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Sample records for radionuclide brain scanning

  1. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  2. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  3. The use of radionuclides in brain scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Brain scanning is easy to perform, safe and well tolerated by the patient. It has a high sensitivity, and accuracy (85-90%) in detecting focal lesions with a minimal size of 1.5-2cm, located superior to the brain stem; however, it lacks specificity. It does not compete with other procedures such as CT scan and angiography bit they rather complement one another. The brain scan is useful as a screening exam. (Author) [pt

  4. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  5. Osmotic blood-brain barrier modification: clinical documentation by enhanced CT scanning and/or radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuwelt, E.A.; Specht, H.D.; Howieson, J.; Haines, J.E.; Bennett, M.J.; Hill, S.A.; Frenkel, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Results of initial clinical trials of brain tumor chemotherapy after osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption are promising. In general, the procedure is well tolerated. The major complication has been seizures. In this report, data are presented which indicate that the etiology of these seizures is related to the use of contrast agent (meglumine iothalamate) to monitor barrier modification. A series of 19 patients underwent a total of 85 barrier modification procedures. Documentation of barrier disruption was monitored by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning, radionuclide brain scanning, or a combination of both techniques. In 56 procedures (19 patients) monitored by enhanced CT, seizures occurred a total of 10 times in eight patients. Twenty-three barrier modification procedures (in nine of these 19 patients) documented by nuclear brain scans alone, however, resulted in only one focal motor seizure in each of two patients. In eight of the 19 patients who had seizures after barrier disruption and enhanced CT scan, four subsequently had repeat procedures monitored by radionuclide scan alone. In only one of these patients was further seizure activity noted; a single focal motor seizure was observed. Clearly, the radionuclide brain scan does not have the sensitivity and spatial resolution of enhanced CT, but at present it appears safer to monitor barrier modification by this method and to follow tumor growth between barrier modifications by enhanced CT. Four illustrative cases showing methods, problems, and promising results are presented

  6. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  7. Design and application of the MARK IV scanning system for radionuclide computed tomography of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Phelps, M.E.; Ricci, A.; Reivich, M.

    1976-01-01

    The MARK IV radioisotope scanning system was built to provide fast and accurate radionuclide computed tomography (RCT). It is designed primarily for detecting commonly available radioactive labels such as /sup 99m/Tc, but it is also adapted to detecting positron emitters such as 18 F. The system has interlaced convergent collimation in a 4-sided arrangement of 32-independent detectors which continuously rotate as a unit, detecting, processing, and displaying the reconstructed data while the study progresses

  8. Design and application of Mark IV scanning system for radionuclide computed tomography of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Phelps, M.E.; Ricci, A.; Reivich, M.

    1977-01-01

    The MARK IV system was built in our laboratory to provide fast and accurate radionuclide computed tomography (RCT). It is designed primarily for detecting commonly available radioactive labels such as 99 Tcsup(m), but it is also adapted to detecting positron emitters such as 18 F. The system has interlaced convergent collimation in a four-sided arrangement of 32 independent detectors which continuously rotate as a unit, detecting, processing and displaying the reconstructed data while the study progresses. During the scanning procedure, accumulated data are transferred to a digital computer for reconstruction processing. Data are corrected to equalize detector response and compensate for photon attenuation in the head. This program requires 30 seconds for completion, whereupon the final reconstruction, a 64 x 64 matrix from the single revolution, outputs to a core store and is displayed on the screen of a cathode-ray tube. As the rotation sequence continues, new data from each revolution are added to previous data and reprocessed for a new picture. Since the instrument operates at 50 s per revolution, the continuous collection and processing of data causes a new picture to appear on the display every 50 s as the study progresses. The operator may extend or curtail the duration of the examination according to the appearance of the picture. In practice, a five revolution (4.2 min.) scan is commonly used in most clinical studies. The instrument is a high sensitivity device with approximately uniform resolution (1.7 cm FWHM) throughout the section plane. Quantification of concentration of radioactivity in small regions is accurate and reproducible. The instrument has been applied to the study of alterations in cerebral vascular permeability, blood flow and blood volume, and to the study of cerebral glucose metabolism and cerebral spinal fluid distribution. (author)

  9. Radionuclide techniques for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.J.; Moody, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past decade, many of the prime indications for radionuclide brain scanning have become instead indications for CCT, and nuclear medicine studies of the brain have assumed more of a complementary, supportive role. However, there is great promise for improvement in central nervous system radionuclide applications with advances anticipated in both radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation. Nuclear medicine is continuing to function as a powerful research tool and, in the relatively near future, may regain its role as a major clinical test of the central nervous system

  10. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  11. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pjura, G.A.; Kim, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  12. Radionuclide scan findings in delayed splenic rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, F.W.; Jackson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    An initial liver/spleen scan performed on a patient with blunt abdominal trauma was negative 3 days following the accident. A follow-up scan 7 days later showed definite evidence of splenic rupture, proved surgically. The authors conclude that, in such cases, spleen scans may be negative initially because of delayed splenic ruptures

  13. Radionuclides and the normal bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Monsein, L.; Rosenberg, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, Eisenhut and co-workers have described development of iodine-131 labeled diphosphonates for palliative treatment of bone metastases. The compound labeled was alpha-amino (4-hydroxybenzylidene) diphosphonate (BDP3). Other beta-emitting radionuclides have been used for treatment of intractable pain secondary to bone metastases. These include strontium-89, which has some difficulties, particularly in terms of disposal of the excretions due to the long physical half-life of the life of the radionuclide. Yttrium-90 has also been used but has a relatively high hepatic uptake. Phosphorus-32 labeled compounds have also been used. Although palliation has been described, bone marrow depression has also occurred. Rhenium-186 also has been suggested, however, high renal uptake is a problem. At present, the iodine-131 labeled BDP3 appears to be the best of the available therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. One of the major disadvantages in use of this compound is the production of gamma photons. While undesirable from a dosimetry viewpoint, gamma photons do, however, permit imaging if desired

  14. Radionuclide bone scanning of medullary chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, T.M.; Chew, F.S.; Manaster, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans of 18 medullary chondrosarcomas of bone were correlated with pathologic macrosections of the resected tumors. There was increased scan intake by all 18 tumors, and the uptake in 15 scans corresponded accurately to the anatomic extent of the tumors. Only three scans displayed increased uptake beyond the true tumor margins; thus, the ''extended pattern of uptake'' beyond the true tumor extent is much less common in medullary chondrosarcomas than in many other primary bone tumors. Therefore, increased uptake beyond the apparent radiographic margin of the tumor suggests possible occult tumor spread. Pathologically, there was intense reactive new bone formation and hyperemia around the periphery of all 18 tumors, and there were foci of enchondral ossification, hyperemia, or calcification within the tumor itself in nearly every tumor. Three scans displayed less uptake in the center of the tumors than around their peripheries. One of these tumors was necrotic in the center, but the other two were pathologically no different from tumors that displayed homogenous uptake on the scan

  15. Radionuclide bone scanning of medullary chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, T.M.; Chew, F.S.; Manaster, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate bone scans of 18 medullary chondrosarcomas of bone were correlated with pathologic macrosections of the resected tumors. There was increased scan uptake by all 18 tumors, and the uptake in 15 scans corresponded accurately to the anatomic extent of the tumors. Only three scans displayed increased uptake beyond the true tumor margins; thus, the extended pattern of uptake beyond the true tumor extent is much less common in medullary chondrosarcomas than in many other primary bone tumors. Therefore, increased uptake beyond the apparent radiographic margin of the tumor suggests possible occult tumor spread. Pathologically, there was intense reactive new bone formation and hyperemia around the periphery of all 18 tumors, and there were foci of enchondral ossification, hyperemia, or calcification within the tumor itself in nearly every tumor. Three scans displayed less uptake in the center of the tumors than around their peripheries. One of these tumors was necrotic in the center, but the other two were pathologically no different from tumors that displayed homogeneous uptake on the scan

  16. Clinical significant of three phase radionuclide bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-04-15

    Three phase radionuclide bone scan, consisting of a radionuclide angiogram, an immediate postinjection blood pool image, and 4hr delayed images, was randomly performed in 182 patients, who had been suffered from either local pain or tenderness. Authors analysed 3 phase bone scan in 74 patients with correct diagnosis proven surgically or clinically, from July 1987 to August, 1988. The results were as follows: 1. Overall sensitivity of 3 phase bone scan was 85.4%: sensitivity in patients with an osseous lesion was 90.4% as opposed to 72.7% in patients with a nonosseous lesion. 2. There was no difference in the detection rate of the osseous lesions between the 3 phase bone scan and the delayed image bone scan. However, because the detection rate was higher on the 3 phase bone scan than it was on only the delayed image bone scan (55%) in instance of the nonosseous lesion, we would suggest that 3 phase bone scan might be obtained in cases suspected of the nonosseous lesions. 3. When the presumptive diagnosis was a bone tumor, sensitivity and specificity for malignancy were 67%, 100% respectively. 4. In differentiating osteomyelitis from cellulitis, sensitivity was 94%, specificity was 100%. 5. 3 phase bone scan was able to provide the precise information about either vasculaturity or localization of lesion in some cases of soft tissue mass and avascular necrosis of hips.

  17. Reappraisal of radionuclide liver scans for preoperative gastric cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Makoto; Yonahara, Yoshio; Yamashita, Shoji; Ando, Yutaka; Mohri, Makoto [National Second Hospital of Tokyo (Japan)

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclide liver scans were obtained in 89 preoperative patients with gastric cancer. Eight showed definite defects on liver scans. At laparotomy, 14 patients were found to have liver involvement secondary to gastric cancer. The sensitivity of liver scans to predict liver involvement is 57% (8/14), and the specificity is 100% (75/75). The patients with definite defects on liver scans had a lower rate of palliative resection of the primary tumors (2/8) than the patients with liver involvement and no scan abnormality (4/6). The patients with advanced lesions but without liver involvement had the highest probability of resecting the primary tumors (57/63 : 47 radical, and 10 palliative). Normal serum levels of liver chemistries did not preclude the presence of defects on liver scans. Additional three patients were found to have cirrhosis of the liver solely based on liver scans, which was confirmed at laparotomy. Radionuclide liver scans can predict liver involvement with very few false positives, and may discriminate patients unsuitable for laparotomy even with palliative intent.

  18. Comparison of radionuclide scans with computer-assisted tomography in diagnosis of intracranial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, J.R.; Connolly, E.S.; Voorhies, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide brain scans were compared with computer-assisted tomography (CAT) for the diagnosis of intracranial disorders in 297 patients. The diagnosis was confirmed in 281 patients who formed the population for the study. The radionuclide scan was false positive for 12 patients (3.9 percent) and false negative for eight (2.6 percent). The CAT was false positive for three patients (1 percent) and false negative for one (0.3 percent). In the 133 patients in whom both tests were negative, no evidence of central nervous system pathology has been found during the 6 to 18 month follow-up. Brain tumors and intracerebral hemorrhage are more readily detectable with CAT

  19. Abnormal radionuclide cerebral angiograms and scans due to seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.S.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of recent seizures on the brain scan was determined in a retrospective study of patients who had had seizures. All patients who underwent brain scanning within eight days of seizures and who did not have a specific intracranial lesion were included. The /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate cerebral angiogram and/or delayed scan was abnormal in 73 percent of 22 patients. The data suggest that if seizures occur within six days of the brain imaging, the image is likely to be abnormal. (auth)

  20. Transverse section brain imager scanning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    An array of focussed collimators enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity of a body organ, such as the brain, of a patient who has been administered material tagged with radionuclides

  1. Investigations of Differential Scanning Techniques using Two Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrall, M. F.; French, Rosemary J.; Trott, N. G. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1969-01-15

    In the development of scanning procedures difficulties sometimes arise because a particular radiopharmaceutical, which is selectively concentrated in an organ of interest, is also widely distributed in neighbouring sites in the body. Investigations have been made of a method which involves the use of a second radioactive substance to label such sites. By means of suitable electrical circuits fitted to a conventional mechanical scanner (Picker Magnascanner III), a direct colour scan of the organ under study can be obtained. Signals from the two radionuclides are distinguished by pulse-height analysis and used to operate the colour shift mechanism. Experimental studies with phantoms and clinical trials are reported. An analysis of the statistical limitations of the technique is given, including a discussion of the most suitable operating conditions for particular pairs of radionuclides. Illustrations include the use of {sup 75}Se selenomethionine and {sup 99m}Tc sulphur colloid or {sup 198}Au colloid in the delineation of the pancreas, and reference is also made to work with {sup 18}F, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 133m}In and {sup 197}Hg, which are used in various chemical forms to visualize specific types of tumours in vascular surroundings labelled with other suitable tracers. Some discussion of the dosimetry of these procedures is made, since the extent to which the technique can be applied may be limited by the activities which can be administered. However, successful results are being obtained using activities within the range generally accepted for single radionuclide scanning procedures. For example, the pancreas can be successfully visualised using 250 {mu}Ci {sup 75}Se selenomethionine in combination with 1 mCi {sup 99m}TC sulphur colloid. (author)

  2. Diagnosis of hydronephrosis: comparison of radionuclide scanning and sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malave, S.R.; Neiman, H.L.; Spies, S.M.; Cisternino, S.J.; Adamo, G.

    1980-01-01

    Diagnostic sonographic and radioisotope scanning techniques have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy. The accuracy of both methods was compared and sonography was found to provide the more accurate data (sensitivity, 90%, specificity, 98%; accuracy, 97%). Sonography provides excellent anatomic information and enables one to grade the degree of dilatation. Renal radionuclide studies were less sensitive in detecting obstruction, particularly in the presence of chronic renal disease, but offered additional information regarding relative renal blood flow, total effective renal plasma flow, and interval change in renal parenchymal function

  3. Efficacy of brain scanning in epilepsy of late onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.N.; Ramanathan, P.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Brain scans of 513 patients with epilepsy of late onset were analysed with reference to the patient's age and sex and to the nature of convulsion. Only 17 of them showed an abnormal concentration of radionuclide indicating a space-occupying lesion in the brain. The findings of those patients who had positive brain scans were correlated with EEG findings. It was found that the incidence of epilepsy of late onset is almost 3 times higher in males than in females and that the age cannot be considered as a criterion for screening the patients for brain scan investigation as far as epilepsy of late onset is concerned. In the authors' opinion, the incidence of 3.3% is not too low. A positive brain scan finding calls for further investigation and helps in deciding the management and further line of treatment of the patients. Moreover, a normal scan rules out the presence of a space-occupying lesion and helps as a screening procedure. (orig.) 891 MG [de

  4. Radionuclide brain imaging in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.C.; Gacinovic, S.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) may produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and signs. CNS involvement in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) includes AIDS dementia complex or HIV-1 associated cognitive/motor complex (widely known as HIV encephalopathy), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), opportunistic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, TB, Cryptococcus and infiltration by non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma. High resolution structural imaging investigations, either X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have contributed to the understanding and definition of cerebral damage caused by HIV encephalopathy. Atrophy and mainly high signal scattered white matter abnormalities are commonly seen with MRI. PML produces focal white matter high signal abnormalities due to multiple foci of demyelination. However, using structural imaging techniques there are no reliable parameters to distinguish focal lesions due to opportunistic infection (Toxoplasma gondii abscess) from neoplasm (lymphoma infiltration). It is studied the use of radionuclide brain imaging techniques in the investigation of HIV infected patients. Brain perfusion Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET), neuroreceptor and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies are reviewed. Greater emphasis is put on the potential of some radiopharmaceuticals, considered to be brain tumour markers, to distinguish intracerebral lymphoma infiltration from Toxoplasma infection. SPET with 201 Tl using quantification (tumour to non-tumour radioactivity ratios) appears a very promising technique to identify intracerebral lymphoma

  5. Comparison of CT scanning and radionuclide imaging in liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.L.; Esposito, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    Early experience with body CT suggested its usefulness in many diagnostic problems; jaundice, renal and pancreatic masses, and in the evaluation of relatively inaccessible parts of the body, such as the retroperitineum, mediastinum, and pelvis. Investigation of hepatic disease by CT was not unexpectedly compared to radionuclide liver scanning, the major preexisting modality for imaging the liver. In the evaluation of the jaundiced patient, CT rapidly assumed a major role, providing more specific information about the liver than the RN liver scan, as well as demonstrating adjacent organs. CT differentiate obstructive from non-obstructive jaundice. With respect to mass lesions of the liver, the RN liver scan is more sensitive than CT but less specific. The abnormalities on an isotope image of the liver consist of normal variants in configuration, extrinsic compression by adjacent structures, cysts, hemangiomata, abscesses, and neoplasms. These suspected lesions may then be better delineated by the CT image, and a more precise diagnosis made. The physiologic information provided by the RN liver scan is an added facet which is helpful in the patient with diffuse hepatic disease. The CT image will be normal in many of these patients, however, hemochromatosis and fatty infiltration lend themselves especially to density evaluation by CT. The evaluation of lymphoma is more thorough with CT. Structures other than the liver, such as lymph nodes, are visualized. Gallium, however, provides additional isotopic information in patients with lymphoma, and in addition, is known to be useful in the investigation of a febrile patient with an abscess. Newer isotopic agents expand hepatic imaging in other directions, visualizing the biliary tree and evaluating the jaundiced patient

  6. Evaluative studies in nuclear medicine research. Interim progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976. [Diagnostic value of brain scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potchen, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Data relating to the determination of the efficacy of radionuclide brain scanning have been analyzed. The data were gathered at a teaching hospital by use of a prospective questionnaire followed by a retrospective study of the result of the brain scan examination. Data analysis was accomplished using a method of pattern discovery which relates selected outcomes such as normal and abnormal brain scans to patient attributes (signs, symptoms, history, and previous test results). The objective of the analysis was the identification of patterns or clusters of patient attributes which have a high probability of acting as predictors of the outcome of the brain scan.

  7. Radionuclide scanning after total knee replacement: correlation with pain and radiolucent lines. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, B R; Boeckstyns, M; Kjaer, L

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships among Tc-99m radionuclide bone scan findings, pain, and radiolucent lines in 35 postsurgical knees. Our prospective study included bone scans, as well as radiographic and clinical examination three, seven, and 12 months after knee replacement surgery in 35...... and nonpainful knees, and the degree of isotope uptake did not correlate with the development of radiolucent lines around the prosthetic components....

  8. Radionuclide scanning in the diagnosis of splenic injury: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naga, A.H.; Boyette, E.L.; Broadrick, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma may lead to rupture of the spleen with major bleeding, minor laceration or intracapsular damage with delayed bleeding. At times diagnosis may be difficult delaying treatment. The safety, simplicity, rapidity and accuracy of radionuclide scanning when splenic injury is suspected are demonstrated in the case of a 7-year-old boy

  9. Detection of coronary artery disease - comparison of exercise stress radionuclide angiocardiography and thallium stress perfusion scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jengo, J.A.; Freeman, R.; Brizendine, M.; Mena, I.; St. Mary Medical Center, Long Beach, Calif.)

    1980-01-01

    Exercise thallium scanning and stress radionuclide angiography were compared in 16 normal subjects and 42 patients with more than 75% coronary arterial obstruction in studies using upright exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Studies at rest were subsequently obtained. Exercise thallium scans in the control group were normal in 15 and showed a defect in 1. Ejection fraction increased in all 16. During exercise, regional wall motion increased uniformly. In the group with coronary artery disease, thallium scanning revealed a new defect in the distribution of the involved arteries in 24 patients. In 15 who had a defect at rest, no new defect developed, but in 9 of the 15 new segmental wall motion defects were evident on radionuclide angiography. With exercise, ejection fraction decreased slightly. Regional wall motion abnormalities developed in the areas corresponding to thallium defects in all. Thallium scanning had a 93% and radionuclide angiography a 98% sensitivity value in detecting coronary artery disease. The respective specificity values were 94 and 100%. In patients with prior myocardial infarction who manifested new exercise abnormalities, 50% showed new thallium defects and 81% new wall motion defects

  10. Over-all accuracy of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate brain scanning for brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernsson, O.G.; Petursson, E.; Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Davidsson, D.

    1978-01-01

    A 3-year follow-up and re-evaluation of all scans on all patients referred for brain scanning in Iceland during 1 year was performed in order to assess the diagnostic reliability of radioisotope scanning for brain tumours. The study included 471 patients. Of these 25 had primary brain tumours and 7 brain metastases. Scans were positive and correctly interpreted in 68% of the patients with primary brain tumours and in 3 of the 7 patients with metastases. The over-all accuracy of brain scanning for brain tumours defined as the total number of correct positive scans and correct negative scans versus total number of scans examined was 96%, this figure being mainly influenced by the high number of true negative scans. (orig.) [de

  11. Technetium 99mTc Pertechnetate Brain Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Sang Min; Park, Jin Yung; Lee, Ahn Ki; Chung, Choo Il; Hong, Chang Gi; Rhee, Chong Heon; Koh, Chang Soon

    1968-01-01

    Technetium 99 mTc pertechnetate brain scanning were performed in 3 cases of head injury (2 chronic subdural hematomas and 1 acute epidural hematoma), 2 cases of brain abscess and 1 case of intracerebral hematoma associated with arteriovenous anomaly. In all the cases brain scintigrams showed 'hot areas.' Literatures on radioisotope scanning of intracranial lesions were briefly reviewed. With the improvement of radioisotope scanner and development of new radiopharmaceuticals brain scanning became a safe and useful screening test for diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Brain scanning can be easily performed even to a moribund patient without any discomfort and risk to the patient which are associated with cerebral angiography or pneumoencephalography. Brain scanning has been useful in diagnosis of brain tumor, brain abscess, subdural hematoma, and cerebral vascular diseases. In 80 to 90% of brain tumors positive scintigrams can be expected. Early studies were done with 203 Hg-Neohydrin or 131 I-serum albumin. With these agents, however, patients receive rather much radiation to the whole body and kidneys. In 1965 Harper introduced 99 mTc to reduce radiation dose to the patient and improve statistical variation in isotope scanning.

  12. Technetium {sup 99m}Tc Pertechnetate Brain Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Sang Min; Park, Jin Yung; Lee, Ahn Ki; Chung, Choo Il; Hong, Chang Gi [Capital Army Hospital, ROKA, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Chong Heon; Koh, Chang Soon [Radiological Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1968-03-15

    Technetium {sup 99}mTc pertechnetate brain scanning were performed in 3 cases of head injury (2 chronic subdural hematomas and 1 acute epidural hematoma), 2 cases of brain abscess and 1 case of intracerebral hematoma associated with arteriovenous anomaly. In all the cases brain scintigrams showed 'hot areas.' Literatures on radioisotope scanning of intracranial lesions were briefly reviewed. With the improvement of radioisotope scanner and development of new radiopharmaceuticals brain scanning became a safe and useful screening test for diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Brain scanning can be easily performed even to a moribund patient without any discomfort and risk to the patient which are associated with cerebral angiography or pneumoencephalography. Brain scanning has been useful in diagnosis of brain tumor, brain abscess, subdural hematoma, and cerebral vascular diseases. In 80 to 90% of brain tumors positive scintigrams can be expected. Early studies were done with 203 Hg-Neohydrin or {sup 131}I-serum albumin. With these agents, however, patients receive rather much radiation to the whole body and kidneys. In 1965 Harper introduced {sup 99}mTc to reduce radiation dose to the patient and improve statistical variation in isotope scanning.

  13. A comparative study of radionuclide bone scan, X-ray and MRI on early femoral head necrosis in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jihua; Ji Qinglian; Xu Aide; Zuo Shuyao; Gao Zhenhua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize radionuclide bone scan signs in the early femoral head necrosis (FHN) in adults, to compare them with MRI and X-ray findings and to discuss the pathological basis of radionuclide bone scan findings from the view of MRI. Methods: Forty cases (63 hips) with early FHN in adult patients proved by follow-up studies or pathology were analyzed. All patients underwent radionuclide bone scan, MRI and X-ray examination within a period of less than 7 d separately. Results: 1) Radionuclide bone scan manifestations of the early FHN corresponding to different MRI signs included: focally decreased uptake of radioisotope, focally increased uptake, atypical or typical doughnut sign, mildly increased uptake in the superior part of femoral head with band-like region of obviously increased uptake in inferior part of femoral head or femoral neck, and diffused increase of uptake in the whole head. 2) In 40 cases (63 hips), there was statistical difference in diagnosis early FHN in adults not only between radionuclide bone scan and X-ray but also between MRI and X-ray in sensitivity (P 0.05). Conclusions: 1) The atypical or typical doughnut sign and mildly increased uptake in the superior part of femoral head with band-like region of obviously increased uptake in inferior part of femoral head or neck are specific signs for diagnosing early FHN. 2) For sensitivity, radionuclide bone scan and MRI are equally superior to X-ray. (authors)

  14. Changes observed in radionuclide bone scans during and after teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Amelia E.B.; Blake, Glen M.; Fogelman, Ignac; Taylor, Kathleen A.; Ruff, Valerie A.; Rana, Asad E.; Wan, Xiaohai

    2012-01-01

    Visual changes on radionuclide bone scans have been reported with teriparatide treatment. To assess this, serial studies were evaluated and quantified in ten postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (20 μg/day subcutaneous) who had 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans (baseline, 3 and 18 months, then after 6 months off therapy). Women were injected with 600 MBq 99m Tc-MDP, and diagnostic bone scan images were assessed at 3.5 h. Additional whole-body scans (10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h) were analysed for 99m Tc-MDP skeletal plasma clearance (K bone ). Regional K bone differences were obtained for the whole skeleton and six regions (calvarium, mandible, spine, pelvis, upper and lower extremities). Bone turnover markers (BTM) were also measured. Most subjects showed visual changes on 3- and 18-month bone scan images that disappeared after 6 months off therapy. Enhanced uptake was seen predominantly in the calvarium and lower extremities. Whole skeleton K bone displayed a median increase of 22% (3 months, p = 0.004) and 34% (18 months, p = 0.002) decreasing to 0.7% (6 months off therapy). Calvarium K bone changes were three times larger than other sites. After 6 months off therapy, all K bone and BTM values returned towards baseline. The increased 99m Tc-MDP skeletal uptake with teriparatide indicated increased bone formation which was supported by BTM increases. After 6 months off therapy, metabolic activity diminished towards baseline. The modulation of 99m Tc-MDP skeletal uptake during treatment was the result of teriparatide's metabolic activity. These findings may aid the radiological evaluation of similar teriparatide patients having radionuclide bone scans. (orig.)

  15. Changes observed in radionuclide bone scans during and after teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Amelia E.B.; Blake, Glen M.; Fogelman, Ignac [King' s College London, School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Kathleen A.; Ruff, Valerie A.; Rana, Asad E.; Wan, Xiaohai [Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Visual changes on radionuclide bone scans have been reported with teriparatide treatment. To assess this, serial studies were evaluated and quantified in ten postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (20 {mu}g/day subcutaneous) who had {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans (baseline, 3 and 18 months, then after 6 months off therapy). Women were injected with 600 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MDP, and diagnostic bone scan images were assessed at 3.5 h. Additional whole-body scans (10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h) were analysed for {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal plasma clearance (K{sub bone}). Regional K{sub bone} differences were obtained for the whole skeleton and six regions (calvarium, mandible, spine, pelvis, upper and lower extremities). Bone turnover markers (BTM) were also measured. Most subjects showed visual changes on 3- and 18-month bone scan images that disappeared after 6 months off therapy. Enhanced uptake was seen predominantly in the calvarium and lower extremities. Whole skeleton K{sub bone} displayed a median increase of 22% (3 months, p = 0.004) and 34% (18 months, p = 0.002) decreasing to 0.7% (6 months off therapy). Calvarium K{sub bone} changes were three times larger than other sites. After 6 months off therapy, all K{sub bone} and BTM values returned towards baseline. The increased {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake with teriparatide indicated increased bone formation which was supported by BTM increases. After 6 months off therapy, metabolic activity diminished towards baseline. The modulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake during treatment was the result of teriparatide's metabolic activity. These findings may aid the radiological evaluation of similar teriparatide patients having radionuclide bone scans. (orig.)

  16. MR imaging of brain surface structures: Surface anatomy scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, K.; Koga, S.; Asahina, M.; Kanno, T.; Asahina, K.

    1987-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of brain surface anatomy, including cortical sulci and veins, relative to cerebral and cerebellar lesions is an important subject for surgeons. Until now, no imaging modality existed that allowed direct visualization of brain surface anatomy. A new MR imaging technique (surface anatomy scanning) was developed to visualize brain surface structures. The technique uses a spin-echo pulse sequence with long repetition and echo times, thick sections and a surface coil. Cortical sulci, fissures, veins, and intracranial lesions were clearly identified with this technique. Initial clinical results indicate that surface anatomy scanning is useful for lesion localization and for detailed evaluation of cortical and subcortical lesions

  17. Prospective evaluation of radionuclide scanning in detection of intestinal necrosis in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, G.M.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Lobe, T.E.; Boles, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of external imaging to demonstrate intestinal infarction in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was prospectively evaluated. The radiopharmaceutical technetium--99m diphosphonate was injected intravenously and the patients subsequently underwent abdominal scanning. Clinical patient care and interpretation of the images were entirely independent throughout the study. Of 33 studies, 7 were positive, 4 were suspicious, and 22 were negative. One false positive study detected ischemia without transmural infarction. The second false positive scan occurred postoperatively and was due to misinterpretation of the hyperactivity along the surgical incision. None of the suspicious cases had damaged bowel. The two false negative studies clearly failed to demonstrate frank intestinal necrosis. The presence of very small areas of infarction, errors in technical settings, subjective interpretation of scans and delayed clearance of the radionuclide in a critically ill neonate may all limit the accuracy of external abdominal scanning. However, in spite of an error rate of 12%, it is likely that this technique will enhance the present clinical, laboratory, and radiologic parameters of patient management in NEC

  18. Analytical sensitivity of Tc99m radionuclide 'milk' scanning in the detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paton, J.Y.; Nanayakkara, C.S.; Cosgriff, P.S.

    1985-09-01

    The analytical sensitivity of radionuclide ''milk'' scans for detecting gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) has been assessed using an in vitro simulation test. Five factors were found to affect the ability to detect simulated reflux: isotope concentration, absolute gamma camera sensitivity, absorber thickness overlying the ''oesophagus'' and volume and duration of reflux. We found that a critical volume-duration product must be exceeded for reflux to be detected. Radionuclide milk scanning appears to be much less sensitive in detecting transient events like GOR than might be expected from previously reported static simulation studies.

  19. Specific diagnosis of brain disease with double isotope brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, P J; Lotritsch, K H; Hilbrand, E; Meixner, M; Barolin, G; Scholz, H [Landesunfallkrankenhaus, Feldkirch (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Landesnervenkrankenhaus, Feldkirch (Austria). Dept. of Neurology)

    1976-02-01

    25 patients with known cerebral disease (either CVA's or primary or secondary tumours) diagnosed by clinical and angiographic criteria were submitted to a double siotope imaging technique using sup(99m)TcO/sub 4/- and sup(99m)Tc-EHDP. The different biological behaviour of these radiopharmaceuticals has provided specific and differential diagnosis between vascular and neoplastic disease of the brain. sup(99m)Tc-EHDP is shown to be the tracer of choice for the imaging of CVA's and sup(99m)TcO/sub 4/- is confirmed as the tracer of choice for the imaging of primary or secondary tumours in the brain.

  20. Unusual cause of 'doughnut' sign in brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchamp, J.M.; Belanger, M.A.; Neitzschman, H.R.

    1975-01-01

    The ''doughnut'' sign in brain scanning was originally described in association with certain mass lesions having central necrotic, cystic, or avascular areas. A case in which this pattern occurred as a result of a superficial lesion, a large cephalhematoma, is presented. (U.S.)

  1. Exploring miniature insect brains using micro-CT scanning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dylan B.; Bernhardt, Galina; Raine, Nigel E.; Abel, Richard L.; Sykes, Dan; Ahmed, Farah; Pedroso, Inti; Gill, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to explore soft tissue structures in detail is important in understanding animal physiology and how this determines features such as movement, behaviour and the impact of trauma on regular function. Here we use advances in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology to explore the brain of an important insect pollinator and model organism, the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris). Here we present a method for accurate imaging and exploration of insect brains that keeps brain tissue free from trauma and in its natural stereo-geometry, and showcase our 3D reconstructions and analyses of 19 individual brains at high resolution. Development of this protocol allows relatively rapid and cost effective brain reconstructions, making it an accessible methodology to the wider scientific community. The protocol describes the necessary steps for sample preparation, tissue staining, micro-CT scanning and 3D reconstruction, followed by a method for image analysis using the freeware SPIERS. These image analysis methods describe how to virtually extract key composite structures from the insect brain, and we demonstrate the application and precision of this method by calculating structural volumes and investigating the allometric relationships between bumblebee brain structures. PMID:26908205

  2. Intrapartum FHR monitoring and neonatal CT brain scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiki; Ukita, Masahiko; Nakada, Eizo

    1982-01-01

    The effect of fetal distress on the neonatal brain was investigated by neonatal CT brain scan, FHR monitoring and mode of delivery. This study involved 11 cases of full term vertex delivery in which FHR was recorded by fetal direct ECG during the second stage labor. All infants weighed 2,500 g or more. FHR monitoring was evaluated by Hon's classification. Neonatal brain edema was evaluated by cranial CT histgraphic analysis (Nakada's method). 1) Subdural hemorrhage was noted in 6 of 7 infants delivered by vacuum extraction or fundal pressure (Kristeller's method). 2) Intracranial hemorrhage was demonstrated in all of 3 infants with 5-min. Apgar score 7 or less. 3) Two cases with prolonged bradycardia and no variability had intraventricular or intracerebral hemorrhage which resulted in severe central nervous system damage. 4) The degree of neonatal brain edema correlated with 5-min. Apgar score. 5) One case with prolonged bradycardia and no variability resulted in severe neonatal brain edema. Four cases with variable deceleration and increased variability resulted in mild neonatal brain edema. Two cases with late deceleration and decreased variability resulted in no neonatal brain edema. (author)

  3. Radiographic skeletal survey and radionuclide bone scan in Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhuyse, J.P. van; Clapuyt, P.; Malghem, J.; Everarts, P.; Melin, J.; Pauwels, S.; Brichard, B.; Ninane, J.; Vermylen, C.; Cornu, G.

    1996-01-01

    Background. The lack of a consensus in the literature on the imaging strategy in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) bone lesions in childhood. Objective. To evaluate the relative value of radionuclide bone scan (RBS) and radiographic skeletal survey (RSS) in the detection of LCH bone lesions, both in the initial work-up of the disease and during the follow-up period. Materials and methods. Ten children with bone lesions evaluated by means of RSS and RBS in a retrospective study (1984-1993). Results. Fifty radiologically and/or scintigraphically abnormal foci were detected: 27 anomalies in the initial work-up (12 by both RSS and RBS, 8 by RSS only and 7 by RBS only) and 23 additional anomalies during follow-up (10 by both RSS and RBS, 10 by RSS only and 3 by RBS only). RSS+/RBS- lesions (n = 18) are more frequently encountered in the skull (P = 0.038), and more frequently lack radiologic signs of osteoblastic activity (P = 0.020), than RSS+/RBS+ lesions (n = 22). RSS-/RBS+ abnormalities (n = 10) were most frequently insignificant. Conclusion. In the initial work-up both RSS and RBS should be carried out, while in the follow-up only RSS should be performed. (orig.). With 2 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Ventilation and perfusion imaging by electrical impedance tomography: a comparison with radionuclide scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, P W; Vonk Noordegraaf, A; Hoekstra, O S; Postmus, P E; de Vries, P M

    1998-11-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a technique that makes it possible to measure ventilation and pulmonary perfusion in a volume that approximates to a 2D plane. The possibility of using EIT for measuring the left-right division of ventilation and perfusion was compared with that of radionuclide imaging. Following routine ventilation (81mKr) and perfusion scanning (99mTc-MAA), EIT measurements were performed at the third and the sixth intercostal level in 14 patients with lung cancer. A correlation (r = 0.98, p RC) was calculated for estimating the left-right division with EIT. The RC for the ventilation measurements was 94% and 96% for the perfusion measurements. The correlation analysis for reproducibility of the EIT measurements was 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the ventilation and 0.93 (p < 0.001) for the perfusion measurements. In conclusion, EIT can be regarded as a promising technique to estimate the left-right division of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation.

  5. CT perfusion scanning of the brain in stroke and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    CT perfusion scanning (CTP) allows for quantitative analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Until recently, it was only possible to study brain perfusion parameters in a small stack of CT-slices close to the skull base. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners with 64 and more detector rows it has become possible to assess perfusion of the entire brain. An optimal choice of scanning parameters like the new 'shuttle'-technique combined with a well adapted regimen for contrast administration is required to guarantee reliable perfusion measurements while still keeping the X-ray dose absorbed by the patient at a minimum. With these techniques, CTP is not only an important modality in the work-up of patients suffering from acute ischemic stroke but can also be valuable in other emergency situations such as in prolonged epileptic seizures or to monitor patients with subacute subarachnoid hemorrhage. (orig.)

  6. Improved radionuclide method for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in children (milk scan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, S.; Kirkpatrick, J.A.; Winter, H.S.; Treves, S.

