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Sample records for radionuclide activity measurement

  1. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Baumgartner, A.; Rechberger, F.; Seidel, C.; Stietka, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. - Highlights: • Dose models for indoor radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials. • Strategies and methods in radionuclide metrology, activity measurement and dose modelling. • Selection of appropriate parameters in radiation protection standards for building materials. • Scientific-based limitations of indoor exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials

  2. Bilateral Comparison CIEMAT-CENTIS-DMR for radionuclide activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a bilateral comparison of radionuclide activity measurements between the Radionuclide Metrology Department of the Center of Isotopes of Cuba (CENTIS-DMR), and the Ionising Radiation Metrology Laboratory (LMRI) of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) of Spain. The aim of the comparison was to establish the comparability of the measurement instruments and methods used to obtain radioactive reference materials of some gamma-emitting nuclides at CENTIS-DMR. The results revealed that there are no statistically significant differences between the data reported by both laboratories. (Author) 7 refs

  3. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringer, F J; Baumgartner, A; Rechberger, F; Seidel, C; Stietka, M

    2013-11-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The performance test of NAA laboratory at radionuclide measure with low activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Sukirno

    2016-01-01

    The performance test to measure the I-131 radionuclide activity has been carried out at CAST-NAA laboratory. The purpose of this activity is to know the performance of a laboratory in the testing of low radioactivity sample. The tested sample consists of the form I-131 radionuclide sources shaped thin plastic disk with a certain weight. Evaluation of laboratory performance test results carried out by the organizer of the program test appeal (PTKMR-BATAN). Evaluation results showed that testing of point source of the I-131 radionuclide with comparative method gives a good enough results with errors below 10%. The results of the performance test evaluation are useful as the external quality control to a testing method that is expected in NAA laboratory. (author)

  5. Comparisons of activity measurements in nuclear medicine with radionuclide calibrators in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsovcova, V.; Dryak, P.

    2002-01-01

    Activity measurements in nuclear medicine using so called 'radionuclide calibrators' or 'activimeters' have been performed for several decades and their reliability has varied. This paper presents comparison of data obtained in annual accuracy checks during the last decade in the Czech Republic, which were carried out by Czech Metrological Institute, Inspectorate for Ionizing Radiation (CMI IIR). Since there is a legal requirement of annual accuracy checks, all of 48 Nuclear Medicine departments in the Czech Republic have participated in the survey. During the last decade the system of accuracy checks has undergone a gradual development. In the initial system one radionuclide sample out of the offer-list was prepared and its activity measured by 4πγ reference chamber. The sample was then sent to the participants, who measured for them an unknown activity and filled out the questionnaire. Later the answers were evaluated in CMI IIR. This system was found unsatisfactory, mostly because of the long time intervals between the measurement and evaluation of results. Therefore, a different system, under which each participant can choose for the accuracy check all the radionuclides from the offered set, was first tried in the year 2000. The offered set is being gradually enlarged, so in 2001 it consisted of four nuclides 99m Tc, 131 I, 67 Ga and 201 Tl. Solution samples (5 ml volume in 10 ml standard serum bottle - the most common in the CR) are prepared in advance from all the nuclides except for 99m Tc and measured with 4πγ chamber to obtain a conventionally true value of activity. In case of 99m Tc is as the true value considered the activity measured with CMI's activimeter whose calibration is periodically compared with 4πγ chamber measurements

  6. Accurate and simple measurement method of complex decay schemes radionuclide activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.; Clement, C.; Bac, C.

    1975-01-01

    A simple method for the measurement of the activity is described. It consists of using a well-type sodium iodide crystal whose efficiency mith monoenergetic photon rays has been computed or measured. For each radionuclide with a complex decay scheme a total efficiency is computed; it is shown that the efficiency is very high, near 100%. The associated incertainty is low, in spite of the important uncertainties on the different parameters used in the computation. The method has been applied to the measurement of the 152 Eu primary reference [fr

  7. Measurement of highly active samples of ultrashort-lived radionuclides and its problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Baan, J.G.; Panek, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of highly active eluates obtained from the generators for ultrashort-lived radionuclides poses several problems which are briefly discussed by using the example of the /sup 195m/Hg→/sup 195m/Au generator. For overcoming some of the problems, the construction of a multiple single-channel analyzer that allows high count rates, is described, as well as the counting technique applicable for highly active eluates

  8. Activity measurement of 33P and 32P radionuclide mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanker, I.; Kansky, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities are briefly summed up of measuring mixtures of 33 P and 32 P with special regard to the method of simultaneous determination of both radionuclides in a liquid scintillator. This method was experimentally tested for special detection sensitivity and intended special applications in plant physiology and biochemistry using a dioxane scintillator (SLD-31, Spolana Neratovice, CSSR) and a Packard Tri-Carb 300 C, USA. The method gave erroneous results. The main cause of the errors in measurements of the 33 P and 32 P mixture in the SLD-31 was the adsorption of radionuclides on the inner wall of glass tubes. This phenomenon is not accompanied by changes in the quenching index. However, the effectiveness of measurement dropped and the relative contribution of the spectra of the two radionuclides changed with the time following sample preparation. The said effects were removed by adding 0.4% silicon dioxide (Cab-O-Sil M5, Serva) to the liquid scintillator. (author)

  9. Measurements of radionuclide activity by the (e-α, β, γ, Lx) coincidence method using electrons with energies of a few eV emitted from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    A study was made of the possibility of measuring radionuclide activities by the method of coincidence of electrons with energies of a few eV emitted from the valence shells of radioactive atoms with nuclear radiations. The low energy electrons were detected with a detector equipped with microchannel plates with trochoidal focusing of an original design. Photons were detected with NaI(TI) detectors. A 100 μm thick plastic scintillator was used to detect beta- and alpha-particles. The investigation shows that it is possible to use this method for accurate measurements of radionuclide activity. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of 137Cs radionuclides activities in Cs-zeolite using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviarty; Ginting, Aslina Br; Anggraini, Dian; Rosika K

    2013-01-01

    137 Cs Radionuclide activity analysis has been carried out. The objective is to determine the activity of the 137 Cs radionuclide in Cs-zeolite are packaged in the form of point source. Analysis of 137 Cs Radionuclide activities in Cs zeolite samples was determined by measuring intensity of the isotope 137 Cs gamma energy at 661.7 keV use-y spectrometer. Before measurement the sample, was first carried out measurements of 137 Cs radionuclide in certified point standards from Amersham, to determine the efficiency value. Result the standard sample measurement obtained the efficiency value of 43.98%. Efficiency values obtained are used in the calculation of sample activity. On the measurement of the intensity of the sample obtained results dose rate 196.4537 cps with a standard deviation of 0.5274. By using standard measurement efficiency values obtained by the calculation of the average activity of the radionuclide 137 Cs in Cs-zeolite 524.9082 Bq. Deviation measurements were below 5% (0.27% ) so that the analysis of the activity of radionuclide 137 Cs in Cs-zeolite samples using gamma spectrometer can be accepted with a 95% confidence level. (author)

  11. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  12. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution (2-3 hrs) simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides, 212 Pb, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have been performed by using extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory. We have measured above radionuclides at three monitoring points viz, 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL) Kanazawa University, 2) Shishiku Plateau (640 m MSL) located about 8 km from LLRL to investigate vertical difference of activity levels, and 3) Hegura Island (10 m MSL) located about 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to evaluate the influences of Asian continent or mainland of Japan on the variation to the activity levels. Variations of short-lived 212 Pb concentration showed noticeable time lags between at LLRL and at Shishiku Plateau. These time lags might be caused by change of height of a planetary boundary layer. On the contrary, variations of long-lived 210 Pb and 7 Be showed simultaneity at three locations because of homogeneity of these concentrations all over the area. (author)

  13. Activity measurements of {sup 18}F and {sup 90}Y with commercial radionuclide calibrators for nuclear medicine in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffari, Yvan, E-mail: Yvan.Caffari@chuv.c [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Spring, Philippe; Bailat, Claude; Nedjadi, Youcef; Bochud, Francois [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    The activity of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine is measured before patient injection with radionuclide calibrators. In Switzerland, the general requirements for quality controls are defined in a federal ordinance and a directive of the Federal Office of Metrology (METAS) which require each instrument to be verified. A set of three gamma sources (Co-57, Cs-137 and Co-60) is used to verify the response of radionuclide calibrators in the gamma energy range of their use. A beta source, a mixture of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 90}Y in secular equilibrium, is used as well. Manufacturers are responsible for the calibration factors. The main goal of the study was to monitor the validity of the calibration factors by using two sources: a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source and a {sup 18}F source. The three types of commercial radionuclide calibrators tested do not have a calibration factor for the mixture but only for {sup 90}Y. Activity measurements of a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source with the {sup 90}Y calibration factor are performed in order to correct for the extra-contribution of {sup 90}Sr. The value of the correction factor was found to be 1.113 whereas Monte Carlo simulations of the radionuclide calibrators estimate the correction factor to be 1.117. Measurements with {sup 18}F sources in a specific geometry are also performed. Since this radionuclide is widely used in Swiss hospitals equipped with PET and PET-CT, the metrology of the {sup 18}F is very important. The {sup 18}F response normalized to the {sup 137}Cs response shows that the difference with a reference value does not exceed 3% for the three types of radionuclide calibrators.

  14. Direct measurement of γ-emitting radionuclides in waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ruwei; Mao Yong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Xia Xiaobin; Guo Caiping; Han Yueqin

    1993-01-01

    The low-level rad waste produced from nuclear power plant, nuclear facilities, and in the process of their decommissioning is stored in waste depository. For the safety of transport and storage of these wastes, some test must be done. One of them is to analyse the kinds and activities of radionuclides in each waste drum. Segmented scanning gamma spectrum analysis can be used for direct measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides in drum. Gamma emitters such as Co-60, Cs-137, Ra-226 can be measured directly from outside of drum. A method and system for direct measuring gamma emitters in waste drum are described, and measuring apparatus and measurement results as well

  15. Implementation of a metrology programme to provide traceability for radionuclides activity measurements in the CNEN Radiopharmaceuticals Producers Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Erica A.L. de; Braghirolli, Ana M.S.; Tauhata, Luiz; Gomes, Regio S.; Silva, Carlos J., E-mail: erica@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Delgado, Jose U.; Oliveira, Antonio E.; Iwahara, Akira, E-mail: ealima@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The commercialization and use of radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil are regulated by Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA) which require Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) certification for Radiopharmaceuticals Producer Centers. Quality Assurance Program should implement the GMP standards to ensure radiopharmaceuticals have requirements quality to proving its efficiency. Several aspects should be controlled within the Quality Assurance Programs, and one of them is the traceability of the Radionuclides Activity Measurement in radiopharmaceuticals doses. The quality assurance of activity measurements is fundamental to maintain both the efficiency of the nuclear medicine procedures and patient and exposed occupationally individuals safety. The radiation doses received by patients, during the nuclear medicine procedures, is estimated according to administered radiopharmaceuticals quantity. Therefore it is very important either the activity measurements performed in radiopharmaceuticals producer centers (RPC) as the measurements performed in nuclear medicine services are traceable to national standards. This paper aims to present an implementation program to provide traceability to radionuclides activity measurements performed in the dose calibrators(well type ionization chambers) used in Radiopharmaceuticals Producer Center placed in different states in Brazil. The proposed program is based on the principles of GM Pand ISO 17025 standards. According to dose calibrator performance, the RPC will be able to provide consistent, safe and effective radioactivity measurement to the nuclear medicine services. (author)

  16. Interpretation of biological-rate coefficients derived from radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Rigorous expressions are derived for the biological-rate coefficients (BRCs) determined from time-dependent measurements of three different dependent variables of radionuclide tracer experiments. These variables, which apply to a single organism, are radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity. The BRCs derived from these variables have different mathematical expressions and, for high growth rates, their numerical values can be quite different. The precise mathematical expressions for the BRCs are presented here to aid modelers in selecting the correct parameters for their models and to aid experiments in interpreting their results. The usefulness of these three variables in quantifying elemental uptakes and losses by organisms is discussed. (U.K.)

  17. In vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. Progress report, September 1, 1977--February 28, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull; contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurements of activity in the lung; design and optimization characterictics of in vivo detection system; development of a calibration phantom structure for determining activity deposited in the thoracic skeleton; computer assisted in vivo measurements of internally deposited radionuclides using dual-crystal scintillation detectors; low energy, photon-emitting nuclides; reference spectra library; and in vivo measurements of exposed individuals

  18. In vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. Progress report, September 1, 1977--February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, N.

    1978-11-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull; contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurements of activity in the lung; design and optimization characterictics of in vivo detection system; development of a calibration phantom structure for determining activity deposited in the thoracic skeleton; computer assisted in vivo measurements of internally deposited radionuclides using dual-crystal scintillation detectors; low energy, photon-emitting nuclides; reference spectra library; and in vivo measurements of exposed individuals. (HLW)

  19. Correction factors of commercial radionuclide calibrators for several measurement geometries of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Amanda Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    In order to reach therapy and diagnosis objectives, the activity must be determined with high accuracy to administer a radiopharmaceutical to a patient. Initially, a glass vial with the radiopharmaceutical is placed into the radionuclide calibrator to determine its activity. Subsequently, an aliquot is transferred to a syringe and again its activity is measured on the calibrator before being administered to the patient. The glass vial and the syringe are different in many aspects as the calibration factors too, which may cause incorrect activities administered to the patient. This study aims to determine the correction factors, as well as the values of the uncertainties associated to two distinct models of calibrators: one that uses ionization chamber and another Geiger-Mueller as detectors. The radionuclides chosen were 99 Tc m and 123 1 and the containers were glass vials (type lOR and P6) and plastic syringes of 3 and 5 mL. The correction factors for each type of vials or syringe were determined as a function of volume and type of calibrator. Activity measurements comparison was also made involving several radionuclide calibrators of different models belonging to four nuclear medicine hospitals and to National Metrology Laboratory of lionizing Radiation (LNMRI). In the measurements of activity values larger than allowed by CNEN NN-3.05 norm, results have shown deviations for syringes in calibrator with Geiger-Mueller detectors and for both radionuclides. (author)

  20. Radionuclides incorporation in activated natural nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Parra

    2016-01-01

    Natural palygorskite nanotubes show suitable physical and chemical properties and characteristics to be use as potential nanosorbent and immobilization matrix for the concentration and solidification of radionuclides present in nuclear wastes. In the development process of materials with sorption properties for the incorporation and subsequent immobilization of radionuclides, the most important steps are related with the generation of active sites simultaneously to the increase of the specific surface area and suitable heat treatment to producing the structural folding. This study evaluated the determining parameters and conditions for the activation process of the natural palygorskite nanotubes aiming at the sorption of radionuclides in the nanotubes structure and subsequent evaluation of the parameters involve in the structural folding by heat treatments. The optimized results about the maximum sorption capacity of nickel in activated natural nanotubes show that these structures are apt and suitable for incorporation of radionuclides similar to nickel. By this study is verified that the optimization of the acid activation process is fundamental to improve the sorption capacities for specifics radionuclides by activated natural nanotubes. Acid activation condition optimized maintaining structural integrity was able to remove around 33.3 wt.% of magnesium cations, equivalent to 6.30·10 -4 g·mol -1 , increasing in 42.8% the specific surface area and incorporating the same molar concentration of nickel present in the liquid radioactive waste at 80 min. (author)

  1. Volume corrections factors in the measurement of 99mTc and 123I activities in radionuclide calibrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Amanda Ribeiro; Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre; Iwahara, Akira; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Tauhata, Luiz; Chaves, Taina Olivieri

    2012-01-01

    To determine correction factors for the variation in volume of radiopharmaceuticals in containers of different geometries, comparing the influence of such factors on the determination of 99m Tc and 123 I activity with two types of calibrators - one with ionization chamber and another with Geiger-Mueller (G-M) detector -; and to evaluate calibrators performance in the measurement of 99m Tc and 1 '2 3 I activities. Materials and Methods: Eight calibrators, 10R glass vials, 3 and 5 mL plastic syringes and 99m Tc and 123 I solutions were utilized. The correction factors were determined with basis on practical measurements of the variation in the calibrators' response according to the volume of radionuclide solution in the glass vials. The performance was evaluated according to the acceptance criterion of +- 10% accuracy required by the Brazilian standard. Results: The variation of the calibrators' response according to the variation in radionuclide volume was reasonably greater in the calibrator with G-M detector. It was also greater for 123 I than for 99m Tc. Conclusion: The results confirm that the calibrators' response depends on the radionuclide volume contained in the vials. Such dependence is more critical for the calibrators equipped with G-M detector and for 123 I as compared with 99m Tc. (author)

  2. Measurement of radionuclide activities of uranium-238 series in soil samples by gamma spectrometry: case of Vinaninkarena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrianantenaina, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the activity level of radionuclides of uranium-238 series. Eight soil samples are collected at Rural Commune of Vinaninkarena. After obtaining secular equilibrium, these samples have been measured using gamma spectrometry system in the Nuclear Analyses and Techniques Department of INSTN-Madagascar, with HPGe detector (30 % relative efficiency) and a Genie 2000 software. Activities obtained vary from (78±2)Bq.kg -1 to (49 231 ± 415)Bq.kg -1 . Among these eight samples, three activity levels are shown. Low activity is an activity which has value lower or equal to (89±3)Bq.kg -1 . Average activity is an activity which has value between (186± 1)Bq.kg -1 and (1049 ±7)Bq.kg -1 . And high activity is an activity which has value higher or equal to (14501±209)Bq.kg -1 . According to UNSCEAR 2000, these value are all higher than the world average value which is 35 Bq.kg -1 .It is due to the localities of sampling points. The variation of the activity level depends on radionuclide concentration of uranium-238 series in the soil. [fr

  3. Sampling and measurement of long-lived radionuclides in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, F.P.; Goles, R.W.; Kaye, J.H.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The volatile and semivolatile long-lived man-made radionuclides 3 H, 14 C, 79 Se, 85 Kr, 99 Tc, 129 I, 135 Cs, and 137 Cs are of concern in operation of nuclear facilities because they are difficult and expensive to contain and once emitted to the environment they become permanent ecological constituents with both local and global distributions. Species-selective sampling and analytical methods (radiochemical, neutron activation, and mass spectrometric) have been developed for many of these nuclides with sensitivities well below those required for radiation protection. These sampling and analytical methods have been applied to the measurement of current environmental levels of some of the more ecologically important radionuclides. The detection and tracing of long-lived radionuclides is being conducted in order to establish base-line values and to study environmental behavior. This paper describes detection and measurement techniques and summarizes current measurement results

  4. Activation analysis with neutron generators using short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.

    1993-01-01

    The short half-life involves a number of important differences in production, transportation and measurement of radionuclides, and in counting statistics as compared with those in traditional activation analysis. Experiments were performed to investigate the analytical possibilities and prospective utilization of short-lived radionuclides produced by 14-MeV neutron irradiation. A rapid pneumatic transfer system for use with neutron generators was installed and applied for detecting radionuclides with a half-life from 300 ms to 30 s. The transport time for samples with a total mass of 1-4 g is between 130 and 160 ms for pressurized air of 0.1-0.4 MPa. 11 elements were studied by the conventional activation method using both a typical pneumatic transport system (run time 3 s) and the fast pneumatic transport facility. The effect of the cyclic activation technique on the elemental sensitivities was also investigated. (orig.)

  5. Bilateral Comparison CIEMAT-CENTIS-DMR for radionuclide activity measurements; Comparacion Bilateral CIEMAT-CENTIS-DMR de la Medida de Actividad de Radionucleidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    2004-07-01

    We present the results of a bilateral comparison of radionuclide activity measurements between the Radionuclide Metrology Department of the Center of Isotopes of Cuba (CENTIS-DMR), and the Ionising Radiation Metrology Laboratory (LMRI) of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) of Spain. The aim of the comparison was to establish the comparability of the measurement instruments and methods used to obtain radioactive reference materials of some gamma-emitting nuclides at CENTIS-DMR. The results revealed that there are no statistically significant differences between the data reported by both laboratories. (Author) 7 refs.

  6. Calibration of a 4π-γ well-type ionization chamber system for measuring of the radionuclides activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    The calibration of a 4π well-type ionization Chamber System installed at the Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear, of the Instituto de Energia Atomica of Sao Paulo used for of the activity determination of radioactive solutions is descrided. The determination can be performed by two methods: 1) Direct Method, comparing the ionization Chamber response for solutions of unknown activity against that obtained with a solution which is standardized by the Absolute 4πβγ Coincidence Method. By this method the following radionuclides are standardized: 241 Am, 139 Ce, 198 Au, 22 Na, 134 Cs, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 42 K, 24 Na. In this case, the accuracy achieved is about 0.2 to 0,4%. 2) Indirect Method, by means of curves of relative beta or gama efficiency, which were determined in this work. This method can be applied for those radionuclides not included in the direct method. In this case, the accuracy depends on the gama energy range of the curves and on the accuracy of the absolute gama intensities, taken from the literature. In general the uncertainty is greater than the direct method, but values of 0,2% can be achieved in favourable cases. The upper and lower limits of Activity that can be measured depend on the radionuclide. These limits are from a few micro-curies to many mili-curies, which are satisfactory for most purposes. The sample preparation is simple and the time spent in the measurement is, in general, restricted to a few minutes. These are some of the advantages of this ionization Chamber System in comparison with other systems [pt

  7. Radionuclide Activity Concentrations in Spas of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Palacios, M.

    2011-01-01

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters often have a very high mineral content because solubility increases with temperature. Ground waters are in close contact with soil and rocks containing radium. Once formed by decay from radium, radon gas (Rn-222) may diffuse through rocks pores and geological discontinuities and may dissolve in these waters. Radon and other natural radionuclides are transported to the surface where radon can easily diffuse into the atmosphere. Then it may be possible to find out significant radon levels at places like geothermal spas. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public. Three passive methods were used to measure radon in air. One of them is an screening method based on the radon adsorption on activated charcoal. The other two methods are time integrated ones, CR-39 or Makrofol tracks detectors, which can be exposed between two and three months. To characterize waters other natural radionuclides have been also measured. Uranium concentration was measured by fluorimetry. Ra-226 and Pb-210 measurements were performed by radiochemical methods and liquid scintillation. The results obtained were compared with the guidelines values recommended by WHO and EPA for drinking waters and, in the case of radon in air, the results were compared with values established by BSS-115. In order to assess worker doses, the higher value measured for radon in air and real scenario data were taken into account. Moreover, in situ dose rate measurements were also performed and then compared with natural background values. In relation with water characterization, almost all values obtained for the geothermal waters analyzed were below the corresponding guidance levels. Taking into account the highest value measured of radon

  8. On systematic and statistic errors in radionuclide mass activity estimation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smelcerovic, M.; Djuric, G.; Popovic, D.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most important requirements during nuclear accidents is the fast estimation of the mass activity of the radionuclides that suddenly and without control reach the environment. The paper points to systematic errors in the procedures of sampling, sample preparation and measurement itself, that in high degree contribute to total mass activity evaluation error. Statistic errors in gamma spectrometry as well as in total mass alpha and beta activity evaluation are also discussed. Beside, some of the possible sources of errors in the partial mass activity evaluation for some of the radionuclides are presented. The contribution of the errors in the total mass activity evaluation error is estimated and procedures that could possibly reduce it are discussed (author)

  9. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for (137)Caesium, (90)Strontium and (131)Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide (210)Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  11. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Andrew J.; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N.

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for 137 Caesium, 90 Strontium and 131 Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide 210 Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. - Highlights: • A radionuclide monitoring program was undertaken across the New Zealand food supply. • 40 food types were analysed for 13 radionuclides. • 137 Cs was present in 15% of foods (range: 0.05–0.44Bq/kg). • Anthropogenic radionuclides displayed compliance with international limits. • 210 Po, 234 U and 238 U were present in most foods with large ranges of activities.

  12. Relationships between sea-bed radionuclide activities and some sedimentological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligero, R.A.; Ramos-Lerate, I.; Barrera, M.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2001-01-01

    Natural radionuclides ( 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K) and 137 Cs, coming from atmospheric radioactive fallout, have been measured in sea-bed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (South Western Spain). In this report, multivariate analysis methods have been employed to study the relationships between the activities of the radionuclides and some sedimentological variables like granulometric facies, organic content and apparent density. The correlation functions found show that it is possible to determine, with a satisfactory degree of approximation, the granulometric facies of the sediments using only radiometric information

  13. Assessment of Intercomparison of Radionuclide Activity Measurement between P3KRBiN-BATAN and NMIJ/AIST-JAPAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroh; Pujadi; Hermawan Candra; Ermi Juita; Holnisar

    2003-01-01

    On every radionuclide activity measurements or any measurements always contain uncertainties. The uncertainties come from standard source, equipment to be used, condition of measurements (background) and sample (measurement). Those elements should be taken into account in the measurement result evaluation. To know the result of activity measurement was in a good agreement or not, it can be done by intercomparison. A good result of a measurement if it was nearly with the result of international/primary laboratories measurements such as System Internationale de Reference (SIR)-Franch, National Metrology Institute of Japan- Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST or Physikalisch Technische Bundes-anstalt (PTB) and the absolute value of E n should be less than 1. The result of intercomparison between Center for Research and Development of Radiation Safety and Nuclear Biomedicine (P3KRBiN) -BATAN and NMIJ/AIST were in a good agreement for activity measurement of 125 I (E n =0.193), 58 Co(E n =0.503), 88 Y(E n =0.035) and 59 Fe(E n =0.632), by using gamma spectrometry counting system (HPGe detector) and 166m Ho(E n =0.492), by using Merlin Gerin Ionization chamber. (author)

  14. Direct methods for measuring radionuclides in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Occupational exposure leading to intakes of internally incorporated radionuclides can occur as a result of various activities. This includes work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve exposure to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. In 1987 the IAEA published a Safety Guide on basic principles for occupational radiation monitoring which set forth principles and objectives of a strategy for monitoring exposures of workers. Since drafting of the present Safety Practice commenced, the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) have been issued. On the basis of the principles laid down in the BSS, the 1987 Safety Guide is also being revised, and recommendations on the assessment of the occupational intake of radioactive materials are to be added. The present Safety Practice, which deals with direct measurement of radionuclides in the human body, is the first to be published in this area. Refs, figs, tabs

  15. Critical evaluation of the Laboratory of Radionuclide Metrology results of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD in the international key comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.; Tauhata, L.; Silva, C.J. da

    2014-01-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (LMR) of LNMRI/IRD has been participating since 1984, in international key-comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive sources organized by BIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations as EURAMET and APMP. The measured quantity is the activity of a radioactive solution, in becquerel (Bq), containing the radionuclide involved and the of measurement methods used are 4αβ-γ coincidence/anticoincidence, coincidence sum-peak and liquid scintillation. In this paper a summary of the methods used and a performance analysis of the results obtained are presented. (author)

  16. Scoping measurements of radionuclides in L Lake with an underwater HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.; Win, W.G.; Bresnahan, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    This study of L Lake was conducted to determine whether the distribution of man-made radiation levels had changed from the time preceding the filling of the newly created lake in 1985. Overflight gamma measurements by EG ampersand G in 1985 mapped the man-made radiation levels, indicating that significant levels were only detected from former stream beds that were to be covered by the lake. the present scoping gamma measurements were consistent with these earlier findings, indicating no major evidence of movement of the radioactivity. These results will be available to guide decisions concerning future plans for the lake. Gamma-emitting radionuclides of L Lake were examined in situ with an underwater HPGe detector and further studied by retrieving various sediment samples for analysis by HPGe gamma spectrometry in the Underground Counting Facility. The predominant man-made radionuclide detected was 137 Cs; it had about 100 times greater activity than 60 Co, which was the only other man-made radionuclide that was detected above trace levels

  17. Dependency of soil activity concentration on soil -biota concentration ratio of radionuclides for earthworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Kim, Byeong Ho; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The transfer of radionuclides to wildlife (non-human biota) is normally quantified using an equilibrium concentration ratio (CR{sub eq}), defined as the radionuclide activity concentration in the whole organism (fresh weight) divided by that in the media (dry weight for soil). The present study describes the effect of soil radionuclide activity concentration on the transfer of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 65}Zn to a functionally important wildlife group, annelids, using a commonly studied experimental worm (E.andrei). Time-dependent whole body concentration ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 65}Zn for the earthworm were experimentally measured for artificially contaminated soils with three different activity concentrations for each radionuclide which were considerably higher than normal background levels. Two parameters of a first order kinetic model, the equilibrium concentration ratio (CR{sub eq}) and the effective loss rate constant (k), were estimated by comparison of experimental CR results with the model prediction

  18. The administered activity of radionuclides in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Mototoshi; Koga, Sukehiko; Kondo, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 104 hospitals was conducted to determine the administered activity of radionuclides. Eighty-five hospitals responded, and reported a total of 119,614 examinations in one year. The examinations included: bone scintigraphy, 26.4%; thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial scintigraphy, 15.5%; gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scintigraphy, 13.3%; N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain perfusion scintigraphy, 7.0%. The administered activity was corrected by body weight only for children at more than 80% of the responding hospitals. The number of hospitals that reported over-administration of radionuclide varied according to the type of scintigraphy performed: bone, 76%; inflammatory ( 67 Ga), 93%; myocardial ( 201 Tl), 89.2%; brain (IMP), 8.5%. The administered activity of IMP was closer to the upper limits specified in the Recommendations on Standardization of Radionuclide Imaging by the Japan Radioisotope Association (1987), because IMP is very expensive and is supplied as single vials. The highest average effective dose was for myocardial scintigraphy, the second-highest for inflammatory scintigraphy, and the third-highest for bone scintigraphy. In 201 Tl and 67 Ga scintigraphy, the entire contents of the vial may be administered two days before the expiration date, because the ratio of (true patient administered activity) to (declared patient administered activity) is similar to the ratio of (radioactivity on the day of supply) to (radioactivity on the day of expiration). The factors that influence administered activity are through put, price of the radionuclide, and whether the radionuclide is sold as a single vial. In order to decrease the effective dose, it is necessary to establish a close cooperation between medical personnel, the makers of radiopharmaceuticals, and manufactures of gamma cameras. (author)

  19. Measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere with a radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    A worldwide radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests has detected the anthropogenic radioactive materials released in the atmosphere due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant impacted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. After four months have passed since the accident occurred, most overseas stations do not detect the radionuclides of Fukushima origin any more. The Takasaki station in Japan, however, is still detecting them every day. This paper describes radionuclide monitoring stations and the network of them as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as the measurement results of radionuclide particulates and radioactive isotopes of xenon released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with the monitoring network. (J.P.N.)

  20. Bayesian statistics in radionuclide metrology: measurement of a decaying source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochud, F. O.; Bailat, C.J.; Laedermann, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The most intuitive way of defining a probability is perhaps through the frequency at which it appears when a large number of trials are realized in identical conditions. The probability derived from the obtained histogram characterizes the so-called frequentist or conventional statistical approach. In this sense, probability is defined as a physical property of the observed system. By contrast, in Bayesian statistics, a probability is not a physical property or a directly observable quantity, but a degree of belief or an element of inference. The goal of this paper is to show how Bayesian statistics can be used in radionuclide metrology and what its advantages and disadvantages are compared with conventional statistics. This is performed through the example of an yttrium-90 source typically encountered in environmental surveillance measurement. Because of the very low activity of this kind of source and the small half-life of the radionuclide, this measurement takes several days, during which the source decays significantly. Several methods are proposed to compute simultaneously the number of unstable nuclei at a given reference time, the decay constant and the background. Asymptotically, all approaches give the same result. However, Bayesian statistics produces coherent estimates and confidence intervals in a much smaller number of measurements. Apart from the conceptual understanding of statistics, the main difficulty that could deter radionuclide metrologists from using Bayesian statistics is the complexity of the computation. (authors)

  1. An overview of measurements of radionuclides in foods of the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, L.; Ortiz, J.; Gallardo, S.; Martorell, S.

    2015-11-01

    Environmental radioactivity monitoring includes the determination of radionuclides in foods since they are an important way of intake of radionuclides to the human organism. Moreover, knowledge of the levels of radionuclides in foodstuffs will inform about the environmental radioactivity background permitting to control possible contamination due to human activity, such as agriculture activity, nuclear power plants or other radioactive facilities. The Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (LRA) at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV) performs measurements on representative foods from all over the Comunidad Valenciana (CV). Those measurements are part of several monitoring programs promoted by the Generalitat Valenciana. A total of 2200 samples of fruits, cereals, vegetables, milk, meat, eggs and fish coming from markets, agricultural cooperatives or small producers have been analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometry analysis has been performed in all samples. It has been detected 40K in all samples, 7Be in some of them. Radiochemical separation of 90Sr has been carried out in some of the samples collected, mainly orange and lettuce. Samples of lettuce and chard collected following Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident present activity concentration of 131I (0.10-1.51 Bq kg-1). In this paper, a review of the data obtained at the 1991-2013 period in the framework of the development of the Environmental monitoring program is presented.

  2. The CdZnTe Detector with Slit Collimator for Measure Distribution of the Specific Activity Radionuclide in the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, V. E.; Volkovich, A. G.; Potapov, V. N.; Semin, I. A.; Stepanov, A. V.; Simirskii, Iu. N.

    2018-01-01

    From 2011 in the NRC "Kurchatov Institute" carry out the dismantling of the MR multiloop research reactor. Now the reactor and all technological equipment in the premises of the reactor were dismantled. Now the measurements of radioactive contamination in the reactor premises are made. The most contaminated parts of premises - floor and the ground beneath it. To measure the distribution of specific activity in the ground the CdZnTe detector (volume 500MM3) was used. Detector placed in a lead shielding with a slit collimation hole. The upper part of shielding is made movable to close and open the slit of the collimator. At each point two measurements carried out: with open and closed collimator. The software for determination specific activity of radionuclides in ground was developed. The mathematical model of spectrometric system based on the Monte-Carlo method. Measurements of specific activity of ground were made. Using the results of measurements the thickness of the removed layer of ground and the amount of radioactive waste were calculated.

  3. Tumour control probability (TCP) for non-uniform activity distribution in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusijaervi, Helena; Bernhardt, Peter; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Non-uniform radionuclide distribution in tumours will lead to a non-uniform absorbed dose. The aim of this study was to investigate how tumour control probability (TCP) depends on the radionuclide distribution in the tumour, both macroscopically and at the subcellular level. The absorbed dose in the cell nuclei of tumours was calculated for 90 Y, 177 Lu, 103m Rh and 211 At. The radionuclides were uniformly distributed within the subcellular compartment and they were uniformly, normally or log-normally distributed among the cells in the tumour. When all cells contain the same amount of activity, the cumulated activities required for TCP = 0.99 (A-tilde TCP=0.99 ) were 1.5-2 and 2-3 times higher when the activity was distributed on the cell membrane compared to in the cell nucleus for 103m Rh and 211 At, respectively. TCP for 90 Y was not affected by different radionuclide distributions, whereas for 177 Lu, it was slightly affected when the radionuclide was in the nucleus. TCP for 103m Rh and 211 At were affected by different radionuclide distributions to a great extent when the radionuclides were in the cell nucleus and to lesser extents when the radionuclides were distributed on the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm. When the activity was distributed in the nucleus, A-tilde TCP=0.99 increased when the activity distribution became more heterogeneous for 103m Rh and 211 At, and the increase was large when the activity was normally distributed compared to log-normally distributed. When the activity was distributed on the cell membrane, A-tilde TCP=0.99 was not affected for 103m Rh and 211 At when the activity distribution became more heterogeneous. A-tilde TCP=0.99 for 90 Y and 177 Lu were not affected by different activity distributions, neither macroscopic nor subcellular

  4. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration have been studied in natural fissures orieted parallel to the axis of granite drill cores. A short pulse of the radionuclides solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. After several hundred fissure volumes water had been pumped through the fissure following the radionuclide pulse the activity distribution on the fissure surfaces was measured. From the retardation of 152 Eu, 235 Np and 237 Pu it is concluded that these radionuclides are transported in the oxidation states Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(V). The distribution coefficients K sub (d) calculated from flow and activity distribution data on the basis of geometric surface area/volume ratios are of the same order as published K sub (d) values obtained from batch equilibrium experiments. (Author)

  5. Study of a 4πβ-γ coincidence system for absolute radionuclide activity measurement using plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piuvezam Filho, Helio

    2007-01-01

    The present work was intended to study a coincidence system 4π(PS)β-γ for absolute activity measurement using plastic scintillators in 4π geometry. Along with experiments on the coincidence system, simulations were also performed applying the Monte Carlo Method, by means of codes PENELOPE and ESQUEMA. These simulations were performed in order to calculate the extrapolation curve of the coincidence system 4π(PS)β-γ and compare it to experimental data. A new geometry was proposed to the coincidence system adding up a second photomultiplier tube to the previous system for improving light collection from the plastic scintillator, as this system presented limitations in the minimum detected energy due to the presence of electronic noise and low gain. The results show that an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio was obtained, as well as in the minimum detected energy. Moreover, there was an increase in the detection efficiency. With these modifications, it is now possible to calibrate radionuclides which emit low energy electrons or X-rays, increasing the number of radionuclides that can be standardized with this type of system.(author)

  6. New radionuclide method for determination of gastric content proteolytic activity. (Experiments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergienko, V.B.; Popova, L.V.; Khodarev, N.N.; Astashenkova, K.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    A possibility of the use of a radionuclide tubeless rapid method for measuring gastric content proteolytic activity (GCPA) with the help of a protein (gelatin) RP containing capsule was demonstrated in experiments in vitro. There was correlation between the time of dissolution of RP containing capsules and GCPA determined after Mett's method. Reference time intervals were established for normal, raised and lowered proteolytic activity. The method was shown to be physiological, simple and timesaving

  7. Direct methods for radionuclides measurement in water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyaev, A.; Gaponov, I.; Kazennov, A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the direct method of anthropogenic radionuclide measurement in the water environment. Opportunities of application of submersible gamma-spectrometers for in situ underwater measurements of gamma-radiating nuclides and also the direct method for 90 Sr detection are considered

  8. Production of high-specific activity radionuclides using SM high-flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karelin, Ye.A.; Toporov, Yu.G.; Filimonov, V.T.; Vakhetov, F.Z.; Tarasov, V.A.; Kuznetsov, R.A.; Lebedev, V.M.; Andreev, O.I.; Melnik, M.I.; Gavrilov, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    The development of High Specific Activity (HSA) radionuclides production technologies is one of the directions of RIAR activity, and the high flux research reactor SM, having neutron flux density up to 2.10 15 cm -2 s 1 in a wide range of neutron spectra hardness, plays the principal role in this development. The use of a high-flux reactor for radionuclide production provides the following advantages: production of radionuclides with extremely high specific activity, decreasing of impurities content in irradiated targets (both radioactive and non-radioactive), cost-effective use of expensive isotopically enriched target materials. The production technologies of P-33, Gd-153, W-188, Ni-63, Fe-55,59, Sn-113,117m,119m, Sr- 89, applied in industry, nuclear medicine, research, etc, were developed by RIAR during the last 5-10 years. The research work included the development of calculation procedures for radionuclide reactor accumulation forecast, experimental determination of neutron cross-sections, the development of irradiated materials reprocessing procedures, isolation and purification of radionuclides. The principal results are reviewed in the paper. (authors)

  9. Research on sorption behavior of radionuclides under shallow land environment. Mechanism and standard methodologies for measurement of distribution coefficients of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Tadao; Takebe, Shinichi; Nagao, Seiya; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Hagiwara, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    This study consists of two categories' research works. One is research on sorption mechanism of radionuclides with long half-life, which are Technetium-99, TRU elements and U series radionuclides, on soil and rocks, including a development of database of distribution coefficients of radionuclides. The database on the distribution coefficients of radionuclides with information about measurement conditions, such as shaking method, soil characteristics and solution composition, has been already opened to the public (JAERI-DATABASE 20001003). Another study is investigation on a standard methodology of the distribution coefficient of radionuclide on soils, rocks and engineering materials in Japan. (author)

  10. Apparatus for the measurement of radionuclide transport rates in rock cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, H.C.; Koszykowski, R.F.; Dibley, L.L.; Murray, I.

