysters from Willapa Bay and 60 Co and 65 Zn in mountain whitefish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River are attributable to reactor closure. There was also an apparent reduction in availability of radiological contamination to Hanford wildlife after decommissioning of waste-water disposal ponds and remediation of contaminated terrestrial sites

  12. Technical basis for selecting radionuclide concentrations for use in Hanford tank basis for interim operation source term

    Cowley, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a radiological source term for waste tanks at the Hanford Site Nuclear Reservation. It describes the methodology used to identify the most important radionuclides, determine appropriate concentrations, and define unit liter doses. An example of how unit liter doses are used is given

  13. ORION: a computer code for evaluating environmental concentrations and dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from airborne radionuclides

    Shinohara, K.; Nomura, T.; Iwai, M.

    1983-05-01

    The computer code ORION has been developed to evaluate the environmental concentrations and the dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from air-borne radionuclides released from multiple nuclear installations. The modified Gaussian plume model is applied to calculate the dispersion of the radionuclide. Gravitational settling, dry deposition, precipitation scavenging and radioactive decay are considered to be the causes of depletion and deposition on the ground or on vegetation. ORION is written in the FORTRAN IV language and can be run on IBM 360, 370, 303X, 43XX and FACOM M-series computers. 8 references, 6 tables

  14. Evaluation of the radionuclide concentrations in soil and plants from the 1975 terrestrial survey of Bikini and Eneu Islands

    Colsher, C.S.; Robison, W.L.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    In June 1975 a radiological survey was conducted of the terrestrial environment of Bikini and Eneu islands (Bikini Atoll) to evaluate the potential radiation dose to the returning Bikini population. In this report, we present measurements of the radionuclide concentration in soil profiles and in dominant species of edible and nonedible, indicator plants. The use of these data to derive relationships to predict the plant uptake of radionuclides from soil is described. Approximately 620 soil and vegetation samples from Bikini and Eneu Islands were analyzed by Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and by wet chemistry. The predominant radionuclides in these samples were 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, 241 Pu, and 241 Am

  15. Criteria for requesting specific radionuclide analysis through gross α and gross β concentration measurements in environmental samples

    Ferreira, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper suggests some criteria for the decision to proceed with the analysis of specific radionuclides based on results of the determination of gross α and β concentrations in environmental samples of aerosols, water, dairy and agricultural products, soil and sediments. The samples considered are provenient from the environmental surveillance of uranium mining and milling facilities as well as the mining and processing plants of monazite sands. The radionuclides to be analysed are those considered to be the most critical to human health, that is: U-nat; Th-nat; Th-230; Ra-228; Ra-226; Po-210; Pb-210. The measured gross α and β concentrations will be compared with the Maximum Allowable Concentrations for some defined radionuclides. Radiochemical analysis of specific radionuclides may then become necessary, depending upon the results of this comparison. The main goal of the proposed guide is to simplify and to discipline the execution of environmental surveillance programs in a safe and economical way, avoiding unnecessary analysis. (author) [pt

  16. Activity Concentrations of radionuclides in sea water in some Coastal Egyptian Regions and Their Public Health Impacts

    Sefien, S.M.; Abdel Malik, W.E.Y.; Ibrahim, A.S.; Yousef, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive investigations have been carried out monthly for one year period in order to find out the average activity concentrations of the natural radionuclide in some Egyptian coastal aquatic environment and to assess the annual radiation doses likely to be received by population near by. The determinations were mainly for the measurement of gross α, β and γ activities in sea water samples and some of its constituents. It has been found that; the average gross α, β and γ activities in sea water samples for the different studied locations ranged from (0-52) x 10 -3 ,(3-68) x10 -3 and (13-283) x10 -3 Bq.l -1 respectively but still below the recommended permissible limits in most locations. It was found that Rashid area posses the highest concentrations of uranium and thorium. The present results have shown that the radio activities of most of the locations are mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclide. No regular tendency increase was observed in activity concentrations of any particular radionuclide in the studied period. Calculations have shown that, the average external dose from the γ- emitting radionuclide is ranged over (0.5-177)x10 -3 nGy/hr with annual exposure dose ranged from (1.04-29)x10 -3 nGy in most locations except Rashid. This exposure dose does not present radiological injuries to the population

  17. Concentration activities of natural radionuclides in three fish species in Brazilian coast and their contributions to the absorbed doses

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2009-01-01

    Activity concentrations of U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Th-232 e Ra-228 were analysed in three fish species at the Brasilian Coast. The fish 'Cubera snapper' (Lutjanus cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828), in the region of Ceara and 'Whitemouth croaker' (Micropogonias furnieri, Desmarest, 1823) and 'Lebranche mullet' (Mugil liza, Valenciennes, 1836) in the region of Rio de Janeiro. These concentrations were transformed in absorbed dose rate using a dose conversion factor in unit of gray per year (μGy y -1 ), per becquerel per kilogram (Bq kg -1 ). Only the absorbed dose due to intake of radionuclides was examined, and the contributions due to radionuclides present in water and sediment were disregarded. The radionuclides were considered to be uniformly distributed in the fish body. The limit of the dose rate used, proposed by the Department of Energy of the USA, is equal to 3.65 10 03 mGy y -1 . The average dose rate due to the studied radionuclides is equal to 6.09 10 00 μGy y -1 , a value minor than 0.1% than the limits indicated by DOE, and quite similar to that found in the literature for 'benthic' fish. The most important radionuclides were the alpha emitters Ra-226 having 61 % of absorbed dose rate. U-238 and Th-232, each contributes with approximately 20 % of the absorbed dose rate. These three radionuclides are responsible for almost 100% of the dose rate received by the studied organisms. The beta emitters Ra-228 and Pb-210 account for approximately 1 % of the absorbed dose rate. (author)

  18. Radionuclide concentrations in salt pans in the coastal area of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh

    Alam, M.N.; Chowdhury, M.I.; Zafar, M.; Kamal, M.; Ghose, S.; Kamal, A.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 40 K in samples of water, soil and salt from three gradients of salt pans (reservoir, condenser and crystalliser) in the coastal area of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh and in samples of refined salts were measured using γ-spectrometry. The activities of 226 Ra in the salt pans were found to be in the range 3·18±1·02 Bq l -1 in water to 25·17±5·76 Bq kg -1 in soil; 232 Th activities were 2·01±0·89 Bq l -1 in water to 42·33±2·54 Bq kg -1 in soil, and 40 K activities ranged from 109·60±27·77 Bq l -1 in water to 651·89±65·89 Bq kg -1 in soil. No 137 Cs or 134 Cs was found in soil, salt and water from the salt pans investigated. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Substantiation of the admissable concentration of radionuclides in the utilization of concrete from disassembled reactors

    Engovatov, I.A.; Mashkovich, V.P.; Morev, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    The complete or partial disassembly of the buildings and systems of a modern nuclear power plant results in the formation of hundreds of thousands of tons of wastes. More than 90% of this mass consists of reinforced concrete. Only a small fraction of these materials is contaminated and/or activated up to high level and must be treated as radioactive wastes that must be buried. For this reason, it is helpful to consider a variant of recycling of some of the wastes and secondary utilization of these wastes in different industrial production processes. In this paper, we analyze the concrete that is freed when a nuclear power plant is decommissioned, and in particular, we examine three scenarios: (1) stockpiling and long-term storage of concrete at an industrial site, (2) highway construction, and (3) industrial building construction. Admissable radionuclide concentrations of several isotopes are tabulated for each scenario, and the results provide the basic information for the development of standards for the utilization of the concrete wastes produced during the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

  20. Concentrations of radionuclides and selected stable elements in fruits and vegetables

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two types of fruits and vegetables collected from two commercial supermarkets have been analyzed for their radionuclidic and stable-element composition. A specific gamma-emitting isotope analysis was performed on each sample for 40 K, 60 Co, 95 Zr-Nb, 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 226 Ra, and 232 Th. The concentration of the stable elements in each sample were determined using multi-element neutron-activation analysis (Al, Ag, Au, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mn, Mo, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Te, Th, Ti, Zn, Zr) and atomic absorption (Cd, Ni, Pb). Information on the composition of a typical diet is used to estimate the radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fruits and vegetables. The stable-elemental compositions of the foodstuffs analyzed were compared with estimated values assuming foliar deposition and long-term buildup of effluents from a large modern coal-fired steam plant. It is tentatively concluded that for the general case of a precipitator-equipped, coal-fired steam plant, no toxic levels of trace elements in foodstuffs are expected as a result of the plant operation

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1994 growing season

    Fresquez, P.R.; Biggs, J.B.; Bennett, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation samples were collected within and around selected points at Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-for the analysis of tritium ( 3 H), strontium ( 90 Sr), plutonium ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu), cesium ( 137 Cs), americium ( 241 Am), and total uranium. In general, most vegetation samples collected within and around Area G contained radionuclide levels in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 5,800 pCi/mL in overstory vegetation collected outside the fence just west of the tritium shafts; this suggests that tritium is migrating from this waste repository through subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the transuranic (TRU) pads (outside the fence of Area G) contained the highest values of 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 137 Cs, and 241 Am, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, or disposal activities

  2. Studies on radionuclide concentration along the Northern Coast of Krusadai Island

    Inigo Valan, I.; Stephen, A.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Murthy, S.M.S.; Vijayalakshmi, I.

    2014-01-01

    Krusadai Island - The Biologist's Paradise, is situated in Gulf of Mannar (GaM) near Rameswaram of Tamilnadu, India. It has been recognized as Ecological sensitive area under Coastal regulation zone notification 1991 because these area act as the breeding zone for a variety of marine species, most of which are consumed by human population. Above all Govt. of India and Govt. of Tamil Nadu jointly declared Gulf of Mannar as Marine National Park under Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. So it is essential to have a periodic radiological survey in this area in order to check the concentrations of various radionuclide. Apart from this 2004 Tsunami had many devastating effects along the coastal Tamil Nadu. GOM (Especially Rameswaram coast) didn't suffer a lot due to the barricade-like protection given by the island nation Sri Lanka. But reports suggest that northeastern part of the Krusadai Island had noticeable effects due to Tsunami, which interests to study this area. Current study is a preliminary radioactive report on the northern part of the Krusadai Island

  3. Planetary boundary layer model for estimating the radionuclides concentration in accidental liberations

    Molnary, Leslie de

    2002-01-01

    A two layer bulk model is used to simulate numerically the time and spatial evolution of concentration of radionuclides in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) for convective and stable conditions. In this model, the closure hypothesis are based on the integrated version of the Turbulent Kinetics Energy equation. This type of model was adopted here because it is numerically simple to be applied operationally in routine and emergency support systems of atmospheric releases at nuclear power plants, and the hypothesis of the efficiency of the vertical mixing seems to be physically reasonable to simulate PBL evolution for high wind conditions and stable conditions in subtropical latitudes regions. In order to validate the model, numerical simulations were carried out with initial and boundary conditions based on vertical profiles of temperatures and horizontal wind speed and direction obtained from tethered balloon soundings, synoptic charts at 850 hPa and surface observations. Comparisons between a 24 hour long numerical simulation and observations indicate that the model is capable of reproduce the diurnal evolution of temperature and horizontal wind during the convective regime. During stable conditions, the slab model was able to simulate the intensity of the surface inversion as a difference between the mixed layer and the surface temperature. The simulated mixed layer height matches with observations during the convective and stable regime. (author)

  4. Rodent movements, densities and radionuclide concentrations at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area

    Halford, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Movements and densities of rodents at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area were studied from June to September 1981 using trap line and assessment line techniques. The average distance between points of successive capture was 42 +- 25 (SD) m for deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and 37 +- 21 m for kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii). Densities of deer mice averaged 10.2/ha with a population estimate of 57 within the area of rodent captures. The population estimate of 4 species of small mammals at the waste pond complex was 93. Radionuclide concentrations averaged 133 +- 97 pCi/g for rodents captured inside the disposal area boundary, 18 +- 22 pCi/g for those captured outside of the dispoal area fence and 0.50 +- 0.6 pCi/g for control animals. Species captured outside of the waste area boundary had significantly lower (P 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 60 Co and 65 Zn) in rodents at the liquid waste disposal area was estimated to be about 162 nCi

  5. Experimental studies on correlation between accumulation of radionuclides by fish, availability of bottom sediments, and concentration of microelements in water

    Katkov, A E

    1979-07-01

    There are revealed peculiarities of accumulation of radionuclides desorbed from the ground by hydrobionts as compared with the accumulation of radionuclides appearing in the basin for the first time. The results of the experimental investigations on the dependence of nuclide accumulation coefficients (AC) on their concentration in water are summarized. The experiments have been performed on adult (6-8 years) golden crucian carp Carassius carassius in a basin with fresh water with /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 131/I, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 210/Po. The radionuclide group (/sup 54/Mn, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 210/Po) has been found out. The ground has contributed to its accumulation. For another group (/sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 51/Cr) it has been found an indistinctly expressed influence only of silt containing ground on AC. The third group comprises the radionuclides (/sup 90/Sr, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 131/I) accumulation of which in fish has been prevented by the ground. An inverse correlation between the nuclide AC changes in fishes (..delta..K) and changes in the concentration of their isotope carried (..delta..C) in water has been observed. The results of the mathematical processing of the summarized experimental data according to the ..delta..Kx ..delta..C=1 criterion are described by the dependence close to ACxC..-->.. const., cor. responding to the law of tendency to constancy preservation in the microelement concentration tissues. In the course of investigation of the relationship between the AC and the change of the radionuclide aggregate state in water no common dependence has been established.

  6. Evaluation of the anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in sediments and fauna collected in the Beaufort Sea and northern Alaska

    Efurd, D.W.; Miller, G.G.; Rokop, D.J.

    1997-07-01

    This study was performed to establish a quality controlled data set about the levels of radio nuclide activity in the environment and in selected biota in the U.S. Arctic. Sediment and biota samples were collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Biological Service, and the North Slope Borough's Department of Wildlife Management to determine the impact of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic. The results summarized in this report are derived from samples collected in northwest Alaska with emphasis on species harvested for subsistence in Barrow, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for the anthropogenic radionuclides 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am. The naturally occurring radionuclides 40 K, 212 Pb and 214 Pb were also measured. One goal of this study was to determine the amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Beaufort Sea. Sediment samples were isotopically fingerprinted to determine the sources of radio nuclide activities. Biota samples of subsistence and ecological value were analyzed to search for evidence of bio-accumulation of radionuclides and to determine the radiation exposures associated with subsistence living in northern Alaska. The anthropogenic radio nuclide content of sediments collected in the Beaufort Sea was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. No other sources of anthropogenic radionuclides could be conclusively identified in the sediments. The anthropogenic radio nuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. Assuming that ingestion of food is an important pathway leading to human contact with radioactive contaminants and given the dietary patterns in coastal Arctic communities, it can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected

  7. Effects of soil properties on natural radio-nuclides concentration in arid environment: a case study

    Khater, A.F.M.; Al-Sewaidan, H.A.I.; Al-Saif, A.S.; Diab, H.I.

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from an arid environment in the central region of Saudi Arabia, 28 samples from selected 14 locations in an agricultural farm. Two samples, one from cultivated land and the second from uncultivated land, of the same origin were collected from each location. This work aims at investigating the changes of soil properties due to dry-land use and its effects on naturally occurring radio-nuclides (NOR) concentration and distribution. The specific activity, in Bq/kg, of 226 Ra ( 238 U series), 228 gRa ( 232 Th series), 40 K and 137 Cs were measured using calibrated gamma-ray spectrometer. The soil physical and chemical properties [e.g. pH, EC, particle size distribution (clay, silt and sand percentages), CaCO 3 %, soluble cations (Ca, Mg, Na and K) and soluble anions (CO 3 , HCO 3 , Cl and SO 4 )] were determined. The radium equivalent activity, in Bq/kg, and absorbed dose rate one meter above the ground, in nGy/y, were calculated. Generally, there are not noticeable changes in soil properties due to agricultural activities or strong correlations between soil properties and NOR specific activities. That could be due to the sandy nature of the soil and the effects of adsorption-filtration processes on the behavior and the distribution pattern of NOR in arid environment. Therefore, the environmental impacts of different man-made activities on underground resources should be carefully considered due to the possible filtration behavior of different pollutants in dry-land environment. (author)(tk)

  8. SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

    B.W. ARNOLD

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ

  9. Baseline concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils and vegetation around the DARHT facility: Construction phase (1997). Progress report

    Fresquez, P.R.; Haagenstad, H.T.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-06-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Mitigation Action Plan for the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), baseline concentrations of radionuclides ( 3 H, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, and tot U) and heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil, sediment, and vegetation (overstory and understory) around the DARHT facility during the construction phase in 1997 were determined. Most radionuclides and heavy metals in soils, sediments, and vegetation, with the exception of 90 Sr in soils and sediments, were within upper (95%) limit background concentrations. Although the levels of 90 Sr in soils and sediments around the DARHT facility were higher than background, they were below LANL screening action levels ( -1 dry) and are of no concern

  10. Baseline concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils and vegetation around the DARHT facility: Construction phase (1996)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Haagenstad, H.T.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1997-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Mitigation Action Plan for the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), baseline concentrations of radionuclides ( 3 H, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, total U), and heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Tl) in soil, sediment, and vegetation (overstory and understory) around the DARHT facility during the construction phase in 1996 were determined. Also, U and Be concentrations in soil samples collected in 1993 from within the proposed DARHT facility area are reported. Most radionuclides in soils, sediments, and vegetation were within current background and/or long-term regional statistical reference levels

  11. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were

  12. Natural Radionuclides and 137Cs Concentrations in Rice in Jepara Residence and Internal Dose Estimation Intake by the People

    Leli-Nirwani; Minarni; Buchari

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of natural radionuclides and 137 Cs concentration in rice in Jepara residence and internal dose estimation intake by people have been conducted. The aim of the research is to determine internal dose estimation of natural radionuclides and 137 Cs intake by people in Jepara residence. By knowing the natural radionuclides and 137 Cs concentrations in rice at Jepara residence, the dose coefficient for adult from ICRP No.72 and the annual intake consumption take from the Indonesian food balance published by BPS, the internal dose from natural radionuclides and 137 Cs intake from food can be calculate concentration of 228 Th, 226 Ra and 137 Cs were found in Bayuran, with the average value was (2.00±0.21) x 10 -5 Bq/kg, (0.09±0.25) x 10 -5 Bq/kg, (19.00±0.06) x 10 -5 Bq/kg respectively the highest 40 K concentration was found in Pandansili with the average was about (8.40 ± 0.34) x 10 -5 Bq/kg. The estimation of equivalent doses from intake of 228 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K, and 137 Cs in rice were the highest in Bayuran the value the average values, respectively, was 0.0039 x 10 -5 μ Sv/yr, 18.09 X 10 -5 μ Sv/yr, 1.63 x 10 -5 μ Sv/yr, 172.38 x 10 -5 μ Sv/yr. Result in this measurement lowest comparing by recommendation IAEA in Safety Series No. 115 in 1996. (author)

  13. Radionuclide concentrations in game and nongame fish upstream and downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1981 to 1993

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1994-08-01

    Radionuclide concentrations were determined in game (surface-feeding) and nongame (bottom-feeding) fish collected from reservoirs upstream (Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado) and downstream (Cochiti) of Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1981 to 1993. The average levels of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, and 239 Pu in game and nongame fish collected from Cochiti reservoir were not significantly different in fish collected from reservoirs upstream of the Laboratory. Total uranium was the only radionuclide that was found to be significantly higher n both game and nongame fish from Cochiti as compared to fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado. Uranium concentrations in fish collected from Cochiti, however, significantly decreased from 1981 to 1993, and no evidence of depleted uranium was found in fish samples collected from Cochiti in 1993. Based on the average concentration of radionuclides over the year the effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 46 lb of game fish and nongame fish from Cochiti reservoir after natural background has been subtracted was 0.005 and 0.009 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was <0.01% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public

  14. Measurement of natural and artificial radionuclide concentrations in meat consumed in Hong Kong

    Mao, S.Y.; Yu, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    Radionuclides in meat are determined using the EG and G ORTEC photon spectrometer system. Most of the naturally occurring radionuclides are found to have specific activities below the detectable limit. For our samples, 40 K is found to have values ranging from 295-407 Bq/kg, 172-423 Bq/kg and 172-282 Bq/kg for beef, pork and chicken meat samples, respectively, while 137 Cs has values from 0.19-2 Bq/kg, 0.34-0.71 Bq/kg and 0.12-0.53 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated weighted committed dose equivalent due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides and 137 Cs in meat is 137 Cs in both sexes are less than the level recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  15. Radionuclide concentrations in raw and purified phosphoric acids from Brazil and their processing wastes: implications for radiation exposures.

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; Antunes, Maria Lúcia Pereira; Durrant, Steven F

    2012-02-01

    Radionuclides from the U and Th natural series are present in alkaline rocks, which are used as feedstock in Brazil for the production of raw phosphoric acid, which can be considered as a NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material). As a result of the purification of raw phosphoric acid to food-grade phosphoric acid, two by-products are generated, i.e., solid and liquid wastes. Taking this into account, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclide in the production of food-grade phosphoric acids in Brazil, to determine the radiological impact caused by ingestion of food-grade phosphoric acid, and to evaluate the solid waste environmental hazards caused by its application in crop soils. Radiological characterization of raw phosphoric acid, food-grade phosphoric acid, solid waste, and liquid waste was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th activity concentrations varied depending on the source of raw phosphoric acid. Decreasing radionuclides activity concentrations in raw phosphoric acids used by the producer of the purified phosphoric acid were observed as follows: Tapira (raw phosphoric acid D) > Catalão (raw phosphoric acids B and C) > Cajati (raw phosphoric acid A). The industrial purification process produces a reduction in radionuclide activity concentrations in food-grade phosphoric acid in relation to raw phosphoric acid produced in plant D and single raw phosphoric acid used in recent years. The most common use of food-grade phosphoric acid is in cola soft drinks, with an average consumption in Brazil of 72 l per person per year. Each liter of cola soft drink contains 0.5 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid, which gives an annual average intake of 36 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid per person. Under these conditions, radionuclide intake through consumption of food-grade phosphoric acid per year per person via cola soft drinks is not hazardous to human health in Brazil

  16. SLUDGE BATCH 5 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2008-01-01

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Five (SB5) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Part of this SB5 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40 to complete the formation of SB5. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB4. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB5 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry taken on March 21, 2008. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under direction of the Liquid Waste Organization it was then modified by five washes, six decants, an addition of Pu/Be from Canyon Tank 16.4, and an addition of NaNO2. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Ta Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB5 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2008-0010. The work with this qualification sample is covered by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and an Analytical Study Plan. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task 2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task 5) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB5 will be taken and

  17. Doses for various pathways to man based on unit concentrations of radionuclides pertinent to decontamination and decommissioning of properties

    Hill, G.S.