    1979-01-01

    A radionuclide study using technetium-99m-labelled milk feeding is described for the detection of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in children. A comparison of findings in 39 patients referred for both radiographic and radionuclide studies showed that barium studies were positive in 25.6% and radionuclide studies in 59% of cases, reflecting the sensitivity of the radionuclide technique. This technique is also physiological and allows prolonged patient monitoring. It is simple to perform and should prove useful in the evaluation of patients suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration

  7. The influence of volatile anesthetics on alveolar epithelial permeability measured by noninvasive radionuclide lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Chih-Jen; Wu, Rick Sai-Chuen; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Kao, Albert; Tsai, Jeffrey J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Many volatile anesthetics have long been thought to affect pulmonary functions including lung ventilation (LV) and alveolar epithelial permeability (AEP). The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of volatile anesthetics on LV and AEP by noninvasive radionuclide lung imaging of technetium-99m labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid radioaerosol inhalation lung scan (DTPA lung scan). Twenty patients undergoing surgery and receiving volatile anesthesia with 1% halothane were enrolled as the study group 1. The other 20 patients undergoing surgery and receiving volatile anesthesia with 1.5% isoflurane were enrolled as the study group 2. At the same time, 20 patients undergoing surgery with intravenous anesthesia drugs were included as a control group. Before surgery, 1 hour after surgery, and 1 week after surgery, we investigated the 3 groups of patients with DTPA lung scan to evaluate LV and AEP by 99m Tc DTPA clearance halftime (T1/2). No significant change or abnormality of LV before surgery, 1 hour after surgery, or 1 week after surgery was found among the 3 groups of patients. In the control group, the 99m Tc DTPA clearance T1/2 was 63.5±16.4, 63.1±18.4, and 62.8±17.0 minutes, before surgery, 1 hour after surgery, and 1 week after surgery, respectively. In group 1, it was 65.9±9.3, 62.5±9.1, and 65.8±10.3 minutes, respectively. No significant change in AEP before surgery, 1 hour after surgery, or 1 week after surgery was found. However, in group 2, the 99m Tc DTPA clearance T1/2 was 65.5±13.2, 44.9±10.5, and 66.1±14.0 minutes, respectively. A significant transient change in AEP was found 1 hour after surgery, but it recovered 1 week after surgery. We conclude that volatile anesthesia is safe for LV and AEP, and only isoflurane can induce transient change of AEP. (author)

  8. Radiation exposure distribution in patients undergoing CT brain scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhanshan; Feng Dinghua; Chang Zichi; Li Shijun

    1989-12-01

    The distribution of surface exposures in patients undergoing single and multiple computerized tomographic brain scans with Hitachi CT-W500 was measured by LiF(Mg, Ti) thermoluminescent dosimetry. It was found that there was no significant difference in the sufrace exposures from different scanning slices. However, the exposure doses at different scanning angles around the head were different significantly. The reference point of the maximum surface exposure was at the temporal part of the head. the maximum surface exposure was at 1.65 x 10 -3 C·kg -1 while the average exposure was 1.55 x 10 -3 C·kg -1 . The ratio of the average dose resulting from nine scans to that from a single scan was 1.3, and the surface exposure contribution of scattered radiation was computed. At the same time the radiation doses to eyes, thyroid, chest and gonads of patiens at corresponding position were also measured and were compared with those from CT cranial scans in children and skull radiographic procedures respectively

  9. Use of routine computed tomography brain scanning of psychiatry patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agzarian, M.J.; Chryssidis, S.; Davies, R.P.; Pozza, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of CT of the brain in patients presenting with a psychiatric condition without focal neurological signs. The reports of 397 consecutive CT brain scans of patients presenting to two acute tertiary hospital psychiatric services over a 2-year period were assessed retrospectively. Of the 397 patients, 241 had psychosis, 87 had depression, 44 had bipolar affective disorder, seven had alcohol dependence, five had dementia, and the remaining 13 had a variety of diagnoses including personality disorder and transient ischaemic attack. Findings on 377 (95%) of the CT scans showed no abnormality. Specific abnormalities were described in 20 (5%) of the CT scans. Three scans showed non-specific minor abnormalities, which, when followed up by MRI, showed no relevant abnormality. All the abnormalities shown on CT were considered to be clinically unrelated to the patient's psychiatric condition. In conclusion, the pretest probability of finding a space-occupying lesion or other pertinent abnormality in patients presenting with psychiatric illnesses in this retrospective study appears not to be greater than that of the general population. The outcome of this study could be implemented to develop a clinical pathway for limiting assessment by CT for possible organic pathology in acute psychiatric illness. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Computed tomographic brain scanning in the diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringelstein, E.B.; Zeumer, H.; Hacke, W.; Keulers, P.

    1981-01-01

    Clinical investigations and computed brain scanning were done in 305 patients with primary extracerebral malignant tumours. One third of the patients had cerebral metastases. In most patients with brain metastases extracerebral secondary tumours were known already. Silent brain metastases were present in only 0.6% of all investigated tumour patients. All other patients had either objective neurologic-psychiatric defects or at least symptoms (headache, vomiting). Use of cranial computed tomography in all tumour patients as a pure screening method is thus not justified. The indication for the investigation is dependent on the clinical symptomatology. However, not only objective neurologic-psychiatric defects must be taken into account, but also occurrence of new symptoms. (orig.) [de

  11. Networked neuroscience : brain scans and visual knowing at the intersection of atlases and databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaulieu, Anne; de Rijcke, Sarah; Coopmans, Catelijne; Woolgar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the development of authoritative collections of brain scans known as “brain atlases”, focusing in particular on how such scans are constituted as authoritative visual objects. Three dimensions are identified: first, brain scans are parts of suites of networked technologies

  12. MR imaging of avascular necrosis of the femoral head: Correlation with radiography, radionuclide scan and clinical finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Sik; Woo, Young Hoon; Joo, Yang Goo; Lee, Sung Moon; Zeon, Seok Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kang, Chang Soo [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    To explore the ability of magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in the diagnosis of avascular necrosis(AVN) of the femoral head, we compared appearances on MRI of 85 proven AVN lesions with those on radiographs(n=79) and radionuclide scans(n=75). Clinical symptoms(n=85) were also correlated. All MR studies included coronal and axial T1WI and coronal T2WI. All lesions involved the anterosuperterior aspect of the femoral head and were surrounded by a low signal intensity rim on both T1 and T2WI. The signal intensity of the lesions was variable depending on the disease course, and the lesions were divided into four classes according to the classification suggested by Mitchell. Radiographs were normal in 16%(13/79) of the lesions which were in MR class A(10), B(1), C(2). The radionuclide scans showed normal in 16%(12/75) of the lesions which were in MR class A(8). B(1), C(2), D(1). On the other hand, 93% of the lesions with MR class A(27/29) showed stage 1 and 2 lesions on radiographs. Clinical symptoms were absent in 25%(21/85) of the lesions, and among these,81%(17/21) were MR class A. Conclusively, MR is superior to the radiography and radionuclide scan in the early detection of AVN, and can also show the exact location, extent and signal characteristic of the lesion. Therefore, Mr is essential in diagnosis and management of AVN.

  13. MR imaging of avascular necrosis of the femoral head: Correlation with radiography, radionuclide scan and clinical finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Sik; Woo, Young Hoon; Joo, Yang Goo; Lee, Sung Moon; Zeon, Seok Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kang, Chang Soo

    1992-01-01

    To explore the ability of magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in the diagnosis of avascular necrosis(AVN) of the femoral head, we compared appearances on MRI of 85 proven AVN lesions with those on radiographs(n=79) and radionuclide scans(n=75). Clinical symptoms(n=85) were also correlated. All MR studies included coronal and axial T1WI and coronal T2WI. All lesions involved the anterosuperterior aspect of the femoral head and were surrounded by a low signal intensity rim on both T1 and T2WI. The signal intensity of the lesions was variable depending on the disease course, and the lesions were divided into four classes according to the classification suggested by Mitchell. Radiographs were normal in 16%(13/79) of the lesions which were in MR class A(10), B(1), C(2). The radionuclide scans showed normal in 16%(12/75) of the lesions which were in MR class A(8). B(1), C(2), D(1). On the other hand, 93% of the lesions with MR class A(27/29) showed stage 1 and 2 lesions on radiographs. Clinical symptoms were absent in 25%(21/85) of the lesions, and among these,81%(17/21) were MR class A. Conclusively, MR is superior to the radiography and radionuclide scan in the early detection of AVN, and can also show the exact location, extent and signal characteristic of the lesion. Therefore, Mr is essential in diagnosis and management of AVN

  14. Use of bone and brain scans as screening procedures in patients with malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, E.L.; Sindelar, W.F.; Bagley, D.H.; Johnston, G.S.; Ketcham, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    A retrospective study to determine the value of bone and brain scans was performed in preoperative patients with melanoma, sarcoma, cancer of the head and neck and carcinoma of the pelvis. No occult metastases were identified in 170 patients in whom brain scan was performed. On late follow-up data, eight patients had neurologic symptoms develop and had brain metastases identified on scan. Of 223 bone scans performed, only one distant metastatic lesion was identified. It is, therefore, suggested that, in these types of patients, bone and brain scans be reserved for those with symptoms referable to the neurologic or skeletal systems

  15. The natural course of radionuclide bone scanning in the evaluation of total knee replacement--a 2 year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, B R; Boeckstyns, M; Stadeager, Carsten Preben

    1990-01-01

    In order to establish the natural course of radionuclide bone scanning images after total knee replacement 41 consecutive patients were scheduled for examination 3, 7, 12 and 24 months after surgery. The mean age was 69 years (range 50-80 years); the female:male ratio was 4:1. Thirty-two patients...... completed the entire program. A total of 143 99Tcm medronic acid complex scintigrams was performed. No significant difference between the grades of total scintigraphic uptake at any of the four examinations nor any difference between the first and the last examinations could be demonstrated (P = 0...

  16. Feasibility of dual radionuclide brain imaging with I-123 and Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovic, M.; Weber, D.A.; Loncaric, S.; Franceschi, D.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous dual radionuclide brain imaging with 123 I and 99m Tc using photopeak image subtraction techniques or offset photopeak image acquisition. The contribution of the photons from one radionuclide to a second radionuclide's photopeak energy window (crosstalk) was evaluated for SPECT and planar imaging of a brain phantom containing 123 I and 99m Tc for a range of activity levels and distribution properties approximating those in rCBF images of the adult human brain. Crosstalk was evaluated for 10% symmetrical energy windows centered on the 123 I and 99m Tc photopeaks and for 10% energy windows asymmetrically placed to the left and right of the center of the respective photopeaks. It was observed that the centered photopeak windows, 99m Tc crosstalk in the 123 I window is 8.9% of the 99m Tc seen in the 99m Tc window and ranges from 37.5% to 75.0% of the 123 I in the 123 I window. 123 I crosstalk is 37.8% of the 123 I seen in the 123 I window and ranges from 4.4% to 8.9% of the 99m Tc seen in the 99m Tc window. The spatial distribution of a radionuclide's crosstalk photons differs from that observed in the radionuclide's photopeak window. A 99m Tc photopeak window offset to the left does not decrease 123 I crosstalk, and the percentage of 99m Tc scattered photons is significantly increased in the window. Offsetting the 123 I window to the right decreases 99m Tc crosstalk to 9.0% to 17.9% of the 123 I counts, but decreases 123 I sensitivity by 39.9%. Offsetting both photopeak windows to the right decreases the 99m Tc scattered photons in the 99m Tc window, but increases 123 I crosstalk to 17.0% to 33.8% of the 99m Tc counts

  17. Childhood CT scans linked to leukemia and brain cancer later in life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children and young adults scanned multiple times by computed tomography (CT), a commonly used diagnostic tool, have a small increased risk of leukemia and brain tumors in the decade following their first scan.

  18. Clinical observations of the brain abscesses, especially on the computed tomographic brain scan findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Masahiko; Kuroda, Ryotaro; Yamada, Yasufumi; Yorimae, Akira; Akai, Fumiharu; Watanabe, Masaru; Nakatani, Jiro; Ioku, Masahiko

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen cases with pyogenic brain abscess were experienced in our clinic during the last 7 years. The records of these patients were examined to evaluate the clinical stage and the result of several treatments. In 12 operative cases, diagnosis was made by fluid aspirated from the abscess. Bacteria were cultured from the fluid in 5 among these cases. In 3 other non-operative patients, diagnosis was based on computed tomographic (CT) brain scans and laboratory studies. Each volume of the brain abscess and surrounding brain edema was measured on serial CT scans to evaluate the clinical stage and the abscess evolution. In symptoms and signs, it has been thought that one of the factors contributing to mortality was the level of consciousness. In this study, the disturbance of consciousness did not correlate with the size of abscess, but with that of edema. The cases reported here were divided into 3 groups according to the volume of abscess and of edema on initial CT scans. The cases of group A had small surrounding edema ( 50 ml) and small abscess ( 25 ml). The group A had slight change in the clinical status and the size of edema, but the others had severe change. Three phase changes in edema size were seen in the group B regardless of therapeutic modalities ; showing almost constant increase in first 2 weeks, great decrease in second 2 weeks and moderate decrease following these 4 weeks. In the group C, however, these phases were seen only in early operation cases. (J.P.N.)

  19. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  20. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  1. Multiscale Exploration of Mouse Brain Microstructures Using the Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope Brain Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ryang Chung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Connectomics is the study of the full connection matrix of the brain.Recent advances in high-throughput, high-resolution 3D microscopy methodshave enabled the imaging of whole small animal brains at a sub-micrometerresolution, potentially opening the road to full-blown connectomicsresearch. One of the first such instruments to achieve whole-brain-scaleimaging at sub-micrometer resolution is the Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope(KESM. KESM whole-brain data sets now include Golgi (neuronal circuits,Nissl (soma distribution, and India ink (vascular networks. KESM data cancontribute greatly to connectomics research, since they fill the gap betweenlower resolution, large volume imaging methods (such as diffusion MRI andhigher resolution, small volume methods (e.g., serial sectioning electronmicroscopy. Furthermore, KESM data are by their nature multiscale, ranging fromthe subcellular to the whole organ scale. Due to this, visualization alone is ahuge challenge, before we even start worrying about connectivity analysis. Tosolve this issue, we developed a web-based neuroinformatics framework for efficientvisualization and analysis of the multiscale KESM data sets. In this paper,we will first provide an overview of KESM, then discuss in detail the KESMdata sets and the web-based neuroinformatics framework, which is called theKESM Brain Atlas (KESMBA. Finally, we will discuss the relevance of the KESMBAto connectomics research, and identify challenges and future directions.

  2. Detection of subdural empyema with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKillop, J.H.; Holtzman, D.S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is now the standard method of confirming a diagnosis of suspected subdural empyema. We report a case in which the radionuclide brain scan was abnormal at a time when the CT scan was normal. An 111 In-labeled leukocyte scan was also performed in this patient and demonstrated abnormal uptake in the empyema. The scintigraphic findings in a second case of subdural empyema are also described. The relative roles of radionuclide studies and CT scans in the patient with suspected subdural empyema are discussed

  3. [Non-operation management of 12 cases with brain abscess demonstrated by CT scan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J

    1990-12-01

    This paper reported 12 cases with brain abscess demonstrated by CT scan. Using antibiotic management without surgical intervention, in 10 cases the curative effects were satisfactory. The paper indicated that CT scan was very useful in prompt and correct diagnosis of brain abscess and with sequential CT scan medical therapy was feasible. It is significant in treatment of brain abscess especially for the patients who have a poor general condition, have the brain abscess located in important functional area or have multiple abscesses so that the operation is difficult for them.

  4. Relationship of brain imaging with radionuclides and with x-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1981-03-03

    Because of high sensitivity and specificity for altered local cerebral structure, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the preferred initial diagnostic imaging study under most circumstances when cerebral disease is suspected. CT has no competitor for detecting fresh intracerebral hemorrhage. Radionuclide imaging (RN) scan is preferred when relative perfusion is to be assessed, in patients allergic to contrast media, and when an adequate CT study is not technically possible. (RN) plays an important complementary role to CT, especially for patients suspected of subacute or chronic subdura hematoma, cerebral infarction, arteriovenous malformations, meningitis, encephalitis, normal pressure hydrocephalus, or when CT findings are inconclusive. When CT is not available, RN serves as a good screening study for suspected cerebral tumor, infection, recent infarction, arteriovenous malformation, and chronic subdural hematoma. Future improvement in radionuclide imaging by means of emission composition potential. The compound plating approacl threshold for all the investigated transistors and fast neutron spectra lies within the raal. The value of the potential slightly changes with the coordinate change in this region, i.e. the charge on a collecting electrode is not practically guided up to a certain moment of time during the movement of nonequilibrium carriers.

  5. Gastric visualization and image quality in radionuclide bone scanning: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.A.; Pollack, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In a 12-mo study period, there were 14 days identified when the stomach was visualized in routine bone imaging. On these days, 44% of the 110 patients imaged demonstrated this effect. Only the quality control, binding efficiency, and scan quality differed (p less than 0.005) when the study population was compared with a reference population of 162 patients. However, on the days when this effect was noted, there was a significant (p less than 0.001) linear correlation between the presence and degree of gastric visualization and the radiopharmaceutical incubation and quality control parameters. The study suggests a sporadic phenomenon that appears to result from partial oxidation of the agent during incubation, producing (a) different species of labeled diphosphonate that display altered affinity for bone (scan quality) and (b) free pertechnetate

  6. Relationship of brain imaging with radionuclides and with x-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Because of high sensitivity and specificity for altered local cerebral structure, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the preferred initial diagnostic imaging study under most circumstances when cerebral disease is suspected. CT has no competitor for detecting fresh intracerebral hemorrhage. Radionuclide imaging (RN) scan is preferred when relative perfusion is to be assessed, in patients allergic to contrast media, and when an adequate CT study is not technically possible. (RN) plays an important complementary role to CT, especially for patients suspected of subacute or chronic subdura hematoma, cerebral infarction, arteriovenous malformations, meningitis, encephalitis, normal pressure hydrocephalus, or when CT findings are inconclusive. When CT is not available, RN serves as a good screening study for suspected cerebral tumor, infection, recent infarction, arteriovenous malformation, and chronic subdural hematoma

  7. Gastric visualization and image quality in radionuclide bone scanning: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.A.; Pollack, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In a 12-mo study period, there were 14 days identified when the stomach was visualized in routine bone imaging. On these days, 44% of the 110 patients imaged demonstrated this effect. There was a significant linear correlation between the presence and degree of gastric visualization and the radiopharmaceutical incubation and quality control parameters. The study suggests a sporadic phenomenon that appears to result from partial oxidation of the agent during incubation, producing (a) different species of labeled diphosphonate that display altered affinity for bone (scan quality) and (b) free pertechnetate

  8. Radionuclide scanning in a study of the pulmonary blood flow with the open arterial canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizaev, M.N.; Gulyamov, D.S.; Khodzhibekov, M.Kh.; Anvarov, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristic features of the distribution of the arterial pulmonary blood flow have been studied in 32 patients with the open arterial flow by lung scanning with albumin macroaggregate and 131 I. Research was conducted using the gamma-Ochamber ''Fo Gamma LFV'' and the scanner ''Magnaskaner 500I''. Disordered distribution of the pulmonary blood flow expressed in its unilateral decrease was detected in 17 patients (52.9%). A higher frequency of pulmonary hypertension was noted in these patients versus those with a relatively normal distribution of the pulmonary blood flow. A severe course of the disease was observed in high pulmonary hypertension combined with sharp suppression of the blood flow in one of the lungs or with signs of the shift from the right to the left side

  9. Glue-sniffing as a cause of a positive radio-isotope brain scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamont, C M; Adams, F G

    1982-08-01

    Convulsions are a known complication of the acute intoxicant effects of solvent abuse. A radio-isotope brain scan done 9 months following status epilepticus secondary to toluene inhalation, in a previously normal school-boy, demonstrated several wedge-shaped areas of increased uptake, in both cerebral hemispheres, consistent with infarcts. It is worth remembering that a positive brain scan in a young person, with recent onset of epilepsy, may be due to glue-sniffing.

  10. Glue-sniffing as a cause of a positive radio-isotope brain scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamont, C.M.; Adams, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    Convulsions are a known complication of the acute intoxicant effects of solvent abuse. A radio-isotope brain scan done 9 months following status epilepticus secondary to toluene inhalation, in a previously normal school-boy, demonstrated several wedge-shaped areas if increased uptake, in both cerebral hemispheres, consistent with infarcts. It is worth remembering that a positive brain scan in a young person, with recent onset of epilepsy, may be due to glue-sniffing. (orig.)

  11. The value of brain scanning in cerebro-vascular disease by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.; Emde, H.

    1980-01-01

    Brain scanning by scintigraphy and CT studies of the brain are complementary methods. The precise demonstration of the anatomy and the pathology of the brain by CT is supplemented by brain scintigraphy due to the latter's value to assess the hemodynamic properties of a lesion and thus provide important clues to its site and sometimes even its histology. This is especially true in vascular brain disease thus either dispensing the need for an invasive procedure such as angiography or providing information for a specific approach. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MKO [de

  12. Brain tumors and CT scan in infants and children, (1). The impact on pediatric neuroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, S; Velasco, J M [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (USA). Medical School

    1980-10-01

    The dramatic change in the neuroradiological procedures have been noted after CT scan was introduced in the last several years. Remarkable decreasing numbers of angiographic, pneumoencephalographic and other invasive neuroradiologic studies as well as nuclear brain scan were also found in the pediatric neuroradiology. The authors analyzed the total numbers of these studies performed in the last several years in pediatric neurological/neurosurgical practice in the light of the impact of CT scan especially in the diagnostic procedures and treatments of brain tumor in children. Although the number of these procedures decreased up to 49% in plain skull X-ray, 54% in cerebral angiography, 70% in pneumoencephalography/ventriculography and 79% in nuclear brain scan after CT scan was installed in our results, it is extremely important to renew understanding of those characteristics in each special procedures. Cerebral angiography as well as pneumoencephalography may give the surgeon more precise ideas of the anatomical relationship between the lesion and other normal structures, especially in the posterior fossa tumor in which CT scan occassionally demonstrates only a gross finding. A case with false negative result and another case with a complicated anatomical structure in CT scan were presented. The significance of cerebral angiography and other invasive studies in the diagnosis and follow up of brain tumor in CT scan were discussed.

  13. Ribbon scanning confocal for high-speed high-resolution volume imaging of brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Watson

    Full Text Available Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion. This reveals that the destruction or collapse of large regions of brain micro vasculature may contribute to the severe disease caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Visualization of this fundamental impact of infection would not be possible without sampling at subcellular resolution within large brain volumes.

  14. The iconic memory skills of brain injury survivors and non-brain injured controls after visual scanning training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, J T; Browning, R T; Vantrease, C M; Bittle, S T

    1994-01-01

    Previous research suggests that traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in impairment of iconic memory abilities.We would like to acknowledge the contribution of Jeffrey D. Vantrease, who wrote the software program for the Iconic Memory procedure and measurement. This raises serious implications for brain injury rehabilitation. Most cognitive rehabilitation programs do not include iconic memory training. Instead it is common for cognitive rehabilitation programs to focus on attention and concentration skills, memory skills, and visual scanning skills.This study compared the iconic memory skills of brain-injury survivors and control subjects who all reached criterion levels of visual scanning skills. This involved previous training for the brain-injury survivors using popular visual scanning programs that allowed them to visually scan with response time and accuracy within normal limits. Control subjects required only minimal training to reach normal limits criteria. This comparison allows for the dissociation of visual scanning skills and iconic memory skills.The results are discussed in terms of their implications for cognitive rehabilitation and the relationship between visual scanning training and iconic memory skills.

  15. Occupational Radiation Exposure to the Extremities of Medical Staff during Hysterosalpingography and Radionuclide Bone Scan Procedures in Several Nigerian Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Norbert Jibiri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The practice of regular dose measurement helps to ascertain the level of occupational dose delivered to the staff involved in diagnostic procedures. This study was carried out to evaluate the dose exposed to the hands of radiologists and a radiologic technologist carrying out HSG and radionuclide bone scan examinations in several hospitals in Nigeria. Methods: Radiation doses exposed to the hands of radiologists and a technician carrying out hysterosalpingography (HSG and bone scan procedures were measured using calibrated thermo-luminescent dosimeters. Five radiologists and a radiologic technologist were included in the study for dose measurement. Results: The study indicates that each radiologist carried out approximately 2 examinations per week with the mean dose ranging between 0.49-0.62 mSv per week, resulting in an annual dose of 191 mSv. Similarly, the occupational dose delivered to both the left and right hands of a radiologic technologist administering 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP without cannula and with cannula were 10.68 (720.2 and 13.82 (556.4 mSv per week (and per annum, respectively. It was determined that the left hand of the personnel received higher doses than their right hand. Conclusion: The estimated annual dose during HSG is far below the annual dose limit for deterministic effects, however, it is greater than 10% of the applicable annual dose limit. Hence, routine monitoring is required to ensure adequate protection of the personnel. The total annual dose received during the bone scan exceeds the annual dose limit for both hands, and the dose to either left or right hand is greater than the dose limit of 500 mSv/yr. The radiologists monitored are not expected to incur any deterministic effects during HSG examinations, however, accumulated doses arising from the scattered radiation to the eyes, legs, and neck could be substantial and might lead to certain effects. More staff are required to administer 99m

  16. Brain atrophy in Huntington's disease: A CT-scan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkstein, S.E.; Folstein, S.E.; Brandt, J.; McDonnell, A.; Folstein, M.

    1989-01-01

    CT-scan measurements of cortical and subcortical atrophy were carried out in 34 patients with Huntington's disease (HD). While a significant correlation was observed between parameters of subcortical atrophy (bicaudate ratio, bifrontal ratio and third ventricular ratio) and duration of the disease, there was no significant correlation between these parameters and age. On the other hand, measurements of cortical atrophy (frontal fissure ratio and cortical sulci ratio) correlated significantly with age but not with duration of the disease. When a group of 24 HD patients were compared on CT-scan measurements with a group of 24 age-matched normal controls, significant differences were obtained for all the variables examined, but the bicaudate ratio showed the highest sensitivity and specificity. Even mildly affected patients, with duration of motor symptoms less than 3 years had higher bicaudate ratios than age-matched controls. (orig.)

  17. Brain CT scan in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We, En-Huei

    1986-01-01

    The brain CT findings in 19 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning was analysed and the emphasis was placed on the relationship between CT findings and prognosis. Five had a normal manifestation in CT ; eight had the findings of ovoid or patchy low density area in globus pallidus, bilateral or unlateral, during the second day to fifth week after poisoning, and the low density areas were decreasing and blurring in edge in follow up and at last disappeared during 3 - 14 weeks in three cases of them ; nine showed the appearance of diffuse low density of white matter and of globus pallidus in some of them ; two had an appearance of brain atrophy. The pathology of CT findings mentioned above may be brain edema, necrosis, malacia and degeneration in gray matter and globus pallidus. The result suggested the cases with normal CT manifestation, cerebral edema and decreasing and disappearing low density area had a good prognosis, in contrary, the cases with persistant low density in globus pallidus had a poorer prognosis. (author)

  18. Evaluation of normal brain CT scan in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Suh, J. H.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-06-15

    The safety of procedure combined with wealth of information have resulted in rapid acceptance of CT as a practical and reliable neurodignostic technique. To understand the alternation in tissue density and associated displacement and distortion caused by pathologic lesion in CT, it is necessary to have clear understanding of normal anatomical landmark. For the purpose of establishing normative criteria in Korean for comparative diagnosis, 500 normal CT scan without neurologic sign were studied. The brief results are follows; 1. Among many ventricular index measured for lateral ventricle, the bifrontal CVI is more sensitive and easily determined. Ventricular size increased with age, especially after 6th decade but no difference with sex. 2. Mean width of third ventricle is 5 mm ({+-} 0.3), more wider in male (male; 5.2 mm, female; 4.5 mm) and increased with age. 2. Mean width of fourth ventricle is 13 mm ({+-} 1.3), without difference in age and sex. The shape of ventricle is variable form of triangle. The position of ventricle relative to Twining's line can be determined, so ratio of distance from tuberculum sellae to center of fourth ventricle to Twining's line is between 0.46-0.52. 4. Suprasellar cistern is visible in 89.7% of scan and shape of cistern is found to be pentagonal (73.3%), hexagonal (23.0%) and tetragonal (3.7%). 5. Choroid plexus can be identified in 90% and asymmetrical in 4%. 45% of identified choroid plexus can be visible on scan without contrast enhancement, and more frequently visible in older age.

  19. Evaluation of normal brain CT scan in Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Suh, J. H.; Park, C. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The safety of procedure combined with wealth of information have resulted in rapid acceptance of CT as a practical and reliable neurodiagnostic technique. To understand the alternation in tissue density and associated displacement and distortion caused by pathologic lesion in CT, it is necessary to have clear understanding of normal anatomical landmark. For the purpose of establishing normartive criteria in Koreans for comparative diagnosis, 500 normal CT scan without neurologic sign were studied. The brief results are follows; 1. Among many ventricular index measured for lateral ventricle, the bifrontal CVI is more sensitive and easily determined. Ventricular size increased with age, especially after 6th decade but no difference with sex. 2. Mean width of third ventricle is 5mm( ± 0.3), more wider in male (male; 5.2mm, female; 4.5mm) and increased with age. 3. Mean width of fourth ventricle is 13mm( ± 1.3), without difference in age and sex. The shape of ventricle is variable form of triangle. The position of ventricle relative to Twining's line can be determined, so ratio of distance from tuberculum sellae to center of fourth ventricle to Twining's line is between 0.46-0.52. 4. Suprasellar cistern is visible in 89.7% of scan and shape of cistern is found to be pentagonal (73.3%), hexagonal (23.0%) and tetragonal (3.7%). 5. Choroid plexus can be identified in 90% and asymetrical in 4%. 45% of identified choroid plexus can be visible on scan without contrast enhancement, and more frequently visible in older age

  20. Evaluation of normal brain CT scan in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Suh, J. H.; Park, C. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The safety of procedure combined with wealth of information have resulted in rapid acceptance of CT as a practical and reliable neurodignostic technique. To understand the alternation in tissue density and associated displacement and distortion caused by pathologic lesion in CT, it is necessary to have clear understanding of normal anatomical landmark. For the purpose of establishing normative criteria in Korean for comparative diagnosis, 500 normal CT scan without neurologic sign were studied. The brief results are follows; 1. Among many ventricular index measured for lateral ventricle, the bifrontal CVI is more sensitive and easily determined. Ventricular size increased with age, especially after 6th decade but no difference with sex. 2. Mean width of third ventricle is 5 mm (± 0.3), more wider in male (male; 5.2 mm, female; 4.5 mm) and increased with age. 2. Mean width of fourth ventricle is 13 mm (± 1.3), without difference in age and sex. The shape of ventricle is variable form of triangle. The position of ventricle relative to Twining's line can be determined, so ratio of distance from tuberculum sellae to center of fourth ventricle to Twining's line is between 0.46-0.52. 4. Suprasellar cistern is visible in 89.7% of scan and shape of cistern is found to be pentagonal (73.3%), hexagonal (23.0%) and tetragonal (3.7%). 5. Choroid plexus can be identified in 90% and asymmetrical in 4%. 45% of identified choroid plexus can be visible on scan without contrast enhancement, and more frequently visible in older age

  1. A correlative optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach to locating nanoparticles in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Paul J; Kircher, Moritz F; de la Zerda, Adam; Zavaleta, Cristina L; Jokerst, Jesse V; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, demands the capability to exactly locate them within complex biological systems. In this work a correlative optical and scanning electron microscopy technique was developed to locate and observe multi-modal gold core nanoparticle accumulation in brain tumor models. Entire brain sections from mice containing orthotopic brain tumors injected intravenously with nanoparticles were imaged using both optical microscopy to identify the brain tumor, and scanning electron microscopy to identify the individual nanoparticles. Gold-based nanoparticles were readily identified in the scanning electron microscope using backscattered electron imaging as bright spots against a darker background. This information was then correlated to determine the exact location of the nanoparticles within the brain tissue. The nanoparticles were located only in areas that contained tumor cells, and not in the surrounding healthy brain tissue. This correlative technique provides a powerful method to relate the macro- and micro-scale features visible in light microscopy with the nanoscale features resolvable in scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on the brain CT scan of SLE patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, S; Narita, M; Katoh, K; Matsunaga, K; Ishigatsubo, Y [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    Cranial CT scanning revealed abnormality in 12 of 25 patients with SLE (48%). Ventricular sulcal enlargement was found mostly in younger patients between 16 and 36 years, an average of 25 years. Abnormality in electroencephalogram, principally paroxysmal abnormality, was found in 8 of 13 cases (62%) of normal CT findings. Non-paroxysmal slow-wave abnormality was observed in 9 of 12 abnormal CT cases. Of 13 patients with CNS symptoms, 8 had abnormal CT findings, and 5 had only mental disorder with normal CT findings. In 12 patients without neuropsychiatric involvement, 4 (33%) had abnormal CT findings. The rate of abnormal CT findings was increased in the patients receiving a high dosage of a steroid agent. Five of 6 patients who showed ventricular sulcal enlargement had been given prednisolone in a dosage of 35 mg or more per day.

  3. Brain tumors and CT scans in infants and children, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Shizuo

    1983-01-01

    In clinical pictures of brain tumors in infants and children, many features are not identical to those in adults, including characteristics of the tumors in age population, the locations of the tumors, the clinical symptoms and signs, and various factors affecting prognosis. We have, therefore, clinically and extensively analyzed brain tumors in infants and children. This study was also performed in order to analyze the characteristic CT findings of astrocytoma, the tumor most frequently occurring among infants and children. The subjects were 24 cases of astrocytoma and 2 cases of glioblastoma in infants and children under 16 years. The locations and characteristics of the tumors were as follows. Most of the tumors occurred in the 4th ventricle, had a characteristic low density, and could almost entirely be clearly distinguished from medulloblastomas, but not from ependymomas, on CT. The features of the supratentorial tumors were similar to those of the astrocytomas and glioblastomas mostly appearing in adults, as previously reported, in the relatively close correlation with the location and malignancy of the tumor. There was also a case of diffuse astrocytoma, a ''non-enhanced low-density solid tumor,'' which raised clinical problems. Among low-grade astrocytomas in infants and children, only a few show a high density on plain CT, many have, at least macroscopically, a strong contrast enhancement, and peritumoral edema is not observed on CT or, if observed, is observed only slightly. As individual features, homogenous enhancement pattern, a mixed density, a central low density, and a rare absence of enhancement are listed. (author)

  4. Volumetric quantification of brain volume in children using sequential CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, K.; Iwasaki, N.; Kawashima, K.; Takita, H.

    1990-01-01

    We devised a three dimensional method for the accurate measurement of brain volume and applied it to 32 neurologically normal children, 7 children with only mental retardation and 15 children with both mental retardation and motor disturbance. In the group of neurologically normal children, the total brain volume increased from 723 cm 3 to 1407 cm 3 in order of age. The correlation ratio between the total brain volume and age was significant (P 00600.0001). The values of the total brain volume and the developmental curve were similar to those of the total brain weight of normal children previously reported. The combined volume of the cerebellum, the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla also increased from 76 cm 3 to 200 cm 3 in a manner similar to that of the total brain. The correlation between total brain volume and head circumference was significant (P<0.0001). In the group of children with mental retardation, the total brain volume was relatively smaller than that of neurologically normal children. In the group of the children with mental retardation and motor disturbance, 10 out of 15 cases showed values below -2 SD of those of neurologically normal children. The values of the total brain volume were each less than -3 SD in 3 cases whose head circumferences were each more than -3 SD. Our method for the direct measurement of brain volume based on serial CT scans may be useful for the accurate examination of brain development. (orig.)

  5. Cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy correlated by xenon contrast CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Meyer, J.S.; Tanahashi, N.; Rogers, R.L.; Tachibana, H.; Kandula, P.; Dowell, R.E.; Mortel, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    Correlations between cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured during stable xenon contrast CT scanning and standard CT indices of brain atrophy were investigated in the patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type, multi-infarct dementia and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Compared to age-matched normal volunteers, significant correlations were found in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease between cortical and subcortical gray matter blood flow and brain atrophy estimated by the ventricular body ratio, and mild to moderate brain atrophy were correlated with stepwise CBF reductions. However, in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia, brain atrophy was not associated with stepwise CBF reductions. Overall correlations between brain atrophy and reduced CBF were weak. Mild degrees of brain atrophy are not always associated with reduced CBF

  6. Four cases with localized brain-stem lesion on CT scan following closed head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Naokatsu; Odaki, Masaru; Oka, Nobuo; Takase, Manabu; Ono, Junichi.

    1981-01-01

    Cases of primary brain-stem injury following closed head injury, verified by a CT scan, have been increasingly reported. However, most of them have other intracranial lesions in addition to the brain stem, resulting in a poor outcome. The CT scan of 200 cases with severe head injury-Araki's classification of types 3 and 4 - were analysed. Four cases out of them had localized brain-stem lesion without any other significant intracranial injury on a CT scan at the acute stage and had a better outcome than had previously been reported. In this analysis, these 4 cases were studied, and the CT findings, prognosis, and pathogenesis of the localized brain-stem injury were discussed. Follow-up CT of three cases, and taken one month or more later, showed diffuse cortical atrophy. This may indicate the presence of diffuse cerebral injury which could not be seen on CT scans at the acute stage. This atrophic change may also be related with the mechanism of posttraumatic conscious impairment and posttraumatic neurological deficits, such as mental symptoms and impairment of the higher cortical function. Shearing injury is a probable pathogenesis for this diffuse cortical injury. On the other hand, one case did not have any cortical atrophy on a follow-up CT scan. Therefore, this is a case with a localized primary brain-stem injury. Coup injury against the brain stem by a tentorial margin in a case with a small tentorial opening is a possible mechanism producing the localized brain-stem injury. (J.P.N.)

  7. Mapping metals in Parkinson's and normal brain using rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; George, Martin J; McCrea, Richard P E; Devon, Richard M; George, Graham N; Hanson, Akela D; Chapman, L Dean; Nichol, Helen; Bergmann, Uwe; Garachtchenko, Alex V; Luening, Katharina; Kelly, Michael E; Harder, Sheri M; Pickering, Ingrid J

    2009-01-01

    Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) is a synchrotron technology that maps multiple metals in tissues by employing unique hardware and software to increase scanning speed. RS-XRF was validated by mapping and quantifying iron, zinc and copper in brain slices from Parkinson's disease (PD) and unaffected subjects. Regions and structures in the brain were readily identified by their metal complement and each metal had a unique distribution. Many zinc-rich brain regions were low in iron and vice versa. The location and amount of iron in brain regions known to be affected in PD agreed with analyses using other methods. Sample preparation is simple and standard formalin-fixed autopsy slices are suitable. RS-XRF can simultaneously and non-destructively map and quantify multiple metals and holds great promise to reveal metal pathologies associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases as well as diseases of metal metabolism.