    1981-09-01

    An apparatus and procedure for the study of radionuclide transport in intact rock cores are presented in this report. This equipment more closely simulates natural conditions of radionuclide transport than do crushed rock columns. The apparatus and the procedure from rock core preparation through data analysis are described. The retardation factors measured are the ratio of the transport rate of a non-retarded radionuclide, such as 3 H, to the transport rate of a retarded radionuclide. Sample results from a study of the transport of /sup 95m/Tc and 85 Sr in brine through a sandstone core are included

  11. SU-E-T-666: Radionuclides and Activity of the Patient Apertures Used in a Proton Beam of Wobbling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.Y.; Chen, H.H.; Tsai, H.Y.; Sheu, R.J.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify the radionuclides and quantify the activity of the patient apertures used in a 190-MeV proton beam of wobbling system. Methods: A proton beam of wobbling system in the first proton center in Taiwan, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, was used to bombard the patient apertures. The patient aperture was composed of 60.5 % copper, 39.4 % Zinc, 0.05 % iron, 0.05 % lead. A protable high-purity germanium (HPGe) coaxial detector was used to measure the spectra of the induced nuclides of patient apertures. The analysis of the spectra and the identification of the radionuclides were preliminarily operated by the Nuclide Navigator III Master Library. On the basis of the results by Nuclide Navigator III Master Library, we manually selected the reliable nuclides by the gamma-ray energies, branching ratio, and half life. In the spectra, we can quantify the activity of radionuclides by the Monte Carlo efficiency transfer method. Results: In this study, the radioisotopes activated in patient apertures by the 190-MeV proton beam were divided into two categories. The first category is long half-life radionuclides, such as Co-56 (half life, 77.3 days). Other radionuclides of Cu-60, Cu-61, Cu-62, Cu-66, and Zn-62 have shorter half life. The radionuclide of Cu-60 had the highest activity. From calculation with the efficiency transfer method, the deviations between the computed results and the measured efficiencies were mostly within 10%. Conclusion: To identify the radionuclides and quantify the activity helps us to estimate proper time intervals for cooling the patient apertures. This study was supported by the grants from the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMRPD1C0682)

  12. SU-E-T-666: Radionuclides and Activity of the Patient Apertures Used in a Proton Beam of Wobbling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.Y.; Chen, H.H.; Tsai, H.Y.; Sheu, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the radionuclides and quantify the activity of the patient apertures used in a 190-MeV proton beam of wobbling system. Methods: A proton beam of wobbling system in the first proton center in Taiwan, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, was used to bombard the patient apertures. The patient aperture was composed of 60.5 % copper, 39.4 % Zinc, 0.05 % iron, 0.05 % lead. A protable high-purity germanium (HPGe) coaxial detector was used to measure the spectra of the induced nuclides of patient apertures. The analysis of the spectra and the identification of the radionuclides were preliminarily operated by the Nuclide Navigator III Master Library. On the basis of the results by Nuclide Navigator III Master Library, we manually selected the reliable nuclides by the gamma-ray energies, branching ratio, and half life. In the spectra, we can quantify the activity of radionuclides by the Monte Carlo efficiency transfer method. Results: In this study, the radioisotopes activated in patient apertures by the 190-MeV proton beam were divided into two categories. The first category is long half-life radionuclides, such as Co-56 (half life, 77.3 days). Other radionuclides of Cu-60, Cu-61, Cu-62, Cu-66, and Zn-62 have shorter half life. The radionuclide of Cu-60 had the highest activity. From calculation with the efficiency transfer method, the deviations between the computed results and the measured efficiencies were mostly within 10%. Conclusion: To identify the radionuclides and quantify the activity helps us to estimate proper time intervals for cooling the patient apertures. This study was supported by the grants from the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMRPD1C0682)

  13. Comparison of activity measurements of 131I and 99mTc radionuclides administered in nuclear medicine services of Porto Alegre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabarse, Frederico Gil.; Santos, Carlos Eduardo Lima dos

    2005-01-01

    A programme for the comparison of activity measurements of radionuclides administered to patients in Nuclear Medicine Services, for the purpose of diagnosis or therapy, is being conducted under the coordination of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, IRD/CNEN. In the present work, measurements of the activity of samples of 131 I and 99 mTc were conducted in the dose calibrators of the Nuclear Medicine Services of the city of Porto Alegre, in the period from June to September 2004. The results were analysed to evaluate the compliance with the Brazilian regulation and were also compared to data available in the literature for the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Brasilia. The performance of the activity meters in Porto Alegre is shown to be very good, which contributes to the radiological protection of patients submitted to diagnosis or therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  14. Manual of bioassay procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskach, S.; Petkau, A.

    1986-06-01

    A monitoring program is described by which atomic radiation workers ar monitored for internal contamination with radionuclides in the workplace. The program involves analytical procedures for measuring alpha, beta and gamma activity in biological specimens, usually urine. Radionuclides are identified by their characteristic radiation using liquid scintillation counting, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. Examples of calculating the minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are given and used to derive call-in-criteria in accordance with which the different groups of workers are monitored each month

  15. Measurement of natural radionuclides in bricks and brick-making clays from Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruthagirl, G.; Rajamanan, B.; Ravisankar, R.; Thilaivelavan, K.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Meenkshisundram, V.

    2010-01-01

    In India, bricks as building materials are mainly prepared by clay using the deposited sediments of rivers, and the radionuclide contents in bricks and brick-making clays should vary with origin and geological condition. In this paper, the radionuclide contents of these materials from river bank areas of Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu India are measured by gamma ray spectrometer using NaI (Tl) detector, and compared with those of other countries. The radiation hazard indices, which are evaluated by radium-equivalent (Raeq) activity, are lower than that of NEA-OECD. (authors)

  16. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaIT1 (8x4″), and thyroid one, NaIT1 (3x3″). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that wasn't exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2007 to December 2012, approximately 6700 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  17. An overview of measurements of radionuclides in foods of the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, L.; Ortiz, J.; Gallardo, S.; Martorell, S.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity monitoring includes the determination of radionuclides in foods since they are an important way of intake of radionuclides to the human organism. Moreover, knowledge of the levels of radionuclides in foodstuffs will inform about the environmental radioactivity background permitting to control possible contamination due to human activity, such as agriculture activity, nuclear power plants or other radioactive facilities. The Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (LRA) at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV) performs measurements on representative foods from all over the Comunidad Valenciana (CV). Those measurements are part of several monitoring programs promoted by the Generalitat Valenciana. A total of 2200 samples of fruits, cereals, vegetables, milk, meat, eggs and fish coming from markets, agricultural cooperatives or small producers have been analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometry analysis has been performed in all samples. It has been detected 40 K in all samples, 7 Be in some of them. Radiochemical separation of 90 Sr has been carried out in some of the samples collected, mainly orange and lettuce. Samples of lettuce and chard collected following Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident present activity concentration of 131 I (0.10–1.51 Bq kg −1 ). In this paper, a review of the data obtained at the 1991–2013 period in the framework of the development of the Environmental monitoring program is presented. - Highlights: • Radioactivity levels have been monitored in foods of Comunidad Valenciana (Spain). • γ-Ray spectrometry analysis and radiochemical separation of Sr-90 have been performed. • K-40, Be-7, and Sr-90 has been detected in samples collected. • Samples collected after Fukushima accident show activity concentration of I-131.

  18. Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Requirements for the protection of people from the harmful consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation, for the safety of radiation sources and for the protection of the environment are established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. GSR Part 3 requires that the regulatory body or other relevant authority establish specific reference levels for exposure due to radionuclides in commodities, including food and drinking water. The reference level is based on an annual effective dose to the representative person that generally does not exceed a value of about 1 mSv. International standards have been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission for levels of radionuclides contained in food traded internationally that contains, or could potentially contain, radioactive substances as a consequence of a nuclear or radiological emergency. International standards have also been developed by the WHO for radionuclides contained in drinking water, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. These international standards provide guidance and criteria in terms of levels of individual radiation dose, levels of activity concentration of specific radionuclides, or both. The criteria derived in terms of levels of activity concentration in the various international standards differ owing to a number of factors and assumptions underlying the common objective of protecting public health in different circumstances. This publication considers the various international standards to be applied at the national level for the assessment of levels of radionuclides in food and in drinking water in different circumstances for the purposes of control, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. It collates and provides an overview of the different criteria used in assessing and

  19. Airborne anthropogenic radioactivity measurements from an international radionuclide monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, J.D.; Williams, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Anthropogenic radioactivity is being measured in near-real time by an international monitoring system designed to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Airborne radioactivity measurements are conducted in-situ by stations that are linked to a central data processing and analysis facility. Aerosols are separated by high-volume air sampling with high-efficiency particulate filters. Radio-xenon is separated from other gases through cryogenic methods. Gamma-spectrometry is performed by high purity germanium detectors and the raw spectral data is immediately transmitted to the central facility via Internet, satellite, or modem. These highly sensitive sensors, combined with the automated data processing at the central facility, result in a system capable of measuring environmental radioactivity on the microbecquerel scale where the data is available to scientists within minutes of the field measurement. During the past year, anthropogenic radioactivity has been measured at approximately half of the stations in the current network. Sources of these measured radionuclides include nuclear power plant emissions, Chernobyl resuspension, and isotope production facilities. The ability to thoroughly characterize site-specific radionuclides, which contribute to the radioactivity of the ambient environment, will be necessary to reduce the number of false positive events. This is especially true of anthropogenic radionuclides that could lead to ambiguous analysis. (author)

  20. Environmental Management Department Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Emission Measurements Project for compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, D A

    1992-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) satisfies the quality assurance (QA) requirements in 40 CFR Part 61, Method 114, for ensuring that the radionuclide air emission measurements from the Y-12 Plant are representative; of a known precision and accuracy; and include administrative controls to ensure prompt response when emission measurements indicate an increase over normal radionuclide emissions. The QAPP ensures the quality of the Y-12 Plant radionuclide emission measurements data from the continuous samplers, breakthrough monitors, and minor radionuclide release points. The plan specifies the procedures for the management of the activities affecting the quality of the data for the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department (EMD) within the Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Division (HSEA).

  1. Environmental Management Department Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Emission Measurements Project for compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, D.A.

    1992-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) satisfies the quality assurance (QA) requirements in 40 CFR Part 61, Method 114, for ensuring that the radionuclide air emission measurements from the Y-12 Plant are representative; of a known precision and accuracy; and include administrative controls to ensure prompt response when emission measurements indicate an increase over normal radionuclide emissions. The QAPP ensures the quality of the Y-12 Plant radionuclide emission measurements data from the continuous samplers, breakthrough monitors, and minor radionuclide release points. The plan specifies the procedures for the management of the activities affecting the quality of the data for the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department (EMD) within the Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Division (HSEA)

  2. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the Lebanese diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreddine, L.; Hwalla, N.; El Samad, O.; Baydoun, R.; Hamze, M.; Parent-Massin, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since the primary factor contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism is contaminated food, the control of radionuclides in food represents the most important means of protection. This study was conducted to determine the levels of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to gamma-emitting radioisotopes. The activity concentrations of gamma-emitting radioisotopes have been measured in food samples that represent the market basket of an adult urban population in Lebanon. The artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was measured above detection limits in only fish, meat and milk-based deserts. The most abundant natural radionuclide was 40 K (31-121 Bq kg -1 ), with the highest content in fish and meat samples. The annual mean effective dose contributed by 40 K in the reference typical diet was estimated equal to 186 μSv y -1 , a value reasonably consistent with findings reported by several other countries. (authors)

  3. Measurement of activity concentration of primordial radionuclides in the soil samples of Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Saiyad Musthafa, M.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.; Shahul Hameed, M.M.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uranium ( 238 U), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K) are considered to be Primordial radionuclides which are widely distributed in the earth's crust. Gamma-radiation from these radionuclides represents the main external source of irradiation for the human body. Human beings are exposed outdoors to the natural terrestrial radiation that originates predominantly from the upper 30 cm of the soil. A pilot project was therefore initiated aiming at systematically measuring the terrestrial gamma radiation in Tiruchirappalli city, Tamil Nadu, South India and to establish baseline data on the terrestrial background radiation level determining its contribution to the annual effective dose equivalent to the human population. The natural radioactivity concentrations were studied in soil samples collected from 50 locations in Tiruchirappalli city. The concentration varies significantly over different soil types and the highest radioactivity was measured over soil types of granite origin followed by red soil and alluvial loam. The mean activity concentrations of 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K in soil samples are found to be 81.78 Bq.kg -1 , 32.62 Bq.kg -1 , and 551.35 Bq.kg -1 respectively. The calculated gamma dose from the soil is in the range between 38.86nGy.h -1 and 240.59 nGy.h -1 with a mean value of 89.76 nGy.h -1 . The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.11mSv.y -1 which is low as compared with the maximum permissible effective dose equivalent of 1mSv.y -1 (ICRP,1991). In the present study it is observed that the major sources of gamma radiation in soils are mainly derived from rocky area with granite basement. (author)

  4. Correlation Water Velocity and TSS with Natural Radionuclides Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri Harningsih; Muzakky; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    Correlation water velocity and TSS with natural radionuclides activity has been studied. For that purpose, the study is to correlation water velocity and TSS with radionuclides on water and sediment samples in alongside river Code Yogyakarta. This research selected radionuclides, for examples Ra-226, Pb-212, Ac- 228, and K-40. Election of this radionuclides to spread over gamma gross composition alongside river of Code. Gamma gross influenced by water velocity and TSS, so that require to correct between water velocity and TSS to radionuclides. Sampling water and sediment conducted when dry season of August, 2006 at 11 locations, start from Boyong Bridge until Pacar Bridge. Result of analysis showed that water velocity range from 8-1070 L/dt and TSS range from 2.81 E-06 - 8.02 E-04 mg/L. The accumulation of radionuclides in water samples non correction water velocity for Ra-226: 0.302-2.861 Bq/L, Pb-212: 0.400-3.390 Bq/L, Ac- 228: 0.0029-0.0047 Bq/L and K-40: 0.780-9.178 Bq/L. The accumulation of radionuclide in water samples correction water velocity for Ra-226: 1.112-70.454 Bq/L, Pb-212: 0.850-77.113 Bq/L, Ac-228: 0.7187- 60.859 Bq/L and K-40: 2.420-208.8 Bq/L. While distribution of radionuclide in sediment for the Ra-226: 0.0012-0.0211 Bq/kg, Pb-212: 0.0017-0.0371 Bq/kg, Ac-228: 0.0021-0.0073 Bq/kg and K-40: 0.0006-0.0084 Bq/kg. (author)

  5. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaITl (8 x 4”), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3”). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2010 to December 2014, approximately 4500 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  6. Measurement of Finger Blood Flow in Raynauds Phenomenon by Radionuclide Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Sung Jae; Koh, Chang Soon

    1987-01-01

    In Raynauds phenomenon, the authors measured finger blood flow after ice water exposure by analyzing the time activity curve of radionuclide angiography on both hands. The results were as follows: 1) The digital blood flow did not decrease after ice water exposure in normal subjects. 2) In the patients with Raynauds phenomenon, there were two groups: the one had decreased digital blood flow after cold exposure, and the other had paradoxically increased digital blood flow after cold exposure. 3) There was no difference in the digital blood flow of hand in room temperature between the normal and the patients with reduced digital blood flow after cold exposure, but the digital blood flow of the hand in room temperature was markedly reduced in the patients with paradoxically increased flow after cold exposure. 4) In the static image the difference was not significant in comparison with the dynamic study, because it represents pooling of the blood in the vein rather than flow. 5) After the treatment with nifedipine, the digital blood flow increased. In conclusion, the radionuclide angiography was useful in measuring the digital blood flow in Raynauds phenomenon, and further studies with various drugs is expected.

  7. Separation of radionuclides from gas by sorption on activated charcoal and inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepak, F.

    1988-01-01

    The review deals with the sorption and ion exchange of gaseous radionuclides on activated charcoal and on inorganic sorbents. It presents the physical and chemical characteristics of radionuclides, the sources of gaseous forms of radionuclides as well as the composition of radioactive gases from some nuclear facilities. 79 refs. (author)

  8. Measurement of shunt amount using radionuclide angiocardiography: accuracy according to level of shunt and associated lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Min [Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    Determination of pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio (QP/QS) is important for the management of patients with left-to-right shunt. This study was performed to assess the agreement of Qp/Qs ratio using the radionuclide method and oxymetry, to investigate the factors influencing the agreement, and to know how interchangeable the results of each technique. We compared the Qp/Qs measured by single-pass radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry during catheterization in 207 patients who underwent both studies. In radionuclide method, Qp/Qs was calculated from the pulmonary time-activity curves using a gamma variate fit. The correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were performed according to the levels of shunt and associated lesions. The mean Qp/Qs was 1.83 {+-} 0.50 by radionuclide, and 1.74 {+-} 0.51 by oxymetry. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.86 ({rho} 0.001), and Bland-Altman range of agreement encompassing 4SD was 1.05. For atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, tricuspid and mitral insufficiency, the correlation coefficient was 0.78, 0.90, 0.84, 0.63 and 0.44 and Bland-Altman range was 1.52, 0.74, 0.96, 1.57 and 1.50, respectively. There is good agreement but wide variance between the Qp/Qs ratios by radionuclide method and oxymetry. Associated atrioventricular valvar insufficiency decreases the correlation coefficient and widens the variance. Wide overall variance suggests that Qp/Qs measurements by two techniques should not be used interchangeably.

  9. Measurement of shunt amount using radionuclide angiocardiography: accuracy according to level of shunt and associated lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang Min

    2006-01-01

    Determination of pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio (QP/QS) is important for the management of patients with left-to-right shunt. This study was performed to assess the agreement of Qp/Qs ratio using the radionuclide method and oxymetry, to investigate the factors influencing the agreement, and to know how interchangeable the results of each technique. We compared the Qp/Qs measured by single-pass radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry during catheterization in 207 patients who underwent both studies. In radionuclide method, Qp/Qs was calculated from the pulmonary time-activity curves using a gamma variate fit. The correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were performed according to the levels of shunt and associated lesions. The mean Qp/Qs was 1.83 ± 0.50 by radionuclide, and 1.74 ± 0.51 by oxymetry. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.86 (ρ 0.001), and Bland-Altman range of agreement encompassing 4SD was 1.05. For atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, tricuspid and mitral insufficiency, the correlation coefficient was 0.78, 0.90, 0.84, 0.63 and 0.44 and Bland-Altman range was 1.52, 0.74, 0.96, 1.57 and 1.50, respectively. There is good agreement but wide variance between the Qp/Qs ratios by radionuclide method and oxymetry. Associated atrioventricular valvar insufficiency decreases the correlation coefficient and widens the variance. Wide overall variance suggests that Qp/Qs measurements by two techniques should not be used interchangeably

  10. Activity Concentrations of radionuclides in sea water in some Coastal Egyptian Regions and Their Public Health Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefien, S.M.; Abdel Malik, W.E.Y.; Ibrahim, A.S.; Yousef, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive investigations have been carried out monthly for one year period in order to find out the average activity concentrations of the natural radionuclide in some Egyptian coastal aquatic environment and to assess the annual radiation doses likely to be received by population near by. The determinations were mainly for the measurement of gross α, β and γ activities in sea water samples and some of its constituents. It has been found that; the average gross α, β and γ activities in sea water samples for the different studied locations ranged from (0-52) x 10 -3 ,(3-68) x10 -3 and (13-283) x10 -3 Bq.l -1 respectively but still below the recommended permissible limits in most locations. It was found that Rashid area posses the highest concentrations of uranium and thorium. The present results have shown that the radio activities of most of the locations are mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclide. No regular tendency increase was observed in activity concentrations of any particular radionuclide in the studied period. Calculations have shown that, the average external dose from the γ- emitting radionuclide is ranged over (0.5-177)x10 -3 nGy/hr with annual exposure dose ranged from (1.04-29)x10 -3 nGy in most locations except Rashid. This exposure dose does not present radiological injuries to the population

  11. Radionuclide transfer from soil to agricultural plants: measurements and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbarese, C; Terrasi, F.; D'Onofrio, A.D.; Stellato, L.; Lubritto, C.; Ermice, A.; Cotrufo, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    To assess the internal doses to humans from ingestion of radionuclides present in agricultural products it is necessary to know the main processes which determine the transport of radionuclides in the environment (Russel, 1966; Peterson, 1983; IAEA, 1995). The available data, generally, do not reflect natural conditions, and the mechanisms of translocation and mobility of radionuclides within the soil-plant system are still not fully understood (Coughtrey and Thorne, 1983; Fresquez et a., 1998; Krouglov et al., 1997; Frissel, 1992; Roca and Vallejo, 1995; Desmet et al., 1990). The knowledge of the contributions of direct contamination of plant fruits and of the process of root to fruit transfer can improve the understanding of exposure through ingestion and of the mechanisms determining sorption and translocation. Several studies on the relations among specific activities of various radionuclides in different environmental compartments have been performed in the last decades (Coughtrey and Thorne, 1983; Fresquez et al., 1998; Krouglov et al., 1997; Howard et al., 1995; Strand et al., 1994; Konshin, 1992; Frissel, 1992; Alexakhin and Korneev, 1992; Desmet et al., 1990)

  12. Activity determination of radionuclides for diagnostic and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossert, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The application of radionuclides plays in medicine an important role and requires reliable activity determination. The PTB provides for this activity normals and determines the activity of the presented sources. The article describes, how activity determinations in the PTB occur, and by which ways this can be used for nuclear medicine. Research and development works in the PTB are just so illuminated as the determination of nuclide data of some isotopes relevant for medicine.

  13. Methods of Increasing the Performance of Radionuclide Generators Used in Nuclear Medicine: Daughter Nuclide Build-Up Optimisation, Elution-Purification-Concentration Integration, and Effective Control of Radionuclidic Purity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of “early elution schedule” was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement

  14. Nondestructive measurement for radionuclide concentration distribution in soil column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    A nondestructive method has been studied for determining the concentration of radionuclide (Cs-137) distributed in a soil column. The concentration distribution was calculated from the counting rate distribution using the efficiency matrix of a detector. The concentration distribution obtained by this method, with measuring efficiencies of theoretical calculation, coincides well with that obtained by the destructive sampling method. This method is, therefore, found to be effective for the measurement of one dimensional concentration distribution. The measuring limit of this method is affected not only by the radionuclide concentration but also by the shape of concentration distribution in a soil column and also by the way it is divided into concentration blocks. It is found that, the radioactive concentration up to 2.6 x 10 -4 μCi/g (9.62 Bq/g), and also the distribution up to where the concentration reduces to half at every 1 cm of depth, can be measured by this system. The concentration blocks can be divided into 1 cm of thickness as a minimum value. (author)

  15. Fast neutron activation analysis using short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.; Zemplen-Papp, E.

    1993-01-01

    Fast neutron activation analysis experiments were performed to investigate the analytical possibilities and prospective utilization of short-lived activation products. A rapid pneumatic transfer system for use with neutron generators has been installed and applied for detecting radionuclides with a half-life from ∼300 ms to 20 s. The transport time for samples of total mass of 1-4 g is between 130 and 160 ms for pressurized air of 0.1-0.4 MPa. The reproducibility of transport times is less than 2%. The employed method of correcting time-dependent counting losses is based on the virtual pulse generator principle. The measuring equipment consists of CAMAC modules and a special gating circuit. Typical time distributions of counting losses are presented. The same 14 elements were studied by the conventional activation method (single irradiation and single counting) by both a typical pneumatic transport system (run time 3 s) and the fast pneumatic transport facility. Furthermore, the influence of the cyclic activation technique on the elemental sensitivities was investigated. (author) 15 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Activity concentration of some anthropogenic radionuclides in the surface marine sediments near the Saudi coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kheliewi, A.S.; Shabana, E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Activity concentrations of some anthropogenic radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am) have been measured in the surface of marine sediments along the Saudi coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf. The samples were collected at different locations and water depths. The spatial distribution of the concentrations of the measured radionuclides showed a heterogeneous pattern and is independent of location or water depth. The obtained results are discussed and some conclusions are drawn. (author)

  17. Coincidence method for determination of radionuclides activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrukhovich, S.K.; Berestov, A.V.; Rudak, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The radon and radium activity measurements using six-crystal gamma-gamma coincidence, 4 -spectrometer PRIPJAT and radioactivity measurements in different samples of meat and vegetation by 32-crystal spectrometer ARGUS, are described. Radiation detector with 4 -geometry provides higher efficiency, and therefore shorter counting time than a detector without such geometry. However, its application is limited by the fact that obtained spectrum contains summing peaks of all γ-quanta registered in coincidence. Multiparameter information on coincident photon emission can be obtained only by a detection system where the 4 -geometry is made by many detectors, such are both the PRIPJAT and the ARGUS - γ-coincidence spectrometer of the Crystal Ball type in the Institute of Physics, Minsk [1,2]. There are other characteristics, as background conditions, energy and time resolution, makes it ve suitable for investigation of rare decays and interactions, cascade transitions, k intensity radiations etc. We are developing a method of 2 26R a and 2 26 Rn measurement by a multidetector 4 -spectrometer. The method is based on coincidence counting of γ-rays from two step cascade transitions that follow - decay of 2 14 Bi. Its application to the PRIPL spectrometer, which has 6 Nal(Tl) detectors, is presented here, as well as the method of the determination of radionuclide activities based on the registration of the cascades intensity of γ-rays of different multiplicity using ARGUS

  18. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  19. Rapid methods for measuring radionuclides in food and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The application of ICP/mass spectrometry for the isotopic analysis of environmental samples, the use of drum assayers for measuring radionuclides in food and a rapid procedure for the measurement of the transuranic elements and thorium, performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are discussed

  20. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  1. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  2. Cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be in atmospheric fallouts, weather factors and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kungurov, F.R.

    2011-11-01

    Key words: 7 Be activity, atmospheric fallouts, solar activity, gamma spectroscopy. Subjects of research: cosmogenic radionuclide 7 Be in atmospheric fallouts and surrounding objects of environment, its migrational distribution connected to solar activity and weather meteorologic parameters of the region studied. Purpose of work: Defining correlation between atmospheric humidity and solar activity with concentration and distribution of cosmogenic radionuclide 7 Be. Methods of research: gamma-spectrometry method of activity measurements. The results obtained and their novelty: Cycle of research works on definition of concentration and migrational distribution of CRN 7 Be in Samarkand region during 2002-2005 was carried out for the first time. Volumetric activity of 7 Be in squat air layer of Samarkand was determined. Average density of 7 Be fallouts for the four years of studies was determined. Qualitative correlation bet ween 7 Be fallouts density variations and solar activity, expressed through Wolf number has been found. Qualitative correlation between 7 Be fallouts density variations and amount of precipitations has been found. Regularity in 7 Be concentration decrease towards north latitudes has been detected. Practical value: Developed scintillation method of 7 Be activity detection in atmospheric fallouts was used in works performed in the framework of republican grants 2F-No 1.2.3, CNT RUz PFNI 2F-No 2.1.39 and ITD-7-024. Methodology was used for the estimation of the velocity of erosion processes in the soils of different regions of Uzbekistan. Methodology is used in the works on 7 Be radioactivity measurements. Degree of embed and economic effectivity: Gained results replenish database on 7 Be isotope distribution on Earth regions and its role in formation of some processes, connected with meteorology, agronomy and radioecology of Samarkand region. Field of application: meteorology, agronomy and radioecology. (author)

  3. Activity concentration of radionuclides in plants in the environment of western Ghats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manigandan, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    A field study on the transfer of primordial radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and fallout radionuclides 210 Po in different plant species in tropical forest of western Ghats environment is presented. Material and Methods: The Top storey, Second storey, Shrubs and epiphytic plant species were chosen and concentration of these radionuclides in plant and soil were measured by employing gamma ray spectrometer and alpha counter. Results: The concentration ratio shows the variation in different species while a wild plant Elaeocarpus oblongus and epiphytic plants indicated preferential uptake of these radionuclides. Conclusion: The dust trapped in the root system of. epiphytic plants could be used as bio indicator to monitor fallout radionuclides in the Western Ghats. The concentration of 232 Th and 40 K in leaves depends on the age of the leaves.

  4. Performance evaluation of commercial radionuclide calibrators in Indonesian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candra, Hermawan; Marsoem, Pujadi; Wurdiyanto, Gatot

    2012-01-01

    Dose calibrator is one of the supporting equipments in the field of nuclear medicine. At the hospitals, dose calibrator is used for activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical before it is administered to patients. Comparison of activity measurements of 131 I and 99m Tc with dose calibrators was organized in Indonesia during 2007–2010 with the the aim of obtaining information dose calibrator performance in the hospitals. Seven Indonesian hospitals participated in this comparison. The measurement results were evaluated using the E n criteria. The result presented in this paper facilitated the evaluation of dose calibrator performance at several hospitals. - Highlights: ► National comparisons of 131 I and 99m Tc radionuclides in Indonesian hospitals. ► Standardization using a Centronic IG11/A20 4πγ Ionization Chamber and participants using commercial radionuclide calibrators. ► Performance radionuclide calibrator in nuclear medicine in Indonesia. ► Measurement of activity of 99m Tc and 131 I was found satisfactory.

  5. Radionuclide, scintillation cocktail and chemical/color quench influence on discriminator setting in gross alpha/beta measurements by LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojković, Ivana; Tenjović, Branislava; Nikolov, Jovana; Todorović, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Gross alpha/beta measurements in drinking waters enable radiochemical composition analysis in environmental studies providing efficient screening method that can indicate whether water contains elevated levels of any radionuclide. Routine gross alpha/beta activity monitoring in drinking waters has been carried out for a few years in laboratory for low-level radioactivity measurements in Novi Sad according to ASTM method, performing measurements on liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220 which can simultaneously generate alpha/beta spectra of samples by Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA circuit). In this paper, PSA discriminator impact was investigated to ensure obtaining of accurate and reliable alpha/beta activities. One novelty of presented work is PSA parameter setup with two combinations of radionuclides ( 241 Am, 226 Ra and 90 Sr/ 90 Y) with varying activity concentrations. Performed experiments also make contribution to investigations on the manner in which chemical and color quench affect optimal PSA parameter setting and further on, their altogether influence on gross alpha/beta activity measurements. Nitromethane, 15.8 M nitric acid and water, as well as yellow and yellow-orange dye, were used as quenching agents in order to test PSA/interference factor behavior in the presence of quenchers with different quenching strengths. Variation of PSA setting in quenched samples with two different commercially available cocktails (Ultima Gold LLT and OptiPhase HiSafe 3) was also tested. Lastly, application i.e. assessment of obtained PSA-SQP(E) correlation on the obtained results of activity concentrations of few artesian well water samples and colored spiked samples, based on the measured SQP(E) value of samples, has been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Thorough study on influence of relevant factors on optimal PSA level in gross alpha/beta measurements in waters is presented. • Experiments were performed on liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220™ according

  6. Monitoring intervals for the measurement of the radionuclides 125I and 129I in the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yera Simanca, Yoan; Lopez Bejerano, Gladys M.; Ramos Machado, Dayana; Acosta Rodriguez; Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the monitoring intervals that can be implemented in the Internal Contamination Laboratory of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene for direct measurement of the radionuclides 125 I and 129 I in the Thyroid gland. Two measuring systems were used, one of them uses a scintillation detector and the other one uses a Phoswich detector. Both detectors were situated inside of one shielding chamber of 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 m of dimension, cover with 15 cm of steel, 3 mm of lead, 1.8 mm of tin, and 1.5 mm of copper. For each system was calculated the minimum detectable activity and in function of it were determined the monitoring intervals. The results obtained showed that for the radionuclide 125 I all the evaluated intervals (120, 90, 60, 30, 14 and 7 days).can be implemented with both systems. For the case of the radionuclide 129 I it can only be implemented the intervals (120, 90, and 60 days) using the scintillation detector and all of them with the Phoswich detector. (author)

  7. Consultative committee on ionizing radiation: Impact on radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, L.R.; Ratel, G.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the CIPM MRA, and to improve radioactivity measurements in the face of advancing technologies, the CIPM's consultative committee on ionizing radiation developed a strategic approach to the realization and validation of measurement traceability for radionuclide metrology. As a consequence, measurement institutions throughout the world have devoted no small effort to establish radionuclide metrology capabilities, supported by active quality management systems and validated through prioritized participation in international comparisons, providing a varied stakeholder community with measurement confidence. - Highlights: • Influence of CIPM MRA on radionuclide metrology at laboratories around the world. • CCRI strategy: to be the “undisputed hub for ionizing radiation global metrology.” • CCRI Strategic Plan stresses importance of measurement confidence for stakeholder. • NMIs increasing role in radionuclide metrology by designating institutions (DIs). • NMIs and DIs establish quality systems; validate capabilities through comparisons.

  8. Measurement of natural activity in peat ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, J.

    1985-01-01

    High proportions of radioactive materials in peat ashes may involve radiation hazards during handling and deposition of these waste materials. Measurements have been performed to determine the content of radioactive materials in ashes from peat burning. The activities in fly ash and ''solid'' ash in seven peat-fired power plants in Sweden are presented. The methods of analysing and measuring peat ashes for activity from different radionuclides are described. The activity levels in ash samples are given

  9. Quarterly report on measurements of radionuclides in ground level air in Sweden. Third quarter 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederstroem, C.; Arntsing, R.; Lindh, K.

    2005-04-01

    Filtering of ground level air is performed weekly at six different locations in Sweden: Kiruna, Umeaa, Gaevle, Ursvik, Visby and Ljungbyhed. The filters are pressed and the contents of different radionuclides are measured by gamma spectroscopy. Precipitation is also collected at four of the stations: Kiruna, Gaevle, Ursvik and Ljungbyhed, the samples are ashed and the contents of radionuclides measured. The levels of 7 Be and 137 Cs in air and deposition are presented for the different stations. Other anthropogenic radionuclides detected, if any, are also presented

  10. Radionuclide measurements, via different methodologies, as tool for geophysical studies on Mt. Etna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, D., E-mail: daniela.morelli@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare- Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Imme, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare- Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Altamore, I.; Cammisa, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Giammanco, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma, 2, I-95123 Catania (Italy); La Delfa, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia,57 I-95127 Catania (Italy); Mangano, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania (Italy); Neri, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma, 2, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Patane, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia,57 I-95127 Catania (Italy)

    2011-10-01

    Natural radioactivity measurements represent an interesting tool to study geodynamical events or soil geophysical characteristics. In this direction we carried out, in the last years, several radionuclide monitoring both in the volcanic and tectonic areas of the oriental Sicily. In particular we report in-soil Radon investigations, in a tectonic area, including both laboratory and in-site measurements, applying three different methodologies, based on both active and passive detection systems. The active detection devices consisted of solid-state silicon detectors equipped in portable systems for short-time measurements and for long-time monitoring. The passive technique consisted of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), CR-39 type, and allowed integrated measurements. The performances of the three methodologies were compared according to different kinds of monitoring. In general the results obtained with the three methodologies seem in agreement with each other and reflect the tectonic settings of the investigated area.

  11. Radionuclide measurements, via different methodologies, as tool for geophysical studies on Mt. Etna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morelli, D.; Imme, G.; Altamore, I.; Cammisa, S.; Giammanco, S.; La Delfa, S.; Mangano, G.; Neri, M.; Patane, G.

    2011-01-01

    Natural radioactivity measurements represent an interesting tool to study geodynamical events or soil geophysical characteristics. In this direction we carried out, in the last years, several radionuclide monitoring both in the volcanic and tectonic areas of the oriental Sicily. In particular we report in-soil Radon investigations, in a tectonic area, including both laboratory and in-site measurements, applying three different methodologies, based on both active and passive detection systems. The active detection devices consisted of solid-state silicon detectors equipped in portable systems for short-time measurements and for long-time monitoring. The passive technique consisted of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), CR-39 type, and allowed integrated measurements. The performances of the three methodologies were compared according to different kinds of monitoring. In general the results obtained with the three methodologies seem in agreement with each other and reflect the tectonic settings of the investigated area.

  12. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  13. Quarterly report on measurements of radionuclides in ground level air in Sweden. Third quarter 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederstroem, C.; Arntsing, R.; Vintersved, I.

    2002-01-01

    Filtering of ground level air is performed weekly at seven different locations in Sweden: Kiruna, Umeaa, Gaevle, Ursvik, Grindsjoen, Visby and Ljungbyhed. The filters are compressed and the contents of different radionuclides are measured by gamma spectroscopy. Precipitation is also collected at four of the stations: Kiruna, Gaevle, Ursvik and Ljungbyhed, the samples are ashed and the contents of radionuclides measured. The levels of 7 Be and 137 Cs in air and deposition are presented for the different stations. Other anthropogenic radionuclides detected, if any, are also presented

  14. Neutron activation of microspheres containing 165Ho: theoretical and experimental radionuclidic impurities study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squair, Peterson L.; Pozzo, Lorena; Ivanov, Evandro; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2011-01-01

    The 166 Ho microspheres are potentially interesting for medical applications for treatment of many tumors. The internal radionuclide therapy can use polymer or glass device that provides structural support for the radionuclide. After activation, beta minus emission of 166 Ho (T 1/2 =26.8h, β - E max =1.84 MeV, γ E p =80.6 keV) can be used for therapeutic purposes. The aim of this work is study the influence of radionuclide impurities between End of Bombardment (EOB) and the medical application. The appropriate specific activities and purity along decay should be adequate for their safe and efficient medical applications. The good practices on neutron activation techniques are choice a high purity target to avoid production of undesirable radionuclides and when possible with enriched targets to obtain higher specific activity. In this work the target used was Ho 2 O 3 and polymeric microspheres containing holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) manufactured at the Biotechnology Center-IPEN/CNEN-SP. Three conditions were evaluated: preliminary test with 1.0x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 for 1.0 hour; nowadays maximum capability of IEA-R1 reactor with 5.0x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 for 64.0 hours and the ideal IEA-R1 operation with 5.0x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 for 120.0 hours. Considering the sample with 99.9% 165 Ho purity and 0.1% for each impurities elements with its natural abundance, the highest radionuclidic impurity is the Lutetium followed by Ytterbium, Lanthanum and Cerium. The intrinsic radionuclidic impurity of 166 mHo is less relevant. This review is important to identify the radionuclidic purity characteristics of the preliminary studies with different time and flux irradiation. The data produced in this paper will help to define strategies for the production of 166 Ho radioisotope at IEA-R1 IPEN/CNEN-SP reactor. (author)

  15. Monitoring intervals for measurement of the radionuclides 125 I and 129I in thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanca, Yoan Yera; Bejerano, Gladys M. Lopez

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the monitoring interval, which can be implemented in the Laboratorio de Contaminacion Interna del Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, for direct measurement in the thyroid gland of radionuclides 125 I and 129 I . Were used two measuring systems, one employing a scintillating detector and the other detector Phoswich. Both detectors were placed inside a depth camera, 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5m of dimension covered with 15 cm of steel, 3 mm lead, 1.8 mm tin and 1.5 mm of copper. Was calculated for each system, the minimum detectable activity, and based on this, the monitoring interval is determined. Was obtained, for 125 , all tested intervals, 120, 90,60,30 , 14, and 7 days may be implemented with both systems. In the case of the radionuclide 129 I, with the installation of scintillating detector can only be implemented the intervals 120, 90, and 60 days , and for installation with Phoswich, all evaluated

  16. Activity measurement algorithm in solid radioactive waste clearance procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Skala, L.

    2014-01-01

    Most of European metrology experts prefer in radiation wastes characterization process to use scaling factor method in combination with high definition gamma spectrometry rather than radionuclide vector method in combination with gross gamma activity measurement. The second method is actually used in Slovakian nuclear facilities. The international (IAEA) and Slovak national authorities (UVZ) recognize both approach but there is a fact, that high definition gamma spectrometry radionuclides more properly. (authors)

  17. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  18. Determination of scaling factors to estimate the radionuclide inventory in waste with low and intermediate-level activity from the IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo

    2013-01-01

    Regulations regarding transfer and final disposal of radioactive waste require that the inventory of radionuclides for each container enclosing such waste must be estimated and declared. The regulatory limits are established as a function of the annual radiation doses that members of the public could be exposed to from the radioactive waste repository, which mainly depend on the activity concentration of radionuclides, given in Bq/g, found in each waste container. Most of the radionuclides that emit gamma-rays can have their activity concentrations determined straightforwardly by measurements carried out externally to the containers. However, radionuclides that emit exclusively alpha or beta particles, as well as gamma-rays or X-rays with low energy and low absolute emission intensity, or whose activity is very low among the radioactive waste, are generically designated as Difficult to Measure Nuclides (DTMs). The activity concentrations of these DTMs are determined by means of complex radiochemical procedures that involve isolating the chemical species being studied from the interference in the waste matrix. Moreover, samples must be collected from each container in order to perform the analyses inherent to the radiochemical procedures, which exposes operators to high levels of radiation and is very costly because of the large number of radioactive waste containers that need to be characterized at a nuclear facility. An alternative methodology to approach this problem consists in obtaining empirical correlations between some radionuclides that can be measured directly – such as 60 Co and 137 Cs, therefore designated as Key Nuclides (KNs) – and the DTMs. This methodology, denominated Scaling Factor, was applied in the scope of the present work in order to obtain Scaling Factors or Correlation Functions for the most important radioactive wastes with low and intermediate-activity level from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. (author)

  19. Thin-target excitation functions: a powerful tool for optimizing yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity of cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonardi, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    In accelerator production of radionuclides, thin-target yield, y(E), is defined as a function of the projectile energy E, at the End Of an Instantaneous Bombardment (EOIB), as the slope at the origin of the growing curve of the activity per unit beam current (A/I) of a specific radionuclide vs. irradiation time, for a target in which the energy loss is negligible with respect to the projectile energy itself. In practice, y(E) is defined as the second derivative of A/I with respect to particle energy and irradiation time, calculated when the irradiation time tends to zero (EOIB). The thin-target yields of different radionuclides, produced by direct and side reactions, are numerically fitted, taking into account the overall statistical errors as weights. The 'effective' cross-section σ ± (E) as a function of projectile energy is proportional to thin-target yield, but the physical meaning of this parameter is poor, being only a raw summation of the several cross sections of the reaction channels concerned, weighted on target isotopic composition. Conversely, Thick-Target Yield, Y(E,ΔE), is defined as a two parameter function of the incident particle energy E(MeV) onto the target and the energy loss ΔE (MeV), in the target itself, obtained by integration of thin-target excitation function, y(E). This approach holds in the strict approximation of a monochromatic beam of energy E, not affected by either intrinsic energy spread or straggling. The energy straggling is computed by Monte Carlo computer codes, like TRIM 2001. In case of total particle energy absorption in the target, for a nuclear reaction of energy threshold E th , the function Y(E,ΔE) reaches a value Y(E,E- E th ), for ΔE=E- E th , that represents mathematically the envelope of the Y(E,ΔE) family of curves. This envelope is a monotonically increasing curve, never reaching either a maximum or a saturation value, even if its slope becomes negligible for high particle energies and energy losses. Some

  20. Determination of the physiological root activity of fruit trees by means of the radionuclide 131I. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckruehm, I.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of climb of the radionuclide per 1 m of stem vascular height was found to be dependent on the time of application; it came up to six to seven hours if applied in the morning, and 17 hours if applied in the evening. Limited information concerning the xylem transport activity was obtained through measuring the activity of a boring sample of stem fresh matter. Autoradiographic stem analysis provided the information most suitable for determining the transport routes in the stem. The analysis revealed that with increasing stem height the width of the radionuclide-labelled xylem is increasing 4.5 fold in proportion to the width when entering the stem. Beside the vertical climb there is some limited horizontal spread of the nuclide as well. (author)

  1. Gamma spectrometric validation of measurements test of radionuclides in food matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Custodio, Luis G.; Bonifacio, Rodrigo L.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.