    1979-03-01

    This report gives dose tabulations for unit concentrations of radionuclides likely to be encountered in the decommissioning of real estate contaminated with uranium and thorium ores and residues. The reported doses may be ratioed to known air, soil, and water concentrations, exposure times, and intakes to estimate the total radiation dose for individuals exposed to the facilities. These dose estimates may be used in developing criteria to determine appropriate remedial actions for returning the properties to useful purposes and for establishing restrictions for such use

  18. Comparison of concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in Plankton from French Polynesian and Australian coastal waters

    Poletiko, C.; Twining, J.R.; Jeffree, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Zooplankton samples from French Polynesian and Australian coastal waters were analysed for natural and artificial radionuclides. Quality control was assured by correlating replicate analyses between three laboratories and by participation in an international intercomparison exercise. Pu239/240 was detected sporadically among samples from both regions, with the highest levels being more consistently found in Tuamotu-Gambier samples. The artificial radionuclides Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90 and Co-60 were not detected. Of the natural nuclides, Ac-228 was detected in shallow continental waters off Northern Australia and an inverse relationship (P<0.02) was established between plankton density and their Po-210 concentration. (authors). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  19. Assessment of fetal activity concentration and fetal dose for selected radionuclides based on animal and human data

    Roedler, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Biokinetic data of selected radionuclide compounds from investigations in man and animal were taken from literature references with the purpose to provide a basis for a comparative assessment of fetal and adult radiation doses after intake or administration of radionuclides. The following ratios of fetal to adult doses were derived from human data: 0.5 for caesium 137 and total body, 2.3 for iron 59 and liver, 0.06 - 0.3 - 1.1 for iodine 131 and thyroid, and 0.1 - 0.3 for strontium 90 and bone. The ratios of activity concentrations in fetal and adult tissues are of considerable variability - up to three orders of magnitude. Further studies on fetal and adult biokinetics specifically designed for comparative dose assessment are indispensable. 106 refs.; 6 tabs

  20. A new general dynamic model predicting radionuclide concentrations and fluxes in coastal areas from readily accessible driving variables

    Haakanson, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a general, process-based dynamic model for coastal areas for radionuclides (metals, organics and nutrients) from both single pulse fallout and continuous deposition. The model gives radionuclide concentrations in water (total, dissolved and particulate phases and concentrations in sediments and fish) for entire defined coastal areas. The model gives monthly variations. It accounts for inflow from tributaries, direct fallout to the coastal area, internal fluxes (sedimentation, resuspension, diffusion, burial, mixing and biouptake and retention in fish) and fluxes to and from the sea outside the defined coastal area and/or adjacent coastal areas. The fluxes of water and substances between the sea and the coastal area are differentiated into three categories of coast types: (i) areas where the water exchange is regulated by tidal effects; (ii) open coastal areas where the water exchange is regulated by coastal currents; and (iii) semi-enclosed archipelago coasts. The coastal model gives the fluxes to and from the following four abiotic compartments: surface water, deep water, ET areas (i.e., areas where fine sediment erosion and transport processes dominate the bottom dynamic conditions and resuspension appears) and A-areas (i.e., areas of continuous fine sediment accumulation). Criteria to define the boundaries for the given coastal area towards the sea, and to define whether a coastal area is open or closed are given in operational terms. The model is simple to apply since all driving variables may be readily accessed from maps and standard monitoring programs. The driving variables are: latitude, catchment area, mean annual precipitation, fallout and month of fallout and parameters expressing coastal size and form as determined from, e.g., digitized bathymetric maps using a GIS program. Selected results: the predictions of radionuclide concentrations in water and fish largely depend on two factors, the concentration in the sea outside the given

  1. Radionuclides and particles in seawater with the large volume in situ filtration and concentration system in the coastal waters off Japan

    Aono, Tatsuo; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Okubo, Ayako; Zheng, Jian; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to determine the radionuclides in dissolved and particulate state in order to clarify the distributions and behavior of these in seawater. Because the concentrations of radionuclides and particles are very low in the ocean, it is difficult to concentrate and fractionate the particulate matters with the filtration systems in seawater. The large volume in situ filtration and concentration system (LV-FiCS) was developed to collect various forms of trace radionuclides and particles in seawater. The LV-FiCS has been operated during several cruises in the coastal waters off Japan, and several m 3 of seawaters were filtered through different kinds of filters and then pass through the adsorbents to concentrate radionuclides simultaneously. This system could be shown the vertical profiles of thorium with the size-fractionated method and the behavior of these nuclides in the ocean. (author)

  2. Radionuclides in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations and bioavailability

    Eriksen, D.Oe.; Sidhu, R.; Stralberg, E.; Iden, K.I.; Hylland, K.; Ruus, A.; Roeyset, O.; Berntssen, M.H.G.; Rye, H.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial amounts of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226 Ra and 228 Ra) are discharged to the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. So far no study has assessed the potential radiological effects on marine biota in connection with radionuclide discharges to the North Sea. The main objective of the project is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium associated with other components in produced water from oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. This study reports results indicating that the presence of added chemicals such as scale inhibitors in produced water has a marked influence on the formation of radium and barium sulphates when produced water is mixed with sea water. Thus, the mobility and bioavailability of radium (and barium) will be larger than anticipated. Also, the bioavailability of food-borne radium is shown to increase due to presence of such chemicals. (author)

  3. Radionuclides in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations — Concentrations and bioavailability

    Eriksen, D. Ø.; Sidhu, R.; Strålberg, E.; Iden, K. I.; Hylland, K.; Ruus, A.; Røyset, O.; Berntssen, M. H. G.; Rye, H.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial amounts of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra) are discharged to the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. So far no study has assessed the potential radiological effects on marine biota in connection with radionuclide discharges to the North Sea. The main objective of the project is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium associated with other components in produced water from oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. This study reports results indicating that the presence of added chemicals such as scale inhibitors in produced water has a marked influence on the formation of radium and barium sulphates when produced water is mixed with sea water. Thus, the mobility and bioavailability of radium (and barium) will be larger than anticipated. Also, the bioavailability of food-borne radium is shown to increase due to presence of such chemicals.

  4. Natural and man-made radionuclide concentrations in marine sediments of Gokova Bay, Aegean Turkish coast

    Tanbay, A.U.; Yener, G.; Mulsow, S.; Fowler, S.W.; Duman, M.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to define a baseline study of selected radionuclides (natural and man made) on sediments collected along Goekova Bay. A total of six sediment cores (gravity corer) were collected, each sediment core was sliced in sections and 210 Po, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K and 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am were determined for each layer of sediment

  5. Radionuclide concentration in ground-level air from 1986 to 1987 in North Germany and North Norway

    Kolb, W.

    1988-03-01

    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in surface air were determined by γ-spectroscopy. The mean monthly acitvity concentrations of up to 30 radionuclides measured in 1986 and 1987 in Brunswick, Berlin and Skibotn (North Norway) are tabulated. The Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, resulted in 1986 in an annual mean Cs-137 activity concentration of 2.4 mBq/m 3 in Brunswick, 8.8 mBq/m 3 in Berlin and 0.3 mBq/m 3 at Skibotn. In 1987 the Cs-137 concentrations were just about 1% of these values. Occasionally fresh fission products from other sources were detected as e.g. I-131 in March 1987 (very likely released from a reactor site in Ukraine) and in August 1987 (released from an underground nuclear test on Novaja Zemlya together with other short-lived fission products). The effective dose equivalent due to inhalation of fission products is estimated for all three sites and compared with the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig./HP) [de

  6. International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen: Book of Abstracts

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.; Hayden, H.

    2005-05-01

    The International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen provides an opportunity to learn about current significant research on solar concentrators for generating electricity or hydrogen. The conference will emphasize in-depth technical discussions of recent achievements in technologies that convert concentrated solar radiation to electricity or hydrogen, with primary emphasis on photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Very high-efficiency solar cells--above 37%--were recently developed, and are now widely used for powering satellites. This development demands that we take a fresh look at the potential of solar concentrators for generating low-cost electricity or hydrogen. Solar electric concentrators could dramatically overtake other PV technologies in the electric utility marketplace because of the low capital cost of concentrator manufacturing facilities and the larger module size of concentrators. Concentrating solar energy also has advantages for th e solar generation of hydrogen. Around the world, researchers and engineers are developing solar concentrator technologies for entry into the electricity generation market and several have explored the use of concentrators for hydrogen production. The last conference on the subject of solar electric concentrators was held in November of 2003 and proved to be an important opportunity for researchers and developers to share new and crucial information that is helping to stimulate projects in their countries.

  7. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Eagle, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The 90 Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The 239+240 Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, 137 Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow

  8. Radioecology teaching: evaluation of the background radiation levels from areas with high concentrations of radionuclides in soil

    Anjos, R M; Okuno, E; Gomes, P R S; Veiga, R; Estellita, L; Mangia, L; Uzeda, D; Soares, T; Facure, A; Brage, J A P; Mosquera, B; Carvalho, C; Santos, A M A

    2004-01-01

    The study of environmental radioactivity is a topic which is not usually included in physics courses in Brazilian and Latin American universities. Consequently, high-school teachers are not able to show experimentally or discuss with their students the effects of exposure to terrestrial radiation. This paper presents a laboratory experiment in a teaching programme on the physics of ionizing radiation. It is based on the evaluation of the background radiation levels from areas with high concentrations of natural or artificial radionuclides in the soil. A brief analysis of the theory behind the technique and a description of some measurements, including their interpretations, are presented

  9. Reconstruction of radionuclide concentrations in the Columbia River from Hanford, Washington to Portland, Oregon, January 1950--January 1971

    Walters, W.H.; Gilmore, B.G.; Richmond, M.C.

    1994-05-01

    Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories conducted this study of the Columbia River for the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received from operations that began at the Hanford Site in 1944. The purpose of the study was to reconstruct concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River water for estimating doses to humans from the river pathway

  10. The concentrations of radionuclides, heavy metals, and poloychlorinated biphenyls in field mice collected from regional background areas. Revision 3

    Fresquez, Philip R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-01-21

    Field mice are effective indicators of contaminant presence. This paper reports the concentrations of various radionuclides, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, high explosives, perchlorate, and dioxin/furans in field mice (mostly deer mice) collected from regional background areas in northern New Mexico. These data, represented as the regional statistical reference level (the mean plus three standard deviations = 99% confidence level), are used to compare with data from field mice collected from areas potentially impacted by Laboratory operations, as per the Environmental Surveillance Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  11. Elucidation of the character of radionuclide concentration changes in the near ground layer of air

    Vukovic, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The Fokker Planck equation was used to analyze the probability of the appearance of radionuclide impulses of any type. Distribution functions for the stationary state and conditions when different factors influence the impulse amplitude and duration are presented. A high degree of correlation was obtained between our results and an analysis of distribution functions of radioactivity and seismic noises in certain regions in Europe and Japan found in the literature. This presents a contribution to the further explanation of the mechanism of radioactivity changes in the near ground layers of air. (author)

  12. Methods of pre-concentration of radionuclides from large volume samples

    Olahova, K.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2006-01-01

    The development of radioanalytical methods for low level radionuclides in environmental samples is presented. In particular, emphasis is placed on the introduction of extraction chromatography as a tool for improving the quality of results as well as reducing the analysis time. However, the advantageous application of extraction chromatography often depends on the effective use of suitable preconcentration techniques, such as co-precipitation, to reduce the amount of matrix components which accompany the analysis interest. On-going investigations in this field relevant to the determination of environmental levels of actinides and 90 Sr are discussed. (authors)

  13. Food habits and radionuclide tissue concentrations of Nevada desert bighorn sheep, 1972--1973

    Brown, K.W.; Smith, D.D.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Giles, K.R.; Helvie, J.B.

    1976-06-01

    The botanical composition of the diet and radionuclide content of selected tissues of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) collected during the 1972 and 1973 hunting seasons were determined by analyzing rumen contents, and lung, liver, kidney, and bone tissues. Botanical examination of the rumen contents showed that grass exceeded 50 percent of the diet of 10 to 14 animals collected in 1972 and 12 of 18 animals collected in 1973. Desert needlegrass (Stipa speciosa), Indian rice grass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), and squirrel tail (Sitanion hystrix) were the major grasses utilized. The dominant shrub species consumed included the joint firs (Ephedra viridis) and (Ephedra nevadensis), Mohave yucca (Yucca schidigera), and cliff rose (Cowania mexicana). With the exception of potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were not detected in desert bighorn sheep tissue. The tritium levels reported were within environmental levels. Strontium-90 levels averaged 4.9 and 4.1 pCi/gram of bone ash for 1972 and 1973, respectively, continuing the downward trend observed in recent years. Uranium levels were similar to those reported from cattle grazing the same general geographic areas. The daily consumption for one year of 500 grams of liver containing the highest levels of plutonium and uranium would result in a dose to the human bone, the tissue expected to receive the highest dose, of approximately 1 mrem/year. This is less than 1% of the radiation protection guides for the general population

  14. Baseline concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils and vegetation around the DARHT facility: Construction phase (1997). Progress report

    Fresquez, P.R.; Haagenstad, H.T.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-06-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Mitigation Action Plan for the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), baseline concentrations of radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup tot}U) and heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil, sediment, and vegetation (overstory and understory) around the DARHT facility during the construction phase in 1997 were determined. Most radionuclides and heavy metals in soils, sediments, and vegetation, with the exception of {sup 90}Sr in soils and sediments, were within upper (95%) limit background concentrations. Although the levels of {sup 90}Sr in soils and sediments around the DARHT facility were higher than background, they were below LANL screening action levels (<4.4 pCi g{sup {minus}1} dry) and are of no concern.

  15. Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in sediments of surface - water dams in southwest Nigeria - a baseline survey

    Isinkaye, M.O.; Farai, I.P.

    2008-01-01

    The radionuclide contents of sediment samples collected from 20 surface-water dams in southwestern Nigeria have been determined by low-level gamma-spectroscopy. The average concentration of 40 K in each of the dams varied between 110.9±11.9 Bq kg-1 and 1025.9±36.8 Bq kg -1 with an overall mean (±SD) of 549.3 ± 247.6 Bq kg -1 while that of 238 U varied from 17.1±3.6 to 51.9±8.7 Bq kg -1 with an overall mean (±SD) of 27.6±8.5 Bq kg -1 and that of 232 Th varied from 26.2 ±3.6 Bq kg -1 to 130.1±23.7 Bq kg -1 with overall mean (±SD) of 62.0±26.1 Bq kg -1 . The variability of the values shows the wide disparity in the measured activity concentrations. The mean radium equivalent of 158.9 Bq kg -1 was calculated for the sediments in the dams. No artificial gamma emitting radionuclide was detected in the samples. (authors)

  16. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    P.R. Fresquez; M.W. McNaughton; M.J. Winch

    2005-10-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U for soils and {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

  17. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    Fresquez, P.R.; McNaughton, M.W.; Winch, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included 3 H, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U for soils and 3 H, 238 Pu, and 239,240 Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of 3 H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the 3 H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards

  18. Harmonization of standards for permissible radionuclide activity concentrations in foodstuffs in the long term after the Chernobyl accident.

    Balonov, Mikhail I; Kashparov, Valery; Nikolaenko, Elena; Berkovsky, Volodymyr; Fesenko, Sergey

    2018-04-16

    The article critically examines the practice of post-Chernobyl standardization of radionuclide concentrations (mainly 137Cs and 90Sr) in food products in the USSR and the successor countries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Recommendations are given on potential harmonization of these standards of radionuclide concentrations in food products among three countries, taking into account substantial international experience. We propose to reduce the number of product groups for standardization purpose from the current several dozens to three to five groups to optimize radiation control and increase the transparency of the process. We recommend five product groups for the standardization of 137Cs and three groups for 90Sr in food in radiocontaminated areas. The values of standards for individual product groups are recommended to be set proportionally to the measured specific activity in each of these groups, which will reduce unreasonable food rejection. The standards might be set for the entire country, and could be also used to control imports from other countries as well as exports to other countries. The developed recommendations were transferred in 2015-2016 to the regulatory authorities of the three countries. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Methods of Increasing the Performance of Radionuclide Generators Used in Nuclear Medicine: Daughter Nuclide Build-Up Optimisation, Elution-Purification-Concentration Integration, and Effective Control of Radionuclidic Purity

    Van So Le

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of “early elution schedule” was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement

  20. A mobile sampler for mesuring the concentration of radionuclides and their physico chemical forms in natural waters

    Spezzano, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Bortoluzzi, S.; Montealto, M.; Nocente, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the realization of a sampler for concentrating radionuclides from large volume of natural waters with the purpose to determine their concentration levels and their physico-chemical forms. Sample is pumped at a flow rate of about 0.5 m 3 /h through a set of sequential filters with different pore sizes to achieve separation of 'particulate' from 'dissolved' forms. Filtered samples is then passed through sequential beds of cation and anion exchange resins and activated alumina to obtain separation of dissolved forms on the basis of their charge. Ammonium Hexacianocobalt Ferrate (NCFC is used as a selective exchanger for Cesium isotopes. Filter and exchangers are measured by computerized gamma spectrometry. Detection limits are of a few tenths of Bq per cubic meter of sample. The main results obtained during radioecological surveys are also presented

  1. Separation of radionuclides from spent decontamination solutions and/or evaporator concentrates

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Rosikova, K.; Motl, A.

    1999-01-01

    Separation of radionuclides from spent alkaline decontamination solutions has been tested in model experiments with strontium separation from simulant solution. The composite absorbers tested included TiO-PAN and NaTiO-PAN materials (titanium dioxide or sodium titanate incorporated into a matrix of polyacrylonitrile binder). As an alkaline simulant, solution of 1 M NaOH + 1 M NaNO 3 + 10 -4 M Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + 10 -5 M Sr(NO 3 ) 2 spiked with a carrier-free 85 Sr tracer, was used. The experiments were performed at a flow rate of 12.5 BV/hr. Some experiments with real and simulant spent decontamination solutions are described

  2. Inventory Abstraction

    Leigh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction as directed by the development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999b) is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M and O 1999c, 1999d). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) (NRC 1999) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [Spent Nuclear Fuel] are released from the EBS [Engineered Barrier System] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in assessing system performance because

  3. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    Ragan, G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M andO 2000e for/ICN--02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M andO 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release

  4. Distribution and dynamics of radionuclides and stable elements in the coastal waters off Rokkasho Village, Japan, prior to the opening of a nuclear reprocessing facility. Part 3. Concentration levels of radionuclides in seawater off Rokkasho Village

    Kondo, K.; Kawabata, H.; Ueda, S.; Akata, N.; Inaba, J.; Ohmomo, Y.; Mitamura, O.; Seike, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the concentration levels of 3 H, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, and 234,235,238 U in seawater off Rokkasho Village, Japan, before the start-up of a nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. The level, fluctuation range and distribution characteristics of each radionuclide was determined. (author)

  5. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, and fish collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Radionuclide ( 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl) contents were determined in soil, vegetation (overstory and understory), and fish (rainbow trout) collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon in 1995. All heavy metal and most radionuclide contents around or within the lake, except for U in soil, vegetation, and fish, were within or just above upper limit background. Detectable levels (where the analytical result was greater than two times counting uncertainty) of U in soils, vegetation, and fish were found in slightly higher concentrations than in background samples. Overall, however, maximum total committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)(95% confidence level)--based on consumption of 46 lb of fish--from Tsicoma Lake (0.066 mrem/y) was within the maximum total CEDE from the ingestion of fish from the Mescalero National Fish Hatchery (background)(0.113 mrem/y)

  6. Radionuclide concentrations in pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash grown in Los Alamos Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1997-05-01

    Pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo var. black beauty) were grown in a randomized complete-block field/pot experiment at a site that contained the highest observed levels of surface gross gamma radioactivity within Los Alamos Canyon (LAC) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Soils as well as washed edible and nonedible crop tissues were analyzed for various radionuclides and heavy metals . Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3 H and tot U, in soil from LAC were detected in significantly higher concentrations (p -1 . This dose was below the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit (PDL) of 100 mrem y -1 from all pathways; however, the addition of other internal and external exposure route factors may increase the overall dose over the PDL. Also, the risk of an excess cancer fatality, based on 74 mrem y -1 , was 3.7 x 10 -5 (37 in a million), which is above the Environmental Protection Agency's (acceptable) guideline of one in a million. 31 refs., 15 tabs

  7. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  8. Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in heavy mineral-rich beach sands of Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Sulaiman, Abdullah Fadil Bin; Bradley, D A; Isinkaye, Matthew Omoniyi

    2018-02-01

    Study is made of the radioactivity in the beach sands of Langkawi island, a well-known tourist destination. Investigation is made of the relative presence of the naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K and the natural-series indicator radionuclides 226 Ra and 232 Th, the gamma radiation exposure also being estimated. Sample quantities of black and white sand were collected for gamma ray spectrometry, yielding activity concentration in black sands of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K from 451±9 to 2411±65Bqkg -1 (mean of 1478Bqkg -1 ); 232±4 to 1272±35Bqkg -1 (mean of 718Bqkg -1 ) and 61±6 to 136±7Bqkg -1 (mean of 103Bqkg -1 ) respectively. Conversely, in white sands the respective values for 226 Ra and 232 Th were appreciably lower, at 8.3±0.5 to 13.7±1.4Bqkg -1 (mean of 9.8Bqkg -1 ) and 4.5±0.7 to 9.4±1.0Bqkg -1 (mean of 5.9Bqkg -1 ); 40 K activities differed insubstantially from that in black sands, at 85±4 to 133±7Bqkg -1 with a mean of 102Bqkg -1 . The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 232 Th in black sands are comparable with that of high background areas elsewhere in the world. The heavy minerals content gives rise to elevated 226 Ra and 232 Th activity concentrations in all of black sand samples. Evaluation of the various radiological risk parameters points to values which in some cases could be in excess of recommendations providing for safe living and working. Statistical analysis examines correlations between the origins of the radionuclides, also identifying and classifying the radiological parameters. Present results may help to form an interest in rare-earth resources for the electronics industry, power generation and the viability of nuclear fuels cycle resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Concentrations of radionuclides in terrestrial vegetation on the Hanford site of potential interest to Native Americans

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-03-01

    Concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in Carey's balsamroot (Balsamorhiza careyana) and Gray's desert parsley (Lomatium grayi) were similar to concentrations observed in other plants collected on the Hanford Site and from offsite locations surrounding the Site as part of annual Hanford Site surveillance. Observed concentrations may be attributed to historic fallout more than to Hanford Site emissions, although the observation that 200 Area plants had slightly higher concentrations of 137 Cs than 100 Area plants is consistent with other monitoring data of radioactivity in soil and vegetation collected onsite. The present concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in balsamroot and parsley fluctuate around background levels with some of the higher observed concentrations of 90 Sr found on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. Analytical results and summary statistics by species and location are presented in the appendixes

  10. Radionuclide concentrations in elk that winter on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands. Revision

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.A.; Salazar, J.G.

    1994-07-01

    Elk spend the winter in areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This study was initiated to determine the levels of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and total uranium in various tissues (brain, hair, heart, jawbone, kidneys, leg bone, liver, and muscle) of adult cow elk that use LANL lands during the fall/winter months. No significant differences in radionuclide contents were detected in any of the tissue samples collected from elk on LANL lands as compared with elk collected from off-site locations. The total effective (radiation) dose equivalent a person would receive from consuming 3.2 lb of heart, 5.6 lb of liver, and 226 lb of muscle from elk that winter on LANL lands, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.00008, 0.0001, and 0.008 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was less than 0.01% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting the public

  11. Radionuclide concentrations in elk that winter on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.A.; Salazar, J.G.

    1994-07-01

    Elk spend the winter in areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This study was initiated to determine the levels of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and total uranium in various tissues (brain, hair, heart, jawbone, kidneys, leg bone, liver, and muscle) of adult cow elk that use LANL lands during the fall/winter months. No significant differences in radionuclide contents were detected in any of the tissue samples collected from elk on LANL lands as compared with elk collected from off-site locations. The total effective (radiation) dose equivalent a person would receive from consuming 3.2 lb of heart, 5.6 lb of liver, and 226 lb of muscle from elk that winter on LANL lands, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.00008, 0.0001, and 0.008 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was less than 0.01% of the International Commission of Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting the public

  12. Abstracts of submitted papers

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 152 abstracts of presented papers relating to various aspects of personnel dosimetry, the dosimetry of the working and living environment, various types of dosemeters and spectrometers, the use of radionuclides in various industrial fields, the migration of radionuclides on Czechoslovak territory after the Chernobyl accident, theoretical studies of some parameters of ionizing radiation detectors, and their calibration. (M.D.)

  13. Activity concentration and population dose from natural occurring radionuclide (40K) due to consumption of fresh water fish

    Jha, M.K.; Patra, A.K.; Jaison, T.J.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentration of natural occurring radionuclide ( 40 K) in different fresh water fish collected from Moticher lake near Kakrapar, Gujarat. The three types of commonly available fresh water fish in Moticher lake are Notopterus sps, Ophiocephalus sps. and Tor sps. The 40 K activity (Bq/kg flesh wt.) was found to be in the range of 38-100 (Notopterus sps.), 33-123 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 80-116 (Tor sps.) respectively. The ingestion dose (μSv/y) to the adult population around Kakrapar was estimated due to the consumption of fresh water fish and found to be in the range of 7.7-20.5 (Notopterus sps.), 6.8-25.0 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 16.0-24.0 (Tor sps.) respectively. (author)

  14. Relationship of soil terrestrial radionuclide concentrations and the excess of lifetime cancer risk in western Mazandaran Province, Iran.