  8. Effect of clinical information in brain CT scan interpretation : a blinded double crossover study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhianpour, M.; Janghorbani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Errors and variations in interpretation can happen in clinical imaging. Few studies have examined the biased effect of clinical information on reporting of brain CT scans. In a blinded double crossover design, we studied whether three radiologists were biased by clinical information when making CT scan diagnosis of the brain. Three consultant radiologists in three rounds with at least a one month interval assessed 100 consecutive cases of brain CT scan. In the first round, clinical information was not available and 100 films without clinical information were given to radiologists. In the second round, the same 100 films were given and true clinical information was available. In the third round, the same 100 films were given and false clinical information was allocated. In 180 cases (60%) the evaluation resulted in the same diagnosis on all three occasions (95% confidence interval (CI): 54.5, 65.5), whereas 120(40%; 95% CI:34.5, 45.5) sets were evaluated differently. 48 cases (16%; 95% CI:11.9,20.1) had discordant evaluation with true and 33 (11%; 95% CI:7.5, 14.5) with false clinical information. Discordance without and with true and false clinical information was 39 (13%; 95% CI:9.2, 16.8). Correct clinical information improves the brain CT report, while the report became less accurate false clinical information was allocated. These results indicate that radiologists are biased by clinical information when reporting brian CT scans

  9. Brain scan in cerebral ischemia. An experimental model in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A rapid embolic method for consistent induction of stroke in the rat is described. Brain scans were performed using a micro-pinhole collimator system, and the value of the model for studies in localization of radiopharmaceuticals in cerebral ischemia is demonstrated

  10. The brain stem function in patients with brain bladder; Clinical evaluation using dynamic CT scan and auditory brainstem response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1990-11-01

    A syndrome of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) is occasionally found in patients with brain bladder. To evaluate the brain stem function in cases of brain bladder, urodynamic study, dynamic CT scan of the brain stem (DCT) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) were performed. The region of interest of DCT aimed at the posterolateral portion of the pons. The results were analysed in contrast with the presense of DSD in urodynamic study. DCT studies were performed in 13 cases with various brain diseases and 5 control cases without neurological diseases. Abnormal patterns of the time-density curve consisted of low peak value, prolongation of filling time and low rapid washout ratio (low clearance ratio) of the contrast medium. Four of 6 cases with DSD showed at least one of the abnormal patterns of the time-density curve bilaterally. In 7 cases without DSD none showed bilateral abnormality of the curve and in 2 of 7 cases only unilateral abnormality was found. ABR was performed in 8 patients with brain diseases. The interpeak latency of the wave I-V (I-V IPL) was considered to be prolonged in 2 cases with DSD compared to that of 4 without DSD. In 2 cases with DSD who had normal DCT findings, measurement of the I-V IPL was impossible due to abnormal pattern of the ABR wave. Above mentioned results suggests the presence of functional disturbance at the posterolateral portion of the pons in cases of brain bladder with DSD. (author).

  11. Differentiation between eclampsia and cerebrovascular disorders by brain CT scan in pregnant patients with convulsive seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Katsuto; Lin, Yaw-Tyng; Noda, Kiyofumi; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Yonezawa, Masaru; Sekiba, Kaoru; Ochiai, Youji

    1987-01-01

    Six pregnant women with convulsions between 25 to 40 weeks of gestation were experienced. Among them, 4 patients were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage and two as simple eclampsia. With the aid of brain CT scan, one case of arteriovenous malformation was detected and treated surgically with good prognosis for both the mother and the fetus. Two patients were diagnosed to have cerebral hemorrhage with subsequent penetration into the lateral ventricles and were treated conservatively. Their fetuses were delivered alive by cesarean section, but the mothers expired. The other patient with cerebral hemorrhage was treated surgically, and both the mother and the fetus survived. One of the simple eclampsia patients was noted to have a growth retarded fetus at 32 weeks of pregnancy with subsequent intra-uterine death, but the mother recovered after conservative treatment. Another patient at 40 weeks of pregnancy was also treated conservatively and both the fetus and the mother survived. Brain CT scan findings differed between these two eclampsia patients; local brain edema for the second patient and generalized brain edema for the first patient. Thus more active application of brain CT scan is recommended in managing pregnant patients with convulsions. (author)

  12. Differentiation between eclampsia and cerebrovascular disorders by brain CT scan in pregnant patients with convulsive seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Katsuto; Lin, Yaw-Tyng; Noda, Kiyofumi; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Yonezawa, Masaru; Sekiba, Kaoru; Ochiai, Youji

    1987-06-01

    Six pregnant women with convulsions between 25 to 40 weeks of gestation were experienced. Among them, 4 patients were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage and two as simple eclampsia. With the aid of brain CT scan, one case of arteriovenous malformation was detected and treated surgically with good prognosis for both the mother and the fetus. Two patients were diagnosed to have cerebral hemorrhage with subsequent penetration into the lateral ventricles and were treated conservatively. Their fetuses were delivered alive by cesarean section, but the mothers expired. The other patient with cerebral hemorrhage was treated surgically, and both the mother and the fetus survived. One of the simple eclampsia patients was noted to have a growth retarded fetus at 32 weeks of pregnancy with subsequent intra-uterine death, but the mother recovered after conservative treatment. Another patient at 40 weeks of pregnancy was also treated conservatively and both the fetus and the mother survived. Brain CT scan findings differed between these two eclampsia patients; local brain edema for the second patient and generalized brain edema for the first patient. Thus more active application of brain CT scan is recommended in managing pregnant patients with convulsions.

  13. Increased Sensitivity to Pathological Brain Changes Using Co-registration of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdett, J.; Stevens, J.; Flugel, D.; Williams, E.; Duncan, J.S.; Lemieux, L. [National Society for Epilepsy, Chalfont St Peter (United Kingdom). The MRI Unit

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: To compare automatic software-based co-registration of serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans with conventional visual comparison, by expert neuroradiologists.Material and Methods: Sixty-four patients who were referred to our epilepsy MRI unit for cerebral imaging were identified as having potentially, non- or slow-growing lesions or cerebral atrophy and followed with sequential scans over a period of up to 8 years, resulting in a total of 92 pairs of scans. Scans were categorized as showing either lesions or atrophy. Each pair of scans was reviewed twice for the presence of change, with and without co-registration, performed using automated software. Results: Co-registration and visual reporting without co-registration were discordant in the lesions group in nine out of 69 datasets (13%), and in 16 out of 23 pairs of scans in the atrophy group (69%). The most common cause of discordance was visual reporting not detecting changes apparent by co-registration. In three cases, changes detected visually were not detected following co-registration. Conclusion: In the group of patients studied, co-registration was more sensitive for detecting changes than visual comparison, particularly with respect to atrophic changes of the brain. With the increasing availability of sophisticated independent consoles attached to MRI scanners that may be used for image co-registration, we propose that serial T1-weighted volumetric MRI brain co-registration should be considered for integration into routine clinical practice to assess patients with suspected progressive disease.

  14. Increased Sensitivity to Pathological Brain Changes Using Co-registration of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdett, J.; Stevens, J.; Flugel, D.; Williams, E.; Duncan, J.S.; Lemieux, L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare automatic software-based co-registration of serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans with conventional visual comparison, by expert neuroradiologists.Material and Methods: Sixty-four patients who were referred to our epilepsy MRI unit for cerebral imaging were identified as having potentially, non- or slow-growing lesions or cerebral atrophy and followed with sequential scans over a period of up to 8 years, resulting in a total of 92 pairs of scans. Scans were categorized as showing either lesions or atrophy. Each pair of scans was reviewed twice for the presence of change, with and without co-registration, performed using automated software. Results: Co-registration and visual reporting without co-registration were discordant in the lesions group in nine out of 69 datasets (13%), and in 16 out of 23 pairs of scans in the atrophy group (69%). The most common cause of discordance was visual reporting not detecting changes apparent by co-registration. In three cases, changes detected visually were not detected following co-registration. Conclusion: In the group of patients studied, co-registration was more sensitive for detecting changes than visual comparison, particularly with respect to atrophic changes of the brain. With the increasing availability of sophisticated independent consoles attached to MRI scanners that may be used for image co-registration, we propose that serial T1-weighted volumetric MRI brain co-registration should be considered for integration into routine clinical practice to assess patients with suspected progressive disease

  15. High prevalence of brain pathology in violent prisoners: a qualitative CT and MRI scan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Kolja; Witzel, Joachim G; Bausch-Hölterhoff, Josef; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and extent of brain anomalies in a large sample of incarcerated violent offenders not previously considered neuropsychiatrically ill, in comparison with non-violent offenders and non-offending controls. MRI and CT brain scans from 287 male prison inmates (162 violent and 125 non-violent) not diagnosed as mentally ill before that were obtained due to headache, vertigo or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal controls. Brain scans were rated qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1) or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Overall, offenders displayed a significantly higher rate of morphological abnormality, with the violent offenders scoring significantly higher than non-violent offenders and controls. This difference was statistically detectable for frontal/parietal cortex, medial temporal structures, third ventricle and the left but not the right lateral ventricle. The remarkable prevalence of brain pathology in convicted violent prisoners detectable by neuroradiological routine assessment not only highlights the importance of frontal and temporal structures in the control of social, and specifically of violent behaviour, but also raises questions on the legal culpability of violent offenders with brain abnormalities. The high proportion of undetected presence of structural brain damage emphasizes the need that in violent criminals, the comprehensive routine neuropsychiatric assessment usually performed in routine forensic psychiatric expertises should be complemented with brain imaging.

  16. Automated Quantification of Stroke Damage on Brain Computed Tomography Scans: e-ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hampton-Till

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Emergency radiological diagnosis of acute ischaemic stroke requires the accurate detection and appropriate interpretation of relevant imaging findings. Non-contrast computed tomography (CT provides fast and low-cost assessment of the early signs of ischaemia and is the most widely used diagnostic modality for acute stroke. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS is a quantitative and clinically validated method to measure the extent of ischaemic signs on brain CT scans. The CE-marked electronic-ASPECTS (e-ASPECTS software automates the ASPECTS score. Anglia Ruskin Clinical Trials Unit (ARCTU independently carried out a clinical investigation of the e-ASPECTS software, an automated scoring system which can be integrated into the diagnostic pathway of an acute ischaemic stroke patient, thereby assisting the physician with expert interpretation of the brain CT scan. Here we describe a literature review of the clinical importance of reliable assessment of early ischaemic signs on plain CT scans, and of technologies automating these processed scoring systems in ischaemic stroke on CT scans focusing on the e-ASPECTS software. To be suitable for critical appraisal in this evaluation, the published studies needed a sample size of a minimum of 10 cases. All randomised studies were screened and data deemed relevant to demonstration of performance of ASPECTS were appraised. The literature review focused on three domains: i interpretation of brain CT scans of stroke patients, ii the application of the ASPECTS score in ischaemic stroke, and iii automation of brain CT analysis. Finally, the appraised references are discussed in the context of the clinical impact of e-ASPECTS and the expected performance, which will be independently evaluated by a non-inferiority study conducted by the ARCTU.

  17. Comparison of gated radionuclide scans and chest radiographs. Assessment of left ventricular impairment in patients with coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, J A; Reinke, D B; Makey, D G; Shafer, R B

    1980-03-01

    Diagnostic efficacy of gated cardiac blood pool imaging was studied in 41 consecutive patients with LV ejection fractions (LVEF) less than or equal to 0.50. Eighty percent of patients were receiving therapy for LV failure at the time of the study. All patients had documented coronary-artery disease (CAD). Chest x-ray films were interpreted blindly by a senior radiologist. Cardiothoracic ratio of less than or equal to 0.50 was recorded as normal. Radionuclide assessment of LV function contributes importantly to the diagnostic and screening value of chest x-ray films. Patients with coronary disease and clinical evidence of heart failure should have radioisotopic studies even if chest x-ray film findings are normal. In patients with coronary artery disease and enlarged LV on chest films, radionuclide study of left ventricular performance aids in defining LV impairment, and in the prognostication of subsequent clinical course.

  18. Demonstration of cerebral abnormalities in cocaine abusers with SPECT perfusion brain scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, J.S.; Tumeh, S.S.; English, R.J.; Moore, M.; Lee, V.W.; Holman, L.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports I-123 isopropyl iodoamphetamine (IMP) single-photon emission CT (SPECT) brain scans performed on cocaine users to investigate the effects of cocaine on the cerebral perfusion in a manner similar to previous CT, angiographic and positron-emission tomographic (PET) studies. Ten asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic cocaine users, two users with major neurovascular complications, and five normal subjects were studied with IMP SPECT. Rotating-brain images of the cerebral IMP uptake were displayed by using a distance-weighted surface-projection technique and were visually analyzed for focal cortical perfusion deficits. Eleven cocaine users had multiple scattered cortical IMP defects. Frontal lobe defects were most prominent. One user had confluent defects resembling swiss cheese. Concurrent CT scans available in nine patients were negative in seven and showed infarcts in two. No similar focal findings were visible in normals

  19. Transient gyriform brightness on non-contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) brain scan of seven infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, P.J.; Carty, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous gyriform brightness seen on CT scan is an unusual finding unless associated with arteriovenous malformations (AVM). There are sporadic case reports in the literature of its occurrence in association with herpex simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE), purulent meningitis, following chemotherapy for leukaemia, in a child with chronic renal failure, and in a child with folic acid deficiency. We present a series of seven cases exhibiting this phenomenon, none of whom have AVMs, who have been scanned at this hospital in the first 2 1/2 years following the installation of a CT scanner. Four of the cases had congenital heart disease requiring corrective surgery or cardiac catheterisation. The other three had probable meningo-encephalitis. In all cases the gyriform brightness followed an ischaemic insult to the child's brain. We hypothesise that this phenomenon is an ischaemic response in the immature brain and that its occurrence is not so rare as the literature may suggest. (orig.)

  20. A system architecture for sharing de-identified, research-ready brain scans and health information across clinical imaging centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Ann L; van Erp, Theo G M; Kesselman, Carl; D'Arcy, Mike; Sobell, Janet; Keator, David; Dahm, Lisa; Murry, Jim; Law, Meng; Hasso, Anton; Ames, Joseph; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover, the clinical interpretation of brain scans benefits from compare and contrast analyses of scans from patients with similar, and sometimes rare, demographic, diagnostic, and treatment status. A solution to both needs is to acquire standardized, research-ready clinical brain scans and to build the information technology infrastructure to share such scans, along with other pertinent information, across hospitals. This paper describes the design, deployment, and operation of a federated imaging system that captures and shares standardized, de-identified clinical brain images in a federation across multiple institutions. In addition to describing innovative aspects of the system architecture and our initial testing of the deployed infrastructure, we also describe the Standardized Imaging Protocol (SIP) developed for the project and our interactions with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) regarding handling patient data in the federated environment.

  1. A case of the CT scanning of a suicidal hanging brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Masaharu; Murooka, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Yasuhiko.

    1988-01-01

    A CT scanning of a case of hanging brain is reported. A 63-year-old man, who had been maintained with Aspirin (30 mg every morning) for cerebral infarction, attempted suicide by hanging, but failed. Several hours later, he was admitted because of consciousness disturbance and so was examined by means of CT scanning. Plain CT scanning showed symmetrical multiple intracerebral hemorrhages. Hemorrhages were found in the subcortical region of the bilateral temporal lobes and in the subependymal region near the foramen of Monro or in the choroidal plexus. We speculated that these hemorrhages may be caused by the congestion of the intracranial venous system caused by squeezing both internal jugular veins by hanging. Past angiograms (1981) for cerebral infarction revealed neither AVM nor angioma. (author)

  2. A multiphoton laser scanning microscope setup for transcranial in vivo brain imaging on mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nase, Gabriele; Helm, P. Johannes; Reppen, Trond; Ottersen, Ole Petter

    2005-12-01

    We describe a multiphoton laser scanning microscope setup for transcranial in vivo brain imaging in mice. The modular system is based on a modified industrial standard Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM) and is assembled mainly from commercially available components. A special multifunctional stage, which is optimized for both laser scanning microscopic observation and preparative animal surgery, has been developed and built. The detection unit includes a highly efficient photomultiplier tube installed in a Peltier-cooled thermal box shielding the detector from changes in room temperature and from distortions caused by external electromagnetic fields. The images are recorded using a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter. Depending on the characteristics of the staining, individual nerve cells can be imaged down to at least 100μm below the intact cranium and down to at least 200μm below the opened cranium.

  3. A non-contact time-domain scanning brain imaging system: first in-vivo results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenka, M.; Di Sieno, L.; Boso, G.; Contini, D.; Pifferi, A.; Dalla Mora, A.; Tosi, A.; Wabnitz, H.; Macdonald, R.

    2013-06-01

    We present results of first in-vivo tests of an optical non-contact scanning imaging system, intended to study oxidative metabolism related processes in biological tissue by means of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy. Our method is a novel realization of the short source-detector separation approach and based on a fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode to detect late photons only. The scanning system is built in quasi-confocal configuration and utilizes polarizationsensitive detection. It scans an area of 4×4 cm2, recording images with 32×32 pixels, thus creating a high density of source-detector pairs. To test the system we performed a range of in vivo measurements of hemodynamic changes in several types of biological tissues, i.e. skin (Valsalva maneuver), muscle (venous and arterial occlusions) and brain (motor and cognitive tasks). Task-related changes in hemoglobin concentrations were clearly detected in skin and muscle. The brain activation shows weaker, but yet detectable changes. These changes were localized in pixels near the motor cortex area (C3). However, it was found that even very short hair substantially impairs the measurement. Thus the applicability of the scanner is limited to hairless parts of body. The results of our first in-vivo tests prove the feasibility of non-contact scanning imaging as a first step towards development of a prototype for biological tissue imaging for various medical applications.

  4. Contribution of brain imaging techniques: CT-scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasco-Papon, A.; Gourdier, A.L.; Papon, X.; Caron-Poitreau, C.

    1996-01-01

    In light of the current lack of consensus on the benefit of carotid artery surgery to treat asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis, the decision to operate on a patient depends on individual evaluation and characterization of risk factors on carotid artery stenosis greater than 70 %. The assessment of such risk factors is based especially on non-invasive brain imaging techniques.Computed tomography scanning (CT-scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable two types of stenosis to be differentiated, i.e. stenoses which are symptomatic and those that are radiologically proven versus those which are clinically and radiologically silent. CT-scan investigation (with and without injection of iodinated contrast media) still continues to be a common routine test in 1996 whenever a surgical revascularization procedure is planned. The presence of deep lacunar infarcts ipsilateral to the carotid artery stenosis generally evidence the reality of stenosis and thus are useful to the surgeon in establishing whether surgery is indicated. In the absence a consensus on indications for surgical management, the surgeon could use the CT-scan and MRI as medicolegal records which could be compared to a subsequent postoperative CT-scan in case of ischemic complications associated with the surgical procedure. Furthermore, recent cerebral ischemia as evidenced by filling with contrast material, will call for postponing treatment by a few weeks. Although conventional MRI is more contributive than brain CT-scan in terms of sensibility and specificity, its indications are narrower because of its limited availability and cost constraints. But, development of angio-MRI and functional imaging promise that its future is assured and even perhaps as the sole diagnostic method if its indications are expanded to include preoperative angiographic evaluation of atheromatous lesions of supra-aortic trunks. (authors). 37 refs

  5. Clinical study on eating disorders. Brain atrophy revealed by cranial computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Shinichi

    1988-06-01

    Cranial computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed in 34 patients with anorexia nervosa (Group I) and 22 with bulimia (Group II) to elucidate the cause and pathological significance of morphological brain alterations. The findings were compared with those from 47 normal women. The incidence of brain atrophy was significantly higher in Group I (17/34, 50%) and Group II (11/22, 50%) than the control group (3/47, 6%). In Group I, there was a significant increase in the left septum-caudate distance, the maximum width of interhemispheric fissure, the width of the both-side Sylvian fissures adjacent to the skull, and the maximum width of the third ventricle. A significant increase in the maximum width of interhemispheric fissure and the width of the left-side Sylvian fissure adjacent to the skull were noted as well in Group II. Ventricular brain ratios were significantly higher in Groups I and II than the control group (6.76 and 7.29 vs 4.55). Brain atrophy did not correlate with age, body weight, malnutrition, eating behavior, depression, thyroid function, EEG findings, or intelligence scale. In Group I, serum cortisol levels after the administration of dexamethasone were correlated with ventricular brain ratio. (Namekawa, K) 51 refs.

  6. An Automated and Intelligent Medical Decision Support System for Brain MRI Scans Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal Siddiqui

    Full Text Available A wide interest has been observed in the medical health care applications that interpret neuroimaging scans by machine learning systems. This research proposes an intelligent, automatic, accurate, and robust classification technique to classify the human brain magnetic resonance image (MRI as normal or abnormal, to cater down the human error during identifying the diseases in brain MRIs. In this study, fast discrete wavelet transform (DWT, principal component analysis (PCA, and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM are used as basic components. Firstly, fast DWT is employed to extract the salient features of brain MRI, followed by PCA, which reduces the dimensions of the features. These reduced feature vectors also shrink the memory storage consumption by 99.5%. At last, an advanced classification technique based on LS-SVM is applied to brain MR image classification using reduced features. For improving the efficiency, LS-SVM is used with non-linear radial basis function (RBF kernel. The proposed algorithm intelligently determines the optimized values of the hyper-parameters of the RBF kernel and also applied k-fold stratified cross validation to enhance the generalization of the system. The method was tested by 340 patients' benchmark datasets of T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed medical decision support system outperformed all other modern classifiers and achieves 100% accuracy rate (specificity/sensitivity 100%/100%. Furthermore, in terms of computation time, the proposed technique is significantly faster than the recent well-known methods, and it improves the efficiency by 71%, 3%, and 4% on feature extraction stage, feature reduction stage, and classification stage, respectively. These results indicate that the proposed well-trained machine learning system has the potential to make accurate predictions about brain abnormalities

  7. A fundamental study on brain scanning with sup(99m)Tc-citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yamada, Nobuaki; Horiike, Shigeharu; Nakazawa, Keiji

    1978-01-01

    We examined the sup(99m)Tc-citrate obtained by labelling citrate with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate using Solcocitran Kit. For our fundamental study--we measured the ratio of labelling by means of paper chromatography. By picking out each organs of each rats we also measured the velocity at which radiopharmaceuticals disappeared in each of their organs, and the distribution of radio-pharmaceuticals in their organs. For our clinical study--we performed brain scanning on 47 patients. The following are the results; Citrate was labelled as much as 99 - 95% into sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate. The velocity of disappearance in each organ of the rats was quicker than in the case of sup(99m)TcO 4 - . Accumulation in the choroid plexus and salivary gland was not obserbed despite the fact that we did not use KClo 4 , and images of brain tumor were obtainable to a high degree. (author)

  8. On cerebral celebrity and reality TV: subjectivity in times of brain scans and psychotainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The philosopher Daniel Dennett developed a theory of consciousness in which he replaces the so-called Cartesian theater with conceptions such as "fame in the brain" and "cerebral celebrity." The paradox of this is that Dennett unwittingly reintroduces the metaphors of the stage and the screen. The use of this trope is pursued in this essay in order to juxtapose Dennett's theory with reality TV and celebrity culture. This will allow us to sketch out late-modern subjectivity in times of brains scans and "psychotainment." Drawing on Walter Benjamin, Giorgi Agamben, Slavoj Žižek, and others, a plea is made for a materialism of the zero-level of subjectivity.

  9. A case of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy with progressive changes of brain CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kenzi; Saijo, Takahiko; Hamaguchi, Hiroshi; Tayama, Masanobu; Kawano, Noboru; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Miyao, Masuhide

    1988-01-01

    The Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (F-CMD) has been generally recognized as a well delineated subgroup of progressive muscular dystrophy with uniform clinical and pathological features. But the pathogenesis is not yet clear. Two theories have been proposed ; autosomal recessive inheritance and intrauterine infection. We experienced a female case of F-CMD, and tried serial brain CT scanning from the birth to one year of age. Low density changes of white matter were not found at the first day of her life. But marked brain atrophy and low density changes of white matter were found after three months. We propose that CT examination should be repeated from early stage to clarify the pathogenesis of F-CMD. (AUTHOR)

  10. Does head CT scan pathology predict outcome after mild traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannsjö, M; Backheden, M; Johansson, U; Af Geijerstam, J L; Borg, J

    2013-01-01

    More evidence is needed to forward our understanding of the key determinants of poor outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). A large, prospective, national cohort of patients was studied to analyse the effect of head CT scan pathology on the outcome. One-thousand two-hundred and sixty-two patients with MTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score 15) at 39 emergency departments completed a study protocol including acute head CT scan examination and follow-up by the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire and the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) at 3 months after MTBI. Binary logistic regression was used for the assessment of prediction ability. In 751 men (60%) and 511 women (40%), with a mean age of 30 years (median 21, range 6-94), we observed relevant or suspect relevant pathologic findings on acute CT scan in 52 patients (4%). Patients aged below 30 years reported better outcome both with respect to symptoms and GOSE as compared to patients in older age groups. Men reported better outcome than women as regards symptoms (OR 0.64, CI 0.49-0.85 for ≥3 symptoms) and global function (OR 0.60, CI 0.39-0.92 for GOSE 1-6). Pathology on acute CT scan examination had no effect on self-reported symptoms or global function at 3 months after MTBI. Female gender and older age predicted a less favourable outcome. The findings support the view that other factors than brain injury deserve attention to minimize long-term complaints after MTBI. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  11. Radionuclide determination of brain blood flow time and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlakhov, N.; Vylkanov, P.; Kirkov, M.

    1986-01-01

    Brain blood flow time in the two cerebral hemispheres was measured by the method of radioisotope circulography. The radiopharmaceutical used was 131 I-hypuran with activity 3,7 μBq in volume 0,3 ml. Registrations were made with two-channel radiograph GAMMA (Hungary) with external diameter of the colimator 50 mm. Tape speed was 160 mm/min at time costant 10. Patients with neurological and neurosurgical symptoms, as well as a group of normal subjects, were examined. Brain blood flow time varied within the range 5,5-7,5 s for either sex. It was increased in patients with concussion of the brain, epilepsy, atherosclerosis and tumors and shortened in patients with arterio-venous aneurysm. Conclusion is made that the diagnosis value of the method is high, it is practicable with no radiation load and furnisches reliable information on the effectiveness of surgical or drug treatment

  12. Method and apparatus for scanning a transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan-field imaging apparatus is described for use in scanning with particular reference to the brain. It comprises a plurality of highly focussed collimators surrounding and being focussed inwardly with respect to the scan-field and means for imparting movement to the collimators. Adjacent collimators can be stepped in radially opposite directions after each tangential scan, so that the focal point of each collimator scans at least one half of the scan-field. Each collimator is associated with a scintillator crystal and photodetector whose output is used to calculate the radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  13. Radionuclide body function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus is claimed. It comprises: a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; means for rotating the array about the scan field and means for imparting travel to the collimators

  14. MRI and brain spect findings in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and normal CT scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carrilho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy clinically documented by several abnormal interictal surface EEGs with typical unitemporal epileptiform activity and a normal CT scan were studied. Interictal99mTC HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI were performed in all subjects. Abnormalities were shown in 61.5% of MRI (n=16 and 65.4% of SPECT (n=17. Hippocampal atrophy associated to a high signal on T2-weighted MRI slices suggesting mesial temporal sclerosis was the main finding (n=12; 75% of abnormal MRI. MRI correlated well to surface EEG in 50% (n=13. There was also a good correlation between MRI and SPECT in 30.7% (n=8. SPECT and EEG were in agreement in 57.7% (n=l5. MRI, SPECT and EEG were congruent in 26.9% (n=7. These results support the usefulness of interictal brain SPECT and MRI in detecting lateralized abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. On the other hand, in two cases, interictal SPECT correlated poorly with surface EEG. This functional method should not be used isolately in the detection of temporal lobe foci. MRI is more useful than CT as a neuroimaging technique in temporal lobe epilepsy. It may detect small structural lesions and mesial temporal lobe sclerosis which are not easily seen with traditional CT scanning.

  15. MR brain scan tissues and structures segmentation: local cooperative Markovian agents and Bayesian formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, B.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate magnetic resonance brain scan segmentation is critical in a number of clinical and neuroscience applications. This task is challenging due to artifacts, low contrast between tissues and inter-individual variability that inhibit the introduction of a priori knowledge. In this thesis, we propose a new MR brain scan segmentation approach. Unique features of this approach include (1) the coupling of tissue segmentation, structure segmentation and prior knowledge construction, and (2) the consideration of local image properties. Locality is modeled through a multi-agent framework: agents are distributed into the volume and perform a local Markovian segmentation. As an initial approach (LOCUS, Local Cooperative Unified Segmentation), intuitive cooperation and coupling mechanisms are proposed to ensure the consistency of local models. Structures are segmented via the introduction of spatial localization constraints based on fuzzy spatial relations between structures. In a second approach, (LOCUS-B, LOCUS in a Bayesian framework) we consider the introduction of a statistical atlas to describe structures. The problem is reformulated in a Bayesian framework, allowing a statistical formalization of coupling and cooperation. Tissue segmentation, local model regularization, structure segmentation and local affine atlas registration are then coupled in an EM framework and mutually improve. The evaluation on simulated and real images shows good results, and in particular, a robustness to non-uniformity and noise with low computational cost. Local distributed and cooperative MRF models then appear as a powerful and promising approach for medical image segmentation. (author)

  16. A comparative study of linear measurement of the brain and three-dimensional measurement of brain volume using CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, K.; Iwasaki, N.; Takeya, T.; Takita, H.

    1993-01-01

    Parameters of linear measurement were compared with actual brain volume to assess the significance of linear measurements as indices of atrophy in 31 neurologically normal children and 22 neurologically abnormal children. Brain volume was established by means of an image-analyzing system using contiguous CT scans. The parameters or indices estimated were: (1) the maximum transverse width of both hemispheres, (2) the maximum longitudinal length of both hemispheres, (3) the maximum frontal subarachnoid space, (4) the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure, (5) the maximum width of the Sylvian fissure, (6) Evans' ratio, (7) the maximum width of the third ventricle, (8) the cella media index, (9) the maximum width of the fourth ventricle. In neurologically normal children, the maximum transverse width of both hemispheres, the maximum longitudinal length of both hemispheres, the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure and the maximum width of the Sylvian fissure correlated significantly with the combined volume (CV) of both hemipheres and basal ganglia. In particular, the maximum transverse width of both hemispheres and the maximum longitudinal length of both hemispheres had a high correlation. In neurologically abnormal children the maximum transverse width of both hemispheres and the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure were significantly correlated with the CV of both hemispheres and basal ganglia. (orig.)

  17. A longitudinal study of neurocysticercosis through CT scan of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhiram Chakraborty

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the role of CT scan in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC and also to get an idea of the nature and extent of this disease in a definite geographical ethnic location. Methods: CT scan of the brain of altogether 4 762 persons residing in a congested area of central Kolkata, was performed between 2004 and 2010, in an imaging centre in central Kolkata (Calcutta, of whom 1 114 (23.39% suspected patients were investigated for NC, having complaints of convulsion (472, headache (272, right sided weakness (98, loss of consciousness (84, left sided weakness (61, abnormal behavior (48, slurring of speech (34, difficulty with keeping balance (33 and dementia (12. Results: NC was detected in 45, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 0, 1 and 0, respectively consisting 4.48% (50/1 114 of the suspected cases varying from as low as 2 (in 2006 to as high as 23 (in 2005 in different years indicating this parasitic infection is perennial. The age of patients varied from 6 to 59 years of whom 28 (56% were vegan. We were also able to detect 4 types of lesions viz. calcified lesions (14, small hypodense i.e. vesicle (12, bright central spot i.e. vesicular lesion with central spot (2 and ring enhancement (22. For 3 patients, further imaging investigation (MRI was needed to confirm the diagnosis. We calculated the specificity and sensitivity of CT scan of brain diagnosing NC which was found to be 64% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Although, the sample may not be the representatives of the whole community, the findings suggest that cysticercosis is a significant but under-recognized public health concern in Kolkata.

  18. Impact of spot size on plan quality of spot scanning proton radiosurgery for peripheral brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongxu, E-mail: dongxu-wang@uiowa.edu; Dirksen, Blake; Hyer, Daniel E.; Buatti, John M.; Sheybani, Arshin; Dinges, Eric; Felderman, Nicole; TenNapel, Mindi; Bayouth, John E.; Flynn, Ryan T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To determine the plan quality of proton spot scanning (SS) radiosurgery as a function of spot size (in-air sigma) in comparison to x-ray radiosurgery for treating peripheral brain lesions. Methods: Single-field optimized (SFO) proton SS plans with sigma ranging from 1 to 8 mm, cone-based x-ray radiosurgery (Cone), and x-ray volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for 11 patients. Plans were evaluated using secondary cancer risk and brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: For all patients, secondary cancer is a negligible risk compared to brain necrosis NTCP. Secondary cancer risk was lower in proton SS plans than in photon plans regardless of spot size (p = 0.001). Brain necrosis NTCP increased monotonically from an average of 2.34/100 (range 0.42/100–4.49/100) to 6.05/100 (range 1.38/100–11.6/100) as sigma increased from 1 to 8 mm, compared to the average of 6.01/100 (range 0.82/100–11.5/100) for Cone and 5.22/100 (range 1.37/100–8.00/100) for VMAT. An in-air sigma less than 4.3 mm was required for proton SS plans to reduce NTCP over photon techniques for the cohort of patients studied with statistical significance (p = 0.0186). Proton SS plans with in-air sigma larger than 7.1 mm had significantly greater brain necrosis NTCP than photon techniques (p = 0.0322). Conclusions: For treating peripheral brain lesions—where proton therapy would be expected to have the greatest depth-dose advantage over photon therapy—the lateral penumbra strongly impacts the SS plan quality relative to photon techniques: proton beamlet sigma at patient surface must be small (<7.1 mm for three-beam single-field optimized SS plans) in order to achieve comparable or smaller brain necrosis NTCP relative to photon radiosurgery techniques. Achieving such small in-air sigma values at low energy (<70 MeV) is a major technological challenge in commercially available proton therapy systems.

  19. Impact of spot size on plan quality of spot scanning proton radiosurgery for peripheral brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongxu; Dirksen, Blake; Hyer, Daniel E.; Buatti, John M.; Sheybani, Arshin; Dinges, Eric; Felderman, Nicole; TenNapel, Mindi; Bayouth, John E.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the plan quality of proton spot scanning (SS) radiosurgery as a function of spot size (in-air sigma) in comparison to x-ray radiosurgery for treating peripheral brain lesions. Methods: Single-field optimized (SFO) proton SS plans with sigma ranging from 1 to 8 mm, cone-based x-ray radiosurgery (Cone), and x-ray volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for 11 patients. Plans were evaluated using secondary cancer risk and brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: For all patients, secondary cancer is a negligible risk compared to brain necrosis NTCP. Secondary cancer risk was lower in proton SS plans than in photon plans regardless of spot size (p = 0.001). Brain necrosis NTCP increased monotonically from an average of 2.34/100 (range 0.42/100–4.49/100) to 6.05/100 (range 1.38/100–11.6/100) as sigma increased from 1 to 8 mm, compared to the average of 6.01/100 (range 0.82/100–11.5/100) for Cone and 5.22/100 (range 1.37/100–8.00/100) for VMAT. An in-air sigma less than 4.3 mm was required for proton SS plans to reduce NTCP over photon techniques for the cohort of patients studied with statistical significance (p = 0.0186). Proton SS plans with in-air sigma larger than 7.1 mm had significantly greater brain necrosis NTCP than photon techniques (p = 0.0322). Conclusions: For treating peripheral brain lesions—where proton therapy would be expected to have the greatest depth-dose advantage over photon therapy—the lateral penumbra strongly impacts the SS plan quality relative to photon techniques: proton beamlet sigma at patient surface must be small (<7.1 mm for three-beam single-field optimized SS plans) in order to achieve comparable or smaller brain necrosis NTCP relative to photon radiosurgery techniques. Achieving such small in-air sigma values at low energy (<70 MeV) is a major technological challenge in commercially available proton therapy systems

  20. Stationary Wavelet Transform and AdaBoost with SVM Based Pathological Brain Detection in MRI Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Deepak Ranjan; Dash, Ratnakar; Majhi, Banshidhar

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic classification system for segregating pathological brain from normal brains in magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The proposed system employs contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization scheme to enhance the diseased region in brain MR images. Two-dimensional stationary wavelet transform is harnessed to extract features from the preprocessed images. The feature vector is constructed using the energy and entropy values, computed from the level- 2 SWT coefficients. Then, the relevant and uncorrelated features are selected using symmetric uncertainty ranking filter. Subsequently, the selected features are given input to the proposed AdaBoost with support vector machine classifier, where SVM is used as the base classifier of AdaBoost algorithm. To validate the proposed system, three standard MR image datasets, Dataset-66, Dataset-160, and Dataset- 255 have been utilized. The 5 runs of k-fold stratified cross validation results indicate the suggested scheme offers better performance than other existing schemes in terms of accuracy and number of features. The proposed system earns ideal classification over Dataset-66 and Dataset-160; whereas, for Dataset- 255, an accuracy of 99.45% is achieved. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. A fully-automated computer-assisted method of CT brain scan analysis for the measurement of cerebrospinal fluid spaces and brain absorption density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldy, R.E.; Brindley, G.S.; Jacobson, R.R.; Reveley, M.A.; Lishman, W.A.; Ewusi-Mensah, I.; Turner, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-assisted methods of CT brain scan analysis offer considerable advantages over visual inspection, particularly in research; and several semi-automated methods are currently available. A new computer-assisted program is presented which provides fully automated processing of CT brain scans, depending on ''anatomical knowledge'' of where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-containing spaces are likely to lie. After identifying these regions of interest quantitative estimates are then provided of CSF content in each slice in cisterns, ventricles, Sylvian fissure and interhemispheric fissure. Separate measures are also provided of mean brain density in each slice. These estimates can be summated to provide total ventricular and total brain volumes. The program shows a high correlation with measures derived from mechanical planimetry and visual grading procedures, also when tested against a phantom brain of known ventricular volume. The advantages and limitations of the present program are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Fully-automated computer-assisted method of CT brain scan analysis for the measurement of cerebrospinal fluid spaces and brain absorption density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldy, R.E.; Brindley, G.S.; Jacobson, R.R.; Reveley, M.A.; Lishman, W.A.; Ewusi-Mensah, I.; Turner, S.W.