    2013-01-01

    In a testing laboratory the quality system encompasses a set of activities planned and systematic, which ensure the traceability process of an analysis, which is based on the standards NBR ISO/TEC 17025. With the need for analysis of radionuclides in food products to meet the requirements of import and export, accreditation of testing on this standard becomes increasingly necessary. The Gamma Spectrometry is a technique used for direct determination of radionuclides in different matrices, among them the food, being possible the simultaneous determination of different radionuclides in the same sample without the need for a chemical separation. In the process of Accreditation the methodology validation is an important step that includes testing accuracy, traceability, linearity and recovery. This paper describes the procedures used to validate the assay for determining radionuclides using gamma spectrometry in food. These procedures were performed through analysis of a certificated reference material by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Soil 327), analysis of samples of milk powder prepared from the doping with certified liquid standards also by the results obtained in the participation of tests of proficiency in analysis of environmental samples. (author)

  2. Efficiency calibration of a HPGe detector for [18F] FDG activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa

    2013-01-01

    The radionuclide 18 F, in the form of flurodeoxyglucose (FDG), is the most used radiopharmaceutical for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Due to [ 18 F]FDG increasing demand, it is important to ensure high quality activity measurements in the nuclear medicine practice. Therefore, standardized reference sources are necessary to calibrate of 18 F measuring systems. Usually, the activity measurements are performed in re-entrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides, since it is essential to minimize source preparation time. The purpose of this work was to perform the standardization of the [ 18 F]FDG solution by gamma spectrometry. In addition, the reference sources calibrated by this method can be used to calibrate and test the radionuclide calibrators from the Divisao de Producao de Radiofarmacos (DIPRA) of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE). Standard sources of 152 Eu, 137 Cs and 68 Ge were used for the efficiency calibration of the spectrometer system. As a result, the efficiency curve as a function of energy was determined in wide energy range from 122 to 1408 keV. Reference sources obtained by this method can be used in [ 18 F]FDG activity measurements comparison programs for PET services localized in the Brazilian Northeast region. (author)

  3. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  4. ASSESSMENT OF RELEASE RATES FOR RADIONUCLIDES IN ACTIVATED CONCRETE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.M.

    2003-08-23

    The Maine Yankee (MY) nuclear power plant is undergoing the process of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Part of the process requires analyses that demonstrate that any radioactivity that remains after D&D will not cause exposure to radioactive contaminants to exceed acceptable limits. This requires knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the remaining material and their potential release mechanisms from the material to the contacting groundwater. In this study the concern involves radionuclide contamination in activated concrete in the ICI Sump below the containment building. Figures 1-3 are schematic representations of the ICI Sump. Figure 2 and 3 contain the relevant dimensions needed for the analysis. The key features of Figures 2 and 3 are the 3/8-inch carbon steel liner that isolates the activated concrete from the pit and the concrete wall, which is between 7 feet and 7 feet 2 inches thick. During operations, a small neutron flux from the reactor activated the carbon steel liner and the concrete outside the liner. Current MY plans call for filling the ICI sump with compacted sand.

  5. Measurement of the terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bafra Kizilirmak delta (bird sanctuary) in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutuk, H.; Guemues, H.; Turhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclides in the soil samples collected from Bafra Kizilirmak Delta were measured by using gamma spectrometry with an NaI(Tl) detector. The average values of activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were found to be 37.2±2.8, 33.7±3.1 and 413.0±59.8 Bq kg -1 , respectively. 137 Cs was also measured in some samples. It has a mean value of 13.8±1.0 Bq kg -1 . From the activity concentrations, the absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and external hazard index (Hex) were estimated. (authors)

  6. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  7. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M.; Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are 40 K, as well as, 238 U and 232 Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The 238 U and 232 Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  8. Artificial radionuclides in the atmosphere over Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Sapolaite, J.; Remeikis, V.; Lujanas, V.; Aninkevicius, V.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic observations of radionuclide composition and concentration in the atmosphere have been carried out at the Institute of Physics in Vilnius since 1963. An increase in activity concentration of radionuclides in the atmosphere was observed after nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl NPP accident. At present the radiation situation in Lithuania is determined by two main sources of radionuclides, forest fire and resuspension products transferred from highly polluted region of the Ukraine and Belarus. During forest fires the increase in activity concentration of 1 37Cs in the atmosphere was registered in many countries and in Lithuania as well. This work summarizes the experimental data on transport of cesium, plutonium, americium from the highly contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident. The activity concentrations of 1 37Cs were measured in two - three days samples while plutonium and americium in monthly samples. In addition, the analyses of the events of the increase activity concentration, meteorological situation, speciation of radionuclides and mechanisms of formation and transformation of aerosol carriers of radionuclides are presented. Aerosols were sampled on perchlorvinyl filters and the large volume air samplers with a flow rate from 2400 m 3 /h to about 6000 m 3 /h were used. The radiochemical analyses of monthly samples of aerosol ashes (about 30 g) were performed. For separation of Pu isotopes the TOPO/cyclohexane extraction and radiochemical purification using UTEVA resin were performed, Am was separated after TOPO/cyclohexane extraction using TRU and TEVA resins (100-150 μm). 2 42Pu and 2 43Am were used as tracers in the separation procedure. The alpha spectrometry measurements of Pu and Am isotopes deposited on a stainless steel disc were carried out with the Alphaquattro (Silena) spectrometer. 1 37Cs was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using the high purity HPGe detector (resolution - 1.9 keV/1.33 Mev, efficiency - 42

  9. An overview of Fukushima radionuclides measured in the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.; Ballard, S.; Nelson, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 resulted in the tragic accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and subsequently uncontrolled release of radioactive contaminants into the atmosphere. This review article attempts to compile and interpret data collected by various national and international monitoring networks in response to the Fukushima releases across the northern hemisphere. The majority of the releases occurred during the period March 12–22 with a maximum release phase from March 14–17, 2011. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases (xenon and krypton), iodine, cesium, and tellurium. The radioactive gases and particles released in the accident were dispersed over the middle latitudes of the entire northern hemisphere and for the first time also measured in the southern Hemisphere. Isotopes of iodine and cesium were detected in air, water, milk and food samples collected across the entire northern hemisphere. Elevated levels of fission products were detected from March to May 2011 at many locations over the northern hemisphere. This article focuses on the most prevalent cesium and iodine isotopes, but other secondary isotopes are also discussed. Spatial and temporal patterns and differences are contrasted. The activity ratios of 131 I/ 137 Cs and 134 Cs/ 137 Cs measured at several locations are evaluated to gain an insight into the fuel burn-up, the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor and the isotopic signature of the accident. It is important to note that all of the radiation levels detected outside of Japan have been very low and are well below any level of public and environmental hazard. - Graphical abstract: The trace levels of radioactivity in air, water, and milk samples collected across the northern hemisphere between March–May, 2011 from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan are discussed. Highlights: • We report

  10. An overview of Fukushima radionuclides measured in the northern hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Ballard, S. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Nelson, R. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021, National Parks Hwy, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 resulted in the tragic accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and subsequently uncontrolled release of radioactive contaminants into the atmosphere. This review article attempts to compile and interpret data collected by various national and international monitoring networks in response to the Fukushima releases across the northern hemisphere. The majority of the releases occurred during the period March 12–22 with a maximum release phase from March 14–17, 2011. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases (xenon and krypton), iodine, cesium, and tellurium. The radioactive gases and particles released in the accident were dispersed over the middle latitudes of the entire northern hemisphere and for the first time also measured in the southern Hemisphere. Isotopes of iodine and cesium were detected in air, water, milk and food samples collected across the entire northern hemisphere. Elevated levels of fission products were detected from March to May 2011 at many locations over the northern hemisphere. This article focuses on the most prevalent cesium and iodine isotopes, but other secondary isotopes are also discussed. Spatial and temporal patterns and differences are contrasted. The activity ratios of {sup 131}I/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs measured at several locations are evaluated to gain an insight into the fuel burn-up, the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor and the isotopic signature of the accident. It is important to note that all of the radiation levels detected outside of Japan have been very low and are well below any level of public and environmental hazard. - Graphical abstract: The trace levels of radioactivity in air, water, and milk samples collected across the northern hemisphere between March–May, 2011 from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan are discussed. Highlights

  11. Automatic procedure go keep updated the activity levels for each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic procedure to keep updated the activity levels each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory, and its classification according to the Spanish Regulations on Nuclear and Radioactive Establishments is described. This procedure takes into account the mixed composition of each source and whether it is sealed or the activity and mass variation due to extraction or evaporation in non-sealed sources. For a given date and time, the procedure prints out a complete listing of the activity of each radioactive source, the accumulated activity for each radionuclide, for each kind of radionuclide and the actual classification of the laboratory according to the legal regulations above mentioned. (Author)

  12. Supernova-produced radionuclides in deep-sea sediments measured with AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feige, J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to computational micromagnetics, where several new numerical methods are In this work a set of long-lived radionuclides is measured to detect supernova-traces presumably deposited on Earth 2-3 Myr ago. Approximately 100 samples of four deep-sea sediment cores (Indian Ocean) were analyzed for 26 Al, 53Mn, and 60 Fe with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Additionally, 10 Be was measured to confirm the existing paleomagnetic chronology of the sediments. A signal of extraterrestrial 60 Fe, which is not produced in-situ on Earth, was detected in a time period of 1.7-3.2 Myr in the sediments used for this work. 60 Fe/ 26 Al ratios were used to calculate limits on theoretical nucleosynthesis models. A supernova-signature of 26 Al is hidden behind a terrestrial background. The measured 26 Al/ 10 Be ratios indicate, that the major source of 26 Al detected in the sediments is of atmospheric origin. Because of the extraordinarily good depth profile for the deep-sea sediments from the measured 26 Al data, this radionuclide was used for dating. (author) [de

  13. Measured radionuclide production from copper, gold and lead spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, T.A.; Belian, A.P. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Spallation target materials are chosen so as to produce large numbers of neutrons while at the same time avoiding the creation of long-lived radioactive wastes. While there has been considerable research to determine the number of neutrons produced per incident particle for various target materials, there has been less effort to precisely quantify the types and amounts of radionuclides produced. Accurate knowledge of the radioactive species produced by spallation reactions is important for specifying waste disposal criteria for targets. In order to verify the production rates calculated by LAHET, a study has been conducted using the Texas A&M University (TAMU) Cyclotron to measure radionuclide yields from copper, gold, and lead targets.

  14. Radionuclide measurements using resonantly enhanced collisional ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, T.J.; Bushaw, B.A.; Gerke, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes development of a laser-enhanced collisional ionization method for direct radionuclide measurements that are independent of radioactive decay. The technique uses two nitrogen-laser-pumped dye lasers to selectively excite the target isotope to an electronic state near the ionization threshold. The excited actinide atoms then undergo collisions with a buffer gas and are efficiently ionized. The resulting ions can be detected by conventional methods. The attributes of this approach include highly sensitive isotope analysis with relatively inexpensive lasers and a simple vacuum system. 9 refs., 3 figs

  15. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides in the pan-Japan sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Abe, T.; Murata, Y.M.; Manikandan, N.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    By the use of ultra low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory (OUL), it became possible to detect extremely low levels of environmental radionuclides. In this study, we tried to measure high resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides at three monitoring points, i.e., 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL 40m asl) in Nomi City as the regular monitoring point, 2) Hegura Island Located 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to investigate the influence of Asian continent or mainland of Japan, and 3) Shishiku Plateau (640m asl) located about 8 km from LLRL to know vertical difference. Pb-210 and Be-7 were measured nondestructively by ultra low background gamma spectrometry at OUL, Po-210 by alpha spectrometry using Si detectors after the chemical treatment. Various interesting results on the concentrations and variation patterns of airborne radionuclides were obtained, particularly, during drastic meteorological changes such as the passage of typhoon, snow fall and so on. We have been analyzing the influence of the arrival of yellow sand occurred in this spring. (author)

  16. Estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull: contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurement of activity in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    After the initiation of NaI(Tl), spectrometric methods for detecting photon-emitting radionuclides in man, it became evident that the high background rates in the low energy regions precluded in vivo measurement of many bone-seeking nuclides. To meet these needs a dual crystal, low energy sensitive NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) detector system was developed. To date this system, in combination with more routine bioassays, remains the optimum methodology for the determination of internal exposure to low energy, photon-emitting radionuclides. Since most occupational exposures occur by inhalation, internal deposits must be quantitated with these detectors placed over the lung area. Since many of the alpha-emitting nuclides are bone-seekers, the contribution of material which has been transported from the lung and deposited in the skeleton must be accounted for

  17. Primordial Radionuclides Distribution and dose Evaluation in Udagamandalam Region of Nilgiris in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikandan, N. Muguntha; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Raghunath, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    The activity concentration of primordial radionuclides i.e., 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K, in soil samples collected from Udagamandalam environment, have been measured by employing NaI (TI) Gamma ray Spectrometer. The absorbed gamma dose rate has also been simultaneously measured by using both environmental radiation dosimeter at each soil sampling location (ambient gamma dose) as well as from the gamma dose derived from the activity concentration of the primordial radionuclides. The results of activity concentration of each radionuclides in soil, absorbed dose rate in air due to soil activity and possible cosmic radiation at each location along with human effective dose equivalent for Udagamandalam environment are presented and discussed

  18. Primordial Radionuclides Distribution and dose Evaluation in Udagamandalam Region of Nilgiris in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, N. Muguntha; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Meenakshisundaram, V. [Bharathiar Univ., Coimbatore (India); Raghunath, V. M. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2001-09-15

    The activity concentration of primordial radionuclides i.e., {sup 238}U series, {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K, in soil samples collected from Udagamandalam environment, have been measured by employing NaI (TI) Gamma ray Spectrometer. The absorbed gamma dose rate has also been simultaneously measured by using both environmental radiation dosimeter at each soil sampling location (ambient gamma dose) as well as from the gamma dose derived from the activity concentration of the primordial radionuclides. The results of activity concentration of each radionuclides in soil, absorbed dose rate in air due to soil activity and possible cosmic radiation at each location along with human effective dose equivalent for Udagamandalam environment are presented and discussed.

  19. Radioactivity measurement of primordial radionuclides in and dose evaluation from marble and glazed tiles used as covering building materials in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, S.; Varinlioglu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of the natural radioactivity arising from primordial radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) in marble and glazed tile samples used covering building materials in Turkey were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometer with a high purity germanium detector. The mean activity concentrations of the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in marble and glazed tile samples were found as 8.2, 5.5 and 58.1 Bq kg -1 and 81.2, 65.4 and 450.1 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The radiation doses received by occupants of buildings in which the sample marble and glazed tiles might be used are estimated using measured activity concentrations of constituent primordial radionuclides and dose conversion factors evaluated by the European Commission from models of tile use. Results obtained are presented for each radionuclide, analysed and compared with relevant national and international legislation, guidance and report, and with the results obtained from other studies. Results show that the use of such decorative building materials in the construction of domestic homes or workplaces in Turkey is unlikely to lead to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants. (authors)

  20. The results of artificial radionuclides monitoring in the Baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrauskiene, N.; Lukinskiene, M; Zemaitiene, G.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term radionuclides volume activity (v.a.) monitoring (1976-1990) data showed that measurement results obtained in steady observation station give reliable information of the coastal area of the Baltic sea radioactive equilibrium between atmosphere and surface water was observed in the coastal zone. Chernobyl Power Plant accident influenced upon the Baltic sea coastal water by radionuclides 137 Cs and 144 Ce. Radionuclide 90 Sr volume activity was practically unchangerable. The mechanism of radionuclides fallout from atmosphere are various. lt can be illustrated by 137 Cs and 144 Ce a.v. structure field variations in open sea and coastal zone near Juodkrante. The Baltic sea inhomogeneous contamination by radionuclide 137 Cs in 1988-1990 leads to equalization of 137 Cs v.a. in the surface waters and it causes v.a. increase in coastal waters. (author)

  1. ALPHA/AMPU, Radionuclide Radioactivity from Alpha Spectrometer Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The two computer programs, ALPHA and AMPU, take raw data obtained from alpha spectrometry and from these calculate activities and uncertainties of the radionuclides present in the sample. ALPHA determines activities of any alpha emitter in a sample that has been directly precipitated with NdF 3 . AMPU determines the Pu-239, Pu-238,and Am-241 activities using Pu-236 and Am-243 tracers. 2 - Method of solution: These programs propagate all random and systematic uncertainties, found anywhere in the experimental process, to the final result. The result is rounded and is in decimal agreement with the uncertainty. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: In ALPHA, a chemical yield of 98% is assumed

  2. International symposium on low level measurements of radionuclides in the environment, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The International Symposium of Low-Level Measurements of Radionuclides in the Environment was held on April 19-23, 2004 in Guilin, China, and sponsored by the Chinese Nuclear Society. The articles are published in the form of abstracts, and the contents include: 1. special lectures; 2.Environmental Radioanalysis; 3. Concentration and migration of radionuclides; 4. Analysis with instrumentation and applications; 5. preparation of samples and trace in living beings; 6. Environment impact assessment and calculation of dose; 7. Decommissioning, monitoring in emergency condition and others

  3. Measurement of the terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bafra Kizilirmak delta (bird sanctuary) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuk, Halil; Gümüs, Hasan; Turhan, Seref

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclides in the soil samples collected from Bafra Kızılırmak Delta were measured by using gamma spectrometry with an NaI(Tl) detector. The average values of activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 37.2±2.8, 33.7±3.1 and 413.0±59.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. (137)Cs was also measured in some samples. It has a mean value of 13.8±1.0 Bq kg(-1). From the activity concentrations, the absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and external hazard index (Hex) were estimated.

  4. Measurement of beta emitting radionuclides in dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tastan, S.; Soylu, A.; Kucuk, O.; Ibis, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radionuclides for diagnostics purposes like Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67 and In-111 are measured by using ionization type of dose calibrators. Therapeutic radionuclides, which emit both beta and gamma rays are detected by the same type of dose calibrators. Other therapeutic products like Y-90, P-32 and Sr-89 are pure beta emitters and they are gaining wider utility because various new therapy radiopharmaceuticals are being developed. The type of container material, like glass or plastic, may seriously affect radioactivity measurement due to attenuation, Since it is crucial to give the exact amount of radioactivity to the patient for therapy purposes, dedicated dose calibrators are specially manufactured for the measurement of these radionuclides. But these measuring systems are not widely available in nuclear medicine centers where therapy is applied to the patient. It is a known fact that dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments can be calibrated for vials and syringes using standard sources of the same radioisotope. The method of calibration of Y-90 measurement for two ionization chamber dose calibrators available in the institute will be summarized in this presentation

  5. Measurement of beta emitting radionuclides in dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tastan, S.; Soylu, A.; Kucuk, O.; Ibis, E.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclides for diagnostics purposes like Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67 and In-111 are measured by using ionization type of dose calibrators. Therapeutic radionuclides, which emit both beta and gamma rays are detected by the same type of dose calibrators. Other therapeutic products like Y-90, P-32 and Sr-89 are pure beta emitters and they are gaining wider utility because various new therapy radiopharmaceuticals are being developed. The type of container material, like glass or plastic, may seriously affect radioactivity measurement due to attenuation, Since it is crucial to give the exact amount of radioactivity to the patient for therapy purposes, dedicated dose calibrators are specially manufactured for the measurement of these radionuclides. But these measuring systems are not widely available in nuclear medicine centers where therapy is applied to the patient. It is a known fact that dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments can be calibrated for vials and syringes using standard sources of the same radioisotope. The method of calibration of Y-90 measurement for two ionization chamber dose calibrators available in the institute will be summarized in this presentation. (author)

  6. Measurement of natural and artificial radionuclide concentrations in meat consumed in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, S.Y.; Yu, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    Radionuclides in meat are determined using the EG and G ORTEC photon spectrometer system. Most of the naturally occurring radionuclides are found to have specific activities below the detectable limit. For our samples, 40 K is found to have values ranging from 295-407 Bq/kg, 172-423 Bq/kg and 172-282 Bq/kg for beef, pork and chicken meat samples, respectively, while 137 Cs has values from 0.19-2 Bq/kg, 0.34-0.71 Bq/kg and 0.12-0.53 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated weighted committed dose equivalent due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides and 137 Cs in meat is 137 Cs in both sexes are less than the level recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  7. National comparison on volume sample activity measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.; Grigorescu, E.L.; Popescu, C.; Razdolescu, C.

    1992-01-01

    A national comparison on volume sample activity measurements methods may be regarded as a step toward accomplishing the traceability of the environmental and food chain activity measurements to national standards. For this purpose, the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory has distributed 137 Cs and 134 Cs water-equivalent solid standard sources to 24 laboratories having responsibilities in this matter. Every laboratory has to measure the activity of the received source(s) by using its own standards, equipment and methods and report the obtained results to the organizer. The 'measured activities' will be compared with the 'true activities'. A final report will be issued, which plans to evaluate the national level of precision of such measurements and give some suggestions for improvement. (Author)

  8. Determination of long-lived radionuclides in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Riki

    2001-01-01

    This review summarized the recent papers published after 1985, because Higuchi had written 'Radiometry in Environment' for Advanced Review in this journal, 1985. Separation, purification and measurement method of long-lived radionuclide without light elements are reported. To determine radionuclide in the environment, a pretreatment of sample such as enrichment and separation is need. An extraction chromatography and adsorbents, for example, active carbon and AMP, were developed for the above objects. For analysis of low level radionuclide, background was decreased. ICP-MS, RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy) and AMS were used to determine mass of long-lived ones. ICP-MS can measure 93 Zr, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 129 I and 135 Cs in the radioactive waste without a chemical analysis. RIMS determined 41 Ca, 236-244 Pu, 90 Sr and 237 Np. AMS showed good results for pure beta emitter nuclides ad trace long-lived radionuclide, for example, 14 C, 10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 129 I and 236 U. Measurement method and results of 14 C, 10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 41 Ca, 63 Ni, 79 Se, 85 Kr, 99 Tc, 129 I, 237 Np and Pu were explained. (S.Y.)

  9. Summary of activation cross section measurements at FNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kasugai, Y.; Kumar, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation cross sections around 14 MeV for seventeen reactions have been measured at the FNS facility in JAERI in order to provide experimental data meeting the requirement in the radioactive wastes disposal assessment in the D-T fusion reactor. This report summarizes contributing data measured in several phases of experiments to the IAEA-CRP on ''Activation Cross sections for the Generation of Long-Lived radionuclides of Importance in Fusion Reactor Technology''. (author). 18 refs, 1 tab

  10. Radionuclide Angiocardiographic Evaluation of Left-to-Right Cardiac Shunts: Analysis of Time-Active Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Chi Kyung

    1987-01-01

    The noninvasive nature of the radionuclide angiocardiography provided a useful approach for the evaluation of left-to-right cardiac shunts (LRCS). While the qualitative information can be obtained by inspection of serial radionuclide angiocardiograms, the quantitative information of radionuclide angiocardiography can be obtained by the analysis of time-activity curves using advanced computer system. The count ratios method and pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio (QP/QS) by gamma variate fit method were used to evaluate the accuracy of detection and localization of LRCS. One hundred and ten time-activity curves were analyzed. There were 46 LRCS (atrial septal defects 11, ventricular septal defects 22, patent ductus arteriosus 13) and 64 normal subjects. By computer analysis of time-activity curves of the right atriurn, ventricle and the lungs separately, the count ratios modified by adding the mean cardiac transit time were calculated in each anatomic site. In normal subjects the mean count ratios in the right atrium, ventricle and lungs were 0.24 on average. In atrial septal defects, the count ratios were high in the right atrium, ventricle and lungs, whereas in ventricular septal defects the count ratios were higher only in the right ventricle and lungs. Patent ductus arteriosus showed normal count ratios in the heart but high count ratios were obtained in the lungs. Thus, this count ratios method could be separated normal from those with intracardiac or extracardiac shunts, and moreover, with this method the localization of the shunt level was possible in LRCS. Another method that could differentiate the intracardiac shunts from extracardiac shunts was measuring QP/QS in the left and right lungs. In patent ductus arteriosus, the left lung QP/QS was higher than those of the right lung, whereas in atrial septal defects and ventricular septal defects QP/ QS ratios were equal in both lungs. From this study, it was found that by measuring QP/QS separately in the lungs

  11. Radiochemical Procedures Used at Iaea-Ilmr Monaco for Measuring Artificial Radionuclides Resulting from the Chernobyl Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J. J.

    The Chernobyl accident which occurred on 26 April 1986 resulted in relatively high levels of radioactive fallout over the major part of Europe. Air filter and precipitation samples enabled us to follow the contamination from the accident. In addition contamination was also monitored in selected environmental samples such as seaweeds, sea water, sediment, soil, suspended matter and biological material from the Mediterranean. All samples were counted on Ge(Li) or Ge(HP) detectors to determine the type and quantity of gamma emitting radionuclides and plutonium, americium and curium isotopes were separated and measured using radiochemical techniques and alpha counting. Increased atmospheric radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident was first detected by observing increased activity levels on air filters taken on April 30, 1986, with maximum activities occurring during 1-3 May. Most of the radionuclides initially measured were short-lived fission products. Cs-137 was one of the predominant isotope in the fallout debris and its deposition at Monaco due to Chernobyl was estimated to be around 1400 Bq m-2, which represents 25-40% of the integrated fallout at this latitude. The deposition of Pu-239+240 was much smaller and was estimated to be around 10 mBq m-2 or only 0.1% of the total deposition from nuclear weapon testing.

  12. Measurements of 60Co in spoons activated by neutrons during the JCO criticality accident at Tokai-mura in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparro, J.; Hult, M.; Komura, K.; Arnold, D.; Holmes, L.; Johnston, P.N.; Laubenstein, M.; Neumaier, S.; Reyss, J.-L.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Tagziria, H.; Van Britsom, G.; Vasselli, R.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activated items from the vicinity of the place where the JCO criticality accident occurred have been used to determine the fluence of neutrons around the facility and in nearby residential areas. By using underground laboratories for measuring the activation products, it is possible to extend the study to also cover radionuclides with very low activities from long-lived radionuclides. The present study describes γ-ray spectrometry measurements undertaken in a range of underground laboratories for the purpose of measuring 60 Co more than 2 years after the criticality event. The measurements show that neutron fluence determined from 60 Co activity is in agreement with previous measurements using the short-lived radionuclides 51 Cr and 59 Fe. Limits on contamination of the samples with 60 Co are evaluated and shown to not greatly affect the utility of neutron fluence determinations using 60 Co activation

  13. Measurements of 60Co in spoons activated by neutrons during the JCO criticality accident at Tokai-mura in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparro, J; Hult, M; Komura, K; Arnold, D; Holmes, L; Johnston, P N; Laubenstein, M; Neumaier, S; Reyss, J-L; Schillebeeckx, P; Tagziria, H; Van Britsom, G; Vasselli, R

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activated items from the vicinity of the place where the JCO criticality accident occurred have been used to determine the fluence of neutrons around the facility and in nearby residential areas. By using underground laboratories for measuring the activation products, it is possible to extend the study to also cover radionuclides with very low activities from long-lived radionuclides. The present study describes gamma-ray spectrometry measurements undertaken in a range of underground laboratories for the purpose of measuring (60)Co more than 2 years after the criticality event. The measurements show that neutron fluence determined from (60)Co activity is in agreement with previous measurements using the short-lived radionuclides (51)Cr and (59)Fe. Limits on contamination of the samples with (60)Co are evaluated and shown to not greatly affect the utility of neutron fluence determinations using (60)Co activation.

  14. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-01-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11–12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO 2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the 238 U ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and 232 Th ( 232 Th, 228 Ra) family radionuclides as well as 40 K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides in

  15. Comparison of equilibrium radionuclide and contrast angiographic measurements of left ventricular peak ejection and filling rates and their time intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugrue, D.D.; Dickie, S.; Newman, H.; Myers, M.J.; Lavender, J.P.; McKenna, W.J. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK))

    1984-10-01

    A comparison has been made of the equilibrium radionuclide and contrast angiographic estimates of normalized peak rates of ejection (PER) and filling (PFR) and their time intervals in twenty-one patients with cardiac disorders. Contrast angiographic and radionuclide measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), PER and PFR correlated well but time intervals correlated poorly. Mean values for radionuclide LVEF, PER and PFR were significantly lower and radionuclide time intervals were significantly longer compared to contrast angiography measurements.

  16. Metrology of natural radionuclides. Current challenges in radiation protection for industry and the environment; Metrologie natuerlicher Radionuklide. Aktuelle Herausforderungen fuer den Strahlenschutz in Industrie und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maringer, F.J. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria). Referat fuer ionisierende Strahlung und Radioaktivitaet; Univ. fuer Bodenkultur, Wien (Austria). Low-Level Counting Lab. Arsenal; Moser, H.; Kabrt, F. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria). Referat fuer ionisierende Strahlung und Radioaktivitaet; Baumgartner, A.; Stietka, M. [Univ. fuer Bodenkultur, Wien (Austria). Low-Level Counting Lab. Arsenal

    2015-07-01

    In a range of industrial branches increased activity concentrations of natural radionuclides occur in various NORM materials processed. The ICRP 103 recommendation, and subsequent the IAEA International Basic Safety Standards and the European Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, raised new challenges in radiation protection concerning natural radionuclide metrology and activity measurement methods - in particular for natural decay chain radionuclides ({sup 238}U+, {sup 232}Th+, {sup 235}U+). Especially adequate traceability and optimized measurement uncertainties of applied activity measurement methods are of increasing concern. In this paper a review on radionuclide metrology of natural radionuclides and its implementation to end-user activity measurement methods and practice is presented. This includes an overview on current and emerging drivers, targets, challenges, deliverables, technologies and stakeholders in the field. Current research results on activity measurement standards and instrumentation for natural radionuclides, revised decay data, in-situ measurement methods, NORM reference materials, are covered as well as benefits of natural radionuclide metrology on radiation protection of workers and the public.

  17. Proposal of limits for the concentration of radionuclides activity in drinking water for Polish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipiak, B.; Haratym, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The paper discussed the influence of the radionuclides contents in drinking water on the exposure of the population. The way of transformation of the limits of effective dose into the relevant concentration of radionuclides in drinking water is presented together with the results of these calculations. We propose to approve these limits for particular radionuclides. The suggestion for the methodology and organization of measurements are also given. (author)

  18. The measurement of released radionuclides during TIG-Welding and Grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.-H.; Reineking, A.; Eder, E.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological relevance of the TIG welding using thoriated tungsten electrodes has recently been proved by means of different studies. As a result of this the TUEV Sueddeutschland and the University of Goettingen have carried out special investigations concerning the release of radionuclides during TIG welding. The main emphasis of these investigations were the representativity of various sampling techniques, the influence of various parameters during welding as well as the determination of activity size distributions related to the aerodynamic diameter of the inhaled aerosols. The properties of the tungsten rods are improved through the addition of radioactive thorium. We investigated the radiation exposure by handling with thoriated tungsten welding rods. We investigated the different exposure pathways and determined the specific activity in dependence to the different types of welding rods. By carrying out surveys with the users, we determined the exposure pathways for the individual exposed persons: TIG - hand-welders', TIG 'machine-welders', labourers, other persons. We measured the activity concentration of the breathing air while welding, at grinding the electrodes and by staying in the rooms where usually it's welded. The size distribution of the aerosol-attached activity was determined with several kinds of impactors. The main emphasis was the comparison of the different sampling systems at the measuring of the activity concentration of the breathing air. Selective sampling by impactors: · Berner-impactor, stationary · Sierra-impactor, stationary · Anderson-Imcaktor, stationary · Marple-impactor, personal sampler Aerosol sampling by air samplers · 5 personal air sampler · 2 stationary sampler, ring face · 2 stationary sampler, open face Rn-220-Measurements · Thoron-monitor Determination of activities on measuring filters · alpha spectrometry · low-level-gamma-spectrometry. For the various exposed persons, at the extern irradiation with gamma

  19. Radionuclides from the Fukushima accident in the air over Lithuania: measurement and modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujanienė, G; Byčenkienė, S; Povinec, P P; Gera, M

    2012-12-01

    Analyses of (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs in airborne aerosols were carried out in daily samples in Vilnius, Lithuania after the Fukushima accident during the period of March-April, 2011. The activity concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs ranged from 12 μBq/m(3) and 1.4 μBq/m(3) to 3700 μBq/m(3) and 1040 μBq/m(3), respectively. The activity concentration of (239,240)Pu in one aerosol sample collected from 23 March to 15 April, 2011 was found to be 44.5 nBq/m(3). The two maxima found in radionuclide concentrations were related to complicated long-range air mass transport from Japan across the Pacific, the North America and the Atlantic Ocean to Central Europe as indicated by modelling. HYSPLIT backward trajectories and meteorological data were applied for interpretation of activity variations of measured radionuclides observed at the site of investigation. (7)Be and (212)Pb activity concentrations and their ratios were used as tracers of vertical transport of air masses. Fukushima data were compared with the data obtained during the Chernobyl accident and in the post Chernobyl period. The activity concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs were found to be by 4 orders of magnitude lower as compared to the Chernobyl accident. The activity ratio of (134)Cs/(137)Cs was around 1 with small variations only. The activity ratio of (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu in the aerosol sample was 1.2, indicating a presence of the spent fuel of different origin than that of the Chernobyl accident. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentration of some radionuclides in some popular sudanese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagiroun, M. I. A.

    2012-10-01

    In this study was measured concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 2 38U , 2 32T h and 4 0K in samples of sudanese medicinal plants. The radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed ranged from 4.09 to 41.07 Bq kg -1 for 2 38T h and from 353.14 to 2270.21 Bq kg -1 for 4 0k . No trace of artificial radionuclide was determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated and found to be 0.524 mSv/year which is well below the permissible levels. (Author)

  1. Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Program and related research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents the results of technical studies conducted under the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the period of October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986. The HRMP was initiated in 1973 as the Radionuclide Migration Program to study and better understand the hydrologic systems of the NTS and potential movement and rates of movement of radionuclides and other contaminants injected into these systems by underground nuclear testing

  2. Activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dahai

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings contain the progress reports of the Coordinated Research Programme to measure and evaluate the activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology and the contributed papers (9) presented at the Consultants' Meeting held at Argonne National Laboratory between 11-12 September 1989. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Measurement of sorption ratios for selected radionuclides on various geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, S.C.; Coles, D.G.; Weed, H.C.

    1978-09-01

    Experiments have been conducted to determine the sorptive characteristics of a variety of rocks and minerals with respect to several radionuclides of interest. This information will be used in the determination of the rates of radionuclide migration from nuclear waste repositories. The R/sub d/ values can be arranged according to the following inequalities: Pu greater than Cs, except for biotite; Cs greater than Sr, except for limestone; Sr greater than Tc. The exceptions are considered significant for Pu vs Cs on biotite, but not for Cs vs Sr on limestone. The low R/sub d/ values for Tc indicate that within the limits of measurement it is not sorbed under the experimental conditions studied

  4. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  5. Measurements of {sup 60}Co in spoons activated by neutrons during the JCO criticality accident at Tokai-mura in 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparro, J.; Hult, M. E-mail: mikael.hult@irmm.jrc.be; Komura, K.; Arnold, D.; Holmes, L.; Johnston, P.N.; Laubenstein, M.; Neumaier, S.; Reyss, J.-L.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Tagziria, H.; Van Britsom, G.; Vasselli, R

    2004-07-01

    Neutron activated items from the vicinity of the place where the JCO criticality accident occurred have been used to determine the fluence of neutrons around the facility and in nearby residential areas. By using underground laboratories for measuring the activation products, it is possible to extend the study to also cover radionuclides with very low activities from long-lived radionuclides. The present study describes {gamma}-ray spectrometry measurements undertaken in a range of underground laboratories for the purpose of measuring {sup 60}Co more than 2 years after the criticality event. The measurements show that neutron fluence determined from {sup 60}Co activity is in agreement with previous measurements using the short-lived radionuclides {sup 51}Cr and {sup 59}Fe. Limits on contamination of the samples with {sup 60}Co are evaluated and shown to not greatly affect the utility of neutron fluence determinations using {sup 60}Co activation.

  6. Field surveying of radionuclide contamination in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turunen, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Ammann, M.

    2009-01-01

    Field measurements of radionuclides after an accidental contamination of forests assume the capacity for identification of a number of nuclides in varying source geometries. The continuous redistribution of radionuclides in forests through natural processes implies a decrease of prevailing surface contamination of trees and an increase in activity density on the ground. Portable gamma spectrometers have long been based on Na(I) detectors which, due to their low energy resolution, are not the tool for analysis of contamination from accidental releases of fission and activation products in the first days or weeks after a deposition. Data of airborne radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 were used for demonstration of initial and later distribution of radionuclides as sources of air Kerma in forests. Forest model (FDMF, PV. 6.0) of the RODOS system was used for the assessment of time-dependent Kerma rate from different forest compartments. The results show the fast reduction of activities of short-lived nuclides and their contributions to the Kerma rate in the first weeks and months. The results also give an estimate for the time needed until a gamma spectrometer with a low energy resolution would give useful information about long-lived radioactivity on the forest floor. An example is given on a portable high resolution semiconductor spectrometer that has suitable characteristics for field surveying also during occurrence of a great number of radionuclides contributing to the gamma spectrum. The needs for further research of a recently deposited radionuclide contamination on forest vegetation and soil, and the efforts for improvement of portable radiation meters and their use in management planning and radioecological research on contaminated forests are discussed. (au)

  7. New ways enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N. V; Zebrakova, I. V.; Matsko, V. P.; Kislushko, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    After Chernobyl nuclear accident it has become very important to seek new ways of enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation. It is found that by optimizing the vital activity processes in plants, is possible to reduce radionuclide uptake. A great number of biologically active compounds have been tested, which increased the disease resistance of plants and simultaneously activated the physiological and biochemical processes that control the transport of micro- and macroelements (radionuclide included) and their 'soil-root-stem-leaf' redistribution. (author)

  8. The radionuclides of primary coolant in HANARO and the recent activities performed to reduce the radioactivity or reactor pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin [HANARO Research Reactor Centre, Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    In HANARO reactor, there have been activities to identify the principal radionuclides and to quantify them under the normal operation. The purposes of such activities were to establish the measure by which we can reduce the radioactivity of the reactor pool water and detect, in early stage, the abnormal symptoms due to the leakage of radioactive materials from the irradiation sample or the damage of the nuclear fuel, etc. The typical radionuclides produced by the activation of reactor coolant are N{sup 16} and Ar{sup 41}. The radionuclides produced by the activation of the core structural material consist of Na{sup 24}, Mn{sup 56}, and W{sup 187}. Of the various radionuclides, governing the radiation level at the pool surface are Na{sup 24}, Ar{sup 41}, Mn{sup 58}, and W{sup 187}. By establishing the hot water layer system on the pool surface, we expected that the radionuclides such as Ar{sup 41} and Mn{sup 56} whose half-life are relatively short could be removed to a certain extent. Since the content of radioactivity of Na{sup 24} occupies about 60% of the total radioactivity, we assumed that the total radiation level would be greatly reduced if we could decrease the radiation level of Na{sup 24}. However the actual radiation level has not been reduced as much as we expected. Therefore, some experiments have been carried out to find the actual causes afterwards. What we learned through the experiments are that any disturbance in reactor pool water layer causes increase of the pool surface radiation level and even if we maintain the hot water layer well, reactor shutdown will be very much likely to happen once the hot water layer is disturbed. (author)

  9. Intercomparison of 131I activity measurements in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G. Y.; Yang, H. K.; Lim, C. I.; Lee, H. K.; Jeong, H. K.

    2004-01-01

    Activity measurements in nuclear medicine using a dose calibrator have been performed for several decades and their reliability has varied. To minimise the radiation dose to patients with radionuclides, it is necessary to ensure that the sample administered is accurately assayed. Recognizing the importance of intercomparison in nuclear medicine and the need to make access to activity standards traceable to the international measurement system, the KFDA, as a national secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL), started an intercomparison program in 2002. This program was initiated by survey to all nuclear medicine centres regarding general information about their dose calibrators, radioisotopes etc. 71 nuclear medicine centres (79 dose calibrators) participated in the intercomparison program with 131 I isotope. To assess the accuracy of clinical measurements of the activity of 131 I solutions and to determine the reason for the disagreement, an intercomparison was conducted using 4 ml aliquots in 10 ml P6 vial with a total activity in the region of 10 -20 MBq. The reference time of decay for all solutions was 0:00 on 25 September 2002. The half-life used was 8.04 days. For the evaluation of solution in KFDA, a sealed, high pressure and re-entrant ionisation chamber, NPL-CRC radionuclide calibrators were used. The verification of our calibration quality was by means of a comparison with the Korea Primary Standard Laboratory (KRISS). The activity ratio of KFDA to KRISS for the 131 I solutions is 1.011. The difference between the value quoted by the clinic, A hospital and the value obtained by the KFDA, A KFDA , is expressed as a percent deviation, i.e. DEV(%) 100x(A hospital -A KFDA )/A KFDA . From the data obtained it was found that 61% of the calibrators showed a deviation within +/-5%; 23% had a deviation in the range 5% 131 I solution activity measurements, using dose calibrators in Koreas, and also to provide the participants with a traceable standard to

  10. Seasonal variation of radionuclides in Fucus vesiculosus L. from the Oresund, Southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, L.; Erlandsson, B.

    1991-01-01

    The activity concentrations of radionuclides ( 60 Co, 54 Mn, 137 Cs, 40 K) in whole plants of Fucus vesiculosus of different ages, and also in tissues of different ages from the same plant were investigated in the vicinity of the Barseback nuclear power plant in southern Sweden. Activity concentration differed between the tissues of different age of the plants, depending on the radionuclide as well as the time of year. The highest concentrations of 60 Co and 54 Mn were measured in the older parts of the plants in spring and summer, while the activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 40 K were highest in receptacles and new vegetative fronds. The discharge of radionuclides from the nuclear power plants was reflected in the measured activity concentration in the algae. For 60 Co, the response seemed to be smoothed out when considering the whole plant, while the new vegetative tissue better reflected the discharge during the autumn. Thus it is important to have knowledge about the autecology of the organism when it is used as an indicator for radionuclides. (author)

  11. Seasonal variation of radionuclides in Fucus vesiculosus L. from the Oeresund, southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Lena; Erlandsson, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    The activity concentrations of radionuclides ( 60 Co, 54 Mn, 137 Cs, 40 K) in whole plants of Fucus vesiculosus of different ages and also in tissues of different ages from the same plants were investigated in the vicinity of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant in southern Sweden. Activity concentration differed between the tissues of different age of the plants, depending on the radionuclide as well as the time of year. The highest concentration of 60 Co and 54 Mn was measured in the older parts of the plants in spring and summer, while the activity concentration of 137 Cs and 40 K was highest in receptacles and new vegetative fronds. The discharge of radionuclides from the nuclear power plant was reflected in the measured activity concentration in the algae. For 60 Co the response seemed to be smoothed out when considering the whole plant, while the new vegetative tissue better reflected the discharge during the autumn. Thus, it is important to have knowledge about the autecology of the organism when it is used as an indicator for radionuclides. (authors)

  12. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  13. Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)]. E-mail: narayanay@yahoo.com; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Avadhani, D.N.; Mahesh, H.M.; Siddappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)

    2000-09-01

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. As part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. The concentration of {sup 90}Sr is very low in most of the samples. Among the samples analysed for the concentration of {sup 137}Cs, soil samples showed elevated levels of activity in some sampling stations. Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of {sup 90}Sr through diet was 0.42 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the vegetarian population and 0.32 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the non-vegetarian population. The internal dose due to dietary intake of {sup 137}Cs was found to be 0.34 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} and 0.26 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} respectively for the vegetarian and non-vegetarian population. The results are discussed in the light of the literature values reported for other environs of India and abroad and appropriate inferences are drawn. (author)

  14. A Bayesian approach to assess data from radionuclide activity analyses in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, Manuel; Lourdes Romero, M.; Nunez-Lagos, Rafael; Bernardo, Jose M.