    Abbaspour, M; Moattar, F; Okhovatian, A; Kharrat Sadeghi, M

    2010-12-01

    The main goal of this study is to lay out the map of the soil radionuclide activity concentrations and the terrestrial outdoor gamma dose rates in the western Mazandaran Province of Iran, and to present an evaluation scheme. Mazandaran Province was selected due to its special geographical characteristics, high population density and the long terrestrial and aquatic borders with the neighbouring countries possessing nuclear facilities. A total of 54 topsoil samples were collected, ranging from the Nour to Ramsar regions, and were based on geological conditions, vegetation coverage and the sampling standards outlined by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCRs) were evaluated and the coordinates of sampling locations were determined by the global positioning system. The average terrestrial outdoor gamma dose rate was 612.38 ± 3707.93 nGy h(-1), at 1 m above the ground. The annual effective gamma dose at the western part of Mazandaran Province was 750 μSv, and the ELCR was 0.26 × 10(-2). Soil samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector. The average (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs activities were 1188.50 ± 7838.40, 64.92 ± 162.26, 545.10 ± 139.42 and 10.41 ± 7.86 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The average soil radionuclide concentrations at the western part of Mazandaran Province were higher than the worldwide range. The excess lifetime risks of cancer and the annual effective gamma doses were also higher than the global average.

  15. Abstracts of papers of international meeting `Ecological status of territories contaminated by radionuclides`; Tezisy dokladov mezhdunarodnogo rabochego soveshchaniya `Ehkologicheskij status zagryaznennykh radionuklidami territorij`

    Konoplya, E F [ed.; Natsyyanal` naya akadehmiya navuk Belarusi, Minsk (Belarus)

    1995-04-01

    The collection contains the results of investigations implemented on the territories of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia within the realization of the Chernobyl Ecological Science Network: dynamics of radionuclides migration in the environment, state of phytocenosis, metabolic and genetic effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  16. Investigation of the fluctuation range of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in surface air

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.

    1985-01-01

    Daily and seasonal concentration fluctuations of short-lived Rn fission products observed and the seasonal and long-term concentration fluctuations of Pb-210, Po-210, Ra-226, Ra-228, K-40 and Be-7 are discussed; the frequency distributions of the concentration values are illustrated. For a period of several years, the following mean values of activity concentrations were found (μBq/m 3 ): Pb-210: 600 Ra-226: 1.3 K-40: 13, Po-210: 33 Ra-228: 0.5 Be-7: 3700. In accordance with the origin from the soil, there is a significant correlation between the respective activity concentration and air-borne dust concentration for Ra-226, Ra-228, and K-40. The investigation revealed a most significant correlation between the Pb-210 concentration and the stagnancy index, the latter being a measure for the degree of blending of the surface layer of air. The resuspension factors found for Ra-226 and Pb-210 are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Reference natural radionuclide concentrations in Australian soils and derived terrestrial air kerma rate.

    Kleinschmidt, R

    2017-06-01

    Sediment from drainage catchment outlets has been shown to be a useful means of sampling large land masses for soil composition. Naturally occurring radioactive material concentrations (uranium, thorium and potassium-40) in soil have been collated and converted to activity concentrations using data collected from the National Geochemistry Survey of Australia. Average terrestrial air kerma rate data are derived using the elemental concentration data, and is tabulated for Australia and states for use as baseline reference information. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of cobbly soils for cobbles-to-fines corrections to radionuclide concentrations at the New Rifle, Colorado, processing site

    1994-05-01

    A contamination depth and cobbly soil characterization study was performed in November and December 1993 at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Projects's New Rifle, Colorado, processing site. This study was initiated due to a concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) clarifying that the allowable residual contamination in soil should be averaged over the total mass of the soil volume, including cobbles and gravels (i.e., bulk concentration). The New Rifle processing site has a high percentage of cobbles and gravels underlying the pile and other contaminated areas, which preliminary excavation designs have identified for removal and disposal. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative mass percentage and radionuclide concentrations of cobbles and gravels in order to determine the bulk contamination concentrations, revise the underlying excavation design depths, and improve verification methods. Another important goal of the study was to acquire more accurate contamination depth data (profile) for the subpile material. In summary, this recharacterization study will probably reduce the volume of material for excavation/disposal by several hundred thousand cubic yards and significantly reduce the amount of ground water expected to be pumped out of the excavation during cleanup

  19. Concentration of radionuclides in building materials and soils in The Netherlands

    Ackers, J.G.

    1985-11-01

    About 150 samples of building materials used in the Netherlands have been analysed by gamma spectrometry for their Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 concentrations. From 26 samples of soils the radioactivity concentration was measured. Calibration was performed by the use of a large volume standard source made as a mixture of monazite, pitchblende and silica. The results are reported in Bq.kg -1 ; the statistical error is within 5% (standard deviation) and for most of the results the systematic error is smaller than 15%. Most of the building materials and all soil samples revealed activity concentrations smaller than 100 Bq.kg -1 for Ra-226 and Th-232 and smaller than 1000 Bq.kg -1 for K-40. Part of the results is compared with data published elsewhere. (Auth.)

  20. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  1. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 2. Radionuclide concentrations measured in the aquatic environment of the atolls

    1998-08-01

    A marine monitoring programme was carried out within the framework of the IAEA's project entitled ''Study of the Radiological Situation at Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls'' with the aim of assessing present radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls. The terms of reference of the marine working group (WG2) included a review of the data provided by the French authorities on radionuclide distributions in the littoral and sub-littoral environments at the atolls. Further, using accredited international laboratories, it was decided to carry out sufficient and new independent monitoring work at and around the atolls in order to validate existing French data and, the same time, to provide a representative and high quality data set on current radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, with particular reference to the requirement of Task Group A for radiological assessment purposes. This work included measurements of the current radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, and estimation of concentration factors and K d values appropriate for the region. The variations in activity concentrations in the lagoons over the past few years are discussed, and the likely sources of activity implied by these data are identified where possible

  2. Determination of the concentration of radionuclides in soil and water next the uranium mine of Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, Susana O.; Campos, Simara S.S.; Gennari, Roseli F.

    2011-01-01

    The economic growing in Brazil is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. Uranium is the fuel used to generate nuclear power. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world and, nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, state that the explored uranium mine is dangerous and polluting, causing water contamination by uranium. So, the population would be receiving radiation doses above permissible limits. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) the company in charge of the complex extraction and production of yellow cake rejected these accusations. The main purpose of this work is the determination of the composition of natural radionuclides in the Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real in order to determine if the nearest population is exposed to environmental radiation. It was checked if there is water contamination due to the natural transport in the uranium mining surroundings. Soil and water samples from Caetite mine and also from nearby town were collected. Only one water sample collected had concentrations higher than the limits recommended by World Health Organization. The presence of radionuclides in soil samples is considered independent of mineral exploration. The effective dose rates in almost all samples are above the world average which is 2.4 mSv/y. To sum up, the presence of uranium in water and soil of the tested areas is probably due to the nature of the soil and not to the exploration of mine. (author)

  3. Determination of the concentration of radionuclides in soil and water next the uranium mine of Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, Susana O. [Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. of Physics; Campos, Simara S.S. [State University of Southwest Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. of Basic and Instrumental Studies; Gennari, Roseli F., E-mail: rgennari@dfn.if.usp.b [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics. Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    2011-07-01

    The economic growing in Brazil is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. Uranium is the fuel used to generate nuclear power. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world and, nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, state that the explored uranium mine is dangerous and polluting, causing water contamination by uranium. So, the population would be receiving radiation doses above permissible limits. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) the company in charge of the complex extraction and production of yellow cake rejected these accusations. The main purpose of this work is the determination of the composition of natural radionuclides in the Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real in order to determine if the nearest population is exposed to environmental radiation. It was checked if there is water contamination due to the natural transport in the uranium mining surroundings. Soil and water samples from Caetite mine and also from nearby town were collected. Only one water sample collected had concentrations higher than the limits recommended by World Health Organization. The presence of radionuclides in soil samples is considered independent of mineral exploration. The effective dose rates in almost all samples are above the world average which is 2.4 mSv/y. To sum up, the presence of uranium in water and soil of the tested areas is probably due to the nature of the soil and not to the exploration of mine. (author)

  4. The effects of fluvial transport on radionuclide concentrations on different particle size classes

    Dyer, F.J.; Olley, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of grain abrasion and disaggregation on the distribution of 137 Cs with respect to particle size and the effects this may have on the use of 137 Cs for determining the origin of recent sediment. Cs-137 is a product of above ground nuclear testing and has been deposited on the earth's surface by rainfall. On contact with soil, 137 Cs is strongly adsorbed by soil particles and there is a direct correlation between 137 Cs concentration and decreasing particle size. Rapid adsorption means that 137 Cs is preferentially concentrated in surface soils, and it's subsequent redistribution by physical processes rather than chemical has lead to 137 Cs being widely used to study soil erosion

  5. Limiting values for radionuclide concentration in the soil from remote spectrometer measurements

    Stuart, T.P.

    1977-08-01

    Spectrometers that remotely sense γ-rays in the soil are usually oriented with the normal to a planar surface perpendicular to the air-soil interface. When this is the case, and when the thickness of the detector is not greater than the linear dimensions that determine the aforementioned surface area, simple assumptions can be made to calculate high and low limits for factors that convert from photopeak count rates in the spectrometer to soil concentrations. An H.P. 65 calculator program is developed to calculate these two conversion factors as a function of detector altitude, counting rates from a single measurement with a point calibration source, shielding on the surface of the detector, and depth of activity in the soil. The assumption of an exponential decrease with depth allows the previously reported results of Beck et al to be applied to convert from soil concentration to dose rate at 1 m above the ground

  6. Radionuclide concentrations in honey bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1997. Progress report

    Haarmann, T.K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1998-07-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jamez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for the following: cesium ( 137 Cs), americium ( 241 Am), plutonium ( 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu), tritium ( 3 H), total uranium, and gross gamma activity. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for 238 Pu and 3 H

  7. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel

  8. Assessment of radionuclide concentration in three crustaceans species of the bay of Bengal; Mesure de la concentration de radionucleides dans trois especes de crustaces du golfe du Bengale

    Hasan, C.K.; Zafar, M. [Chittagong Univ., Institute of Marine Sciences (Bangladesh); Chowdhury, M.I.; Kamal, M. [Radioactivity Testing and Monitoring Laboratory, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Chittagong (Bangladesh)

    2006-10-15

    The natural ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K) and anthropogenic ({sup 137}Cs) radionuclides concentrations in three crustaceans species (Penaeus monodon, Metapenaeus monoceros and Panulirus versicolor), collected from the bay of Bengal, were determined with an aim of assessing any internal radiation hazard due to consumption of the shell fishes and establishing a database for radioactivity levels of the species. Very low level of radioactivity was observed in all the species. The average activity of {sup 226}Ra observed in P. monodon was 1.21 {+-} 0.27 Bq kg{sup -1} fw; in M. monoceros was 0.70 {+-}0.08 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, and in Panulirus versicolor was 1.04 {+-} 0.09 Bq kg{sup -1} fw. The activity of {sup 232}Th observed in these species was 1.30 {+-} 0.37, 0.76 {+-} 0.34 and 1.32 {+-} 0.70 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, and {sup 228}Th was 0.55 {+-} 0.26, 0.31 {+-} 0.14 and 0.74 {+-} 0.22 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, respectively. The average activity of {sup 40}K observed in these species was 12.56 {+-} 1.18, 6.38 {+-}1.02 and 10.07 {+-} 1.52 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, respectively. The activity of radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs) was below detection limit. The results indicate that the natural and artificial radionuclides observed in three crustaceans species are safe for human health. A significant relationship was observed between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in both the P. monodon (r = 0.839, p {<=} 0.05, df = 4) and the Panulirus versicolor (r = 0.906, p {<=} 0.05, df = 4). (authors)

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1996 growing season. Progress report

    Fresquez, P.R.; Vold, E.L.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G--a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National laboratory--were analyzed for 3 H, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 137 Cs, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, tot U, 228 Ac, 214 Bi, 60 Co, 40 K, 54 Mn, 22 Na, 214 Pb, and 208 Tl. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil and vegetation were determined. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3 H and 239 Pu, in soils and washed and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper limit background concentrations. Tritium was detected as high as 14,744 pCi mL -1 in understory vegetation collected from transuranic (TRU) waste pad number-sign 4, and the TRU waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239 Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G

  10. Radionuclide Concentrations in soils an Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G During 2004

    Fresquez, P.R.; Lopez, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected at nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These samples were analyzed for 3 H, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 137 Cs, 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U. Soil samples collected at Area G contained detectable concentrations of 3H (27%), 239,240 Pu (60%), 238 Pu (40%), and 241 Am (47%) above regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). In contrast, the levels of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and U in all of the soil samples at Area G were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The highest levels of 3 H in soils were detected in the southwestern portion of Area G near the 3 H shafts, whereas the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions. All concentrations of 3 H and Pu in soils, however, were far below LANL screening action levels. As for vegetation, most radionuclides in/on plants were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The exceptions were 3 H in overstory and some understory vegetation, particularly in the southwestern portion of Area G, which correlated very well with the soils data in that area. Also, there was some foliar contamination from 241 Am and Pu isotopes in/on a few plant samples--the highest concentrations occurring in the northern section of Area G

  11. Radionuclide Concentrations in soils an Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G During 2004

    P.R. Fresquez; E.A. Lopez

    2004-11-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected at nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U. Soil samples collected at Area G contained detectable concentrations of 3H (27%), {sup 239,240}Pu (60%), {sup 238}Pu (40%), and {sup 241}Am (47%) above regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). In contrast, the levels of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and U in all of the soil samples at Area G were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils were detected in the southwestern portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts, whereas the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions. All concentrations of {sup 3}H and Pu in soils, however, were far below LANL screening action levels. As for vegetation, most radionuclides in/on plants were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The exceptions were {sup 3}H in overstory and some understory vegetation, particularly in the southwestern portion of Area G, which correlated very well with the soils data in that area. Also, there was some foliar contamination from {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in/on a few plant samples--the highest concentrations occurring in the northern section of Area G.

  12. Concentration and distribution of natural radionuclides at Klipperaasen and Bjulebo, Sweden

    Sundblad, B.; Landstroem, O.; Axelsson, R.

    1985-01-01

    The recipient areas Klipperaasen and Bjulebo are completely different. Bjulebo is a coastal site at the Baltic where two types of recipients are identified: a brackish bay and a lake. Klipperaasen on the other hand is an inland site where lake and situated above a marked fracture zone in the bedrock. Gamma ray surveys, which covered representative soil types, gave average exposure rate values of about 18 μR/h for both sites. This corresponds to a radiation dose of about 1.5 mSv/y. Concentrations of Th and U were determined in rock, soil and plant samples and activities of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, Cs-137 and K-40 in soil and plant samples. Average concentrations in Klipperaasen samples are for granite (dominating rock) 20.7 ppm, Th and 6.6 ppm U, for soil (upper zone) 5.6 ppm Th and 2.9 ppm U and for peat 1.8 ppm Th and 2.4 ppm U (dry weight). Fairly high concentrations were observed in some organic soil samples, 11.5 ppm Th and 13.1 ppm U. The nuclides in the U and Th decay chains are usually in disequilibrium, indicating different migration patterns for the radium, uranium and thorium isotopes. A much higher root uptake of radium isotopes as compared to uranium and thorium isotopes was observed. The water quality and the content of U, Ra-226 and Rn-222 in ground and surface water samples were determined. The Ra-226/U-238 activity ratio is in average 0.1 for the Bjulebo and 3.1 for the Klipperaasen water samples, i.e. the uranium content is roughly the same whereas the Ra-226 content is very low in the Bjulebo water samples. (author)

  13. Radionuclide concentrations in honey bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1997. Progress report

    Haarmann, T.K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1998-07-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jamez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for the following: cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu), tritium ({sup 3}H), total uranium, and gross gamma activity. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 238}Pu and {sup 3}H.

  14. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides activity concentration in East Malaysian marine sediment

    Yii, M.W. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)], E-mail: yii@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Zaharudin, A.; Abdul-Kadir, I. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2009-04-15

    Studies of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) distribution of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in East Malaysia were carried out as part of a marine coastal environment project. The results of measurements will serve as baseline data and background reference level for Malaysia coastlines. Sediments from 21 coastal locations and 10 near shore locations were collected for analyses. The samples were dried, finely ground, sealed in a container and stored for a minimum of 30 days to establish secular equilibrium between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra and their respective radioactive progenies. They were counted using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometer covering the respective progeny energy peak. For {sup 40}K, the presence of this was measured directly via its 1460 keV energy peak. The concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in samples obtained from coastal Sarawak ranged between 23 and 41 (mean 30{+-}2) Bq/kg, 27 and 45 (mean 39{+-}4) Bq/kg and 142 and 680 (mean 462{+-}59) Bq/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K for samples obtained from coastal Sabah ranged between 16 and 30 (mean 23{+-}2) Bq/kg, 23 and 45 (mean 35{+-}4) Bq/kg and 402 and 842 (mean 577{+-}75) Bq/kg, respectively. For the Sarawak near shore stations, the concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K ranged between 11 and 36 (mean 22{+-}2) Bq/kg, 21 and 65 (mean 39{+-}5) Bq/kg and 149 and 517 (mean 309{+-}41) Bq/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K for samples obtained from Sabah ranged between 9 and 31 (mean 14{+-}2) Bq/kg, 10 and 48 (mean 21{+-}3) Bq/kg and 140 and 580 (mean 269{+-}36) Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated external hazard values of between 0.17 and 0.33 (less than unity) showed that there is little risk of external hazard to the workers handling the sediments.

  15. Concentration factors of stable elements and radionuclides in Po river fish

    Achilli, M.; Ciceri, G.; Bozzani, A.; Guzzi, L.; Queirazza, G.

    1988-01-01

    The concentration factors (CF) of stable Co, Cs, Mn, Fe, Zn and Sr in different fish from six stretches in the middle course of the Po river (N. Italy) have been investigated. The space-time variation in water has been followed for 14 months. The investigation has been undertaken to study CF variations in the same fish species as a function of the physico-chemical form of the different elements in water (dissolved, dissolved and exchangeable fraction of the particulate, total). CF values of 103 Ru, 131 I and 134 - 137 Cs were also investigated for Cyprinus carpio reared, with artificial food, in two semi-natural environments

  16. Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments

    Suresh, G., E-mail: gsureshphy_1983@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics Thiruvalluvar College of Engg and Tech, Ponnur hills, Vandavasi, Tamilnadu 604 505 (India); Ramasamy, V. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu (India); Meenakshisundaram, V. [Health and Safety Division, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Venkatachalapathy, R. [CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu (India); Ponnusamy, V. [Department of Physics, MIT Campus, Anna University Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-10-15

    The natural radiation level has been determined for the sediment samples of the Ponnaiyar River with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard. The mineralogical characterizations of the sediments have been carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction coefficient. The concentration and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni) have been studied to understand the heavy metal contamination and its level of toxicity. To evaluate the potential toxicity, heavy metal concentrations are compared with different toxicological and geological reference values. The comparison results suggest that the present metals create an adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystems associated with this river. To assess the sediment contamination due to the studied heavy metals, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity, mineralogical and geochemical analysis to know the existing relations. Obtained results showed that the effect of mineralogy on level of radioactivity should be significant. However, mineralogy effect on heavy metal composition in the sediments should be limited, indicating that other factors such as vicinity of the pollution sources are more important. Also, the influence of mineralogical characterization on level of radioactivity is significant, whereas the influence of the heavy metal composition on level of radioactivity should be limited. - Highlights: >Sediments radioactivity, mineralogical and heavy metal characterization have been analyzed. > Absorbed dose rate, PLI and kaolinite increase towards the river mouth. > Influence of minerals and heavy metals on level of radioactivity is assessed.

  17. Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments

    Suresh, G.; Ramasamy, V.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Ponnusamy, V.

    2011-01-01

    The natural radiation level has been determined for the sediment samples of the Ponnaiyar River with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard. The mineralogical characterizations of the sediments have been carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction coefficient. The concentration and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni) have been studied to understand the heavy metal contamination and its level of toxicity. To evaluate the potential toxicity, heavy metal concentrations are compared with different toxicological and geological reference values. The comparison results suggest that the present metals create an adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystems associated with this river. To assess the sediment contamination due to the studied heavy metals, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity, mineralogical and geochemical analysis to know the existing relations. Obtained results showed that the effect of mineralogy on level of radioactivity should be significant. However, mineralogy effect on heavy metal composition in the sediments should be limited, indicating that other factors such as vicinity of the pollution sources are more important. Also, the influence of mineralogical characterization on level of radioactivity is significant, whereas the influence of the heavy metal composition on level of radioactivity should be limited. - Highlights: →Sediments radioactivity, mineralogical and heavy metal characterization have been analyzed. → Absorbed dose rate, PLI and kaolinite increase towards the river mouth. → Influence of minerals and heavy metals on level of radioactivity is assessed.

  18. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J.

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments

  19. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments.

  20. The natural radionuclide concentration and radon exhalation rate of Turkish natural stones

    Yasar, O.; Yaprak, G.; Guer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Geological materials usually contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have become a focus great attention. These NORM under certain conditions can reach hazardous contamination levels. Some contamination levels may be sufficiently severe that precautions must be taken. The Turkey has very important natural stones potential with over 5 billion m 3 marble reserves. According to 2002 giving data the number of Turkish stones export is 303 million US Dollars. In this regards, the present study deals with 120 Turkish natural stones. The studied samples were analyzed and the concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight of radioisotopes were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using HPGe defector in Bq/kg dry weight. For the measurement of the radon exhalation rate, the 'can technique' using sensitive alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic defectors were used. The radium equivalent activity varied from 285 Bq/kg to 325 Bq/kg for granite samples and from 2 Bq/kg to 32 Bq/kg for marble samples. The value of radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.06 Bq/m 2 h - 1 to 0.46 Bq/m 2 h - 1 for garnite samples and from 0.006 Bq/m 2 h - 1 to 0.011 Bq/m 2 h - 1 for marble samples. According to the recommended values and the calculated external hazard index values the samples are acceptable for use as building materials and decoration

  1. Natural depuration rate and concentration of cesium-137 radionuclide in black SEA macro algae

    Topcuoglu, S.; Kuecuekcezzar, R.; Kut, D.; Esen, N.; Gueven, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    Cesium-137 concentrations in red, brown and green algae have been studied for the calculation of natural depuration rates. The algae species were collected from the same population of the Black Sea stations during the period of 1986-1995. The natural depuration rates are estimated as biological half-lives. The pattern of depuration results represented by a single component for each algae division. The biological half-lives of 137 Cs in red (Phyllophora nervosa), green (Chaetomorpha linum) and brown (cystoceira barbata) algae are estimated to be 18.5, 21.6 and 29.3 months, respectively. 137 Cs and 40 K activity levels and their ratios in algae species in two stations in Black Sea region of Turkey have been determined during the period of 1990-1995. The results showed that the Sinop region was more contaminated than the Sile region on the Black Sea coast of Turkey from the Chernobyl accident. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Methodology for uncertainty estimation of Hanford tank chemical and radionuclide inventories and concentrations

    Chen, G.; Ferryman, T.A.; Remund, K.M.

    1998-02-01

    The exact physical and chemical nature of 55 million gallons of toxic waste held in 177 underground waste tanks at the Hanford Site is not known with sufficient detail to support the safety, retrieval, and immobilization missions presented to Hanford. The Hanford Best Basis team has made point estimates of the inventories in each tank. The purpose of this study is to estimate probability distributions for each of the 71 analytes and 177 tanks that the Hanford Best Basis team has made point estimates for. This will enable uncertainty intervals to be calculated for the Best Basis inventories and should facilitate the safety, retrieval, and immobilization missions. Section 2 of this document describes the overall approach used to estimate tank inventory uncertainties. Three major components are considered in this approach: chemical concentration, density, and waste volume. Section 2 also describes the two different methods used to evaluate the tank wastes in terms of sludges and in terms of supernatant or saltcakes. Sections 3 and 4 describe in detail the methodology to assess the probability distributions for each of the three components, as well as the data sources for implementation. The conclusions are given in Section 5

  3. Physically based probability criterion for exceeding radionuclide concentration limits in heterogeneous bedrock

    Worman, A.; Xu, S.; Dverstorp, B.