    1986-03-01

    Computer-assisted methods of CT brain scan analysis offer considerable advantages over visual inspection, particularly in research; and several semi-automated methods are currently available. A new computer-assisted program is presented which provides fully automated processing of CT brain scans, depending on ''anatomical knowledge'' of where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-containing spaces are likely to lie. After identifying these regions of interest quantitative estimates are then provided of CSF content in each slice in cisterns, ventricles, Sylvian fissure and interhemispheric fissure. Separate measures are also provided of mean brain density in each slice. These estimates can be summated to provide total ventricular and total brain volumes. The program shows a high correlation with measures derived from mechanical planimetry and visual grading procedures, also when tested against a phantom brain of known ventricular volume. The advantages and limitations of the present program are discussed.

  3. The effect, identification and correction of misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans on brain PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; He Zuoxiang; Tang Anwu; Qiao Suixian

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans of brain on brain PET imaging, and the Methods to identify and correct it. Methods: 18F-FDG PET imaging was performed on 8 volunteers. The emission images were reconstructed with attenuation correction after some translations and rotations in the x-axis and transverse plane were given, 1 mm and 1 degree each step, respectively. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans was used to identify the suspected misalignment on 10 18F-FDG PET brain imaging. Three Methods were used to correct the misalignment. First, to quantitate the amount of the misalignment by 3-D volume registration of PET emission and transmission scans, the emission images were reconstructed with corrected translations and rotations in x-direction and transverse plane. Second, the emission images were reconstructed with mathematic calculation of brain attenuation. Third, 18F-FDG PET brain imaging was redone with careful application of laser alignment. Results: The translations greater than 3 mm in x-direction and the rotations greater than 8 degrees in transverse plane could lead to visible artifacts, which were presented with decreasing radioactivity uptake in the cortex of half cerebrum and in the frontal cortex at the side in the translating or rotating direction, respectively. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans could identify and quantitate the amount of misalignment between PET emission and transmission scans of brain. The PET emission images reconstructed with corrected misalignment and mathematic calculation of brain attenuation were consistent with redone PET brain imaging. Conclusions: The misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans of brain can lead to visible artifacts. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans can identify and quantitate the amount of the misalignment. The visible artifacts caused by the misalignment can be

  4. Scanning light-sheet microscopy in the whole mouse brain with HiLo background rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Jerome; Kim, Jinhyun

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that light-sheet illumination can enable optically sectioned wide-field imaging of macroscopic samples. However, the optical sectioning capacity of a light-sheet macroscope is undermined by sample-induced scattering or aberrations that broaden the thickness of the sheet illumination. We present a technique to enhance the optical sectioning capacity of a scanning light-sheet microscope by out-of-focus background rejection. The technique, called HiLo microscopy, makes use of two images sequentially acquired with uniform and structured sheet illumination. An optically sectioned image is then synthesized by fusing high and low spatial frequency information from both images. The benefits of combining light-sheet macroscopy and HiLo background rejection are demonstrated in optically cleared whole mouse brain samples, using both green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fluorescence and dark-field scattered light contrast.

  5. Inclusion of brain in FDG PET/CT scanning techniques in cancer patients: Does it obviate the need for dedicated brain imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purandare, Nilendu C.

    2011-01-01

    Metastases to the brain can affect about 10-20% cancer patients. Rising incidence of brain metastases in recent years is related to improved survival rates as a result of advances in cancer therapy and development of more sensitive diagnostic imaging techniques. In patients with extracranial malignancies detection of brain metastases is very important in deciding further diagnostic procedures, planning therapeutic strategies and also to ascertain prognosis. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities which have been traditionally used to assess metastatic disease to the central nervous system. It is generally accepted that MRI (contrast enhanced) is superior to CT scan (contrast enhanced) in the diagnosis of brain metastases. An inherently better soft tissue contrast resolution, stronger contrast enhancement, lack of bone artifacts and partial volume effects and direct multiplanar imaging enables MRI to pick up smaller sized as well as more number of metastases than a CT scan

  6. The evaluation of radioprotection with low dose CT scanning in normal rabbits brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuqing; Gong Shenchu; Wang Tianle; Shen Yunxia; Cui Lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine wheather a lower radiation dose technique and various pitch could be used in CT of the rabbits' brain without jeopardizing the diagnostic accuracy of the images, and determine the evaluation of radioprotection with low dose CT scanning. Methods: Fifteen rabbits underwent CT using 200 mAs, 110 mAs or 70 mAs,and pitch 1.0 or 1.5. Anatomy details and the confidence level in reaching a diagnosis were evaluated by two radiologists in a double-blinded manner using a 4-point scoring system. The CTDI w of every group were compared. Results: For both reader there was no statistically significant difference between 6 group total score of 1-6 anatomical detail and each of 6 anatomical detail although score for each of 6 anatomical detail. The CTDI w of 70 mAs, in pitch 1.5 group decreased about 76.7%. Conclusion: Radiation dose reduction in brain CT is feasible in clinical use, and quality of images can be re- served. It plays an important role in radiation protection. (authors)

  7. Studies on atrophy of the brain in chronic alcoholics examined by CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Keiichi; Kimura, Fumiharu; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Masazumi; Mozai, Toshiji

    1983-01-01

    A study of atrophy of the brain using CT scan was performed in 113 patients with chronic alcoholism who had history of alcohol abuse over 150 grams in average as amount of absolute ethanol for more than ten years. They had no focal cerebral lesions such as infarction, hemorrhage or tumor, nor clinical neurological deficits. Prominent enlagement of cortical sulci and lateral ventricles was found in chronic alcoholics when compared with age-matched controls. The most remarkable change among 6 indices in all age group was enlargement of cortical sulci. The ratio of lateral ventricle area to intracranical area was more significantly increased compared with the widening of the lateral ventricle determined as a distance between two tips of bilateral frontal horns or intercaudate distance. Forty-eight of 96 patients in whom EEG was examined, showed abnormalities such as dominant slow background activities and sporadic slow bursts, which were found more frequently (25/38, 66%) in patients over 50 years of age. No correlation was found between the occurrence of EEG abnormalities and cerebral atrophy or between the degree of cerebral atrophy and the severity of hepatic dysfunction. It is concluded from our study that atrophy of the brain in chronic alcoholics may be clearly estimated by CT planimetry of the ratio of lateral ventricle area to intracranial area. (J.P.N.)

  8. Studies on atrophy of the brain in chronic alcoholics examined by CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, Keiichi; Kimura, Fumiharu; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Masazumi; Mozai, Toshiji (Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan))

    1983-09-01

    A study of atrophy of the brain using CT scan was performed in 113 patients with chronic alcoholism who had history of alcohol abuse over 150 grams in average as amount of absolute ethanol for more than ten years. They had no focal cerebral lesions such as infarction, hemorrhage or tumor, nor clinical neurological deficits. Prominent enlargement of cortical sulci and lateral ventricles was found in chronic alcoholics when compared with age-matched controls. The most remarkable change among 6 indices in all age group was enlargement of cortical sulci. The ratio of lateral ventricle area to intracranical area was more significantly increased compared with the widening of the lateral ventricle determined as a distance between two tips of bilateral frontal horns or intercaudate distance. Forty-eight of 96 patients in whom EEG was examined, showed abnormalities such as dominant slow background activities and sporadic slow bursts, which were found more frequently (25/38, 66%) in patients over 50 years of age. No correlation was found between the occurrence of EEG abnormalities and cerebral atrophy or between the degree of cerebral atrophy and the severity of hepatic dysfunction. It is concluded from our study that atrophy of the brain in chronic alcoholics may be clearly estimated by CT planimetry of the ratio of lateral ventricle area to intracranial area.

  9. Detection of lacunar infarction in brain CT-scans: No evidence of bias from accompanying patient information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonke, B.; Knippenberg, F.C.E. van; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Kappelle, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Interobserver agreement in assessing brain CT-scans is, in general, high. The extent, however, to which such agreement is caused by bias through knowledge of other clinical details remains uncertain. The hypothesis that observers are somehow prejudiced before assessing ambiguous, CT-scans in this particular situation was tested. Sixteen neurologists and 16 radiologists volunteered to interpret two ambiguous brain CT-scans, with regard to the presence or absence of a lacunar infarct in the region of the internal capsule. The scans were accompanied by 'patient' information that was or was not suggestive of a stroke. These scans were camouflaged by a variety of other scans, to be assessed in the same way, to mask the purpose of the study. I was assumed that the observers, in their assessments of the scans, would somehow let their ratings of the likelihood of a lacunar infarction in or near the internal capsule be subject to the accompanying information. Results showed lower ratings produced by neurologists (i.e., less likelihood of an infarction) than by radiologists in the majority of all assessments, but no bias by the accompanying information. (orig.)

  10. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  11. 99mTc HM-PAO brain perfusion SPECT in brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, M.G.; Ciritella, P.; Valle, G.; Perrone, E.

    1995-01-01

    We have easily carried out and interpreted 99m Tc HM-PAO SPECT in a consecutive series of 40 comatose patients with brain damage, without discontinuing therapy. Brain death was diagnosed in 7 patients, by recognising absence of brain perfusion, as shown by no intracranial radionuclide uptake. In patients in whom perfusion was seen on brain scans, HM-PAO SPECT improved assessment of the extent of injury, which in general was larger than suggested by CT. (orig.)

  12. Accurate measurement of brain changes in longitudinal MRI scans using tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Gutman, Boris; Boyle, Christina P; Rajagopalan, Priya; Leow, Alex D; Yanovsky, Igor; Kumar, Anand R; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2011-07-01

    This paper responds to Thompson and Holland (2011), who challenged our tensor-based morphometry (TBM) method for estimating rates of brain changes in serial MRI from 431 subjects scanned every 6 months, for 2 years. Thompson and Holland noted an unexplained jump in our atrophy rate estimates: an offset between 0 and 6 months that may bias clinical trial power calculations. We identified why this jump occurs and propose a solution. By enforcing inverse-consistency in our TBM method, the offset dropped from 1.4% to 0.28%, giving plausible anatomical trajectories. Transitivity error accounted for the minimal remaining offset. Drug trial sample size estimates with the revised TBM-derived metrics are highly competitive with other methods, though higher than previously reported sample size estimates by a factor of 1.6 to 2.4. Importantly, estimates are far below those given in the critique. To demonstrate a 25% slowing of atrophic rates with 80% power, 62 AD and 129 MCI subjects would be required for a 2-year trial, and 91 AD and 192 MCI subjects for a 1-year trial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  14. Age-related infra-tentorial brain atrophy on CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitani, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Murata, Akihiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1985-01-01

    We had reported that the brain atrophy progressed significantly with advancing age using the two dimensional CT measurement by digitizer which was connected with personal computer. Using this method, we studied the age-related infra-tentrial brain atrophy in 67 normal subjects (14-90 years), and compared that with age-related supra-tentrial brain atrophy. There was a significant correlation between age and all indices [cranio-ventricular index (CVI), ventricular area index (VAI) and brain atrophy index (BAI)] in supratentrial brain. These indices did not correlated to the age in infra-tentrial brain (brainstem and cerebellum). Significant change of the brain atrophy occured above 60 years old was observed by BAI and VAI in supra-tentrial brain. There was a significant correlation between supra-tentrial brain atrophy index (BAI) and that of infratentrial brain. These results indicate that age-related brain atrophy might progress more slowly in brainstem and cerebellum than in cerebrum. (author)

  15. Experimental MR-guided cryotherapy of the brain with almost real-time imaging by radial k-space scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacke, J.; Schorn, R.; Glowinski, A.; Grosskortenhaus, S.; Adam, G.; Guenther, R.W.; Rasche, V.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To test radial k-space scanning by MR fluoroscopy to guide and control MR-guided interstitial cryotherapy of the healthy pig brain. Methods: After MR tomographic planning of the approach, an MR-compatible experimental cryotherapy probe of 2.7 mm diameter was introduced through a 5 mm burr hole into the right frontal brain of five healthy pigs. The freeze-thaw cycles were imaged using a T 1 -weighted gradient echo sequence with radial k-space scanning in coronal, sagittal, and axial directions. Results: The high temporal resolution of the chosen sequence permits a continuous representation of the freezing process with good image quality and high contrast between ice and unfrozen brain parenchyma. Because of the interactive conception of the sequence the layer plane could be chosen as desired during the measurement. Ice formation was sharply demarcated, spherically configurated, and was free of signals. Its maximum diameter was 13 mm. Conclusions: With use of the novel, interactively controllable gradient echo sequence with radial k-space scanning, guidance of the intervention under fluoroscopic conditions with the advantages of MRT is possible. MR-guided cryotherapy allows a minimally-invasive, precisely dosable focal tissue ablation. (orig.) [de

  16. Restraint training for awake functional brain scanning of rodents can cause long-lasting changes in pain and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lucie A; Bauer, Lucy C; Pitcher, Mark H; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-08-01

    With the increased interest in longitudinal brain imaging of awake rodents, it is important to understand both the short-term and long-term effects of restraint on sensory and emotional processing in the brain. To understand the effects of repeated restraint on pain behaviors and stress responses, we modeled a restraint protocol similar to those used to habituate rodents for magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and studied sensory sensitivity and stress hormone responses over 5 days. To uncover lasting effects of training, we also looked at responses to the formalin pain test 2 weeks later. We found that while restraint causes acute increases in the stress hormone corticosterone, it can also cause lasting reductions in nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, coupled with heightened corticosterone levels and increased activation of the "nociceptive" central nucleus of the amygdala, as seen by Fos protein expression. These results suggest that short-term repeated restraint, similar to that used to habituate rats for awake functional brain scanning, could potentially cause long-lasting changes in physiological and brain responses to pain stimuli that are stress-related, and therefore could potentially confound the functional activation patterns seen in awake rodents in response to pain stimuli.

  17. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  18. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1 normal intracranial volume; 2 reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3 preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4 reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5 increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes

  19. Adapting MR-BrainPET scans for comparison with conventional PET: experiences with dynamic FET-PET in brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Philipp; Herzog, Hans; Kops, Elena Rota; Stoffels, Gabriele; Filss, Christian [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Galldiks, Norbert [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Department of Neurology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Coenen, Heinrich H; Shah, N Jon; Langen, Karl-Josef [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    Imaging results from subsequent measurements (preclinical 3T MR-BrainPET, HR+) are compared. O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) may exhibit non-uniform tracer uptake in gliomas. The aim was to analyse and adapt the physical properties of the scanners and study variations of biological tumour volume (BTV) in early and late FET-PET.

  20. Estimation of eye lens dose during brain scans using Gafchromic XR-QA2 film in various multidetector CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhilesh, Philomina; Jamhale, Shramika H.; Sharma, S.D.; Kumar, Rajesh; Datta, D.; Kulkarni, Arti R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate eye lens dose during brain scans in 16-, 64-, 128- and 256-slice multidetector computed tomography (CT) scanners in helical acquisition mode and to test the feasibility of using radiochromic film as eye lens dosemeter during CT scanning. Eye lens dose measurements were performed using Gafchromic XR-QA2 film on a polystyrene head phantom designed with outer dimensions equivalent to the head size of a reference Indian man. The response accuracy of XR-QA2 film was validated by using thermoluminescence dosemeters. The eye lens dose measured using XR-QA2 film on head phantom for plain brain scanning in helical mode ranged from 43.8 to 45.8 mGy. The XR-QA2 film measured dose values were in agreement with TLD measured dose values within a maximum variation of 8.9%. The good correlation between the two data sets confirms the viability of using XR-QA2 film for eye lens dosimetry. (authors)

  1. Diagnosis of epidural hematoma by brain scan and perfusion study: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buozas, D.J.; Barrett, I.R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    By using the arterial and venous phases of an anterior cerebral perfusion study, which showed downward displacement of the sagittal sinus, and the finding of a rim on the delayed scans, the specific diagnosis of epidural hematoma was established

  2. A model based system for the interpretation of MR human brain scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapouleas, I.; Kulikowski, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype system for identifying and characterizing Multiple Scleroris (MS) lesions in the brain from magnetic resonance (MR) images. The system is designed to obtain an initial segmentation of each cross-sectional image with low level vision methods, and then derive successive refinements of image subregions through a model-driven approach that correlates relevant information from T1 and T2 images and 3-D information from complementary cross-sections when necessary. The system uses a b-spline surface model of the brain that matches the characteristics of the individual's brain. The normal internal structures of the brain are then scaled proportionately before carrying out the successive refinement operations for the detection of the MS lesions. The low level vision and the solid modeling components of the system have been successfully tested on several hundred images from a number of MR patient studies. The first steps of model fitting have been implemented and show promising results

  3. MR brain scanning in patients with vasculitis: Differentiation from multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.H.; Ormerod, I.E.C.; Du Boulay, E.P.G.H.; Rudge, P.; McDonald, W.I.; Gibson, A.

    1987-01-01

    We performed MR (magnetic resonance) brain imaging on 24 patients with a systemic vasculitis. MRI proved to be a sensitive method for detecting brain lesions (clinically silent or manifest) in these patients. The most frequent abnormalities were periventricular lesions seen in 12 cases. Such changes are not specific for vascular disease, and are often seen in multiple sclerosis. However, additional changes were commonly seen which suggested the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Study on the serum levels of relevant cytokines IL-β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor markers CEA, CA15-3, PRL in breast cancer patients with bone metastatic lesions shown on SPECT radio-nuclide bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between SPECT radionuclide bone scan and serum levels of three tumor markers as well as three cytokines in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, CEA, CA15-3(with RIA) and PRL(with CLIA) were determined in 1)20 breast cancer patients with definite bone metastatic lesions shown on radio-nuclide bone scan 2) 20 breast cancer patients without bone metastasis 3) 30 patients with benign breast disorders and 4) 35 controls. Results: The serum tumor markers levels in patients osseous metastasis were significantly higher than those in the other three groups (P 0.05). The serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β in patients with osseous metastasis were also significantly higher than those in other groups(P<0.05). Conclusion: Over expression of CEA, CA15-3 and PRL as well as IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β were related with osseous metastasis from breast cancer. Determination of the levels of these six parameters would be helpful for dynamic monitoring of the extent of metastasis. (authors)

  5. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  6. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  7. Local appearance features for robust MRI brain structure segmentation across scanning protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achterberg, H.C.; Poot, Dirk H. J.; van der Lijn, Fedde

    2013-01-01

    Segmentation of brain structures in magnetic resonance images is an important task in neuro image analysis. Several papers on this topic have shown the benefit of supervised classification based on local appearance features, often combined with atlas-based approaches. These methods require...... a representative annotated training set and therefore often do not perform well if the target image is acquired on a different scanner or with a different acquisition protocol than the training images. Assuming that the appearance of the brain is determined by the underlying brain tissue distribution...... with substantially different imaging protocols and on different scanners. While a combination of conventional appearance features trained on data from a different scanner with multiatlas segmentation performed poorly with an average Dice overlap of 0.698, the local appearance model based on the new acquisition...

  8. Perioperative brain damage after cardiovascular surgery; Clinical evaluation including CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Michiyuki; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Toru; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Omae, T. (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1989-08-01

    We examined 39 cases (1.6%) of post-operative brain damages out of 2,445 sequential cases of cardiovascular surgery in NCVC during past three years. In this study, we investigated clinical course and CT findings of each patient in details and analyzed the causes of the post operative brain damages. Of 39 cases, 23 (59%) were complicated with cerebral ischemia, 8 (21%) with subdural hematoma (SDH), 2 (5%) with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and 1 (2%) with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), respectively. 5 cases (13%) had unclassified brain damages. In 23 cases of cerebral ischemia there were 5 cases of hypotension-induced ischemia, 4 cases of hypoxic encephalopathy, 3 cases of ischemia induced by intra-operative maneuvers, 3 cases of embolism after operation and a single case of 'microembolism'. Seven cases could not be classified into any of these categories. Duration of ECC was 169.9 {plus minus} 48.5 min on the average in patients with such brain damages as SDH, ICH, SAH and cardiogenic embolism, which were thought not to be related with ECC. On the other hand, that of the patients hypotensive ischemia or 'microembolism' gave an average value of 254.5 {plus minus} 96.8 min. And these patients were thought to have occurred during ECC. There was a statistically significant difference between these two mean values. (J.P.N.).

  9. Assessment of Brain absorbed X-ray dose during CT- Scan using ImPACT software in Tehran Univeristy hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilpour M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: CT scan was first introduced into clinical practice in 1972, and since then has grown into one of the predominant diagnostic procedures. In 1998, the UK National Radiological Protection Board reported that 20% of the national collective dose from medical X-ray examinations derived from CT-scans, although it represented only 2% of all X- ray examinations the aim of this study was to determine the X-ray dosage received by patients in brain CT scan."n"n Methods: In this work, we have estimated patient dose arising from CT examination of brain in five hospitals in Tehran. Organ and effective doses were estimated for 150 patients who underwent CT examination of brain. "ImPACT" version 0.99v was used to estimate organ and effective dose. Brain examinations were performed with fixed Kvp, mAs and T (slice thickness for each scanner. "n"n Results: Patients, who were scanned by CT of emam Khomeini center (Toshiba Xvision /EX Scanner, received maximum organ dose (brain and minimum organ dose was delivered to patients who were scanned by CT of amir alam center (Toshiba Xvision /EX Scanner. Maximum effective dose was 1.7 mSv acquired in this study for emam Khomeini haspital, smaller than

  10. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  11. Evaluation of a 99Tcm bound brain scanning agent for single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A R; Hasselbalch, S G; Paulson, O B

    1986-01-01

    D,L HM-PAO-99Tcm (PAO) is a lipophilic tracer complex which is avidly taken up by the brain. We have compared the regional distribution of PAO with regional cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF was measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by Tomomatic 64 after 133Xe inhalation in 41...... patients. With the same SPECT the distribution of PAO was measured after intravenous injection. High resolution (HR) and low resolution (LR) studies were performed yielding a resolution of 6-10 mm (HR) and 15-20 mm (LR). PAO images showed close resemblance to 133Xe CBF tomograms. Only 20 per cent...... of the (decay corrected) brain counts were lost during 24 hours....

  12. Early Detection of Brain Pathology Suggestive of Early AD Using Objective Evaluation of FDG-PET Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Patterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for early detection of AD becomes critical as disease-modifying agents near the marketplace. Here, we present results from a study focused on improvement in detection of metabolic deficits related to neurodegenerative changes consistent with possible early AD with statistical evaluation of FDG-PET brain images. We followed 31 subjects at high risk or diagnosed with MCI/AD for 3 years. 15 met criteria for diagnosis of MCI, and five met criteria for AD. FDG-PET scans were completed at initiation and termination of the study. PET scans were read clinically and also evaluated objectively using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM. Using standard clinical evaluation of the FDG-PET scans, 11 subjects were detected, while 18 were detected using SPM evaluation. These preliminary results indicate that objective analyses may improve detection; however, early detection in at-risk normal subjects remains tentative. Several FDA-approved software packages are available that use objective analyses, thus the capacity exists for wider use of this method for MCI/AD.

  13. Unoperated subdural hematomas. Long-term follow-up study by brain scan and electroencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusins, J.; Jaffe, R.; Bender, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    The authors report nine patients selected from over 100 patients with subdural hematomas successfully treated without surgery. These patients were followed for as long as 5 years. All had angiographically demonstrated subdural hematomas. Electroencephalograms (EEG) documented well the clinical improvement of the patient, but were poor guides to the true size of the hematoma, since EEG returns to normal early in the patient's course. Static scans are a better guide to the presence of a subdural hematoma, but they lag behind clinical improvement and usually remain abnormal for considerable periods of time after a major portion of the hematoma has been reabsorbed, and the patient is asymptomatic

  14. Exposure to gonads and eyes due to computerised tomography for brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin-Chieh Hsu; Pao-Shan Weng; Ling-Nah Su

    1986-01-01

    Eye and gonad doses for some 150 patients were determined using thermoluminescence dosemeters. Doses received during CT scanning using a Toshiba scanner were compared with those obtained using a Pfizer scanner. A female Rando phantom was also used as the reference. For males, the average eye dose for the Toshiba was 1695+-2041 μGy per slice and the gonad dose was 2.0+-1.5 μGy per slice; for females it was 1953+-1923 μGy per slice for eyes and 0.4+-0.3 μGy per slice for gonads. (author)

  15. Quantitation of size of myocardial infarctions by computerized transmission tomography. Comparison with hot-spot and cold-spot radionuclide scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, K.H.; Higgins, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    The current study evaluated the ability to quantitate the volume of myocardial infarctions when they are outlined by intravenously administered contrast media in the myocardial perfusion phase and in the phase of delayed contrast enhancement of the infarct. Quantitation by contrast media was assessed from computerized transmission tomography (CTT) scans of the ex situ heart and compared with quantitation by technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc)pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc PYP) and thallium-201 (201Tl) scans of the same ex situ hearts. True volume was defined by histochemical morphometry. CTT during the contrast perfusion phase uniformly underestimated infarct size but had a good correlation with true volume. CTT during enhancement phase correlated closely with true volume (r . 0.98) and most precisely measured true size (y . 1.06 X 0.23). The /sup 99m/Tc PYP scan overestimated infarct volume (predictive overestimation of 6 to 199%) but had a good correlation with true volume. 201Tl underestimated infarct volume but correlated well with true volume. Thus, quantitation of infarct volume from CTT scans performed during either the perfusion or infarct enhancement phase after intravenous contrast media provides a good estimate of true infarct volume. Delineation of the infarct by contrast media in the ex situ heart is more precise during the phase of delayed enhancement of the infarct

  16. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  17. The use of brain CT Scan in craniocerebral trauma with Glasgow coma scale scores of 13 – 15 in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital 1999-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofizal Jannis

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available There is still a controversy among the neurologists whether brain CT scan must be performed on the mild head trauma patients. This study was executed to find out the correlation between the brain CT scan image findings and its clinical impairment among the mild head trauma patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS score of 13 to 15. The study was a retrospective study by analyzing the uniform medical records of the head trauma patients hospitalized at the Neurology ward of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital within the period of 1999 to 2001. During that period 1,663 patients were hospitalized due to head trauma, and 1,166 of them (70.1 % were suffered from mild head trauma patients with GCS score of 13-15. Among those with brain CT scan examinations (N: 271, the neurological abnormalities were found on 144 (53.1% of patients, consisted of cerebral edema (11,4%, intracerebral hemorrhage (5.5%, epidural hemorrhage (16.2%, subdural hemorrhage (18.1%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (5.5%, and combination (13.8%. The further analysis showed that cranial nerves disturbance, amnesia, loss of conciousness for more than 10 minutes, and vomiting are significantly correlated to the brain CT scan abnormality. Combination of the above four clinical signs and symptoms have sensitivity of 90 % in predicting brain insults. This findings may be used as a simple set of clinical criteria for identifying mild head trauma patients who need undergo CT scan examination. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 156-60 Keywords: mild head injury, brain CT scan

  18. Improved brain scan specificity utilizing /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate and /sup 99m/Tc(Sn)-diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.C.; McKusick, K.A.; Pendergrass, H.P.; Potsaid, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Each of 36 patients was studied with two separate brain scans performed sequentially after the injection of 20 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate or 20 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc(Sn)-diphosphonate. The resulting scans were qualitatively compared, and lesion-to-nonlesion ratios of activity determined. Diagnoses were established by clinical criteria and were supported in the majority of cases by computerized axial tomography or roentgen angiography or both. Histologic confirmation was available in five cases of tumor and in the single cases of subdural hematoma and cerebral abscess. Of 22 cerebral infarctions, 15 were better demonstrated with /sup 99m/Tc-(Sn)-diphosphonate than with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate. Of the seven remaining cases, three were visualized equally well with each agent, and three were better demonstrated with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate. One was not seen with either agent. Of the 12 tumors, 11 were visualized better with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate than with /sup 99m/Tc(Sn)-diphosphonate while in one case the lesion was seen equally as well with both agents. In no case was a lesion definitely seen with one radio- pharmaceutical and not with the other. These results indicate that this dual method is helpful in differentiating gliomas and metastases from cerebral infarctions. (U.S.)

  19. Diagnostic and prognostic value of asphyxia, Sarnat's clinical classification, and CT-scan in perinatal brain damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Toshihide; Wakita, Yoshiharu; Kubonishi, Sakae; Yoshikawa, Seishi (Kochi Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan)); Ito, Toshiyuki; Okada, Yasusuke

    1990-11-01

    A retrospective review was made of 145 babies, excluding those with congenital heart disease or chromosome aberration, admitted for CT scanning. The study was done to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of CT findings, as well as the presence of asphyxia and the clinical stage based on the Sarnat's classification, in perinatal brain damage. The patients had a minimum follow up of 2 years for the evaluation of neurologic manifestations, such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy and mental retardation. Among babies weighing 2,000 g or more at birth, neonatal asphyxia was significantly correlated with neurologic prognosis. In addition, both clinical stages and CT findings were significantly correlated with neurologic prognosis, irrespective of birth weight. The correlation between clinical stages and CT findings was significant, irrespective of body weight, however, a significant correlation between clinical stages and neonatal asphyxia was restricted to those weighing 2,000 g or more. These findings suggest that the presence of asphyxia, clinical stages and CT findings are complementary in the diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of perinatal brain damage. (N.K.).

  20. Investigation of infant brain with or without hydrocephalous in our environment using anterior transfontanelle ultrasound scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobechukwu T Marchie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A prospective study aimed to suggest easy and simple reproducible ventricular site that will be basic measurement plane and normal dimension determined, correlated to sizes of infants for comparative evaluation of hydrocephalous infants and should be reproducible in follow-up. Materials and Methods: A prospective study done in University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin, Nigeria. This study used 50 consecutive infants with Ultrasound scan (US diagnosis of hydrocephalus and a control group of 50 US normal from 1 st January 2007 to 30 th June 2008. The infants were scan through the mid-patent anterior fontanelle in sagittal, and transverse planes with minor angulations to properly outline the ventricles and the position of measurement determined at the foramen of Monro of lateral ventricles and the diameter measured. The infants′ weight, crown-heel length, and head circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI calculated and correlated to lateral ventricular measurement. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc, USA, Version 11.0. Results: There was no statistically sex and age-related difference. There is statistically comparative high mean weight and height and lower BMI in hydrocephalic infants as against the control group (P < 0.001. The mean head circumference for hydrocephalus was 45.6 (± 10.5 standard deviation [SD], whereas the control group was 35.9 (± 2.7 SD with P < 0.001. The mean diameter of the anterior horn of left and right lateral ventricles at the level of foramen of Monro in hydrocephalic subjects is 18.4 mm ± 14.3 mm and 20.1 mm ± 16.8 mm with median diameter of 14.1 mm and 15.2 mm, respectively, whereas control group is 2.5 mm ± 0.6 mm and 2.5 mm ± 0.7 mm with median diameter of 2.5 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Transfontanelle US was found highly useful in investigation of hydrocephalous in infant.

  1. Dynamic CT brain scanning in the haemodynamic evaluation of cerebral arterial occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.M.; Melbourne Univ.; Tress, B.M.; Hopper, J.L.; Rossiter, S.C.; Kaye, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic cerebral CT scanning (DCT) was used to quantitatively analyse the haemodynamic effects of extracranial and intracranial arterial occlusive lesions in 17 patients with TIA's or minor cerebral infarcts. Using DCT and gamma variate curve fitting, mean transit times were determined for the terminal internal carotid arteries, middle cerebral arteries and middle cerebral-supplied Sylvian cortex at the level of the Circle of Willis. Six patients were studied sequentially, four before and after transcranial bypass surgery. No arterial or tissue delays were found in patients without haemodynamic arterial lesions or cortical infarcts. Seven of nine patients with haemodynamic, extracranial carotid lesions showed ipsilateral delays in arterial or tissue transit times. Tissue delays usually correlated with CT or clinical evidence of infarction. Improved haemodynamics in patients re-studied correlated with the effects of surgery or clinical recovery. DCT has several important limitations but has the potential to provide additional haemodynamic information about the cerebral circulation in selected patients with cerebral arterial occlusive disease. (orig.)

  2. The application of microfocal radiography to neuroanatomy and neuropathology research, and its relation to cerebral magnification angiography and brain scan interpretation. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R.L. de C.H.

    1980-01-01

    Microfocal radiography is used to study post mortem, the microcirculatory and neuronal organization of the normal and diseased brain, as well as to interpret the images obtained clinically by the new techniques of cerebral magnification angiography and X-ray brain scanning. An outline of the basic technique underlying CT scanning and magnification radiography of the living human brain is given to facilitate the understanding of why microfocal radiography is central to magnification radiography and complementary to CT scanning. Microangiography, one of the microfocal radiographic techniques, is discussed at length in relation to the microvasculature of the human cerebral cortex, the vasculature of the subcortical or medullary white matter, the microvascular patterns of the central grey matter and internal capsule, the vascular patterns of the visual cortex and hippocampus; the application of microangiography to the spinal cord and nerve roots is also discussed. Another microfocal radiographic technique described is cerebral historadiography, i.e. X-ray studies of brain histology, with particular reference to the human hippocampal formation. Finally, the correlation of microfocal X-ray and brain CT scan images is discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Genome-wide scan in Hispanics highlights candidate loci for brain white matter hyperintensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Ashley; Dong, Chuanhui; Wright, Clinton B; Dueker, Nicole; Brickman, Adam M; Wang, Liyong; DeCarli, Charles; Blanton, Susan H; Rundek, Tatjana; Mayeux, Richard; Sacco, Ralph L

    2017-10-01

    To investigate genetic variants influencing white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in the understudied Hispanic population. Using 6.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify SNPs associated with WMH volume (WMHV) in 922 Hispanics who underwent brain MRI as a cross-section of 2 community-based cohorts in the Northern Manhattan Study and the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project. Multiple linear modeling with PLINK was performed to examine the additive genetic effects on ln(WMHV) after controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume, and principal components of ancestry. Gene-based tests of association were performed using VEGAS. Replication was performed in independent samples of Europeans, African Americans, and Asians. From the SNP analysis, a total of 17 independent SNPs in 7 genes had suggestive evidence of association with WMHV in Hispanics ( p < 1 × 10 -5 ) and 5 genes from the gene-based analysis with p < 1 × 10 -3 . One SNP (rs9957475 in GATA6 ) and 1 gene ( UBE2C ) demonstrated evidence of association ( p < 0.05) in the African American sample. Four SNPs with p < 1 × 10 -5 were shown to affect binding of SPI1 using RegulomeDB. This GWAS of 2 community-based Hispanic cohorts revealed several novel WMH-associated genetic variants. Further replication is needed in independent Hispanic samples to validate these suggestive associations, and fine mapping is needed to pinpoint causal variants.

  4. Contrast bolus technique with rapid CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, H.; Kuehne, D.; Rohr, W.; Heller, M.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-three patients complying with the clinical criteria for brain death were studied by contrast-enhanced CT. In all but one, the great intracranial vessels escaped visualization; accordingly, angiography demonstrated cerebral circulatory arrest. In the remaining case, faint enhancement of the circle of Willis corresponded to angiographic demonstration of the proximal segments of cerebral arteris. Neither in normal brain nor in dead brain did slow CT scanning disclose any postcontrast increase in parenchymal attenuation. An improved technique is proposed to demonstrate the transit of the contrast bolus by rapid CT with image splitting. If cerebral blood flow is preserved, the grey and white matter will enhance significantly following administration of contrast medium. Vice versa, the absence of enhancement confirms brain death, even in instances in which the great cerebral vessels are obscured by hemorrhage or other extensive lesions. Two additional cases of brain death were evaluated by rapid CT scanning. As to brain death, the technique obviates the need for angiography or radionuclide angiography, usually applied in prospective organ donors, because its informative content is superior to that of either method. The CT technique described affords a reliable and safe diagnosis of brain death, and can be interpreted easily. (orig.)

  5. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  6. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  7. An open tool for input function estimation and quantification of dynamic PET FDG brain scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrán, Martín; Martínez, Natalia; Carbajal, Guillermo; Fernández, Alicia; Gómez, Álvaro

    2016-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) analysis of clinical studies is mostly restricted to qualitative evaluation. Quantitative analysis of PET studies is highly desirable to be able to compute an objective measurement of the process of interest in order to evaluate treatment response and/or compare patient data. But implementation of quantitative analysis generally requires the determination of the input function: the arterial blood or plasma activity which indicates how much tracer is available for uptake in the brain. The purpose of our work was to share with the community an open software tool that can assist in the estimation of this input function, and the derivation of a quantitative map from the dynamic PET study. Arterial blood sampling during the PET study is the gold standard method to get the input function, but is uncomfortable and risky for the patient so it is rarely used in routine studies. To overcome the lack of a direct input function, different alternatives have been devised and are available in the literature. These alternatives derive the input function from the PET image itself (image-derived input function) or from data gathered from previous similar studies (population-based input function). In this article, we present ongoing work that includes the development of a software tool that integrates several methods with novel strategies for the segmentation of blood pools and parameter estimation. The tool is available as an extension to the 3D Slicer software. Tests on phantoms were conducted in order to validate the implemented methods. We evaluated the segmentation algorithms over a range of acquisition conditions and vasculature size. Input function estimation algorithms were evaluated against ground truth of the phantoms, as well as on their impact over the final quantification map. End-to-end use of the tool yields quantification maps with [Formula: see text] relative error in the estimated influx versus ground truth on phantoms. The main

  8. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  9. Classification of brain tumors using texture based analysis of T1-post contrast MR scans in a preclinical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tien T.; Zawaski, Janice A.; Francis, Kathleen N.; Qutub, Amina A.; Gaber, M. Waleed

    2018-02-01

    Accurate diagnosis of tumor type is vital for effective treatment planning. Diagnosis relies heavily on tumor biopsies and other clinical factors. However, biopsies do not fully capture the tumor's heterogeneity due to sampling bias and are only performed if the tumor is accessible. An alternative approach is to use features derived from routine diagnostic imaging such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In this study we aim to establish the use of quantitative image features to classify brain tumors and extend the use of MR images beyond tumor detection and localization. To control for interscanner, acquisition and reconstruction protocol variations, the established workflow was performed in a preclinical model. Using glioma (U87 and GL261) and medulloblastoma (Daoy) models, T1-weighted post contrast scans were acquired at different time points post-implant. The tumor regions at the center, middle, and peripheral were analyzed using in-house software to extract 32 different image features consisting of first and second order features. The extracted features were used to construct a decision tree, which could predict tumor type with 10-fold cross-validation. Results from the final classification model demonstrated that middle tumor region had the highest overall accuracy at 79%, while the AUC accuracy was over 90% for GL261 and U87 tumors. Our analysis further identified image features that were unique to certain tumor region, although GL261 tumors were more homogenous with no significant differences between the central and peripheral tumor regions. In conclusion our study shows that texture features derived from MR scans can be used to classify tumor type with high success rates. Furthermore, the algorithm we have developed can be implemented with any imaging datasets and may be applicable to multiple tumor types to determine diagnosis.