    2007-01-01

    A Bayesian statistical approach is introduced to assess experimental data from the analyses of radionuclide activity concentration in environmental samples (low activities). A theoretical model has been developed that allows the use of known prior information about the value of the measurand (activity), together with the experimental value determined through the measurement. The model has been applied to data of the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test organised periodically among Spanish environmental radioactivity laboratories that are producing the radiochemical results for the Spanish radioactive monitoring network. A global improvement of laboratories performance is produced when this prior information is taken into account. The prior information used in this methodology is an interval within which the activity is known to be contained, but it could be extended to any other experimental quantity with a different type of prior information available

  15. Status of subseabed repository design concepts and radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Various projects underway in support of the marine disposal of radioactive wastes are described. These include: geochemical studies on sediments; canister-related research and development activities; radionuclide transport studies through smectitic sediments; seawater-sediment interactions under near-field conditions; effects of a radiation field on high temperature, seawater-sediment interactions; sorption of fission products and actinides by deep-sea sediments under far-field (below 100 0 C) conditions; sorption experiments using column diffusion; development of a computer code, IONMIG, to model the migration of radionuclides through undisturbed deep-sea sediments; and planning for a field test of the laboratory measurements and computer models of radionuclide transport

  16. Measurement of some water quality parameters related to natural radionuclides in aqueous environmental samples from former tin mining lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Masitah Alias; Ahmad Saat; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2011-01-01

    The issue of water quality is a never ended issue and becoming more critical when considering the presence of natural radionuclides. Physical parameters and the levels of radionuclides may have some correlation and need further attention. In this study, the former tin mine lake in Kampong Gajah was chosen as a study area for its past historical background which might contribute to attenuation of the levels of natural radionuclides in water. The water samples were collected from different lakes using water sampler and some in-situ measurement were conducted to measure physical parameters as well as surface dose level. The water samples were analyzed for its gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations using liquid scintillation counting and in-house cocktail method. Gross alpha and beta analyzed using in-house cocktail are in the range of 3.17 to 8.20 Bq/ L and 9.89 to 22.20 Bq/ L; 1.64 to 8.78 Bq/ L and 0.22 to 28.22 Bq/ L, respectively for preserved and un-preserved sample. The surface dose rate measured using survey meter is in the range of 0.07 to 0.21 μSv/ h and 0.07 to 0.2 μSv/ h for surface and 1 meter above the surface of the water, respectively. (Author)

  17. Quality assurance in the analysis of natural radionuclides - measures and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, M [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    In the Laboratory for Environmental and Radionuclide Analytics we analyze several natural and also some artificial radionuclides in different materials. For the determination of radionuclides we use various analytical methods. (orig./DG)

  18. Discussion on monitoring items of radionuclides in influents from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanxia; Li Jin; Liu Jiacheng; Han Shanbiao; Yu Zhengwei

    2014-01-01

    For the radionuclide monitoring items of effluents from nuclear power plant, this paper makes some comparisons and analysis from three aspects of the international atomic energy general requirements, the routine radionuclide measurement items of China's nuclear power plant and effluents low level radionuclide experimental research results. Finally, it summarizes the necessary items and recommended items of the radionuclide monitoring of effluents from nuclear power plant, which can provide references for the radioactivity monitoring activities of nuclear power plant effluent and the supervisions of regulatory departments. (authors)

  19. Effects of the variation of samples geometry on radionuclide calibrator response for radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Fragoso, Maria Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the nuclear medicine practice, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radiopharmaceuticals which will be administered to the subjects is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The instrument used for this purpose is the radionuclide calibrator. The radiopharmaceuticals are usually contained on glass vials or syringes. However, the radionuclide calibrators response is sensitive to the measurement geometry. In addition, the calibration factors supplied by manufactures are valid only for single sample geometry. To minimize the uncertainty associated with the activity measurements, it is important to use the appropriate corrections factors for the each radionuclide in the specific geometry in which the measurement is to be made. The aims of this work were to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators varying the geometry of radioactive sources and to determine experimentally the correction factors for different volumes and containers types commonly used in nuclear medicine practice. The measurements were made in two ionization chambers of different manufacturers (Capintec and Biodex), using four radionuclides with different photon energies: {sup 18}F, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl. The results confirm the significant dependence of radionuclide calibrators reading on the sample geometry, showing the need of use correction factors in order to minimize the errors which affect the activity measurements. (author)

  20. Calibration and consistency of results of an ionization-chamber secondary standard measuring system for activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, Heinrich

    2000-01-01

    Calibration in terms of activity of the ionization-chamber secondary standard measuring systems at the PTB is described. The measurement results of a Centronic IG12/A20, a Vinten ISOCAL IV and a radionuclide calibrator chamber for nuclear medicine applications are discussed, their energy-dependent efficiency curves established and the consistency checked using recently evaluated radionuclide decay data. Criteria for evaluating and transferring calibration factors (or efficiencies) are given

  1. The activity of selected gamma radionuclides in the Tatra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubica Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cesium is naturally occurring active metal, represented by one stable isotope 133Cs, and number of artificial, unstable, isotopes. The most common artificial isotope of cesium is 137Cs, present in the environment of the Tatra Mountains due to nuclear weapon testing in late `50, and nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl in 1986. However in recent years the growth in biofuels use for power generation can be the next source of 137Cs emission. Burning wood cultivated on grounds contaminated by 137Cs can introduce secondary emission of this isotope to the atmosphere.This paper presents the results of determination of gamma emitting radionuclides artificial 137Cs and natural 40K in soil samples from the Tatra Mountains. Results show some differences in the vertical distribution of examined radionuclides. It was found that the change of activity of 137Cs in the soil samples depends mostly on the soil density and on the concentration of organic material. The state of “zero” 137Cs activity was developed in the form of maps.

  2. The measurement of released radionuclides during TIG-Welding and Grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.-H. [Technical Inspection Agency of Southern Germany (TUEV Sueddeutschland), Subdepartment Environmental Radioactivity, Munich (Germany); Reineking, A. [Isotope Laboratory for Biological and Medical Research, Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Eder, E. [Government of Bavaria, State Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs, Munich (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    The radiological relevance of the TIG welding using thoriated tungsten electrodes has recently been proved by means of different studies. As a result of this the TUEV Sueddeutschland and the University of Goettingen have carried out special investigations concerning the release of radionuclides during TIG welding. The main emphasis of these investigations were the representativity of various sampling techniques, the influence of various parameters during welding as well as the determination of activity size distributions related to the aerodynamic diameter of the inhaled aerosols. The properties of the tungsten rods are improved through the addition of radioactive thorium. We investigated the radiation exposure by handling with thoriated tungsten welding rods. We investigated the different exposure pathways and determined the specific activity in dependence to the different types of welding rods. By carrying out surveys with the users, we determined the exposure pathways for the individual exposed persons: TIG - hand-welders', TIG 'machine-welders', labourers, other persons. We measured the activity concentration of the breathing air while welding, at grinding the electrodes and by staying in the rooms where usually it's welded. The size distribution of the aerosol-attached activity was determined with several kinds of impactors. The main emphasis was the comparison of the different sampling systems at the measuring of the activity concentration of the breathing air. Selective sampling by impactors: {center_dot} Berner-impactor, stationary {center_dot} Sierra-impactor, stationary {center_dot} Anderson-Imcaktor, stationary {center_dot} Marple-impactor, personal sampler Aerosol sampling by air samplers {center_dot} 5 personal air sampler {center_dot} 2 stationary sampler, ring face {center_dot} 2 stationary sampler, open face Rn-220-Measurements {center_dot} Thoron-monitor Determination of activitys on measuring filters {center_dot} alpha

  3. Identification of Ambiguous Activities in Radionuclide Cisternography Using SPECT/CT: Aspirated and Ingested CSF Rhinorrhea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Jae Seung [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    A 2 year-old little girl underwent Tc-99m diethylenthriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) radionuclide cisternography to evaluate CSF rhinorrhea (Fig. 1). Cisternography clearly showed consecutive tracer activity in the nasal cavity and nasal tip, reflecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. However, several unexpected activities appeared on the bilateral mid- and unilateral lower thorax on delayed images, respectively. We performed additional SPECT/CT to delineate the CSF leakage tract and identify the unexpected activities. Through SPECT/CT, we could confirm that the mid-thoracic activity was in the lung parenchyma, while the lower thoracic activity was in the stomach. Thus, we speculated that these unexpected activities were the result of aspirated and ingested CSF rhinorrhea. CSF rhinorrhea occurs when there is a fistula between the dura mater and the skull base and discharge of CSF from the nose. A spinal fluid leak from the intracranial space to the nasal respiratory tract is potentially very serious because of the risk of an ascending infection that could produce fulminant meningitis. Therefore, identification of the fistulous tract is helpful for patient management. Radionuclide cisternography is an important imaging modality to detect the site of leakage in patients with CSF rhinorrhea. The combination of radionuclide cistenography and SPECT/CT has led to a major improvement in the diagnostic accuracy for localization of CSF leakage. This case also shows an important role for SPECT/CT fusion imaging in radionuclide cisternography not only for localizing the primary CSF fistula tract, but also for evaluating ambiguous radiotracer activities in planar imaging; these ultimately turned out to be aspirated and ingested CSF rhinorrhea.

  4. Identification of Ambiguous Activities in Radionuclide Cisternography Using SPECT/CT: Aspirated and Ingested CSF Rhinorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Jae Seung

    2014-01-01

    A 2 year-old little girl underwent Tc-99m diethylenthriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) radionuclide cisternography to evaluate CSF rhinorrhea (Fig. 1). Cisternography clearly showed consecutive tracer activity in the nasal cavity and nasal tip, reflecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. However, several unexpected activities appeared on the bilateral mid- and unilateral lower thorax on delayed images, respectively. We performed additional SPECT/CT to delineate the CSF leakage tract and identify the unexpected activities. Through SPECT/CT, we could confirm that the mid-thoracic activity was in the lung parenchyma, while the lower thoracic activity was in the stomach. Thus, we speculated that these unexpected activities were the result of aspirated and ingested CSF rhinorrhea. CSF rhinorrhea occurs when there is a fistula between the dura mater and the skull base and discharge of CSF from the nose. A spinal fluid leak from the intracranial space to the nasal respiratory tract is potentially very serious because of the risk of an ascending infection that could produce fulminant meningitis. Therefore, identification of the fistulous tract is helpful for patient management. Radionuclide cisternography is an important imaging modality to detect the site of leakage in patients with CSF rhinorrhea. The combination of radionuclide cistenography and SPECT/CT has led to a major improvement in the diagnostic accuracy for localization of CSF leakage. This case also shows an important role for SPECT/CT fusion imaging in radionuclide cisternography not only for localizing the primary CSF fistula tract, but also for evaluating ambiguous radiotracer activities in planar imaging; these ultimately turned out to be aspirated and ingested CSF rhinorrhea

  5. The measurement of activity in vials and syringes using a radionuclide assay calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, S.A.; Davies, I.H.

    1993-01-01

    To enable accurate measurements of the activity in both vials and syringes, a series of measurements was undertaken to ascertain the changes in response with geometry in nine isotope assay calibrators. From these measurements, two jigs were made for each calibrator to enable (a) optimal measurement of activity in vials and (b) optimal measurement of activity in a variety of syringe sizes. (Author)

  6. Pulmonary blood flow distribution measured by radionuclide computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, H.; Itoh, H.; Ishii, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Distributions of pulmonary blood flow per unit lung volume were measured in sitting patients with a radionuclide computed tomography (RCT) by intravenously administered Tc-99m macroaggregates of human serum albumin (MAA). Four different types of distribution were distinguished, among which a group referred as type 2 had a three zonal blood flow distribution as previously reported (West and co-workers, 1964). The pulmonary arterial pressure (Pa) and the venous pressure (Pv) were determined in this group of distribution. These values showed satifactory agreements with the pulmonary artery pressure (Par) and the capillary wedged pressure (Pcw) measured by Swan-Ganz catheter in eighteen supine patients. Those good correlations enable to establish a noninvasive methodology for measurement of pulmonary vascular pressures

  7. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, R.

    1997-04-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected radionuclide in fuels. It's activity concentration in Bq/kg normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from K in emission from combustion is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to man are the U- and Th-isotopes and 210 Pb and 210 Po. 137 Cs is the most common nuclide among the fission products in fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137 Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approx. only a few μSv from inhalation can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 manSv/year. 143 refs

  8. Determination of the germanium detector efficiency for measurements of the radionuclide activity contained in a radioactive waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Gallardo, S.; Ballester, S.; Hoyler, F.

    2006-01-01

    One of the features in the characterization of a drum containing radioactive wastes is to verify the activity of radionuclides contained in the drum. An H.P. Ge detector can be used for this measurement. However, it is necessary to perform an efficiency calibration for all geometries involved. In the framework of a joint project between the Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain) and the Fachbereich Angewandte Naturwissenschaften und Technik (Fachhochschule Aachen, Abteilung Julich, Germany), different configurations for a drum containing radioactive sources have been implemented in the laboratory. A cylindrical drum of 850 mm height, a diameter equal to 560 mm and 3 mm of steel thickness has been used in the experimental measurements. The drum contains a clay ceramic matrix whose chemical composition is 55% SiO 2 , 40% of Al 2 O 3 and 5% of TiO 2 . Several vertical PVC tubes having a diameter of 30 mm are inserted in the drum at different distances from the central axis. In the experiment, a pack of point sources with 133 Ba, 60 Co and 137 Cs is introduced into each one of the tubes. A ring-shape distributed source is generated by rotating the drum around its axis during the measurement. The detector efficiency is determined experimentally for these configurations. On the other hand, a Monte Carlo model, using the M.C.N.P. code, has been developed to simulate the drum, the clay matrix and the PVC tubes. The effect of the drum spinning has been reproduced simulating a ring source with different diameters. The model also includes detailed detector geometry. Using this Monte Carlo model, the detector efficiency is calculated for each configuration implemented in the laboratory. Comparison of results from Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurements should permit the validation of the M.C.N.P. model. Consequently it will be possible to obtain efficiency curves without experimental measurements. Therefore, these

  9. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 2. Radionuclide concentrations measured in the aquatic environment of the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    A marine monitoring programme was carried out within the framework of the IAEA's project entitled ''Study of the Radiological Situation at Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls'' with the aim of assessing present radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls. The terms of reference of the marine working group (WG2) included a review of the data provided by the French authorities on radionuclide distributions in the littoral and sub-littoral environments at the atolls. Further, using accredited international laboratories, it was decided to carry out sufficient and new independent monitoring work at and around the atolls in order to validate existing French data and, the same time, to provide a representative and high quality data set on current radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, with particular reference to the requirement of Task Group A for radiological assessment purposes. This work included measurements of the current radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, and estimation of concentration factors and K d values appropriate for the region. The variations in activity concentrations in the lagoons over the past few years are discussed, and the likely sources of activity implied by these data are identified where possible

  10. Measurement of gamma-ray dose rate in soil and transfer of radionuclides from soil to vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.; Akhter, P.; Khan, H.M.; Ismail, M.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of natural radionuclides in soil, vegetation and vegetable samples collected from some Northern areas of Pakistan was carried out by gamma -ray spectrometry (HPGe detector). The activity concentrations in soil ranged from 24.7 to 78.5 Bqkg/sup -1/, 21.7 to 75.3 Bqkg/sup -1/ and 298.5 to 570.8 Bqkg/sup -1/ for /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 40/K with the mean values of 42.1, 43.3 and 418.3 Bqkg/sup -1/, respectively. In the present analysis, /sup 40/K was the major radionuclide present in soil, vegetation, fruit and vegetable samples. The transfer factors of these radionuclides from soil to vegetation, fruit and vegetable were found in the order: /sup 40/K>/sup 232/Th>/sup 226/Ra. The mean value of outdoor and indoor absorbed dose rate (D) in air was 64.61 and 77.54 nGyh/sup -1/. The activity concentrations of radionuclides found in all samples were nominal. Therefore, they are not associated with any potential source of health hazard to the general public. (Orig./A.B.)

  11. Reconstruction of radionuclide intakes for the residents of East Urals Radioactive Trace (1957-2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstykh, Evgenia I.; Peremyslova, Lyudmila M.; Degteva, Marina O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Napier, Bruce A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) was formed after a chemical explosion in the radioactive waste-storage facility of the Mayak Production Association in 1957 (Southern Urals, Russia) and resulted in an activity dispersion of 7.4 x 10{sup 16} Bq into the atmosphere. Internal exposure due to ingestion of radionuclides with local foodstuffs was the main factor of public exposure at the EURT. The EURT cohort, combining residents of most contaminated settlements, was formed for epidemiological study at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Russia (URCRM). For the purpose of improvement of radionuclide intake estimates for cohort members, the following data sets collected in URCRM were used: (1) Total β-activity and radiochemical measurements of {sup 90}Sr in local foodstuffs over all of the period of interest (1958-2011; n = 2200), which were used for relative {sup 90}Sr intake estimations. (2) {sup 90}Sr measurements in human bones and whole body (n = 338); these data were used for average {sup 90}Sr intake derivations using an age- and gender-dependent Sr-biokinetic model. Non-strontium radionuclide intakes were evaluated on the basis of {sup 90}Sr intake data and the radionuclide composition of contaminated foodstuffs. Validation of radionuclide intakes during the first years after the accident was first carried out using measurements of the feces β-activity of EURT residents (n = 148). The comparison of experimental and reconstructed values of feces β-activity shows good agreement. {sup 90}Sr intakes for residents of settlements evacuated 7-14 days after the accident were also obtained from {sup 90}Sr measurements in human bone and whole body. The results of radionuclide intake reconstruction will be used to estimate the internal doses for the members of the EURT cohort. (orig.)

  12. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  13. Quality audit programme for {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I radioactivity measurements with radionuclide calibrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Leena [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: leena@barc.gov.in; Anuradha, R.; Kulkarni, D.B. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2008-06-15

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy has increased over the years with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I being most widely used. Quality audit programmes for radioactivity measurements of {sup 131}I have been ongoing and the 12th audit was recently conducted among seventy nuclear medicine centres (NMC) in India. An audit for the activity measurements of {sup 99m}Tc was conducted for the first time among ten NMCs in Mumbai, India. These programmes for radioactivity measurements have become very important to establish traceability of measurements to national and international standards and ensure accurate calibration of radionuclide calibrators. The results of both the audits are very encouraging. Ninety-four percent of the NMCs for {sup 131}I activity measurements were within a window of {+-}10% and for {sup 99m}Tc one NMC was deviating more than {+-}10%. The methodology adopted for the audit and results are discussed in detail in this paper.

  14. How do radionuclides behave in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerzabek, M

    1986-01-01

    The surface fallout of J, Cs, Ru, Sr and Pu after Chernobyl is given in a table. Another table indicates activities of J, Cs and Ru measured in the soil at different depths up to 200mm. Comments are given on the mobility and spread of radionuclides in the soil. (G.Q.).

  15. A new simplified allometric approach for predicting the biological half-life of radionuclides in reptiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Wood, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    A major source of uncertainty in the estimation of radiation dose to wildlife is the prediction of internal radionuclide activity concentrations. Allometric (mass-dependent) relationships describing biological half-life (T 1/2b ) of radionuclides in organisms can be used to predict organism activity concentrations. The establishment of allometric expressions requires experimental data which are often lacking. An approach to predict the T 1/2b in homeothermic vertebrates has recently been proposed. In this paper we have adapted this to be applicable to reptiles. For Cs, Ra and Sr, over a mass range of 0.02–1.5 kg, resultant predictions were generally within a factor of 6 of reported values demonstrating that the approach can be used when measured T 1/2b data are lacking. However, the effect of mass on reptilian radionuclide T 1/2b is minimal. If sufficient measured data are available for a given radionuclide then it is likely that these would give a reasonable estimate of T 1/2b in any reptile species. - Highlights: • An allometric approach to predict radionuclide T 1/2b values in reptiles is derived. • Predictions are generally within a factor of six of measured values. • Radionuclide biological half-life is in-effect mass independent

  16. Radionuclides in man and his environment measured by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Erlandsson, Bengt; Kiisk, Madis; Persson, Per; Skog, Goeran; Stenstroem, Kristina; Mattsson, Soeren; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Olofsson, Mikael

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a highly sensitive analytical method for measuring very low concentrations of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. For radioanalytical purposes, the main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than one hour). In this report some current applications of the AMS technique at the Lund Pelletron accelerator are presented, in particular studies of 14 C-labeled pharmaceuticals used in clinical nuclear medicine and biomedical research

  17. Personnel dosimetry in internal radiation exposure by excretory radionuclide measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.; Bruk, G.Ya.; Korelina, N.F.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Repin, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The collaboration with the SAAS resulted in the development of a mathematical method to calculate radiation doses in human tissues attributed to inhaled radionuclides concerning their retention dynamics in the respiratory system and their uptake into the blood as well as the metabolic pathways in the organs. 'Sanep-stations' and radiation protection service elaborated nomograms for the determination of the commitment doses in the critical organs based on the radionuclide content of a 24-hours urinalysis without intermediate calculations. Recommendations for the use of the method and the nomograms for various radionuclides (solubility classes D and N with MAAD of 1 and 10 μm) are given in the methodological document: 'Indirect dosimetry of inhaled radionuclides in workers'. A calculation method for the annual dose of internal irradiation in tritium workers is also cited

  18. The effects of the marine biosphere and hydrosphere upon the specific activity of contaminant radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowman, F.G.

    1969-01-01

    Fusion and fission products as well as neutron induced radionuclides will be produced by the use of nuclear explosives for excavation. Stable elements from the geological matrix which are vaporized at the time of detonation will be vented in the same form as the radionuclides and will dilute the radionuclides to different specific activities depending upon the yield and design of the explosive, the neutron flux, neutron cross-sections for the stable elements and the homogeneity of the rock. Radionuclides in the cloud and fallout may be further diluted by pulverized rock on which they plate although the chemical forms may or may not be the same. This fallout material may be deposited into the sea and will react with sea water and its contained salts to precipitate or co-precipitate some radionuclides and release others as colloids or solutes where they will be subject to further dilution by the stable elements in sea water. The radionuclides will be subjected to varying amounts of physical and chemical dilution according to the physical environmental parameters. In some estuarine and upwelling areas of high biological productivity, the radionuclides and corresponding stable elements may become incorporated into cycles involving the biosphere, hydrosphere and bottom sediments in which the added material will remain in the area for longer periods of time than that expected from physical mixing and dilution. (author)

  19. The effects of the marine biosphere and hydrosphere upon the specific activity of contaminant radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowman, F G [Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)

    1969-07-01

    Fusion and fission products as well as neutron induced radionuclides will be produced by the use of nuclear explosives for excavation. Stable elements from the geological matrix which are vaporized at the time of detonation will be vented in the same form as the radionuclides and will dilute the radionuclides to different specific activities depending upon the yield and design of the explosive, the neutron flux, neutron cross-sections for the stable elements and the homogeneity of the rock. Radionuclides in the cloud and fallout may be further diluted by pulverized rock on which they plate although the chemical forms may or may not be the same. This fallout material may be deposited into the sea and will react with sea water and its contained salts to precipitate or co-precipitate some radionuclides and release others as colloids or solutes where they will be subject to further dilution by the stable elements in sea water. The radionuclides will be subjected to varying amounts of physical and chemical dilution according to the physical environmental parameters. In some estuarine and upwelling areas of high biological productivity, the radionuclides and corresponding stable elements may become incorporated into cycles involving the biosphere, hydrosphere and bottom sediments in which the added material will remain in the area for longer periods of time than that expected from physical mixing and dilution. (author)

  20. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyun, Woong Beom; Lee, Hyun Koo; Lee, Hai Yong; Park, Tae Soon

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4π γ ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4π γ ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054±0.024 pA. this 4π γ ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4π γ ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement

  1. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pyun, W B; Lee, H Y; Park, T S

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4 pi gamma ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054+-0.024 pA. this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement.

  2. Innovative methodology for intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators using short half-life in situ prepared radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P. A.; Santos, J. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: An original radionuclide calibrator method for activity determination is presented. The method could be used for intercomparison surveys for short half-life radioactive sources used in Nuclear Medicine, such as 99m Tc or most positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: By evaluation of the resulting net optical density (netOD) using a standardized scanning method of irradiated Gafchromic XRQA2 film, a comparison of the netOD measurement with a previously determined calibration curve can be made and the difference between the tested radionuclide calibrator and a radionuclide calibrator used as reference device can be calculated. To estimate the total expected measurement uncertainties, a careful analysis of the methodology, for the case of 99m Tc, was performed: reproducibility determination, scanning conditions, and possible fadeout effects. Since every factor of the activity measurement procedure can influence the final result, the method also evaluates correct syringe positioning inside the radionuclide calibrator. Results: As an alternative to using a calibrated source sent to the surveyed site, which requires a relatively long half-life of the nuclide, or sending a portable calibrated radionuclide calibrator, the proposed method uses a source preparedin situ. An indirect activity determination is achieved by the irradiation of a radiochromic film using 99m Tc under strictly controlled conditions, and cumulated activity calculation from the initial activity and total irradiation time. The irradiated Gafchromic film and the irradiator, without the source, can then be sent to a National Metrology Institute for evaluation of the results. Conclusions: The methodology described in this paper showed to have a good potential for accurate (3%) radionuclide calibrators intercomparison studies for 99m Tc between Nuclear Medicine centers without source transfer and can easily be adapted to other short half-life radionuclides

  3. Arrival of radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Pérez, M.; Ramos-López, R.; Perestelo, Nayra R.; Duarte-Rodriguez, X.; Bustos, J.J.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Hernández-Armas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two weeks after the accident at the Fukushima-Daichi nuclear power plant, 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activities were measured in two different stations located in Tenerife (Canary Islands), situated at 300 (FIMERALL) and 2400 (IZAÑA) m.a.s.l, respectively. Peak measured activity concentrations were: 1.851 mBq/m3 (131I); 0.408 mBq/m3 (137Cs) and 0.382 mBq/m3 (134Cs). The activities measured at the FIMERALL station were always higher than at IZAÑA station, suggesting that the radioactive plume arrived to the island associated with low altitude air masses. Simulations of potential dispersion of the radioactive cloud (137Cs) after the nuclear accident in reactor Fukushima I show that radioactive pollution reached remote regions such as the Canary Islands in the Eastern subtropical North Atlantic. The corresponding effective dose to the local population was 1.17 nSv, a value less than one millionth of the annual limit for the general public. Therefore, there was no risk to public health. - Highlights: ► Arrival of radionuclides to Tenerife following the accident of Fukushima. ► The atmospheric concentration of radionuclides was always higher at low altitude. ► After reaching the peak concentration a sharp decrease of radionuclides was observed. ► Air mass forward trajectory analysis confirms the potential arrival of radionuclides to Tenerife.

  4. Natural radionuclides in food in an area with high concentrations of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Moraes, S.R.; Cavalcante, J.J.V.; Kelecom, A.; Silva, A.X. da; Lopez, J.M.; Filgueiras, R.; Carmo, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Areas of high natural radiation expose the local population to doses greater than the world average. One of the routes of exposure is food intake. The activity concentration (AC) of 5 natural radionuclides in 7 types of foods was analyzed. The highest CA measured was 2.40 Bq.kg -1 for the U nat in the potato. The multivariate statistic identified two groups: (U nat e 232 Th) and [( 210 Pb and 228 Ra) and 226 Ra

  5. Spot measurements of radionuclides in air, water and solids with a single instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipsborn, H. von

    1998-01-01

    A unique instrument for measuring environmental radionuclides and novel methods for their concentrative sampling are described here which meet high requirements of sensitivity, easy and reliable handling, and low cost for most applications in field screening, monitoring and training. (author)

  6. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  7. Radionuclide activity and the immune system functioning in residents of radiation contaminated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Sokolenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to assess the relation of radioactive contamination degree to immune system functioning, in the absence or presence of additional potential immunosuppressants. To achieve the objective, during the period of 1995–2015 we examined 250 people, students of Cherkasy State University, who lived in the areas of enhanced radiation monitoring before. Also we evaluated the additional impact of the emotional stress caused by examinations on examined students. Indicators of cellular immunity were determined by immunophenotyping and dyeing using Romanowsky-Giemsa method. The level of immunoglobulins in blood serum was determined by radial immunodiffusion (Mancini method. The level of cortisol in blood serum was determined by immunoenzyme method. We have found that in absence of the emotional stress among residents of the areas contaminated with radionuclides, cortisol level remained at the upper limit of homeostatic norm. There is an average positive correlation between the activity of radionuclides in the territories of residence and the level of cortisol. There are marked average positive correlations between the activity of radionuclides and the level of neutrophils, and low positive correlations with the levels of IgG and IgM in blood serum. Average negative correlations between the activity of radionuclides and the following parameters are also observed: absolute and relative number of functionally mature T-lymphocytes with phenotype CD3+, absolute and relative number of their helper subpopulation CD4+, absolute and relative number of natural killer cells with phenotype CD16+; and strong negative correlations with immunoregulatory index CD4+/CD8+. Cortisol level shows the similar correlation with the same parameters, but correlation coefficient is lower. Under conditions of additional stress, caused by emotional load during the examinations, cortisol level significantly increases. This enhanced previously discovered

  8. Radionuclide content of wastewater and solid waste from a low-level effluent treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mat Bakar Mahusin

    2010-01-01

    A study on radioactivity levels of wastewater and solid waste from a Low-level Effluent Treatment Plant has been carried out. The measurement of radionuclide concentration was carried out using gamma spectrometry. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in solid radioactive waste recovered from the treatment plant. The presence of radionuclides in waste water varies depending on activities carried out in laboratories and facilities connected to the plant. (author)

  9. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×10 8 cm −2 s −1 to 10 14 cm −2 s −1 . The 202 Hg(n,γ) 203 Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203 Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg 2 Cl 2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps. - Highlights: • Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. • Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in neutron fields in research reactor. • 203 Hg induced radionuclide activity was measured using gamma spectrometry. • Mercury mass in fluorescent lamps can be measured by neutron activation analysis.

  10. THE PROBLEMS OF USING EXEMPTION ACTIVITY VALUES FOR REGULATING THE MANAGEMENT OF SEALED RADIONUCLIDE SOURCES OF GAMMA-RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the procedure for exemption of the sealed and unsealed radionuclide sources of gamma radiation from regulatory control. The contradictory nature of the existing set of exemption criteria has been noted, leading, in some cases, to paradoxical situations. It is shown that the exempt activity values determined in NRB-99/2009 and in the international basic safety standards of the IAEA are significantly overestimated (in comparison with the activity values of a point source creating the ambient dose equivalent rate of 1 μSv / h at a distance of 0.1 m for a number of the most widely used gamma-emitting radionuclides, including 22Na, 54Mn, 75Se, 152Eu and 154Eu. It is proposed to revise the current values of exempt activity, bringing them in line with the dose rate criterion for the exempt of sealed radionuclide sources of gamma radiation, and to present them with one significant digit. The corrected values of exempt activity for  seven selected radionuclides are proposed for further use in the process of revision of the national radiation safety standards.

  11. Status of operation of radionuclides assay system in Korean nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K.H.; Lee, K.J.; Jeong, C.W.; Ahn, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    In Korea, 17 nuclear power plants composed of 13 pressurized water reactors and 4 CANDU reactors are currently in operation. The cumulative amounts of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in nuclear power plant reached 58,718 drums (unit: 200 liter) in 2001. Efforts to construct LILW disposal facility are continued and its first operation is planned in the year 2008. Its first stage capacity is assumed to be 100,000 drums and total capacity will reach to 800,000 drums. Radwaste disposal site selection is an urgent national project at present time. Regulations and guidelines require detailed information about the radioactive waste package and its contents prior to the transport to the disposal sites. The Enforcement Decree of the Korean Atomic Energy Act (articles 234-17) requires the Minister of Science and Technology (MOST) of Korea to establish regulation for the waste acceptance (MOST notice. 1196-10). It requires detailed information about the radioactive waste package and its contents such as activity of radionuclides, total activities, types and characteristics of waste. For the measurement of the concentrations and activities of radionuclides in radwaste drum, a radionuclides assay system is installed at Korean nuclear power plant (KORI site) in 1996. The waste drum can be measured in the vertical direction with eight vertical segments while in the radial direction also with eight segments. Using this measurement method, homogeneous and non-homogeneous waste drum can be measured. Scaling factor methods have been played a dominant role in the determination of the radionuclides concentration in this system. For corrosion product, generic scaling factors were used due to the similarity and better-characterized properties of Korean analyzed data as compared with the worldwide data base of PWR industry. For fission product and TRU nuclides, it is not easy to determine the generic scaling factors. Thus simple model reflecting the operation history of power

  12. Measurements of β or α emitter long lived radionuclides using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provitina, O.

    1993-01-01

    The measurement of long-lived radionuclides is highly important for characterizing nuclear wastes for their later storage. The main techniques for characterizing these isotopes are α spectrometry, β counting and γ spectrometry. The large period of these isotopes leads to low specific activity needing time consuming measurements in order to obtain significant signals. Moreover, the radiometric techniques are often limited by problems of interferences involving several steps of pretreatments. Among these steps, the specific extraction with crown ethers is highly selective for the separation of 99 Tc, 129 I and 135 Cs particularly. The radiometric techniques are here replaced by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) the advantages of which are: few interferences, sensitivity which does not depend on the radiologic period as compared to radiochemistry. ICP-MS can then measure 237 Np in enriched uranium matrix and thereby reduce by a factor of 4 the sample pretreatment and the duration of the analysis usually performed by α spectrometry. Another technique, electrothermal vaporization (ETV), is consequently used. Crown ether extraction-ETV-ICP-MS is employed for measuring the long lived radionuclides 99 Tc and 129 I. The conditions of the extraction and the parameters of the ETV and the ICP-MS are studied and optimized. The methods optimized (extraction, electrothermal vaporization) are validated in the case of 99 Tc, in real samples. The spike method is required to quantify technetium, the quantification with calibration leading to bad results. The results obtained are in good agreement with the expected values. Extraction of technetium on anionic resin and its measurement by the spike method with pneumatic nebulization-ICP-MS is also performed on other samples. Measured values are also in agreement with expected values, but the method of extraction is more time consuming (half a day) than the extraction with crown ether (one hour). (author). 54 figs

  13. Whole-body dose meters. Measurements of total activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.; Klinikum Steglitz, Berlin

    1990-01-01

    By means of measurements using a whole-body dose meter, the course of the incorporation of radionuclides was established between April 1986 and May 1989 for unchanged conditions of alimentation, activity-conscious alimentation, and uniquely increased incorporation. Monitoring covered persons from the most different spheres of life. The incorporation is compared with the one resulting from nuclear weapons explosions in the atmosphere. (DG) [de

  14. Modeling the effects of repeated systemic administrations of small activity amounts In radionuclide therapy with beta emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, Carlos; Gonzalez, Joaquin; Cepero, Janet; Colom, Camila; Rodriguez, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Good results for radionuclide therapy treatments where repeated short time spaced systemic injection of small activity amounts are given have been reported. Bone marrow and kidneys are usually considered as dose-limiting organs in radionuclide therapy. The treatments in radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be optimized if irradiation effects in those one might be estimated. Xeno-grafted mice is the often biological model used during the evaluation of candidates for radionuclide therapy. A mathematical model of tumor cell kinetics was combined with another one reported for marrow cell kinetics which allows the calculation of marrow cell survival and proliferation in response to different irradiation schemes. Radionuclide therapy treatment with repeated administrations with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with beta emitters were simulated. The effects on fast-growing and slow-growing tumors were evaluated, as well as radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors. For more realistic estimation of absorbed dose in mice organs the cross-irradiation due to high energy beta particles was included into the MIRD's formula. Tumor and kidneys responses to the irradiation were estimated on the linear-quadratic model framework which was adapted for a multi-exponential dose rate function describing radionuclide therapy treatments with repeated administrations. Published values for murine tumors kinetics, marrows cellular turnover rates and radiosensitivities were used during the calculations. Iso-effective schemes were also determined varying the interval between fractions and the number of administration. For a given tolerated level of thrombocytopenia and absorbed dose in kidneys an optimal regime of radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be found. The mathematical model presented here allows the prediction of the nadir and duration of thrombocytopenia, the effects on kidneys and the tumor cell response to various treatment schemes

  15. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 4 MACROBATCH 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2008-01-01

    the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to the radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Task Technical Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-2005-0034; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 4 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing4. Specifically, this report details results from performing, in part, Subtask 3 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00310, Rev. 15 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2006-00458, Rev. 16. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) (Macro Batch 5 (MB5)), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, twenty-nine radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB4 (MB5) as specified by WAPS 1.2. The 29 reportable nuclides are: Ni-59; Ni-63; Se-79; Sr-90; Zr-93; Nb-93m; Tc-99; Sn-126; Cs-137; Sm-151; U-233; U-234; Np-237; U-238; Pu-238; Pu-239; Pu-240; Am-241; Pu-241; Pu-242; Am-242m; Am-243; Cm-244; Cm-245; Cm-246; Cm-247; Bk-247; Cm-248; and Cf-251. The WCP and WQR require that all of radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB4 (MB5), all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time through the calendar year 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list

  16. Airborne radionuclides of concern and their measurement in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R.W.; Miley, H.S.; Hensley, W.K.; Abel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting radioanalytical developmental programs with the goal of providing near-real-time analysis technology for airborne signature radionuclides which are indicative of a nuclear weapons test in any of the earth's environments. If a test were conducted in the atmosphere or above the atmosphere, then the full spectrum of fission and activation products, together with residues from the device would be dispersed in the atmosphere. However, if a nuclear test were conducted underground or under water, the emission could range from a major to a very minor vent, and the material released would likely consist mainly of noble gas radionuclides and the radioiodines. Since many of the noble gases decay to form particulate radionuclides, these may serve as the more sensitive signatures. For example, Ba-140 is a daughter of Xe-140 (13.6 s), and Cs-137 is a daughter of Xe-137 (3.82 min). Both of these have been observed in large amounts relative to other fission products in dynamic venting of U.S. underground nuclear detonations. Large amounts of radionuclides are produced from even a comparatively small nuclear detonation. For example, a 10-KT fission device will produce approximately a megacurie of Ba-140 and of several other radionuclides with half-lives of days to weeks. If such a device were detonated in the atmosphere at midlatitude, it would easily be observable at downwind monitoring sites during its first and subsequent circumnavigations of the earth. Efficient and practical methods for the near-real-time analysis of both particulate and gaseous radionuclides are important to an effective monitoring and attribution program in support of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); methods for this purpose are being pursued

  17. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanić Milan N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th. Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides was determined and analyzed to show the relations between the specific activities in the soil and soil properties and the most influential factors of natural radionuclide variability were identified. The radiological indices for surface soil were calculated and radiological risk assessment was performed. The measured specific activities were similar to values of background levels for Serbia. The sampling depth did not show any significant influence on specific activities of natural radionuclides. The strongest predictor of specific activities of the investigated radionuclides was soil granulometry. All parameters of radiological risk assessment were below the recommended values and adopted limits. It appears that the coal-fired power plant does not have a significant impact on the spatial and vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in the area of interest, but technologically enhanced natural radioactivity as a consequence of the plant operations was identified within the first 1.5 km from the power plant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. III43009 i br. III41005

  18. The uptake of radionuclides from inadvertent consumption of soil by grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Dodd, N.J.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of the transfer to man of artificially-produced radionuclides through food chains have shown that the inadvertent consumption of soil by grazing animals can give variations in estimates of transfer coefficients, especially for radionuclides that are poorly absorbed by plant roots. Even small masses of soil adhering to herbage or directly ingested can make a significant contribution to the intake inventory in terms of activity. Although the activity concentrations of soil-contaminated herbage are elevated, the radionuclides associated with the soil may not necessarily be in a form which is easily absorbed by the animal. Attempts must be made, therefore, to quantify soil intake and the subsequent radionuclide uptake by this mechanism. A field investigation of the uptake of radionuclides by farm animals grazing near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant has been pursued. The aims of the study were to estimate the transfer to muscle and other tissues. This paper describes the methods used to estimate both the soil intake and the consequent availability of radionuclides associated with the soil. The measurements were used to evaluate the contribution to tissue content of inadvertent consumption of soil by cows and sheep. 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  19. Radioactivity measurement of 18F in 16 ml vials for calibration of radionuclide calibrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurdiyanto, Gatot; Marsoem, Pujadi; Candra, Hermawan; Wijono, Paidi

    2012-01-01

    Fluorine-18 is obtained through the reaction 18 O(p, n) 18 F using a cyclotron that is situated in a hospital in Jakarta. Standardization of the 18 F solution is performed by gamma spectrometry using calibration sources of 152 Eu, 60 Co and 137 Cs that have traceability to the International System of units (SI). The activities in the 16 ml vials that were used for calibrating the radionuclide calibrators were between 1 and 2 GBq, with expanded uncertainties of 3.8%. The expanded uncertainty, at a coverage factor of k=2, on the derived calibration factor for the radionuclide calibrator was 6.6%. - Highlights: ► PTKMR–BATAN as a NMI of Indonesia is required to have procedures to calibrate the radionuclide calibrators. ► Standardizations were carried out on a solution of [ 18 F]FDG using gamma spectrometry. ► The volume of 18 F solutions used was 16 ml because this is the volume often used in hospitals. ► The Secondary Standard ionization chamber is a CRC-7BT Capintec radionuclide calibrator. ► A dial setting for 16 ml of [ 18 F]FDG solution in a vial is 443 for the Capintec dose calibrator.