    2004-01-01

    A significant problem in a risk analysis of the repository for high-level nuclear waste is to estimate the barrier effect of the geosphere. The significant spatial variability of the rock properties implies that migrating RNs encounter a distribution of bedrock properties and mass-transfer mechanisms in different proportions along the transport paths. For practical reasons, we will never be able to know exactly this distribution of properties by performing a reasonable amount of measurements in a site investigation. On the contrary, recent experimental studies reveal that crystalline bedrock can possess a marked heterogeneity of various physical and geochemical properties that potentially may have a certain impact on the transport of RNs in fractured bedrock. Also current field investigation techniques provide only fragmentary information of the properties of the geosphere. This is a basic motivation for treating flows of water and solute elements in groundwaters by means of stochastic continuum models. The stochastic analysis is based on the idea that we know only certain point values of the property fields and use this information to estimate intermediate values. The probabilistic properties of the stochastic analysis are suitable input variables for risk analyses of the relevant sequence of extreme events for which empirical observations are rare or non-existing. The purpose of this paper is to outline the implications of the stochastic approach for estimating probabilities that certain concentration limits are exceeded at discharge points from. the bedrock in case of a leakage from the waste repository. The analysis is restricted to the water flow and solute transport in the bedrock alone without consideration of the full sequence of events in a full risk analysis and the Bayesian statistics involved in such conditioned (and cross-correlated) event series. The focus is on the implication for the risk analysis of the auto-covariance structure in bedrock

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in oil extraction and production processes in Northeast Brazil; Teores de radionuclideos em processos de extracao e de producao de petroleo no nordeste do Brasil

    Gazineu, Maria Helena Paranhos

    2005-06-15

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) was detected in the water and oil extracted from wells both onshore and offshore. The oil is extracted together with water and sediments which contain radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series. Among the radionuclides present, especial attention should be given to {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, due to its long half-life and importance, from the radiological point of view. The objective of this work was to identify the natural radionuclides in the oil industry, to determine their activity concentration, and from these results, to evaluate the risks the employees of the oil industry are exposed to. Samples of sludge, scale and produced water extracted with the oil were collected from three oil processing stations in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined in the solid samples before and after the extraction of the oil. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the samples without oil was evaluated. Water samples, on the other hand, were analyzed for their contents of radionuclides and barium concentration. It was observed that the activity concentrations of the analyzed radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th and {sup 210}Pb) in sludge and scales were very high when compared with the literature, particularly much higher than the values for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra obtained for sludge and scales from the oil platforms near the city of Campos, state of Rio de Janeiro. The maximum concentration values for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th and {sup 210}Pb (3,500, 2,195, 2,248.6 and 201 kBq kg{sup -1}, respectively) were obtained for the scales after the extraction of the oil. The analysis of the samples showed that barium sulphate (barite) and strontium sulphate (celestite) are the main constituents of the scales, while carbonates and silicates, together with other compounds are the

  5. Determination of long-lived radionuclide (10Be, 41Ca, 129I) concentrations in nuclear waste by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bertaux, Maite; Bourles, Didier; Arnold, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Radiological characterization of nuclear waste is essential for storage sites management. However, most of Long-Lived Radionuclides (LLRN), important for long-term management, are difficult to measure since concentration levels are very low and waste matrices generally complex. In an industrial approach, LLRN concentrations are not directly measured in waste samples but assessed from scaling factors with respect to easily measured gamma emitters. Ideally, the key nuclide chosen ( 60 Co, 137 Cs) should be produced by a similar mechanism (fission or activation) as the LLRN of interest and should have similar physicochemical properties. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factors, determined from experimental and/or calculation data, can be quite important. Consequently, studies are performed to develop analytical procedures which would lead to determine precisely the concentration of LLRN in nuclear waste. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of three LLRN: 129 I (T 1/2 = 15.7*10 6 a), 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 9.94*10 4 a) and 10 Be (T 1/2 = 1.387*10 6 a) in spent resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurized Water Reactors using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for measurement. The AMS technique combined mass spectrometry and nuclear physics to achieve highly efficient molecular and elemental isobars separation. Energies of several Million Electron-Volt transferred to the ions in the first accelerating part of specifically developed tandem accelerators lead to molecular isobars destruction through interaction with the argon gas used to strip the injected negative ions to positive ones. At the exit of the tandem accelerator, the energy acquired in both accelerating parts allows an elemental isobars separation based on their significantly different energy loss (dE) while passing through a thickness of matter dx that is proportional to their atomic number (Z) and inversely proportional to ions velocity (v) according to the

  6. The 2002/2003 radionuclide concentration in the marine environment at various distances from the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant

    Zakaria, M.; Raaf, C.L.; Mattsson, S.

    2008-07-01

    The activity concentration of 137Cs, 131I, 65Zn, 60Co, 58Co, 54Mn, and 40K were determined in samples of brown seaweed (Fucus) and some other marine plants using low background high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. The algae were mainly sampled in the bay just north of the Barsebaeck NPP (55.4 N, 12.6 E) in the south of Sweden to study the contamination levels in the nearest shallow waters. One aim of the study was to investigate whether the levels were high enough to expect environmental effects. Some samples were also taken at longer distances up to 130 km from the Barsebaeck NPP. Measurable levels of the neutron activation products 65Zn (up to 17 Bq/kg dw), 60Co (100-600 Bq/kg dw), 58Co (1-160 Bq/kg dw) and 54Mn (12-90 Bq/kg dw) were found in the algae samples within a distance of 5 km from the plant. The decrease in activity concentration with distance from the plant could be described by a power function with an exponent ranging from 1.4 to 2.4. This was in fair agreement with the value for a true two-dimensional dispersion model. The present-day concentrations were found to be considerably lower than in earlier studies made in the late 1970s, especially for 65Zn and 58Co. The activity concentration of gamma emitting radio-nuclides in Fucus vesiculosus from the bay just north of Barsebaeck is today dominated by (in order of decreasing concentration): natural 40K, 60Co from the plant, 137Cs mainly from the Chernobyl debris, 54Mn and 58Co from the plant. It is not likely that any effects from the very marginal absorbed dose contribution from the Barsebaeck NPP releases can be found even in the nearest environment. The study has also shown that the eelgrass Zostera marina may be a bioindicator to use in further studies of the radiation environment in shallow water, especially for 60Co and 54Mn. (author)(tk)

  7. Long-term variations of man-made radionuclide concentrations in a bio-indicator Mytilus galloprovincialis from the French Mediterranean coast

    Charmasson, S.; Barker, E.; Calmet, D.; Pruchon, A.S.; Thebault, H.

    1999-01-01

    Results from a 14-year monitoring (1984-1997) of man-made radionuclide (137Cs and 106Ru) levels in Mytilus galloprovincialis collected monthly on the French Mediterranean coast are presented. In this area sources of man-made radionuclides are on the one hand atmospheric fallout from both the past nuclear testings and the Chernobyl accident and on the other hand discharges from nuclear installations located on the Rhone River banks, especially those from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Marcoule. Long-term variations of radionuclide concentrations in Mytilus demonstrated seasonal variations which are linked to the reproductive cycle of these organisms as well as to variations in land-based inputs of man-made radionuclides. A comparative study of these seasonal variations has been carried out with the aid of spectral analysis. Due to differences in released activities and discharge patterns, flow rates appear to govern mainly the 137Cs variations in the Rhone waters, whereas 106Ru variations are driven by the discharges. In the area under the influence of the Rhone outflow, 137Cs variations in mussels are characterized by seasonal variations which are themselves inversely correlated with variations of 137Cs concentrations in Rhone waters. This cyclic component seems to be closely linked to the mussel reproductive cycle. The possible influence of other parameters is discussed

  8. Concentration and distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in topsoils from Middle Jiu Valley surface coal exploitations sourrounding area (Gorj County, Romania)

    Corneanu, Mihaela; Corneanu, Gabriel; Lacatusu, Anca-Rovena; Cojocaru, Luminita; Butnariu, Monica

    2013-04-01

    Middle Jiu Valley is one of the largest surface coal exploitation area in Romania. The coal exploitation area is a dense populated one, along the valleys are villages and the inhabitants produce for their own consumption fruits and vegetables, in their personal gardens, or cereals in the fields, nearby the villages. There was considered to be of great interest to investigate the heavy metals and radionuclides content in gardens and cropfield soils from the villages sourrounding the Thermo Electric Power Plants (TEPP) and coal surface exploitation, as well as in crude /cultivated sterile soil or ash. The topsoil samples (104) were harvested from population gardens (58), cropfields sourronding Thermo Electric Power Plants (24), crude sterile dumps (7), cultivated sterile dumps (9) and ash dumps (6). The content in radionuclides in soil was performed by Duggan (1988) method. Radionuclide activity was expressed in Bqkg-1, confidence level 95%. The total content of heavy metals in soil (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co) was measured with flame atomic mass spectrometry. The content in heavy metals was expressed in mgkg-1. Soil analysis revealed the presence of natural radionuclides, beloging from ash and coal dust, as well as of Cs-137, of Cernobal provenance. In the cropfields radionuclides content in topsoil is lower than in gardens, due to the deepper soil mobilisation. Radionuclides content over the normal limits for Romania were registered for Th-234, Pb-210, U-235 and in few locations for Ra-226. The soil content for all analysed metals was over the normal limits in most samples, in few cases with values close to allert limits. Concentrations between allert and intervention limits were registered in samples collected from 15-20 km North of TEPP Turceni, in population gardens.

  9. Assessment of natural radionuclides concentration from 238U and 232Th series in Virginia and Burley varieties of Nicotiana tabacum L

    Silva, Carolina Fernanda da

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop production of 2013/2014. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco products varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation (compression, filter and paper) and the temperature variations resulting from the incomplete combustion of tobacco. Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world, and the most consumed are cigarettes, cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed globally, and many surveys are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various illnesses. There is a lack of information about the radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of radionuclides 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 22 '6Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po, members from the 238 U decay series, and the radionuclides 232 Th and 228 Ra members of the 232 Th decay series in the varieties Burley and Virginia, which are the most cultivated in Brazil. Plants from these varieties were cultivated in pots with organic substrate and fertilizer and also acquired from the producers and analyzed by alpha spectrometry for U and Th isotopes and 210 Po determination, and gross alpha and beta counting, 228 Ra, 226 Ra and 210 Pb determination. The whole plant, from both places, was analyzed; root, stem, leaves, as well as the organic substrate, the fertilizers, and the soil. The results for U and Th isotopes presented values below the detection limits of the methods to the leaves and stems of all plants analyzed, with measurable results only in roots, soil, and substrate. The radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po, were determined in most

  10. Radionuclide examinations

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  11. Natural radionuclides in food in an area with high concentrations of radionuclides; Radionuclídeos naturais em alimentos em uma área com altas concentrações de radionuclídeos

    Pereira, W.S.; Moraes, S.R.; Cavalcante, J.J.V. [Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kelecom, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X. da; Lopez, J.M.; Filgueiras, R.; Carmo, A.S., E-mail: pereiras@gmail.com, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: Ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Areas of high natural radiation expose the local population to doses greater than the world average. One of the routes of exposure is food intake. The activity concentration (AC) of 5 natural radionuclides in 7 types of foods was analyzed. The highest CA measured was 2.40 Bq.kg{sup -1} for the U{sub nat} in the potato. The multivariate statistic identified two groups: (U{sub nat}e {sup 232}Th) and [({sup 210}Pb and {sup 228}Ra) and {sup 226}Ra].

  12. Concentrations of Radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs) in Chernozems of Volgograd Oblast Sampled in Different Years

    Aparin, B. F.; Mingareeva, E. V.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    Data on the concentrations of natural (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and artificial (137Cs) radionuclides and on the physicochemical properties of chernozems sampled in different years are presented. In 1952, upon the creation of the Penza-Kamensk state shelterbelt, three deep (up to 3 m) soil pits were examined within the former arable field under two-year-old plantations of ash and maple along the transect crossing the territory of the Beloprudskaya Experimental Station of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Volgograd oblast. The samples from these pits were included into the collection of dated soil samples of the Dokuchaev Central Soil Science Museum. Five pits were examined along the same transect in 2009: three pits under shelterbelts (analogues of the pits studied in 1952) and two pits on arable fields between the shelterbelts. In the past 57 years, certain changes took place in the soil structure, bulk density, and the content and composition of humus. The salt profile of soils changed significantly under the forests. The comparison of distribution patterns of natural soil radionuclides in 1952 and 2009 demonstrated their higher contents at the depth of 10-20 cm in 2009 (except for the western shelterbelt). Background concentrations of natural radionuclides in parent materials and relationships between their distributions and the salt profiles of soils have been determined; they are most clearly observed is the soils under shelterbelts. Insignificant contamination with 137Cs (up to 34 Bq/kg) has been found in the samples of 2009 from the upper (0-20 cm) horizon. The activity of 137Cs regularly decreases from the east to the west; the highest concentrations of this radionuclide are found in the topmost 10 cm. This allows us to suppose that 137Cs was brought with aerial dust by eastern winds, and the shelterbelts served as barriers to the wind flow.

  13. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    2010-01-01

    ... appendix are the annual intakes of a given radionuclide by “Reference Man” which would result in either (1... effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. The values of wT are listed under the definition of..., where 2×104 ml is the volume of air breathed per minute at work by “Reference Man” under working...

  14. Radionuclide transfer

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Up-to-date concentrations of long-lived artificial radionuclides in the Tom and Ob rivers in the area influenced by discharges from Siberian chemical combine

    Nikitin, A.I.; Kryshev, I.I.; Bashkirov, N.I.; Valetova, N.K.; Dunaev, G.E.; Kabanov, A.I.; Katrich, I.Yu; Krutovsky, A.O.; Nikitin, V.A.; Petrenko, G.I.; Polukhina, A.M.; Selivanova, G.V.; Shkuro, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is located in Seversk (formerly known as Tomsk-7) in the Tomsk Region of the Russian Federation. The main contribution of radionuclides in the SCC process water discharged into the Tom River was from the single-pass reactors, now removed from service (the last SCC reactor was shutdown on June 5, 2008). The data on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu and other artificial radionuclides in water, bottom sediments and flood-plain soils of the Tom and Ob rivers from Tomsk to the confluence of the rivers, are presented and discussed. The results of measurements carried out after shutdown of the last SCC single-pass reactor indicated no radiologically significant consequences of SCC activities for the studied water environment compartments. Contemporary activity concentrations of long-lived artificial radionuclides 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in river water were below the intervention levels established by current regulations of the Russian Federation for these radionuclides. The results of 3 H analysis in water from the Tom and Samuska rivers demonstrated no inflow of contaminated formation water to surface water from the sites where liquid radioactive wastes of the SCC were injected below the surface. However, the density of flood-plain soil contamination by long-lived 137 Cs in the area influenced by SCC liquid discharges was higher than regional technogenic background. There were local flood-plain areas contaminated not only by 137 Cs, but also other gamma-emitters, such as 60 Co and 152 Eu.

  16. Valuating report on radionuclide concentrations in the waste water and mixed slurry from the Vienna main clarifying plant for 1988

    Henrich, E.; Weisz, J.; Zapletal, M.; Haider, W.

    1989-03-01

    Sample preparation- and measuring methods, and results on 16 nuclides from the Vienna clarifying plant for 1988 are presented. Comparisons with the 1987 values are made and hypotheses about the sources of radionuclides - natural, atmospheric atomic weapons tests, Chernobyl accident and medical applications - are presented. An estimation of the activity transferred to the surface waters (Danube) over 1988 is also made. 16 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs. (qui)

  17. Radionuclide concentrations in ground-level air from 1984 to mid 1986 in North Germany and North Norway; influence of the Chernobyl accident

    Kolb, W.

    1986-09-01

    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in surface air were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean monthly activity concentrations of up to 30 radionuclides measured from 1984 to mid 1986 in Brunswick, Berlin and Skibotn (North Norway) are tabulated. Early in 1984 the ground level air at all three stations still contained some fission and activation products resulting from the latest nuclear test carried out at a high altitude by the People's Republic of China. By the end of 1984 only Cs-137 was still detectable with activity concentrations of less than 1 μBq/m 3 . The occasional appearance of some activation products in 1984 and 1985 is commented on and compared with similar findings of several Scandinavian institutes. Fresh fission products from the Chernobyl accident arrived in late April 1986 in Brunswick, Berlin and Skibotn. The mean Cs-137 concentration in May estimated for Brunswick was 28 mBq/m 3 (i.e. 15 times higher than the hitherto recorded maximum in June 1964). It had decreased by July 1986 down to 0.13 mBq/m 3 . The effective dose equivalent due to inhalation of fission products is estimated for all three sites and compared with the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig.) [de

  18. Use of MICRAS code on the evaluation of the maximum radionuclides concentrations due to transport/migration of decay chain in groundwaters

    Aquino Branco, O.E. de

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the evaluation of the maximum radionuclides concentrations in groundwaters, due to the transport/migration of decay chains. Analytical solution of the equations system is difficult, even if only three elements of the decay chain are considered. Therefore, a numerical solution is most convenient. An application of the MICRAS code, developed to assess maximum concentrations of each radionuclide, starting with the initial concentrations, is presented. The maximum concentration profile for 226 Ra, calculated using MICRAS, is compared with the results obtained through an analytical and a numerical model. The fitness of results is considered good. Simplified models, like the one represented by the application of MICRAS, are largely employed in the section in the selection and characterization of sites for radioactive wastes repositories and in studies of safety evaluation for the same purpose. A detailed analysis of the transport/migration of contaminants in aquifers requires a large quantify of data from the site and from the installation as well, which makes this analysis expensive and inviable during the preliminary phases of the studies. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  19. Radionuclide mass transfer rates from a pinhole in a waste container for an inventory-limited and a constant concentration source

    LeNeveu, D.M.

    1996-03-01

    Analytical solutions for transient and steady state diffusive mass transfer rates from a pinhole in a waste container are developed for constant concentration and inventory-limited source conditions. Mass transport in three media are considered, inside the pinhole (medium 2), outside the container (medium 3) and inside the container (medium 1). Simple equations are developed for radionuclide mass transfer rates from a pinhole. It is shown that the medium with the largest mass transfer resistance need only be considered to provide a conservative estimate of mass transfer rates. (author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  20. Background concentrations of selected radionuclides, organic compounds, and chemical constituents in ground water in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Orr, B.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    Background concentrations of radionuclides, organic compounds, and other chemical constituents in water in the Snake River Plain aquifer in Idaho were estimated from groundwater sample analyses. Detectable concentrations of transuranic elements should not be present in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer. Background concentrations of tritium generally range from 75 to 150 pCi/L. Strontium-90 and iodine-129 concentrations generally are 0 and from 0.05 pCi/L, respectively. At the INEL, comparison of the mean and median concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and iodine-129 indicates that operations locally have affected concentrations in groundwater. Gross alpha-particle and beta-particle radioactivity in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer ranges from 0 to 5 pCi/L and 0 to 8 pCi/L, respectively. Background gamma radiation in groundwater is attributed to cesium-137, cobalt-60, and potassium-40. Cesium-137 and cobalt-60 concentrations generally are zero in groundwater at the INEL. Naturally occurring concentrations of potassium-40 probably are about 300 pCi/L. Background concentrations of organic compounds in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer generally are less than 0.2 microg/L. Background arsenic and chromium concentrations both are about 2 to 3 microg/L. Barium concentrations are from about 50 to about 70 microg/L. Lead and mercury concentrations generally are less than 5 microg/L and 0.1 microg/L, respectively. Cadmium, selenium, and silver concentrations generally are less than 1 microg/L. Nitrate concentrations range from 0 to about 1.4 mg/L

  1. Prediction of radionuclide invention for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste by considering concentration limit of waste package

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Min Seong; Jeong, Noh Gyeon; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency(KORAD), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The result of a preliminary safety assessment that was completed by applying the radionuclide inventory calculated on the basis of available data from radioactive waste generation agencies suggested that many difficulties are to be expected with regard to disposal safety and operation. Based on the results of the preliminary safety assessment of the entire disposal system, in this paper, a unit package exceeding the safety goal is selected that occupies a large proportion of radionuclides in intermediate-level radioactive waste. We introduce restrictions on the amount of radioactivity in a way that excludes the high surface dose rate of the package. The radioactivity limit for disposal will be used as the baseline data for establishing the acceptance criteria and the disposal criteria for each disposal facility to meet the safety standards. It is necessary to draw up a comprehensive safety development plan for the Gyeongju waste disposal facility that will contribute to the construction of a Safety Case for the safety optimization of radioactive waste disposal facilities.

  2. Estimation of Radionuclide Concentrations and Average Annual Committed Effective Dose due to Ingestion for the Population in the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

    Van, Tran Thi; Bat, Luu Tam; Nhan, Dang Duc; Quang, Nguyen Hao; Cam, Bui Duy; Hung, Luu Viet

    2018-02-16

    Radioactivity concentrations of nuclides of the 232 Th and 238 U radioactive chains and 40 K, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu were surveyed for raw and cooked food of the population in the Red River delta region, Vietnam, using α-, γ-spectrometry, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The concentration of 40 K in the cooked food was the highest compared to those of other radionuclides ranging from (23 ± 5) (rice) to (347 ± 50) Bq kg -1 dw (tofu). The 210 Po concentration in the cooked food ranged from its limit of detection (LOD) of 5 mBq kg -1  dw (rice) to (4.0 ± 1.6) Bq kg -1  dw (marine bivalves). The concentrations of other nuclides of the 232 Th and 238 U chains in the food were low, ranging from LOD of 0.02 Bq kg -1  dw to (1.1 ± 0.3) Bq kg -1  dw. The activity concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu in the food were minor compared to that of the natural radionuclides. The average annual committed effective dose to adults in the study region was estimated and it ranged from 0.24 to 0.42 mSv a -1 with an average of 0.32 mSv a -1 , out of which rice, leafy vegetable, and tofu contributed up to 16.2%, 24.4%, and 21.3%, respectively. The committed effective doses to adults due to ingestion of regular diet in the Red River delta region, Vietnam are within the range determined in other countries worldwide. This finding suggests that Vietnamese food is safe for human consumption with respect to radiation exposure.

  3. Radionuclide trap

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  4. 3D modeling of effects of increased oxygenation and activity concentration in tumors treated with radionuclides and antiangiogenic drugs

    Lagerloef, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg 41345 (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg 41345 (Sweden); Department of Radiation Physics, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg, Sweden and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg 41345 (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) in response to hypoxia is a fundamental event in the process of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. However, abnormalities in tumor neovasculature often induce increased interstitial pressure (IP) and further reduce oxygenation (pO{sub 2}) of tumor cells. In radiotherapy, well-oxygenated tumors favor treatment. Antiangiogenic drugs may lower IP in the tumor, improving perfusion, pO{sub 2} and drug uptake, by reducing the number of malfunctioning vessels in the tissue. This study aims to create a model for quantifying the effects of altered pO{sub 2}-distribution due to antiangiogenic treatment in combination with radionuclide therapy. Methods: Based on experimental data, describing the effects of antiangiogenic agents on oxygenation of GlioblastomaMultiforme (GBM), a single cell based 3D model, including 10{sup 10} tumor cells, was developed, showing how radionuclide therapy response improves as tumor oxygenation approaches normal tissue levels. The nuclides studied were {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 211}At. The absorbed dose levels required for a tumor control probability (TCP) of 0.990 are compared for three different log-normal pO{sub 2}-distributions: {mu}{sub 1} = 2.483, {sigma}{sub 1} = 0.711; {mu}{sub 2} = 2.946, {sigma}{sub 2} = 0.689; {mu}{sub 3} = 3.689, and {sigma}{sub 3} = 0.330. The normal tissue absorbed doses will, in turn, depend on this. These distributions were chosen to represent the expected oxygen levels in an untreated hypoxic tumor, a hypoxic tumor treated with an anti-VEGF agent, and in normal, fully-oxygenated tissue, respectively. The former two are fitted to experimental data. The geometric oxygen distributions are simulated using two different patterns: one Monte Carlo based and one radially increasing, while keeping the log-normal volumetric distributions intact. Oxygen and activity are distributed, according to the same pattern. Results: As tumor pO{sub 2

  5. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  6. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  7. Concentration and distribution patterns of naturally occurring radionuclides in sediments and flood plain soils of the catchment area of the river Elbe

    Barth, A.; Jurk, M.; Weiß, D.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of uranium mining and milling as well as that of traditional mining activities on river sediments and flood plain soils in the catchment area of the river Elbe was investigated over the years 1994 to 1995. Contamination resulting from mining activities has been identified by comparing the median values for the measured radionuclides, and by establishing the ratio between Ra-226 and Ra-228. The transport and deposition of contaminated materials as a result of high water events, and river discharge of waste water from mining and milling facilities, can be considered to be the main paths of sediment and soil contamination. Sediments and flood plain soils located in the vicinity of former uranium mining and milling sites are primarily influenced by discharges of waste water. Long distance transport and deposition at dams, barrages and on flood plains has mainly been caused by high water events. In many cases the radionuclide concentrations were higher in the subsurface layer than in the top layer of flood plain soil. Due to termination of uranium mining and milling activities, no significant contamination of newer or fresh sediments was found. Radiation exposure arising in relation to angling or walking on flood plains is low

  8. Environmental monitoring at the nuclear power plants and Studsvik 1994. Results from measurements of radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples; Omgivningskontroll vid kaernkraftverken och Studsvik 1994. Resultat fraan maetningar av radionuklidhalter i miljoeprover

    Bengtson, P.; Larsson, C.M.; Luening, M.