  10. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  11. Scanning the Social Brain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koed Madsen, Anders

    to harness massive amounts of behavioral data on the web and synthesize it into manageable visualizations of the social. On the basis of interviews and document analyses this paper provides an analysis of the ways in which such visualizations are constructed and made sense of by project leaders across...... the areas of public governance, advertizing, military intelligence, strategic foresight and the social sciences. The theoretical framework of the paper is grounded in Social Construction of Technology, Actor-Network Theory and Software Studies in order to focus analytical attention on technological...

  12. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  13. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis

  15. Improvements in pencil beam scanning proton therapy dose calculation accuracy in brain tumor cases with a commercial Monte Carlo algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widesott, Lamberto; Lorentini, Stefano; Fracchiolla, Francesco; Farace, Paolo; Schwarz, Marco

    2018-05-04

    validation of a commercial Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm (RayStation ver6.0.024) for the treatment of brain tumours with pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy, comparing it via measurements and analytical calculations in clinically realistic scenarios. Methods: For the measurements a 2D ion chamber array detector (MatriXX PT)) was placed underneath the following targets: 1) anthropomorphic head phantom (with two different thickness) and 2) a biological sample (i.e. half lamb's head). In addition, we compared the MC dose engine vs. the RayStation pencil beam (PB) algorithm clinically implemented so far, in critical conditions such as superficial targets (i.e. in need of range shifter), different air gaps and gantry angles to simulate both orthogonal and tangential beam arrangements. For every plan the PB and MC dose calculation were compared to measurements using a gamma analysis metrics (3%, 3mm). Results: regarding the head phantom the gamma passing rate (GPR) was always >96% and on average > 99% for the MC algorithm; PB algorithm had a GPR ≤90% for all the delivery configurations with single slab (apart 95 % GPR from gantry 0° and small air gap) and in case of two slabs of the head phantom the GPR was >95% only in case of small air gaps for all the three (0°, 45°,and 70°) simulated beam gantry angles. Overall the PB algorithm tends to overestimate the dose to the target (up to 25%) and underestimate the dose to the organ at risk (up to 30%). We found similar results (but a bit worse for PB algorithm) for the two targets of the lamb's head where only two beam gantry angles were simulated. Conclusions: our results suggest that in PBS proton therapy range shifter (RS) need to be used with extreme caution when planning the treatment with an analytical algorithm due to potentially great discrepancies between the planned dose and the dose delivered to the patients, also in case of brain tumours where this issue could be underestimated. Our results also

  16. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  17. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  18. Radiation injury vs. recurrent brain metastasis: combining textural feature radiomics analysis and standard parameters may increase {sup 18}F-FET PET accuracy without dynamic scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Philipp; Stoffels, Gabriele; Stegmayr, Carina; Neumaier, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Ceccon, Garry [University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Rapp, Marion; Sabel, Michael; Kamp, Marcel A. [Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Department of Neurosurgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Filss, Christian P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Shah, Nadim J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Department of Neurology, Juelich (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Department of Neurology, Juelich (Germany); Galldiks, Norbert [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); University of Cologne, Center of Integrated Oncology (CIO), Cologne (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    We investigated the potential of textural feature analysis of O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ({sup 18}F-FET) PET to differentiate radiation injury from brain metastasis recurrence. Forty-seven patients with contrast-enhancing brain lesions (n = 54) on MRI after radiotherapy of brain metastases underwent dynamic {sup 18}F-FET PET. Tumour-to-brain ratios (TBRs) of {sup 18}F-FET uptake and 62 textural parameters were determined on summed images 20-40 min post-injection. Tracer uptake kinetics, i.e., time-to-peak (TTP) and patterns of time-activity curves (TAC) were evaluated on dynamic PET data from 0-50 min post-injection. Diagnostic accuracy of investigated parameters and combinations thereof to discriminate between brain metastasis recurrence and radiation injury was compared. Diagnostic accuracy increased from 81 % for TBR{sub mean} alone to 85 % when combined with the textural parameter Coarseness or Short-zone emphasis. The accuracy of TBR{sub max} alone was 83 % and increased to 85 % after combination with the textural parameters Coarseness, Short-zone emphasis, or Correlation. Analysis of TACs resulted in an accuracy of 70 % for kinetic pattern alone and increased to 83 % when combined with TBR{sub max}. Textural feature analysis in combination with TBRs may have the potential to increase diagnostic accuracy for discrimination between brain metastasis recurrence and radiation injury, without the need for dynamic {sup 18}F-FET PET scans. (orig.)

  19. Presentation of 60 Cases of Infantile Spasms Based on Etiology, Clinical Manifestation EEG and Brain CT Scan in Mofid Children Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Taghdiri

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Among different epileptic syndrome infantile spasm is one of the most malignant forms which cause irrepairable brain damage in the child. Consequently the longer this type of epilepsy lasts the more harmful results will follow. The majority of children with infantile spasm are younger than one year age and only 5 percent of affected children are in the age group above one year. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was done on 60 (36 male and 24 female infants 2-24 months age with clinical examination, observation, interview and questionnaire  in pediatric neurology department of Mofid children hospital during two years. Results: From 60 patients (36 male and 24 female, 48 case (80% symptomatic and 12 case (20% cryptogenic and idiopathic. Based on clinical manifestation 35 case (58% were flexor type. 6 case (10% extensor and 19 cases (32% mixed. In EEG hypsarrhythmia in all patients was seen. Brain CT scan in 11 cases showed brain atrophy and in remainder was normal. Conclusion: In our study etiologically symptomatic and clinically flexor type was more common. Hysparrhythmia in all patients was seen and brain CT scan in 80% of patients was normal.

  20. Exclusion of pneumothorax by radionuclide lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    A case is reported in which ventilation lung imaging was useful in excluding a large pneumothorax. This technique may be helpful in patients with emphysema in whom exclusion of pneumothorax by radiographic criteria might be difficult

  1. Comparison of sequential planar 177Lu-DOTA-TATE dosimetry scans with 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT images in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours undergoing peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz-Esteban, Aurora; Carril, Jose Manuel; Prasad, Vikas; Schuchardt, Christiane; Zachert, Carolin; Baum, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare sequential 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE planar scans ( 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE) in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours (NET) acquired during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for dosimetry purposes with the pre-therapeutic 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography (PET)/CT ( 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images obtained in the same patients concerning the sensitivity of the different methods. A total of 44 patients (59 ± 11 years old) with biopsy-proven NET underwent 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE imaging within 7.9 ± 7.5 days between the two examinations. 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE planar images were acquired at 0.5, 2, 24, 48 and 72 h post-injection; lesions were given a score from 0 to 4 depending on the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical (0 being lowest and 4 highest). The number of tumour lesions which were identified on 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE scans (in relation to the acquisition time after injection of the therapeutic dose as well as with regard to the body region) was compared to those detected on 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE studies obtained before PRRT. A total of 318 lesions were detected; 280 (88%) lesions were concordant. Among the discordant lesions, 29 were 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE positive and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE negative, whereas 9 were 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE negative and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE positive. The sensitivity, positive predictive value and accuracy for 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE as compared to 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE were 91, 97 and 88%, respectively. Significantly more lesions were seen on the delayed (72 h) 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE images (91%) as compared to the immediate (30 min) images (68%). The highest concordance was observed for bone metastases (97%) and the lowest for head/neck lesions (75%). Concordant lesions (n = 77; mean size 3.8 cm) were significantly larger than discordant lesions (n = 38; mean size 1.6 cm) (p max ). However, concordant liver lesions with a score from 1 to 3 in the 72-h 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE scan had a lower SUV max

  2. Comparison of sequential planar {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE dosimetry scans with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT images in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours undergoing peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz-Esteban, Aurora; Carril, Jose Manuel [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Santander (Spain); Prasad, Vikas; Schuchardt, Christiane; Zachert, Carolin; Baum, Richard P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for PET/CT, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The aim of the study was to compare sequential {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE planar scans ({sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE) in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours (NET) acquired during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for dosimetry purposes with the pre-therapeutic {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography (PET)/CT ({sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images obtained in the same patients concerning the sensitivity of the different methods. A total of 44 patients (59 {+-} 11 years old) with biopsy-proven NET underwent {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE imaging within 7.9 {+-} 7.5 days between the two examinations. {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE planar images were acquired at 0.5, 2, 24, 48 and 72 h post-injection; lesions were given a score from 0 to 4 depending on the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical (0 being lowest and 4 highest). The number of tumour lesions which were identified on {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE scans (in relation to the acquisition time after injection of the therapeutic dose as well as with regard to the body region) was compared to those detected on {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE studies obtained before PRRT. A total of 318 lesions were detected; 280 (88%) lesions were concordant. Among the discordant lesions, 29 were {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE positive and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE negative, whereas 9 were {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE negative and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE positive. The sensitivity, positive predictive value and accuracy for {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE as compared to {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE were 91, 97 and 88%, respectively. Significantly more lesions were seen on the delayed (72 h) {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE images (91%) as compared to the immediate (30 min) images (68%). The highest concordance was observed for bone metastases (97%) and the lowest for head/neck lesions (75%). Concordant lesions (n = 77; mean size 3.8 cm) were significantly larger than discordant lesions (n = 38; mean size 1.6 cm) (p < 0.05). No such significance was

  3. Evaluation of brain scintigraphy and computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavailloles, F.; Dairou, R.; Desbleds, M.T.; Benoit, C.; Larmande, P.; Bok, B.; Alperovitch, A.

    1983-01-01

    In order to assess the clinical usefulness of brain computerized tomography and radionuclide scan, a prospective study was performed on a series of 554 patients. The detection rate was assessed as well as the identification rate of lesions. In addition, the usefulness of both tests was appreciated subjectively by two neurologists reviewing the patients' files. Both give reasonably similar results: computerized tomography is superior to radionuclide scan in the diagnosis of tumors and intracerebral hematomas, the radionuclide scan being slightly superior in the diagnosis of purely ischemic CVA and subdural hematomas. The superiority which was subjectively conceded to computerized tomography was greater than that objectively demonstrated. However, clinical usefulness of computerized tomography was judged important in only 50% of the cases. Moreover, to request both computerized tomography and radionuclide scan appeared as having no interest in 83% of the cases. In that series, the diagnostic hypotheses were in agreement with the final diagnosis in 88% of the cases. Bias encountered in this type of studies are discussed [fr

  4. Radionuclide imaging of non osseous infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; New York, Yeshiva Univ., NY; Torres, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is an important tool in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with a variety of non osseous infections. In the immunocompetent population labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice, with Gallium imaging reserved for those situations in which the leukocyte study is non diagnostic or cannot be performed. Fever of unknown origin is caused by infection in less than one-third of cases, and therefore the number of positive leukocyte studies will be relatively low. The negative leukocyte study is also useful as it has been demonstrated that a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, focal infection as the cause of an FUO. In the cardiovascular system, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is very useful for diagnosing mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. The specificity of the study is somewhat more variable. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging can provide important information about the etiology of contrast enhancing brain lesions identified on computed tomography. In the immunocompromised population, typified by the AIDS patient, Gallium scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing opportunistic diseases. In the thorax, a normal Gallium scan, in the setting of a negative chest X-ray, virtually excludes pulmonary disease. In the abdomen, Gallium is also useful for detecting nodal disease, but is not reliable for detecting large bowel disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be performed when colitis is a concern. Both 18 FDG PET and 201 T1 SPECT imaging of the brain are useful for distinguishing between central nervous system lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in the HIV (+) patient. On both studies, lymphoma manifests as a focus of increased tracer uptake, whereas toxoplasmosis shows little or no uptake of either tracer

  5. Radionuclide imaging of non osseous infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY, (United States). Dept. Nuclear Medicine New York, Yeshiva Univ., NY (United States). Albert Einstein College of Medicine); Torres, M.A. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY, (United States). Dept. Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear medicine is an important tool in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with a variety of non osseous infections. In the immunocompetent population labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice, with Gallium imaging reserved for those situations in which the leukocyte study is non diagnostic or cannot be performed. Fever of unknown origin is caused by infection in less than one-third of cases, and therefore the number of positive leukocyte studies will be relatively low. The negative leukocyte study is also useful as it has been demonstrated that a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, focal infection as the cause of an FUO. In the cardiovascular system, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is very useful for diagnosing mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. The specificity of the study is somewhat more variable. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging can provide important information about the etiology of contrast enhancing brain lesions identified on computed tomography. In the immunocompromised population, typified by the AIDS patient, Gallium scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing opportunistic diseases. In the thorax, a normal Gallium scan, in the setting of a negative chest X-ray, virtually excludes pulmonary disease. In the abdomen, Gallium is also useful for detecting nodal disease, but is not reliable for detecting large bowel disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be performed when colitis is a concern. Both [sup 18]FDG PET and [sup 201]T1 SPECT imaging of the brain are useful for distinguishing between central nervous system lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in the HIV (+) patient. On both studies, lymphoma manifests as a focus of increased tracer uptake, whereas toxoplasmosis shows little or no uptake of either tracer.

  6. Automatic, accurate, and reproducible segmentation of the brain and cerebro-spinal fluid in T1-weighted volume MRI scans and its application to serial cerebral and intracranial volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Louis

    2001-07-01

    A new fully automatic algorithm for the segmentation of the brain and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) from T1-weighted volume MRI scans of the head was specifically developed in the context of serial intra-cranial volumetry. The method is an extension of a previously published brain extraction algorithm. The brain mask is used as a basis for CSF segmentation based on morphological operations, automatic histogram analysis and thresholding. Brain segmentation is then obtained by iterative tracking of the brain-CSF interface. Grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and CSF volumes are calculated based on a model of intensity probability distribution that includes partial volume effects. Accuracy was assessed using a digital phantom scan. Reproducibility was assessed by segmenting pairs of scans from 20 normal subjects scanned 8 months apart and 11 patients with epilepsy scanned 3.5 years apart. Segmentation accuracy as measured by overlap was 98% for the brain and 96% for the intra-cranial tissues. The volume errors were: total brain (TBV): -1.0%, intra-cranial (ICV):0.1%, CSF: +4.8%. For repeated scans, matching resulted in improved reproducibility. In the controls, the coefficient of reliability (CR) was 1.5% for the TVB and 1.0% for the ICV. In the patients, the Cr for the ICV was 1.2%.

  7. Theoretical Benefits of Dynamic Collimation in Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy for Brain Tumors: Dosimetric and Radiobiological Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moignier, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra-moignier@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake; Flynn, Ryan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Kirk, Maura; Lin, Liyong; Solberg, Timothy; Lin, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hyer, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric benefit of using a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for penumbra reduction during the treatment of brain tumors by pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBS PT). Methods and Materials: Collimated and uncollimated brain treatment plans were created for 5 patients previously treated with PBS PT and retrospectively enrolled in an institutional review board–approved study. The in-house treatment planning system, RDX, was used to generate the plans because it is capable of modeling both collimated and uncollimated beamlets. The clinically delivered plans were reproduced with uncollimated plans in terms of target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) sparing to ensure a clinically relevant starting point, and collimated plans were generated to improve the OAR sparing while maintaining target coverage. Physical and biological comparison metrics, such as dose distribution conformity, mean and maximum doses, normal tissue complication probability, and risk of secondary brain cancer, were used to evaluate the plans. Results: The DCS systematically improved the dose distribution conformity while preserving the target coverage. The average reduction of the mean dose to the 10-mm ring surrounding the target and the healthy brain were 13.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.6%-15.7%; P<.0001) and 25.1% (95% CI 16.8%-33.4%; P<.001), respectively. This yielded an average reduction of 24.8% (95% CI 0.8%-48.8%; P<.05) for the brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability using the Flickinger model, and 25.1% (95% CI 16.8%-33.4%; P<.001) for the risk of secondary brain cancer. A general improvement of the OAR sparing was also observed. Conclusion: The lateral penumbra reduction afforded by the DCS increases the normal tissue sparing capabilities of PBS PT for brain cancer treatment while preserving target coverage.

  8. Theoretical Benefits of Dynamic Collimation in Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy for Brain Tumors: Dosimetric and Radiobiological Metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moignier, Alexandra; Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake; Flynn, Ryan; Kirk, Maura; Lin, Liyong; Solberg, Timothy; Lin, Alexander; Hyer, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric benefit of using a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for penumbra reduction during the treatment of brain tumors by pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBS PT). Methods and Materials: Collimated and uncollimated brain treatment plans were created for 5 patients previously treated with PBS PT and retrospectively enrolled in an institutional review board–approved study. The in-house treatment planning system, RDX, was used to generate the plans because it is capable of modeling both collimated and uncollimated beamlets. The clinically delivered plans were reproduced with uncollimated plans in terms of target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) sparing to ensure a clinically relevant starting point, and collimated plans were generated to improve the OAR sparing while maintaining target coverage. Physical and biological comparison metrics, such as dose distribution conformity, mean and maximum doses, normal tissue complication probability, and risk of secondary brain cancer, were used to evaluate the plans. Results: The DCS systematically improved the dose distribution conformity while preserving the target coverage. The average reduction of the mean dose to the 10-mm ring surrounding the target and the healthy brain were 13.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.6%-15.7%; P<.0001) and 25.1% (95% CI 16.8%-33.4%; P<.001), respectively. This yielded an average reduction of 24.8% (95% CI 0.8%-48.8%; P<.05) for the brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability using the Flickinger model, and 25.1% (95% CI 16.8%-33.4%; P<.001) for the risk of secondary brain cancer. A general improvement of the OAR sparing was also observed. Conclusion: The lateral penumbra reduction afforded by the DCS increases the normal tissue sparing capabilities of PBS PT for brain cancer treatment while preserving target coverage.

  9. Radiation injury vs. recurrent brain metastasis: combining textural feature radiomics analysis and standard parameters may increase 18F-FET PET accuracy without dynamic scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Philipp; Stoffels, Gabriele; Ceccon, Garry; Rapp, Marion; Sabel, Michael; Filss, Christian P; Kamp, Marcel A; Stegmayr, Carina; Neumaier, Bernd; Shah, Nadim J; Langen, Karl-Josef; Galldiks, Norbert

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the potential of textural feature analysis of O-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ( 18 F-FET) PET to differentiate radiation injury from brain metastasis recurrence. Forty-seven patients with contrast-enhancing brain lesions (n = 54) on MRI after radiotherapy of brain metastases underwent dynamic 18 F-FET PET. Tumour-to-brain ratios (TBRs) of 18 F-FET uptake and 62 textural parameters were determined on summed images 20-40 min post-injection. Tracer uptake kinetics, i.e., time-to-peak (TTP) and patterns of time-activity curves (TAC) were evaluated on dynamic PET data from 0-50 min post-injection. Diagnostic accuracy of investigated parameters and combinations thereof to discriminate between brain metastasis recurrence and radiation injury was compared. Diagnostic accuracy increased from 81 % for TBR mean alone to 85 % when combined with the textural parameter Coarseness or Short-zone emphasis. The accuracy of TBR max alone was 83 % and increased to 85 % after combination with the textural parameters Coarseness, Short-zone emphasis, or Correlation. Analysis of TACs resulted in an accuracy of 70 % for kinetic pattern alone and increased to 83 % when combined with TBR max . Textural feature analysis in combination with TBRs may have the potential to increase diagnostic accuracy for discrimination between brain metastasis recurrence and radiation injury, without the need for dynamic 18 F-FET PET scans. • Textural feature analysis provides quantitative information about tumour heterogeneity • Textural features help improve discrimination between brain metastasis recurrence and radiation injury • Textural features might be helpful to further understand tumour heterogeneity • Analysis does not require a more time consuming dynamic PET acquisition.

  10. A database for estimating organ dose for coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT scans for arbitrary spectra and angular tube current modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupcich, Franco; Badal, Andreu; Kyprianou, Iacovos; Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a database for estimating organ dose in a voxelized patient model for coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT acquisitions with any spectra and angular tube current modulation setting. The database enables organ dose estimation for existing and novel acquisition techniques without requiring Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: The study simulated transport of monoenergetic photons between 5 and 150 keV for 1000 projections over 360° through anthropomorphic voxelized female chest and head (0° and 30° tilt) phantoms and standard head and body CTDI dosimetry cylinders. The simulations resulted in tables of normalized dose deposition for several radiosensitive organs quantifying the organ dose per emitted photon for each incident photon energy and projection angle for coronary angiography and brain perfusion acquisitions. The values in a table can be multiplied by an incident spectrum and number of photons at each projection angle and then summed across all energies and angles to estimate total organ dose. Scanner-specific organ dose may be approximated by normalizing the database-estimated organ dose by the database-estimated CTDI vol and multiplying by a physical CTDI vol measurement. Two examples are provided demonstrating how to use the tables to estimate relative organ dose. In the first, the change in breast and lung dose during coronary angiography CT scans is calculated for reduced kVp, angular tube current modulation, and partial angle scanning protocols relative to a reference protocol. In the second example, the change in dose to the eye lens is calculated for a brain perfusion CT acquisition in which the gantry is tilted 30° relative to a nontilted scan. Results: Our database provides tables of normalized dose deposition for several radiosensitive organs irradiated during coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT scans. Validation results indicate total organ doses calculated using our database are

  11. Diagnosis of epidural hematoma by brain scan and perfusion study: case report. [/sup 99m/Tc tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buozas, D.J.; Barrett, I.R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1976-11-01

    By using the arterial and venous phases of an anterior cerebral perfusion study, which showed downward displacement of the sagittal sinus, and the finding of a rim on the delayed scans, the specific diagnosis of epidural hematoma was established.

  12. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  13. Brain scintigraphy with Tc99-pertechnetate in the evaluation of patients with cerebrovascular lesions. The diagnostic value related to age of the lesion and to the size, type and localisation revealed by CT-scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Christensen, J; Skriver, E B

    1983-01-01

    Brain scintigraphy with Tc99-pertechnetate (Tc99-scan) was performed 4 times in 95 consecutive stroke patients: on average 5 days, 18 days, 103 days and 194 days after the stroke. The type (infarct, hematoma), size and localisation of the lesion was evaluated by CT-scan performed 3 times in all...

  14. Comparison of Tc-99m HM-PAO SPECT brain scan and x-ray CT in the detection of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Sadek, S.; Sahwell, A.; Kubasek, H.; El-Sayed, M.; Ziada, G.; Mobarak, L.; Al-Huda, F.; Omar, Y.T.

    1986-01-01

    Tc-99m HM-PAO imaging was compared with x-ray CT in 14 patients with known or suspected brain metastases. Both studies were done within 3 days of each other. Static and single photon emission CT (SPECT) images were acquired after intravenous injection of 13 mCi of Tc-99m HM-PAO. All 14 patients underwent static and SPECT Tc-99m HM-PAO imaging and x-ray CT. Studies were positive in 7, 12, and 10 patients, respectively, by static, SPECT, and x-ray CT imaging, and negative in 7, 2, and 2. The number of lesions identified was 0 (static imaging), 32 (SPECT), and 26(x-ray CT). There were no ''suspicious'' studies by any modality. This study indicates that Tc-99m HM-PAO SPECT cerebral blood flow imaging is more sensitive than x-ray CT for detecting brain metastases, that biplane imaging is not sensitive and SPECT is essential, and that for Tc-99m HM-PAO SPECT brain imaging to regain its importance with respect to x-ray CT, acquisition time must be 10 minutes or less and determination of percentage brain uptake of the injected dose, and of regional distribution, is necessary

  15. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax

  16. A case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with abnormal brain CT scan after cranial irradiation for central nervous system leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Junko; Abe, Takanori; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    1988-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with central neurologic symptoms immediately after the second irradiation (20 Gy to the brain and 10 Gy to the spinal cord) for central nervous system (CNS)-leukemia 3 years and 2 months after the first cranial irradiation with 20 Gy. White matter was depicted as diffusely high density area on CT; histology revealed necrosis of leukemic cells. In the present patient with repeated recurrent CNS-leukemia, leukemic cells seemed to have been damaged simultaneously after irradiation because of parenchymal widespread involvement of leukemic cells, resulting in brain edema, an increased intracranial pressure and parenchymal disturbance. This finding may have an important implication for the risk of cranial irradiation in the case of widespread involvement of leukemic cells. Re-evaluation of cranial irradiation in such cases is suggested. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. How to interpret an unenhanced CT Brain scan. Part 1: Basic principles of Computed Tomography and relevant neuroanatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Osborne

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to: Cover the basics of Computed Tomography (CT Brain imaging. Review relevant CT neuroanatomy. A CT image is produced by firing x-rays at a moving object which is then detected by an array of rotating detectors (Figure 1. The detected x-rays are then converted into a computerised signal which is used to produce a series of cross sectional images.

  18. Pitfalls in diagnosing brain death in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffol, G.J.; Lansky, L.L.; Hughes, J.R.; Blend, M.J.; Pavel, D.G.; Kecskes, S.A.; Ortega, R.E.; Tan, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    A 3-year-old child with phenotypic trisomy 18 syndrome survived 26 days after a cardiopulmonary arrest, secondary to an acute viral illness. The child was deeply comatose. No barbiturates, other sedatives, or aminoglycoside antibiotics had been recently administered. The child was normothermic with adequate cardiovascular function. Brain stem function was absent, as assessed by testing of brain stem reflexes. Serial cerebral radionuclide angiograms (CRAG) documented intact cerebral blood flow while electrocerebral silence (ECS) was present on two consecutive EEG recordings within 24 hours. Preservation of intracranial circulation was confirmed by rapid rotational computed tomographic (CT) scans. Cranial CT scans also revealed communicating hydrocephalus, and bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhages. This unusual case illustrates discordance between apparent irreversible loss of cortical function as indicated by electrocerebral silence with preserved cerebral blood flow. The implications of these apparent paradoxical events will be discussed in the context of defining brain death in children

  19. Transverse section scanning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  20. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  1. Subject-specific bone attenuation correction for brain PET/MR: can ZTE-MRI substitute CT scan accurately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifé, Maya; Fernandez, Brice; Jaubert, Olivier; Soussan, Michael; Brulon, Vincent; Buvat, Irène; Comtat, Claude

    2017-10-01

    In brain PET/MR applications, accurate attenuation maps are required for accurate PET image quantification. An implemented attenuation correction (AC) method for brain imaging is the single-atlas approach that estimates an AC map from an averaged CT template. As an alternative, we propose to use a zero echo time (ZTE) pulse sequence to segment bone, air and soft tissue. A linear relationship between histogram normalized ZTE intensity and measured CT density in Hounsfield units (HU ) in bone has been established thanks to a CT-MR database of 16 patients. Continuous AC maps were computed based on the segmented ZTE by setting a fixed linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) to air and soft tissue and by using the linear relationship to generate continuous μ values for the bone. Additionally, for the purpose of comparison, four other AC maps were generated: a ZTE derived AC map with a fixed LAC for the bone, an AC map based on the single-atlas approach as provided by the PET/MR manufacturer, a soft-tissue only AC map and, finally, the CT derived attenuation map used as the gold standard (CTAC). All these AC maps were used with different levels of smoothing for PET image reconstruction with and without time-of-flight (TOF). The subject-specific AC map generated by combining ZTE-based segmentation and linear scaling of the normalized ZTE signal into HU was found to be a good substitute for the measured CTAC map in brain PET/MR when used with a Gaussian smoothing kernel of 4~mm corresponding to the PET scanner intrinsic resolution. As expected TOF reduces AC error regardless of the AC method. The continuous ZTE-AC performed better than the other alternative MR derived AC methods, reducing the quantification error between the MRAC corrected PET image and the reference CTAC corrected PET image.

  2. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scanning agents in malignant brain tumors. Comparison to semi-quantitative evaluation with 99mTc SPECT/201Tl SPECT and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Aya

    2003-01-01

    Although 201 Tl chloride (Tl) SPECT has been used in the differential diagnosis between recurrence of malignant brain tumor and necrosis after treatment, it is not generally recognized as a definite modality to distinguish them. We conducted a preliminary study using Tl SPECT and 99m Tc-MDP or 99m Tc-HMDP (Tc) SPECT because it has been said that extraosseous accumulation was caused by calcium deposits in necrotic tissues. In our study, for the purposes of clarifying the mechanism of extraosseous uptake and the correlation between extraosseous accumulation of bone-scanning agent and tumor viability in malignant brain tumors, we compared whether Tc uptake was correlated with the histopathological findings and further performed semi-quantitative evaluation between Tc SPECT and Tl SPECT. The correlation coefficients between the ratio of tumor to normal skull count obtained from Tc SPECT (Tc-T/N) and those of tumor to normal brain count (T/N) and to normal scalp count (T/S) both obtained from Tl SPECT were calculated. Using contrast enhanced CT (CE-CT) or contrast enhanced MRI (CE-MRI), 8 of 10 cases showed intensely ring-enhanced tumor with necrotic lesion. Histopathologically, 7 of 8 cases whose tumor had been resected before treatment had necrosis with increased vascularity or bleeding. Of the remaining 2 cases one case, malignant lymphoma had only hypervascularity by biopsy, while the other one was excluded for resection after treatment. Three of these 8 cases whose CE-CT or CE-MRI showed necrotic lesions exhibited Tc and Tl accumulations in the area corresponding to necrosis. In contrast, 2 showed no Tc nor Tl uptake. Tc-T/N had no significant correlation with any of early-, delayed-T/N or T/S. In conclusion, there was no significant correlation between Tc and Tl uptakes by malignant brain tumors in semi-quantitative evaluation. (author)

  3. Multiple myeloma: radiology or bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.C.F.; Owen, J.P.; Proctor, S.J.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study of radionuclide bone scanning and skeletal radiology in patients with multiple myeloma revealed four principal findings: (i) There were no cases of negative bone scans with positive skeletal radiographs. (ii) Lytic bone lesions were seriously underestimated by bone scans. (iii) Bone scans tended to pick up lesions in ribs missed on the skeletal surveys. (iv) Patients with bone pain were more likely to have positive bone scans and skeletal radiographs than asymptomatic patients. (author)

  4. Limitations of radionuclide flow studies in bilateral carotid thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messert, B.; Tyson, I.B.; Barron, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide angiography as a noninvasive procedure has become an important tool in the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. Determinations of arm-to-brain circulation times complemented by the transit times of the radionuclide bolus through the brain afford insight into the functional status of the vascular system of the brain. Delays in perfusion, asymmetries in appearance, and washout of the radionuclide material can be correlated with disease entities. However, as with many procedures elevated to the status of a screening test, the possibility of false-positive and false-negative results exists. Two cases of bilateral carotid occlusion are presented, showing normal or only delayed, fairly symmetrical brain perfusion. The appearance of the radionuclide flow in the neck in AP and lateral views gave no suggestion of the involved deficits. Even multiple-projection imaging might fail to demonstrate major vascular obstructions. However, attentive study of these projections might yield interesting evidence of unexpected collateral flow systems. (U.S.)

  5. A comparison of rapid-scanning X-ray fluorescence mapping and magnetic resonance imaging to localize brain iron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, Richard P.E.; Harder, Sheri L.; Martin, Melanie; Buist, Richard; Nichol, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of many neurodegenerative disorders relies primarily or exclusively on observed behaviors rather than measurable physical tests. One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the presence of amyloid-containing plaques associated with deposits of iron, copper and/or zinc. Work in other laboratories has shown that iron-rich plaques can be seen in the mouse brain in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a high-field strength magnet but this iron cannot be visualized in humans using clinical magnets. To improve the interpretation of MRI, we correlated iron accumulation visualized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, an element-specific technique with T1, T2, and susceptibility weighted MR (SWI) in a mouse model of AD. We show that SWI best shows areas of increased iron accumulation when compared to standard sequences

  6. Radionuclide shuntography in a hydrocephalic patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard Esfahani, A.; Taghavi, M.; Eftekhari, M.; Saghari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Radionuclide shuntography is a safe and simple method to determine shunt patency and analyze changes in cerebro- spinal fluid flow. We present a case of complicated cerebro- spinal fluid shunt, in which radioisotopic scan correctly identified disconnection of the shunt tubing system localizing the site of extravasation accurately. The findings were confirmed by surgery performed for correction of the shunt system

  7. Occult Candida thyroid abscess diagnosed by gallium-67 scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, M.C.; Blattner, S.

    1990-01-01

    A clinically silent fungal thyroid abscess was identified by Ga-67 citrate scanning and successfully drained surgically in a young leukemic patient. Whole-body radionuclide scanning remains a valuable method to help diagnose persistent fever in the immunocompromised host

  8. Neuropsychological deficits and morphological MRI brain scan abnormalities in apparently health non-encephalopathic patients with cirrhosis; A controlled Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.W.; De Lacey, G.; Dunk, A.A.; Sinclair, T.S.; Mowat, M.A.G.; Brunt, P.W. (Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Deans, H. (Aberdeen Univ. (UK). Dept. of Medical Physics (United Kingdom)); Crawford, J.R. (Aberdeen University Medical School (United Kingdom). Department of Psychology (United Kingdom)); Besson, J.A.O. (Aberdeen University Medical School (United Kingdom). Department of Mental Health (United Kingdom))

    1989-11-01

    By means of psychometric testing, we have determined the frequency of latent hepatic encephalopathy in a group of 19 cirrhotics with no clinical evidence of encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed in order to determine whether morphological cerebral abnormalities were associated with latent encephalopathy. Nineteen age and educationally matched patient with normal liver function acted as controls. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between cirrhotics and controls were found in tests of short-term visual memory and speed of reaction to light (cirrhotics 326 ( 132 ms vs. controls 225 ) 36 ms), sound (cirrhotics 361 ( 152 ms vs. controls 236 ) 52 ms) and choice (cirrhotics 651 ( 190 ms vs. controls 406 ) 101 ms) stimuli (all values mean S.D.). Reitan trail test performance, however, was similar in both groups. ( Trail A: cirrhotics 43 ( 19 s vs. controls 35 ) 13 s; Trail B: cirrhotics 105 ( 66 s vs. controls 93 ) 36 s.) In patients with cirrhosis, MRI revealed statistically significant increases in the maximum fissure width of right frontal sulci, light and left parietal sulci, inter-hemispheric fissure width and in bicaudafe index. These changes, indicating cerebral atrophy, were largely confined to alcoholics. There was poor correlation between measurements of cerebral morphology and neuropsychological performance, only 10% of associations achieving statistical significance. (author). 2 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs.

  9. Neuropsychological deficits and morphological MRI brain scan abnormalities in apparently health non-encephalopathic patients with cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.W.; De Lacey, G.; Dunk, A.A.; Sinclair, T.S.; Mowat, M.A.G.; Brunt, P.W.; Deans, H.; Crawford, J.R.; Besson, J.A.O.

    1989-01-01

    By means of psychometric testing, we have determined the frequency of latent hepatic encephalopathy in a group of 19 cirrhotics with no clinical evidence of encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed in order to determine whether morphological cerebral abnormalities were associated with latent encephalopathy. Nineteen age and educationally matched patient with normal liver function acted as controls. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between cirrhotics and controls were found in tests of short-term visual memory and speed of reaction to light (cirrhotics 326 ] 132 ms vs. controls 225 ] 36 ms), sound (cirrhotics 361 ] 152 ms vs. controls 236 ] 52 ms) and choice (cirrhotics 651 ] 190 ms vs. controls 406 ] 101 ms) stimuli (all values mean ] S.D.). Reitan trail test performance, however, was similar in both groups. ( Trail A: cirrhotics 43 ] 19 s vs. controls 35 ] 13 s; Trail B: cirrhotics 105 ] 66 s vs. controls 93 ] 36 s.) In patients with cirrhosis, MRI revealed statistically significant increases in the maximum fissure width of right frontal sulci, light and left parietal sulci, inter-hemispheric fissure width and in bicaudafe index. These changes, indicating cerebral atrophy, were largely confined to alcoholics. There was poor correlation between measurements of cerebral morphology and neuropsychological performance, only 10% of associations achieving statistical significance. (author). 2 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  10. Cognitive Function and Brain Atrophy Predict Non-pharmacological Efficacy in Dementia: The Mihama-Kiho Scan Project2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Tabei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine whether neuropsychological deficits and brain atrophy could predict the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions. Forty-six participants with mild-to-moderate dementia were monitored for 6 months; 25 underwent an intervention involving physical exercise with music, and 21 performed cognitive stimulation tasks. Participants were categorized into improvement (IMP and no-IMP subgroups. In the exercise-with-music group, the no-IMP subgroup performed worse than the IMP subgroup on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test at baseline. In the cognitive-stimulation group, the no-IMP subgroup performed worse than the IMP subgroup on Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices and the cognitive functional independence measure at baseline. In the no-IMP subgroup, voxel-based morphometric analysis at baseline revealed more extensive gray matter loss in the anterior cingulate gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus in the exercise-with-music and cognitive-stimulation groups, respectively. Participants with mild-to-moderate dementia with cognitive decline and extensive cortical atrophy are less likely to show improved cognitive function after non-pharmaceutical therapy.

  11. Cognitive Function and Brain Atrophy Predict Non-pharmacological Efficacy in Dementia: The Mihama-Kiho Scan Project2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Ken-Ichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Ogawa, Jun-Ichi; Tokita, Tomoko; Nakaguchi, Noriko; Nakao, Koji; Kida, Hirotaka; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether neuropsychological deficits and brain atrophy could predict the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions. Forty-six participants with mild-to-moderate dementia were monitored for 6 months; 25 underwent an intervention involving physical exercise with music, and 21 performed cognitive stimulation tasks. Participants were categorized into improvement (IMP) and no-IMP subgroups. In the exercise-with-music group, the no-IMP subgroup performed worse than the IMP subgroup on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test at baseline. In the cognitive-stimulation group, the no-IMP subgroup performed worse than the IMP subgroup on Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices and the cognitive functional independence measure at baseline. In the no-IMP subgroup, voxel-based morphometric analysis at baseline revealed more extensive gray matter loss in the anterior cingulate gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus in the exercise-with-music and cognitive-stimulation groups, respectively. Participants with mild-to-moderate dementia with cognitive decline and extensive cortical atrophy are less likely to show improved cognitive function after non-pharmaceutical therapy.