  20. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, Gabriele; Wagner, Rosmarie; Katzlberger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 234 U. The radium isotopes as well as 210 Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore TM Radium Disks) and 210 Po was determined by α-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by α-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF 3 . From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from 228 Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from 226 Ra

  1. Natural gamma-emitting radionuclides in egyptian cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.; El Kamel, A.H.; Nosier, A.; Moustafa, A.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of cement manufactured in Egypt and the various raw materials, which compose the product, have been analyzed using gamma-spectroscopy, in order to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides and associated radiological hazard. The mean of specific activity due to all the three radionuclides (226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K ) were found to be 20±4 , 11± 2, 320 ± 18 (gypsum), 41 ±8, 27± 5, 410± 27 (clay), 58 ± 11, 18 3, 321± 20 (Iron ore) and 37.6 ± 6, 11.8 ± 3, 178.6 ± 15 Bq.kg-1 (Portland cement), respectively. 40 K concentration could not be detected in Slag; limestone; Sulphate resistant cement; Clinker and White cement, while the mean activity concentrations of 226 R a and 232 T h are 239 ± 16, 48.7 ± 7; 31.5 ±5, 10 ± 2; 47 ± 7, 20 ± 4; 23 ± 5, 10.4 ± 3 and 23 ± 5, 11 ±3 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations of these natural radionuclides were compared with data of some countries. The present values are in the same range and sometimes less than those in other countries

  2. Natural gamma-emitting radionuclides in egyptian cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Nosier, A.; Moustafa, A.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of cement manufactured in Egypt and the various raw materials, which compose the product, have been analyzed using gamma-spectroscopy, in order to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides and associated radiological hazard. The mean of specific activity due to all the three radionuclides (226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K ) were found to be 20 ± 4 , 11 ± 2, 320 ± 18 (gypsum), 41 ± 8, 27 ± 5, 410 ± 27 (clay), 58 ± 11, 18 3, 321 ± 20 (Iron ore) and 37.6 ± 6, 11.8 ± 3, 178.6 ± 15 Bq.kg-1 (Portland cement), respectively. 40 K concentration could not be detected in Slag; limestone; Sulphate resistant cement; Clinker and White cement, while the mean activity concentrations of 226 R a and 232 T h are 239 ± 16, 48.7 ± 7; 31.5 ± 5, 10 ± 2; 47 3 ± 7, 20 ± 4; 23 ± 5, 10.4 ± 3 and 23 ± 5, 11 ± 3 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations of these natural radionuclides were compared with data of some countries. The present values are in the same range and sometimes less than those in other countries

  3. The contamination of the oceans by anthropogenic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Cunha, Ieda I.L.

    1998-01-01

    Several hundreds of artificial of artificial radionuclides are produced as the result of human activities, such as the applications of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, testing of nuclear weapons and nuclear accidents. Many of these radionuclides are short-lived and decay quickly after their production, but some of them are longer-lived and are released into the environment. From the radiological point of view the most important radionuclides are cesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium-239, due to their chemical and nuclear characteristics. The two first radioisotopes present long half life (30 and 28 years), high fission yields and chemical behaviour similar to potassium and calcium, respectively. No stable element exists for plutonium-239, that presents high radiotoxity, longh half-life (24000 years) and some marine organisms accumulate plutonium at high levels. The radionuclides introduced into marine environment undergo various physical, chemical and biological processes taking place in the sea. These processes may be due to physical, dispersion or complicated chemical and biological interactions of the radionuclides with inorganic and organic suspend matter, variety of living organism, bottom sediments, etc. The behaviour of radionuclides in the sea depends primarily on their chemical properties, but it may also be influenced by properties of interacting matrices and other environmental factors. The major route of radiation exposure of man to artificial radionuclides occuring in the marine environment is through ingestion of radiologically contamined marine organisms. This paper summarizes the main sources of contamination in the marine environment and presents an overview covering the oceanic distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in the FAO regions. A great number of measurements of artificial radioclides have been carried out on various marine environmental samples in different oceans over the world, being cesium-137 the most widely measured

  4. A method of alpha-radiating nuclide activity measuring in aerosol filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.P.; Galkina, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Scintillation method of determination of alpha-radiating nuclide activity in aerosol filters was suggested. The method involves dissolution of the filter in organic solvent, introduction of luminophore into solution prepared, drying of the preparation and measurement of radionuclide activity. Dependences of alpha-radiation detection efficiency on the content of luminophore, filter material, colourless and coloured substances in preparations analyzed were considered

  5. Table of radionuclides (Vol.3 - Α = 3 to 244)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, M.M.; Chiste, V.; Dulieu, Ch.; Browne, E.; Baglin, C.; Chechev, V.; Kuzmenko; Helmer, R.; Kondev, F.; MacMahon, T.D.; Lee, K.B.

    2006-01-01

    This monograph is one of several published in a series by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) on behalf of the Comite Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants (CCRI), previously known as the Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesure des Rayonnements Ionisants (CCEMRI). The aim of this series of publications is to review topics that are of importance for the measurement of ionizing radiation and especially of radioactivity, in particular those techniques normally used by participants in international comparisons. It is hoped that these publications will prove to be useful reference volumes both for those who are already engaged in this field and for those who are approaching such measurements for the first time. The purpose of this monograph, number 5 in the series, is to present the recommended values of nuclear and decay data for a wide range of radionuclides. Activity measurements for more than forty of these radionuclides have already been the subject of comparisons under the auspices of Section II of the CCRI. The material for this monograph is now covered in three volumes. The first two volumes contain the primary recommended data relating to half-lives, decay modes, x-rays, gamma-rays, electron emissions; alpha- and beta-particle transitions and emissions, and their uncertainties for a set of sixty-eight radionuclides, Volume 1 for those radionuclides with mass number up to and including 150 and Volume 2 for those radionuclides with mass number over 150. Volume 3 contains the equivalent data for twenty-six additional radionuclides as listed and re-evaluation for 125 Sb and 153 Sm. The data have been collated and evaluated by an international working group (Decay Data Evaluation Project) led by the LNE-LNHB. The evaluators have agreed on the methodologies to be used and the CD-ROM included with this monograph contains the evaluators' comments for each radionuclide in addition to the data tables included in the monograph. The work involved in

  6. Natural radionuclides in soils - relation between soil properties and the activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Nakayama, Masashi; Sawamura, Sadashi

    2000-01-01

    Vertical profiles of natural radionuclides (K-40 and Ra-226) have been investigated in a soil core with 8 m in depth to elucidate its relation to the bed rock activity and to several soil properties. Pattern of the Ra-226 activity with soil depth suggests inhomogeneity of this nuclide during the accumulating process. Radiometric sorption experiments with Pb-210 as a tracer gave the result that almost all Pb(II) in the soil solution disappeared to be sorbed to the soil components

  7. Higher plants as biomonitors of radionuclides in urban air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Two deciduous tree genera, linden (Tilia tomentosa L. and Tilia cordata Mill.) and chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), are analysed as biomonitors of 210 Pb and 7 Be in air. In a multi year study (2002 - 2009), conducted in three city parks in Belgrade, the content of 210 Pb and 7 Be in samples of leaves of linden and chestnut trees, and aerosols was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The differences seen in the radionuclides' activities across the measurement sites and between the tree genera are not significant, suggesting that the micro climate, level of air pollution and physiological characteristics of the trees have a negligible effect on the radionuclides' activities in leaves. Linear Pearson's correlation coefficients are used to correlate the 210 Pb and 7 Be activities in aerosols and in leaves. The results show that linden could be used as a 210 Pb biomonitor which provides information on the recent history of exposure. No large positive correlation is found for the 7 Be activities in leaves and aerosols, indicating that higher plants are not a suitable biomonitor for this radionuclide. [sr

  8. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fissures running parallel to the axes of granitic drill cores. A short pulse of radionuclide solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. At the end of each experiment the fissure was opened and the radionuclide distribution on the fissure surfaces measured. The retardation of 241 Am(III) at pH 8.2 as well as the variation in 235 Np(V) retardation with pH are found to be in good agreement with K d-values obtained in batch experiments. The reduction of (TcO - 4 ) to Tc(IV) leads as expected to increasing retardation.(author)

  9. Effect of bilirubin on the spectrophotometric and radionuclide assay for serum angiotensin-converting enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, A.W.; Hollinger, M.A.; Essam, T.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of bilirubin on serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was studied with spectrophotometric and radionuclide assays. In the spectrophotometric assay addition of bilirubin to normal serum from dog, mouse, and human produced a dose-related inhibition of ACE activity. A 50% decrease in human ACE activity was produced by the addition of approximately 250 mg/L in vitro. Serum from icteric patients with elevated bilirubin was also associated with a reduction in ACE activity in the spectrophotometric assay. A 50% decrease in ACE activity in these samples was associated with a serum bilirubin of approximately 220 mg/L. In the radionuclide assay, however, addition of bilirubin to normal human serum failed to reduce measured ACE activity. The use of a radionuclide assay for serum ACE in clinical samples offers the advantage of less interference from serum bilirubin

  10. Radionuclides in domestic and imported foods in the United States, 1987-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.C.; Anderson, D.L.; Baratta, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    Findings from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Radionuclides in Foods program are summarized for foods collected between October 1, 1986, and September 30, 1992. Concentrations of radionuclide activity in the Total Diet Study and reactor-survey foods were in Range I or low in Range II of the surveillance and control recommendations of the Federal Radiation Council; no control actions were suggested. Dietary intake of 90 Sr continued the general decline observed since 1961. Approximately 2600 test portions of imported foods were analyzed for contamination associated with the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Concentrations of radionuclide activity were below limits of detection for the vast majority of the imported food test portions but were above the levels of concern for 23 portions. Since 1986, the fraction of imported food test portions having measurable amounts of contamination has steadily declined, as have the average concentrations of radionuclide activity; however, contamination is still occasionally found. Continued monitoring of both domestic and imported foods is planned. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Sedimentation Deposition Patterns on the Chukchi Shelf Using Radionuclide Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Sediment core collections and assays of the anthropogenic and natural radioisotopes, 137Cs and 210Pb, respectively, are providing long-term indications of sedimentation and current flow processes on the Chukchi and East Siberian sea continental shelf. This work, which has been integrated into interdisciplinary studies of the Chukchi Sea supported by both the US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (COMIDA Hanna Shoal Project) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Russian-US Long Term Census of the Arctic, RUSALCA) includes studies of total radiocesium inventories, sedimentation rate determinations, where practical, and depths of maxima in radionuclide deposition. Shallow maxima in the activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide in sediment cores reflect areas with higher current flow (Barrow Canyon and Herald Canyon; 3-6 cm) or low sedimentation (Hanna Shoal; 1-3 cm). The first sedimentation studies from Long Strait are consistent with quiescent current conditions and steady recent sedimentation of clay particles. Elsewhere, higher and more deeply buried radionuclide inventories (> 2 mBq cm-2 at 15-17 cm depth) in the sediments correspond to areas of high particle deposition north of Bering Strait where bioturbation in productive sediments is also clearly an important influence. Radiocesium activities from bomb fallout dating to 1964 are now present at low levels (20 cm. Independent sedimentation rate measurements with the natural radionuclide 210Pb are largely consistent with the radiocesium measurements.

  12. MEASUREMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES USING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FLOW-CELL SCINTILLATION COUNTING WITH PULSE SHAPE DISCRIMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, R. A.; DeVol, T.A.; Leyba, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Radiological characterization and monitoring is an important component of environmental management activities throughout the Department of Energy complex. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the technology most often used for the detection of radionuclides. However, radionuclides which cannot easily be detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy, such as pure beta emitters and transuranics, pose special problems because their quantification generally requires labor intensive radiochemical separations procedures that are time consuming and impractical for field applications. This project focused on a technology for measuring transuranics and pure beta emitters relatively quickly and has the potential of being field deployable. The technology combines ion exchange liquid chromatography and on-line alpha/beta pulse shape discriminating scintillation counting to produce simultaneous alpha and beta chromatograms. The basic instrumentation upon which the project was based was purchased in the early 1990's. In its original commercial form, the instrumentation was capable of separating select activation/fission products in ionic forms from relatively pure aqueous samples. We subsequently developed the capability of separating and detecting actinides (thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium) in less than 30 minutes (Reboul, 1993) and realized that the potential time savings over traditional radiochemical methods for isolating some of these radionuclides was significant. However, at that time, the technique had only been used for radionuclide concentrations that were considerably above environmental levels and for aqueous samples of relatively high chemical purity. For the technique to be useful in environmental applications, development work was needed in lowering detection limits; to be useful in applications involving non-aqueous matrices such as soils and sludges or complex aqueous matrices such as those encountered in waste samples, development work was needed in

  13. Method of measuring the disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radionuclide in a liquid sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A novel liquid scintillation counting method of measuring the disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radionuclide is described which involves counting the sample at at least two different quench levels. (UK)

  14. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  15. Natural-series radionuclides in traditional North Australian aboriginal foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.S.; Johnston, A.; Hancock, G.J.; Martin, P.

    1997-01-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 232 Th and 227 Ac were measured in edible flesh of traditional Aboriginal food items from the Magela and Cooper Creek systems in the tropical Northern Territory of Australia. Fish, buffalo, pig, magpie goose, filesnake, goanna, turtle, freshwater shrimp and freshwater crocodile were studied. Activity concentrations in water were also measured to enable the calculation of concentration ratios (CRs).For most edible flesh samples, activity concentrations followed the approximate order: 210 Po>> 226210 [ 234 Usimilar 238 [ 230 Thsimilar 232 Th]. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio was particularly high (greater than 100) for pig flesh. CRs for fish species fall into two groups. Group 1 (bony bream and sleepy cod) had CRs about five times higher than for group 2 (eight other species). CRs for turtle flesh were similar to those for fish in group 1, while those for turtle liver were about a factor of 10 higher. CRs for magpie goose, filesnake, freshwater shrimp, goanna and crocodile flesh were also of the same order as for fish in groups 1 or 2.Calculations of dose resulting from release of wastewaters from uranium mining operations in the region show that the dominant pathway would be uptake of radionuclides, especially 226 Ra, by freshwater mussels, followed by radionuclide uptake by fish. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Analytical studies by activation. Part A and B: Counting of short half-life radio-nuclides. Part C: Analytical programs for decay curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, E.

    1966-03-01

    Part A and B: Since a radio-nuclide of short half-life is characterized essentially by the decrease in its activity even while it is being measured, the report begins by recalling the basic relationships linking the half-life the counting time, the counting rate and the number of particles recorded. The second part is devoted to the problem of corrections for counting losses due to the idle period of multichannel analyzers. Exact correction formulae have been drawn up for the case where the short half-life radionuclide is pure or contains only a long half-life radio-nuclide. By comparison, charts have been drawn up showing the approximations given by the so-called 'active time' counting and by the counting involving the real time associated with a measurement of the overall idle period, this latter method proving to be more valid than the former. A method is given for reducing the case of a complex mixture to that of a two-component mixture. Part C: The problems connected with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the decay curves of a mixture of radioactive sources of which one at least has a short half-life are presented. A mathematical description is given of six basic processes for which some elements of Fortran programs are proposed. Two supplementary programs are drawn up for giving an overall treatment of problems of dosage in activation analysis: one on the basis of a simultaneous irradiation of the sample and of one or several known samples, the other with separate irradiation of the unknown and known samples, a dosimeter (activation, or external) being used for normalizing the irradiation flux conditions. (author) [fr

  17. Distribution of radionuclides in surface seawater obtained by an aerial radiological survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the distribution in seawater of anthropogenic radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) as preliminary attempt using a rapid aerial radiological survey performed by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration on 18 April 2011. We found strong correlations between in-situ activities of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs measured in surface seawater samples and gamma-ray peak count rates determined by the aerial survey (correlation coefficients were 0.89 for 131 I, 0.96 for 134 Cs, and 0.92 for 137 Cs). The offshore area of high radionuclide activity extended south and southeast from the FNPP1. The maximum activities of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs were 329, 650, and 599 Bq L -1 , respectively. The 131 I/ 137 Cs ratio in surface water of the high-activity area ranged from 0.6 to 0.7. Considering the radioactive decay of 131 I (half-life 8.02 d), we determined that the radionuclides in this area were directly released from FNPP1 to the ocean. We confirm that aerial radiological surveys can be effective for investigating the surface distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in seawater. Our model reproduced the distribution pattern of radionuclides derived from the FNPP1, although results simulated by a regional ocean model were underestimated. (author)

  18. Activity measurement of phosphorus-32 in the presence of pure beta-emitting impurities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, B

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available Activity measurements undertaken at the CSIR's National Metrology Laboratory (NML) on a solution of the pure beta-emitting radionuclide phosphorus-32, which formed part of an international key comparison, are described. Since exploratory source...

  19. Interactions of radionuclides with sediments and suspended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter reviews fundamental principles of the rates and extents of radionuclide uptake by sedimentary and suspended particles, defines sediment-water partition coefficients, and shows how they can explain first order features of radionuclide partitioning in aquatic environments. It then explains how sediment accumulation and mixing rates can be calculated from profiles of radionuclide activity measured in sediment cores. Such rates can be combined with profiles of other chemicals to establish the extent of temporal changes in chemical composition of the overlying water body. Since sediment processing and counting in the laboratory take much longer than the time required to collect the sample, suggestions are made to ensure that the sediment samples are not ruined or comprised during collection and handling in the field, and so are worth all the subsequent time and effort to analyze. (author)

  20. Radionuclide detection and differential diagnosis of left-to-right cardiac shunts by analysis of time-activity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok-Hwa

    1986-01-01

    The noninvasive nature of the radionuclide angiocardiography provided a useful approach for the evaluation of left-to-right cardiac shunts (LRCS). While the qualitative information can be obtained by inspection of serial radionuclide angiocardiograms, the quantitative information of radionuclide angiocardiography can be obtained by the analysis of time-activity curves using advanced computer system. The count ratios method and pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio (QP/QS) by gamma variate fit method were used to evaluate the accuracy of detection and localization of LRCS. One hundred and ten time-activity curves were analyzed. There were 46 LRCS (atrial septal defects 11, ventricular septal defects 22, patent ductus arteriosus 13) and 64 normal subjects. By computer analysis of time-activity histograms of the right atrium, ventricle and the lungs separately, the count ratios modified by adding the mean cardiac transit time were calculated in each anatomic site. In normal subjects the mean count ratios in the right atrium, ventricle and lungs were 0.24 on average. In atrial septal defects, the count ratios were high in the right atrium, ventricle and lungs, whereas in ventricular septal defects the count ratios were higher only in the right ventricle and lungs. Patent ductus arteriosus showed normal count ratios in the heart but high count ratios were obtained in the lungs. Thus, this count ratios method could be separated normal from those with intracardiac or extracardiac shunts, and moreover, with this method the localization of the shunts level was possible in LRCS. Another method that could differentiate the intracardiac shunts from extracardiac shunts was measuring QP/QS in the left and right lungs. In patent ductus arteriosus, the left lung QP/QS was hight than those of the right lung, whereas in atrial septal defects and ventricular septal defects QP/QS ratios were equal in both lungs. (J.P.N.)

  1. Activity concentration of various radionuclides in tubificids living in the biobeds of a sewage treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, A.; Erlandsson, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1988-04-01

    Oligochaeta belonging to the family Tubificidae are used in the biobeds of waste water treatment plants in the decomposition process of organic matter. Waste water treatment plants also receive radionuclides in the form of radiopharmaceuticals. The most commonly used radionuclides are 131 I and 99 Tc m . In this investigation the role of the Tubificids in the accumulation of these radionuclides has been studied. The activity concentration of 131 I in Tubificids was found to be 1-20 times higher than in the incoming waste water which is only 5-20% of the concentration factor between incoming water and outgoing sludge. Sludge is thus a more sensitive bioindicator, but Tubificids respond faster. (authors)

  2. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  3. Production cross sections of short-lived silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun

    2012-01-01

    Production cross-sections of short-lived 103 Ag, 104m Ag and 104g Ag radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104m Ag radionuclide from nat Pd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the short-lived 103 Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103 Pd radionuclide via nat Pd(p,xn) 103 Ag → 103 Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104 Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.

  4. Criteria for requesting specific radionuclide analysis through gross α and gross β concentration measurements in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper suggests some criteria for the decision to proceed with the analysis of specific radionuclides based on results of the determination of gross α and β concentrations in environmental samples of aerosols, water, dairy and agricultural products, soil and sediments. The samples considered are provenient from the environmental surveillance of uranium mining and milling facilities as well as the mining and processing plants of monazite sands. The radionuclides to be analysed are those considered to be the most critical to human health, that is: U-nat; Th-nat; Th-230; Ra-228; Ra-226; Po-210; Pb-210. The measured gross α and β concentrations will be compared with the Maximum Allowable Concentrations for some defined radionuclides. Radiochemical analysis of specific radionuclides may then become necessary, depending upon the results of this comparison. The main goal of the proposed guide is to simplify and to discipline the execution of environmental surveillance programs in a safe and economical way, avoiding unnecessary analysis. (author) [pt

  5. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7,255 ± 285 Bq kg(-1), mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 m Bq m(-3), while in smoke-free air (210)Po concentration was about 30 μ Bq m(-3). The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from (210)Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of (210)Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedvall, Robert Hans

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radiation is a natural phenomenon and radionuclides occur naturally. The first man-made spread of concentrated radioactivity occurred some 100,000 years ago when the first fireplace was lit, with fallout as a later consequence. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected nuclide in fuels. Its activity concentration in Bq kg-1 normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from potassium in the emission is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to humans are the U- and Th-isotopes and also 210Pb and 210Po. Of fission products in fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests and after the Chernobyl accident, 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approximately a few μSv from inhalation only can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 person Sv a-1.

  7. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in a Ribble Estuary saltmarsh: transport and deposition of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; McDonald, P.; Parker, A.; Rae, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Routine discharges of low-level liquid radioactive waste by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfields have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. Variations in radionuclide concentrations ( 137 Cs, 230 Th, and 239240 Pu) with depth in a mature saltmarsh core were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends and waste-dispersal mechanisms. Core samples from Longton/Hutton Marsh were analysed by gamma-spectrometry and α-spectrometry for radionuclides and by laser granulometry to establish grain-size variations with depth. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137 Cs and 239240 Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs and 600 Bq kg -1 for 239240 Pu. Thorium-230 exhibited complex activity profiles with depth, specific activities ranging between 200 and 2400 Bq kg -1 . The vertical distributions of Sellafield-derived radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 239240 Pu) in mature saltmarsh deposits reflect the time-integrated discharge pattern from Sellafield, implying a transport mechanism that has involved the mixing of sediment labelled with radioactivity from recent discharges and sediment labelled from historical discharge events before deposition. A mechanism involving the transport of contaminated silt therefore seems to dominate. The vertical distribution of Springfields-derived 230 Th in the same areas reflects the annual gross-α discharge pattern from BNFL Springfields. In contrast to the Sellafield-derived radionuclides, a fairly rapid transport mechanism from source to sink is implied, with little or no time for mixing with radionuclides discharged years earlier. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Gillett, N.A.; Diel, J.H.; Lundgren, D.L.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides is being investigated in a series of interrelated dose-response studies. Dogs, rodents, and nonhuman primates have been exposed to monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols of the oxides of 239 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, or 244 Cm to measure the relative importance of average organ dose, local dose around particles, specific activity, chemical form, particle size, and number of particles inhaled to the development of biological effects. The influence of animal species, age at exposure, and pre-existing lung disease, as well as the effects of repeated exposure, are also being studied, because they may influence the toxicity of these radionuclides. (author)

  9. Measuring Radionuclides in the environment: radiological quantities and sampling designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.

    1998-10-01

    One aim of the workshop was to support and provide an ICRU report committee (International Union of Radiation Units) with actual information on techniques, data and knowledge of modern radioecology when radionuclides are to be measured in the environment. It has been increasingly recognised that some studies in radioecology, especially those involving both field sampling and laboratory measurements, have not paid adequate attention to the problem of obtaining representative, unbiased samples. This can greatly affect the quality of scientific interpretation, and the ability to manage the environment. Further, as the discipline of radioecology has developed, it has seen a growth in the numbers of quantities and units used, some of which are ill-defined and which are non-standardised. (orig.)

  10. Accreditation - Its relevance for laboratories measuring radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S E [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland)

    2001-11-01

    Accreditation is an internationally recognised way for laboratories to demonstrate their competence. Obtaining and maintaining accreditation is, however, a costly and time-consuming procedure. The benefits of accreditation also depend on the role of the laboratory. Accreditation may be of limited relevance for a research laboratory, but essential for a laboratory associated with a national authority and e.g. issuing certificates. This report describes work done within the NKSBOK-1.1 sub-project on introducing accreditation to Nordic laboratories measuring radionuclides. Initially the focus was on the new standard ISO/IEC 17025, which was just in a draft form at the time, but which provides now a new framework for accreditation of laboratories. Later the focus was widened to include a general introduction to accreditation and providing through seminars a forum for exchanging views on the experience laboratories have had in this field. Copies of overheads from the last such seminar are included in the appendix to this report. (au)

  11. Evaluation of an automated assay system to measure soil radionuclides by L x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Crowell, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    An automated radionuclide assay system for conducting soil radioassays using L x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry was evaluated. Wet chemistry assay procedures were shown to be considerably more time consuming than similar analyses of soil on this radionuclide assay system. The detection limits of 241 Am and plutonium were determined, as well as the reproducibility of radionuclide assay results. The L x-ray spectrometric measurements were compared with radiochemical analyses on several tuff samples. The assay system's intrinsic germanium detector was found to respond linearly to varying low concentrations of 241 Am and plutonium, both of which were easily detected in the presence of elevated concentrations of 137 Cs

  12. On iron radionuclide interactions and in situ measurement of iron corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranen, A.; Jonsson, M.; Cui, D.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Wersin, P.; Spahiu, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In performance assessments of hard rock repositories, it is conservatively assumed that waste canisters are breached and that the spent fuel will get into contact with groundwater after 1000 years. When the canister eventually fails to protect HLW from groundwater, dissolved radionuclides from HLW will react with iron canister materials. The reactivity will depend on the conditions in solution and at the iron-water interface. To improve our understanding on the redox chemistry at near field conditions, batch experiments are conducted by contacting polished iron foils with a synthetic groundwater solution containing 10 mM NaCl, 2 mM NaHCO 3 and 5 ppm Se(IV), Se(VI), Tc(VII) and U(VI) in a glove box filled with Ar + 0.03% CO 2 gas mixture. The reaction rates are measured by analysing Se, Tc and U concentrations by ICP-MS. Iron corrosion products formed during the reaction(s) is monitored in-situ by a Layer Raman spectrometer through an optical window. The corrosion potential of the iron foil as well as the Eh and pH values of the bulk solution are recorded continuously during the experiment. The reacted iron foil is embedded with EPOXY resin, and the cross section will be analysed by SEM-EDS and XAS. The preliminary experimental results shows that with the formation of iron green rust FeII 4 FeIII 2 (OH) 12 CO 3 on iron foil, the rates of redox reactions between iron and the negatively charged radionuclides species are increased. The observation is explained by the fact that radionuclide anionic species can be first adsorbed then reduced on the positively charged outer surface of iron green rust. The positive charge is a result of the electrical balance of the negative charges of carbonate contained between the layered iron hydroxides in the green rust. Reduced forms of radionuclides are identified in the iron corrosion products. The results suggest that the formation of iron green rust as a corrosion product on the surface of iron

  13. Correlations of natural radionuclides in soil with those in sediment from the Danube and nearby irrigation channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmar, M.; Varga, E.; Slivka, J.

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K) measured in soil and in sediment taken from the Danube River and nearby irrigation channels was studied. The soil samples were collected from the northern part of Serbia and the sediment from the Serbian part of the Danube River and from the surrounding irrigation channels. The correlation between 238 U and other natural radionuclides in irrigation channel sediments was not as good as in the Danube. One of the possible explanations for this weak correlation can be the different chemical dynamics of 238 U in the irrigation channel sediment or changes of the 238 U activity concentration in irrigation channel sediment due to some human activities. The evaluation of ratios of activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides could be a more sensitive method for the determination of contaminant, rather than the straightforward analysis of activity concentrations. -- Highlights: ► 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in soil, Danube and surrounding channel sediment. ► Correlation of activity concentrations were observed. ► In cannel sediment natural radionuclides are not well correlated as in Danube one. ► Ratios of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K can be good indicator for TENORM monitoring

  14. Influence of microbial activity on the migration behaviour of redox-sensitive radionuclides (technetium and selenium) in loose rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroetmann, I.

    1995-01-01

    In closed cycle column tests under sterile conditions there was no or hardly any sorption of the two radionuclides. In closed cycle column tests with unsterile soils, however, the two radionuclides were extremely immobilised (80 % of the output activity of Tc-95m and 40 % of the output activity of Se-75). By inoculation of the sterile columns with mixed soil cultures an increase in sorption of 40 % of the output activity was achieved which is attributed to the microbial activity. The adsorbed radionuclides in unsterile columns could be remobilized by adding a bactericide. In columns with saline water the sorption of radionuclides was slightly lower. Soils with a 5 % organic carbon content showed extremely increased sorption of the two radionuclides. In comparison with closed cycle columns shake tests were carried out. During turbulent intermixing of water and solid, no sorption of technetium was observed in unsterile tests either, while Se-75 added as selenite was strongly adsorbed to the solid. When adding acetate as a C-source, the microbially conditioned reduction of the redox potential to -100 mV and, subsequently, a strong increase of sorption could be observed. A reduction of the pH value in the soils to pH 4, and simultaneous adding of acetate significally reduced the microbial activity and the sorption of technetium, while selenite sorption remained strong as before. Sorption tests with bacteria-pure and mixed cultures showed no sorption of the pertechnetate anion in the oxidation stage (VII). However, when reducing the pertechnetate by means of SnCl2, up to 40 % of the feed activity of killed and living biomass was immobilized. Between 20-30 % of the adsorbed technetium quantity was outside at the membrane, and 40% inside the cells. After a three-day incubation period in a technetium-containing solution, a factor of 15,5 was achieved as the maximum intracellular concentration factor for the isolate 143 (Xanthomas sp.). (orig./MG) [de

  15. Natural-series radionuclides in traditional North Australian aboriginal foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, A.S.; Johnston, A.; Hancock, G.J.; Martin, P. [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS), Jabiru (Australia)

    1997-07-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 227}Ac were measured in edible flesh of traditional Aboriginal food items from the Magela and Cooper Creek systems in the tropical Northern Territory of Australia. Fish, buffalo, pig, magpie goose, filesnake, goanna, turtle, freshwater shrimp and freshwater crocodile were studied. Activity concentrations in water were also measured to enable the calculation of concentration ratios (CRs).For most edible flesh samples, activity concentrations followed the approximate order: {sup 210}Po>>{sup 226210}[{sup 234}Usimilar{sup 238}[{sup 230}Thsimilar{sup 232}Th]. The {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb activity ratio was particularly high (greater than 100) for pig flesh. CRs for fish species fall into two groups. Group 1 (bony bream and sleepy cod) had CRs about five times higher than for group 2 (eight other species). CRs for turtle flesh were similar to those for fish in group 1, while those for turtle liver were about a factor of 10 higher. CRs for magpie goose, filesnake, freshwater shrimp, goanna and crocodile flesh were also of the same order as for fish in groups 1 or 2.Calculations of dose resulting from release of wastewaters from uranium mining operations in the region show that the dominant pathway would be uptake of radionuclides, especially {sup 226}Ra, by freshwater mussels, followed by radionuclide uptake by fish. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Intercomparison on the measurements of radionuclides in the ceramic brick of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Xu Cuihua; Zhang Qing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To inspect the veracity and reiteration of γ-spectrometry in radioactive measurements. Methods: To be performed by multilateral intercomparison on measurements of radionuclides in two kinds of Chinese ceramic brick samples with γ-spectrometry between laboratories of Japan and of China. Results: The maximum difference of which the values measured by our laboratory related to the total average is 4.21%, and with an equipotent probability of positive and negative difference occurred. These showed that the veracity and reiteration of our measurement system are fine without obviously system errors. Conclusion: It has proved that the quality guarantee system and quality control technology of our γ-spectrum system is perfected and effective up to now. (authors)

  17. Radionuclides in the Mosel river in the years 1981 to 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartkopf, Jens

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accidents in Fukushima Daiichi the radionuclide content in the Mosel river is of increased interest since the water is intensively used by the population. The report covers the measured data on radionuclides (gamma emitting nuclides and strontium-90 activity) in the Mosel water with specific consideration of the nuclear power plant Cattenom and the reactor accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi. The derived theoretical radiation exposure of the public is discussed considering the drinking water path and the spoil ground path. It turns out that the radionuclide content is far below the limit of the radiation protection law and the potential effective doses for the public is negligible compared to the natural radioactivity.

  18. Behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water (Crouzille, Limousin). Geochemical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, J.

    2008-06-01

    Understanding natural radionuclides behaviour in surface water is a required step to achieve uranium mine rehabilitation and preserve water quality. The first objective of this thesis is to determine which are the radionuclides sources in a drinking water reservoir. The second objective is to improve the knowledge about the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides, especially actinium. The investigated site is a brook (Sagnes, Limousin, France) which floods a peat bog contaminated by a former uranium mine and which empties into the Crouzille lake. It allows studying radionuclides transport in surface water and radionuclides retention through organic substance or water reservoir. Radionuclides distribution in particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases is determined thanks to ultra-filtrations. Gamma spectrometry allows measuring almost all natural radionuclides with only two counting stages. However, low activities of 235 U series radionuclides impose the use of very low background well-type Ge detectors, such as those of the Underground Laboratory of Modane (France). Firstly, this study shows that no or few radionuclides are released by the Sagnes peat bog, although its radioactivity is important. Secondly, it provides details on the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water. More specifically, it provides the first indications of actinium solubility in surface water. Actinium's behaviour is very close to uranium's even if it is a little less soluble. (author)

  19. Radionuclide determination of right and left ventricular stroke volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei Feng; Roubin, G S; Choong, C Y.P.; Harris, P J; Flether, P J; Kelly, D T; Uren, R F; Hutton, B F

    1985-03-01

    The relationship between radionuclide and thermodilution measurement of stroke volumes (SV) was investigated in 30 patients without valvular regurgitation or intracardiac shunt (group A) at rest and during exercise. Both attenuated radionuclide right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) SV measurements correlated well with the SV determined by the thermodilution method (r = 0.87 and r = 0.93, all P < 0.001). The reliability of the radionuclide method to estimate SV was evaluated prospectively in two additional groups of patients. In 11 patients without valvular regurgitation or intracardiac shunt (group B) the radionuclide RVSV and LVSV closely approximated to thermodilution SV at rest and during exercise. In 15 patients with aortic regurgitation (group C) the radionuclide stroke volume ratio correlated well with the angiographic regurgitant fraction. Thus, both RVSV and LVSV and the severity of aortic regurgitation can be reliably measured with gated radionuclide ventriculography.

  20. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  1. Radionuclide Data Centre. Tasks and problems of obtaining the most reliable values of the nuclear physics characteristics of radionuclides and radiation physics parameters of radionuclide sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechev, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the establishment of the Radionuclide Data Centre under the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute. Its functions and areas of activity are discussed. The paper focuses on the procedure of obtaining the evaluated values of the decay and radiative characteristics of the widely used radionuclides. (author)

  2. Table of radionuclides (Vol. 5 - A = 22 to 244)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, M.M.; Chiste, V.; Dulieu, C.; Mougeot, X.; Browne, E.; Chechev, V.; Kuzmenko, N.; Kondev, F.; Luca, A.; Galan, M.; Arinc, A.; Huang, X.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph is one of several published in a series by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) on behalf of the Comite Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants (CCRI), previously known as the Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesure des Rayonnements Ionisants (CCEMRI). The aim of this series of publications is to review topics that are of importance for the measurement of ionizing radiation and especially of radioactivity, in particular those techniques normally used by participants in international comparisons. It is hoped that these publications will prove to be useful reference volumes both for those who are already engaged in this field and for those who are approaching such measurements for the first time. The purpose of this monograph is to present the recommended values of nuclear and decay data for a wide range of radionuclides. Activity measurements for more than forty of these radionuclides have already been the subject of comparisons under the auspices of Section II of the CCRI. The material for this monograph is now covered in four volumes. The first two volumes contain the primary recommended data relating to half-lives, decay modes, x-rays, gamma-rays, electron emissions; alpha- and beta-particle transitions and emissions, and their uncertainties for a set of sixty-eight radionuclides: Volume 1 for those radionuclides with mass number up to and including 150, and Volume 2 for those radionuclides with mass number over 150. Volume 3 contains the equivalent data for twenty-six additional radionuclides and re-evaluations for 125 Sb and 153 Sm; Volume 4 contains the data for a further thirty-one radionuclides with re-evaluation for 226 Ra while the present Volume 5 includes 17 new radionuclide evaluations and 8 re-evaluations of previous data as identified in the contents page. The data have been collated and evaluated by an international working group (Decay Data Evaluation Project) led by the LNE-LNHB. The evaluators have agreed on the

  3. Measurement of radionuclides in various environmental samples and in items of diet of the local population. Part of a coordinated programme on environmental monitoring for radiological protection in Asia and the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.

    1980-03-01

    The research covered identification of radionuclides and measurement of their concentration in various environmental media and items of diet of the local population. Biomedia and items of diet selected for study were air, surface water, precipitation, vegetables, meat, poultry and fish etc. Radioactive assays under-taken were gross gamma activity measurements and gamma spectrometric analyses for the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides. These were followed by radiochemical analyses for the separation of Sr 90 and Pu 239. Radiometric measurements for Sr 90 and Pu 239 were performed by low back-ground beta counting and alpha spectrometric analyses respectively

  4. The presence of some artificial and natural radionuclides in a Eucalyptus forest in the south of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaca, F.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    2001-01-01

    Long-lived artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr) were studied in a Eucalyptus plantation located in the south-west of Spain. Radionuclide concentrations were determined in different types of samples corresponding to specific forest components (soil, trees, herbs and litter). Depth profile distributions were obtained in two selected core soils. Two layers were separately measured in three other cores. The concentration factor, defined as the ratio between the mean activity concentration in a component and the mean activity concentration in the soil, was calculated for each component. The biomass of different components was estimated in order to evaluate the total density concentration (Bq/ha) of the artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr) in the Eucalyptus plantation. The transfer of the radionuclides between the different forest components can be inferred from the results. Additionally, other naturally occurring radionuclides ( 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Ac) were determined for comparison. Transport of radionuclides from forest to a nearby pulp mill is also discussed

  5. Deposition of particle-bound radionuclides in dry weather, fog, rain and snowfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberschachtsiek, D.; Sparmacher, H.; Kreh, R.; Adam, M.; Fuelber, K.; Stegger, J.; Bonka, H.

    1992-01-01

    Radionuclides emitted from nuclear plants and installations are transported in dry weather, because of turbulences and sedimentations, to plant parts above ground and near the ground and to other areas, and deposited there. The deposited activity is proportional to the activity concentration near the deposition area. In the case of particle-bound radionuclides it depends on the aerodynamic particle diameter, surface quality and other factors. In a large number of experiments deposition velocity was measured. In fog the particles to which radionuclides are bound grow by coagulation and condensation. The aerosol size spectrum changes with increasing distance from the place of emission. The type of the fog and the form of the emitted spectrum are important factors which influence this process. With normal activity distributions as a function of the aerodynamic particle diameter, the deposition velocity increases with the distance from the place of emission, up to a final value, due to the shift of the spectrum to larger diameters. (orig.) [de

  6. Lifestyle and age as determinates of intake and dose from inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The whole-body dose from inhaled radionuclides is a complex function of factors describing exposure and physiology. Exposure-related factors may be estimated by considering likely emission rates combined with measured time-varying meteorological (transport) parameters and estimated exercise patterns. Physiological factors, strongly influencing radionuclide intake and consequent radiation dose, have been catalogued as functions of age and activity level. Both exercise patterns and physiological factors are related to age of the exposed individual. Combining these factors permits estimates to be made of the span of exposures that may be expected in a typical population. The ratio of highest to lowest radionuclide intake is predicted to be of the order of 40, suggesting that specification of an 'average' value may be misleading if this value approaches regulatory limits. Individuals exposed to maximal risk may be identified, and are likely to be active children. Activity pattern (lifestyle) is a primary determinant of risk. (author)

  7. Applications of neutron activation analysis in determination of natural and man-made radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A. R.; Benedik, L.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), being essentially an isotopic and not an elemental method of analysis, is capable of determining a number of important radionuclides of radioecological interest with good precision and accuracy, by transformation into another, more easily quantifiable radionuclide. The nuclear characteristics which favour this technique may be summarized in an advantage factor relative to radiometric analysis of the original radioanalyte. Well known or hardly known examples include 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th, 230 Th, 129 I, 99 Tc, 237 Np and 231 Pa; a number of these are discussed and illustrated in analysis of real samples of environmental and biological origin. The advantages and drawbacks of this technique relative to conventional radiometric analysis and newer, mass spectrometric methods is also discussed. The value of NAA as an independent method in certification of radionuclide reference materials (where much remains to be done) is stressed. Where direct sample analysis is possible, NAA retains the important advantage of being essentially blank-free. Where pre-separation of the analyte is necessary, some suggestions for improving the reliability of pre-separation yields using internal, activable tracers are proposed. The use of NAA to allow 238 U and 232 Th to be used as endogenous (internal) radiotracers in alpha spectrometric analyses of uranium and thorium radioisotopes in radioecological studies is described, also allowing independent data sets to be obtained, of great value in quality control. (author)

  8. Natural radionuclides monitoring in Lombardia drinking water by liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, M.; Rusconi, R.; Bellinsona, S.; Sgorbati, G.