    1996-04-01

    As expected, marine samples from the vicinity of the power plants show detectable radionuclide concentrations, caused by the discharges from the plants. Very low concentrations are noted in the terrestrial samples. At several locations, the effects of the Chernobyl disaster still dominate. 12 refs, tabs.

  9. Radionuclide toxicity

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  10. Radionuclide and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fish from the Confluences of Major Canyons That Cross Los Alamos National Laboratory Lands with the Rio Grande

    Kraig, D.H.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Mullen, M.A.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Bottom-feeding fish--catfish, suckers, and carp--that were collected from the confluences of some of the major canyons that cross LANL lands with the Rio Grande (RG) exhibited similar radionuclide (with the exception of 90 Sr), and nonradionuclide concentrations to fish collected upstream of any potential LANL contamination sources. Strontium-90 concentrations in fish from LANL canyons/RG may be associated with LANL operations; however, the concentrations of 90 Sr in fish decrease to background concentrations further downstream of LANL at CR. And, based on the most conservative assumptions (a 95% source term and maximum consumption rate), LANL operations do not result in significant doses to the general public from consuming fish along the length of the RG as it passes through the eastern edge of LANL lands to CR. Moreover, since over 85% of the doses were a result of 90 Sr detected in the muscle plus bone portions of the fish and most of the 90 Sr is associated with the bone, the doses to people that consume only the edible portions of the fish (muscle only), would be significantly lower

  11. Concentrations of Radionuclides and Trace Elements in Environmantal Media arond te Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facilit at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 2005

    G.J.Gonzales; P.R. Fresquez; C.D.Hathcock; D.C. Keller

    2006-05-15

    The Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that samples of biotic and abiotic media be collected after operations began to determine if there are any human health or environmental impacts. The DARHT facility is the Laboratory's principal explosive test facility. To this end, samples of soil and sediment, vegetation, bees, and birds were collected around the facility in 2005 and analyzed for concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl. Bird populations have also been monitored. Contaminant results, which represent up to six sample years since the start of operations, were compared with (1) baseline statistical reference levels (BSRLs) established over a four-year preoperational period before DARHT facility operations, (2) screening levels (SLs), and (3) regulatory standards. Most radionuclides and trace elements were below BSRLs and those few samples that contained radionuclides and trace elements above BSRLs were below SLs. Concentrations of radionuclides and nonradionuclides in biotic and abiotic media around the DARHT facility do not pose a significant human health hazard. The total number of birds captured and number of species represented were similar in 2003 and 2004, but both of these parameters increased substantially in 2005. Periodic interruption of the scope and schedule identified in the MAP generally should have no impact on meeting the intent of the MAP. The risk of not sampling one of the five media in any given year is that if a significant impact to contaminant levels were to occur there would exist a less complete understanding of the extent of the change to the baseline for these media and to the ecosystem as a whole. Since the MAP is a requirement that was established under the regulatory framework of

  12. Accurate determination of 129I, 41Ca and 10Be long-lived radionuclides concentrations in spent resins from the nuclear industry by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Nottoli-Lepage, E.

    2013-01-01

    Radiological characterization of nuclear waste is essential for the management of storage sites. More particularly, determining the concentration of Long-Lived Radionuclides (LLRN) is fundamental for their long term management. This study focuses on the determination of three LLRN concentrations, i.e. 129 I (T 1/2 = 15.7*10 6 a), 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 9.94*10 4 a) and 10 Be (T 1/2 = 1.387*10 6 a), in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). To benefit from the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique allowing to measure extremely low levels of nuclide concentrations, analytical procedures including: 1) sample dissolution; 2) selective and quantitative extraction of the analyte; and, 3) analyte conditioning for AMS measurements, were developed. Applied on spent resin samples collected at a 900 MW PWR, the procedures developed for each studied LLRN allowed their quantitative recovery and their selective extraction from β-γ emitters and isobars. The concentration measurements of the LLRN of interest were then performed on the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry national facility ASTER housed by the Centre Europeen de Recherche et d'Enseignement des Geosciences de l'Environnement (CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence). 129 I, 41 Ca and 10 Be concentrations in spent resins were measured to be about 10 ng/g, 20 pg/g and 4 ng/g of dry resin, respectively. Considering 129 I and 41 Ca, the measured concentrations agree with those assessed from scaling factors established relatively to easily measured gamma emitters ( 137 Cs and 60 Co). For 10 Be, the presented results are significantly different from expected values but are in agreement with previous ICP-MS results. (author) [fr

  13. Concentration factors of radionuclides and trace metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis in an estuarine ecosystem - North Aegean Sea - Greece

    Florou, H.; Catsiki, A.B.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Chaloulou, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bio-indicator organisms (Mussel watch program of CIESM) because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in terms of biological availability in the marine environment. In the present study, the levels of 137 Cs, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn were measured in Mytilus galloprovincialis caught from Thermaikos gulf in North Aegean Sea Greece. The samples were collected seasonally from two aqua-cultures during the period 2000 2003. Measured and published concentrations of the above elements in seawater were used for the evaluation of concentration factors by applying a linear and a non-linear regression analysis. The variation in between the two stations and the seasonal evolution of bioaccumulation of the examined elements was also investigated. Some data on the concentrations of the measured elements in sediments from the area considered were evaluated as for determining the pollution conditions of the organism habitat. (author)

  14. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides and fission products in brick samples fabricated and used in and around greater Dhaka city

    Roy, S.; Alam, M.S.; Miah, F.K.; Alam, B.

    2000-01-01

    The radioactivity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured by using gamma ray spectroscopy in different types of brick samples (bangla, ceramic and picket) fabricated and used in the urban areas of Dhaka city and its suburbs. A knowledge of gamma radioactivity is necessary to adopt preventive measures to minimise the harmful effects of ionising radiation. The radium equivalent activity concentrations, external and internal hazard indices (Hext and Hint) in these brick samples were determined and were found to be comparable with those of other countries. (author)

  15. Radionuclide cisternography

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  16. US Subseabed Disposal Program radioecological data base: summaries of available radionuclide concentration factors and biological half-lives

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive objective concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphical summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of inter-study variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). We discuss concentration factor data summaries for many elements. We also discuss summary material for biological half-life data. We discuss the results of our review with the estimates of mean concentration factors provided by the IAEA. It is proposed that this presentation scheme will enable those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 7 references

  17. Assessment of radionuclide concentration and absorbed dose from consumption of community water supplies in oil and gas producing areas in delta State Nigeria

    Tchokossa, P.; Olomo, J.B.; Balogun, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    A survey of radioactivity concentration in water supplies used for domestic and industrial purposes in the oil and gas producing communities of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a well-calibrated High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector system. The study area was partitioned into ten sections and a total of two samples per partition were collected for analysis. Samples of water from a non-producing area 14 were also collected as control. In all, a total number of forty three samples were collected and analyzed. Each sample was acidified at the rate of 10 ml of 11 M HCI per litre of water to prevent the absorption of radionuclides into the wall of the container and sealed in a properly cleaned container for at least one month so as to attain a state of secular radioactive equilibrium before analysis. The photo peaks observed with reliable regularity belong to the naturally occurring series-decay radionuclide headed by 238U and 232Th, as well as the non-series decay type 40K. The mean specific activity obtained for 40K was 49.15±15.35 BqL-1 with a range of 6.03 and 177.04 Bq L-1 while for 226Ra, the mean specific activity was 3.36±1.28 Bq L-1 with a range of 1.29 and 12.08 BqL-1 and the mean specific activity for 228Ra was 3.21± 2.69 BqL-1 with a range of 1.61 and 9.83 BqL-1 and the total annual effective dose did not show any significant health impact. (author)

  18. Multidisciplinary study of radionuclides and heavy-metal concentrations in wildlife on phosphate-mined and reclaimed lands. Final report

    Pritchard, P.C.H.; Bloodwell, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    The phosphate-rich mineral deposits of central Florida tend to exhibit background radiation levels that are elevated due to the uranium and its decay products found in association with the ore. The report documents radioactivity levels in two groups of animals that had heretofore not been examined by other investigators -- aquatic reptiles (American alligators, softshell turtles, and Florida cooter turtles) and terrestrial mammals (armadillos), based on the criterion that these species have significant proportions of their mass comprised of bony tissue likely to show elevated concentrations of radium. The alligator bones contained only low concentrations of radium, and there were no significant differences between alligators collected from mined, mineralized-unmined, or unmineralized land. Whether the levels of radium in the bones of the turtles represents a hazard to the health of these long-lived animals or to humans who may consume their flesh is unclear

  19. Release of radioactive materials from nuclear power plants. Report No. 2. Dispersion mechanisms, transport paths, and concentration factors for radionuclides in the cooling water recipient

    Rygg, B.

    The discharge of radioactive materials in the cooling water from a nuclear power plant may involve consequences for the interests involved in the recipient and its organisms. Of special interest is the transport of radionuclides in water, sediments, and organisms to man. The most important elements are H, Na, P, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ru, I, Cs, and Ce. Metals with high affinity for organic material will be sorbed to sediments rich in organic material, while other elements will be enriched in algaes and arrive in the sediment through decay or excrement. Elements in particulate form will normally precipitate. Ions will generally not be enriched in sediments. Marine organisms may take up nuclides directly from the water and from food. The concentration factor is dependent on the chemical properties of the element and the physiology of the organism. The occurrence of elements in water and organisms in the Oslofjord district is poorly known and tables have therefore been derived from literature data to indicate the concentration factors to be expected

  20. Study of the specific concentrations of 40K and other radionuclides in the most consumed teas in Brazil

    Silva, Roberto C. da; Garcêz, Ricardo W.D.; Lopes, José M.; Silva, Ademir X. da

    2017-01-01

    Tea is widely consumed worldwide and it is a drink prepared by infusing with parts of plants such as leaves, flowers and roots, usually prepared with hot water, and each variety acquires a defined flavor according to the processing used. This work presents an investigation about the specific concentration of 40 K in 16 tea samples utilized by Brazilian population and the effective dose associated. The tea samples were dried for six hours in an oven at 60°C and placed in 200 ml volume polyethylene pots of low radioactive background, weighed with a scale model Gehaka BG 4000 and sealed to achieve the secular radioactive equilibrium condition. The teas samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy technique with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a non-destructive nuclear method and with the LabSOCS software for the calculation of the efficiency curve. The counting time used for sample spectrum acquisition was 30000 seconds. The specific concentration values of potassium 40 ranged from 184 ± 56 Bq/kg Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citrates) to 1087 ± 40 Bq/kg Burdock (Arctium lappa), Effective doses ranged from 1.1408 μSv/y by 6.7394 μSv/y. The values presented in this study were below the annual average for effective dose for ingestion for adults. (author)

  1. Study of the specific concentrations of {sup 40}K and other radionuclides in the most consumed teas in Brazil

    Silva, Roberto C. da; Garcêz, Ricardo W.D.; Lopes, José M.; Silva, Ademir X. da, E-mail: robertofisica2012@hotmail.com [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Tea is widely consumed worldwide and it is a drink prepared by infusing with parts of plants such as leaves, flowers and roots, usually prepared with hot water, and each variety acquires a defined flavor according to the processing used. This work presents an investigation about the specific concentration of {sup 40}K in 16 tea samples utilized by Brazilian population and the effective dose associated. The tea samples were dried for six hours in an oven at 60°C and placed in 200 ml volume polyethylene pots of low radioactive background, weighed with a scale model Gehaka BG 4000 and sealed to achieve the secular radioactive equilibrium condition. The teas samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy technique with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a non-destructive nuclear method and with the LabSOCS software for the calculation of the efficiency curve. The counting time used for sample spectrum acquisition was 30000 seconds. The specific concentration values of potassium 40 ranged from 184 ± 56 Bq/kg Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citrates) to 1087 ± 40 Bq/kg Burdock (Arctium lappa), Effective doses ranged from 1.1408 μSv/y by 6.7394 μSv/y. The values presented in this study were below the annual average for effective dose for ingestion for adults. (author)

  2. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Near-Field of a Repository for Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Berner, U

    2002-10-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from SF/HLW wastes, disposed of in a reducing clay (Opalinus Clay, bentonite) environment. Solubility and speciation calculations in bentonite pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 37 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Particularly for the most relevant actinides, the straightforward applications with this updated TDB yielded results in contradiction to chemical analogy considerations. This was a consequence of incomplete data and called for problem specific TDB extensions, which were evaluated in a separate study. However, a summary of these problem specific extensions is provided in section 4.1. The results presented in this report solely depend on geochemical model calculations. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the underlying data and assumptions are made clear to the reader. In order to ensure traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the Nagra/PSI TDB are explicitly specified in the report, in order to provide complete documentation for quality assurance and for comprehensibility. In order to clearly distinguish between results derived from data carefully reviewed in the Nagra/PSI TDB and those calculated from 'other' data, the summary of expected maximum concentrations provided in Table 1 includes two columns. The heading CALCULATED provides maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the updated TDB, whereas maximum concentrations, which include additional problem specific data and/or data from other sources, are given under the heading RECOMMENDED. The

  3. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Near-Field of a Repository for Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Berner, U.

    2002-10-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from SF/HLW wastes, disposed of in a reducing clay (Opalinus Clay, bentonite) environment. Solubility and speciation calculations in bentonite pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 37 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Particularly for the most relevant actinides, the straightforward applications with this updated TDB yielded results in contradiction to chemical analogy considerations. This was a consequence of incomplete data and called for problem specific TDB extensions, which were evaluated in a separate study. However, a summary of these problem specific extensions is provided in section 4.1. The results presented in this report solely depend on geochemical model calculations. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the underlying data and assumptions are made clear to the reader. In order to ensure traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the Nagra/PSI TDB are explicitly specified in the report, in order to provide complete documentation for quality assurance and for comprehensibility. In order to clearly distinguish between results derived from data carefully reviewed in the Nagra/PSI TDB and those calculated from 'other' data, the summary of expected maximum concentrations provided in Table 1 includes two columns. The heading CALCULATED provides maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the updated TDB, whereas maximum concentrations, which include additional problem specific data and/or data from other sources, are given under the heading RECOMMENDED. The present study also pays

  4. Design and development of a radio-ecological domestic user friendly code for calculation of radiation doses and concentration due to airborn radionuclides release during the accidental and normal operation in nuclear installations

    Shad, A. Haghighi; Allaf, M. Athari [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Masti, D. [Azad Univ., Boushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Research and Developement in BNPP-1; Sepanloo, K. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor and Nuclear Safety School; Feghhi, S.A.H. [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Khodadadi, R. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Science and Research Branch

    2018-02-15

    A domestic user friendly dynamic radiological dose and model has been developed to estimate radiation doses and stochastic risks due to atmospheric and liquid discharges of radionuclides in the case of a nuclear reactor accident and normal operation. In addition to individual doses from different pathways for different age groups, collective doses and stochastic risks can be calculated by the developed domestic user friendly KIANA Advance Computational Computer Code and model. The current Code can be coupled to any long-range atmospheric dispersion/short term model which can calculate radionuclide concentrations in air and on the ground and in the water surfaces predetermined time intervals or measurement data.

  5. Design and development of a radio-ecological domestic user friendly code for calculation of radiation doses and concentration due to airborn radionuclides release during the accidental and normal operation in nuclear installations

    Shad, A. Haghighi; Allaf, M. Athari; Masti, D.; Sepanloo, K.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Khodadadi, R.

    2018-01-01

    A domestic user friendly dynamic radiological dose and model has been developed to estimate radiation doses and stochastic risks due to atmospheric and liquid discharges of radionuclides in the case of a nuclear reactor accident and normal operation. In addition to individual doses from different pathways for different age groups, collective doses and stochastic risks can be calculated by the developed domestic user friendly KIANA Advance Computational Computer Code and model. The current Code can be coupled to any long-range atmospheric dispersion/short term model which can calculate radionuclide concentrations in air and on the ground and in the water surfaces predetermined time intervals or measurement data.

  6. Concentration of natural radionuclides (40K, 228Ra and 226Ra) in vegetables and fruits collected around Kudankulam, South India

    Mahiban Ross, E.; Feroz Khan, M.; Lenin Raj, Y.; Godwin Wesley, S.; Kumar, M.; Sundar Rajan, P.

    2007-01-01

    Baseline activity concentration of the natural radio nuclides 40 K, 228 Ra and 226 Ra in vegetables and fruits was determined around Kudankulam. In many of the samples, 228 Ra and 226 Ra was below minimum detection limit. 40 K was found to be more in leafy vegetables followed by pods, tubers and fleshy fruits. The highest accumulator among the matrices was the leafy vegetables with the geometric mean of 189.47 Bq.kg -1 fresh for vegetables and fruits with the geometric mean of 128.95 Bq.kg -1 fresh. 228 Ra activity in vegetables and fruits ranged from 0.074 to 1.153 and 0.074 to 0.131 Bq.kg -l fresh respectively. 226 Ra in vegetables and fruits ranged from BDL to 0.07 and BDL-.044 Bq.kg -l fresh respectively. 40 K in vegetables and fruits followed a log normal distribution. (author)

  7. Radionuclide carrier

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in/on vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1995 growing season. Progress report

    Fresquez, P.R.; Vold, E.L.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation were collected within and around selected points at Area G--a low- level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory--for the analysis of tritium ( 3 H), strontium ( 90 Sr), plutonium ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu), cesium ( 137 Cs), and total uranium. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in/on vegetation were determined. In general, most (unwashed) vegetation collected within and around Area G contained 3 H, uranium, 238 Pu, and 239 Pu in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 7300 pCi mL -1 in understory vegetation collected from the west side of the transuranic (TRU) pads. The south and west ends of the tritium shaft field also contained elevated levels of 3 H in overstory, and especially in understory vegetation, as compared to background; this suggests that 3 H may be migrating from this waste repository through surface and subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the TRU pads (adjacent to the fence line of Area G) contained the highest values of 238 Pu and 239 Pu as compared to background, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, and/or disposal activities

  9. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  10. Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

    Eckerman, K.F.; Wolbarst, A.B.; Richardson, A.C.B.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs

  11. Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

    Eckerman, K.F.; Wolbarst, A.B.; Richardson, A.C.B.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs.

  12. Planetary boundary layer model for estimating the radionuclides concentration in accidental liberations; Modelo de camada limite planetaria para estimar a concentracao de radionuclideos em liberacoes acidentais

    Molnary, Leslie de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: molnaryy@net.ipen.br

    2002-07-01

    A two layer bulk model is used to simulate numerically the time and spatial evolution of concentration of radionuclides in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) for convective and stable conditions. In this model, the closure hypothesis are based on the integrated version of the Turbulent Kinetics Energy equation. This type of model was adopted here because it is numerically simple to be applied operationally in routine and emergency support systems of atmospheric releases at nuclear power plants, and the hypothesis of the efficiency of the vertical mixing seems to be physically reasonable to simulate PBL evolution for high wind conditions and stable conditions in subtropical latitudes regions. In order to validate the model, numerical simulations were carried out with initial and boundary conditions based on vertical profiles of temperatures and horizontal wind speed and direction obtained from tethered balloon soundings, synoptic charts at 850 hPa and surface observations. Comparisons between a 24 hour long numerical simulation and observations indicate that the model is capable of reproduce the diurnal evolution of temperature and horizontal wind during the convective regime. During stable conditions, the slab model was able to simulate the intensity of the surface inversion as a difference between the mixed layer and the surface temperature. The simulated mixed layer height matches with observations during the convective and stable regime. (author)

  13. Radionuclide data

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  14. Radionuclides in house dust

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  15. Radionuclide generators

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  16. Radionuclide generators

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  17. Radionuclide scanning

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  18. Abstract algebra

    Garrett, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal

  19. Article Abstract

    Abstract. Simple learning tools to improve clinical laboratory practical skills training. B Taye, BSc, MPH. Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, ... concerns about the competence of medical laboratory science graduates. ... standardised practical learning guides and assessment checklists would.

  20. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  1. WIPR-2010 Book of abstracts

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the workshop was to review advanced and preclinical studies on innovative positron emitting radionuclides to assess their usefulness and potentials. Presentations were organized around 4 issues: 1) preclinical and clinical point of view, 2) production of innovative PET radionuclides, 3) from complexation chemistry to PET imaging and 4) from research to clinic. Emphasis has been put on "6"4Cu, "6"8Ga, "8"9Zr, "4"4Sc but specific aspects such as production or purification have been considered for "6"6Ga, "6"7Ga, "5"2Fe, "8"6Y, and "6"8Ge radionuclides. This document gathers the abstracts of most contributions

  2. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  3. Radionuclides in house dust

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  4. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

  5. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  6. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-01-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport

  7. Abstract Introduction

    cce

    occurs in the form of protein-protein interactions involving high molecular weight proteins. ... pH, moderate ionic strength, (0.1) and low protein concentration. .... For aquomethemoglobin, the variation of the afore-mentioned parameters showed ...

  8. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  9. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  10. Radionuclide radiology

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  11. Geochemistry and radionuclide migration

    Isherwood, D.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretically, the geochemical barrier can provide a major line of defense in protecting the biosphere from the hazards of nuclear waste. The most likely processes involved are easily identified. Preliminary investigations using computer modeling techniques suggest that retardation is an effective control on radionuclide concentrations. Ion exchange reactions slow radionuclide migration and allow more time for radioactive decay and dispersion. For some radionuclides, solubility alone may limit concentrations to less than the maximum permissible now considered acceptable by the Federal Government. The effectiveness of the geochemical barrier is ultimately related to the repository site characteristics. Theory alone tells us that geochemical controls will be most efficient in an environment that provides for maximum ion exchange and the precipitation of insoluble compounds. In site selection, consideration should be given to rock barriers with high ion exchange capacity that might also act as semi-permeable membranes. Also important in evaluating the site's potential for effective geochemical controls are the oxidation potentials, pH and salinity of the groundwater

  12. International symposium on low level measurements of radionuclides in the environment, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The International Symposium of Low-Level Measurements of Radionuclides in the Environment was held on April 19-23, 2004 in Guilin, China, and sponsored by the Chinese Nuclear Society. The articles are published in the form of abstracts, and the contents include: 1. special lectures; 2.Environmental Radioanalysis; 3. Concentration and migration of radionuclides; 4. Analysis with instrumentation and applications; 5. preparation of samples and trace in living beings; 6. Environment impact assessment and calculation of dose; 7. Decommissioning, monitoring in emergency condition and others

  13. 13th Radiochemical Conference. Booklet of Abstracts

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: (i) Opening plenary presentations (6 contributions); (ii) Chemistry of natural radionuclides, discovery of radium and polonium (6 verbal presentations + 5 poster presentations); (iii) Radionuclides in the environment, radioecology (29 + 48); (iv) Activation analysis and other radioanalytical methods (36 + 49); (v) Ionizing radiation in science and technology (12 + 12); (vi) Chemistry of actinide and trans-actinide elements (11 + 14); (vii) Separation methods, speciation (18 + 41); (viii) Production and application of radionuclides (14 + 29); and (ix) Radiochemical problems in nuclear waste management (12 + 22). The majority of verbal presentations has been input to INIS, mostly in the form of the full authors` abstracts. (P.A.)