  12. A critical comparison of clinical decision instruments for computed tomographic scanning in mild closed traumatic brain injury in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Sherman C; Fabbri, Andrea; Servadei, Franco; Glick, Henry A

    2009-02-01

    A number of clinical decision aids have been introduced to limit unnecessary computed tomographic scans in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. These aids differ in the risk factors they use to recommend a scan. We compare the instruments according to their sensitivity and specificity and recommend ones based on incremental benefit of correctly classifying patients as having surgical, nonsurgical, or no intracranial lesions. We performed a secondary analysis of prospectively collected database from 7,955 patients aged 10 years or older with mild traumatic brain injury to compare sensitivity and specificity of 6 common clinical decision strategies: the Canadian CT Head Rule, the Neurotraumatology Committee of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies, the New Orleans, the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study II (NEXUS-II), the National Institute of Clinical Excellence guideline, and the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee guideline. Excluded from the database were patients for whom the history of trauma was unclear, the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was less than 14, the injury was penetrating, vital signs were unstable, or who refused diagnostic tests. Patients revisiting the emergency department within 7 days were counted only once. The percentage of scans that would have been required by applying each of the 6 aids were Canadian CT head rule (high risk only) 53%, Canadian (medium & high risk) 56%, the Neurotraumatology Committee of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies 56%, New Orleans 69%, NEXUS-II 56%, National Institute of Clinical Excellence 71%, and the Scandinavian 50%. The 6 decision aids' sensitivities for surgical hematomas could not be distinguished statistically (P>.05). Sensitivity was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 96% to 100%) for NEXUS-II, 98.1% (95% CI 93% to 100%) for National Institute of Clinical Excellence, and 99.1% (95% CI 94% to 100%) for the other 4 clinical decision instruments. Sensitivity for

  13. Determination of long-lived radionuclides at ultratrace level using advanced mass spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoriy, M.

    2005-11-01

    Determination of long-lived radionuclides at sub-fg concentration level is a challenging task in analytical chemistry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with its ability to provide the sensitive and fast multielemental analysis is one of the most suitable method for the measurements of long lived radionuclides in the trace and ultra trace concentration range. In present the Ph.D. study a variety of procedures have been developed permitting the sub fg ml-1 determination of long-lived radionuclides (e.g. U, Th, Pu) as well as 226 Ra (T 1/2 = 1600 y) and 90 Sr (T 1/2 = 28.1 y) in different samples. In order to avoid isobaric interferences, to increase the sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the methods the application of different techniques: pre-concentration of the sample, off-line separation on the crown resin, measurements under cold plasma conditions, using microconcentric nebulizers (e.g DIHEN, DS-5) or the application of LA-ICP-MS for sample introduction have been studied. The limits of detection for different radionuclides was significantly improved in comparison to the ones reported in the literature, and, depending on the method applied, was varied from 10 -15 to 10 -18 g ml -1 concentration range. In addition to the analysis of long lived radionuclides, some other elements, that can present potential interest to the analyzed sample, were measured within the framework of the present study. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LAICP- MS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 20μm m thin sections of human brain tissue. The sample surface was scanned (raster area ∝80 mm 2 ) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 213 nm, diameter of laser crater 50μm, and laser power density 3x10 9 W cm -2 ) in a cooled laser ablation chamber developed for these measurements. Cross sections of human brain samples - hippocampus as well as brain tissues infected and non-infected with Glioblastoma Multiforme (tumor

  14. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  15. Female patients dosimetry in brain exams with PET/CT scan for diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, P.C.; Mamede, M.; Carvalho, F.M.V.; Mourao, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Dementia affects over 35 million people worldwide, with strong personal, social and financial impacts. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for 60-70% of cases, affecting mostly females. Recent technological innovations, using methods of anatomical and functional neuroimaging, with particular emphasis on PET / CT (positron emission tomography with computed tomography associated), have shown excellent prospects for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease represented by Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The use of PET / CT helps diagnosis, but the patients effective dose is higher and directly dependent on the radiopharmaceutical activity and the computed tomographic (CT) protocol used. The aim of this study was evaluated the organs absorbed doses and effective doses in 59 female patients undergoing the PET/CT diagnostic technique. For the measurements of radiation levels from the CT was used TLD100 (LiF:Mg, Ti) Rod detectors inserted in Alderson Randon ® anthropomorphic phantom, which simulates a female pattern, of 155 cm and weight 50 kg, subjected to the same clinical protocol of acquiring patients images. The effective dose resulting from the radiopharmaceutical injected activity was estimated by ICRP106 model using the weight of the patients undergoing to the procedure. The average effective dose due was (7.65 ± 2.22) mSv. The effective dose contribution to the brain and the thyroid due to CT were (2.21 ± 0.38) and (0.72 ± 0.14) mSv, respectively. The use of CT optimized protocols can assist in reducing the dose in this type of procedure. (author)

  16. Female patients dosimetry in brain exams with PET/CT scan for diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, P.C.; Mamede, M.; Carvalho, F.M.V., E-mail: pridili@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mourao, A.P., E-mail: apratabhz@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, Belo Horionte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Oliveira, P.M.C.; Silva, T.A. da, E-mail: pmco@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Dementia affects over 35 million people worldwide, with strong personal, social and financial impacts. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for 60-70% of cases, affecting mostly females. Recent technological innovations, using methods of anatomical and functional neuroimaging, with particular emphasis on PET / CT (positron emission tomography with computed tomography associated), have shown excellent prospects for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease represented by Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The use of PET / CT helps diagnosis, but the patients effective dose is higher and directly dependent on the radiopharmaceutical activity and the computed tomographic (CT) protocol used. The aim of this study was evaluated the organs absorbed doses and effective doses in 59 female patients undergoing the PET/CT diagnostic technique. For the measurements of radiation levels from the CT was used TLD100 (LiF:Mg, Ti) Rod detectors inserted in Alderson Randon ® anthropomorphic phantom, which simulates a female pattern, of 155 cm and weight 50 kg, subjected to the same clinical protocol of acquiring patients images. The effective dose resulting from the radiopharmaceutical injected activity was estimated by ICRP106 model using the weight of the patients undergoing to the procedure. The average effective dose due was (7.65 ± 2.22) mSv. The effective dose contribution to the brain and the thyroid due to CT were (2.21 ± 0.38) and (0.72 ± 0.14) mSv, respectively. The use of CT optimized protocols can assist in reducing the dose in this type of procedure. (author)

  17. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  18. Brain scintigraphy with Tc99-pertechnetate in the evaluation of patients with cerebrovascular lesions. The diagnostic value related to age of the lesion and to the size, type and localisation revealed by CT-scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Christensen, J; Skriver, E B

    1983-01-01

    Brain scintigraphy with Tc99-pertechnetate (Tc99-scan) was performed 4 times in 95 consecutive stroke patients: on average 5 days, 18 days, 103 days and 194 days after the stroke. The type (infarct, hematoma), size and localisation of the lesion was evaluated by CT-scan performed 3 times in all...... identified (90%) while infarcts localised deep in the hemisphere were identified in only 20% of the patients; (ii) the size of the lesion, i.e. large deep infarcts were seen with a much higher frequency than small deep infarcts. The detection rate of the CT-scan was practically not dependent upon the time...

  19. Right and left cardiac function in HIV-infected patients investigated using radionuclide ventriculography and brain natriuretic peptide: a 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, U.S.; Lebech, A.M.; Gerstoft, J.

    2008-01-01

    ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), as well as measurement of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Between July 2005 and January 2007, 63 patients (69%) agreed to participate in a follow-up study with a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. RESULTS: All patients had normal......, it seems that the improvement in immunocompetency and viral load has removed the problem of HIV-related cardiomyopathy. Although HAART has been suggested as a possible new cause of cardiomyopathy, we did not find any evidence of this Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  20. High success rates of sedation-free brain MRI scanning in young children using simple subject preparation protocols with and without a commercial mock scanner–the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Mauras, Nelly; Beck, Roy W.; Marzelli, Matt J.; Mazaika, Paul K.; Aye, Tandy; White, Neil H.; Tsalikian, Eva; Fox, Larry; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to lie still in an MRI scanner is essential for obtaining usable image data. To reduce motion, young children are often sedated, adding significant cost and risk. Objective We assessed the feasibility of using a simple and affordable behavioral desensitization program to yield high-quality brain MRI scans in sedation-free children. Materials and methods 222 children (4–9.9 years), 147 with type 1 diabetes and 75 age-matched non-diabetic controls, participated in a multi-site study focused on effects of type 1 diabetes on the developing brain. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MRI scans were performed. All children underwent behavioral training and practice MRI sessions using either a commercial MRI simulator or an inexpensive mock scanner consisting of a toy tunnel, vibrating mat, and video player to simulate the sounds and feel of the MRI scanner. Results 205 children (92.3%), mean age 7±1.7 years had high-quality T1-W scans and 174 (78.4%) had high-quality diffusion-weighted scans after the first scan session. With a second scan session, success rates were 100% and 92.5% for T1-and diffusion-weighted scans, respectively. Success rates did not differ between children with type 1 diabetes and children without diabetes, or between centers using a commercial MRI scan simulator and those using the inexpensive mock scanner. Conclusion Behavioral training can lead to a high success rate for obtaining high-quality T1-and diffusion-weighted brain images from a young population without sedation. PMID:24096802

  1. High success rates of sedation-free brain MRI scanning in young children using simple subject preparation protocols with and without a commercial mock scanner-the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Marzelli, Matt J.; Mazaika, Paul K.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Ruedy, Katrina J.; Beck, Roy W.; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Mauras, Nelly; Fox, Larry; Aye, Tandy; White, Neil H.; Tsalikian, Eva; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to lie still in an MRI scanner is essential for obtaining usable image data. To reduce motion, young children are often sedated, adding significant cost and risk. We assessed the feasibility of using a simple and affordable behavioral desensitization program to yield high-quality brain MRI scans in sedation-free children. 222 children (4-9.9 years), 147 with type 1 diabetes and 75 age-matched non-diabetic controls, participated in a multi-site study focused on effects of type 1 diabetes on the developing brain. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MRI scans were performed. All children underwent behavioral training and practice MRI sessions using either a commercial MRI simulator or an inexpensive mock scanner consisting of a toy tunnel, vibrating mat, and video player to simulate the sounds and feel of the MRI scanner. 205 children (92.3%), mean age 7 ± 1.7 years had high-quality T1-W scans and 174 (78.4%) had high-quality diffusion-weighted scans after the first scan session. With a second scan session, success rates were 100% and 92.5% for T1-and diffusion-weighted scans, respectively. Success rates did not differ between children with type 1 diabetes and children without diabetes, or between centers using a commercial MRI scan simulator and those using the inexpensive mock scanner. Behavioral training can lead to a high success rate for obtaining high-quality T1-and diffusion-weighted brain images from a young population without sedation. (orig.)

  2. High success rates of sedation-free brain MRI scanning in young children using simple subject preparation protocols with and without a commercial mock scanner-the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Marzelli, Matt J.; Mazaika, Paul K. [Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, CA (United States); Weinzimer, Stuart A. [Yale University, Pediatric Endocrinology, New Haven, CT (United States); Ruedy, Katrina J.; Beck, Roy W.; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao [Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, FL (United States); Mauras, Nelly; Fox, Larry [Nemours Children' s Clinic, Pediatric Endocrinology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Aye, Tandy [Stanford University, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford, CA (United States); White, Neil H. [Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis, MO (United States); Tsalikian, Eva [University of Iowa, Pediatric Endocrinology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Reiss, Allan L. [Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet), Stanford, CA (United States); Collaboration: on behalf of the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet)

    2014-02-15

    The ability to lie still in an MRI scanner is essential for obtaining usable image data. To reduce motion, young children are often sedated, adding significant cost and risk. We assessed the feasibility of using a simple and affordable behavioral desensitization program to yield high-quality brain MRI scans in sedation-free children. 222 children (4-9.9 years), 147 with type 1 diabetes and 75 age-matched non-diabetic controls, participated in a multi-site study focused on effects of type 1 diabetes on the developing brain. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MRI scans were performed. All children underwent behavioral training and practice MRI sessions using either a commercial MRI simulator or an inexpensive mock scanner consisting of a toy tunnel, vibrating mat, and video player to simulate the sounds and feel of the MRI scanner. 205 children (92.3%), mean age 7 ± 1.7 years had high-quality T1-W scans and 174 (78.4%) had high-quality diffusion-weighted scans after the first scan session. With a second scan session, success rates were 100% and 92.5% for T1-and diffusion-weighted scans, respectively. Success rates did not differ between children with type 1 diabetes and children without diabetes, or between centers using a commercial MRI scan simulator and those using the inexpensive mock scanner. Behavioral training can lead to a high success rate for obtaining high-quality T1-and diffusion-weighted brain images from a young population without sedation. (orig.)

  3. Technical Note: A treatment plan comparison between dynamic collimation and a fixed aperture during spot scanning proton therapy for brain treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Blake, E-mail: bsmith34@wisc.edu; Gelover, Edgar; Moignier, Alexandra; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Lin, Liyong; Kirk, Maura; Solberg, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, TRC 2 West, 3400 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the advantages of energy-layer specific dynamic collimation system (DCS) versus a per-field fixed aperture for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods: Five brain cancer patients previously planned and treated with SSPT were replanned using an in-house treatment planning system capable of modeling collimated and uncollimated proton beamlets. The uncollimated plans, which served as a baseline for comparison, reproduced the target coverage and organ-at-risk sparing of the clinically delivered plans. The collimator opening for the fixed aperture-based plans was determined from the combined cross sections of the target in the beam’s eye view over all energy layers which included an additional margin equivalent to the maximum beamlet displacement for the respective energy of that energy layer. The DCS-based plans were created by selecting appropriate collimator positions for each row of beam spots during a Raster-style scanning pattern which were optimized to maximize the dose contributions to the target and limited the dose delivered to adjacent normal tissue. Results: The reduction of mean dose to normal tissue adjacent to the target, as defined by a 10 mm ring surrounding the target, averaged 13.65% (range: 11.8%–16.9%) and 5.18% (2.9%–7.1%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. The conformity index, as defined by the ratio of the volume of the 50% isodose line to the target volume, yielded an average improvement of 21.35% (19.4%–22.6%) and 8.38% (4.7%–12.0%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. Conclusions: The ability of the DCS to provide collimation to each energy layer yielded better conformity in comparison to fixed aperture plans.

  4. Technical Note: A treatment plan comparison between dynamic collimation and a fixed aperture during spot scanning proton therapy for brain treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Blake; Gelover, Edgar; Moignier, Alexandra; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Lin, Liyong; Kirk, Maura; Solberg, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the advantages of energy-layer specific dynamic collimation system (DCS) versus a per-field fixed aperture for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods: Five brain cancer patients previously planned and treated with SSPT were replanned using an in-house treatment planning system capable of modeling collimated and uncollimated proton beamlets. The uncollimated plans, which served as a baseline for comparison, reproduced the target coverage and organ-at-risk sparing of the clinically delivered plans. The collimator opening for the fixed aperture-based plans was determined from the combined cross sections of the target in the beam’s eye view over all energy layers which included an additional margin equivalent to the maximum beamlet displacement for the respective energy of that energy layer. The DCS-based plans were created by selecting appropriate collimator positions for each row of beam spots during a Raster-style scanning pattern which were optimized to maximize the dose contributions to the target and limited the dose delivered to adjacent normal tissue. Results: The reduction of mean dose to normal tissue adjacent to the target, as defined by a 10 mm ring surrounding the target, averaged 13.65% (range: 11.8%–16.9%) and 5.18% (2.9%–7.1%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. The conformity index, as defined by the ratio of the volume of the 50% isodose line to the target volume, yielded an average improvement of 21.35% (19.4%–22.6%) and 8.38% (4.7%–12.0%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. Conclusions: The ability of the DCS to provide collimation to each energy layer yielded better conformity in comparison to fixed aperture plans.

  5. Technical Note: A treatment plan comparison between dynamic collimation and a fixed aperture during spot scanning proton therapy for brain treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Blake; Gelover, Edgar; Moignier, Alexandra; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Lin, Liyong; Kirk, Maura; Solberg, Tim; Hyer, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the advantages of energy-layer specific dynamic collimation system (DCS) versus a per-field fixed aperture for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods: Five brain cancer patients previously planned and treated with SSPT were replanned using an in-house treatment planning system capable of modeling collimated and uncollimated proton beamlets. The uncollimated plans, which served as a baseline for comparison, reproduced the target coverage and organ-at-risk sparing of the clinically delivered plans. The collimator opening for the fixed aperture-based plans was determined from the combined cross sections of the target in the beam’s eye view over all energy layers which included an additional margin equivalent to the maximum beamlet displacement for the respective energy of that energy layer. The DCS-based plans were created by selecting appropriate collimator positions for each row of beam spots during a Raster-style scanning pattern which were optimized to maximize the dose contributions to the target and limited the dose delivered to adjacent normal tissue. Results: The reduction of mean dose to normal tissue adjacent to the target, as defined by a 10 mm ring surrounding the target, averaged 13.65% (range: 11.8%–16.9%) and 5.18% (2.9%–7.1%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. The conformity index, as defined by the ratio of the volume of the 50% isodose line to the target volume, yielded an average improvement of 21.35% (19.4%–22.6%) and 8.38% (4.7%–12.0%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. Conclusions: The ability of the DCS to provide collimation to each energy layer yielded better conformity in comparison to fixed aperture plans. PMID:27487886

  6. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  7. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  8. Clinical Application of colored three-dimensional CT (3D-CT) for brain tumors using helical scanning CT (HES-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Yuko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Fujisawa, Kazuhisa; Imai, Fumihiro; Kawase, Tsukasa; Kamei, Yoshifumi; Kanno, Tetsuo; Takeshita, Gen; Koga, Sukehiko

    1995-01-01

    We applied colored three-dimensional CT (colored 3D-CT) images to distinguish brain tumors from the surrounding vascular and bony structures using a work station system and helical scanning CT (HES-CT). CT scanners with a slip-ring system were employed (TCT-900S and X vigor). A slice thickness of 2 mm and bed speed of 2 mm/s were used. The volume of contrast medium injected was 60 to 70 ml. Four to 8 colors were used for the tissue segmentation on the workstation system (xtension) using the data transferred from HES-CT. Tissue segmentation succeeded on the colored 3D-CT images in all 13 cases. The relationship between the tumors and the surrounding structures were easily recognized. The technique was useful to simulate operative fields, because deep structures could be visualized by cutting and drilling the colored 3D-CT volumetric data. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that colored 3D-CT images should be used as a supplementary aid for preoperative simulation. (author)

  9. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  10. Integrated beam orientation and scanning-spot optimization in intensity-modulated proton therapy for brain and unilateral head and neck tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenbo; O'Connor, Daniel; Nguyen, Dan; Yu, Victoria Y; Ruan, Dan; Dong, Lei; Sheng, Ke

    2018-04-01

    Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) is the state-of-the-art method of delivering proton radiotherapy. Previous research has been mainly focused on optimization of scanning spots with manually selected beam angles. Due to the computational complexity, the potential benefit of simultaneously optimizing beam orientations and spot pattern could not be realized. In this study, we developed a novel integrated beam orientation optimization (BOO) and scanning-spot optimization algorithm for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). A brain chordoma and three unilateral head-and-neck patients with a maximal target size of 112.49 cm 3 were included in this study. A total number of 1162 noncoplanar candidate beams evenly distributed across 4π steradians were included in the optimization. For each candidate beam, the pencil-beam doses of all scanning spots covering the PTV and a margin were calculated. The beam angle selection and spot intensity optimization problem was formulated to include three terms: a dose fidelity term to penalize the deviation of PTV and OAR doses from ideal dose distribution; an L1-norm sparsity term to reduce the number of active spots and improve delivery efficiency; a group sparsity term to control the number of active beams between 2 and 4. For the group sparsity term, convex L2,1-norm and nonconvex L2,1/2-norm were tested. For the dose fidelity term, both quadratic function and linearized equivalent uniform dose (LEUD) cost function were implemented. The optimization problem was solved using the Fast Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm (FISTA). The IMPT BOO method was tested on three head-and-neck patients and one skull base chordoma patient. The results were compared with IMPT plans created using column generation selected beams or manually selected beams. The L2,1-norm plan selected spatially aggregated beams, indicating potential degeneracy using this norm. L2,1/2-norm was able to select spatially separated beams and achieve

  11. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  12. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  13. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  14. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  15. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  16. Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Athletes with Negative Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, C E; Freitas, J E

    1987-06-01

    In brief: Radionuclide bone scans can be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of musculoskeletal injuries in athletes. Bone scans can detect shinsplints, stress fractures, and muscle injuries before they are detectable on radiographs. Prognosis can be accurately assessed, allowing appropriate treatment to proceed without delay. The authors discuss the use of bone scans and identify musculoskeletal injuries that are associated with specific sports, such as stress fracture of the femur (soccer), tibia (running), scapula (gymnastics), and pars interarticularis (football or lacrosse).

  17. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  18. CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, lung nodules and liver masses Monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as cancer treatment Detect ... scan done in a hospital or an outpatient facility. CT scans are painless and, with newer machines, ...

  19. Anatomo-clinical overlapping maps (AnaCOM): a new method to create anatomo-functional maps from neuropsychological tests and structural MRI scan of subjects with brain lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkingnehun, Serge R. J.; du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Zhang, Sandy X.; Levy, Richard; Dubois, Bruno

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a new technique to analyze correlations between brain anatomy and its neurological functions. The technique is based on the anatomic MRI of patients with brain lesions who are administered neuropsychological tests. Brain lesions of the MRI scans are first manually segmented. The MRI volumes are then normalized to a reference map, using the segmented area as a mask. After normalization, the brain lesions of the MRI are segmented again in order to redefine the border of the lesions in the context of the normalized brain. Once the MRI is segmented, the patient's score on the neuropsychological test is assigned to each voxel in the lesioned area, while the rest of the voxels of the image are set to 0. Subsequently, the individual patient's MRI images are superimposed, and each voxel is reassigned the average score of the patients who have a lesion at that voxel. A threshold is applied to remove regions having less than three overlaps. This process leads to an anatomo-functional map that links brain areas to functional loss. Other maps can be created to aid in analyzing the functional maps, such as one that indicates the 95% confidence interval of the averaged scores for each area. This anatomo-clinical overlapping map (AnaCOM) method was used to obtain functional maps from patients with lesions in the superior frontal gyrus. By finding particular subregions more responsible for a particular deficit, this method can generate new hypotheses to be tested by conventional group methods.

  20. Prediction of acute cardiac rejection using radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitzky, D.; Bonioszczuk, J.; Cooper, D.K.C.; Isaacs, S.; Rose, A.G.; Smith, J.A.; Uys, C.J.; Barnard, C.N.; Fraser, R.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning of the donor left ventricle using technetium-99m-labelled red cells was used to monitor acute rejection after heterotopic heart transplantation and compared with histopathological evidence of rejection obtained at examination of an endomyocardial biopsy specimen. The ejection fraction and end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes were calculated at each examination; an equation was derived from these data to predict the degree of acute rejection, using histopathological examination of endomyocardial biopsy specimens as criteria of the presence and severity of rejection. A highly significant multiple correlation between radionuclide scanning parameters and endomyocardial biopsy was found. The advantages of non-invasive radionuclide scanning over the invasive procedure of endomyocardial biopsy are discussed

  1. Comparison of radiographic and radionuclide skeletal surveys in battered children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.J.; Faleski, E.J.; Chacko, A.; Jarrett, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    A review of 13 cases of suspected child abuse in which radionuclide (RN) scans, radiographic skeletal surveys, and sufficient follow-up were available showed that the RN scans were insensitive, even though fractures were more than 48 hours old at the time of the scan. Frequently missed lesions included skull and extremity fractures. Furthermore, soft tissue and visceral abnormalities that were identified on radiographic examination went undetected on RN scan. We conclude that, although the RN scan may augment the radiographic examination, it should not be used alone to screen for the battered child

  2. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  3. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  4. Metastatic calcification of the stomach imaged on a bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.; Ryo, U.Y.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    A whole body bone scan obtained on a 21-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and chronic renal failure showed localization of the radionuclide diffusely in the stomach. The localization of the radionuclide represented metastatic calcification of the stomach caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  5. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  6. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, L.D.; Bennett, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Imaging with radionuclides should be used in a complementary fashion with other neuroradiologic techniques. It is useful in the early detection and evaluation of intracranial neoplasm, cerebrovascular accident and abscess, and in postsurgical follow-up. Cisternography yields useful information about the functional status of cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Computerized axial tomography is a new technique of great promise that produced a cross-sectional image of the brain

  7. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  8. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  9. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  10. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  11. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  12. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  13. Radionuclide patterns of femoral head disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, M M; Wagner, J; Cragin, M D [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Radiological Sciences

    1977-12-01

    The pattern of uptake of bone marrow specific radio-sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid and the pattern of uptake of bone mineral specific radio-sup(99m)Tc pryophosphate may be valuable in assessing bone vascularity in diseases suspected of causing impaired blood supply, or indicate the presence of reactive bone formation. The low energy of the technetium label has been shown to be superior to /sup 18/F and /sup 85/Sr, and leads to greater imaging detail on the scans. Femoral head scanning with mineral and/or marrow specific radionuclides offers the clinician a method of evaluating the status of the femoral head and possibly an early diagnosis of avascular necrosis before roentgenographic changes occur. This study, which reports on a 5-year experience using radionuclide scanning to assess femoral head vascularity, begins with baseline or normal studies followed by variations of the normal pattern. Typical scan patterns of hip pathology described above are also presented.

  14. Radionuclidr diagnosis of brain tumors, brain inflammatory and traumatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badmaev, K.N.; Mel'kishev, V.F.; Dement'ev, E.V.; Svetlova, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A complex of problems of radionuclide diagnosis of central nervous system diseases including tumors, traumas, vascular lessons, inflammatory processes is considered. The principles, technique and results of radionuclide xintigraphy of a tumor, depending on its localization are given. Radioindication of brain tumours in the operation is given

  15. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive

  16. Biologic considerations in anatomic imaging with radionuclides. Final progress report, July 1974--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potchen, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    An important task relating to anatomic imaging with radionuclides is the determination of factors which effect the use of imaging procedures. This is important to reduce radiation exposure in the population, to improve the efficacy of diagnostic imaging procedures and finally to provide a basis for evaluating the potential effects of proposed regulation of use rates. In this report we describe a methodology for obtaining clinical data relating to the use of the brain scan in an inner city teaching hospital. The development of a questionnaire suitable for use in a clinical setting and providing both prospective and retrospective data is presented. The results of the use of the questionnaire at the Johns Hopkins Hospital during a three month period in 1974 are shown and discussed. Some preliminary results from these data are given and a method for further analysis is indicated

  17. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques of brain imaging and results in perfusion studies and delayed images are outlined. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the brain scan in a variety of common problems is discussed, especially as compared with other available procedures. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions are considered. (Auth/C.F.)

  18. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  19. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  20. Soil burden by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  1. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  2. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  3. Radionuclide evaluation of the liver in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Razzak, M.; El-Ashmawy, A.

    1982-01-01

    Hepatic involvement in diabetes has been previously demonstrated in experimental animals and in patients by clinical examination as well as by autopsy. The aim of the present work is to investigate the extent and type of hepatic involvement in diabetics by radionuclide scanning which is objective and not liable to the errors and difficulties inherent in the method of physical examination. The present study was performed on 40 diabetics, comprising 24 females and 16 males, aged between 17 and 80 years. Scanning was performed with 99m - Tc sulphur colloid using a rectilinear scanner and the gamma camera. The liver size was assessed from the scan pictures by the application of certain measurements and by surface area determination. The obtained results demonstrated marked discrepancy between the liver size as determined clinically and that evaluated by radionuclide scanning. By scintiscanning, the incidence of hepatic enlargement varied according to the parameter used. It amounted to 48% on the basis of the maximum vertical dimension and 37% with hepatic surface area measurement. Using the vertical dimension at halfway between the xiphoid and right lateral hepatic margin, the incidence of liver enlargement was 35%. Uneven distribution of radioactivity was seen in the right and/or left lobe in 20/40 patients. Furthermore, in 10 patients the ratio of hepatic to splenic radioactivity was below one. These changes could be explained by fatty infiltration and/or cirrhosis. Accordingly, hepatic scanning could be used to select diabetes having abnormal scan picture whether regarding liver dimensions or distribution of radioactivity and subjecting them to liver biopsy in order to define the nature of liver involvement. (Author)

  4. Morphological covariance in anatomical MRI scans can identify discrete neural pathways in the brain and their disturbances in persons with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Peterson, Bradley S

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesize that coordinated functional activity within discrete neural circuits induces morphological organization and plasticity within those circuits. Identifying regions of morphological covariation that are independent of morphological covariation in other regions therefore may therefore allow us to identify discrete neural systems within the brain. Comparing the magnitude of these variations in individuals who have psychiatric disorders with the magnitude of variations in healthy controls may allow us to identify aberrant neural pathways in psychiatric illnesses. We measured surface morphological features by applying nonlinear, high-dimensional warping algorithms to manually defined brain regions. We transferred those measures onto the surface of a unit sphere via conformal mapping and then used spherical wavelets and their scaling coefficients to simplify the data structure representing these surface morphological features of each brain region. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to calculate covariation in these morphological measures, as represented by their scaling coefficients, across several brain regions. We then assessed whether brain subregions that covaried in morphology, as identified by large eigenvalues in the PCA, identified specific neural pathways of the brain. To do so, we spatially registered the subnuclei for each eigenvector into the coordinate space of a Diffusion Tensor Imaging dataset; we used these subnuclei as seed regions to track and compare fiber pathways with known fiber pathways identified in neuroanatomical atlases. We applied these procedures to anatomical MRI data in a cohort of 82 healthy participants (42 children, 18 males, age 10.5 ± 2.43 years; 40 adults, 22 males, age 32.42 ± 10.7 years) and 107 participants with Tourette's Syndrome (TS) (71 children, 59 males, age 11.19 ± 2.2 years; 36 adults, 21 males, age 37.34 ± 10.9 years). We evaluated the construct validity of the identified covariation in morphology

  5. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  6. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  10. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  11. Radionuclide cisternographic findings in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Jae Seung; Ryu, Jin Sook; Shin, Jung Woo; Im, Joo Hyuk; Lee, Myoung Chong; Jung, Sung Joo; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography may be helpful in understanding pathophysiology of postural headache and low CSF pressure in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The purpose of this study was to characterize radionuclide cisternogrpahic findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The study population consists of 15 patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Diagnosis was based on their clinical symptoms and results of lumbar puncture. All patients underwent radionuclide cisternography following injection of 111 to 222 MBq of Tc-99m DTPA into the lumbar subarachnoid space. Sequential images were obtained between 1/2 hour and 24 hour after the injection of Tc-99m DTPA. Radioactivity of the bladder, soft tissue uptake, migration of radionuclide in the subarachnoid space, and extradural leakage of radionuclide were evaluated according to the scan time. Radionuclide cisternogram showed delayed migration of radionuclide into the cerebral convexity (14/15), increased soft tissue uptake (11/15), and early visualization of bladder activity at 30 min (6/10) and 2 hr (13/13). Cisternography also demonstrated leakage site of CSF in 4 cases and 2 of these were depicted at 30min. Epidural blood patch was done in 11 patients and headache was improved in all cases. The characteristics findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension were delayed migration of radionuclide and early visualization of the soft tissue and bladder activity. These scintigraphic findings suggest that CSF leakage rather than increased CSF absorption or decreased production may be the main pathophysiology of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Early and multiple imaging including the bladder and soft tissue is required to observe the entire dynamics of radionuclide migration

  12. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  13. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  14. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  15. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  16. Role of bone scanning in neonatal rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saul, P.D.; Lloyd, D.J.; Smith, F.W.

    1983-03-01

    Preterm infants are at increased risk from rickets. Radionuclide bone scanning is a useful aid in suspected cases. It offers advantages over conventional radiology in terms of sensitivity, radiation dose and extent of examination. Unsuspected fractures of clinical or medicolegal significance may be detected. Two cases are described in which the technique confirmed the diagnosis and assisted management.

  17. Geochemistry and radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretically, the geochemical barrier can provide a major line of defense in protecting the biosphere from the hazards of nuclear waste. The most likely processes involved are easily identified. Preliminary investigations using computer modeling techniques suggest that retardation is an effective control on radionuclide concentrations. Ion exchange reactions slow radionuclide migration and allow more time for radioactive decay and dispersion. For some radionuclides, solubility alone may limit concentrations to less than the maximum permissible now considered acceptable by the Federal Government. The effectiveness of the geochemical barrier is ultimately related to the repository site characteristics. Theory alone tells us that geochemical controls will be most efficient in an environment that provides for maximum ion exchange and the precipitation of insoluble compounds. In site selection, consideration should be given to rock barriers with high ion exchange capacity that might also act as semi-permeable membranes. Also important in evaluating the site's potential for effective geochemical controls are the oxidation potentials, pH and salinity of the groundwater

  18. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  19. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  20. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  1. CT scans in encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masami; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Iida, Noriyuki; Hisanaga, Manabu; Kinugawa, Kazuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Generally, CT scans reveal a decrease in the volume of the ventricular system, sylvian fissures and cortical sulci in the acute stage of encephalitis, and softening of the cerebral lobes with dilatation of the lateral ventricles and subarachnoidian dilated spaces in the chronic stage. We encountered three cases of encephalitis: mumps (case 1), herpes simplex (case 2), and syphilis (case 3). In case 1, brain edema was seen in the acute stage and brain atrophy in the chronic stage. In case 2, necrosis of the temporal pole, which is pathognomonic in herpes simplex encephalitis, was recognized. And in case 3, multiple lesions whose CT appearance was enhanced by contrast materials were found scattered over the whole brain. These lesions were diagnosed as inflammatory granuloma by histological examination. (author)

  2. Radionuclide imaging in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, C.A.; Robinson, R.G.; Hinthorn, D.R.; Liu, C.

    1978-01-01

    Eight patients with herpes simplex encephalitis among the 10 cases diagnosed at the University of Kansas Medical Center from 1966 to 1976 were studied with /sup 99m/Tc early in their diagnostic work-up. The images were unilaterally positive in the temporal lobe area in all 8 patients. Radionuclide studies can suggest herpes simplex as the specific etiology in cases of encephalitis and can also indicate the best site for brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis by fluorescent antibody techniques. Appropriate antiviral therapy should be instituted as soon as possible to alter the course of this destructive form of viral encephalitis

  3. Methods for Motion Correction Evaluation Using 18F-FDG Human Brain Scans on a High-Resolution PET Scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H.; Sibomana, Merence; Olesen, Oline Vinter

    2012-01-01

    Many authors have reported the importance of motion correction (MC) for PET. Patient motion during scanning disturbs kinetic analysis and degrades resolution. In addition, using misaligned transmission for attenuation and scatter correction may produce regional quantification bias in the reconstr......Many authors have reported the importance of motion correction (MC) for PET. Patient motion during scanning disturbs kinetic analysis and degrades resolution. In addition, using misaligned transmission for attenuation and scatter correction may produce regional quantification bias...... in the reconstructed emission images. The purpose of this work was the development of quality control (QC) methods for MC procedures based on external motion tracking (EMT) for human scanning using an optical motion tracking system. Methods: Two scans with minor motion and 5 with major motion (as reported...... (automated image registration) software. The following 3 QC methods were used to evaluate the EMT and AIR MC: a method using the ratio between 2 regions of interest with gray matter voxels (GM) and white matter voxels (WM), called GM/WM; mutual information; and cross correlation. Results: The results...