    2002-01-01

    Concern about total radionuclides content in water intended for human consumption has been brought to public attention by the recent Council Directive 98/83/EC, subsequently enforced through an Italian law (DL 31, February 2., 2001). Parameter values have been fixed for Tritium content and total indicative dose: the Directive points out that the total indicative dose must be evaluated excluding Tritium, 4 0K , 1 4C , Radon and its decay products, but including all other natural series radionuclides. Maximum concentration values for Radon are separately proposed in Commission Recommendation 2001/928/Euratom. Tritium determination follows a well established procedure, standardised by International Standard Organisation (ISO 9698, 1989). On the contrary, total indicative dose evaluation requires more specific and cumbersome procedures for the measurement of radioactivity content, with special regard to natural series radionuclides. The large number of possibly involved radionuclides and the good sensitivities required make the application of traditional analytical techniques unsuitable in view of a large scale monitoring program. World Health Organisation (WHO 1993 and 1996) guidelines for drinking water suggest performing an indirect evaluation of committed dose by measuring alpha and beta gross radioactivity and checking compliance to derived limit values; the proposed limit values are 0,1 Bq/l for gross alpha and 1 Bq/l for gross beta radioactivity. Nevertheless, it is desirable to identify single radionuclides contribution to alpha and beta activity in order to perform more accurate measurements of committed dose

  9. Emissions of the corrosion radionuclides in an atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanyan, M.

    2010-01-01

    In area of Armenian nuclear power plant location, in atmospheric air in majority of cases log two technogenic radionuclides: l 37 C s and 9 0 S r. Presence of these radionuclides basically is caused by global fall out (consequences of tests of the nuclear weapon and Chernobyl NPP accident), whose contribution to the contents of these radionuclides in atmosphere is incomparably greater, than emissions from the NPP. However there are some cases when in an atmosphere are registered the technogenic radionuclides, caused by emissions from NPP. In the present work such case is considered. Gas-aerosol releases of NPP in the atmosphere are carefully purified by means of various high-efficiency filters and gas-cleaning systems. Nevertheless, one should forecast and measure, the possible impact of these releases on the environment in the regions surrounding the NPP. Radioactive releases of the Armenian NPP (ANPP) contain the set of radionuclides characteristic for NPPs of this type. They may be divided into three groups: 1 31 I , 1 37 C s, 1 34 C s, 9 0 S r and 8 9 S r fission fragments, isotopes of noble gases krypton and xenon and other radionuclides; corrosion originated radionuclides: 6 0 C o, 1 10m A g, 5 4 M n, 5 l C r and others; activation products of the heat-transfer agent itself. It should be noted that the amount of radioactive materials released in the environment by the ANPP during the whole period of its operation was much lower than the admissible quantities specified in the corresponding legal documents (RSN, NPPSP) acting in Armenia, which are practically identical to the internationally accepted norms. The amounts of releases and their radionuclides composition for the ANPP are given

  10. Radionuclides in soil and vegetables in the Novi Sad area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmar, M.; Slivka, J.; Djurcic, Z.; Zikic, N.; Bikit, I.; Conkic, Lj.

    1999-01-01

    The results of radiological control of soil from the fields for vegetable breeding in Novi Sad region are presented in this paper. Using obtained values of concentration activity and known transfer-factors contents of some radionuclides in several vegetables was estimated. The values of activity concentration obtained by direct measurements are lower than estimated ones. (author)

  11. Spectrometric control of radionuclides production parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, I.; Potarenko, A.; Yarochevich, O.; Hluboky, N.; Kerko, P.; Bogdanov, V.; Dyatel, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A radioactive preparations and sources are widely used all over the world for scientific, industrial and medical purposes. These preparations in Belarus are planned to produce by the Joint Belarussian-Russian Closed Joint Stock Company 'Isotope technologies' (CJSC IT). The company was created in 1998 by two leading scientific centers-SSI 'Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny' the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus and the State Center of Science of the Russian Federation 'Scientific research institute of nuclear reactors'. One of the mainstream directions in CJSC IT activities is production of radioactive preparations for the industrial and scientific application (such as 133 Ba, 109 Cd, 63 Ni, 60 Co) and for the medical purposes (such as 19 '2Ir, 60 Co). All radioactive preparations have a good export potential and adequate to modern technical and consumer requirements. X-γ spectrometric analysis of considered radioactive sources is one of the basic methods for quality control of radioactive sources. At present, we are developing x-γ spectrometric support of purification process from contaminating radionuclides of 109 Cd -γ preparation and 63 Ni - β preparation. Work on x-γ spectrometric quality control of 133 Ba preparation is carried out. The description of the used equipment is given. Techniques of contaminating radionuclides determination (contents ∼10 - '6 from activity of the basic radionuclide) are presented. Problems of the choice of geometry of measurements of sources with activity about 10 7 -10 9 Bq and possible sources of errors are discussed. (author)

  12. Distribution of natural radionuclides on coats of Bushehr, Persian Gulf, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdi, M. R.; Faghihian, H.; Kamali, M.; Mostajaboddavati, M.; Hasanzadeh, A.

    2006-01-01

    :A reconnaissance study has been made on the distribution of 2 38U , 2 32T h, 4 0K , 1 37C s and geochemical features in soil and sediment samples at various locations on the coast of Bushehr in the Persian Gulf. In this study a gamma-ray spectrometer based on a High Purity Germanium detector and a PC based MCA and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method were used. Estimation of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The Activity concentration (A), the equivalent radium (R eq ), and the external hazard index (H ex ) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil and sediment are also calculated. The base-line data of radionuclides and heavy metals in view of the commissioning of nuclear and non-nuclear industries for the coast of Bushehr, which does not yet exist, was obtained. Activity concentration levels due to radionuclides were measured in 50 soil and sediment samples collected from this region. The measurement was performed with respect to their gamma radioactivity for a counting time of 24 hour intervals. From the accumulated spectra, activity concentration were determined for 4 0K (range from 108 to 520 Bq Kg -1 ), 1 37 Cs (from 6 to 40 Bq Kg 1 ), 2 38U (from 12 to 75 Bq Kg -1 ) and 2 32T h (from 8 to 33 Bq Kg -1 ) with the lowest limit detection (LLD) of, respectively, 68, 3.2, 4.3 and 4.3 Bq Kg -1 . The dose rate from ambient air at the soil ranges was between 14 to 44 nGy h -1 with an average of 30.56±7.86 nGy h -1

  13. Monte Carlo calculation of correction factors for radionuclide neutron source emission rate measurement by manganese bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunjuan; Liu Yi'na; Zhang Weihua; Wang Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The manganese bath method for measuring the neutron emission rate of radionuclide sources requires corrections to be made for emitted neutrons which are not captured by manganese nuclei. The Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP was used to simulate the manganese bath system of the standards for the measurement of neutron source intensity. The correction factors were calculated and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through the key comparison for the radionuclide neutron source emission rate measurements organized by BIPM. The uncertainties in the calculated values were evaluated by considering the sensitivities to the solution density, the density of the radioactive material, the positioning of the source, the radius of the bath, and the interaction cross-sections. A new method for the evaluation of the uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculation was given. (authors)

  14. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  15. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  16. Measurements and calculations of air activation in the NuMI neutrino production facility at Fermilab with the 120-GeV proton beam on target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhno, I. L.; Hylen, J.; Kasper, P.; Mokhov, N. V.; Quinn, M.; Striganov, S. I.; Vaziri, K.

    2018-01-01

    Measurements and calculations of the air activation at a high-energy proton accelerator are described. The quantity of radionuclides released outdoors depends on operation scenarios including details of the air exchange inside the facility. To improve the prediction of the air activation levels, the MARS15 Monte Carlo code radionuclide production model was modified to be used for these studies. Measurements were done to benchmark the new model and verify its use in optimization studies for the new DUNE experiment at the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) at Fermilab. The measured production rates for the most important radionuclides – 11C, 13N, 15O and 41Ar – are in a good agreement with those calculated with the improved MARS15 code.

  17. Measurements and calculations of air activation in the NuMI neutrino production facility at Fermilab with the 120-GeV proton beam on target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhno, I. L.; Hylen, J.; Kasper, P.; Mokhov, N. V.; Quinn, M.; Striganov, S. I.; Vaziri, K.

    2018-01-01

    Measurements and calculations of the air activation at a high-energy proton accelerator are described. The quantity of radionuclides released outdoors depends on operation scenarios including details of the air exchange inside the facility. To improve the prediction of the air activation levels, the MARS15 Monte Carlo code radionuclide production model was modified to be used for these studies. Measurements were done to benchmark the new model and verify its use in optimization studies for the new DUNE experiment at the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) at Fermilab. The measured production rates for the most important radionuclides - 11C, 13N, 15O and 41Ar - are in a good agreement with those calculated with the improved MARS15 code.

  18. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg −1 , mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles ( 210 Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m −3 , while in smoke-free air 210 Po concentration was about 30 μBq m −3 . The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from 210 Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of 210 Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons

  19. Design and manufacturing of nuclear non destructive measurement systems and coupled metrology in order to quantify the radionuclides contaminating the wastes and the processes of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurel, N.

    2013-01-01

    The non-destructive nuclear measurement has to provide responses for the main challenges of the nuclear industry such as nuclear facility safety, health, environmental impact, performance, reliability and cost control. The goal of the non-destructive nuclear measurement is to characterize, without any deterioration, an object contaminated by one or more radionuclides. The passive or active nuclear measurement are utilized for quantifying the radionuclides in the effluents, the liquid and solid wastes and the nuclear material hold-up. It is also deployed for the process control. In this case, it is a standard production control but, the most of the time, it controls the validity of the safety domain of the production unit. The results of these measurements are used to establish the radiological inventory or the nuclear material balance. The radiological inventory is needed for the nuclear wastes outlets while the nuclear material balance is needed to follow through with the criticality units. The most important objective is to give the quantitative and/or qualitative value and its uncertainty are confident of the radionuclides contaminating the object. This contaminated object might be of different geometrical shapes, sizes or physico-chemical compositions. In order to be efficient, the non-destructive nuclear measurement has to include the apparatus, the measurement actions, the settings and the use of the coupled methodologies. I relate, in this memoir, my main research and development works that I drove or in which I took part for achieving these goals. These works are about the metrology of nuclear radiations and are used in three main types of measurement which are the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry and the passive or active neutron counting. (author) [fr

  20. Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

  1. Limitation of radioactive discharges from NPP based on radionuclide specific monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucina, I.; Malatova, I.; Vidlakova, J.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring of gaseous and liquid discharges from nuclear power plants based on particulate-iodine-gas measurements and gross beta or gamma plus tritium measurements is being improved by performing radionuclide specific measurements using semiconductor gamma and beta spectrometers and radiochemical methods. A new concept of regulatory effluent limits is being developed. The activities of all the relevant radionuclides discharged during a years, multiplied by the appropriate Sv/Bq conversion coefficient based on a standard multi-pathway model, are summed up, and the effective dose is compared with the new limit. Such limits should be laid down as the per capita collective commitment effective dose in the plant surroundings for atmospheric discharges, and as the committed effective dose to a critical group member for the hydrospheric releases

  2. A general dead-time correction method based on live-time stamping. Application to the measurement of short-lived radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvenet, B; Bobin, C; Bouchard, J

    2017-12-01

    Dead-time correction formulae are established in the general case of superimposed non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Based on the same principles as conventional live-timed counting, this method exploits the additional information made available using digital signal processing systems, and especially the possibility to store the time stamps of live-time intervals. No approximation needs to be made to obtain those formulae. Estimates of the variances of corrected rates are also presented. This method is applied to the activity measurement of short-lived radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the optimization of empirical data concerning radionuclides in water of Lake Juodis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasiuk, N.; Koviazina, E.; Shliahtich, E.

    2004-01-01

    Quality of site-dependent water sampling for radionuclide analysis assessing their removal from the complicated aquatic system of eutrophic Lake Juodis is analyzed comparing time courses of site-specific data on standard variables (pH, temperature, redox potential, oxygen concentration, conductivity) in 2003-2004. Compared data were measured simultaneously: a) in the open bottom terrace of the lake adjoining its outflow; b) before the beaver dam bounding the lake rush grown area and c) at the site of the outflowing brook usually used for water sampling for radionuclide analysis. The rush grown area adjoining the outflowing brook is a natural filter for plutonium transport from the lake during warm season as well as for radiocesium activity fraction associated with the suspended matter. Using information on site-specific variations of vertical profiles of standard variables measured in the shallow bottom terrace of the lake, seasonal peculiarities of vertical radionuclide transport in the water column and their release from the sediments are discussed. In winter beaver activities in the lake as well as formation of the anaerobic zone in the rush grown area are considered as supplementary mechanisms facilitating vertical transport of radionuclides in the temperature stratificated water column and their removal from similar lakes. (author)

  4. Toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides - Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggenburg, B A; Mewhinney, J A; Guilmette, R A; Gillett, N A; Diel, J H; Lundgren, D L; Hahn, F F; Boecker, B B; McClellan, R O

    1988-12-01

    The toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides is being investigated in a series of interrelated dose-response studies. Dogs, rodents, and nonhuman primates have been exposed to monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols of the oxides of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am, or {sup 244}Cm to measure the relative importance of average organ dose, local dose around particles, specific activity, chemical form, particle size, and number of particles inhaled to the development of biological effects. The influence of animal species, age at exposure, and pre-existing lung disease, as well as the effects of repeated exposure, are also being studied, because they may influence the toxicity of these radionuclides. (author)

  5. A method for determining the analytical form of a radionuclide depth distribution using multiple gamma spectrometry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Steven Clifford, E-mail: sdewey001@gmail.com [United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Environmental Health Division, Health Physics Branch, Radiation Analysis Laboratories, 2350 Gillingham Drive, Brooks City-Base, TX 78235 (United States); Whetstone, Zachary David, E-mail: zacwhets@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Kearfott, Kimberlee Jane, E-mail: kearfott@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    When characterizing environmental radioactivity, whether in the soil or within concrete building structures undergoing remediation or decommissioning, it is highly desirable to know the radionuclide depth distribution. This is typically modeled using continuous analytical expressions, whose forms are believed to best represent the true source distributions. In situ gamma ray spectroscopic measurements are combined with these models to fully describe the source. Currently, the choice of analytical expressions is based upon prior experimental core sampling results at similar locations, any known site history, or radionuclide transport models. This paper presents a method, employing multiple in situ measurements at a single site, for determining the analytical form that best represents the true depth distribution present. The measurements can be made using a variety of geometries, each of which has a different sensitivity variation with source spatial distribution. Using non-linear least squares numerical optimization methods, the results can be fit to a collection of analytical models and the parameters of each model determined. The analytical expression that results in the fit with the lowest residual is selected as the most accurate representation. A cursory examination is made of the effects of measurement errors on the method. - Highlights: > A new method for determining radionuclide distribution as a function of depth is presented. > Multiple measurements are used, with enough measurements to determine the unknowns in analytical functions that might describe the distribution. > The measurements must be as independent as possible, which is achieved through special collimation of the detector. > Although the effects of measurements errors may be significant on the results, an improvement over other methods is anticipated.

  6. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  7. Introduction [Nuclear data for the production of therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactivity plays an important role in medical science in terms of beneficial applications in both diagnosis and therapy. The former entails the introduction of a short lived radionuclide attached to a suitable pharmaceutical into the patient, and measurement of the accumulation and movement of activity from outside. This process is called emission tomography and involves the measurement of either a single low energy γ ray (i.e. single photon computed emission tomography) or coincidences between the two 511 keV photons formed in the annihilation of a positron (i.e. positron emission tomography (PET)). The major governing principle in all diagnostic studies is that the radiation dose to the patient is as low as possible. Two modalities exist in the therapeutic use of radioactivity. The first and most commonly followed procedure involves the use of external beams of electrons, X rays and γ rays from radioactive sources (e.g. 60 Co), high energy γ rays from accelerators, and hadrons (e.g. neutrons, protons and heavy ions). The second modality involves the introduction of certain radionuclides to a given part of the body (e.g. joints, organ and tumour) either mechanically or via a biochemical pathway. Mechanical introduction is called brachytherapy, whereas the biochemical pathway is known as endoradiotherapy. External radiation therapy is outside the scope of the present studies. The concerted and collaborative efforts described here deal specifically with the production and use of radionuclides. An earlier coordinated research project (CRP) of the IAEA was devoted to diagnostic radionuclides. The present effort is related to therapeutic radionuclides.

  8. A survey of natural terrestrial and airborne radionuclides in moss samples from the peninsular Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanavatee, Komrit; Krmar, Miodrag; Bhongsuwan, Tripob

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural terrestrial radionuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) and airborne radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 210 Pb ex and 7 Be) in natural terrestrial mosses. The collected moss samples (46) representing 17 species were collected from 17 sampling localities in the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries of Thailand, situated in the mountainous areas between the northern and the southern ends of peninsular Thailand (∼7-12 °N, 99-102 °E). Activity concentrations of radionuclides in the samples were measured using a low background gamma spectrometer. The results revealed non-uniform spatial distributions of all the radionuclides in the study area. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis revealed two distinct origins for the studied radionuclides, and furthermore, the Pearson correlations were strong within 226 Ra, 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K as well as within 210 Pb and 210 Pb ex , but there was no significant correlation between these two groups. Also 7 Be was uncorrelated to the others, as expected due to different origins of the airborne and terrestrial radionuclides. The radionuclide activities of moss samples varied by moss species, topography, geology, and meteorology of each sampling area. The observed abnormally high concentrations of some radionuclides probably indicate that the concentrations of airborne and terrestrial radionuclides in moss samples were directly related to local geological features of the sampling site, or that high levels of 7 Be were most probably linked with topography and regional NE monsoonal winds from mainland China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. VKTA Rossendorf: Laboratory for Environmental and Radionuclide Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, M.; Knappik, R.; Fiola, K.

    2015-01-01

    The VKTA (Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc.) is charged by the Free State of Saxony with the decommissioning and waste management of the nuclear installations at the research site Dresden-Rossendorf. This task includes the safe management and disposal of fissile material and radioactive wastes. The acquired expertise and our solution-oriented way of working are the basis for a varied range of services especially the environmental and radionuclide analyzes. The Laboratory for Environmental and Radionuclide Analysis is accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 and provides a sound range of analytical and metrological services including their coordination and management. The personnel and the rooms, measuring and technical equipment are particularly designed for our special field, the measuring of radioactivity. We are focussed on measuring artificial and natural radionuclides in a wide range of activity and in different sample matrices (e.g., urine, faeces, metals, soil, concrete, food, liquids). With the flexible accreditation of the radionuclide analytics the Laboratory is able to react shortly to changing requirements in decommissioning, environmental monitoring and radiation protection. Essential chemical and radiochemical methods are e.g.: · Alpha particle spectrometry, · Liquid scintillation counting, · gamma ray spectrometry, including Ultra-Low-Level, · High-resolution ICP-MS, · Chromatographic methods such as ion chromatography, gas chromatography, HPLC, · Electrochemical measuring methods such as potentiometry, voltammetry. The Laboratory offers analytical services to the research site Dresden-Rossendorf and national and international customers adapting its analytical procedures to the special needs of customers. The presentation demonstrates on the basis of examples the work of Laboratory within the scope of decommissioning of nuclear facilities, especially at a research site, from radiological preliminary investigation to declaration of

  10. Effects of culinary preparation on radionuclide levels in vegetable foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Bradley, E.J.; Dodd, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vegetables contaminated by fall-out from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident have been used to investigate how simple culinary methods can affect the levels of various radionuclides in the portion consumed by man. Only ..gamma.. ray emitting radionuclides were investigated. Those parts of vegetables normally considered inedible, for example coarse outer leaves, foliage or roots, can account for between 50% and 97% of the total radionuclide content. Washing of the edible parts of vegetables can reduce the levels still further, although the efficacy is dependent on both the radionuclide and the vegetable type. These normal domestic procedures can reduce intakes of recently deposited radionuclides on vegetables by about an order of magnitude. The results have implications for the scope of monitoring programmes that might follow any future accidental release. They also reinforce very strongly the requirement for measurements on edible parts rather than whole samples as a direct input to dose evaluation. These results further suggest that there is no need to revise the general assumptions made in accident consequence models regarding losses of activity between harvest and consumption. However, more rigorous assessments of dose should take account of vegetable type and probable means of preparation.

  11. Measurement of radionuclides in the environment via Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    The author has developed an alternate approach to the measurement of some beta-emitting nuclides that utilizes the luminescence generated by the Cherenkov process. The luminescence, now known as Cherenkov radiation, was shown to be generated when a charged particle passes through a transparent medium at a speed that exceeds the phase velocity of light in the same medium. Cherenkov emission is different from most other luminescence processes in that it is a purely physical phenomenon. One consequence of this is that Cherenkov systems are free of chemical quenching effects. Conventional methods of analysis for environmental levels of beta-emitting radionuclides are often tedious, time-consuming, and expensive. The Cherenkov method is fast, requires very little operator attention, and is much less expensive to perform

  12. Methods of measurement and evaluation of natural radionuclide contents in buildings, at building sites, and in building materials and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The recommendations should serve as guidelines for specifying the scope of measurement and ways of evaluating the measuring results when satisfying the relevant requirements laid down by the Czech Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) and Decree No. 184/1997 in the field of natural radiation sources occurring in the environment without deliberate use. The document consists of the following sections: Methodology for the measurement and assessment of natural exposure of persons in dwelling rooms of buildings; Methodology of determination of the radon risk of building sites; Principles of systematic measurement and evaluation of natural radionuclide contents of building materials; and Principles of systematic measurement and evaluation of natural radionuclide contents of supplied water. (P.A.)

  13. Extreme radionuclide accumulation on alpine glaciers in cryoconites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Wilflinger, T.; Hubmer, A.K.; Bossew, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Under environmental conditions when radionuclide fallout will not be diluted by media like soil or water, radionuclides deposited may accumulate to unusual high activities. On glacier surfaces conditions as such exist for aerosols and airborne dust deposited with anthropogenic and natural radionuclides attached on their surfaces. In the course of agglomeration processes initiated by melting and redistribution, these particles may concentrate in small depressions, ice pockets, ablation edges etc. and form substances called cryoconites ('ice dust'). As there is no other matrix than the original aerosol particles, cryoconites are a sink for radionuclides and airborne pollutants and their activity levels are among the highest produced by natural processes observed in environmental media. 137 Cs activities found on glaciers in the Austrian alps are between 255 and 136.000 Bq/kg and predominantly derived from Chernobyl, but also from global fallout. Further anthropogenic radionuclides detected are 134 Cs, 90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 125 Sb, 154 Eu, 60 Co and 207 Bi. In combination with the naturally occurring radionuclides 7 Be and 210 Pb and isotopic ratios such as 134 Cs/ 137 Cs, identification and discrimination of the sources, the nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl fallout, can be carried out. (author)

  14. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  15. Behaviour of actinides and other radionuclides that are difficult to measure in the melting of contaminated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Haas, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    The research work carried out confirmed the expected homogeneous distribution of the radionuclides selected for the experiments (Fe 55 and Ni 63) in the metal ingot, as was already known from the behaviour of Co 60. The latter radionuclide may be used as an indicator nuclide for Fe 55 and Ni 63 which are both difficult to measure. C 14 also showed homogeneous distribution in the ingot (carbon steel). As expected for the melt technique strontium is released to the slag. In principle this is valid for actinides too, but depends to some extent on their chemical form (elemental uranium, UO 2 ), the added tracer quantity and the quantity of slag forming material. A direct alpha-measurement technique has been developed for steel samples and may be suitable for free release measurements of alpha-emitting steel waste decontaminated by the melt technique

  16. Assessment of doses due to radionuclides in sewage sludge for different scenario of its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydagiene, R.; Morkunas, G.; Pilkyte, L.

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of doses due to radionuclides in sewage sludge for different scenarios of its use was made for sewage plant storage in Visaginas, Rimses district, Karlu village. Calculations of individual and collective doses were made on the basis of results of measurements. Two potential exposure pathways from radionuclides in sewage sludge were considered and two scenarios descriptions were made. The first scenario is when the sludge is using for fertilization, and the second one - the sludge is covered with soil. Using program Environ-Calc made by American Chemical Society the number of samples needed to be sampled was optimized. 38 sewage samples were collected for gamma spectrometrical measurements and 10 samples - for measurements of tritium activity. Results of measurements pointed out that the sludge has no higher activity of tritium that background ones. The only two man made radionuclides 60 Co and 137 Cs were found by gamma spectrometry in the sludge. Average activity for the fresh weight in the samples of 60 Co was 42 Bq/kg, 137 Cs - 10 Bq/kg. Concentration of natural radionuclides was in the same range as in any soil samples from Lithuania. The dose for the first scenario for 1 years child will be 12 μSv, for adult - 9,4 μSv. In another scenario doses for the workers in sewage plant were estimated as 0,76 mSv. Collective dose in case of use of sewage sludge for fertilizers will be 4,4*10 -3 man Sv. The lowest doses will be when the sewage storage is covered using soil. (author)

  17. Table of radionuclides (Vol. 4 - A = 133 to 252)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, M.M.; Chiste, V.; Dulieu, Ch.; Browne, E.; Chechev, V.; Kuzmenko, N.; Kondev, F.G.; Luca, A.; Galan, M.; Pearce, A.; Huang, X.

    2008-01-01

    This monograph is one of several published in a series by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) on behalf of the Comite Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants (CCRI), previously known as the Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesure des Rayonnements Ionisants (CCEMRI). The aim of this series of publications is to review topics that are of importance for the measurement of ionizing radiation and especially of radioactivity, in particular those techniques normally used by participants in international comparisons. It is hoped that these publications will prove to be useful reference volumes both for those who are already engaged in this field and for those who are approaching such measurements for the first time. The purpose of this monograph, number 4 in the series, is to present the recommended values of nuclear and decay data for a wide range of radionuclides. Activity measurements for more than fifty-five of these radionuclides have already been the subject of comparisons under the auspices of Section II (dedicated to the Measurement of radionuclides) of the CCRI. The material for this monograph is now covered in four volumes. The first two volumes contain the primary recommended data relating to half-lives, decay modes, x-rays, gamma-rays, electron emissions; alpha- and beta-particle transitions and emissions, and their uncertainties for a set of sixty-eight radionuclides, Volume I for those radionuclides with mass number up to and including 150 and Volume 2 for those radionuclides with mass number over 150. Volume 3 contains the equivalent data for twenty-six additional radionuclides as listed and reevaluations for 125 Sb and 153 Sm while Volume 4 contains the data for a further thirty-one radionuclides with re-evaluation for 226 Ra. The data have been collated and evaluated by an international working group (Decay Data Evaluation Project) led by the LNE-LNHB. The evaluators have agreed on the methodologies to be used and the CD-ROM included

  18. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  19. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ( 226 Ra), radium-228 ( 228 Ra) and potassium-40 ( 40 K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H in ), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption

  20. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  1. Applicability of portable spectrometer for activity measurement of contaminated water and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Narayani; Rekha, A.K.; Anilkumar, S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute activity measurement is often necessary to assess the impact of radioactivity contamination due to various incidents. Commercially available portable spectrometer cum dose rate meter is used for the identification of radionuclides involved and associated dose rates. In this paper the authors discusses the study carried out on the applicability of portable spectrometer for absolute radioactivity measurements in water and soil matrices. The portable spectrometer and the methodology developed for activity estimation has been used in many insitu applications. (author)

  2. Measurement of 238U and 232Th radionuclides in ilmenite and synthetic rutile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, M. I.; Siong, K. K.; Fadzil, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    The only factory that currently processes ilmenite to produce synthetic rutile is Tor Minerals in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. These two minerals contain radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium. Furthermore, this factory was built close to the residential areas. Thus, the primary issues are radiation exposure attributed to the decay of the radionuclides. Hence, the objectives of this study are to measure the dose and to evaluate activity levels of uranium and thorium. Dose rates from surrounding area of factory indicate the normal range for both on the surface and 1 meter above the ground (0.3-0.7 μSv/hr) lower than the global range of 0.5-1.3 μSv/hr set by UNSCEAR. The mean activity levels of uranium and thorium for ilmenite are 235 Bq/kg and 503 Bq/kg while for synthetic rutile are 980 Bq/kg and 401 Bq/kg, respectively. The result shows that uranium activity levels of synthetic rutile is 4 times higher than ilmenite but it is still lower than the regulatory exemption limit of 1000 Bq/kg set by IAEA Basic Safety Standards. Even though the dose rates at the factory and the activity levels are within safe limits, safety precautions must be followed by the factory management to prevent any unwanted accident to occur.

  3. Development of the k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis for short-lived radionuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, H.M.; Blaauw, M.; Beasley, D.; Freitas, M.D.C.

    2011-01-01

    The k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis (k0-CNAA) technique has been studied to explore the applicability at the Portuguese research reactor (RPI). In particular, for the determination of elements which form short-lived radionuclides, particularly fluorine (20F, 11.16 s half-life) and

  4. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitored in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program. Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media

  5. Natural radionuclides in Brazilian underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Rock, soil and water contain "2"3"8U and "2"3"2Th and their decay products. The distribution of these radionuclides differs in terms of activity concentration depending on the mineral type and origin. All ore processing releases long and short half-life radionuclides, mainly radon and its progeny. It is important to monitor this gas and its decay products in underground mines in order to assess the radiological hazards of the exposed workers. On this concern, the present work outlines the characterization of brazilian underground mines with relation to natural radionuclides, specially radon and its progeny. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber (Radelec), AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and CR-39 (Landauer) track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. The equilibrium state between radon and its progeny was calculated. Based on these data, the total effective dose for miners was estimated. Moreover, the contribution from the main sources to the radon level inside mines was evaluated. For this, the following detectors were used: measurements of radon concentrations in soil gas were carried out by using AlphaGUARD detector; "2"2"6Ra ("2"1"4Bi), "2"3"2Th e "4"0K specific activity in ore and soil samples were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector (Canberra); and radon concentration in groundwater samples was performed by using RAD7 (Durridge Inc.). The radon concentration ranged from 113 to 8171 Bq.m"-"3 and the Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration varied from 76 to 1174 Bq.m"-"3. The equilibrium factor mean value was 0.4 (0.2 -0.7). The workers estimated total effective dose ranged from 1 to 22 mSv.a"-"1 (mean 10 mSv.a"-"1). Therefore, results show the importance to assess continually and permanently the radon and its progeny behavior and the need to adopt safety measurements against natural radiation in underground mines environment. (author)

  6. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg{sup −1}, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (< 1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, {sup 210}Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m{sup −3}, while in smoke-free air {sup 210}Po concentration was about 30 μBq m{sup −3}. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from {sup 210}Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of {sup 210}Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons.

  7. Quality assurance of Mo-99/Tc-99m radionuclide generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunov, Nikolay; Yordanova, Galina; Salim, Seniha; Stancheva, Natalya; Mineva, Vanya; Meléndez-Alafort, Laura; Rosato, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry analyses of the radionuclide content of eluate from two Mo-99/Tc-99m radionuclide generators POLTECHNET have been performed. The relative activities of 99Mo 103Ru and 131I radioisotopes with respect to the activity of 99mTc at different time intervals after the primary pertechnetate elution of the generators have been analyzed. The relative activities of the isotopes were determined and compared to the radionuclidic purity requirements for 99mTc.

  8. Activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 111}In for the LNE-LNHB, France in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.In-111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Pavillon de Breteuil, 92 - Sevres (France); Verdeau, E.; Amiot, M.N. [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-10-15

    In 2006, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 111}In to the International Reference System (SIR). The value of the activity submitted was about 14 MBq. This provides a new result for France in the matrix of degrees of equivalence in the key comparison database that enables them to maintain their degrees of equivalence for this radionuclide. The key comparison reference value has been re-evaluated and the comparison, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.In-111, now contains five valid results. (authors)

  9. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  10. A review of measurement and characterisation of airborne long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1993-01-01

    Sampling principles, monitoring instrumentation and characterisation of Long-Lived Radioactive Dust (LLRD) generated in U-Th mine and mill operations are discussed. Methods and techniques for the quantification, radionuclide identification and the study of other important characteristics of LLRD (e.g., electrical charge) are reviewed. Furthermore, field and laboratory measurements and methods of radiation dose assessment are revised. Some emphasis is placed in this work on occupational worker exposure assessment and the principles, methods and techniques of 'external' radiation exposure, internal dosimetry, and dosimetric models. It is clear that in spite of constant advances in the several areas which are the subject of this paper, there is still considerable room for improvement. For example, there is no universally accepted sampling protocol and sampler for routine LLRD monitoring for occupational hygiene exposure calculation purposes. Other areas for improvement could include calibration of instrumentation and improved sensitivity in radionuclide quantification and identification. 105 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  12. DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2

  13. Radionuclide sources in the Barents and Kara Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.N.; Ellis, K.M.; Forman, S.; Polyak, L.; Ivanov, G.; Matishov, D.; Kilius, L.

    1995-01-01

    A study of radionuclide distributions in the Barents Sea sediments was carried out in 1992. The conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) Elevated levels of artificial radionuclides as great as 15,000 Bq/kg for 239,240 Pu, 250 Bq/kg for 137 Cs and 100 Bq/kg for 60 Co were measured in sediments in Chermaya Bay which have been contaminated by several nuclear tests conducted in the 1950s. 2) Sediment-depth distributions of 239,240 Pu and other artificial radionuclides are consistent with results from biodiffusion models that are constrained by 210 Pb sediment-depth distributions. These results indicate that sedimentation rates in Chernaya Bay are low ( 249 Pu/ 239 Pu and 241 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios of 0.030 and 0.0012, respectively and a 241 Am/ 239,240 Pu activity ratio of 0.05 (compared to 0.3 in fallout) which provides a method for tracking its dispersion over distances of 100 km into the Barents Sea. 4) Artificial radionuclide levels in sediments and seawater near a sunken barge loaded with radioactive wastes in the Novaya Zemlya trough are similar to background fallout levels in the Kara Sea and provide little evidence for the release of radioactive contaminants from the dumpsite. 7 refs., 4 figs

  14. Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been initiated of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10 4 . In 1956 and 1958 considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies, have largely been confined to a few radionuclides, and most of the work in the last twenty years has been done in the northern hemisphere. The authors participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. The authors were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides 7 Be, 40 K, and the U and Th series, and they believe that they have detected low levels of 144 Ce and 95 Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68 0 . Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  15. Surfactant-impregnated activated carbon for enhanced adsorptive removal of Ce(IV) radionuclides from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mamdoh R.; Sharaf El-deen, Gehan E.; Soliman, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated carbon (AC) was impregnated in this work with CTAB and NaLS surfactants. • The materials were evaluated as a sorbent for adsorption of Ce(IV) radionuclides. • Adsorption capacity of AC–NaLS for Ce(IV) is two-times the capacity of AC. • The kinetic and equilibrium data are fitted to pseudo-second-order and D–R models. • The results suggest the applicability of surface modified AC for waste treatment. - Abstract: The surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) were utilized for modifying the activated carbon’s surface. The materials were characterized using BET–N 2 , scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Adsorption of Ce(IV) radionuclides from aqueous solutions by activated carbon (AC) and surfactant-impregnated AC was studied. The obtained data showed that adsorption of Ce(IV) is strongly dependent on the solution pH and AC–NaLS exhibits the widest pH-range of maximum removal. The experimental adsorption capacity of AC–NaLS (0.069 mmol/g) for Ce(IV) is found to be nearly twice greater than that of AC (0.036 mmol/g). The adsorption kinetics of Ce(IV) onto AC and AC–NaLS were analyzed by linear and non-linear fittings to the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetic models. Of these models, the pseudo-second-order is the best kinetic expression for describing the experimental data. The diffusion studies indicated that adsorption of Ce(IV) radionuclides on AC and AC–NaLS is controlled by film diffusion. Linear and non-linear fittings of the adsorption equilibrium data for Ce(IV) onto AC and AC–NaLS revealed that the Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) isotherm model fits the experimental data better than Freundlich and Langmuir models. The values of adsorption free energy, E, calculated from both linear and non-linear methods suggested that Ce(IV) radionuclides are physically adsorbed onto AC and AC–NaLS

  16. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  17. Design, fabrication and evaluation of a new calibration phantom for in vivo measurement of bone-seeking radionuclides (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.B.; Lodwick, J.

    2000-01-01

    A new anthropometric phantom has been developed for use in calibrating in vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. The phantom has the external shape and appearance of the human adult knee and contains a realistic femur, patella, tibia, and fibula. Unique formulations of polyurethanes, CaCo 3 , and other trace materials are used in construction of the phantom to produce substitutes for human tissue having the same density, attenuation coefficient, and effective Z as that of human muscle and trabecular bone. The formulation for trabecular bone includes provision for a precisely known quantity of radioactive material that is either uniformly distributed throughout the bone matrix or deposited on the exterior surface. The knee phantom is assembled in three interlocking sections that simplify inserting the skeletal structures and prevent streaming. One or more detectors can easily be positioned on the top or sides of the phantom. Intercomparison measurements of 241 Am in bone using separate arrays of phoswich and germanium detectors demonstrate that a single knee phantom exhibits the same detection efficiency as that using the skull. In vivo measurement of the knee is a desirable alternative to the head if facial contamination is present or when evaluating recent exposure to bone seeking radionuclides, since bones of the knee exhibit more rapid uptake than the skull. In practice, greater measurement efficiency can be obtained by placing detectors over both knees since a larger fraction of the total body activity is observed. Calibration measurements using the new anthropometric knee phantom demonstrate that it is durable, easy to use, and provides consistent results over repeated measurements. (author)

  18. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  19. Measurement of absolute left ventricular volume by radionuclide angiography: a technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khawaja, I.M.; Lahiri, Avijit; Raftery, E.B.; Medical Research Council, Harrow

    1988-01-01

    Absolute left ventricular volumes have important clinical implications in the evaluation of cardiac performance. Several invasive and noninvasive techniques have been reported, none of which can be considered ideal for this purpose. Contrast angiography, echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography are open to criticism. Different radioisotopic approaches are described with emphasis on the importance of accurate separation of left ventricular activity, the selection of background activity, and the correction for photon attenuation by body tissues. Improper use of statistics and validation techniques have obscured the value of these techniques. In the absence of a 'gold standard' there should be a 'radioisotopic' left ventricular volume with established independent characteristics, repeatability and reproducibility by which new approaches can be judged. (author)

  20. Measurement of natural radionuclides in U.K. diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Bradley, E J

    1984-05-01

    The levels of radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the U.K. diet have been determined. The important food groups contributing to the intake of these radionuclides have been identified. Seventy-five percent of the daily intake of radium-226 is derived from beverages, cereals, other vegetables, bread, sugars and preserves. Seventy-five percent of the intake of lead-210 and polonium-210 is derived from bread, milk, cereals, beverages, other vegetables, sugars and preserves, and meat products. The average daily intakes of these radionuclides are tentatively calculated to be 30 mBq for radium-226 and 82 mBq for both lead-210 and polonium-210. These levels are compared with data from other countries. The annual effective dose equivalents resulting from the intakes are approximately 3 muSv for radium-226 and 54 muSv from lead-210 and polonium-210 together. The differences between these doses and other current estimates are discussed.

  1. Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L.

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

  2. Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

  3. Natural Radionuclides in Slag/Ash Pile from Coal-Fired Power Plant Plomin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The coal slag/ash pile contains about one million tons of different (bottom ash, filter ash, gypsum) waste material deposited in vicinity of Plomin coal-fired power plant. Activities of 40 K, 228 Ra, 226 Ra and 238 U in materials deposited on slag/ash pile as well as in used coals were occasionally measured during past more than two and half decades of Plomin coal-fired plant operation. The radionuclides content in deposited bottom and filter ash material are related with radionuclide activities and mineral matter fraction in coals used. Up to the middle of nineties, the majority of coal used was anthracite from Istrian local mines. In that period, deposited waste material was characterised with relatively high 226 Ra and 238 U activities while potassium and thorium content was very low. When Istrian coal has been completely substituted with imported coal, uranium series radionuclide concentrations in deposited waste materials decreased significantly. Meanwhile, potassium and thorium activities in slag/ash pile material increased. It seems that slag/ash pile material generated in the last several years of Plomin coal-fired power plant operation could be generally used in cement industry without any special restriction. (author)

  4. The effects of culinary preparation on radionuclide levels in vegetable foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Bradley, E.J.; Dodd, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vegetables contaminated by fall-out from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident have been used to investigate how simple culinary methods can affect the levels of various radionuclides in the portion consumed by man. Only γ ray emitting radionuclides were investigated. Those parts of vegetables normally considered inedible, for example coarse outer leaves, foliage or roots, can account for between 50% and 97% of the total radionuclide content. Washing of the edible parts of vegetables can reduce the levels still further, although the efficacy is dependent on both the radionuclide and the vegetable type. These normal domestic procedures can reduce intakes of recently deposited radionuclides on vegetables by about an order of magnitude. The results have implications for the scope of monitoring programmes that might follow any future accidental release. They also reinforce very strongly the requirement for measurements on edible parts rather than whole samples as a direct input to dose evaluation. These results further suggest that there is no need to revise the general assumptions made in accident consequence models regarding losses of activity between harvest and consumption. However, more rigorous assessments of dose should take account of vegetable type and probable means of preparation. (author)

  5. Performance of the radionuclide calibrators used at Division of Radiopharmaceuticals Production of the CRCN-NE, Recife, PE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria Conceicao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    The radionuclide calibrators are essential instruments in nuclear medicine services to determine the activity of radiopharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients. Essentially, it consists of a well-type ionization chamber coupled to a special displaying electronic circuit which allows one visualize the instrument response in activity units. Inappropriate performance of these equipment may lead to underestimation or overestimation of the activity, compromising the success of diagnosis or therapy. Quality control describes the procedures by which one can assure quality of activity measurement, providing efficacy of nuclear medicine procedures that employ unsealed sources of radioactivity. Several guides of national and international organizations summarize the recommended tests for the quality control of the radionuclide calibrators: accuracy, precision, reproducibility, linearity and geometry. The aim of this work was to establish a quality control program on the radionuclide calibrators from Divisao de Producao de Radiofarmacos (DIPRA) of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE), Brazil, utilized as reference instruments on comparison of activities measurements.. The results were determined and compared to the references values recommended by national and international guides. Besides, the geometry test provided the correction factors to be applied in activity measurements in different containers, in different volumes and in different positions. (author)

  6. Natural radionuclides by gammaspectrometry in region of West-south Serbia, for 1998, 1997 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaskovic, I.; Vukovic, D.M. [Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health, Deligradska 29, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Markovic, D. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2000-05-01

    Region of West Serbia, known as Uzicki region, as a agriculture and industry region, with cities: Uzice, Cacak, Kraljevo and Valjevo is important part of Yugoslavia for development. Radioactivity comes mostly from natural radionuclides and partly from long-lived radionuclides from non natural sources as a consequence of Chernobyl accident. Monitoring of environment has proceeded by vertical methodology. We analyzed: aerosol, soil, fallout (wet and dry deposition), rivers, lakes, drinking water, human and animal food. Results from analyze of samples of environment contains very low activity, actually activity of changes of basic signal. Results for 1998, 1997 and 1996 are: 1. Gamma dose was measure in Belgrade with median years values: 0.103 {mu}G/h (1998), 0.077 {mu}G/h (1997) and 0.0722 {mu}G/h (1996). 2. By gammaspectrometry analyze of air of months samples for each year, results shows activity of changes of basic signal. The signals are coming from natural radionuclides. 3. {sup 137}Cs, as a long lived radionuclide, with remarkable activity in soil analyzed from Zlatibor and result are :32.3-173 Bq/kg (1998), -Bq/kg (1997) and 33-122.7 Bq/kg (1996). 4. Activity in the rivers for these region not analyzed. 5. Activity of drinking waters, from city network shows low level of activity which comes from {sup 40}K, for both places. 6. Activity in human food, measured in yogurt, meats, bread and agricultural products comes from {sup 40}K Uzice 32.4-168 Bq/kg (1998), Bq/kg (1997) and 55.2-164 Bq/kg (1996). Activities of {sup 137}Cs are 1 Bq/kg. Results of analyze of animal food shows same results. The samples were collected according to methods determined by the Regulations. (author)

  7. Natural radionuclides by gammaspectrometry in region of West-south Serbia, for 1998, 1997 and 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, I.; Vukovic, D.M.; Markovic, D.