  14. 13th Radiochemical Conference. Booklet of Abstracts

    1998-04-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: (i) Opening plenary presentations (6 contributions); (ii) Chemistry of natural radionuclides, discovery of radium and polonium (6 verbal presentations + 5 poster presentations); (iii) Radionuclides in the environment, radioecology (29 + 48); (iv) Activation analysis and other radioanalytical methods (36 + 49); (v) Ionizing radiation in science and technology (12 + 12); (vi) Chemistry of actinide and trans-actinide elements (11 + 14); (vii) Separation methods, speciation (18 + 41); (viii) Production and application of radionuclides (14 + 29); and (ix) Radiochemical problems in nuclear waste management (12 + 22). The majority of verbal presentations has been input to INIS, mostly in the form of the full authors' abstracts. (P.A.)

  15. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  16. Influence of fracture networks on radionuclide transport from solidified waste forms

    Seetharam, S.C., E-mail: suresh.seetharam@sckcen.be [Performance Assessments Unit, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Perko, J.; Jacques, D. [Performance Assessments Unit, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Mallants, D. [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Road – Gate 4, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Magnitude of peak radionuclide fluxes is less sensitive to the fracture network geometry. • Time of peak radionuclide fluxes is sensitive to the fracture networks. • Uniform flow model mimics a limiting case of a porous medium with large number of fine fractures. • Effect of fracture width on radionuclide flux depends on the ratio of fracture to matrix conductivity. • Effect of increased dispersivity in fractured media does not always result in a lower peak flux for specific fracture networks due to higher concentrations adjacent to the fracture plane. - Abstract: Analysis of the effect of fractures in porous media on fluid flow and mass transport is of great interest in many fields including geotechnical, petroleum, hydrogeology and waste management. This paper presents sensitivity analyses examining the effect of various hypothetical fracture networks on the performance of a planned near surface disposal facility in terms of radionuclide transport behaviour. As it is impossible to predict the initiation and evolution of fracture networks and their characteristics in concrete structures over time scales of interest, several fracture networks have been postulated to test the sensitivity of radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Fluid flow through concrete matrix and fracture networks are modelled via Darcy's law. A single species radionuclide transport equation is employed for both matrix and fracture networks, which include the processes advection, diffusion, dispersion, sorption/desorption and radioactive decay. The sensitivity study evaluates variations in fracture network configuration and fracture width together with different sorption/desorption characteristics of radionuclides in a cement matrix, radioactive decay constants and matrix dispersivity. The effect of the fractures is illustrated via radionuclide breakthrough curves, magnitude and time of peak mass flux, cumulative mass flux and concentration profiles. For the

  17. Influence of fracture networks on radionuclide transport from solidified waste forms

    Seetharam, S.C.; Perko, J.; Jacques, D.; Mallants, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Magnitude of peak radionuclide fluxes is less sensitive to the fracture network geometry. • Time of peak radionuclide fluxes is sensitive to the fracture networks. • Uniform flow model mimics a limiting case of a porous medium with large number of fine fractures. • Effect of fracture width on radionuclide flux depends on the ratio of fracture to matrix conductivity. • Effect of increased dispersivity in fractured media does not always result in a lower peak flux for specific fracture networks due to higher concentrations adjacent to the fracture plane. - Abstract: Analysis of the effect of fractures in porous media on fluid flow and mass transport is of great interest in many fields including geotechnical, petroleum, hydrogeology and waste management. This paper presents sensitivity analyses examining the effect of various hypothetical fracture networks on the performance of a planned near surface disposal facility in terms of radionuclide transport behaviour. As it is impossible to predict the initiation and evolution of fracture networks and their characteristics in concrete structures over time scales of interest, several fracture networks have been postulated to test the sensitivity of radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Fluid flow through concrete matrix and fracture networks are modelled via Darcy's law. A single species radionuclide transport equation is employed for both matrix and fracture networks, which include the processes advection, diffusion, dispersion, sorption/desorption and radioactive decay. The sensitivity study evaluates variations in fracture network configuration and fracture width together with different sorption/desorption characteristics of radionuclides in a cement matrix, radioactive decay constants and matrix dispersivity. The effect of the fractures is illustrated via radionuclide breakthrough curves, magnitude and time of peak mass flux, cumulative mass flux and concentration profiles. For the

  18. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1998 growing season (with a cumulative summary of 3H and 239Pu over time)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Ebinger, M.H.; Wechsler, R.J.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Soils and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at eight locations within and around Area G, a disposal facility for low-level, radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The samples were analyzed for 3 H, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 137 Cs, tot U. Most of the radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation were within the upper 95% level of background concentrations except for 3 H and 239 Pu. Tritium concentrations in vegetation from most sites were greater than background concentrations of about 2 pCi mL -1 . The concentrations of 239 Pu in soils and understory vegetation were largest in samples collected several meters north of the transuranic waste pad area and were consistent with previous results. Based on 3 H and 239 Pu data through 1998, it was shown that concentrations were (1) significantly greater than background concentrations (p < 0.05) in soils and vegetation collected from most locations at Area G, and (2) there was no systematic increase or decrease in concentrations with time apparent in the data

  19. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1998 growing season (with a cumulative summary of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu over time)

    P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; R. J. Wechsler; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    1999-11-01

    Soils and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at eight locations within and around Area G, a disposal facility for low-level, radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup tot}U. Most of the radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation were within the upper 95% level of background concentrations except for {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu. Tritium concentrations in vegetation from most sites were greater than background concentrations of about 2 pCi mL{sup {minus}1}. The concentrations of {sup 239}Pu in soils and understory vegetation were largest in samples collected several meters north of the transuranic waste pad area and were consistent with previous results. Based on {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu data through 1998, it was shown that concentrations were (1) significantly greater than background concentrations (p < 0.05) in soils and vegetation collected from most locations at Area G, and (2) there was no systematic increase or decrease in concentrations with time apparent in the data.

  20. BALWOIS: Abstracts

    Morell, Morell; Todorovik, Olivija; Dimitrov, Dobri

    2004-01-01

    anthropogenic pressures and international shared water. Here are the 320 abstracts proposed by authors and accepted by the Scientific Committee. More than 200 papers are presented during the Conference on 8 topics related to Hydrology, Climatology and Hydro biology: - Climate and Environment; - Hydrological regimes and water balances; - Droughts and Floods; -Integrated Water Resources Management; -Water bodies Protection and Eco hydrology; -Lakes; -Information Systems for decision support; -Hydrological modelling. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. Sediment distribution coefficients (KD) and concentration factors (CF) in fish for natural radionuclides in a pond of a tropical region and their contributions to estimations of internal absorbed dose rate in fish

    Souza Pereira, Wagner de; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-01-01

    Attention has been paid only recently to the protection of biota against radiation effects. Protection is being considered through modeling of the calculation of absorbed dose rate. In these models, the inputs are the fluxes of radionuclides of environmental concern and their resulting distribution between environmental compartments. Such distribution is estimated for dispersion models. In freshwater systems and when fish is used as biomaker, relevant environmental transfer parameters are transfer between sediment and water (sediment distribution coefficients KD, in l kg -1 ), and between water and fish (concentration factor CF, in l kg -1 ). These coefficients are under the influence of a number o physical, chemical and biological factors, and display following the literature a great variability. The present work establishes the KD's and CF's for uranium, thorium, radium and lead for two ponds: one that receives treated effluents from an ore treatment unit (UTM) situated at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil and the other pond from the uranium concentration unit (URA) situated at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil, and for fish used as biomarker. It intends also to compare these parameters with the values recommended by IAEA. Depending on considered radionuclide and on the site, CF's (l kg -1 ) observed values were of the same magnitude as, or one order of magnitude lower than recommended by IAEA. KD's (l kg -1 ) observed values were found of the same magnitude as those recommended by IAEA, approximately 10 times lower or up to 100 times higher than recommended by IAEA, again depending on the radionuclides and on the site. It can be concluded that local parameters should be established in order to obtain a more accurate estimative of biota exposition from man activities. (author)

  2. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 1. Radionuclide concentrations measured in the terrestrial environment of the atolls

    1998-08-01

    This report provides technical details of the terrestrial sampling and measurement campaign undertaken as part of the Study of the Radiological Situation at the Atolls of Mururoa, Fangataufa by the Terrestrial Working Group. The primary objective of this group was to evaluate existing French data on the presence of environmental radionuclides on the atolls of Mururoa, Fangataufa and Tureia in French Polynesia. All aspects of the terrestrial environments of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls - the sites of atmospheric and underground nuclear tests - were included in the sampling programme. Tureia Atoll - the nearest inhabited island - was also included in the sampling programme, in order to determine whether deposits from atmospheric testing are detectable there. The task required the co-operation of many different parties in order to provide the supporting logistics for the sampling campaign and the expertise for analysing the different radionuclides of interest in the samples collected. Samples were analysed by members of the IAEA's co-ordinated international network of Analytical Laboratories for Measuring Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) and the Agency's laboratories, Seibersdorf. Samples were also sent to the French Service Mixte de Surveillance Radiologique et Biologique (SMSRB)

  3. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  4. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  5. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  6. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    Kahn, B.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  7. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  8. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    2010-07-01

    ... beta particle and photon radioactivity from man-made radionuclides in drinking water must not produce.../year). (2) Except for the radionuclides listed in table A, the concentration of man-made radionuclides... may make this technology too complex for small surface water systems. e Removal efficiencies can vary...

  9. ABSTRACTION OF DRIFT SEEPAGE

    Wilson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing

  10. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  11. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  12. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  13. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration have been studied in natural fissures orieted parallel to the axis of granite drill cores. A short pulse of the radionuclides solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. After several hundred fissure volumes water had been pumped through the fissure following the radionuclide pulse the activity distribution on the fissure surfaces was measured. From the retardation of 152 Eu, 235 Np and 237 Pu it is concluded that these radionuclides are transported in the oxidation states Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(V). The distribution coefficients K sub (d) calculated from flow and activity distribution data on the basis of geometric surface area/volume ratios are of the same order as published K sub (d) values obtained from batch equilibrium experiments. (Author)

  14. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  15. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  16. Radionuclide transfer onto ground surface in surface water flow, 1

    Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Kamiyama, Hideo

    1991-07-01

    Radionuclides migration in ground surface water flow is considered to be one of the important path way in the scenario for environmental migration of radionuclides leaked from low level radioactive waste repository. Simulating the slightly sloped surface on which contaminated solution is flowing downward, testing for radionuclide migration on ground surface had been started. As it's first step, an experiment was carried out under the condition of restricted infiltration in order to elucidate the adsorption behavior of radionuclides onto the loamy soil surface in related with hydraulic conditions. Radionuclides concentration change in effluent solution with time and a concentration distribution of radionuclides adsorbed on the ground surface were obtained from several experimental conditions combining the rate and the duration time of the water flow. The radionuclides concentration in the effluent solution was nearly constant during each experimental period, and was reduced under the condition of lower flow rate. The surface distribution of radionuclides concentration showed two distinctive regions. The one was near the inlet vessel where the concentration was promptly reducing, and the other was following the former where the concentration was nearly constant. The characteristic surface distribution of radionuclides concentration can be explained by a two dimensional diffusion model with a first order adsorption reaction, based on the advection of flow rate distribution in perpendicular direction. (author)

  17. Naturally occurring radionuclides in pasture soil, feed ingredients and milk of dairy cattle

    Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. Metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1987-01-01

    Physico-chemical form of radionuclides is one of the important factors governing the concentration by marine organisms, whereas biological activities affect the existing states of radionuclides especially in coastal waters. Radioiodine in the form of iodate which is predominant species in seawater is reduced to iodide ion by biological activities and concentration factor of iodide is an order of magnitude higher than those of iodate. Extremely high accumulation of transition elements, actinides, or natural radionuclides in branchial heart of octopus is explained by the fuction of adenochrome, a glandular pigment in the organ as a natural complexing agent, and similar metal-binding proteins with relatively low molecular weight have been found in various marine invertebrates. High accumulation of some elements also found in mollusk kidney is considered to be caused by the intracellular concretions composed of calcium phosphate. All these biological processes suggest the significance of further investigations on metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms. (author)

  19. All-union Conference. Principles and methods of regional and geochemical investigations into radionuclide migration

    Khitrov, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The collection presents abstracts of papers concerning landscape-geochemical research of radionuclides migration; aspects of 'hot particles' study; radionuclides forms and behaviour in soils, in soil-plant; soil-natural water systems, as well as in water ecosystems. Methods of natural objects artificial radioactivity study are reviewed. Distribution of natural radionuclides in soils. natural waters, etc. is discussed

  20. Radionuclides in plants in urban areas

    Todorovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a long-term study (from 2002 to 2008) on the concentrations of natural ( 7 Be, 210 Pb, 40 K) and fission ( 137 Cs) radionuclides in leaves of higher plants (linden and chestnut) in an urban area (city of Belgrade) are presented. The activity of the radionuclides was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The study is a part of the ongoing air quality monitoring programme in urban areas in the Republic of Serbia. (author) [sr

  1. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  2. Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in sediments of surface - water dams in southwest Nigeria - a baseline survey; Concentrations des activites des radionucleides primordiaux dans les sediments des retenues des eaux de ruissellement dans le sud-ouest du Nigeria. Etude de reference

    Isinkaye, M.O. [University of Ado-Ekiti, Dept. of Physics (Nigeria); Farai, I.P. [Ibadan Univ., Dept. of Physics (Nigeria)

    2008-10-15

    The radionuclide contents of sediment samples collected from 20 surface-water dams in southwestern Nigeria have been determined by low-level gamma-spectroscopy. The average concentration of {sup 40}K in each of the dams varied between 110.9{+-}11.9 Bq kg-1 and 1025.9{+-}36.8 Bq kg{sup -1} with an overall mean ({+-}SD) of 549.3 {+-} 247.6 Bq kg{sup -1} while that of {sup 238}U varied from 17.1{+-}3.6 to 51.9{+-}8.7 Bq kg{sup -1} with an overall mean ({+-}SD) of 27.6{+-}8.5 Bq kg{sup -1} and that of {sup 232}Th varied from 26.2 {+-}3.6 Bq kg{sup -1} to 130.1{+-}23.7 Bq kg{sup -1} with overall mean ({+-}SD) of 62.0{+-}26.1 Bq kg{sup -1}. The variability of the values shows the wide disparity in the measured activity concentrations. The mean radium equivalent of 158.9 Bq kg{sup -1} was calculated for the sediments in the dams. No artificial gamma emitting radionuclide was detected in the samples. (authors)

  3. Baseline radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation around the proposed Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory at TA-16

    Fresquez, P.R.; Ennis, M.

    1995-09-01

    A preoperational environmental survey is required by the Department of Energy (DOE) for all federally funded research facilities that have the potential to cause adverse impacts on the environment. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, an environmental survey was conducted over the proposed sites of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory (WSL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at TA-16. Baseline concentrations of tritium ( 3 H), plutonium ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu) and total uranium were measured in soils, vegetation (pine needles and oak leaves) and ground litter. Tritium was also measured from air samples, while cesium ( 137 Cs) was measured in soils. The mean concentration of airborne tritiated water during 1987 was 3.9 pCi/m 3 . Although the mean annual concentration of 3 H in soil moisture at the 0--5 cm (2 in) soil depth was measured at 0.6 pCi/mL, a better background level, based on long-term regional data, was considered to be 2.6 pCi/mL. Mean values for 137 Cs, 218 Pu, 239 Pu, and total uranium in soils collected from the 0--5 cm depth were 1.08 pCi/g, 0.0014 pCi/g, 0.0325 pCi/g, and 4.01 microg/g, respectively. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) needles contained higher values of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and total uranium than did leaves collected from gambel's oak (Quercus gambelii). In contrast, leaves collected from gambel's oak contained higher levels of 137 Cs than what pine needles did

  4. Determination of soil, sand and ore primordial radionuclide concentrations by full-spectrum analyses of high-purity germanium detector spectra

    Newman, R.T.; Lindsay, R.; Maphoto, K.P.; Mlwilo, N.A.; Mohanty, A.K.; Roux, D.G.; Meijer, R.J. de; Hlatshwayo, I.N.

    2008-01-01

    The full-spectrum analysis (FSA) method was used to determine primordial activity concentrations (ACs) in soil, sand and ore samples, in conjunction with a HPGe detector. FSA involves the least-squares fitting of sample spectra by linear combinations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K standard spectra. The differences between the FSA results and those from traditional windows analyses (using regions-of-interest around selected photopeaks) are less than 10% for all samples except zircon ore, where FSA yielded an unphysical 40 K AC

  5. Estimation of Total Error in DWPF Reported Radionuclide Inventories

    Edwards, T.B.

    1995-01-01

    This report investigates the impact of random errors due to measurement and sampling on the reported concentrations of radionuclides in DWPF's filled canister inventory resulting from each macro-batch. The objective of this investigation is to estimate the variance of the total error in reporting these radionuclide concentrations

  6. Determination of radionuclides in discharged water from gold ...

    The levels of radionuclides concentrations in discharged water from gold processing into the environment of Bogoso (Ghana) were determined using radioanalytical techniques. Radioactivity screening was first carried out to identify physical and chemical processing stages that might be concentrating the radionuclides.

  7. The behaviour of long-lived redox sensitive radionuclides in soil-plant system during the process of climate change

    Semioshkina, N.; Staudt, C.; Kaiser, C. [Helmhotz Zetrum Muenchen (Germany); Proehl, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)); Noseck, U.; Fahrenholz, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit - GRS (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    One important aspect of climate changes for the long-term safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories is its impact on exposure pathways for humans in the future, which are dependent on the environmental characteristics mentioned. It is conceivable that effects or processes occurring during climate changes lead to an increased accumulation and/or release of radionuclides in the biosphere resulting in higher doses compared to that calculated for discrete climate states. In order to shed light on this question key processes are identified which might lead to such an increased accumulation and/or release of radionuclides. The transition from one climate to another can cause changes in the physicochemical composition of radionuclides: some of them may become more available for plant uptake and due to this, their activity concentration in the plants increases. Other radionuclides maybe stronger bound to soil and their activity concentration in plants decreases. Such changes might also cause remobilization of radionuclides from localised areas with contaminated sediments, their re-suspension and transfer to the surrounding areas. A suitable illustration of the processes related to the changes of the redox potential is the examination of a dry lake or fen bed for agricultural purposes as pasture or ameliorated pasture. In these cases the accumulation of radionuclides in the lake or fen sediment is followed by their release and increasing mobility after agricultural processing of the dry bed of lake or fen. Ploughing of the soil leads to increased supply of oxygen to previous anoxic soil layers causing an increase in redox potential. The presented model describes a scenario, where the land is initially very humid and very low Eh-values cause high sorption and accumulation of radionuclides in soil particles. Then this land is dried out, the redox potential increases and redox sensitive radionuclides change their speciation and their behaviour. Such processes might

  8. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  9. CSNF WASTE FORM DEGRADATION: SUMMARY ABSTRACTION

    J.C. CUNNANE

    2004-08-31

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the development and validation of models that can be used to calculate the release of radionuclides from commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) following a hypothetical breach of the waste package and fuel cladding in the repository. The purpose also includes describing the uncertainties associated with modeling the radionuclide release for the range of CSNF types, exposure conditions, and durations for which the radionuclide release models are to be applied. This document was developed in accordance with Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169944]). This document considers radionuclides to be released from CSNF when they are available for mobilization by gas-phase mass transport, or by dissolution or colloid formation in water that may contact the fuel. Because other reports address limitations on the dissolved and colloidal radionuclide concentrations (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169944], Table 2-1), this report does not address processes that control the extent to which the radionuclides released from CSNF are mobilized and transported away from the fuel either in the gas phase or in the aqueous phase as dissolved and colloidal species. The scope is limited to consideration of degradation of the CSNF rods following an initial breach of the cladding. It considers features of CSNF that limit the availability of individual radionuclides for release into the gaseous or aqueous phases that may contact the fuel and the processes and events expected to degrade these CSNF features. In short, the purpose is to describe the characteristics of breached fuel rods and the degradation processes expected to influence radionuclide release.

  10. CSNF WASTE FORM DEGRADATION: SUMMARY ABSTRACTION

    CUNNANE, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the development and validation of models that can be used to calculate the release of radionuclides from commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) following a hypothetical breach of the waste package and fuel cladding in the repository. The purpose also includes describing the uncertainties associated with modeling the radionuclide release for the range of CSNF types, exposure conditions, and durations for which the radionuclide release models are to be applied. This document was developed in accordance with Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169944]). This document considers radionuclides to be released from CSNF when they are available for mobilization by gas-phase mass transport, or by dissolution or colloid formation in water that may contact the fuel. Because other reports address limitations on the dissolved and colloidal radionuclide concentrations (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169944], Table 2-1), this report does not address processes that control the extent to which the radionuclides released from CSNF are mobilized and transported away from the fuel either in the gas phase or in the aqueous phase as dissolved and colloidal species. The scope is limited to consideration of degradation of the CSNF rods following an initial breach of the cladding. It considers features of CSNF that limit the availability of individual radionuclides for release into the gaseous or aqueous phases that may contact the fuel and the processes and events expected to degrade these CSNF features. In short, the purpose is to describe the characteristics of breached fuel rods and the degradation processes expected to influence radionuclide release

  11. Application of 210Pb geochronology by the reconstruction of historical radionuclides concentrations ( 137Cs et 239+240Pu ) in the columns of the Alboran Sea

    Laissaoui, A.; Abril, J.M.; Ziad, N.; Benmansour, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The marine sediments are considered as a final reservoir of radioactive contaminants. The 210Pb from atmospheric fallouts deposits is stored in sediments with those from 226Ra original lithogenic. The activity of 210Pb excess in the accumulated sediment is an important tool to study the chronological process of sedimentation on recent time scales at over 100 years. However, this method should be validated using at least one independent tracer which provides an unequivocal temporal marker as 137Cs from nuclear testing. This work presents a method to rebuild historic concentrations of 137Cs and 230+240Pu in the water column Alboran Sea and their corresponding stream sediment. This is achieved by coupling the radiometric dating of the sediment column profiles using three independent levels: the excess 210Pb, 137Cs and 239 +240Pu. On the other hand, a simple model of the water column has been adapted to this end by making use of atmospheric flow, the measured values of distribution coefficient (Kd) and a first approximation of the rate of sedimentation. The timing model CM-CSR (diffusion coefficient of sedimentation rate constant) has been successfully applied to the three independent profiles, and was able to determine the parameters of diffusion and mass sedimentation rate. The results obtained give some ideas on the fate of atmospheric inputs to the marine environment and, particularly, that of the Chernobyl accident. The results of the models showed that direct and deferred contributions of Chernobyl accident are negligible in the Alboran Sea. The annual input of 210Pb to the sediment was estimated at 720±150 Bq.m-2. by year, while the rate of sedimentation is about 0092±0.003 g.cm-2 by year. On the other hand, the model could successfully reconstruct historic concentrations of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in the water column, and was able to reproduce the work of the same elements in the sediment column [fr

  12. Experimental evaluation of admission and disposition of artificial radionuclides including transuranium elements in agricultural plants

    Kozhakhanov, T.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    Processes of radionuclides migration and transfer to agricultural plants are quite well developed worldwide, but the information on character of accumulation of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu transuranium radionuclides in agricultural plants is still fragmentary. Even in generalized materials of worldwide studies, IAEA guide, accumulation coefficient (AC) can have wide range of values (5-6 orders), no data exists on radionuclides' distribution in different organs of plants and they are given for joined groups of plants and types of soils. That is why the main aim of this work was to obtain basic quantitative parameters of radionuclides' migration in 'soil-plant' system, and firs of all- for transuranium elements.. In 2010 a series of experiments with agricultural plants was started at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site aimed to investigate entry of artificial radionuclides by crop products in natural climatic conditions. To conduct the experiment for study of coefficient of radionuclides' accumulation by agricultural corps, there was chosen a land spot at the STS territory, characterized by high concentration of radionuclides: {sup 241}Am - n*10{sup 4} Bq/kg, {sup 137}Cs - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg, {sup 90}Sr - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg and {sup 239+240}Pu- n*10{sup 5} Bq/kg. As objects of investigation, cultures, cultivated in Kazakhstan have been selected: wheat (Triticum vulgare), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa L.), water melon (Citrullus vulgaris), melon (Cucumis melo), potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus cultus), onion (Allium cepa), carrot (Daucus carota), parsley(Petroselinum vulgare)and cabbage (Brassica oleracea). Investigated plants have been planted within the time limits, recommended for selected types of agricultural plants. Cropping system included simple agronomic and amelioration measures. Fertilizers were not

  13. From Abstract Art to Abstracted Artists

    Romi Mikulinsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What lineage connects early abstract films and machine-generated YouTube videos? Hans Richter’s famous piece Rhythmus 21 is considered to be the first abstract film in the experimental tradition. The Webdriver Torso YouTube channel is composed of hundreds of thousands of machine-generated test patterns designed to check frequency signals on YouTube. This article discusses geometric abstraction vis-à-vis new vision, conceptual art and algorithmic art. It argues that the Webdriver Torso is an artistic marvel indicative of a form we call mathematical abstraction, which is art performed by computers and, quite possibly, for computers.