  4. Contrast enhancement technique in brain 3D-CTA studies. Optimizing the amount of contrast medium according to scan time based on TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasawa, Kazuaki; Hatcho, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    In three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA), good reproducibility can be obtained by maintaining the maximum CT numbers (HU) at a specified level. However, the correlation between the scan time and the injection time showed that the maximum CT numbers increased and varied due to the additional contrast enhancement effect from recirculation of the injected contrast medium for longer injection times when the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit time (mgI/s) was maintained at a specified level based on the time-density curve (TDC) of the phantom. The amount of contrast medium employed at our hospital has been optimized based on an iodinated contrast medium dose per unit time providing a contrast enhancement effect of 300 HU in the middle cerebral artery. Using this standard, a TDC phantom was employed to obtain an iodinated contrast medium dose per unit time, permitting equivalent maximum CT values (used as standard values) to be obtained by changing the injection time. A contrast-enhancement technique that accounts for the variation in the scan time was evaluated. Strong correlations were observed between the scan time and the injection time (R 2 =0.969) and between the injection time and the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit body weight (R 2 =0.994). We conclude that adjusting the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit body weight per unit time according to the scan time permits optimization of the contrast-enhancement technique. (author)

  5. Leukemia and brain tumors among children after radiation exposure from CT scans: design and methodological opportunities of the Dutch Pediatric CT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulepas, Johanna M.; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Smets, Anne M. J. B.; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.; Jahnen, Andreas; Lee, Choonsik; Kieft, Mariëtte; Laméris, Johan S.; van Herk, Marcel; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N.; van Straten, Marcel; Visser, Otto; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hauptmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scans are indispensable in modern medicine; however, the spectacular rise in global use coupled with relatively high doses of ionizing radiation per examination have raised radiation protection concerns. Children are of particular concern because they are more sensitive to

  6. Leukemia and brain tumors among children after radiation exposure from CT scans : design and methodological opportunities of the Dutch Pediatric CT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulepas, Johanna M.; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Smets, Anne M. J. B.; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.; Jahnen, Andreas; Lee, Choonsik; Kieft, Mariette; Lameris, Johan S.; van Herk, Marcel; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Jeukens, Cecile R. L. P. N.; van Straten, Marcel; Visser, Otto; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hauptmann, Michael

    Computed tomography (CT) scans are indispensable in modern medicine; however, the spectacular rise in global use coupled with relatively high doses of ionizing radiation per examination have raised radiation protection concerns. Children are of particular concern because they are more sensitive to

  7. Hyperparathyroidism: comparison of MR imaging with radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, W.W.; Higgins, C.B.; Fisher, M.R.; Ling, M.; Okerlund, M.D.; Clark, O.H.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with hyperparathyroidism were evaluated preoperatively with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Twenty patients also underwent thallium-201/technetium-99m scintigraphy. Of 22 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, 12 had persistent or recurrent disease. One had secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal disease. MR imaging allowed accurate localization of abnormal parathyroid glands in 64% evaluated prospectively and 82% evaluated retrospectively. Scintigraphy allowed localization of 60% evaluated prospectively and 70% retrospectively. The two imaging modalities together allowed detection of 68% evaluated prospectively and 91% retrospectively. MR imaging allowed detection of two of five mediastinal adenomas evaluated prospectively and four of five retrospectively. In patients who underwent both imaging studies, MR was more successful in those with previous neck surgery (73% evaluated prospectively and 91% retrospectively) than in those with no prior surgery (57% prospectively and 71% retrospectively). Scintigraphy allowed accurate localization in 64% evaluated prospectively and 64% retrospectively in patients with previous surgery versus 57% prospectively and 86% retrospectively in patients with no prior neck surgery. Four false-positive results were obtained with MR imaging and three with scintigraphy. MR imaging was useful for parathyroid localization in patients with hyperparathyroidism, particularly in patients requiring additional surgery

  8. Evaluation of dopamine transporters and D2 receptors in hemiparkinsonian rat brains in vivo using consecutive PET scans of [18F]FPCIT and [18F]fallypride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Yong; Kim, Chul Hoon; Jeon, Tae Joo; Cho, Won Gil; Lee, Jin Suk; Lee, Soo Jin; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Byoung Soo; Yi, Chi Hoon; Seo, Youngbeom; Yi, Dae Ik; Han, Sang Jin; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Dong Goo; Lee, Jong Doo; An, Gwangil

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dopaminergic function in unilaterally lesioned 6-OHDA rats by dual PET radioligands: [ 18 F]FPCIT (a dopamine transporter imaging radioligand) and [ 18 F]fallypride (a dopamine D2 receptors imaging radioligand). As a result, the brain uptake of [ 18 F]FPCIT was significantly reduced and that of [ 18 F]fallypride was increased in the ipsilateral striatum (lesion side) of the 6-OHDA rats. These findings implicated that dopamine transporter is down-regulated and dopamine D2 receptor is up-regulated in this hemiparkinsonian rat model. - Highlights: ► The dopaminergic integrity in unilateral 6-OHDA was evaluated by dual PET tracers. ► The brain uptake and BP ND of [ 18 F]FPCIT was greatly decreased. ► The brain uptake and BP ND [ 18 F]fallypride was slightly increased. ► DAT are down-regulated and D2R are up-regulated.

  9. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  10. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  11. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  13. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  14. Recent advances and future projections in clinical radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    This outline review of recent advances in radionuclide imaging draws attention to developments in nuclear medicine of the urinary tract such as Captopril renography and the introduction of MAG-3, the technetium-99m labelled mimic of hippuran, the use of radionuclides for infection diagnosis, advances in lung perfusion scanning, new radiopharmaceuticals for cardiac imaging, and developments in radiopharmaceuticals for imaging tumours, including gallium-67, thallium-201, and the development of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies. Attention is drawn to the wider use of nuclear medicine in child care. (author)

  15. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  16. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  17. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  18. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  19. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  20. Radionuclide salivary imaging usefulness in a private otolaryngology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schall, G.L.; Smith, R.R.; Barsocchini, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide salivary gland scans were performed on 44 patients using sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m. The accuracy of the scans and their usefulness in the clinical treatment of the patients were reviewed. The scan provided helpful information in 31 of 38 cases in which adequate follow-up data were available, although it proved diagnostic in only six patients. It was particularly useful in the evaluation of primary salivary gland neoplasms, acute and chronic sialadenitis, and sialolithiasis, as well as in the differential diagnosis of xerostomia. The value of this procedure in the elucidation of a variety of morphologic and functional diseases of these glands warrants its greater application in private otolaryngologic practices

  1. 14'' x 17'' film recorder for computer-enhanced scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, A.C. Jr.; Barclay, T.R.; Akin, T.E.; Hansard, M.C.; Gibbs, W.D.; Modzelewski, C.U.

    1976-01-01

    Physician acceptance of computer-enhanced radionuclide scan results, presented in the form of small Polaroid pictures, has been very limited for a number of subjective reasons. A new recorder was designed and constructed that presents the results of computer augmented scans through a medium that is quite familiar to doctors, the standard 14 in. x 17 in. x-ray film

  2. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  3. Intervention procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    As in the case of smoking and lung cancer, for large radionuclide releases, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. On the other hand, we feel compelled to do something sensible after an accident even if the principal benefit of intervention may be to comfort the population at risk. Of course, for populations near the site of an accident, evacuation should be considered, but it is unreasonable to apply this measure to distant populations, e.g., large segments of the European community could not be moved about as we observe the shifting of a radioactive cloud in response to changing winds. If the radionuclides are delivered as particulates, bringing people indoors and employing primitive air filters can temporarily reduce exposures, but these stratagems are not very effective against gaseous or volatile elements. What, then, can be done for populations downwind of a radioactive release whose air, water, and/or food supply are, or are about to become contaminated? 5 refs

  4. Bone scanning in patients with breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Nishi, T.; Hirose, T.; Schichijo, Y.; Ibukuro, K.

    1985-01-01

    Skeletal imaging using radionuclides has proved to be a sensitive method for the detection of early bony metastases from breast carcinoma. Recent studies have found a relatively low rate of abnormal scans in patients with stage I and II breast cancers, and therefore it is open to question whether bone scanning should be part of the preoperative evaluation of any patient prior to breast surgery. We reviewed our experience with bone scans in 329 patients out of 406 histologically proven breast cancer patients to determine if any or all patients should have this procedure done routinely prior to breast surgery. (orig.) [de

  5. Experimental MR-guided cryotherapy of the brain with almost real-time imaging by radial k-space scanning; Experimentelle MR-gesteuerte Kryotherapie des Gehirns mit nahezu Echtzeitdarstellung durch radiale k-Raum-Abtastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, J.; Schorn, R.; Glowinski, A.; Grosskortenhaus, S.; Adam, G.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Speetzen, R.; Rau, G. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Biomedizinische Technik, Aachen (Germany); Rasche, V. [Philips GmbH Forschungslaboratorium, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Purpose: To test radial k-space scanning by MR fluoroscopy to guide and control MR-guided interstitial cryotherapy of the healthy pig brain. Methods: After MR tomographic planning of the approach, an MR-compatible experimental cryotherapy probe of 2.7 mm diameter was introduced through a 5 mm burr hole into the right frontal brain of five healthy pigs. The freeze-thaw cycles were imaged using a T{sub 1}-weighted gradient echo sequence with radial k-space scanning in coronal, sagittal, and axial directions. Results: The high temporal resolution of the chosen sequence permits a continuous representation of the freezing process with good image quality and high contrast between ice and unfrozen brain parenchyma. Because of the interactive conception of the sequence the layer plane could be chosen as desired during the measurement. Ice formation was sharply demarcated, spherically configurated, and was free of signals. Its maximum diameter was 13 mm. Conclusions: With use of the novel, interactively controllable gradient echo sequence with radial k-space scanning, guidance of the intervention under fluoroscopic conditions with the advantages of MRT is possible. MR-guided cryotherapy allows a minimally-invasive, precisely dosable focal tissue ablation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Erprobung der radialen k-Raum-Abtastung bei der MR-Fluoroskopie zur Steuerung und Kontrolle MR-gesteuerter interstitieller Kryotherapie des gesunden Schweinegehirns. Methoden: Nach MR-tomographischer Planung des Zugangsweges wurde eine MR-kompatible experimentelle Kryotherapiesonde von 2,7 mm Durchmesser ueber ein 5 mm Bohrloch in das rechte Frontalhirn von fuenf gesunden Schweinen eingebracht. Die Frier-/Tauzyklen wurden anhand einer T{sub 1}-gewichteten Gradientenechosequenz mit radialer k-Raum-Abtastung in koronarer, sagittaler und axialer Schichtfuehrung dargestellt. Ergebnisse: Die hohe zeitliche Aufloesung der gewaehlten Sequenz erlaubte eine kontinuierliche Darstellung des Friervorgangs bei

  6. Segmentation of Brain Lesions in MRI and CT Scan Images: A Hybrid Approach Using k-Means Clustering and Image Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ritu; Sharma, Manisha; Singh, Bikesh Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Manual segmentation and analysis of lesions in medical images is time consuming and subjected to human errors. Automated segmentation has thus gained significant attention in recent years. This article presents a hybrid approach for brain lesion segmentation in different imaging modalities by combining median filter, k means clustering, Sobel edge detection and morphological operations. Median filter is an essential pre-processing step and is used to remove impulsive noise from the acquired brain images followed by k-means segmentation, Sobel edge detection and morphological processing. The performance of proposed automated system is tested on standard datasets using performance measures such as segmentation accuracy and execution time. The proposed method achieves a high accuracy of 94% when compared with manual delineation performed by an expert radiologist. Furthermore, the statistical significance test between lesion segmented using automated approach and that by expert delineation using ANOVA and correlation coefficient achieved high significance values of 0.986 and 1 respectively. The experimental results obtained are discussed in lieu of some recently reported studies.

  7. Validation of an MRI Brain Injury and Growth Scoring System in Very Preterm Infants Scanned at 29- to 35-Week Postmenstrual Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J M; Fiori, S; Fripp, J; Pannek, K; Bursle, J; Moldrich, R X; Guzzetta, A; Coulthard, A; Ware, R S; Rose, S E; Colditz, P B; Boyd, R N

    2017-07-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic potential of brain MR imaging before term-equivalent age is limited until valid MR imaging scoring systems are available. This study aimed to validate an MR imaging scoring system of brain injury and impaired growth for use at 29 to 35 weeks postmenstrual age in infants born at Toddler Development, 3rd ed. (Bayley III), and the Neuro-Sensory Motor Developmental Assessment. Early MR imaging global, WM, and deep gray matter scores were negatively associated with Bayley III motor (regression coefficient for global score β = -1.31; 95% CI, -2.39 to -0.23; P = .02), cognitive (β = -1.52; 95% CI, -2.39 to -0.65; P < .01) and the Neuro-Sensory Motor Developmental Assessment outcomes (β = -1.73; 95% CI, -3.19 to -0.28; P = .02). Early MR imaging cerebellar scores were negatively associated with the Neuro-Sensory Motor Developmental Assessment (β = -5.99; 95% CI, -11.82 to -0.16; P = .04). Results were reconfirmed at term-equivalent-age MR imaging. This clinically accessible MR imaging scoring system is valid for use at 29 to 35 weeks postmenstrual age in infants born very preterm. It enables identification of infants at risk of adverse outcomes before the current standard of term-equivalent age. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Influence of scanning time window on the binding potentials of dopamine transporter in the brain of healthy volunteers with 11C-CFT PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chun; Zuo Chuantao; Zhang Zhengwei; Wu Ping; Zhang Huiwei; Guan Yihui

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find the optimal scanning time window and then set up the normal binding potentials (BPs) of 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)-(N- 11 C-methyl) tropane ( 11 C-CFT) DAT PET/CT imaging. Methods: Thirty-one healthy volunteers (20 males, 11 females, average age: (55.7±2.3) years), who all gave written informed consent, were divided into three age and gender-matched groups according to block randomization. Each group underwent static PET/CT scan in different time windows from 40-60 min, 60-80 min to 80-100 min after 11 C-CFT injection. To determine the best scanning time window, the ratios of caudate and putamen of all volunteers were analyzed using automatic ROI method (caudate (putamen)/parieto-occipital cotex-1) and compared by one-way analysis of variance and the least significant difference (LSD) t test. The ratio of the same area between different age-groups and gender-groups was compared with independent two-sample t test. Results: Ratios of left caudate (2.08±0.06, 1.75±0.07 and 1.77±0.12 respectively), right anterior putamen (2.33±0.06, 1.95±0.09 and 2.08±0.12 respectively) and bilateral posterior putamen (left: 1.88±0.66, 1.55±0.88 and 1.72±0.09; right: 1.98±0.07, 1.61±0.09 and 1.69±0.12) were all different in three time windows (F=3.588, 3.345, 4.479, 3.557, all P<0.05). There were significant differences in ratios of left caudate, right anterior and bilateral posterior putamen between 40-60 min and the 60-80 min (all P<0.05), as well as the ratios of left caudate between 40-60 min and the 80-100 min group (P<0.05). While no valid differences in ratios of those areas were shown between the groups of 60-80 min and 80-100 min scanning time window (all P>0.05). DAT densities in right and left side of caudate, anterior and posterior putamen were significantly lower in the group over 60 years of age than those under 60 years (t=-3.260, -3.090, -3.270, -3.190, -2.270, -3.110, all P<0.05), but were not different between gender

  9. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  10. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  11. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  12. Scanning holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the scanning of 1000 holograms taken in HOBC at CERN. Each hologram is triggered by an interaction in the chamber, the primary particles being pions at 340 GeV/c. The aim of the experiment is the study of charm production. The holograms, recorded on 50 mm film with the ''in line'' technique, can be analyzed by shining a parallel expanded laser beam through the film, obtaining immediately above it the real image of the chamber which can then be scanned and measured with a technique half way between emulsions and bubble chambers. The results indicate that holograms can be analyzed as quickly and reliably as in other visual techniques and that to them is open the same order of magnitude of large scale experiments

  13. Present status and problems of radionuclide studies in emergency cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kiyoshi

    1983-01-01

    Scintigraphy is just right for diagnosing emergency cases due to its noninvasive and simple method, but emergency radionuclide studies have not become practical as a result of difficulty problems. Recently, nuclear medical devices have become easier to use in operations. It is become of this, that I have submitted this report regarding the problems of radionuclide studies in emergency cases. There were 101 cases (1.4 %) out of 7,310 cases for the year period Sept. 1981 - Aug. 1982. The studies consisted of 12 brain imaging cases, 9 plumonary imaging cases, 22 cardiac study cases (cardio-angiography cases 8, 99m-Tc-PYP myocardium imaging cases 12, 201-Tl myocardium imaging cases 2), 12 renal study cases, 11 G.I. blood loss cases, 35 peripheral angiography cases. In the near future, we will have to be ready to perform emergency radionuclide studies if the need arises. (author)

  14. Xenon contrast CT-CBF scanning of the brain differentiates normal age-related changes from multi-infarct dementia and senile dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, H.; Meyer, J.S.; Okayasu, H.; Shaw, T.G.; Kandula, P.; Rogers, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and partition coefficients (L lambda) were measured during inhalation of stable xenon gas with serial CT scanning among normal volunteers (N . 15), individuals with multi-infarct dementia (MID, N . 10), and persons with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT, N . 8). Mean gray matter flow values were reduced in both MID and SDAT. Age-related declines in LCBF values in normals were marked in frontal cortex and basal ganglia. LCBF values were decreased beyond normals in frontal and temporal cortices and thalamus in MID and SDAT, in basal ganglia only in MID. Unlike SDAT and age-matched normals, L lambda values were reduced in fronto-temporal cortex and thalamus in MID. Multifocal nature of lesions in MID was apparent. Coefficients of variation for LCBFs were greater in MID compared with SDAT and/or age-matched normals

  15. Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone

  16. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  17. Deep sea radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.; Vobach, M.

    1993-01-01

    Every year since 1979, either in sping or in summer, the fishing research vessel 'Walther Herwig' goes to the North Atlantic disposal areas of solid radioactive wastes, and, for comparative purposes, to other areas, in order to collect water samples, plankton and nekton, and, from the deep sea bed, sediment samples and benthos organisms. In addition to data on the radionuclide contents of various media, information about the plankton, nekton and benthos organisms living in those areas and about their biomasses could be gathered. The investigations are aimed at acquiring scientifically founded knowledge of the uptake of radioactive substances by microorganisms, and their migration from the sea bottom to the areas used by man. (orig.) [de

  18. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  19. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  20. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  1. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  2. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  3. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  4. The evolution of radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, F.D.; Patton, J.A.; Cassen, B.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter briefly describes the evolution of scintillation imaging through the early 1980s. It is difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate the practical roles of current developments with any perspective, historical or otherwise. Waves of enthusiasm come and go. A simple analysis by Cassen of the factors entering into an overall performance index of any scanning or imaging system clearly shows that appreciable advances in instrumentation depend upon more efficient utilization of available gamma photons, and that future advances will depend upon the availability of agents having a greater photon yield and a smaller potential radiation dose. Further, the needs of the referring physician and improvements in other diagnostic modalities will have an impact on the future of nuclear medicine imaging requirements. For example, the availability of 201 T1 for myocardial imaging significantly increased the demand for spatial resolution of the scintillation camera. Likewise, the introduction of gated blood-pool imaging increased the requirements for count rate capabilities and spatial resolution. The need to evaluate the myocardium in the intensive care unit resulted in the development of the portable scintillation camera and computer. On the other hand, the introduction of CT for evaluating the brain had a significant impact on the value of nuclear medicine brain imaging. The impact of digital radiology and nuclear magnetic resonance can only be speculated at this point. If anything, they will probably serve as complements to nuclear medicine procedures in the diagnostic process, with nuclear medicine serving as the primary method of establishing functional information

  5. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  6. Sorbent application on the base of chitosan for radionuclides separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivarciova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste contains enormous amounts of radionuclides, which pollute the environment and can cause serious chemical and radiological toxicity threats to lower and higher living organism. Alternative process for the removal of heavy metal ions and radionuclides is sorption, which utilizes various certain natural materials of biological origin. Amino-polysaccharide-based sorbents e.g. chitosan represent suitable materials for binding of metal oxo-anion species because of numerous functional groups -OH and -NH_2 because of their suitable H-bond donor and acceptor sites. The sorbents on the base chitosan prepared through chemical modification were used for removal and separation certain radionuclides from aqueous media. The aim of this work was the study of physicochemical properties of prepared sorbents. The specific surface of sorbents was characterized with BET methods. Point of zero charge was identified with potentiometric titration. The size of particles and shape of sorbents were determined by scanning electron microscope. The sorption experiments for selected radionuclides were conducted under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of various parameters on the sorption "9"9"mTc, "6"0Co and the effect of pH on the separation of radionuclide mixture in the solution were studied. (author)

  7. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  8. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  9. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  10. Radionuclide arthrogram to evaluate knee prostheses loosening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, U.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:This case is about a 78 year old lady who had 3TKRs on her left knee. The 2nd revision surgery was performed due to infection. After 6 weeks long procedure, that patient was discharged with satisfactory movement without sign of infection. 15 months after the surgery, the orthopaedic surgeon found that some pressure wave effects and pain with walking. There was no sign of infection clinically. Once X-ray could not confirm any micro-loosening, the surgeon wanted to investigate with radionuclide arthrogram for this difficult case. 40 MBq in 2mls of Calcium phytate colloid (from RADPHARM Australia) was injected into the knee joint space. 30 minutes static views revealed the tracer started to travel below the tibial component. 4 hours statics views clearly indicate the tibial component loosening also there was leakage of tracer through anterior tibial osteotomy screws into the level of ankle subcutaneously. Cobalt57 flood images provided the anatomical localisation. While the surgeon was planning new component for the 3rd revision surgery, the patient's pain disappeared with time. No more revision was considered with satisfactory level of movement. This was the first and only case of radio arthogram to our department, although we perform many bone scans with same reason. On published articles, overall sensitivity and specificity are variable from 85% to 100%. When we take look at other clinical experience, there are a number of reasons in the high accuracy and reliability of radionuclide arthrogram especially for knee prosthesis loosening. Therefore I want to emphasise the benefit of radionuclide arthrogram for both patient and surgeon as a reliable diagnosis with minimum discomfort.

  11. Hepatobiliary scan in neonatal Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, Nurun; Hasan, Mizanul; Karim, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Jaundice is more or less common in newborn babies. Through physiological jaundice is most common cause of neonatal jaundice, possibility of obstructive jaundice especially biliary atresia should be kept in mind. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia followed by surgical treatment can save baby's life. Otherwise death is inevitable due to liver failure. Hepatobiliary scan is the imaging study of choice in neonatal jaundice especially when there is persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Total 27 newborn babies of suspected biliary atresia, aged 14 days to 4 months were referred to Institute of Nuclear Medicine for Hepatobiliary scan. All of them had high serum bilirubin ranged from 6.0 mg/dl with an average of 9.35 ng/dl serum bilirubin level. Ultrasonography of hepatobiliary system was performed in 14 cases showing normal sized liver in 4 cases and hepatomegaly in 10 cases. Hepatobiliary scan was done with 99m Tc-Mebrofenin (Br IDA) after preparing the baby with phenobarbitone for 3-5 days. 20 (67%) cases were scan positive suggesting biliary atresia (BA) and 7(27%) cases were scan negative. In BA there will be increased hepatic uptake of the radionuclide without any significant excretion even in 24 hours delayed images. Presence of radiotracer in the bowel exclude the diagnosis of BA. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia is very important because in this condition surgery should be performed early (within 60 days of life). Studies suggest that hepatobiliary scan after hepatic stimulation with phenobarbitone for a period of 3-5 days is highly accurate for differentiating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice. It is very important to perform hepatobiliary scan in a case of neonatal jaundice to exclude biliary atresia for the sake of baby's life.(author)

  12. Radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Ruth, C.; Samanek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology is discussed for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial function and perfusion, regional lung perfusion and ventilation, and for measuring central and peripheral hemodynamics. (H.W.). 16 refs

  13. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  14. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  15. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  16. Portable Intraoperative Computed Tomography Scan in Image-Guided Surgery for Brain High-grade Gliomas: Analysis of Technical Feasibility and Impact on Extent of Tumor Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Giuseppe M V; Palmucci, Stefano; Visocchi, Massimiliano; Paratore, Sabrina; Attinà, Giancarlo; Sortino, Giuseppe; Albanese, Vincenzo; Certo, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    real-time information during brain surgery and can be easily introduced in neurosurgical theaters in daily practice.

  17. Surface diffusion of sorbed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Surface diffusion has in the past been invoked to explain rates of radionuclide migration which were greater than those predicted. Results were generally open to interpretation but the possible existence of surface diffusion, whereby sorbed radionuclides could potentially migrate at much enhanced rates, necessitated investigation. In this work through-diffusion experiments have shown that although surface diffusion does exist for some nuclides, the magnitude of the phenomenon is not sufficient to affect repository safety assessment modelling. (author)

  18. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Molinski, V.J.; Hupf, H.B.; Kramer, H.

    1983-10-01

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  19. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, M [Ingenieurgesellschaft Bonnenberg und Drescher, Juelich (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10/sup -3/) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10/sup -2/) and one tenth (10/sup -1/) that of T respectively.

  20. Radionuclide migration in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10 -3 ) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10 -2 ) and one tenth (10 -1 ) that of T respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  2. Radionuclides migration or isolation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Grambow, B.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    After 20 years of research, the chemical behaviour of actinides and fission products in nuclear waste disposal environments is much better understood. Consistent thermodynamic data have been gathered and allow much more accurate previsions. Through the considerable development of analytical spectroscopy, including time resolved laser fluorescence and X ray absorption, a better understanding of the chemical reactivity (complexation, sorption) of actinides and fission products at a molecular scale has been possible. Chemically reducing conditions are found in most selected disposal host rock formations, generally chosen for their high sorption capacity (clays); such conditions favour the chemical confinement of most radionuclides through precipitation or sorption. Low permeability host rocks participate to this confinement, as convective fluxes are lower than diffusive fluxes. The most recent performance assessment exercises have taken into account the recent progress of knowledge in the chemical evolution of the near field. They show that the dose rates at the outlet are far lower than existing recommendations for normal and most altered evolution scenarios. (authors)

  3. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  4. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  5. Role of radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, R.G.; Choy, D.; Hoeschl, R.; Nayanar, V.; Murray, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of chondrosarcoma may be difficult if there is an atypical radiographic appearance or an inconclusive biopsy. Radionuclide bone scans of 13 patients with chondrosarcoma were reviewed to assess if a pattern of scan features could be recognized in association with this tumor. A combination, including increased blood pool activity, moderate intensity of uptake, patchy uptake with cortical predominance of activity, minimal distortion of bony outline, and a well-defined scintigraphic margin, occurred regularly in the series. Recognition of this characteristic pattern of scintigraphic features in cases of suspected chondrosarcoma may assist in the diagnostic assessment

  6. Bone scan features in spontaneous knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Merlo, F; Bertelli, P; Burroni, L

    1992-01-01

    In 21 patients with "spontaneous" knee pain, 99mTc-MDP bone scan was found to be more sensitive than clinical and radiographic examination in detecting alterations of the joint components. These alterations were shown by increased radionuclide uptake in the compartments where pain was present, which was most commonly the medial femorotibial compartment, although the femoropatellar compartment was also frequently affected. The authors conclude that bone scan should be the first imaging study performed on the knee in order to establish if further tests are necessary.

  7. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  8. The administered activity of radionuclides in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Mototoshi; Koga, Sukehiko; Kondo, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 104 hospitals was conducted to determine the administered activity of radionuclides. Eighty-five hospitals responded, and reported a total of 119,614 examinations in one year. The examinations included: bone scintigraphy, 26.4%; thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial scintigraphy, 15.5%; gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scintigraphy, 13.3%; N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain perfusion scintigraphy, 7.0%. The administered activity was corrected by body weight only for children at more than 80% of the responding hospitals. The number of hospitals that reported over-administration of radionuclide varied according to the type of scintigraphy performed: bone, 76%; inflammatory ( 67 Ga), 93%; myocardial ( 201 Tl), 89.2%; brain (IMP), 8.5%. The administered activity of IMP was closer to the upper limits specified in the Recommendations on Standardization of Radionuclide Imaging by the Japan Radioisotope Association (1987), because IMP is very expensive and is supplied as single vials. The highest average effective dose was for myocardial scintigraphy, the second-highest for inflammatory scintigraphy, and the third-highest for bone scintigraphy. In 201 Tl and 67 Ga scintigraphy, the entire contents of the vial may be administered two days before the expiration date, because the ratio of (true patient administered activity) to (declared patient administered activity) is similar to the ratio of (radioactivity on the day of supply) to (radioactivity on the day of expiration). The factors that influence administered activity are through put, price of the radionuclide, and whether the radionuclide is sold as a single vial. In order to decrease the effective dose, it is necessary to establish a close cooperation between medical personnel, the makers of radiopharmaceuticals, and manufactures of gamma cameras. (author)

  9. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  10. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  11. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  12. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  13. Luminescence imaging using radionuclides: a potential application in molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Il An, Gwang; Park, Se-Il; Oh, Jungmin; Kim, Hong Joo; Su Ha, Yeong; Wang, Eun Kyung; Min Kim, Kyeong; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Jaetae; Welch, Michael J.; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nuclear and optical imaging are complementary in many aspects and there would be many advantages when optical imaging probes are prepared using radionuclides rather than classic fluorophores, and when nuclear and optical dual images are obtained using single imaging probe. Methods: The luminescence intensities of various radionuclides having different decay modes have been assayed using luminescence imaging and in vitro luminometer. Radioiodinated Herceptin was injected into a tumor-bearing mouse, and luminescence and microPET images were obtained. The plant dipped in [ 32 P]phosphate solution was scanned in luminescence mode. Radio-TLC plate was also imaged in the same imaging mode. Results: Radionuclides emitting high energy β + /β - particles showed higher luminescence signals. NIH3T6.7 tumors were detected in both optical and nuclear imaging. The uptake of [ 32 P]phosphate in plant was easily followed by luminescence imaging. Radio-TLC plate was visualized and radiochemical purity was quantified using luminescence imaging. Conclusion: Many radionuclides with high energetic β + or β - particles during decay were found to be imaged in luminescence mode due mainly to Cerenkov radiation. 'Cerenkov imaging' provides a new optical imaging platform and an invaluable bridge between optical and nuclear imaging. New optical imaging probes could be easily prepared using well-established radioiodination methods. Cerenkov imaging will have more applications in the research field of plant science and autoradiography.

  14. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  15. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  16. Comparative study on skull CT scan and bone scintigraphy in chronic hemodialysed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Hironobu; Inoue, Yuichi; Fukuda, Teruo; Shibakiri, Ippei; Tsuda, Kazuyoshi

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study of computed tomography (XCT) scan utilizing EMI head unit and radionuclide bone scan was performed in 17 patients with chronic renal failure on maintenance hemodialysis. Bone scintigram was positive in 7 out of 17 patients. EMI number of the skull in the positive bone scintigram group was significantly lower than that of the negative bone scintigram. Radionuclide bone scan is the most useful method to detect early bone change and XCT scan will determine the grade of the bone mineral contents. XCT is especially useful to follow patients under the medical treatment (active vitamine D 3 therapy) in order to know the therapeutic effect. (author)

  17. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  18. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  19. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  20. The role of bone scanning in neonatal rickets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, P.D.; Lloyd, D.J.; Smith, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Preterm infants are at increased risk from rickets. Radionuclide bone scanning is a useful aid in suspected cases. It offers advantages over conventional radiology in terms of sensitivity, radiation dose and extent of examination. Unsuspected fractures of clinical or medicolegal significance may be detected. Two cases are described in which the technique confirmed the diagnosis and assisted management. (orig.)

  1. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  2. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  3. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  4. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author) [pt

  5. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  6. Direct measurement of γ-emitting radionuclides in waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ruwei; Mao Yong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Xia Xiaobin; Guo Caiping; Han Yueqin

    1993-01-01

    The low-level rad waste produced from nuclear power plant, nuclear facilities, and in the process of their decommissioning is stored in waste depository. For the safety of transport and storage of these wastes, some test must be done. One of them is to analyse the kinds and activities of radionuclides in each waste drum. Segmented scanning gamma spectrum analysis can be used for direct measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides in drum. Gamma emitters such as Co-60, Cs-137, Ra-226 can be measured directly from outside of drum. A method and system for direct measuring gamma emitters in waste drum are described, and measuring apparatus and measurement results as well

  7. Rapid monitoring of gaseous radionuclides using a portable spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.; Tsai, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    A field gamma ray spectrometer, consisting of a portable high purity germanium detector, portable multichannel analyser, and a notebook computer, was used to conduct in situ rapid scanning of radioactive Ar, Kr and Xe isotopes in the air around a nuclear facility. The portable gamma ray spectrometer was calibrated using Ar, Kr, and Xe radioisotopes, activated in a research reactor and released in a sealed chamber. The unit was further tested inside the reactor containment to monitor the concentration of 41 Ar. In a typical one hour field measurement, the detection limits for some rare gas radionuclides corresponded to dose rates around 0.1 nSv.h -1 , which is far less than the dose rate induced by derived air concentrations imposed by the authority. The dose rate due to ground level concentrations of gaseous radionuclides dispersed from a source, such a nuclear facility or nuclear test, can be monitored in a short period using the portable unit. (Author)

  8. The role of radionuclide studies in emergency cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Hayashida, Kohei; Uehara, Toshiisa

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide studies have been performed popularly because of its noninvasive and simple method recently. In this study, we applied this technique for the evaluation of emergency cases in cardiovascular diseases. There were 93 cases (1.5%) out of 6163 cases, done during 1981. The subjects were 34 cases of cardiac studies (9 cases of sup(99m)Tc-PYP myocardial imaging, 12 cases of thallium myocardial imaging, 13 cases of cardioangiography), 23 cases of peripheral diseases (12 cases of peripheral angiography, 11 cases of venography), 16 cases of pulmonary imaging, 10 cases of renal studies (6 cases of renal angiography, 9 cases of renal imaging) and 5 cases of brain angiography. These studies were proven to be useful clinically for the evaluation of emergency cases and follow-up studies. In the near future, ''emergency radionuclide studies'' would be benefit for the high-risk patients noninvasively. (author)

  9. A dynamic phantom for radionuclide renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and test a dynamic phantom simulating radionuclide renography. The phantom consisted of five partly lead covered plastic containers simulating kidneys, heart, bladder and background (soft tissues, liver and spleen). Dynamics were performed with multiple movable steel plates between containers and a gamma camera. Control of the plates is performed manually with a stopwatch following exact time schedules. The containers were filled with activities ( 99m Tc) which produce count rates close to clinical situations. Count rates produced by the phantom were compared with ten clinical renography cases: five 99m Tc MAG3 and five 99m Tc DTPA examinations. Two phantom simulations were repeated three times with separate fillings, acquisitions and analyses. Precision errors as a coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated measurements were calculated and theoretical values were compared with the corresponding measured ones. A multicentre comparison was made between 19 nuclear medicine laboratories and three clinical cases were simulated with the phantom. Correlations between count rates produced by the phantom and clinical studies were r=0.964 for 99m Tc MAG3 (p 99m Tc DTPA (p max was 4.0±1.6%. Images and curves of the scanned phantom were close to a real patient in all 19 laboratories but calculated parameters varied: the difference between theoretical and measured values for T max was 6.8±6.2%. The difference between laboratories is most probably due to variations in acquisition protocols and analysis programs: 19 laboratories with 18 different protocols and 8 different programs. The dynamics were found to be repeatable and suitable for calibration purposes for radionuclide renography programs and protocols as well as for multicentre comparisons. (author)

  10. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Radionuclide assessment of heterotopic ossification in spinal cord injury patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, V.

    1983-01-01

    Whole body /sup 99m/T-pyrophosphate bone scans were obtained and correlated with skeletal radiographs for detection of heterotopic ossification in 135 spinal injury patients. There were 40 patients with recent injury (less than 6 months) and 95 with injury of over 6 months duration. Heterotopic new bone was detected on the bone scan in 33.7% of 95 patients with spinal cord injuries of more than 6 months duration and 30% of 40 patients with injuries of less than 6 months. The radionuclide scan was found to be useful in detection of heterotopic ossification at its early stage and in its differentiation from other complications in spinal cord injury patients

  12. Nuclear transverse sectional brain function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scanfield imaging apparatus is described comprising a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; and means for imparting travel to the collimators such that the focal point of each collimator uniformly samples at least one half of the scan field

  13. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  14. Development of scan analysis techniques employing a small computer. Final report, February 1, 1963--July 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    During the thirteen year duration of this contract the goal has been to develop and apply computer based analysis of radionuclide scan data so as to make available improved diagnostic information based on a knowledge of localized quantitative estimates of radionuclide concentration. Results are summarized

  15. Development of scan analysis techniques employing a small computer. Final report, February 1, 1963--July 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1976-08-05

    During the thirteen year duration of this contract the goal has been to develop and apply computer based analysis of radionuclide scan data so as to make available improved diagnostic information based on a knowledge of localized quantitative estimates of radionuclide concentration. Results are summarized. (CH)

  16. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  17. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  18. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  19. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.; Jungerman, J.A.; DeNardo, G.L.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Cole, W.C.; Meares, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  20. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  1. Applications of radionuclides in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1955-01-01

    After a brief recall of a few concepts (mass number, charge and beams properties) and the description of used detectors (ionization chamber, Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counters), some radionuclides applications are described. In a first part, the well-developed applications are presented in three distinct groups: continuous applications such as β and γ gauges (determination hydrogen content of an hydrocarbon and content of an emulsion; discharge of static electricity), discontinuous applications such as radiography and autoradiography, wear or manufacture problems (distribution of a fungicide on tobacco) and finally, applications in research laboratories such as diffusion, exchange and solubility. It also describes the applications which are still in development such as the action of beams on matter (reticulation and degradation of polymers, monomers polymerisation, cold sterilization). In conclusion, few advices on the opportunity of such applications and the choice of the radionuclides are given. (M.P.)

  2. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestr, Christopher J.; North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY; Love, Charito

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  3. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  4. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  5. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  6. Radionuclide cinematography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Sigel, H.; Geffers, H.; Bitter, F.; Meyer, G.; Kampmann, H.; Stauch, M.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide cinematography is described as a procedure making use of radiation-level variations above the heart after equipartitioning of sup(99m)Tc-labelled human serum albumin in the blood pool. Regional ventricular and vestibular variations are phase-shifted. This procedure permits delineation of aneurysmas with interphasic course, cicatrization of the cardiac wall not producing any cyclical variation. The study included normal subjects and 16 patients with full course infarction. Characteristic disturbances of motility distribution were found in all cases of scarred or aneurysmic alterations in the frontal and side walls of the left ventricle. The procedure was unable to detect two small infarction scars on the rear wall. The possibility of using radionuclide cinematography to prove coronary insufficiency as well as a comparison with other methods are discussed

  7. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolevatov, Yu.I.; Trykov, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252 Cf base with the activity from 10 6 to 10 9 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  8. Radionuclide diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL

    1980-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum can be detected with a high degree of accuracy by radionuclide scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate. The technique is without risk and should precede roentgenographic studies when the diagnosis is suspected. The method is described and the causes for false positive and false negative examinations are discussed. False negatives are rare and false positives are usually secondary to other surgical entities. Overall accuracy is 85 to 90%. (orig.) [de

  9. Radionuclides for therapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, H.; Noelpp, U.; Triller, K.J.; Steffen, R.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in angiographic techniques has been a gradual evolutionary development which now permits the selective and superselective access to a tumor's vascular bed. A diagnostic angiographic procedure can be supplemented by a one-step, quick application of embolizing radioactive material. This endoarterial radionuclide embolizing tumor therapy has the maximum selectivity among radiotherapeutic methods, with the highest radiation doses to the tumor and neglectible exposure of normal tissue. Spread of radioactivity by diffusion or leaching can be prevented

  10. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Amorim, E.S. do; Panetta, J.