    2000-01-01

    Region of West Serbia, known as Uzicki region, as a agriculture and industry region, with cities: Uzice, Cacak, Kraljevo and Valjevo is important part of Yugoslavia for development. Radioactivity comes mostly from natural radionuclides and partly from long-lived radionuclides from non natural sources as a consequence of Chernobyl accident. Monitoring of environment has proceeded by vertical methodology. We analyzed: aerosol, soil, fallout (wet and dry deposition), rivers, lakes, drinking water, human and animal food. Results from analyze of samples of environment contains very low activity, actually activity of changes of basic signal. Results for 1998, 1997 and 1996 are: 1. Gamma dose was measure in Belgrade with median years values: 0.103 μG/h (1998), 0.077 μG/h (1997) and 0.0722 μG/h (1996). 2. By gammaspectrometry analyze of air of months samples for each year, results shows activity of changes of basic signal. The signals are coming from natural radionuclides. 3. 137 Cs, as a long lived radionuclide, with remarkable activity in soil analyzed from Zlatibor and result are :32.3-173 Bq/kg (1998), -Bq/kg (1997) and 33-122.7 Bq/kg (1996). 4. Activity in the rivers for these region not analyzed. 5. Activity of drinking waters, from city network shows low level of activity which comes from 40 K, for both places. 6. Activity in human food, measured in yogurt, meats, bread and agricultural products comes from 40 K Uzice 32.4-168 Bq/kg (1998), Bq/kg (1997) and 55.2-164 Bq/kg (1996). Activities of 137 Cs are 1 Bq/kg. Results of analyze of animal food shows same results. The samples were collected according to methods determined by the Regulations. (author)

  8. The Concentration Levels Of Some Isotopic Radionuclides In The Coastal Sediments Of The Red Sea, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL SAHARTY, A.A.; DAR, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The radionuclide activities of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry system. The total organic matter (TOM) and carbonate contents were also measured in the surface sediments of three valleys downstream at the southern Egyptian Red Sea coast. These localities are characterized by the presence of mangrove swamps with dense aerobic roots that provide calm conditions for particulate and fine sediments settlement. 238 U and 232 Th recorded almost equal activity values in the studied localities and their occurrence in the localities indicated that the metal accumulation are due to the complex and multiple processes that characterize the mangrove environments including accumulation in particulate form with the fine sediments, absorption on iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides from the sea water, incorporation inside the carbonate frameworks and as detrital phase. 40 K showed obvious radioactivity in the three localities indicating the presence of terrestrial radionuclide. 137 Cs concentrations were not evident in the studied localities which may indicate non-significant artificial source of radionuclide activity.

  9. Table of Radionuclides (Vol. 7 - A = 14 to 245) - Monograph BIPM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arinc, Arzu; Be, Marie-Martine; Chiste, Vanessa; Mougeot, Xavier; Chechev, Valery P.; Galan, Monica; Huang, Xialong; Kondev, Filip G.; Luca, Aurelian; Nichols, Alan L.

    2013-02-01

    This monograph is one of several published in a series by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) on behalf of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (Comite Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants, CCRI). The aim of this series of publications is to review topics that are of importance for the measurement of ionizing radiation and especially of radioactivity, in particular those techniques normally used by participants in international comparisons. The purpose of this monograph, number 5 in the series, is to present the recommended values of nuclear and decay data for a wide range of radionuclides. Activity measurements for more than sixty-three of these radionuclides have already been the subject of comparisons under the auspices of Section II (dedicated to the Measurement of radionuclides) of the CCRI. The material for this monograph is now covered in seven volumes. The first two volumes contain the primary recommended data relating to half-lives, decay modes, x-rays, gamma-rays, electron emissions; alpha- and beta-particle transitions and emissions, and their uncertainties for a set of sixty-eight radionuclides, Volume 1 for those radionuclides with mass number up to and including 150 and Volume 2 for those radionuclides with mass number over 150. Volume 3 contains the equivalent data for twenty-six additional radionuclides as listed and re-evaluations for 125 Sb and 153 Sm. Volume 4 contains the data for a further thirty-one radionuclides with a re-evaluation for 226 Ra and Volume 5 includes seventeen new radionuclide evaluations and eight re-evaluations of previous data as identified in the contents page. Volume 6 contains twenty-one new radionuclide evaluations and four re-evaluations, for 64 Cu, 236 Np, 37 Np and 239 U. The present Volume 7 contains twenty-four new radionuclide evaluations and five re-evaluations, for 67 Ga, 208 Tl, 228 Th, 242 Cm and 244 Cm. The data have been collated and evaluated by an international working group

  10. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample IAEA-367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Gastaud, J.; Vas, D.; Noshkin, V.

    1991-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Pacific Ocean sediment sample, IAEA-367, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 81 laboratories representing 37 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239+240 Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1990). Information values for 155 Eu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, and 241 Pu are reported. Information values for the following natural radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 234 U, 235 U and 238 U are also reported. (author)

  11. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  12. Metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1987-01-01

    Physico-chemical form of radionuclides is one of the important factors governing the concentration by marine organisms, whereas biological activities affect the existing states of radionuclides especially in coastal waters. Radioiodine in the form of iodate which is predominant species in seawater is reduced to iodide ion by biological activities and concentration factor of iodide is an order of magnitude higher than those of iodate. Extremely high accumulation of transition elements, actinides, or natural radionuclides in branchial heart of octopus is explained by the fuction of adenochrome, a glandular pigment in the organ as a natural complexing agent, and similar metal-binding proteins with relatively low molecular weight have been found in various marine invertebrates. High accumulation of some elements also found in mollusk kidney is considered to be caused by the intracellular concretions composed of calcium phosphate. All these biological processes suggest the significance of further investigations on metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms. (author)

  13. Limitation of radioactive discharges from NPP based on radionuclide specific monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucina, I; Malatova, I; Vidlakova, J [National Radaition Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Monitoring of nuclear power plants (NPP) discharges into atmosphere and hydrosphere based on particulate-iodine-gas (PIG) measurements and gross beta and gamma plus tritium measurements respectively is being improved by nuclide specific measurements employing semiconductor gamma and alpha spectrometry and radiochemical methods. In connection with the progress new concept of authorized effluent limits and the related regulations is being implemented in the Czech Republic. Activities of all principally contributing to the effective dose radionuclides discharges during a year multiplied by a Sv/Bq conversion coefficient based on a standard model are summed up and the effective dose is compared with the new limit. These limits should be authorized for discharges into atmosphere as per caput collective committed effective dose in the NPP surrounding or as its value multiplied by the number of surrounding segment providing thus committed effective dose to member of a vital critical group and into the hydrosphere as committed effective dose to the critical group member. The criteria for obligatory evaluation of the specific radionuclide contribution and the resulting requirements on minimum detectable activities for both the shorter and longer monitoring intervals are included in the new regulations. The PIG and gross activity measurement results will be compared with investigation levels only and no more used for limitation purposes. (authors).

  14. Postshot distribution and movement of radionuclides in nuclear crater ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, John J; Martin, John R; Wikkerink, Robert; Stuart, Marshall [Bio-Medical Division, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The distribution and postshot movement of radionuclides in nuclear crater ejecta are discussed in this report. Continuing studies of tritium movement in ejecta at SEDAN crater demonstrate that variations in tritium concentration are correlated with seasonal rainfall and soil water movements. Losses of 27 mCi H{sup 3}/ft{sup 2} are evident on SEDAN crater lip at the end of a three year period of measurements in -which an unusually large flux of rain was received. The distribution of gamma emitting radionuclides and tritium is described in the recently created SCHOONER crater ejecta field. The specific activity of radionuclides in the SCHOONER ejecta continuum is shown for ejecta collected from the crater lip to 17 miles from GZ. The movement of W{sup 181} and tritium into the sub-ejecta preshot soil is described at a site 3000 feet from GZ. (author)

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhagen, J.D.; Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  16. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  17. Radionuclides in the environment in the south of Spain, anthropogenic enhancements due to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjon, G. [Depto. de Fisica Aplicada 2, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 - Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Levels of natural radionuclides in the environment are affected by human activities in the South of Spain. Industry wastes, such as phospho-gypsum, have been released to an estuary since sixties until 1997. Nowadays the wastes management is careful with environment protection, which can be clearly observed today in the radionuclides pattern. Different sources of radionuclides (industry wastes, tidal action and mining) can be distinguished in the estuary. Uranium isotopes, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po were determined in water and sediment samples for this study. An iron recycling factory is working close to Seville (South of Spain). A {sup 137}Cs source was accidentally burnt in a furnace of this factory in 2001. The environmental impact of this accident was immediately denatured. Monitoring procedure and results are sho vn in this contribution. Radionuclides measurement involves difficult techniques. In this communication a procedure to determine the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb by liquid scintillation counting is presented. Two quality tests, using gamma- and alpha-spectrometry were applied to the {sup 210} Pb results. (Author)

  18. Radionuclides in the environment in the south of Spain, anthropogenic enhancements due to industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjon, G.

    2007-01-01

    Levels of natural radionuclides in the environment are affected by human activities in the South of Spain. Industry wastes, such as phospho-gypsum, have been released to an estuary since sixties until 1997. Nowadays the wastes management is careful with environment protection, which can be clearly observed today in the radionuclides pattern. Different sources of radionuclides (industry wastes, tidal action and mining) can be distinguished in the estuary. Uranium isotopes, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po were determined in water and sediment samples for this study. An iron recycling factory is working close to Seville (South of Spain). A 137 Cs source was accidentally burnt in a furnace of this factory in 2001. The environmental impact of this accident was immediately denatured. Monitoring procedure and results are sho vn in this contribution. Radionuclides measurement involves difficult techniques. In this communication a procedure to determine the activity concentration of 210 Pb by liquid scintillation counting is presented. Two quality tests, using gamma- and alpha-spectrometry were applied to the 210 Pb results. (Author)

  19. Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in sediments of surface - water dams in southwest Nigeria - a baseline survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isinkaye, M.O.; Farai, I.P.

    2008-01-01

    The radionuclide contents of sediment samples collected from 20 surface-water dams in southwestern Nigeria have been determined by low-level gamma-spectroscopy. The average concentration of 40 K in each of the dams varied between 110.9±11.9 Bq kg-1 and 1025.9±36.8 Bq kg -1 with an overall mean (±SD) of 549.3 ± 247.6 Bq kg -1 while that of 238 U varied from 17.1±3.6 to 51.9±8.7 Bq kg -1 with an overall mean (±SD) of 27.6±8.5 Bq kg -1 and that of 232 Th varied from 26.2 ±3.6 Bq kg -1 to 130.1±23.7 Bq kg -1 with overall mean (±SD) of 62.0±26.1 Bq kg -1 . The variability of the values shows the wide disparity in the measured activity concentrations. The mean radium equivalent of 158.9 Bq kg -1 was calculated for the sediments in the dams. No artificial gamma emitting radionuclide was detected in the samples. (authors)

  20. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  1. Sorption of radionuclides on a soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami

    1979-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes into the ground has been discussed, and this paper emphasized significance of the investigation for underground water flow and for the prediction of radionuclides through a stratified aquifer using column experiments to evaluate the internal radiation dose. Distributions and redistributions of radionuclides in a sandy layer were observed to identify the sorption model which predicts the behavior, and the underground water flow in the Plio-Pleistocene Osaka Group was investigated as an example, by mean of the measurement of 222 Rn concentration, the pumping technique and the tracer technique using the activation analysis. Then, the estimation of radioactive concentration in the underground water was worked out for the boundary condition of steady state inflow of liquid wastes and of which the 90 Sr are leached from the solidified body, moreover, the equation which easily evaluates the suitability of the disposal site was proposed. These approach may be useful for the actual site selection of radioactive wastes disposal. (author)

  2. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  3. Radionuclide content in some building materials and their radon exhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Sykora, I.; Chudy, M.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    1995-01-01

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sands, gravels, cements and in different kinds of concretes were measured by γ-spectrometric methods. The 222 Rn exhalation rate from concretes was measured by closed chamber method and the emanation coefficient was calculated. Both used methods are described in detail and obtained results are discussed from point of view of allowed hygienic limits. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  4. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  5. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  6. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  7. Intercomparison of 131I and 99mTc activity measurements in Brazilian nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, Akira; De Oliveira, Antonio E.; Tauhata, Luiz; Silva, Carlos J. da; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2001-01-01

    This work outlines the quality assurance program for the activity measurements of the most used radionuclides at Brazilian Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). The program aims to guarantee that the patient is given the correct prescribed amount of activity in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. This accurate administration depends upon proper use and calibration of the activity meters by the NMS. Underestimation of administered activity in diagnostic practices could delay correct diagnosis disturbing the value of the investigation. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed dose would be delivered to the patient. The preliminary results of intercomparison for 131 I and 99m Tc showed that many activity meters used at NMS's present problems giving results up to 41% greater than the reference values determined at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) which is recognized as the Brazilian authorized metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation. These results have demonstrated that the NMS should improve the accuracy of the activity measurements of the radionuclides administered to the patients and establish the traceability to the national standards of measurements. These standards are based on a pressurized well-type ionization chamber installed at LNMRI and calibrated with reference sources standardized by absolute methods. The protocol of the intercomparison and recommendations made in order to minimize errors in measuring procedures are described and results are discussed

  8. The availability of soil-associated radionuclides for uptake after inadvertent ingestion by humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.; Green, N.

    2002-01-01

    Assessments of the radiological impact of radionuclides released into the environment generally take into account the inadvertent ingestion of radionuclides associated with soil or sediment. Such assessments often assume that gut uptake factors for radionuclides that are biologically incorporated in food are also applicable when the ingested activity is associated with soil. Studies of the availability of soil-associated radionuclides after ingestion have been mainly conducted on ruminant animals and few data exist for humans. The digestive tract of ruminants is totally different from that of a mono-gastric animal and so the availability estimated from the animal studies may not be valid in the case of man. A simple in-vitro enzymolysis procedure was therefore developed to simulate human digestion closely. The measured availability of 137 Cs, 241 Am, 239 PU and 90 Sr associated with loam, sand and peat soils was about 3%, 3%, 10% and 50% respectively. (author)

  9. The concentration of fission products and other radionuclides in the surface air between 1971 and 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, W.

    1974-01-01

    The aerosols collected with high-efficiency portable dust samplers in Brunswick and Tromsoe are analyzed in a Ge(Li) spectrometer. The mean monthly activity concentrations are given for a number of cosmogenic and induced radionuclides from nuclear weapons tests as well as for some cosmogenic and natural radionuclides. The annual curve exhibits marked seasonal variations with a pronounced peak - caused by an influx from the stratospheric reservoir - in late spring for all radionuclides studied except for 35 S, 210 Pb and 226 Ra. This peak decreases continuously from 1971 - 1973 for the fission products and induced radionuclides which for the most part had been produced in Chinese nuclear weapons tests. In contrast to 7 Be and 22 Na, the behaviour of 35 S suggests that it is partly anthropogenic in origin. The activity concentration of 226 Ra in air has been measured directly for the first time. The findings are discussed and finally compared with the maximum permissible concentration for the population. (orig./AK) [de

  10. Removal of some radionuclides from water by bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovic, D.; Conkic, L.; Dalmacija, B.; Gantar, M.

    1992-01-01

    First objective of this study was to investigate the application of biologically activated carbon (BAC) as well as its comparison to adsorption, with the aim of removing some radionuclides from water. The isotopes Cs 134 and Cs 137 were bioaccumulated by BAC up to 50%, while the I 131 isotope was only physicochemically adsorbed (about 40%). Also, the process of radionuclides (Cs 137 , Ce 139 , Co 57 , Co 60 ) fixation on blue-green algae (Nostoc sp.) was investigated. The kinetics of the removal of these radionuclides from water was recorded. It was found that after a contact period of about half an hour 40-70% of the activity was removed. (Author)

  11. Transuranic radionuclides in the Columbia River: sources, inventories, and geochemical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sources, inventories, and geochemical behavior of transuranic and other long-lived radionuclides in the lower Columbia River are summarized. Inventories have been estimated from the measured activities of the different radionuclides in 50 cores raised in 1977 and 1978, while annual export of transuranic radionuclides was determined from monthly water collections in the estuary. Continental shelf inventories of Pu and Am isotopes have been estimated using excess 210 Pb inventories and the mean 210 Pb//sup 239,240/Pu inventory ratio of 100 +/- 19 observed in representative cores raised from the shelf. Despite the substantial past addition of radioactivity to the river from operation of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford, the amounts of reactor-derived radionuclides in river sediments are small relative to fallout-derived nuclides. Erosional processes have mobilized both fallout-derived /sup 239,240/Pu and 137 Cs from the landscape to the river, but the quantities involved represent <1% of their fallout inventories within the river's drainage basin. 36 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  12. Bioavailability of anthropogenic radionuclides in mussels along the french mediterranean coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, H.; Arnaud, M.; Charmasson, S.; Andral, B.; Dimeglio, Y.; Barker, E.

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the Water Management Master-plan, a bio-indicator network (RINBIO) was deployed all along the French Mediterranean coast (1,800 km), using man-made cages containing mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to assess contamination by heavy metals, persistent organic products and radionuclides. The caging technique compensated for the scarcity of natural shellfish stocks in significant parts of the coast and enable comparison between sites regardless of their physicochemical and trophic characteristics. Among the 103 stations of the entire program, 40 were selected for the measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides by high-efficiency gamma-spectrometry. Biometrics parameters of the each mussel samples, including 'condition index' as an indicator of soft part growth, will be correlated with radionuclides activities, allowing to correct raw data from differences in bioaccumulation between the various sites in relation to their trophic levels. A comprehensive picture of the distribution of radionuclides at a such a large spatial scale will be provided and the contribution of the Rhone river input, so far the main source for the coastal zone, will be investigated. (author)

  13. Bioavailability of anthropogenic radionuclides in mussels along the french mediterranean coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, H.; Arnaud, M.; Charmasson, S.; Andral, B.; Dimeglio, Y.; Barker, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire. IFREMER, Laboratoire d' Etudes Radioecologiques Continentales et de la Mediterranee, 83 - La Seyne-sur-Mer (France)

    2004-07-01

    Within the framework of the Water Management Master-plan, a bio-indicator network (RINBIO) was deployed all along the French Mediterranean coast (1,800 km), using man-made cages containing mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to assess contamination by heavy metals, persistent organic products and radionuclides. The caging technique compensated for the scarcity of natural shellfish stocks in significant parts of the coast and enable comparison between sites regardless of their physicochemical and trophic characteristics. Among the 103 stations of the entire program, 40 were selected for the measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides by high-efficiency gamma-spectrometry. Biometrics parameters of the each mussel samples, including 'condition index' as an indicator of soft part growth, will be correlated with radionuclides activities, allowing to correct raw data from differences in bioaccumulation between the various sites in relation to their trophic levels. A comprehensive picture of the distribution of radionuclides at a such a large spatial scale will be provided and the contribution of the Rhone river input, so far the main source for the coastal zone, will be investigated. (author)

  14. Behaviors and chemical forms of radionuclides in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Yoshihide

    1981-01-01

    Although the radionuclides introduced into the marine environment from various sources and routes are finally distributed among the components of the marine ecosystem, the residence time is one of the most useful measures of the reactivity of an element in the oceanic chemical system. Heavy metals such as Mn, Fe, Co and Zn which have shorter residence times, reveal more complicated behaviours in relation to marine radioecological interest than alkaline earth element such as Sr which has a longer residence time. The possible physico-chemical forms of radionuclides in the oceans are usually classified into three categories, that is, species in true solution, colloidal species, and particulate forms. The modeling to study the dispersion of radionuclides introduced into the marine environment can be approached with the aid of the knowledge of behaviors of their stable counterparts in seawater. The different physico-chemical forms between stable and radioactive nuclides in seawater may cause different biological concentration of the element. To realize the chemical speciation of radionuclides in the marine environment, it is also important in thermodynamical calculation to consider heterogeneous interfaces where cause raising the concentration of reactants in seawater, especially in the coastal waters. In the discussion on the primary factors that can affect the elemental distribution in the marine environment, primary productivity and bacterial activity are emphasized for the transformation of physicochemical states of radionuclides in the marine environment. Finally, the radioecological differences between radiocobalt in organic complexed and ionic forms were demonstrated in the experiments on the uptake and elimination of radiocobalt by mussels. (J.P.N.)

  15. Activity concentration measurements of 137Cs, 90Sr and 40K in a wild food matrix reference material (Wild Berries) CCRI(II)-S8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watjen, U.; Altzitzogloa, T.; Spasova, Y.; Ceccatelli, A.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Dikmen, H.; Gundogdu, G.; Yucel, U.; Ferreux, L.; Frechou, C.; Pierre, S.; Garcia, L.; Moreno, Y.; Oropesa, P.; La Rosa, J.; Luca, A.; Schmiedel, M.; Wershofen, H.; Szucs, L.; Vasile, M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the CCRI approved a supplementary comparison to be organized by the IRMM as pilot laboratory for the activity concentrations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K in a matrix material of dried bilberries. The organization of this comparison and the material and measurement methods used are described. The supplementary comparison reference values (SCRV) for each of the three radionuclides are given together with the degrees of equivalence of each participating laboratory with the SCRV for the specific radionuclide. The results of this supplementary comparison allow the participating NMIs/designated institutes to declare calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) for the given radionuclides in a similar type of food matrix, an important aspect given the relatively few supplementary comparisons for activity in matrix materials organized so far. (authors)

  16. Methods and results of reconstruction of 131I concentration in milk from total beta-activity measurements in Belarus after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savkin, Mikhail; Shinkarev, Sergey; Titov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the first few weeks following the Chernobyl accident a large scale monitoring of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs locally produced was carried out in the most contaminated areas of Belarus. Due to a lack of spectrometric instruments, radiometric devices (DP-100) were used for beta activity measurements mostly of milk and milk products. Because the intake of 131 I with milk was the main contributor of the thyroid dose for the Belarus population, it is very important to reconstruct levels of 131 I in milk for Belarus settlements. The purpose of the paper is to present the methods and results of assessing the 13I concentration in milk based on historical records of total-beta activity measurements carried out in April-June 1986 in Belarus. The results of reconstruction of the 131 I concentration in milk will be used in on-going epidemiologic studies of a cohort of Belarus children. About 20,000 total-beta activity measurements were used in the analysis; for about 50% of those, the measurement result exceeded the minimum detectable activity. Estimates of 131 I concentration in milk at the date of sampling and of time-integrated milk concentrations were reconstructed for 482 settlements in Gomel Oblast and for 100 settlements in Mogilev Oblast, the most contaminated areas in Belarus, where at least one milk measurement was available. The assessment of the 131 I concentrations in milk involved: 1) An analysis of the calibration coefficients of the detectors for radionuclides available in milk (the main radionuclides were 131 I, 132 4Cs, 137 Cs, 89 Sr, 90 Sr); and 2) An assessment of the relative activity distribution of those radionuclides in milk. Only measurements made before 21 May 1986 were considered to be reliable, as the measurements conducted late May and in June were found to be unreliable because of the decrease in 131 I concentrations and the growing influence of other radionuclides with longer half-lives. Analysis of multiple

  17. Stochastic approach for radionuclides quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, A.; Saurel, N.; Perrin, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is a passive non-destructive assay used to quantify radionuclides present in more or less complex objects. Basic methods using empirical calibration with a standard in order to quantify the activity of nuclear materials by determining the calibration coefficient are useless on non-reproducible, complex and single nuclear objects such as waste packages. Package specifications as composition or geometry change from one package to another and involve a high variability of objects. Current quantification process uses numerical modelling of the measured scene with few available data such as geometry or composition. These data are density, material, screen, geometric shape, matrix composition, matrix and source distribution. Some of them are strongly dependent on package data knowledge and operator backgrounds. The French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing a new methodology to quantify nuclear materials in waste packages and waste drums without operator adjustment and internal package configuration knowledge. This method suggests combining a global stochastic approach which uses, among others, surrogate models available to simulate the gamma attenuation behaviour, a Bayesian approach which considers conditional probability densities of problem inputs, and Markov Chains Monte Carlo algorithms (MCMC) which solve inverse problems, with gamma ray emission radionuclide spectrum, and outside dimensions of interest objects. The methodology is testing to quantify actinide activity in different kind of matrix, composition, and configuration of sources standard in terms of actinide masses, locations and distributions. Activity uncertainties are taken into account by this adjustment methodology.

  18. Possibility of some radionuclides production using high energy electron Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzhinnyam, N.; Belov, A.G.; Gehrbish, Sh; Maslov, O.D.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Ganbold, G.

    2008-01-01

    The method of some radionuclides production using high energy Bremsstrahlung of electron accelerators and determination of photonuclear reaction yield and specific activities for some radionuclides is described. Photonuclear reaction yield and specific activities for some radionuclides are determined for 117m Sn, 111 In and 195m Pt. Based on the experimental data obtained at low energy (E e- e- = 75 MeV) of the IREN facility (FLNR, JINR) at irradiation of high purity platinum and tin metals

  19. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  20. High levels of natural radionuclides in a deep-sea infaunal xenophyophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinbanks, D D; Shirayama, Y

    1986-03-27

    The paper concerns the high levels of natural radionuclides in a deep-sea infaunal xenophyophore from the Izu-Ogasawara Trench. Measured /sup 210/Po activities and barium contents of various parts of Occultammina profunda and the surrounding sediment are given, together with their estimated /sup 210/Pb and /sup 226/Ra activities. The data suggest that xenophyphores are probably subject to unusually high levels of natural radiation.

  1. Radionuclides release from re-irradiated fuel under high temperature and pressure conditions. Gamma-ray measurements of VEGA-5 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidaka, Akihide; Kudo, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Takehiko; Kanazawa, Toru; Kiuchi, Toshio; Uetsuka, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The VEGA (Verification Experiments of radionuclides Gas/Aerosol release) program is being performed at JAERI to clarify mechanisms of radionuclides release from irradiated fuel during severe accidents and to improve source term predictability. The fifth VEGA-5 test was conducted in January 2002 to confirm the reproducibility of decrease in cesium release under elevated pressure that was observed in the VEGA-2 test and to investigate the release behavior of short-life radionuclides. The PWR fuel of 47 GWd/tU after about 8.2 years of cooling was re-irradiated at Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) for 8 hours before the heat-up test. After that, the two pellets of 10.9 g without cladding were heated up to about 2,900 K at 1.0 MPa under the inert He condition. The experiment reconfirmed the decrease in cesium release rate under the elevated pressure. The release data on short-life radionuclides such as Ru-103, Ba-140 and Xe-133 that have never been observed in the previous VEGA tests without re-irradiation was obtained using the {gamma} ray measurement. (author)

  2. Radiation protection measures for reduction of incorporations of iodine-131 by the staff of a radionuclide therapy ward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, J.; Meyer, K.; Lincke, T.; Sabri, O.; Alborzi, H.; Lorenz, J.; Schoenmuth, T.; Keller, A.

    2009-01-01

    The air in patient's rooms with thyroid therapies is loaded with iodine 131, which is to be seen as a cause for the incorporation of iodine 131 by the staff. The patients exhale a part of the iodine applied for their intended radionuclide therapy. The activity is concentrated in the saliva and, thereby, the breath air is moistened and iodine reaches the exhaled and compartment air. The detection of iodine in the form of contaminations and/or incorporations with the staff succeeds only after a longer stay in the patient's room. With this, a clear relation between the particular type of work performed in the room and therapy of malignant thyroid disease with high amounts of radioactivity can be found. The measured values of incorporations, obtained with an whole-body counter, are in the range of up to 400Bq. The activity concentration in the compartment air some hours after application of the therapeutic activity reaches a maximum and then decreases with a half-life of about 15 hours. As a protection measure we asked the patients wearing a mask up to 30 hours after application to (orig.)

  3. Public Health Goal for Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, N.H.M.; Omar, H.A.; El-Baset, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring and man-made radionuclide in groundwater may have a health hazardous to some residents. The objective of this work is to provide criteria for safety of drinking-water with respect to the chemical parameters and the radionuclide content. The annual effective dose for the consumption of drinking water was considered. Ground water samples were selected from different sites in Egypt, that have the most population, it were taken from aquifer regions along Giza sites in Egypt. Chemical analyses for the major anions, cations, and the radiological analyses were tested . Activity concentrations (Bq/l) of the gross alpha and the gross beta activities of our investigated samples were compared with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of the world health organization (WHO). Some of the water samples were found to have a higher of gross beta and alpha particles than the MCL. Alpha activity were found depending on to the total dissolved solids (TDS) content of the water samples. Gamma activity concentrations were analyzed using low background germanium detector, the higher of activity values was found in some investigated samples is due to increasing of 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities. Tritium activity concentrations also were measured using soft beta liquid scintillation counter, it was found lower than the MCL. Our investigated samples were found to have a higher concentrations of the phosphate, nitrites, iron, and manganese contents than the maximum permissible limit, all the ground water samples were found to have a higher of silica and alumina content. Commercial carbon powder and natural clay materials were tested as ion exchangers for the removal of inorganic contaminants in the ground water samples. Clay materials was found to have a higher selectivity than activated carbon for the removal of radionuclides, phosphates, nitrites, and manganese content at the ground water samples

  4. The biotic factors role in radionuclide migration of natural-vegetable complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakushev, B.I.; Kazej, A.I.; Sak, M.M.; Kuz'mich, O.T.; Golushko, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In Byelorussiyn from first months after the Chernobyl' accident investigation are conducting on the radionuclide de dynamics in the soil-plant-soil system. The isotope composition of soil contamination density and specific plants radioactivity are studying, the radionuclide migration dynamic through the soil profile is investigating. The data are shown on considerable reduction of the plants radioactivity (1986-91 years) in connection with the reduction in the soil contamination density with gamma-spectrum radionuclides, accounting for Ce-144, Pr-144, Ru-106, Cs-134 decay; information is done on gamma-spectrum radionuclides of organs in natural pine and meadows system. It is shown, that the radionuclides are actively absorbed by roots in a zone of the highest radionuclide concentration and are delivered into the overground plant parts, then actively are removed into environment in the breathing process. 11 refs.; 4 tabs

  5. Progress in the methods for analyses and measurements of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The tenth seminar on environment of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences was held in Chiba on December 9 and 10, 1982, under the joint auspices with Japan Health Physics Society. The recent progress of the measuring techniques for environmental radiation substances is remarkable. The Japanese data on environmental radiation presented to the UN Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation have obtained very high esteem because the data have been reliable due to the progress of measuring techniques. However, this field is in steady progress and changes rapidly, therefore, this seminar was planned. In this report, the history of the analysis and measurement of environmental radioactivity, the method of sampling and pretreatment operation for such environmental specimens as gaseous radionuclides, atmospheric floating dust, soil, agricultural products, sea water and sea bottom sediment, marine life, foods and living bodies, the progress of chemical separation process, the automation of analysis and measurement, the progress of the analysis of low level nuclides with long half-value period, the manual for the analysis and measurement, the quality of the analysis and measurement and its assurance are described. (Kako, I.)

  6. Radionuclide adsorption distribution coefficients measured in Hanford sediments for the low level waste performance assessment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Serne, R.J.; Owen, A.T.

    1996-08-01

    Preliminary modeling efforts for the Hanford Site's Low Level Waste-Performance Assessment (LLW PA) identified 129 I, 237 Np, 79 Se, 99 Tc, and 234 , 235 , 238 U as posing the greatest potential health hazard. It was also determined that the outcome of these simulations was very sensitive to the parameter describing the extent to which radionuclides sorb to the subsurface matrix, i.e., the distribution coefficient (K d ). The distribution coefficient is a ratio of the radionuclide concentration associated with the solid phase to that in the liquid phase. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure iodine, neptunium, technetium, and uranium K d values using laboratory conditions similar to those expected at the LLW PA disposal site, and (2) evaluate the effect of selected environmental parameters, such as pH, ionic strength, moisture concentration, and radio nuclide concentration, on K d values of selected radionuclides. It is the intent of these studies to develop technically defensible K d values for the PA. The approach taken throughout these studies was to measure the key radio nuclide K d values as a function of several environmental parameters likely to affect their values. Such an approach provides technical defensibility by identifying the mechanisms responsible for trends in K d values. Additionally, such studies provide valuable guidance regarding the range of K d values likely to be encountered in the proposed disposal site

  7. Radionuclide cisternographic findings in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Jae Seung; Ryu, Jin Sook; Shin, Jung Woo; Im, Joo Hyuk; Lee, Myoung Chong; Jung, Sung Joo; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography may be helpful in understanding pathophysiology of postural headache and low CSF pressure in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The purpose of this study was to characterize radionuclide cisternogrpahic findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The study population consists of 15 patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Diagnosis was based on their clinical symptoms and results of lumbar puncture. All patients underwent radionuclide cisternography following injection of 111 to 222 MBq of Tc-99m DTPA into the lumbar subarachnoid space. Sequential images were obtained between 1/2 hour and 24 hour after the injection of Tc-99m DTPA. Radioactivity of the bladder, soft tissue uptake, migration of radionuclide in the subarachnoid space, and extradural leakage of radionuclide were evaluated according to the scan time. Radionuclide cisternogram showed delayed migration of radionuclide into the cerebral convexity (14/15), increased soft tissue uptake (11/15), and early visualization of bladder activity at 30 min (6/10) and 2 hr (13/13). Cisternography also demonstrated leakage site of CSF in 4 cases and 2 of these were depicted at 30min. Epidural blood patch was done in 11 patients and headache was improved in all cases. The characteristics findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension were delayed migration of radionuclide and early visualization of the soft tissue and bladder activity. These scintigraphic findings suggest that CSF leakage rather than increased CSF absorption or decreased production may be the main pathophysiology of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Early and multiple imaging including the bladder and soft tissue is required to observe the entire dynamics of radionuclide migration

  8. Metrological provision in radiometry of long-lived radionuclide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    An optimal, as regards expenditures and resulting effect in development, production and operation, scheme is given for metrological provision of working means to measure radioactive aerosols. Model solid sources are recommended to be used for testing calibration and certification of aerosol radiometers when no losses or distortions of information take place. A model radiometer for long-lived radionuclides operating in the 3x10 -2 - 4x10 4 BK/m 3 range of volumetric activity of α-active nuclides and 5-2x10 5 BK/m 3 range of β-active nuclides is successfully utilized at present. Recommendations on reducing the measurement errors by means of different means are given

  9. Metrological provision in radiometry of long-lived radionuclide aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1984-05-01

    An optimal, as regards expenditures and resulting effect in development, production and operation, scheme is given for metrological provision of working means to measure radioactive aerosols. Model solid sources are recommended to be used for testing calibration and certification of aerosol radiometers when no losses or distortions of information take place. A model radiometer for long-lived radionuclides operating in the 3 x 10/sup -2/ - 4 x 10/sup 4/ BK/m/sup 3/ range of volumetric activity of ..cap alpha..-active nuclides and 5-2 x 10/sup 5/ BK/m/sup 3/ range of ..beta..-active nuclides is successfully utilized at present. Recommendations on reducing the measurement errors by means of different means are given.

  10. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  11. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ( 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 210 Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of 238 U and 232 Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  12. Methodology for determination of activity of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Victor Rogerio S. de; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growth in the number of procedures that make use of the positron emission tomography (PET), there is a need for standard solutions for the calibration of the systems used for the measurement of the PET radiopharmaceutical (activimeter) in radiopharmacies and in nuclear medicine services. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of the 18 F solutions by gamma spectrometry at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Brazil. (author)

  13. Radionuclide analysis in the soil of Kumaun Himalaya, India, using gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R.C.; Prasad, Ganesh; Gusain, G.S.; Choubey, V.M.; Tosheva, Z.; Kies, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental release of low levels of radioactivity can occur as a consequence of normal radionuclides present in the earth's crust. We present here the results of a survey undertaken in 2003 on the radionuclide concentration in different rock formations in the eastern part of Kumaun Himalaya. The activity concentration and gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial radionuclides caused by 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined in the soil samples collected from the eastern part of Kumaun Himalaya. The mean concentration of 238 U and 232 Th in the earth's crust varied from 0.5 to 5 ppm (6 to 60 Bq/kg) and 2 to 20 ppm (8 to 80 Bq/kg) respectively. The reported activity concentration for the different rock formations varied from 32.6 to 1305.5 Bq/kg for 238 U, 16.3 to 136.3 Bq/kg for 232 Th and 124.6 to 1758.0 Bq/kg for 40 K. The distribution of the radionuclides varied with rock type due to different chemical properties of the measured radionuclides and the rocks. The result shows that high activity levels were found in Saryu Formation consisting of augen-gneiss, granite interbedded with schists and flaggy quartzite. The total air-absorbed dose rate in air above 1 m height was calculated from the three radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K), which varied from 39.1 to 226.8 nGy h -1 . The internal and external health-hazard indices were calculated based on the concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Strong positive correlations were observed between 235 U and 226 Ra, 232 Th and 226 Ra, 40 K and 232 Th as well as 40 K and 226 Ra. However, no significant correlation was observed between 238 U and 226 Ra because of radioactive disequilibrium between them. (author)

  14. Measurements of Sr-90 radionuclide in Slovenian soils before and after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizman, M.J.; Ambroz, S.

    2005-01-01

    Strontium-90 is a long-lived fission product (half life of 28,7 years) that is globally dispersed in the environment. It had been transported by air masses from the nuclear weapon tests sites in the period of 1951-1980 and also from Chernobyl (1986) and deposited elsewhere, especially over northern hemisphere. Contamination of surface layer (0-10 cm) of undisturbed soil in Slovenia was measured in the middle of the seventies (1973-75) and recently (2002). In parallel, long-lived radionuclide, Cs-137 was measured too, the second campaign was performed ten years after Chernobyl accident. Maps on Sr-90 and Cs-137 contents in soil were elaborated, showing different distributions of area contamination and different levels for a case of nuclear weapon tests and due to Chernobyl accident for both radionuclides. The past contamination from atmospheric nuclear tests Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Slovenian territory was characterised with the high values on western part of the country (with the exception of the coastal region) and typical values of 1,5-2 kBq/m 2 for Sr-90 and 3-4 kBq/m 2 for Cs-137. The Chernobyl accident raised the contamination with Cs-137 mostly in northwest part (Alpine region), with an average value of 20-25 kBq/m 2 for the country. Contamination with Sr-90 was much lower, the existing levels increased for about 0,2 kBq/m 2 . Recently measured levels of Sr-90 in the upper layer of soil hardly approach to 0,3 kBq/m 2 . (author)

  15. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample IAEA-367

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestra, S; Lopez, J J; Gastaud, J; Vas, D; Noshkin, V

    1991-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Pacific Ocean sediment sample, IAEA-367, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 81 laboratories representing 37 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1990). Information values for {sup 155}Eu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 241}Pu are reported. Information values for the following natural radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U are also reported. (author)

  16. Removal of radionuclides from liquid streams by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, U.A.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Separation of radionuclides in trace concentrations by cellulose acetate membranes has been under investigation in this laboratory, and the behaviour of some important radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr under reverse osmosis has been reported earlier. The present work deals with a few other typical radionuclides such as 60 Co, 103 Ru and 131 I which are not fully amenable to conventional methods for their removal. Separation of these radionuclides from liquid streams by the reverse osmosis process was studied using a small reverse osmosis test cell. Various parameters like membrane porosity, applied pressure and feed activity levels were investigated. Cellulose acetate membranes offer reasonable separation of 60 Co, 103 Ru and 131 I radionuclides, indicating the potential of reverse osmosis for treatment of effluents containing these radioisotopes. The percent separation is found to be in the order of Co > Ru > I. The percent radioactive separation improves with increases in feed activity. The performance data are explained in terms of solution-diffusion mechanism. It appears that the separation of radionuclides is not governed by diffusion alone, but by the interaction of solutes with the membranes. (author)

  17. Methods for the calculation of derived working limits for surface contamination by low-toxicity radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.A.B.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    Surface contamination is often measured as an indication of the general spread of radioactive contamination in a particular place. Derived working limits, (DWLs) for surface contamination provide figures against which to assess the significance of measurements. Derived working limits for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry. They were designed to cope with a wide range of unspecified radionuclides and were therefore based on the assumption that the contamination was due to the presence of the most hazardous radionuclides, e.g. 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 239 Pu. While this assumption may still be appropriate when the radionuclide mixture is unknown, there are now many specialized uses of particular low-toxicity radionuclides in universities, hospitals and general industry. If it is known that only a particular radionuclide is present, the general DWL can be replaced by a more specific value. The methods for calculating DWLs for some of the more commonly employed low-toxicity radionuclides are described. The exposure pathways considered are (a) external radiation of the skin and inhalation of airborne material from contaminated surfaces in active areas; (b) external irradiation of the skin and ingestion from contaminated skin. Some consideration is given to the effect of the revised dose equivalent limits in the most recent recommendations of ICRP. (author)

  18. Analysis of radionuclides in airborne effluents from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Chatterjee, B.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the level of radioactivity emitted by coal-fired power plants in detail, specific activities of several radionuclides have been measured in samples from a coal-fired and a brown coal-fired plant in the Federal Republic of Germany. Samples measured included coal, brown coal, bottom ash, collected fly ash from the various electrostatic precipitator stages and sieve fractions of collected fly ash as well as samples of escaping fly ash taken from the exhaust stream, all taken simultaneously on three operating days. Nuclides measured were U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226, Pb-210, Po-210 and K-40. Methods applied included (i) direct gamma spectrometry, (ii) radiochemical separation with subsequent alpha spectrometry and (iii) direct alpha spectrometry. Methods are described and discussed. Finally, annual emission rates of airborne radionuclides are calculated for both plants.