  14. Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination

    Baigazinov, Z.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    radionuclides in organs and tissues, which makes it possible to determine the radionuclides in the whole body by their concentration in one organ, or even without slaughtering the animal, using wool, to give a preliminary estimate of the radionuclide concentration in the animal body. The research results outlined in this paper confirm existing data on the metabolism of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in animals. However, the transfer factors obtained were an order of magnitude smaller than the average transfer factor presented in the IAEA database. The transuranic radionuclides ({sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am) intaken with soil is absorbed less than when intaken with food. With long-term intake of {sup 239+240}Pu by animals with different components of the environment the radionuclides are accumulated only in the liver, {sup 241}Am accumulated in the skin, other organs and tissues do not accumulate. The acquired knowledge about the radionuclide transfer parameters may be used to build predictive models and evaluate dose loads to the population that uses animal products obtained in areas with high concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Demir, M [Ingenieurgesellschaft Bonnenberg und Drescher, Juelich (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10/sup -3/) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10/sup -2/) and one tenth (10/sup -1/) that of T respectively.

  16. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Demir, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10 -3 ) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10 -2 ) and one tenth (10 -1 ) that of T respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  18. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fissures running parallel to the axes of granitic drill cores. A short pulse of radionuclide solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. At the end of each experiment the fissure was opened and the radionuclide distribution on the fissure surfaces measured. The retardation of 241 Am(III) at pH 8.2 as well as the variation in 235 Np(V) retardation with pH are found to be in good agreement with K d-values obtained in batch experiments. The reduction of (TcO - 4 ) to Tc(IV) leads as expected to increasing retardation.(author)

  19. Programme and abstracts

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of 25 papers presented at the congress are given. The abstracts cover various topics including radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals, radioimmunoassay, health physics, radiation protection and nuclear medicine

  20. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  1. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    Sinkko, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  2. Chernobyl' 94. Abstracts

    Arkhipov, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    This book contains materials of the 4th International Scientific and Technical Conference devoted to the results of 8-years work on Chernobyl accident consequences mitigation. Main results of research in radiation monitoring, applied radioecology, effect of radionuclides on biological objects in contaminated territories are presented. Information about waste management and medical consequences of the accident is given. Methodology and strategic of further research on radionuclides in environment and their influence on living organisms is determined. Large factual materials and its generalization may be usefull for scientists and practical workers in the field of radiation monitoring, radiology and medicine

  3. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  4. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  5. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    Tveten, U.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  6. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  7. Final Programme and Abstracts

    2008-01-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity; targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The basis of this COST Action is the great potential of targeted radionuclide therapy using a variety of vectors and radionuclides. This Action brings together the different disciplines involved and provide a reliable and rapid means for developing new (fundamental) knowledge, method standardization and products while promoting transfer of technologies. This Action on cancer therapy using innovative targeting nanomedicines is highly multidisciplinary: nuclear medicine physicians, clinical oncologists, surgeons, physicists, radiobiologists, (in)organic chemists, radiochemists, radiopharmacists, pathologists and scientists from bionics participate in it. They define innovative new targets for cancer therapy, develop lead compounds and new radiolabelled ligands as vectors, perform molecular imaging and biologic testing, develop improved software and protocols for dosimetric calculations and select new vectors for early human use. During the working group meeting held in Cracow participants presented 57 communications (oral and posters, as well) on the above subject

  8. Generator for radionuclide

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  9. Assessment of natural radionuclides concentration from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in Virginia and Burley varieties of Nicotiana tabacum L; Avaliacao da concentracao dos radionuclideos naturais das series do {sup 238}U e {sup 232}Th nas variedades Burley e Virginia da Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Silva, Carolina Fernanda da

    2015-07-01

    Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop production of 2013/2014. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco products varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation (compression, filter and paper) and the temperature variations resulting from the incomplete combustion of tobacco. Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world, and the most consumed are cigarettes, cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed globally, and many surveys are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various illnesses. There is a lack of information about the radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 22}'6Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, members from the {sup 238}U decay series, and the radionuclides {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra members of the {sup 232}Th decay series in the varieties Burley and Virginia, which are the most cultivated in Brazil. Plants from these varieties were cultivated in pots with organic substrate and fertilizer and also acquired from the producers and analyzed by alpha spectrometry for U and Th isotopes and {sup 210}Po determination, and gross alpha and beta counting, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb determination. The whole plant, from both places, was analyzed; root, stem, leaves, as well as the organic substrate, the fertilizers, and the soil. The results for U and Th isotopes presented values below the detection limits of the methods to the leaves and stems of all plants analyzed, with measurable results only in roots, soil, and substrate. The

  10. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  11. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  12. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    Mountford-Lister, P.G.; Lambert, B.E.; Milner, A.C.; Kang, X.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239 Pu or 147 Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239 Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Program and abstracts

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled:Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Physics Education; SANCGASS; Astronomy; Plasma Physics; Physics in Industry; Applied and General Physics

  14. Program and abstracts

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled:Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Physics Education; SANCGASS; Astronomy; Plasma Physics; Physics in Industry; Applied and General Physics.

  15. Introduction to abstract algebra

    Nicholson, W Keith

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ". . . an expository masterpiece of the highest didactic value that has gained additional attractivity through the various improvements . . ."-Zentralblatt MATH The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Abstract Algebra continues to provide an accessible approach to the basic structures of abstract algebra: groups, rings, and fields. The book's unique presentation helps readers advance to abstract theory by presenting concrete examples of induction, number theory, integers modulo n, and permutations before the abstract structures are defined. Readers can immediately be

  16. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  17. Radionuclides incorporation in activated natural nanotubes

    Silva, Jose Parra

    2016-01-01

    Natural palygorskite nanotubes show suitable physical and chemical properties and characteristics to be use as potential nanosorbent and immobilization matrix for the concentration and solidification of radionuclides present in nuclear wastes. In the development process of materials with sorption properties for the incorporation and subsequent immobilization of radionuclides, the most important steps are related with the generation of active sites simultaneously to the increase of the specific surface area and suitable heat treatment to producing the structural folding. This study evaluated the determining parameters and conditions for the activation process of the natural palygorskite nanotubes aiming at the sorption of radionuclides in the nanotubes structure and subsequent evaluation of the parameters involve in the structural folding by heat treatments. The optimized results about the maximum sorption capacity of nickel in activated natural nanotubes show that these structures are apt and suitable for incorporation of radionuclides similar to nickel. By this study is verified that the optimization of the acid activation process is fundamental to improve the sorption capacities for specifics radionuclides by activated natural nanotubes. Acid activation condition optimized maintaining structural integrity was able to remove around 33.3 wt.% of magnesium cations, equivalent to 6.30·10 -4 g·mol -1 , increasing in 42.8% the specific surface area and incorporating the same molar concentration of nickel present in the liquid radioactive waste at 80 min. (author)

  18. Abstracting Concepts and Methods.

    Borko, Harold; Bernier, Charles L.

    This text provides a complete discussion of abstracts--their history, production, organization, publication--and of indexing. Instructions for abstracting are outlined, and standards and criteria for abstracting are stated. Management, automation, and personnel are discussed in terms of possible economies that can be derived from the introduction…

  19. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  20. Considering clay rock heterogeneity in radionuclide retention

    Grambow, B.; Montavon, G.; Tournassat, C.; Giffaut, E.; Altmann, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock formation has a strong retention capacity for radionuclides, a favorable condition for the implementation of a nuclear waste repository. Principal retaining minerals are illite, and inter-stratified illite/smectite (I/S). Radionuclide retention has been studied on illite, illite/smectite and on clay rock obtained from different locations and data for retention on bentonite (80% smectite) are available. Sorption depends on the type of mineral, composition of mineralogical assemblages, individual mineral ion exchange capacities, ion distribution on exchange sites, specific surface areas, surface site types and densities for surface complexation as well as on water/rock ratios, temperature etc. As a consequence of mineralogical and textural variations, radionuclide retention properties are expected to vary with depth in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation. Using a simple additivity approach for the case of sorption of Cs and Ni it is shown that models and databases for illite and bentonite can be used to describe sorption in heterogeneous clay rock systems. A surface complexation/ion-exchange model as proposed by Bradbury and Baeyens without electrostatic contributions, was used directly as far as acid base properties are concerned but was modified with respect to sorption constants, in order to describe Na-, Ca, and Cs montmorillonite and bentonite MX-80 with a single set of surface complexation constants and also to account for carbonate and sulphate concentrations in groundwater. The model is integrated into the geochemical code PHREEQC considering dissolution/ precipitation/solubility constraints of accessory minerals (calcite, illite, celestite, quartz). Site densities for surface complexation and ion exchange are derived from the mass fractions of illite and of smectite in illite/smectite obtained from an overall fit of measured CEC data from all samples of the EST205 drill core

  1. Transfer of radionuclides to plants[Radioecology

    Nielsen, Sven P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    Sampling of Water Horsetail and Bracken Fern including upper soil layer (0-10 cm) and water was carried out in Torahult, Sweden, in Almindingen on Bornholm, in Asserbo and Arresoe on Zealand and in Sdr. Hostrup and Nydam mose in Jutland. Furthermore, sampling was carried out in 2004 for seawater, seaweed and shrimps at locations in Danish waters at Bornholm (Svenskehavn), at Zealand (Klint), at Lolland/Falster (Guldborgsund) and on the west coast of Jutland (Hirtshals, Agger, Hvide Sande and Roemoe). Concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides and uranium were determined in Bracken Fern, Water Horsetail and soil samples. The concentration ratios (CR) are highest for {sup 40}K in both plant species and show the lowest variability across locations. The CR's for 40K range from 1 to 2, while the CR's for the other radionuclides range one to three orders of magnitude lower. The CR's for {sup 137}Cs show particularly high variability across locations. The CR's were analysed in a two-way ANOVA on the log-transformed values to test differences between plant species and radionuclides. The difference between radionuclides was highly significant, p<0.01, whereas the difference between plant species was not significant. The concentration ratios are listed by radionuclide showing geometric mean values and geometric standard deviations. Analyses were made of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 99}Tc in marine samples. Concentration ratios calculated from the analysed samples are presented. The concentration ratios for {sup 99}Tc agree with those reported elsewhere in the Indofern Project. The concentration ratios for {sup 137}Cs in Fucus show a correlation to salinity with higher values in low salinity water at Bornholm than in high salinity water on the west coast of Jutland. (LN)

  2. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Bunburra Rockhole Achondrite Fall

    Welten, K.C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Meier, M.M.M.; Bland, P.A.; Spurný, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, Supplement (2009), A216-A216 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /72./. Nancy, 13.06.2009-18.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Bunburra Rockhole * cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.253, year: 2009

  3. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 240 Pu, and 3 H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  4. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  5. Conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements

    1986-01-01

    The South African Medical Research Council presented this conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements with application in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The conference was held in Bloemfontein from 3-6 February 1986. This work only consists of the abstracts of the seminars that were delivered on the conference. The radioisotopes that occur most of the time in the abstracts include Indium 111, Indium 114, Chromium 51, Iodine 125, Iodine 131 and Carbon 14. Especially Indium 111 seems to be the method of choice for all labelling

  6. Migration of radionuclide chains in subseabed disposal

    Ray, A.K.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    In this study of subseabed disposal, the two dimensional (axial and radial) migration of radionuclide chains released from a canister located in a sedimentary layer bounded at the top by the ocean and at the bottom by an impermeable basalt zone is analyzed to determine the escape rate of radionuclides into the seawater. Analytical solutions have been derived to represent the transient concentration profiles within the sediment, flux and discharge rates to the water column of each member present in a decay chain. Using the properties of chain members present in actinide decay systems, the effects of half-life, adsorption equilibrium and other relevant parameters are elucidated. 4 figures, 1 table

  7. Granulometric analysis of sediments containing transuranic radionuclides

    Smith, R.M.; Additon, M.K.

    1980-11-01

    A dry sieving technique using a sonic sifter was selected for the granulometric analysis of sediment samples containing radionuclide contamination. A sieve facility was established in the 234-5Z building for this purpose. Fifty-two contaminated sediment samples from the 216-Z-1A crib were sieved in the facility at a rate of two to four samples per day with no major problems. A comparison of particle size and radionuclide concentration indicated that there is no obvious benefit to particle size separation as a means of sediment decontamination, though an economic analysis will have to be conducted before a final decision can be made

  8. Radionuclide accumulations in Clinch River fish

    Oakes, T.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fish samples were collected from several locations above Melton Hill Dam, which is upstream from the liquid effluent release point of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The sampling locations were chosen to determine the accumulation of natural and man-made radionuclides in fish from areas in the Clinch River not influenced by the Laboratory's liquid effluents. Bass, carp, crappie, shad, bluegill, and other sunfish were collected; ten fish per species were composited to form a single sample for each location. The gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Estimates of radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fish are made

  9. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  10. Monitoring of radionuclides in the air of Monaco during 1997-1998

    Pham, M.K.; Povinec, P.P.; Huynh Ngoc, L.

    1999-01-01

    IAEA-MEL has been carried out monitoring of radionuclides in the air of Monaco for several years. Several natural (cosmogenic, radiogenic and primordial) and anthropogenic radionuclides are found in the atmosphere. The measurement of these radionuclides in the atmosphere is helping to study their temporal variations and to estimate their deposition rates to oceans and to seas. We report here concentrations of some radionuclides in air of Monaco during 1997-1998

  11. 2018 Congress Poster Abstracts

    2018-02-21

    Each abstract has been indexed according to the first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. Poster numbers are subject to change. For updated poster numbers, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.

  12. 2018 Congress Podium Abstracts

    2018-02-21

    Each abstract has been indexed according to first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. For Congress scheduling information, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.

  13. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  14. The behaviour of radionuclides in soil

    Bunzl, K.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclides in soil are of natural as well as of artificial origin. Their migration in the soil and their availability for ecological processes depend considerably on the extent at which they are sorbed. The methods for the determination of the vertical rate of migration are described. For most radionuclides this transport is very slow (a few cm per year). Cs-137 is of especial interest. It is sorbed strongly by most soils and, as a consequence, its root uptake is small. However, as a result of the sorption, this radionuclide is eluted from the root zone only very slowly and its thus available for the root uptake for many years. The Cs-137 concentrations in plants to be expected in the coming years as a result of the fallout from Chernobyl are small. (orig.) [de

  15. Compilation of Theses Abstracts

    2005-01-01

    This publication contains unclassified/unrestricted abstracts of classified or restricted theses submitted for the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Business Administration, Master of Science...

  16. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  17. Exposure-dose research for radionuclides in natural gas

    McNelis, D.N.; Patzer, R.G.

    1969-01-01

    The fate determination of specific radionuclides in natural gas stimulated by underground engineering applications is being examined. An experimental program, now in its initial stages, is using gas artificially labeled with krypton-85 and tritium under simulated domestic situations. The following topics are being investigated in this study: 1. The concentration of the radionuclides in a gas-heated home. 2. The build-up of contamination on appliances in the kitchen environment. 3. The concentration in foods as a function of radionuclide, food type and preparation. 4. The maximum exposure plausible under specified conditions. (author)

  18. Exposure-dose research for radionuclides in natural gas

    McNelis, D N; Patzer, R G [Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory, U.S. Public Health Service, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The fate determination of specific radionuclides in natural gas stimulated by underground engineering applications is being examined. An experimental program, now in its initial stages, is using gas artificially labeled with krypton-85 and tritium under simulated domestic situations. The following topics are being investigated in this study: 1. The concentration of the radionuclides in a gas-heated home. 2. The build-up of contamination on appliances in the kitchen environment. 3. The concentration in foods as a function of radionuclide, food type and preparation. 4. The maximum exposure plausible under specified conditions. (author)

  19. Nuclear medicine. Abstracts; Nuklearmedizin 2000. Abstracts

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [German] Die vorliegende Zeitschrift enthaelt die Kurzfassungen der 183 auf der Tagung gehaltenen Vortraege sowie der 226 praesentierten Poster, die sich mit den folgenden Themen befassten: Neurologie, Psychiatrie, Onkologie, Paediatrie, Radiopharmazie, Endokrinologie, EDV, Messtechnik, Strahlenschutz, Kardiologie sowie Therapie. (MG)

  20. Radionuclides in foods

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  1. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  2. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  3. Radionuclide deposition control

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  4. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  5. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  6. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  7. Truthful Monadic Abstractions

    Brock-Nannestad, Taus; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    indefinitely, finding neither a proof nor a disproof of a given subgoal. In this paper we characterize a family of truth-preserving abstractions from intuitionistic first-order logic to the monadic fragment of classical first-order logic. Because they are truthful, these abstractions can be used to disprove...

  8. Program and abstracts

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled: Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Plasma Physics; Solar-Terrestrial Physics; Astrophysics and Astronomy; Radioastronomy; General Physics; Applied Physics; Industrial Physics

  9. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.

  10. The deleuzian abstract machines

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...

  11. Check Sample Abstracts.

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  12. Separation of Ionic Solutes: Abstracts of the sixth international conference

    1995-05-01

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the international conference dealing with separation of ionic solutes. The book consists of the sections: (A) Theory of solutions and processes; (B) Solvent extraction, liquid membranes and biphasic separations; (C) Capillary electrophoresis and isotachophoresis; (D) Selective and natural sorbents; (E) Fractionation of radionuclides and metals in natural systems - transfer and speciation

  13. Separation of Ionic Solutes: Abstracts of the sixth international conference

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the international conference dealing with separation of ionic solutes. The book consists of the sections: (A) Theory of solutions and processes; (B) Solvent extraction, liquid membranes and biphasic separations; (C) Capillary electrophoresis and isotachophoresis; (D) Selective and natural sorbents; (E) Fractionation of radionuclides and metals in natural systems - transfer and speciation.

  14. On the behaviour of artificial radionuclides at the Baltic sea coastal zone

    Styro, D.B.; Astrauskene, N.P.; Kadzhene, G.I.; Lukinskene, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    The measured results of the 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 144 Ce radionuclide concentrations near the settlement of Juodkrante at the Baltic Sea coast have been considered. The instability of the mean values of the radionuclide concentrations, especially that of strontium-90, has been determined. A certain increase of the radionuclide concentration near the sea coast as compared to that in the open sea has been noted, as well as the influence of the stormy weather on the absolute values of the radionuclide concentration at the coastal zone. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  16. Radionuclides distribution in artificial reservoir V-17 (old swamp)

    Kuzmenkova, N. [Vernadsky Institute of geochemistry and analytical chemistry RAS (Russian Federation); Vlasova, I.; Sapozhnikov, Y.; Kalmykov, S. [Lomonosov MSU, Chemistry Dep. (Russian Federation); Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research center for radiation medicine (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. [FSUE Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Reservoir V-17 (Old Swamp) was formed as a result of the construction of dams in 1952 and 1954 (MAYAK Production Association),located in a natural depression relief. Intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes (ILLW) have been discharged to this reservoir since 1949. The water surface area of the lake is 0.13 km{sup 2} with the volume of 0.36 Mm{sup 3}. The maximum depth is 6.5 m with the average value of 2.8 m. Among 74 PBq deposited to the reservoir, the major portion is concentrated in the bottom sediments (as determined in 2007). The aim of this study is to determine radionuclide distribution among abiotic and biotic aquatic components, that includes study of various radionuclides distribution between water and bottom sediments, their speciation and evaluation of condition of zooplankton community. As a result of field research at the reservoir, 4 sampling locations were chosen from which bottom sediments, water samples and some hydrobionts were collected. Pore waters were separated from the wet sediments by high-speed centrifugation. All samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector Canberra GR 3818.The radioactivity of tritium in the pore and lake waters was determined by liquid-scintillation spectrometry. The strontium-90 was detected by Cherenkov counting of the daughter {sup 90}Y. The preliminary data show for sediments samples: for {sup 137}Cs amount varies from 75,5 KBq/g to 232 KBq/g, {sup 154}Eu - from 460 to 990 Bq/g, {sup 241}Am - from 1 to 4 KBq/g, {sup 134}Cs - from 50 to 220 Bq/g; for water samples: large contribution from strontium-90 and tritium (varies from 2 to 25 Bq/g). Pore water contains medium amount of radionuclides between sediments and water samples. For {sup 137}Cs varies between 160 to 1100 Bq/g, {sup 154}Eu - from 0,1 to 0,3 Bq/g, {sup 241}Am - from 0,3 to 11 Bq/g, {sup 134}Cs - from 0,1 to 1,7 Bq/g. Variation depends on the sampling place. Activity distribution among hydrobionts was studied by digital Radiography

  17. Building shielding effects on radiation doses from routine radionuclide releases

    Kocher, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    In calculating population doses from the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere, it is usually assumed that man spends all of his time outdoors standing on a smooth infinite plane. Realistically, however, man spends most of the time indoors, so that substantial reductions in radiation doses may result compared with the usual estimates. Calculational models were developed to study the effects of building structures on radiation doses from routine releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Both internal dose from inhaled radionuclides and external photon dose from airborne and surface-deposited radionuclides are considered. The effect of building structures is described quantitatively by a dose reduction factor, which is the ratio of the dose inside a structure to the corresponding dose with no structure present. The internal dose from inhaled radionuclides is proportional to the radionuclide concentration in the air. Assuming that the outdoor airborne concentration is constant with time, the time-dependence of the indoor airborne concentration in terms of the structure air ventilation rate, the deposition velocities for radionuclides on the inside floor, walls, and ceiling, and the radioactive decay constant, were calculated

  18. Uptake of radionuclides by vegetation at a High Arctic location

    Dowdall, M.; Gwynn, J.P.; Moran, C.; O'Dea, J.; Davids, C.; Lind, B.