    1979-05-01

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author) [pt

  11. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  12. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  13. Scanning Techniques for Brain-Tumour, Localization; Techniques Scintigraphies pour la Iocalisation des Tumeurs Cerebrales; Tekhnika skennirovaniya pri opredelenii lokalizatsii opukholej mozga; Tecnicas Centelleograficas para la Localizacion de Tumores Cerebrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, M. H.; Brice, J.; Jones, E.; Mallard, J. R.; Myers, M. L. [Department Of Medical Physics, Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1964-10-15

    The colour scanner has been used to scan two small clinical series of brain tumour cases, one by means of As{sup 74} using positron detection, the other with I{sup 131}-labelled albumin using gamma detection and a focusing collimator. The results of these series are given and the value of the procedure to the clinician is presented. Matthews has shown, in studies on tumour- bearing rats, that Bi{sup 206} citrate should be a particularly favourable material for brain tumour localization and a preliminary attempt has been made to scan with this material using gamma detection and a focusing collimator. Preliminary results of this study are presented. The focusing collimators used with the gamma-emitting isotopes have a deep geometrical focus and isocount responses are obtained on point sources which are almost depth independent for 20 cm. Experimental results on a series of collimators lead to design data for building such collimators to a given specification. Stationary detector scanning has been carried out on brain-tumour cases using a gamma camera with storage-tube display. The advantages of such machines lie in greater sensitivity and more rapid visualization of the pattern of distribution of radioactivity, which in turn enables dynamic studies to be carried out. Problems which occur with such machines include the difficulty in marking anatomical features and the geometric distortions which occur. These are compared for pin-hole and matrix viewing apertures. The improvement in performance resulting from circuit modifications to remove the dependence of picture size on gamma-ray energy is discussed. The analysis of cerebral scans presents difficulties when the suspected region is only slightly greater in count-rate than its surroundings. A ''normal'' count-rate pattern for a head has been determined by dividing scans into regions which are approximately anatomically equivalent from patient to patient, and counting scintiscan marks in each region. Any abnormal scan

  14. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  15. Sequential radionuclide bone imaging in avascular pediatric hip conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minikel, J.; Sty, J.; Simons, G.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed on six patients with various hip conditions. Initial bone images revealed diminished uptake of isotope /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Following therapeutic intervention, repeat bone scans revealed normal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Subsequent radiographs revealed that avascular necrosis had not occurred. There are two types of avascularity: the potentially reversible, and the irreversible. Attempts should be made toward early recognition of the potentially reversible avascular insult. With early recognition, surgical reconstruction prior to osteophyte death may result in revascularization. If this can be accomplished, avascular necrosis can be avoided

  16. Role of radionuclide studies in cases of enlarged prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhvi, S.D.; Shrimali, R.; Singhal, N.C.

    1985-01-01

    The present study of radionuclide 131 I hyppuran in 30 positive cases of enlarged prostate and 10 normal subjects has been found effective in giving information about functional status of the kidneys and presence of obstructive unropathy by renography, enlargement of the prostate causing bladder base contour deformity in bladder scan and the presence of residual urine by external counting method over bladder. It is a non-invasive method of investigation and can be undertaken safely in cases sensitive iodine-containing contrast medium. It is also cheap, easy to perform and does not require any pre-examination preparation and can be repeated frequently. (author)

  17. Nuclear medicine and related radionuclide applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Symposium presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: Radioimmunoassay and related techniques (4 papers and 4 poster presentations); Radionuclide applications in the diagnosis of parasitic diseases (7 papers and 2 posters); Instrumentation (6 papers and 4 posters); Clinical nuclear medicine: liver, bones, thyroid, cardiovascular system, lungs, kidneys, brain (23 papers and 15 posters); Organization of nuclear medicine services in the developing countries (9 papers and 5 posters); Training in nuclear medicine (4 papers) and the panel discussion. Future of Nuclear Medicine in the developing countries. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers and posters

  18. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  19. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  20. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  1. Nuclear transverse sectional brain function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus comprises a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array that surrounds a scan field of interest. Each collimator is moveable relative to its adjacent collimator. Means are provided for imparting travel to the collimators such that the focal point of each uniformly samples at least one half of the scan field

  2. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  3. Use of labelled dextran in radionuclide lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.; Kubicek, J.; Duska, F.; Vizda, J.

    1986-01-01

    Dextran labelled with 99m Tc is a new promising radiopharmaceutical for radionuclide lymphography. So far colloids were mainly used which either had an unsuitable type of emitted radiation or the particles were too large. Dextran with a molecular weight of 70,000 was used. This weight is optimal with regard to the quality of imaging and the risk of adverse reactions. The procedure of labelling is described in detail. The properties of labelled dextran were studied in experiments on dogs weighing 8 to 12 kg to whom 14.8 to 22.2 MBq was administered subcutaneously into the front or hind paws. Scans were made immediately on application and after 45 mins. A quick passage was detected of the labelled dextran from interstitial spaces to the lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes were well visualized within 1 hour. The quality control of the prepared 99m Tc-dextran was made using paper chromatography; 10 to 20% of free technetium was found. The replacement of colloids used so far with the new preparation seems to be feasible. Examinations using colloids with 198 Au require the patient to be present for 2 days, while dextran tests will be a matter of 1 to 2 hours. (A.K.)

  4. Experimental analysis of plastic materials containing radionuclides for decontamination viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Kazue; Nakano, Mikio; Takehara, Teruaki; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 11 March, 2011, the high radioactive dosage was found in polluted water for agriculture use at Baba, Haramachi, Minami-Soma, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Field experiment for decontamination of water had been studied by using commercial plastic materials. The agricultural water comes from Tetsuzan dam is full of radioactive-contaminated water. Experimental analysis showed that the plastic materials can take up radioactive elements for several months soaked in the polluted agricultural water. The quantitative analyses using X-ray fluorescence analysis, Ge semiconductor and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS), revealed the detection of the radionuclides on the plastic materials with diatom and clays. The results suggest the adsorption of radionuclides on the surface of plastic materials due to FDNPP accident. The plastic materials associated with clays and diatoms could be stronger carriers of radionuclides in the polluted water. Adherence of diatoms to the plastic fiber in the water for 7 months suggested that some plastic materials were taking up heavy metals (Zn, Ba, Pb, Sb) with radioactive elements (Cs etc.). Mechanisms by which radioactive pollutants and microorganisms are adsorbed onto and desorbed from clays at aqueous interface can be understood by combining chemical analysis with electron microscopy observation. (author)

  5. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  6. PET SUV correlates with radionuclide uptake in peptide receptor therapy in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Buck, Andreas K.; Samnick, Samuel; Kreissl, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Loehr, Mario [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Wuerzburg (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate whether the tumour uptake of radionuclide in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of meningioma can be predicted by a PET scan with {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin analogue. In this pilot trial, 11 meningioma patients with a PET scan indicating somatostatin receptor expression received PRRT with 7.4 GBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC or {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE, followed by external beam radiotherapy. A second PET scan was scheduled for 3 months after therapy. During PRRT, multiple whole-body scans and a SPECT/CT scan of the head and neck region were acquired and used to determine the kinetics and dose in the voxel with the highest radionuclide uptake within the tumour. Maximum voxel dose and retention of activity 1 h after administration in PRRT were compared to the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) in the meningiomas from the PET scans before and after therapy. The median SUV{sub max} in the meningiomas was 13.7 (range 4.3 to 68.7), and the maximum fractional radionuclide uptake in voxels of size 0.11 cm{sup 3} was a median of 23.4 x 10{sup -6} (range 0.4 x 10{sup -6} to 68.3 x 10{sup -6}). A strong correlation was observed between SUV{sub max} and the PRRT radionuclide tumour retention in the voxels with the highest uptake (Spearman's rank test, P < 0.01). Excluding one patient who showed large differences in biokinetics between PET and PRRT and another patient with incomplete data, linear regression analysis indicated significant correlations between SUV{sub max} and the therapeutic uptake (r = 0.95) and between SUV{sub max} and the maximum voxel dose from PRRT (r = 0.76). Observed absolute deviations from the values expected from regression were a median of 5.6 x 10{sup -6} (maximum 9.3 x 10{sup -6}) for the voxel fractional radionuclide uptake and 0.40 Gy per GBq (maximum 0.85 Gy per GBq) {sup 177}Lu for the voxel dose from PRRT. PET with {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues allows the pretherapeutic assessment of tumour

  7. PET SUV correlates with radionuclide uptake in peptide receptor therapy in meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Buck, Andreas K.; Samnick, Samuel; Kreissl, Michael; Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael; Loehr, Mario; Verburg, Frederik A.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the tumour uptake of radionuclide in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of meningioma can be predicted by a PET scan with 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogue. In this pilot trial, 11 meningioma patients with a PET scan indicating somatostatin receptor expression received PRRT with 7.4 GBq 177 Lu-DOTATOC or 177 Lu-DOTATATE, followed by external beam radiotherapy. A second PET scan was scheduled for 3 months after therapy. During PRRT, multiple whole-body scans and a SPECT/CT scan of the head and neck region were acquired and used to determine the kinetics and dose in the voxel with the highest radionuclide uptake within the tumour. Maximum voxel dose and retention of activity 1 h after administration in PRRT were compared to the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in the meningiomas from the PET scans before and after therapy. The median SUV max in the meningiomas was 13.7 (range 4.3 to 68.7), and the maximum fractional radionuclide uptake in voxels of size 0.11 cm 3 was a median of 23.4 x 10 -6 (range 0.4 x 10 -6 to 68.3 x 10 -6 ). A strong correlation was observed between SUV max and the PRRT radionuclide tumour retention in the voxels with the highest uptake (Spearman's rank test, P max and the therapeutic uptake (r = 0.95) and between SUV max and the maximum voxel dose from PRRT (r = 0.76). Observed absolute deviations from the values expected from regression were a median of 5.6 x 10 -6 (maximum 9.3 x 10 -6 ) for the voxel fractional radionuclide uptake and 0.40 Gy per GBq (maximum 0.85 Gy per GBq) 177 Lu for the voxel dose from PRRT. PET with 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues allows the pretherapeutic assessment of tumour radionuclide uptake in PRRT of meningioma and an estimate of the achievable dose. (orig.)

  8. Phytoremediation of radionuclides: an emerging alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shraddha

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of nuclear power industry, nuclear weapon testing, dismantling of existing nuclear weapons and occasional accidents have contributed to an enhancement in the level of radionuclides in the environment. The radionuclides due to their long half life and transfer through the food chain effect adversely to normal biological systems. Hence, it is essential to effectively remove the radionuclides from contaminated soils and solutions. Phytoremediation - the use of plants for remediation of toxic metals and radionuclides has been recognized as an aesthetically pleasing, low cost and environment friendly in situ method. Phytoremediation is an umbrella term which covers several plant based approaches. Plants have shown the potential of remediation of these radionuclides from spiked solutions, low level nuclear waste and soil. Various aspects of phytoremediation as well as potential of various plants for remediation of radionuclides will be discussed here. (author)

  9. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  10. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  11. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  12. Production of radionuclides with generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Egamediev, S.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The radionuclide generator provides a convenient means for researchers and clinicians to obtain a source of radionuclides without dependence on nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor or cyclotron). It should be noted that radionuclide generator technique yields products of very high purity and it offers moreover the only possible way of obtaining very short-lived radionuclides for practical applications. Therefore at present radionuclide generators have found important uses in nuclear medicine. This talk reviews the development of preparation methods for radionuclide generators of current interest: 99 Mo- 99m Tc, 188 W- 188 Re and 68 Ge- 68 Ga. 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. 99m Tc is presently the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The reason for such a preeminent position of 99m Tc in clinical uses is its extremely favorable nuclear properties with γ-energy of 140 keV and short half-life of 6 hours. Chromatographic generator of 99 Mo- 99m Tc based on aluminium oxide using as eluent of isotonic saline solution, containing nitrate-ions has been produced in INP AS RU. However, the main disadvantage of this generator is that the eluent-saline solution contains some amount of nitrate-ions. Nitrate-ions added to maximize and stabilize 99m Tc yields would interfere with the chemical reactions which involve Sn(II) reduction of the pertechnetate ion and which are used subsequently in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore we proposed the new method for preliminary treatment of aluminium oxide by the external gamma (Co-60) irradiation. It is found that the aluminium oxide has got electron-acceptor properties after gamma-irradiation. Adsorption of 99 Mo radionuclide as isopolymolybdate on gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide is very high and molybdenum is firmly retained. Adsorption capacity of gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide at pH 2-4 is 60-80 mg Mo per gram of Al 2 O 3 . The yields of 99m Tc from experimental generators remained high

  13. DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2

  14. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  15. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajzikova, Anna; Smrcek, Stanislav; Kozempel, Jan; Vlk, Martin; Barta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide ( 227 Ac, 227 Th, 223 Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  16. Environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behaviour of the radionuclides making the major contribution to man's irradiation through diet is described. The following stages are emphasized: transfer of radionuclides to plants; transfer of radionuclides to animals; metabolism of inhaled or ingested radionuclides in animals providing food for man; transfer of radionuclides through the aquatic environment; application of food chain models. (43 references)

  17. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  18. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  19. Biomedical research and application utilizing cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report, January 1 1977--December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, J.S.; Benua, R.S.; Tilbury, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on cyclotron production of short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides ( 18 F, 15 O, 11 C, 13 N, 52 Fe, 38 K, 206 Bi, 73 Se, and 48 Cr) for use in the preparation labelled compounds for metabolic research in patients and animals. The chemical preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with cyclotron-produced radionuclides for pancreas and tumor scanning is discussed. The imaging capabilities of a total organ kinetic imaging monitor (TOKIM) gamma camera system operated in the positron coincidence mode were improved with the addition of computerized iterative correction procedures

  20. Radionuclide transport through heteogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, J.

    1980-01-01

    One-dimensional radionuclide migration for conevective water transport with sorption and longitudinal dispersion is investigated. A semianalytic solution for layered media with piecewise constant parametes can be written when taking into account mass conservation and approximate flux conservation at interlayer boundaries. The solution is analytic in the first layer and allows for a recursive calculation in the following layers. Scaling laws for the relevant parameters can be formulated. Numerical examples exhibit the importance of at least a single highly sorbing layer. Small values of dispersivity may not lead to a conservative estimate of conservation at the geological column's end

  1. Radionuclide transfer to meadow vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Matsko, N.; Zhebrakova, I.; Montik, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper results of radioecological monitoring of natural plant populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Polesky State Radioecological Reserve) during the period from 1987 to 1998 are presented. The level of radiation background in experimental areas varied from 0.1 to 30 mR/h that correspond to the total soil activity of 300-24000 kBq/m 2 (for May 1997). Monitoring was carried out including the radionuclide migration in natural plant complexes and transfer of 137 Cs between some plant organs. Refs. 3 (author)

  2. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loessner, V.

    1983-01-01

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  3. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Bradley, E J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)

    1984-09-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3..mu..Sv, 41..mu..Sv and 13..mu..Sv respectively.

  4. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.; Bradley, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3μSv, 41μSv and 13μSv respectively. (U.K.)

  5. Dental diseases and radionuclide imaging of the jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Jose A; Pardo, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Cuadrado, Maria L; Ruibal, Alvaro

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of radionuclide bone scans of the jaws with data obtained at the nuclear medicine department from a brief and feasible dental history, taking special account of cases with a positive scan and no recent dental events. Ninety-eight patients undergoing radionuclide bone scan as part of their diagnosis in non-dental, oncological and non-oncological diseases were imaged with 99mTc-labelled oxidronate. Superior and inferior halves of the mandible and maxilla (392 quadrants) were regarded as normal or having an abnormally high uptake. A recent (1 year) dental history was also obtained through a brief questionnaire and data were referred to each quadrant of the jaws. The association between the bone scan and dental disease was assessed by means of the chi-squared test. The overall results of scintigraphy and history coincided in 66 patients (46 with abnormal and 20 with normal findings; P = 0.002). Twenty-five patients had a positive scintigram without any known dental disorder. Results of scintigraphy and history coincided in 254 quadrants (78 with abnormal and 176 with normal findings; P < 0.001). Eighty-three quadrants had hot spots in the scintigram without any known dental lesion. It can be concluded that abnormal jaw scintigrams are frequent in patients without known dental disease, and this may indicate silent osteoblastic activity. These observations should be reported to the dentist for several reasons. First, they may reveal asymptomatic dental lesions. Second, the use of oral prostheses and implants is increasing and they require the support of healthy alveolar bone.

  6. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  7. Radionuclide diagnostics of right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaorska-Rajca, J.

    1993-01-01

    Difficulties in evaluating the right ventricle function motivate to making research into new non-invasive methods. Four radionuclide methods that are used to access the right ventricle have been discussed in this paper: first-pass angiocardiography, gated equilibrium ventriculography with red blood cells labelled in vivo technetium- 99 Tc, ventriculography with radioactive xenon 133 and a computerized single probe. Advantages and disadvantages of using each method have been discussed. RNV 99m Tc method has been recognized as the best one to evaluate RV function. Results of the right ventricle assessment in patients have been discussed in the following clinical groups: chronic cor pulmonale (CP), chronic lung disease without pulmonary arterial hypertension (LD), coronary artery disease (CAD), in patients after infarction (IMA and IMi), dilated cardiomyopathy (KZ) and valvular heart diseases (Wm and Wa). Abnormals in right ventricle function occur with different intensity in all groups, although they no specificity. The highest abnormality occurs in patients with KZ, CP, IMi and Wm, the lowest one - in patients with CAD. Abnormalities are higher in patients with congestive heart failure. In most pathological groups the right ventricle dysfunction is connected with the left ventricle insufficiency. The interdependence between the dysfunction of both ventricles is differs in particular diseases. Assessment of right ventricle function with radionuclide methods plays an important role in diagnosis and control therapy of cardiopulmonary diseases. (author). 385 refs, 48 figs, 6 tabs

  8. Miscellaneous applications of radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures discussed in this chapter are either developmental, in limited clinical use, or frankly moribund. A number of radionuclide imaging techniques have proved disappointing when approached from a purely anatomic point of view. This is particularly evident to our colleagues with the explosive growth of the noninvasive imaging procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), CT, and ultrasound, and the introduction of the less invasive digital radiographic approach to vascular opacification, all of which are capable of providing exquisite anatomic or tissue detail beyond the reach of current or reasonably priced nuclear medicine imaging systems. Yet, most nuclear medicine procedures possess the unique advantage of portraying a physiologic function without interfering with that function. Moreover, the procedures can be employed under conditions of stress, which are likely to bring out pathophysiologic abnormalities that remain masked when unchallenged. Information concerning form without functional data has less meaning than both together. The physiologic information inherent in nuclear medicine imaging may often provide not only key diagnostic information but also illuminate a therapeutic trail. Yet, it is often slighted in favor of the anatomic quest. While mastery of the nuances of imaging details remains critical, radionuclide image interpretation must rest upon a firm physiologic foundation. For this reason, this chapter emphasizes the physiologic approach

  9. Stochastic approach for radionuclides quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, A.; Saurel, N.; Perrin, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is a passive non-destructive assay used to quantify radionuclides present in more or less complex objects. Basic methods using empirical calibration with a standard in order to quantify the activity of nuclear materials by determining the calibration coefficient are useless on non-reproducible, complex and single nuclear objects such as waste packages. Package specifications as composition or geometry change from one package to another and involve a high variability of objects. Current quantification process uses numerical modelling of the measured scene with few available data such as geometry or composition. These data are density, material, screen, geometric shape, matrix composition, matrix and source distribution. Some of them are strongly dependent on package data knowledge and operator backgrounds. The French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing a new methodology to quantify nuclear materials in waste packages and waste drums without operator adjustment and internal package configuration knowledge. This method suggests combining a global stochastic approach which uses, among others, surrogate models available to simulate the gamma attenuation behaviour, a Bayesian approach which considers conditional probability densities of problem inputs, and Markov Chains Monte Carlo algorithms (MCMC) which solve inverse problems, with gamma ray emission radionuclide spectrum, and outside dimensions of interest objects. The methodology is testing to quantify actinide activity in different kind of matrix, composition, and configuration of sources standard in terms of actinide masses, locations and distributions. Activity uncertainties are taken into account by this adjustment methodology.

  10. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford-Lister, P.G.; Lambert, B.E.; Milner, A.C.; Kang, X.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239 Pu or 147 Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239 Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  11. Sedimentary Processes. Quantification Using Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Lerche, I.

    2003-01-01

    The advent of radionuclide methods in geochronology has revolutionized our understanding of modern sedimentary processes in aquatic systems. This book examines the principles of the method and its use as a quantitative tool in marine geology, with emphasis on the Pb-210 method. The assumptions and consequences of models and their behaviour are described providing the necessary background to assess the advantages and trade-offs involved when choosing a particular model for application. One of the purposes of this volume is to disentangle the influences of complicating factors, such as sediment flux variations, post-depositional diffusion of radionuclides, and bio-irrigation of sediments, to arrive at sediment ages and to properly assess the attendant data uncertainty. Environmental impacts of chemical, nuclear, or other waste material are of concern in a variety of areas around the world today. A number of relevant examples are included, demonstrating how dating models are useful for determining sources of contaminants and interpreting their influence on the environment. The book is set at a level so that an able student or professional should have no difficulty in following the procedures and methods developed. Each chapter includes case histories showing the strengths and weaknesses of a given procedure with respect to a data example. Included with this volume is the computer source code of a new generation of modelling tools based on inverse numerical analysis techniques. This first generation of the modelling tool is included, along with detailed instructions and examples for its use, in an appendix

  12. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities

  13. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.; Bywater, J.

    1985-01-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  14. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperski, J; Bywater, J [Ranger Uranium Mines Proprietary Ltd., Chatswood (Australia)

    1985-04-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty. Ltd. during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish.

  15. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  17. Nuclear Heart Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  19. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  20. Radionuclide Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2017-01-01

    angiography (CTA) and ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy (V/Q-scan). Both methods display advantages and shortcomings, and while we provide some insights into CTA and alternative methods, the paper's main focus is a review of the V/Q-scan. We discuss basic considerations, interpretation criteria, clinical...... value, and controversies of conventional planar lung scintigraphy as well as the more contemporary 3-dimensional imaging technique of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) with or without CT....

  1. The radionuclide migration model in river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, M.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It was propose the model of radionuclide migration in river system based on principle of the compartmental model at hydraulically stationary and chemically equilibrium conditions of interaction of radionuclides in system water-dredge, water-sediments. Different conditions of radioactive contamination entry in river system were considered. The model was verified on the data of radiation monitoring of Iput' river

  2. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  3. Fire fighting in a radionuclide laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, H.

    1991-01-01

    A fire-brigade was called to a laboratory which held a handling licence for the radionuclides C-14, T, P-32, Se-75, Mo-99, and S-35. The fire-brigade was unaware of a release of radionuclides. Therefore they used respiratory equipment, and all persons present were subsequently examined for contamination. (DG) [de

  4. Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacyna, J.

    1974-01-01

    Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in various elements of the environment have been dealt with in an ecological aspect. The knowledge of the radionuclide propagation tracks will make possible to ascertain precisely causes and effects of the radiation and to reduce the contamination value. Particular attention has been paid to test methods. (author)

  5. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  6. Isotope scanning for tumor localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-09-15

    At the request of the Government of the United Arab Republic, the Agency provided the services of an expert for the establishment in the UAR of a tumor localization program using photoscanning techniques and appropriate radioactive tracers. Photoscanning is a recently developed technique whereby the differences in isotope concentrations are enhanced on the record, and this facilitates the interpretation of the record. A variety of brain tumors were located, using a suitable radioactive tracer (Hg-203 - labelled Neohydrin) obtained from the USA. In some other investigations, processes in the kidney were scanned. Further, radioactive gold was used to demonstrate the normal and pathological spleen and liver and these tests showed various types of space occupying lesions resulting from malignancy and the parasitic infections endemic to the area. While the localization of brain tumors by scanning techniques is extremely useful, it does not always establish the precise extent of the tumor which should be known at the time of surgery. Dr. Bender, therefore, thought it advisable to instruct personnel in the use of what is known as an in-vivo needle scintillation probe - a technique for the investigation of the isotope concentration in a particular tissue during operation. The necessary instrument was obtained for this purpose and demonstrations were given; one patient was examined in this way at the time of surgery at the University of Alexandria Hospital.

  7. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  8. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  9. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration have been studied in natural fissures orieted parallel to the axis of granite drill cores. A short pulse of the radionuclides solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. After several hundred fissure volumes water had been pumped through the fissure following the radionuclide pulse the activity distribution on the fissure surfaces was measured. From the retardation of 152 Eu, 235 Np and 237 Pu it is concluded that these radionuclides are transported in the oxidation states Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(V). The distribution coefficients K sub (d) calculated from flow and activity distribution data on the basis of geometric surface area/volume ratios are of the same order as published K sub (d) values obtained from batch equilibrium experiments. (Author)

  10. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzerman, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  11. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  12. Clinical role of skeletal scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, P J

    1975-12-01

    Malignant disease very often spreads to the skeleton. This is particularly true for carcinomas of the breast, the lungs, the prostate, and the thyroid. Knowledge of the state of the skeleton in these disorders is therefore desirable since patient management will largely depend on the early detection of bony deposits. Primary bone disease often spreads to soft tissue (lungs), and the early detection of this may alter significantly the therapeutic approach to the primary lesion. Traditionally, x-ray skeletal surveys and serum enzyme measurements provide indices which can be used in the staging of these disorders. Complementary techniques such as mammography, xeroradiography, thermography, and radionuclide imaging have been used to provide further relevant information. A number of benign bone diseases need early assessment in order to institute the best form of treatment. It is of importance to assess the circulation in localized areas of bone and to predict the appearance of avascular necrosis, to understand the healing mechanisms involved in fractures, and to predict the outcome of bone grafting. In this paper the clinical role of bone scanning is reviewed, particular attention being given to the recent advances brought about by the introduction of the /sup 99m/Tc compounds. It is important that the non-specialist should be aware of the great improvement in the results obtained and in the help they can give him in deciding on the best management of each patient as an individual.

  13. The clinical research of bone scan in patients with fibrous dysplasia of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhibin; Yu Jianfang; Luo Quanyong; Lu Hankui; Zhu Jifang; Zhu Ruisen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of fibrous dysplasia of bone in bone imaging and evaluate the diagnostic value of radionuclide bone scan in fibrous dysplasia of bone. Methods: All 42 cases of fibrous dysplasia of bone patients had radionuclide bone scan performed and compared with other imaging modalities. A retrospective study method was used to analyze the imaging results. Results: Although fibrous dysplasia of bone showed uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in the images, its appearance characteristic was different from those metastatic bone tumors and other bone diseases. Combining with X rays and other imaging modalities can improve the diagnostic accuracy of this disease. Conclusion: Radionuclide bone scan has got certain value in the diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia of bone. Combining with other imaging modality can make up its disadvantage of low specificity

  14. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, Filip; Dumarey, Nicolas; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99m Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67 Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [ 18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  15. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  16. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.

    1987-09-01

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  17. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  18. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and 67 Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of 111 In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation

  19. Quality assurance in radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.; Voelkle, H.; Wershofen, H.; Wilhelm, C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors are members of an ad-hoc working group preparing a contribution to the procedures manual (''Loseblattsammlung'') dealing with quality assurance and quality control in radionuclide laboratories. The Loseblattsammlung is edited by the working group ''Environmental Monitoring'' of the German-Swiss Radiological Protection Association. The intention of the manual under preparation is not to give a procedure on how to establish a quality management system allowing for an accreditation in accordance with the international standard DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 04 (''ISO 17025'') [1] but to compile routine quality control procedures necessary for reliable measurements and to give tips to the practitioner on how to keep both the extent and the frequency of procedures on a reasonable level. A short version of the Loseblatt is presented here. (orig.)

  20. Placental transfer of other radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.-E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper comments upon some basic principles of the transfer of radioactive substances in human beings to the embryo and fetus and their age-dependence. These principles may apply to the main effects currently known from the uptake, accumulation, retention and excretion of those radioactive substances, which may be of special interest in assessing the dose and therefore the risk of exposure in nuclear medicine, in connection with environmental problems of nuclear power production as well as nuclear explosions. As an example the age-dependence of several typical radionuclides and their age-dependence during the development of the human embryo and fetus and its correlation to observations on several animal species are presented. 30 refs.; 5 figs

  1. Radionuclide diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, A.I.; Gerasimov, V.G.; Lenskaya, O.P.; Narkevich, B.Ya.; Bogdasarov, Yu.B.; Krotovskij, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    Pathogenesis of vasculogenic impotence is most adequately revealed by modern methods of the investigation of the hemodynamic mechanisms of erection with the enhancement of arterial perfusion of corpora cavernosa by artificial sexual stimulation. Radionuclide diagnostic methods effectively differ from the methods of radiocontrast phalloangiography by the simplicity of investigation and the absence of traumatism for a patient. The authors have proposed a mathematical model of a process of filling in the functioning volume of the penile vascular bed with a radiopharmaceutical prepation against the background of erection induced by intracavernous administration of papaverine hydrochloride solution. Parameters of the model determine the ratio of blood flow volumetric rates in the penis at rest and when erect

  2. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author).

  3. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-01-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium ( 20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  4. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  5. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1994-01-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  6. Stabilized radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisic acid or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  7. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  8. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  9. Radionuclides in air, water, and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection

  10. Bone scanning in the child and young adult. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, I P.C. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of the radionuclide bone scan in identifying osteoblastic reaction in bone and in detecting local alterations in blood flow is valuable in many benign diseases involving bone, particularly those which are more common in children and young adults, and in which early detection may be critical to future health. Bone scanning offers a simple yet reliable means for establishing an early diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the disease, and assessing the therapeutic response in disorders resulting from infection, trauma, or vascular insult. Useful information may also be obtained in disturbances of growth and development, and in congenital lesions.

  11. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhagen, J.D.; Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  12. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  13. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  14. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  15. Manual of bioassay procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskach, S.; Petkau, A.

    1986-06-01

    A monitoring program is described by which atomic radiation workers ar monitored for internal contamination with radionuclides in the workplace. The program involves analytical procedures for measuring alpha, beta and gamma activity in biological specimens, usually urine. Radionuclides are identified by their characteristic radiation using liquid scintillation counting, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. Examples of calculating the minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are given and used to derive call-in-criteria in accordance with which the different groups of workers are monitored each month

  16. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  17. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R.I.; Dulama, C.N.; Toma, Al.

    2006-01-01

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  18. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Zhao Jingyong; Hong Chengjiao; Lao Qinhua; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  19. Predictive Validity And Usefulness Of Visual Scanning Task In Hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The visual scanning task is a useful screening tool for brain damage in HIV/AIDS by inference from impairment of visual information processing and disturbances in perceptual mental strategies. There is progressive neuro-cognitive decline as the disease worsens. Keywords: brain, cognition, HIV/AIDS, predictive validity, ...

  20. “Pseudo-thyroid lobe”: A diagnostic conundrum caused by ossified anterior longitudinal ligament on bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Unaiza; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging is one of the most commonly performed nuclear medicine procedure around the world and characterized by its high sensitivity and relatively low specificity. False positive findings on a bone scan are very common; however, dense uptake over unilateral ossified anterior longitudinal ligament appearing as single thyroid lobe on a bone scan has not been described in the literature

  1. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  2. Scanning of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillard, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination [fr

  3. Research progess on treatment of cancer with targeted radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jiawen; Zhang Caixia

    2008-01-01

    The new development and situation of targeted radionuclide therapy in oncology is described, which include radioimmunotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, gene therapy and radionuclide labled chemotherapeutics therapy. The application research on labled carrier of those therapy is emphasized. Meanwhile, the research progess of indomethacin and its combined with targeted radionuclide therapy is also described. (authors)

  4. Quantification of radionuclide uptake levels for primary bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Francis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to quantify the level of uptake of administered radionuclide in primary bone tumors for patients undergoing bone scintigraphy. Retrospective study on 48 patient's scintigrams to quantify the uptake levels of administered radiopharmaceuticals was performed in a nuclear medicine unit in Ghana. Patients were administered with activity ranging between 0.555 and 1.110 MBq (15–30 mCi, and scanned on Siemens e.cam SPECT system. Analyses on scintigrams were performed with Image J software by drawing regions of interest (ROIs over identified hot spots (pathologic sites. Nine skeletal parts namely cranium, neck, shoulder, sacrum, sternum, vertebra, femur, ribcage, and knee were considered in the study, which involved 96 identified primary tumors. Radionuclide uptakes were quantified in terms of the estimated counts of activity per patient for identified tumor sites. Average normalized counts of activity (nGMC per patient ranged from 5.2759 ± 0.6590 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of cranium tumors to 72.7569 ± 17.8786 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of ribcage tumors. The differences in uptake levels could be attributed to different mechanisms of Tc-99m MDP uptake in different types of bones, which is directly related to blood flow and degree of osteoblastic activity. The overall normalized count of activity for the 96 identified tumors was estimated to be 23.0350 ± 19.5424 cts/mm2/MBq. The study revealed highest uptake of activity in ribcage and least uptake in cranium. Quantification of radionuclide uptakes in tumors is important and recommended in assessing patient's response to therapy, doses to critical organs and in diagnosing tumors.

  5. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindstroem, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10{sup -5} per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10{sup -5} per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10{sup -5} Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10{sup -7} Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable

  6. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, Maria; Lindstroem, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10 -8 Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10 -5 per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10 -5 per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10 -5 Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10 -7 Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable values. In that case almost all

  7. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Palestro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of "complicating osteomyelitis" such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose.Estudos através de imagens com o uso de radionuclídeos são rotineiramente usadas para avaliar pacientes suspeitos de terem infecção músculo-esquelética. A imagem óssea em tridimensional é facilmente avaliável, relativamente de baixo custo, e muito precisa na localização de alterações ósseas. Imagem com leucócito marcado poderia ser usada nos casos de "osteomielite com complicações" tais como infecção prostética articular. Esse teste também é útil na não suspeita clinica de osteomielite associada ao pé diabético tanto quanto nas junções neuropáticas. É sempre necessário, por outro lado, realizar imagem complementar da medula óssea para aumentar a precisão da imagem com leucócito marcado. Em contraste com outras regiões no esqueleto, imagem com leucócito marcado não é útil para diagnosticar osteomielite da coluna vertebral. Até agora, o gálio é o radionuclídeo preferido para

  8. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2002-01-01

    The specific activity of alpha radionuclides was determined in biological samples. The biological samples were chosen in kinds of fish, concretely mackerels, herrings and haddocks. Experimental data were presented on the poster

  9. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at efficient phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, we examined the effect of soil microbes on the uptake ability of plants using the multitracer technique to find that tomato rhizofungi in Fusarium spp. can stimulate the uptake of 85 Sr and 137 Cs by the plants. The synergic effect of a nonpathogenic strain of F. oxysporum on the uptake of radionuclides by plants proved to be enhanced by introducing a phytochelatin synthase gene into the fungus. Since soil contamination by radionuclides is still an unsolved problem in many parts of the world. Studies on phytoremediation of polluted soil environment will be important for developing effective strategies and devising adequate techniques to reduce human risks caused by food contamination of radionuclides. (author)

  10. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out

  11. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  12. Application of radionuclides in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1983-07-01

    Four main applications of radionuclides in nuclear technology are presented which are level-, density- and thickness gauging and moisture determination. Each method is surveyed for its general principle, various designs, accuracy, errors and practical designs. (Author)

  13. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Wirth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.) [de

  14. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  15. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fissures running parallel to the axes of granitic drill cores. A short pulse of radionuclide solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. At the end of each experiment the fissure was opened and the radionuclide distribution on the fissure surfaces measured. The retardation of 241 Am(III) at pH 8.2 as well as the variation in 235 Np(V) retardation with pH are found to be in good agreement with K d-values obtained in batch experiments. The reduction of (TcO - 4 ) to Tc(IV) leads as expected to increasing retardation.(author)

  16. Metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1987-01-01

    Physico-chemical form of radionuclides is one of the important factors governing the concentration by marine organisms, whereas biological activities affect the existing states of radionuclides especially in coastal waters. Radioiodine in the form of iodate which is predominant species in seawater is reduced to iodide ion by biological activities and concentration factor of iodide is an order of magnitude higher than those of iodate. Extremely high accumulation of transition elements, actinides, or natural radionuclides in branchial heart of octopus is explained by the fuction of adenochrome, a glandular pigment in the organ as a natural complexing agent, and similar metal-binding proteins with relatively low molecular weight have been found in various marine invertebrates. High accumulation of some elements also found in mollusk kidney is considered to be caused by the intracellular concretions composed of calcium phosphate. All these biological processes suggest the significance of further investigations on metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms. (author)

  17. Relating β+ radionuclides' properties by order theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, N.Y.; Guillermo Restrepo; Cohen, I.M.; Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires

    2013-01-01

    We studied 27 β + radionuclides taking into account some of their variants encoding information of their production, such as integral yield, threshold energy and energy of projectiles used to generate them; these radionuclides are of current use in clinical diagnostic imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). The study was conducted based on physical, physico-chemical, nuclear, dosimetric and quantum properties, which characterise the β + radionuclides selected, with the aim of finding meaningful relationships among them. In order to accomplish this objective the mathematical methodology known as formal concept analysis was employed. We obtained a set of logical assertions (rules) classified as implications and associations, for the set of β + radionuclides considered. Some of them show that low mass defect is related to high and medium values of maximum β + energy, and with even parity and low mean lives; all these parameters are associated to the dose received by a patient subjected to a PET analysis. (author)

  18. Behaviour of the radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa

    2007-01-01

    This chapter approaches the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment, the isotopes of the natural radioactive series, some aspects of the isotope behaviour on the environment and fission and activation radioactive isotopes

  19. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments of weathering of glass waste form and the reacted sediments with simulated glass leachates show that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of secondary precipitates. In addition, synthetic phosphate-bearing nanoporous material exhibits high stability at temperature and has a very high K d value for U(VI) removal. Both natural and synthetic barrier materials can be used as additional efficient adsorbents for retarding transport of radionuclides for various contaminated waste streams and waste forms present at U. S. Department of Energy clean-up sites and the proposed geologic radioactive waste disposal facility. In the radioactive waste repository facility, natural or synthetic materials are planned to be used as a barrier material to immobilize and retard radionuclide release. The getter material can be used to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream and subsequently incorporate the loaded getters in a cementitious or various monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides form monolithic waste forms by being emplaced as a backfill barrier material around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential hazard of leached radioactive wastes. The barrier material should be highly efficient to sequester radionuclides and possess physical and chemical stability for long-term exposure to severe weathering conditions. Because potential leaching of radionuclides depends on various environmental and weathering conditions of the near-field repository, the barrier materials must be durable and not disintegrate under a range of moisture, temperature, pressure, radiation, Eh, ph. and

  20. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...