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclide levels in vegetation from a High Arctic location were studied and compared to in situ soil concentrations. Levels of the anthropogenic radionuclide 137 Cs and the natural radionuclides 40 K, 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th are discussed and transfer factor (TF) values and aggregated transfer (Tag) values are calculated for vascular plants. Levels of 137 Cs in vegetation generally followed the order mosses > lichen > vascular plants. The uptake of 137 Cs in vascular plants showed an inverse relationship with the uptake of 40 K, with 137 Cs TF and Tag values generally higher than 40 K TF and Tag values. 40 K activity concentrations in all vegetation showed little correlation to associated soil concentrations, while the uptake of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th by vascular and non-vascular plants was generally low. - Uptake of the anthropogenic radionuclide 137 Cs is highest for moss species

  19. Impact assessment of radionuclides released to environment from the European Spallation Source

    Nielsen, S.; Andersson, K. [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Ene, D. [European Spallation Soure AB - ESS, Lund (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a large science and technology infrastructure project currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, with operation planned by 2019. The facility design and construction includes a linear proton accelerator, a heavy-metal target station, neutron instruments, laboratories, and a data management and software development centre. During operation the ESS will produce a wide range of radionuclides via spallation and activation processes. Radiological assessments are needed to ensure that operational discharges and releases from potential incidents/accidents are within acceptable limits. The spectrum of radionuclides produced at ESS is quite different from that produced in nuclear power plants and assessment work has therefore been challenged by lack of information on less well-known radionuclides. Traditional assessment methodologies have been applied focusing on releases to air and public sewer systems and calculating radiation doses to representative persons living in and near Lund close to the ESS site. Exposure pathways considered include external radiation from radionuclides in air, external radiation from radionuclides deposited on ground and skin, inhalation of radionuclides and ingestion of locally produced contaminated food. Atmospheric dispersion has been simulated with the Gaussian plume model which is considered adequate within a few kilometres. Effects of release height have been investigated and site specific values of other parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, rain fall etc. have been used. Contamination of food has been calculated from the (ECOSYS) food dose model used in the RODOS and ARGOS decision support systems. The food dose model does not contain specific data for a number of ESS relevant radionuclides, e.g. {sup 7}Be, {sup 32}P and {sup 35}S. The data required include mobility of these isotopes, soil-to-plant concentration ratios and equilibrium transfer factors of daily intake by ingestion of meat

  20. Taking radionuclides to heart

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  1. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  2. Soil burden by radionuclides

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  3. Radionuclide body function imager

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus is claimed. It comprises: a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; means for rotating the array about the scan field and means for imparting travel to the collimators

  4. Radionuclides in forest biogeocenose elements

    Bulavik, I.M.; Zhuchenko, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 year investigations are made on a studying of the radionuclide distribution (CS-137 and Sr-90) through the main forest biogeocenose elements (a litter a mineral soil layer, overground trees parts) on 5 experimental objects of Gomel' region with a various contamination. Radiation characters of the objects are done. As compared with 1989 year cesium and strontium migration from tress into the litter and from the litter to the soil is shown. In the litter and upper soil layer (5 m) contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are 95 and 80% accordingly. The Sr-90 concentration in the wood and the isotope concentration change through yearly layers (1986-1991 years) are studied. Wood layers formed to the accident have a lesser cesium concentration, especially in the oax-tree. The highest Cs and Se translocation, into the wood is noted in the pine the lesse one in the oax-tree. Among all elements of the biogeocenose the highest Cs-137 concentration the litter has and then one-year-old shoots, needles, lives, the bark and the wood go on. Even on the sixth year after the accident Cs concentration in the wood was 20-30 times less, than the one in needes and one-year-old shoot of this year. 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  5. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  6. Bioaccumulation factors for radionuclides in freshwater biota

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Parzyck, D.C.; Wilcox, W.H.; Kercher, J.R.; Kaye, S.V.

    1975-11-01

    This report analyzes over 200 carefully selected papers to provide concise data sets and methodology for estimation of bioaccumulation factors for tritium and isotopes of strontium, cesium, iodine, manganese, and cobalt in major biotic components of freshwater environments. Bioaccumulation factors of different tissues are distinguished where significant differences occur. Since conditions in the laboratory are often unnatural in terms of chemical and ecological relationships, this review was restricted as far as possible to bioaccumulation factors determined for natural systems. Because bioaccumulation factors were not available for some shorter-lived radionuclides, a methodology for converting bioaccumulation factors of stable isotopes to those of shorter-lived radionuclides was derived and utilized. The bioaccumulation factor for a radionuclide in a given organism or tissue may exhibit wide variations among bodies of water that are related to differences in ambient concentrations of stable-element and carrier-element analogues. To account for these variations, simple models are presented that relate bioaccumulation factors to stable-element and carrier-element concentrations in water. The effects of physicochemical form and other factors in causing deviations from these models are discussed. Bioaccumulation factor data are examined in the context of these models, and bioaccumulation factor relations for the selected radionuclides are presented

  7. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  8. Scientific meeting abstracts

    1999-01-01

    The document is a collection of the scientific meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, different aspects of energy and presents research done in 1999 in these fields

  9. Science meeting. Abstracts

    2000-01-01

    the document is a collection of the science meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, material sciences different aspects of energy and presents research done in 2000 in these fields

  10. Mathematical games, abstract games

    Neto, Joao Pedro

    2013-01-01

    User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

  11. Abstracts of contributed papers

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  12. Stochastic analysis of radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils

    Kawanishi, Moto

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, LLRW (low level radioactive wastes) generated from nuclear power plants shall be started to store concentrically in the Shimokita site from 1990, and those could be transformed into land disposal if the positive safety is confirmed. Therefore, it is hoped that the safety assessment method shall be successed for the land disposal of LLRW. In this study, a stochastic model to analyze the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils was constructed. The principal results are summarized as follows. 1) We presented a generalized idea for the modeling of the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils as an advective-dispersion phenomena followed by the decay of radionuclides and those adsorption/desorption in soils. 2) Based on the radionuclide migration model mentioned above, we developed a stochastic analysis model on radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. 3) From the comparison between the simulated results and the exact solution on a few simple one-dimensional advective-dispersion problems of radionuclides, the good validity of this model was confirmed. 4) From the comparison between the simulated results by this model and the experimental results of radionuclide migration in a one-dimensional unsaturated soil column with rainfall, the good applicability was shown. 5) As the stochastic model such as this has several advantages that it is easily able to represent the image of physical phenomena and has basically no numerical dissipation, this model should be more applicable to the analysis of the complicated radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. (author)

  13. Developing role of short-lived radionuclides in nuclear medical practice. DOE symposium series; 56

    Paras, P.; Thiessen, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to define the developing role and state-of-the-art development of short-lived radionuclides (SLR's) in current nuclear medical practice. Special emphasis was placed on radionuclides with general-purpose labeling capabilities. The need for high-purity labeling-grade iodine-123 was emphasized in the program. Papers have been separately abstracted for the data base

  14. Estimation of total error in DWPF reported radionuclide inventories. Revision 1

    Edwards, T.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is required to determine and report the radionuclide inventory of its glass product. For each macro-batch, the DWPF will report both the total amount (in curies) of each reportable radionuclide and the average concentration (in curies/gram of glass) of each reportable radionuclide. The DWPF is to provide the estimated error of these reported values of its radionuclide inventory as well. The objective of this document is to provide a framework for determining the estimated error in DWPF's reporting of these radionuclide inventories. This report investigates the impact of random errors due to measurement and sampling on the total amount of each reportable radionuclide in a given macro-batch. In addition, the impact of these measurement and sampling errors and process variation are evaluated to determine the uncertainty in the reported average concentrations of radionuclides in DWPF's filled canister inventory resulting from each macro-batch

  15. CRRIS, Health Risk Assessment from Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CRRIS consists of eight fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport of atmospheric releases of radionuclides and resulting doses and health risks to individuals or populations. Each code may be used alone for various assessment applications. Because of its modular structure, CRRIS allows assessments to be tailored to the user's needs. Radionuclides are handled by CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or the exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and decay products that build up during environmental transport. Atmospheric dispersion calculations are performed by the ANEMOS computer code for distances less than 100 km and the RETADD-II computer code regional-scale distances. Both codes estimate annual-average air concentrations and ground deposition rates by location. SUMIT will translate and scale multiple ANEMOS runs onto a master grid. TERRA reads radionuclide air concentrations and deposition rates to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in food and surface soil. Radiologic decay and ingrowth, soil leaching, and transport through the food chain are included in the calculations. MLSOIL computes an effective radionuclide ground-surface concentration to be used in computing external health effects. The five-layer model of radionuclide transport through soil in MLSOIL provides an alternative to the single-layer model used in TERRA. DFSOIL computes dose factors used in MLSOIL to compute doses from the five soil layers and from the ground surface. ANDROS reads environmental concentrations of radionuclides computed by the other CRRIS codes and produces tables of doses and risks to individuals or populations from atmospheric releases of radionuclides. 2 - Method of solution: SUMIT performs geometric interpolation. TERRA and MLSOIL are terrestrial transport compartment models. DFSOIL computes soil-layer-specific dose factors based on the point-kernel method

  16. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  17. DSNF AND OTHER WASTE FORM DEGRADATION ABSTRACTION

    Thornton, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to select and/or abstract conservative degradation models for DOE-(US. Department of Energy) owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) and the immobilized ceramic plutonium (Pu) disposition waste forms for application in the proposed monitored geologic repository (MGR) postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Application of the degradation models abstracted herein for purposes other than TSPA should take into consideration the fact that they are, in general, very conservative. Using these models, the forward reaction rate for the mobilization of radionuclides, as solutes or colloids, away from the waste fondwater interface by contact with repository groundwater can then be calculated. This forward reaction rate generally consists of the dissolution reaction at the surface of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in contact with water, but the degradation models, in some cases, may also include and account for the physical disintegration of the SNF matrix. The models do not, however, account for retardation, precipitation, or inhibition of the migration of the mobilized radionuclides in the engineered barrier system (EBS). These models are based on the assumption that all components of the DSNF waste form are released congruently with the degradation of the matrix

  18. DSNF and other waste form degradation abstraction

    Thornton, Thomas A.

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to select and/or abstract conservative degradation models for DOE-(US. Department of Energy) owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) and the immobilized ceramic plutonium (Pu) disposition waste forms for application in the proposed monitored geologic repository (MGR) postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Application of the degradation models abstracted herein for purposes other than TSPA should take into consideration the fact that they are, in general, very conservative. Using these models, the forward reaction rate for the mobilization of radionuclides, as solutes or colloids, away from the waste fondwater interface by contact with repository groundwater can then be calculated. This forward reaction rate generally consists of the dissolution reaction at the surface of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in contact with water, but the degradation models, in some cases, may also include and account for the physical disintegration of the SNF matrix. The models do not, however, account for retardation, precipitation, or inhibition of the migration of the mobilized radionuclides in the engineered barrier system (EBS). These models are based on the assumption that all components of the DSNF waste form are released congruently with the degradation of the matrix.

  19. Radionuclides in food

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  20. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  1. Bioaccumulation of radionuclides in fertilized Canadian Shield lake basins

    Bird, G.A.; Schwartz, W.J.; Hesslein, R.H.; Mills, K.H.; Turner, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide tracers of heavy metals ( 59 Fe, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 75 Se 85 Sr, 134 Cs and 203 Hg) representing potential contamination from nuclear power plants, industry and agriculture were added to separate basins of Lake 226, Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario. The two basins were part of a eutrophication experiment and differed in their trophic status; the north basin (L226N) was eutrophic whereas the south basin (L226S) was mesotrophic. Our objective was to determine the uptake of the radionuclides by biota and the effect of lake trophic status on their bioaccumulation. The trophic status of the lakes did not appear to have a marked effect on the accumulation of radionuclides by the biota. This may have been because of a mid-summer leakage of nutrients between the basins which enhanced primary production in L226S, because there is a time lag between primary production and the availability of the radionuclides to the fishes or because trophic status does not affect the uptake of at least some of these radionuclides. However, there was a tendency for faster uptake of the radionuclides in L226N by fish than L226S, but the differences were not significant. Concentrations in the biota generally decreased in the order: fathead minnow>pearl dace>tadpoles>slimy sculpin>leeches. Concentrations in biota generally decreased in the order: 65 Zn> 203 Hg> 75 Se> 134 Cs> 60 Co> 85 Sr= 59 Fe. Cobalt-60 concentrations in tadpoles were greater than in the other biota. Radionuclide concentrations in the tissues of lake whitefish indicated that uptake was predominately from food. Radionuclide concentrations were usually higher in the posterior gut, liver and kidney than in other tissues, whereas body burdens were generally high in the muscle for 75 Se, 134 Cs and 203 Hg; kidney and gut for 60 Co; and bone for 65 Zn and 75 Se. Mercury-203 burdens were also high in the bone and gut

  2. Radionuclide Content of Pasteurized Milk Sold in Mafikeng, South Africa

    Olobatoke, R.; Mathuthu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many food animals which are important components of human food chain are effective collectors of radionuclides from the environment particularly contaminated forages, and therefore represent a significant pathway for the transfer of radionuclides to humans. Many important radionuclides are readily transferred to milk thus the product is considered as one of the basic food items recommended for the assessment of radionuclide exposure within a population. The current study aimed at assessing the radionuclide content of commercial milk commonly sold in South Africa in other to set a baseline data for radionuclide concentration of the products. Three popular brands of commercial milk (A, B and C) were sampled, with two samples obtained for each brand. The concentration of individual radionuclide in the milk samples, particularly "1"3"1I, "1"3"7Cs and "2"3"5U was measured by gamma spectroscopy. The results showed that brand A had the highest concentrations of "2"3"5U and "1"3"7Cs (203 and 324 mBq/l respectively) but the lowest concentration of "1"3"1I (6.4 mBq/l). The highest concentration of "1"3"1I (148 mBq/l) was detected in brand B whereas both "2"3"5U and "1"3"1I were not detected in brand C. All the values however were well below the new standard limits for individual radionuclides in milk established by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This study indicates that the commercial milk brands assessed pose no radiation health threat to the consumers. (author)

  3. Statistical analysis of fallout radionuclides transfer to paddy-field rice

    Takahashi, T.; Morisawa, S.; Inoue, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclides released from nuclear facilities to atmosphere are transported through various pathways in biosphere and cause human exposure. Among these radionuclides transfer pathways, an ingestion of crops containing radionuclides is one of the dominant pathway for human exposure. For the safety assessment of nuclear facilities, it is important to understand the behavior of radionuclides in agricultural environment and to describe them in a mathematical model. In this paper, a statistical model is proposed for estimating the concentration of fallout radionuclides in paddy-field rice, the staple food for Japanese people. For describing behavior of fallout radionuclides in a paddy-field, a dynamic model and a statistical model have been proposed respectively. The model used in this study has been developed assuming that the amount of radionuclides transfer to brown rice (hulled rice) or polished rice through direct deposition of airborne radionuclides (the direct deposition pathway) and root uptake from a paddy soil (the root uptake pathway) are proportional to the deposition flux of radionuclides and concentration of radionuclides in paddy soil respectively. That is, the model has two independent variables; the deposition flux of radionuclides and the concentration of radionuclides in the paddy soil, and has single dependent variable; the concentration of radionuclides in brown rice or polished rice. The regression analysis is applied by using environmental monitoring data. Then the distribution of radionuclides between rice-bran (skin part of rice crop) and polished rice (core part) through both the direct deposition pathway and the root uptake pathway are evaluated by the model. (author)

  4. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    package has been breached but the drip shield remains intact, so all of the seepage flow is diverted from the waste package. The chemistry from the vapor influx case is used to determine the stability of colloids and the solubility of radionuclides available for transport by diffusion, and to determine the degradation rates for the waste forms. TSPA-LA uses the water influx case for the seismic scenario, where the waste package has been breached and the drip shield has been damaged such that seepage flow is actually directed into the waste package. The chemistry from the water influx case that is a function of the flow rate is used to determine the stability of colloids and the solubility of radionuclides available for transport by diffusion and advection, and to determine the degradation rates for the CSNF and HLW glass. TSPA-LA does not use this model for the igneous scenario. Outputs from the in-package chemistry model implemented inside TSPA-LA include pH, ionic strength, and total carbonate concentration. These inputs to TSPA-LA will be linked to the following principle factors: dissolution rates of the CSNF and HLWG, dissolved concentrations of radionuclides, and colloid generation.

  5. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    E. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    breached but the drip shield remains intact, so all of the seepage flow is diverted from the waste package. The chemistry from the vapor influx case is used to determine the stability of colloids and the solubility of radionuclides available for transport by diffusion, and to determine the degradation rates for the waste forms. TSPA-LA uses the water influx case for the seismic scenario, where the waste package has been breached and the drip shield has been damaged such that seepage flow is actually directed into the waste package. The chemistry from the water influx case that is a function of the flow rate is used to determine the stability of colloids and the solubility of radionuclides available for transport by diffusion and advection, and to determine the degradation rates for the CSNF and HLW glass. TSPA-LA does not use this model for the igneous scenario. Outputs from the in-package chemistry model implemented inside TSPA-LA include pH, ionic strength, and total carbonate concentration. These inputs to TSPA-LA will be linked to the following principle factors: dissolution rates of the CSNF and HLWG, dissolved concentrations of radionuclides, and colloid generation

  6. Radionuclide transport from near-surface repository for radioactive waste - The unsaturated zone approach

    Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, V. [Vilnius University (Lithuania); Mazeika, J. [Nature Research Centre (Lithuania); Motiejunas, S. [Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    is predicted after about 10 000 years after repository closure, while its activity concentration in the disposed waste is 4.7x10{sup 9} Bq/m{sup 3}. The predicted maximum activity concentrations of the others modeled mobile radionuclides {sup 3}H (after 120 years after repository closure), {sup 94}Nb (after 350 000 years) and {sup 59}Ni (after 233 000 years) at the groundwater table are respectively 4.9x10{sup 4}, 1.3x10{sup 4} and 8.4x10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 3}. The radionuclide transfer simulation results demonstrate that the investigated long-lived radionuclides will not completely decay in the repository vaults, however the increased activities could be observed in the environment after long time period only. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  7. The Nuclear Data Commission and the Radionuclide Data Centre in Russia

    1994-12-01

    The document includes two papers: 'The Work of the Nuclear Data Commission' and 'Radionuclide Data Centre', which describe the activities of these two organizations of the Russian Federation. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  8. Radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone with a variable hydrology

    Elert, M.; Collin, M.; Andersson, Birgitta; Lindgren, M.

    1990-01-01

    Radionuclide transport from contaminated ground water to the root zone of a soil has been modelled considering a variable hydrology. Hydrological calculations have been coupled with radionuclide transport calculations in order to study the influence of variations in flow rate and saturation, dispersion, and sorption. For non-sorbing radionuclides important seasonal variations in the root zone concentration were found. The dispersivity parameter proved to be very important for both sorbing and non-sorbing nuclides. In addition, some comparison calculations were made with a simple steady-state compartment model. (au)

  9. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu radionuclides speciation in soils of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    Kabdyrakova, A.M.; Kunduzbaeva, A.Y.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Magasheva, R.Y. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results of studies into {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu techno-genic radionuclides speciation in soils of ecosystems at different topography of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), exposed to different nuclear testing. The data were obtained for radionuclides speciation in soils of the following STS ecosystems: - grassland ecosystems within near-portal areas of tunnels - horizontal adits constructed for nuclear testing, affected by radioactive-contaminated water flows from the tunnels of Degelen Site; - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination resulted from above-ground and aerial nuclear testing of different yield, as well as simulation (hydrodynamic and hydro-nuclear) experiments at 'Experimental Field' testing site. - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination caused by testing of liquid and powdery radiological warfare weapon (RWW) at Site '4 a'; - 'Northern' and 'Western' areas of STS, where concentration level of artificial radionuclides in soil is comparable with the level of global fall-outs ('background' areas). To study the radionuclides speciation, method of sequential extraction was applied, and water-soluble, exchange, organic mobile and tightly bound forms were separated. Feature of the studied grassland ecosystems is that they are developed solely along the bed of water streams flowing from tunnels and are located at small area of 1-2 m{sup 2}. Radioactive contamination of soil is caused by radioactive contaminant sorption by sediments. Despite the significant space limitation of the ecosystems content of radionuclides speciation in soil greatly varies, particularly readily-soluble and mobile forms. The variation may be explained by high humidity which makes possible both sorption and desorption processes. If basic radionuclides contributing to radioactive contamination of grassland soils at Degelen Site are {sup

  10. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  11. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  12. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  13. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  14. Sorption of radionuclides on a soil

    Fukui, Masami

    1979-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes into the ground has been discussed, and this paper emphasized significance of the investigation for underground water flow and for the prediction of radionuclides through a stratified aquifer using column experiments to evaluate the internal radiation dose. Distributions and redistributions of radionuclides in a sandy layer were observed to identify the sorption model which predicts the behavior, and the underground water flow in the Plio-Pleistocene Osaka Group was investigated as an example, by mean of the measurement of 222 Rn concentration, the pumping technique and the tracer technique using the activation analysis. Then, the estimation of radioactive concentration in the underground water was worked out for the boundary condition of steady state inflow of liquid wastes and of which the 90 Sr are leached from the solidified body, moreover, the equation which easily evaluates the suitability of the disposal site was proposed. These approach may be useful for the actual site selection of radioactive wastes disposal. (author)

  15. Radionuclide limits for vault disposal at the Savannah River Site

    Cook, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is developing a facility called the E-Area Vaults which will serve as the new radioactive waste disposal facility beginning early in 1992. The facility will employ engineered below-grade concrete vaults for disposal and above grade storage for certain long-lived mobile radionuclides. This report documents the determination of interim upper limits for radionuclide inventories and concentrations which should be allowed in the disposal structures. The work presented here will aid in the development of both waste acceptance criteria and operating limits for the E-Area Vaults. Disposal limits for forty isotopes which comprise the SRS waste streams were determined. The limits are based on total facility and vault inventories for those radionuclides which impact groundwater) and on waste package concentrations for those radionuclides which could affect intruders. (author)

  16. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  17. Radionuclide fate and effects

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  18. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg{sup −1}, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (< 1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, {sup 210}Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m{sup −3}, while in smoke-free air {sup 210}Po concentration was about 30 μBq m{sup −3}. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from {sup 210}Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of {sup 210}Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons.

  19. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized into the no......Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized...

  20. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  1. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  2. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  3. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  4. Radionuclide solubilities to be used in SKB 91

    Bruno, J.; Sellin, P.

    1992-06-01

    We have performed thermodynamic calculations in order to assess the solubility limits (source term) for selected radionuclides. Equilibrium solubilities for U, Pu, Np, Am, Th, Ra, Sn, Tc, Zr, Sn, Ni, Sm, Pa, Nb and Pd have been calculated in four waters, representing average fresh and saline granitic groundwaters under oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively. The results from the calculations have been compared with the measured radionuclide concentrations in natural waters as well as in spent fuel leaching tests. (26 refs.)

  5. Nuclear medicine. Abstracts

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Gross, M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])

  7. Annual Conference Abstracts

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  8. WWNPQFT-2013 - Abstracts

    Cessac, B.; Bianchi, E.; Bellon, M.; Fried, H.; Krajewski, T.; Schubert, C.; Barre, J.; Hofmann, R.; Muller, B.; Raffaelli, B.

    2014-01-01

    The object of this Workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non perturbative-like Field Theories, relying in Functional Methods, Renormalization Group, and Dyson-Schwinger Equations. A presentation deals with effective vertices and photon-photon scattering in SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  9. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  10. Full Abstraction for HOPLA

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2003-01-01

    A fully abstract denotational semantics for the higher-order process language HOPLA is presented. It characterises contextual and logical equivalence, the latter linking up with simulation. The semantics is a clean, domain-theoretic description of processes as downwards-closed sets of computation...

  11. Abstraction and art.

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-07-29

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music.

  12. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  13. Abstract algebra for physicists

    Zeman, J.

    1975-06-01

    Certain recent models of composite hadrons involve concepts and theorems from abstract algebra which are unfamiliar to most theoretical physicists. The algebraic apparatus needed for an understanding of these models is summarized here. Particular emphasis is given to algebraic structures which are not assumed to be associative. (2 figures) (auth)

  14. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  15. The Abstraction Engine

    Fortescue, Michael David

    The main thesis of this book is that abstraction, far from being confined to higher formsof cognition, language and logical reasoning, has actually been a major driving forcethroughout the evolution of creatures with brains. It is manifest in emotive as well as rationalthought. Wending its way th...

  16. Impredicative concurrent abstract predicates

    Svendsen, Kasper; Birkedal, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We present impredicative concurrent abstract predicates { iCAP { a program logic for modular reasoning about concurrent, higher- order, reentrant, imperative code. Building on earlier work, iCAP uses protocols to reason about shared mutable state. A key novel feature of iCAP is the ability to dene...

  17. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  18. SPR 2015. Abstracts

    2015-01-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.

  19. Beyond the abstractions?

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2006-01-01

      The anniversary of the International Journal of Lifelong Education takes place in the middle of a conceptual landslide from lifelong education to lifelong learning. Contemporary discourses of lifelong learning etc are however abstractions behind which new functions and agendas for adult education...

  20. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…