  19. Analysis of radionuclides in airborne effluents from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Chatterjee, B.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the level of radioactivity emitted by coal-fired power plants in detail, specific activities of several radionuclides have been measured in samples from a coal-fired and a brown coal-fired plant in the Federal Republic of Germany. Samples measured included coal, brown coal, bottom ash, collected fly ash from the various electrostatic precipitator stages and sieve fractions of collected fly ash as well as samples of escaping fly ash taken from the exhaust stream, all taken simultaneously on three operating days. Nuclides measured were U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226, Pb-210, Po-210 and K-40. Methods applied included (i) direct gamma spectrometry, (ii) radiochemical separation with subsequent alpha spectrometry and (iii) direct alpha spectrometry. Methods are described and discussed. Finally, annual emission rates of airborne radionuclides are calculated for both plants. (orig.)

  20. Radionuclide content of local and imported cements used in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, K R

    2007-01-01

    The activity concentrations of natural and artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in local and imported cement have been investigated during the period from 2000 to 2003 using a 50% HPGe γ-spectroscopy system. The total numbers of local and imported samples were 29 and 8, respectively. The results showed a low activity concentration of 137 Cs in both the local and imported samples. The only exception was found in one imported Portland cement (2.8 ± 0.2 Bq kg -1 ) and one local blast furnace slag cement (1.9 ± 0.3 Bq kg -1 ). The average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in local cement were 33 ± 17, 14 ± 2.4 and 45 ± 26 Bq kg -1 , respectively, whereas those in imported cement were 27 ± 7, 8 ± 7 and 134 ± 22 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The results showed that blast furnace slag cement contains the highest level of natural radioactivity, whereas white cement contains the lowest levels. The measured activity concentrations of the detected radionuclides were compared with other measurements carried out in Egypt and elsewhere. Radium-equivalent activities were also calculated to assess the radiation hazards arising from using such material in the construction of dwellings. Generally, the radium-equivalents of the analysed samples were smaller than the guideline limit of 370 Bq kg -1

  1. A sensitive and quantitative biosensing method for the determination of γ-ray emitting radionuclides in surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Meer, A.J.G.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative and sensitive biosensing method has been developed for the determination of γ-ray emitting radionuclides in surface water. The method is based on the concept that at equilibrium the specific radioactivity in the biosensor is equal to the specific radioactivity in water. The method consists of the measurement of both the radionuclide and the element in the biosensor and the determination of the element level in water. This three-way analysis eliminates problems such as unpredictable biosensor behaviour, effects of water elemental composition or further abiotic parameters: what remains is the generally high enrichment (bioaccumulation factor BCF) of elements and radionuclides in the biosensor material. Measurements were performed with floating water plants (Azolla filiculoides Lamk., Spirodela polyrhiza/Lemna sp.) and the fully submerged water plant Ceratophyllum demersum L., which were sampled from ditch water. Concentrations of elements and radionuclides were determined in both water and biosensor plants, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), ICP-MS, and γ-ray spectrometry, respectively. For the latter, both 1 litre samples (Marinelli-geometry) and 1 cm 3 samples (well-type detectors) were applied in measurements. (author)

  2. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  3. Removal of some radionuclides from water by bioaccumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskovic, D.; Conkic, L.; Dalmacija, B.; Gantar, M. (Trg D. Obradvica 3, Novi Sad (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    First objective of this study was to investigate the application of biologically activated carbon (BAC) as well as its comparison to adsorption, with the aim of removing some radionuclides from water. The isotopes Cs[sup 134] and Cs[sup 137] were bioaccumulated by BAC up to 50%, while the I[sup 131] isotope was only physicochemically adsorbed (about 40%). Also, the process of radionuclides (Cs[sup 137], Ce[sup 139], Co[sup 57], Co[sup 60]) fixation on blue-green algae (Nostoc sp.) was investigated. The kinetics of the removal of these radionuclides from water was recorded. It was found that after a contact period of about half an hour 40-70% of the activity was removed. (Author).

  4. Estimation of total error in DWPF reported radionuclide inventories. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is required to determine and report the radionuclide inventory of its glass product. For each macro-batch, the DWPF will report both the total amount (in curies) of each reportable radionuclide and the average concentration (in curies/gram of glass) of each reportable radionuclide. The DWPF is to provide the estimated error of these reported values of its radionuclide inventory as well. The objective of this document is to provide a framework for determining the estimated error in DWPF's reporting of these radionuclide inventories. This report investigates the impact of random errors due to measurement and sampling on the total amount of each reportable radionuclide in a given macro-batch. In addition, the impact of these measurement and sampling errors and process variation are evaluated to determine the uncertainty in the reported average concentrations of radionuclides in DWPF's filled canister inventory resulting from each macro-batch

  5. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator for the new 10R Schott, Type 1+ vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.

    2005-01-01

    For many years, P6 vials have been used for the distribution of a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic radioactive solutions. The activity measurements were performed in this geometry and, in time, the UK calibration system for nuclear medicine was based on this container as a standard. However, one major supplier of radiopharmaceuticals has replaced the P6 vial with the 10R Type 1+ Schott vial. As the dimensions of the new vial are different from those of the P6 vial and the responses of radionuclide calibrators are known to be container dependent, the need for re-calibration became apparent. Preliminary measurements made on some typical radionuclide calibrators for 125 I solution indicated a difference in response of about 10% between the two vials. The master ionisation chamber of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator has been re-calibrated and new calibration factors and volume correction factors for 10R Schott vials have been derived for the relevant medical radionuclides. The standard holder was also modified to accommodate the new larger vial. The complete list of factors and the method used to determine them is presented in this paper. The availability of these new factors will improve the quality of activity measurements in nuclear medicine, as calibration services can now be provided by NPL for the new container. These factors can also be employed for all commercial NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrators (now known as the NPL-CRC and previously as the 671 or ISOCAL IV)

  6. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  7. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  8. Interaction between water, sediments and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodgrass, W.J.; McKee, P.; Garnett, J.; Stieff, L.

    1988-08-01

    A model-based measurements program was carried out to evaluate the primary mechanisms controlling transport of uranium 238 and thorium 232 decay chain radionuclides in Quirke Lake, a water body draining much of the uranium mining and milling district near Elliot Lake, Ontario. This program included studies of radionuclide accumulation in sediments, particle settling and lake mass-balance studies. Also, sediment studies were undertaken to evaluate chemical fractionation, mineralogical associations, and sediment-water adsorption and release. A limnocorral experiment was conducted in an isolated portion of a lake to measure radium 226 removal from the water column and diffusion from the sediments back to the water. Modelling studies were made to assess the data. Substantial agreement was obtained using the model originally developed for the AECB between model predictions and observations for Quirke Lake and for the limnocorrals. Further work is required to complete the studies undertaken in this project to assess the significance of the efflux of radionuclides from the sediments. These studies include a laboratory program to measure kinetics of adsorption, sediment-water modelling studies of the results and a field measurement program to develop a mass-balance analysis for thorium. (numerous refs)

  9. Harmonization of standards for permissible radionuclide activity concentrations in foodstuffs in the long term after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, Mikhail I; Kashparov, Valery; Nikolaenko, Elena; Berkovsky, Volodymyr; Fesenko, Sergey

    2018-04-16

    The article critically examines the practice of post-Chernobyl standardization of radionuclide concentrations (mainly 137Cs and 90Sr) in food products in the USSR and the successor countries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Recommendations are given on potential harmonization of these standards of radionuclide concentrations in food products among three countries, taking into account substantial international experience. We propose to reduce the number of product groups for standardization purpose from the current several dozens to three to five groups to optimize radiation control and increase the transparency of the process. We recommend five product groups for the standardization of 137Cs and three groups for 90Sr in food in radiocontaminated areas. The values of standards for individual product groups are recommended to be set proportionally to the measured specific activity in each of these groups, which will reduce unreasonable food rejection. The standards might be set for the entire country, and could be also used to control imports from other countries as well as exports to other countries. The developed recommendations were transferred in 2015-2016 to the regulatory authorities of the three countries. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. User's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard code INVENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Thorne, M.C.

    1986-05-01

    This report constitutes the user's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard index code INVENT and provides an explanation of the mathematical basis of the code, the database used and operation of the code. INVENT was designed to facilitate the post-closure radiological assessment of land-based repositories for low and intermediate-level wastes. For those radionuclides identified to be of potential significance, it allows the calculation of time-dependent radionuclide activities, hazard indices for both inhalation and ingestion of activity, and photon spectra. (author)

  11. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 240 Pu, and 3 H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  12. Radionuclide assay of membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity of peserved red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusov, V.V.; Zelenin, A.A.; Marizin, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The radionuclide tests were used to investigate the influence of varying blood preservatives on erythrocylic membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity in samples of whole blood and packed red blood cells from normal donors prepared by standard methods. The tests were performed before and after seven days of preservation under standard conditions. It was found that blood preservations lowered membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity: its minimum reduction was recorded with citroglucopnosphate, while glugicir induced a significant drop in Na + , K + -ATPase activity of preserved red blood cells regardless of the type of the blood transfusion solution. The assay of membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity of preserved red blood cells with the use of 86 Rb could be recommended as an evaluation test for preserved blood and its components

  13. Measurement of left-to-right shunts by gated radionuclide angiography: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Chevigne, M.

    1982-01-01

    Gated cardiac blood-pool scans allow comparison of left- and right-ventricular stroke volume. We have applied these measurements to the quantification of left-to-right shunts (QP/QS) in nine patients with atrial septal defects, one patients with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, four patients with ventricular septal defects, and two patients with patent ductus arteriosus. None of these patients had combined lesions. QP/QS was measured as the right-ventricular (RV) stroke counts divided by the left-ventricular (LV) stroke counts and as the LV stroke counts divided by the RV stroke counts in patients with RV and LV diastolic volume overload respectively. All patients had also QP/QS measurements by oximetry and first-pass radionuclide angiography. The stroke-count measurements indicated the overloaded ventricle in all patients. QP/QS determined by equilibrium gated studies correlated well with those obtained by oximetry (r . 0.79). Reproducibility of the equilibrium measurements was good. We conclude that gated cardiac blood-pool scans can measure left-to-right shunts and can distinguish between shunts with RV and LV volume overload

  14. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  15. Consequence ranking of radionuclides in Hanford tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.A.; De Lorenzo, T.H.

    1995-09-01

    Radionuclides in the Hanford tank waste are ranked relative to their consequences for the Low-Level Tank Waste program. The ranking identifies key radionuclides where further study is merited. In addition to potential consequences for intrude and drinking-water scenarios supporting low-level waste activities, a ranking based on shielding criteria is provided. The radionuclide production inventories are based on a new and independent ORIGEN2 calculation representing the operation of all Hanford single-pass reactors and the N Reactor

  16. Distribution of natural radionuclides and radiation level measurements in Karnataka State, India. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. A large number of natural radioactivity measurements were conducted throughout world, in order to know their distribution and to assess their radiological health hazards. In this regard, considerable studies have been conducted by different research groups in Karnataka state and more data are reported. In this article, all the studies of natural radioactivity measurements have been combined and reviewed. The majority of the reported articles are about monitoring, distribution and assessment of the radiological health hazards of naturally occurring radionuclides. (author)

  17. Determination of left ventricular ejection fraction by radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeilund-Carlsen, P.F.; Rasmussen, S.; Hesse, B.; Dige-Petersen, H.; Folke, K.; Godtfredsen, J.; Jensen, G.; Fabricius, J.

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide angiocardiography is a non-invasive gamma camera investigation for evaluation and quantification of heart performance. We investigated the reliability of the method in measuring left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). The accuracy was determined by measuring EF in 29 patients by both radionuclide angiocardiography and conventional single-plane cineventriculography. The two methods correlated well: r=0.92; y=0.86x+0.07. The precision of the method was evaluated as follows: The coefficient of variance was 6% for duplicate determinations performed on the same day (n=27) and 5% for determinations with 1-3 days interval (n=21). The interobserver variation expressed by the coefficient of variance was maximally 6% with the radionuclide method (n=29, three observers). The intraobserver variation was 4% compared to 9% with cineventriculography (P<0.01). Radionuclide angiocardiography is a reliable way of measuring EF. As the method is non-invasive, it is well suited for sequential determinations of EF in the same patient. (authors)

  18. International comparison of activity measurements of a solution of 75Se

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, Guy

    2002-04-01

    Activity measurements of a solution of 75Se, supplied by the BIPM, have been carried out by 21 laboratories within the framework of an international comparison. Seven different methods were used. Details on source preparation, experimental facilities and counting data are reported. The measured activity-concentration values show a total spread of 6.62% before correction and 6.02% after correction for delayed events, with standard deviations of the unweighted means of 0.45% and 0.36%, respectively. The correction for delayed events was measured directly by four laboratories. Unfortunately no consensus on the activity value could be deduced from their results. The results of the comparison have been entered in the tables of the International Reference System (SIR) for γ-ray emitting radionuclides. The half-life of the metastable state was also determined by two laboratories and found to be in good agreement with the values found in the literature.

  19. The continuous monitoring of the artificial beta aerosol activity by measuring the alpha and beta activity in aerosol simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hironobu; Oonishi, Masaki; Matsuura, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    We have constructed the system to monitor the artificial beta aerosol activity around the nuclear power plants continuously in real time. The smaller releases of artificial radionuclides from the nuclear power plants can be lost in the fluctuations of the natural background of the beta aerosol activity, when only the beta activity of the aerosol is measured. This method to discriminate the artificial and the natural beta activity of the aerosol is based on the fact that the ratio of the natural alpha and beta activities of the aerosol is almost constant. The detection limit of this system is below 3 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  20. Radionuclides difficult to measure in waste packages. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierfeldt, S; Deckert, A [Brenk Systemplanung, Aachen (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    In this study nuclide specific correlation analyses between key nuclides that can be easily measured and nuclides that are difficult to measure are presented. Data are taken from studies and data compilations from various countries. The results of this study can serve to perform assays of the nuclide specific radionuclide contents in waste packages by gamma measurements of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs and calculation of the contents of other nuclides via the correlation analyses, sometimes referred to as `scaling factor method`. It can thus be avoided to have to take samples from the waste for separate analysis. An attempt is made to also investigate the physical and chemical backgrounds behind the proposed correlations. For example, a formation pathway common to the two nuclides to be correlated can be regarded as an explanation, if a good correlation is found. On the other hand, if the observed correlation is of poor quality, reasons may possibly lie in different behaviour of the two nuclides in the water system of the nuclear plant. This implies not only chemical solubility, transfer constants etc. in the water system, which would not only affect the proportionality between the two nuclides, but a different behavior in different parts of the water system must be assumed (e.g. different filter efficiencies etc). 47 refs, 57 figs, 40 tabs.

  1. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW

  2. Atmospheric deposition of long-lived Beta radionuclides over the territory of Bulgaria during the last decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleva, B. [National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    The sources of atmospheric radioactivity are discussed and compared. Radon isotopes and their daughters' dominate the natural background of beta activity in the surface air. The man-made radionuclides, much of them beta emitters, started to contaminate regionally and globally the environment after 1940's due to the atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. Additional significant sources of technogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere were nuclear accidents with pronounced examples of Chernobyl and Fukushima. The Bulgarian network for atmospheric radioactivity monitoring has been developing since 1959 in the frame of the state Hydro-meteorological service, now National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology. It includes daily measurements of aerosol beta activity and deposition immediately and 120h after the sampling. The time and space variations of deposited beta activity, based on long term data records are presented and impact assessment of the different sources is given. The role of precipitation in deposition of radionuclides is evaluated. (author)

  3. Influence of microbiological activity on the mobility of redoxsensitive radionuclides in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroetmann, I.; Kaempfer, P.; Dott, W.; Schuele, J.; Sokotnejat, R.; Winkler, A.; Pekdeger, A.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of microbial activity on the transport and migration behaviour of redox-sensitive radionuclides (e.g. Technetium (T c ) and Selenium (Se)) in groundwater environment were investigated within an interdisciplinary research program. Soil material and sediments were investigated with batch- and recirculation column experiments. The number of microorganisms in the water was determined by counting the colony forming units (CFU) on R2A agar at regular periods. The results of sterile and non sterile recirculation column experiments showed within 80 days a high fixation of the radionuclides in the unsterile samples (80% of T c , 50% of Se compared with the initial concentration A 0 ), and no fixation in the sterile samples. There was no difference in the redox values. It could be shown that the immobilisation of the redox-sensitive elements T c and Se are strongly determined by microbial activity, depending on the different sediments and their microbial live stock. There are indications that the microorganisms found in the non sterile columns are allochthonous bacteria which were dragged into the experimental systems and samples during laboratory work and sampling. The composition of the microbial flora was shown to be very heterogeneous and different in each individual column and within the same column at different times. Thus these columns might have been contaminated with microorganisms during sampling and handling of the experimental systems under non sterile conditions, as done generally in most laboratories

  4. Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated--therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129 Xe + for the determination of 129 I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass

  5. Methodology for implementation of a national metrology net of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joyra Amaral dos

    2004-01-01

    The National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology, of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, of the National Commission on Nuclear Energy (IRD/CNEN), comes leading a comparison program for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in the Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) with the purpose to promote the quality control. This work presents a quality assurance program for the performance of such measurements, evaluated in the comparison runs between hospitals and LNMRI, under the statistic point of view and the compliment of regulatory authority norms. The performance of the radionuclides 67 Ga, 123 I, 131 I, 99m Tc and 210 Tl were evaluated and 201 TI have been standardized by absolute methods. Besides, it was established the traceability of the radioactivity standards used in nuclear medicine and a methodology for implementation of a national metrology net of radionuclides. The comparison results prove that the implementation of a radionuclide metrology net is viable, important and feasible. (author)

  6. Hanford Site background: Evaluation of existing soil radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report is an evaluation of the existing data on radiological background for soils in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The primary purpose of this report is to assess the adequacy of the existing data to serve as a radiological background baseline for use in environmental restoration and remediation activities at the Hanford Site. The soil background data compiled and evaluated in this report were collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Washington State Department of Health (DOH) radiation surveillance programs in southeastern Washington. These two programs provide the largest well-documented, quantitative data sets available to evaluate background conditions at the Hanford Site. The data quality objectives (DQOs) considered in this evaluation include the amount of data, number of sampling localities, spatial coverage, number and types of radionuclides reported, frequency of reporting, documentation and traceability of sampling and laboratory methods used, and comparability between sets of data. Although other data on soil radionuclide abundances around the Hanford Site exist, they are generally limited in scope and lack the DQOs necessary for consideration with the PNL and DOH data sets. Collectively, these two sources provide data on the activities of 25 radionuclides and four other parameters (gross alpha, gross beta, total uranium, and total thorium). These measurements were made on samples from the upper 2.5 cm of soil at over 70 localities within the region

  7. Activation analysis for measurements of silicon, phosphorus, alkali metals and other elements in high-purity metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, W.

    1988-01-01

    In the present thesis, methods of activation analysis were developed for the determination of the elements silicon, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, i.a. in the high-purity metals vanadium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, molybdenum and iron. The determination of silicon is based on the activation of samples with reactor neutrons, on a subsequent radiochemical separation of the tracer radionuclide 31 Si resulting from the reaction 30 Si(n,γ), and on the measurement of β activity with the help of a liquid scintillation measuring desk. Since the tracer radionuclide 31 Si almost exclusively emits β rays which are not sufficiently nuclide-specific, silicon was selectively separated from the other sample elements by being distilled as silicon tetrafluoride. The processing of the residue following the separation of silicon permits a complementary gamma-spectroscopic determination of a whole lot of additional elements. Thus, the separation of the nuclide 182 Ta with the anion exchanger Dowex 1X8 from HF/H 2 SO 4 medium permits the determination of 22 elements in vanadium, niobium and tantalum. Phosphorus content is determined by activating the samples with rapid neutrons (cyclotrons) via the reaction 31 P(n,p) 31 Si. (orig./MM) [de

  8. Application of Monte Carlo simulation to the standardization of positron emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongu, Margareth Lika Onishi

    2009-01-01

    Since 1967, the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LNM) at the Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN) in Sao Paulo, Brazil, has developed radionuclide standardization methods and measurements of the Gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay by means of 4πβ-γ coincidence system, a high accuracy primary method for determining disintegration rate of radionuclides of interest. In 2001 the LNM started a research field on modeling, based on Monte Carlo method, of all the system components, including radiation detectors and radionuclide decay processes. This methodology allows the simulation of the detection process in a 4πβ-γ system, determining theoretically the observed activity as a function of the 4πβ detector efficiency, enabling the prediction of the behavior of the extrapolation curve and optimizing a detailed planning of the experiment before starting the measurements. One of the objectives of the present work is the improvement of the 4π proportional counter modeling, presenting a detailed description of the source holder and radioactive source material, as well as absorbers placed around the source. The simulation of radiation transport through the detectors has been carried out using code MCNPX. The main focus of the present work is on Monte Carlo modeling of the standardization of positron emitting radionuclides associated (or not) with electron capture and accompanied (or not) by the emission of Gamma radiation. One difficulty in this modeling is to simulate the detection of the annihilation Gamma ray, which arise in the process of positron absorption within the 4π detector. The methodology was applied to radionuclides 18 F and 22 Na. (author)

  9. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  10. Tracing Fukushima Radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere -An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Punam; Ballard, Sally; Nelson, Roger

    2013-04-01

    hemisphere. Although the releases from the Fukushima NPP were pronounced, due to significant dilution of the radioactivity in the atmosphere as it was transported across the globe, the concentrations of radionuclides measured outside Japan were extremely low. The activities of I-131, Cs-134, and Cs-137 in air were estimated to have diluted by a factor of 105 to 108 during trans-Pacific transport. This paper will present a compilation of the radionuclide concentrations measured across the northern hemisphere by various national and international monitoring networks. It will focus on the most prevalent cesium and iodine isotopes, but other secondary isotopes will be discussed. Spatial and Temporal patterns and differences will be contrasted. The effects from this global radionuclide dispersal are reported and discussed. The activity ratios of ^131I/^137Cs and ^134Cs/^137Cs measured at several locations are evaluated to gain an insight into the fuel burn-up, the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor and thus on the isotopic signature of the accident. It is important to note that all of the radiation levels detected across the northern hemisphere have been very low and are well below any level of public and environmental concern.

  11. Study of radionuclides distribution mechanism at the territory of ''Qum Adasi'' OGPD and in layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmudov, H.M; Musayeva, Sh.Z.; Asgarova, V.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Its for several yeras that Inistitute of Radiation Problems ANAS has already started fundamental researches of radiation background state and radionuclide composition at the territories of oil and gas production departments. Base labaratories equipped with modern measurement units were established and strong specialists group was trained for fulfillment of these works and also for comprehensive analysis of obtained results. Over a long perios of time oil and gas production is realized at the territory of Q um Adasi O PGD. This territory with 3000 ha covers B ahar , h ovsan a nd Q um Adasi o il near the trestle and H ovsan o il-fields wells are located on-shore. These wells take their sources from different dephts and layers, thats why study of these layers radionuclide composition excites great interest. It has mainly two reasons: Study of dependence of produced crude oils radionuclide composition on oil layers;Dependence of oil-polluted areas and local radionuclide centers on natural layers.In order to protect environment and provide radiation safety of people working in oil-gas industry and the population living there, radiation background of these areas must be regularly kept under monitoring and the dependence of radionuclides creating this background on layers must be studied on the level of researches and practical result must be obtained. According to analysis results of the samples taken from local areas of oil-gas producing departments having high radiation background, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are the main natural radionuclides that create radiation background at the territory of Q um Adasi O GPD. According to the results of the conducted analysis, though in the areas having 5-8 mkR/h radiation background the effective activity of natural radionuclides is 38-40 Bk/kg, at the areas having 50-200 mkR/h radiation background effective activity increases to 1000-6500. And it shows that effective activity of radionuclides exceeds the norm for several

  12. Remanent radiation fields around medical linear accelerators due to the induced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.; Khalifa, O.; Berka, Z.; Stankus, P.; Frencl, L.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation fields around two linear accelerators, Saturn 43 and a Saturn 2 Plus, installed at radiotherapy department is Prague, were measured and interpreted. The measurements included the determination of the dose equivalent rate resulting from photons emitted by induced radionuclides produced in reactions of high-energy photons with certain elements present in air and accelerator components as well as in the shielding and building materials in the treatment rooms, which are irradiated by high-energy X-rays, and due to radionuclides formed by capture of photoneutrons. While scattered photons and photoneutrons are only present during the accelerator operation, residual radioactivity creates a remanent radiation field persisting for some time after the instrument shutdown. The activity induced in the accessories is also an important source of exposure. (P.A.)

  13. Beryllium-7 and 210Pb atmospheric deposition measured in moss and dependence on cumulative precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmar, M.; Mihailović, D.T.; Arsenić, I.; Radnović, D.; Pap, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on analysis of the time series of 7 Be and 210 Pb activity measured in moss, and the amount, as well as duration of precipitation, to gain a better understanding of the possible relationships between airborne radionuclide deposition and precipitation. Here we consider whether the amount of these airborne radionuclides in moss samples is a cumulative measure of radionuclide deposition and decay, and a new approach for analyses of the relationships between precipitation and moss activity concentrations is suggested. Through these analyses it was shown that comparison of cumulative activity measured at one location using moss, normalized by values of cumulative amount or duration of precipitation, showed different regimes of airborne radionuclide deposition. - Graphical abstract: Correlation between cumulative activity of 7 Be and 210 Pb measured in moss samples normalized by the cumulative precipitation. - Highlights: • Use of mosses in measurement of airborne radionuclides deposition was investigated • Prior work indicated 7 Be and 210 Pb activities were not correlated with precipitation • This is unusual since radionuclides moss tissues depends on depositional fluxes. • A new method for study of 7 Be and 210 Pb depositional dynamics was developed • Different seasonal regimes of 7 Be deposition are more noticeable in new technique

  14. The concentration of natural radionuclides in various types of building materials in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanekova, H [Inst. of Peventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The concentration of the natural radionuclides in various types of building materials was determined by the gamma spectrometry analysis using 130 cm{sup 3} high purity germanium detector and MCA LIVIUS 2000. Radium-226 and thorium-232 was assessed through their progeny photo peaks. The specific activity of both nuclides as weighted average of their photo peaks was determined. Potassium-40 was measured directly via its 1460 keV peak. The radium equivalent activity was calculate from specific activities of radium-226, thorium-232 and potassium-40. All samples were measured in 4{sup p}i{sup g}eometry. The building materials and products were milled and screened with 2-3 mm sieve. After drying the samples were stored in 450 cm{sup 3} sealed polyethylene container for 30 days ingrowing period. The results of analysis are corrected to the background distribution and to the self absorption in the volume of the samples. The efficiency calibration is realized using the reference sources distributed by IAEA in Vienna and by the Institute for Radionuclide Production in Prague The measured activity concentrations of the buildings materials are given. There are shown the minimum and maximum values for different investigated materials. (J.K.) 4 tabs., 5 refs.

  15. New ways in enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Kislushko, P.; Znebrakova, I.; Matsko, V.

    1994-01-01

    Soil contamination with long-lived isotopes as a result of Chernobyl nuclear accident necessitates substantially of crop raising procedures. It is found that by optimizing the vital activity processes in plants, is possible to reduce radionuclide uptake. In particular application of Fisher's mineral mix in concentration of 100, 200, 300, g/m 2 to soil decreased the 137 Cs accumulation in green material of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) 1.1:1.3 and 2.2 times respectively and 1.2:1.1 and 1.1 times, respectively in green material of barley (Hordeum Vulgaris L.). The decrease of 90 Sr accumulation in green material of barley and lupine was similar. On the other hand chloroplasts isolated from showed higher activities of photochemical reactions and the light-dependent ATP enzyme. During the whole growing period of such plants the chlorophyll and protein concentration per wet unit mass were higher than those in control, therefore the high vital activity period in the former case was substantially extended. It has been also found that application of biologically active compounds and trace elements enhances photosynthetic and production activities of plants, reducing level radionuclide accumulation in the harvest. It is found that application of protectants and growth regulators to rye crops also reduces 137 Cs accumulation in green material in booting and earing phases. This finding suggests that this compounds activate the photosynthetic apparatus, reducing level radionuclide accumulation. (author)

  16. Applicability of alkali activated slag-seeded Egyptian Sinai kaolin for the immobilization of 60Co radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The present work was established to determine the applicability of local Egyptian kaolinite and blast furnace slag (BFS) as raw materials toward the synthesis of geopolymers and subsequent immobilization of cobalt-60, which is one of the most abundant radionuclides generated in radioactive waste streams in Egypt. XRF, XRD, FT-IR, and SEM techniques were used to characterize the local raw materials and their corresponding alkali activated products. Metakaolin (MK) was obtained by thermal treatment of Egyptian Sinai kaolin 750 °C/4 h. MK and five different BFS content (5, 10, 30, 50 and 80%) were used to synthesize geopolymeric matrices using an alkaline activator of Si-modulus = 1.35 at solid/liquid ratios of 0.8. Compressive strength tests were performed indicating that 50% BFS addition gave the highest values of compressive strength. The IAEA standard leaching tests of cobalt-60 from the solidified waste matrices were carried out. The effective diffusion coefficients of cobalt-60 radionuclides from the solidified waste matrices were calculated to be in the order of 10 −14 cm 2 /s. Leaching of radionuclides was examined to be controlled by the wash-off mechanism with very acceptable values. These results gave encouragement that the tested Egyptian raw materials can be conveniently applied for the synthesis of geopolymers that can be used as a low-cost and high-efficiency materials for the immobilization of radioactive waste

  17. Concentration of some radionuclides in Moringa Oliefera plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd elbagi, W. K. A.

    2013-07-01

    This study has been conducted to determine the radioactivity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 228 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in samples of Moringaoliefera plants in Khartoum Bahry Elsamrab by using γ ray spectrometry sodium iodide detector and high purity germanium detector. A total of 30 samples, 10 samples from leaves, 10 samples from seeds and 10 samples from soil of samples have been collected. For leaves the radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed with the mean of 2767.266±78.6741 Bq kg - 1 for 238 U, 3486.817±80.98811 Bq kg - 1 for 238 Th and 2273.386±54.152 Bq kg - 1 for 40 K. For seeds the radionuclide activity concentration in samples analyzed with the mean of 2839.224±72.6016 Bq kg - 1 for 238 U, 2844.372±78.74919 Bq kg - 1 for 2 38T h and 2377.005±91.8838 Bq kg - 1 for 40 K. No trace of artificial radionuclide has been determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides has been estimated and found 0.89μSv/year and 0.1015μSv/year for 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K, respectively.(Author)

  18. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  19. Metrology of trace radionuclides in environment. Standardization and traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.

    1999-01-01

    Widespread concern over radioactive substances in the environment regularly requires environmental and public health assessments. The credibility of an assessment will depend on the quality and reliability on measurement results that often are of paramount significance in the environmental domain. Those man made radionuclides present in the various environmental components of the French territory are however found at trace, even ultra-trace levels. This article gives an overview of standardization work and required reference materials and rules for measuring radionuclides in environmental matrices as well as the international and national systems to manage standardization and traceability. Some achievements as well as the many difficulties that the metrologist must overcome when using nuclear techniques to measure trace quantities of radionuclides are presented. (author)

  20. Radiochemical schemes of obtaining 89Sr and 90Y radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usarov, Z. O.

    2010-03-01

    Key words: strontium-89, yttrium-90, extraction and extraction-chromatographic purification of radionuclides, radiopharmaceuticals. Subjects of research: strontium-89 and yttrium-90 radionuclides and their chloride forms. Purpose of work is developing of radiochemical technologies on obtaining of 89 Sr and 90 Y on the WWR-SM reactor with high radionuclide purity. Methods of research: extraction and extraction-chromatographic methods of radionuclides separation, beta- and gamma-spectrometric methods of activity measuring. The results obtained and their novelty: Were determined the conformity to laws of Y and Sr distribution in two-phase systems TBP-HNO 3 , TBP-NH 4 NO 3 , TBP-HCI, HDEHP-NO 3 , HDEHP-NH 4 NO 3 and HDEHP-HCI. Were determined the conformity to laws of Y and Sr distribution in systems with craun ethers DB-18K-6 and DTBDB-18K-6 from water solutions of HNO 3 . Radiochemical technologies on obtaining of 89 Sr and 90 Y radionuclides including radiochemical process of yttrium target with using the systems TBP-HNO 3 and HDEHP/Teflone were developed. Practical value: the radiochemical technology of obtaining 89 Sr with high radionuclide purity was developed. The method of preparation a chloride compound of 89 SrCl 2 which is used as a drug form for preparation of 89 Sr- 'Metastron' was developed. The relatively simple method of on the way obtaining 90 Y in the reactor with high radionuclidic purity that is useful for follow using in medical practice was offered. Degree of embed and economic effectivity: the developed technologies have approbation in manufacturing conditions in Radiopreparat Enterprise of INP AS RU and were offered for receiving of domestic preparations against of import foreign analogues. The statement about using the invention by obtained patent is attached to dissertation. Field of application: the received results will be introduced in manufacture at Radiopreparat Enterprise of INP AS RU for receiving of domestic preparations

  1. Radionuclides in drinking water: the recent legislative requirements of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Sveva; Risica, Serena

    2015-01-01

    In November 2013, a new EURATOM Directive was issued on the protection of public health from the radionuclide content in drinking water. After introducing the contents of the Directive, the paper analyses the hypotheses about drinking water ingestion adopted in documents of international and national organizations and the data obtained from national/regional surveys. Starting from the Directive’s parametric value for the Indicative Dose, some examples of derived activity concentrations of radionuclides in drinking water are reported for some age classes and three exposure situations, namely, (i) artificial radionuclides due to routine water release from nuclear power facilities, (ii) artificial radionuclides from nuclear medicine procedures, and (iii) naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water or resulting from existing or past NORM industrial activities. (paper)

  2. Radionuclide deposition and migration within the Gideaa and Finnsjoen study sites, Sweden: A study of the fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, E.; Sundblad, B.; Karlberg, O.; Lampe, S.; Tullborg, E.L.

    1987-12-01

    Radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 were deposited over large areas of Sweden. The distribution and migration of the radionuclides during the first months after deposition were measured in a comprehensive survey within two study sites, Gideaa in Aangermanland county and Finnsjoen in Uppland county. The sites are previously investigated in the SKB site characterization programme and well defined regarding geology and hydrology. Radionuclides analysed are: Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-90, Zr-95, Nb-95, Mo-99, Ru-103, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Sb-125, I-131, Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-140, La-140, Ce-141 and Ce-144. The CS-137 surface activity gave a range of 30-100 kBq/m 2 in Gideaa and 20-40 kBq/m 2 in Finnsjoen. Radionuclide migration is observed in soil profiles, groundwater and rock fissures. An active transport by surface water is also evident from sediment samples. Radionuclides have been absorbed in different types of vegetation. (orig./DG)

  3. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  4. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  5. The accumulation of radionuclides by Dreissena polymorpha molluscs - The Accumulation of Radionuclides from Water and Food in the Dreissena polymorpha Mollusks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefanova, O.; Marciulioniene, D. [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lietuva (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    The specific activity of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 90}Sr was measured in mollusks Dreissena polymorpha samples from lake Drukshiai that is the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP. Item the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 106}Ru in the mollusks from water and from phytoplankton which is a part of their diet was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The data of long-term (1991-2009) studies conducted at six monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai show that in 1991 {sup 137}Cs in mollusks Dreissena polymorpha was found only in that lake's area which was influenced by the effluent that got into lake from the industrial drainage channel of Ignalina NPP. In later periods of the investigation the {sup 137}Cs specific activity was detected in mollusks samples which had been collected at other monitoring stations (the aquatory of lake Drukshiai). Meanwhile {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in Dreissena polymorpha were detected only in that lake's area which was impacted by the industrial drainage channel. The data of long-term investigation show that the major amount of radionuclides has come into lake Drukshiai through the industrial drainage system of Ignalina NPP. Albeit {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 106}Ru get into the mollusks through a large amount of the water rather than from the food (phytoplankton), therefore the food can also be the main source of radionuclides in the organism of these mollusks in aquatic environment when there are low levels of specific activities of these radionuclides. (authors)

  6. Measurement of radionuclides in food and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This guidebook is a production of the Fallout Radioactivity Monitoring in Environment and Food (MEF) Programme created by the IAEA in response to requests from Member States. The guidebook is divided into two parts. The first contains seven sections, including the introduction. Sections 2 and 3 provide general information on samples and radionuclides of interest. Laboratory equipment, space and personnel needed for radioanalyses are described in section 4. General instructions for sample collection and preparation are given in section 5. Sections 6 and 7 briefly discuss analytical methods and analytical quality control respectively. The second part of the guidebook is composed of ten annexes. The first four contain detailed methods for determination of gamma emitters collectively, strontium isotopes, tritium, and the isotopes of plutonium, americium and curium. Annex V provides a list of units and symbols; Annex VI gives information on radionuclide spectra in four types of nuclear accidents; nuclear data tables are listed in Annex VII; an example of a sample collection programme is presented in Annex VIII; some examples of NaI- and HP-Ge gamma spectrometric systems are given in Annex IX; and potential suppliers of calibration sources and reference materials are listed in Annex X. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the 'Bay of Cadiz' Natural Park (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligero, R.A.; Vidal, J.; Melendez, M.J.; Hamani, M.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2009-01-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range = 0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders

  8. Monitoring of radionuclides in the air of Monaco during 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, M.K.; Povinec, P.P.; Huynh Ngoc, L.

    1999-01-01

    IAEA-MEL has been carried out monitoring of radionuclides in the air of Monaco for several years. Several natural (cosmogenic, radiogenic and primordial) and anthropogenic radionuclides are found in the atmosphere. The measurement of these radionuclides in the atmosphere is helping to study their temporal variations and to estimate their deposition rates to oceans and to seas. We report here concentrations of some radionuclides in air of Monaco during 1997-1998

  9. Concentration activities of natural radionuclides in three fish species in Brazilian coast and their contributions to the absorbed doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2009-01-01

    Activity concentrations of U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Th-232 e Ra-228 were analysed in three fish species at the Brasilian Coast. The fish 'Cubera snapper' (Lutjanus cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828), in the region of Ceara and 'Whitemouth croaker' (Micropogonias furnieri, Desmarest, 1823) and 'Lebranche mullet' (Mugil liza, Valenciennes, 1836) in the region of Rio de Janeiro. These concentrations were transformed in absorbed dose rate using a dose conversion factor in unit of gray per year (μGy y -1 ), per becquerel per kilogram (Bq kg -1 ). Only the absorbed dose due to intake of radionuclides was examined, and the contributions due to radionuclides present in water and sediment were disregarded. The radionuclides were considered to be uniformly distributed in the fish body. The limit of the dose rate used, proposed by the Department of Energy of the USA, is equal to 3.65 10 03 mGy y -1 . The average dose rate due to the studied radionuclides is equal to 6.09 10 00 μGy y -1 , a value minor than 0.1% than the limits indicated by DOE, and quite similar to that found in the literature for 'benthic' fish. The most important radionuclides were the alpha emitters Ra-226 having 61 % of absorbed dose rate. U-238 and Th-232, each contributes with approximately 20 % of the absorbed dose rate. These three radionuclides are responsible for almost 100% of the dose rate received by the studied organisms. The beta emitters Ra-228 and Pb-210 account for approximately 1 % of the absorbed dose rate. (author)

  10. Concentration and speciation of radionuclides in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The paper will describe three examples dealing with the measure of some natural (U, Th, 2 10Pb, 4 0K) and artificial ( 1 37Cs, 9 0Sr, 2 39 +2 40Pu, 2 41Am) radionuclides in environmental samples such as mosses, sediments, soils. Extraction chromatography, liquid extraction, selective precipitation and electroplating were used to isolate the radionuclides, except for gamma emitters which were detected by gamma spectrometry. Alpha spectrometry were used to measure the alpha emitters and low background beta detector to measure the beta emitters

  11. A sensitive and quantitative biosensing method for the determination of {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclides in surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Meer, A.J.G.M. van der [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Interfacultair Reactor Inst.

    1996-11-01

    A quantitative and sensitive biosensing method has been developed for the determination of {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclides in surface water. The method is based on the concept that at equilibrium the specific radioactivity in the biosensor is equal to the specific radioactivity in water. The method consists of the measurement of both the radionuclide and the element in the biosensor and the determination of the element level in water. This three-way analysis eliminates problems such as unpredictable biosensor behaviour, effects of water elemental composition or further abiotic parameters: what remains is the generally high enrichment (bioaccumulation factor BCF) of elements and radionuclides in the biosensor material. Measurements were performed with floating water plants (Azolla filiculoides Lamk., Spirodela polyrhiza/Lemna sp.) and the fully submerged water plant Ceratophyllum demersum L., which were sampled from ditch water. Concentrations of elements and radionuclides were determined in both water and biosensor plants, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), ICP-MS, and {gamma}-ray spectrometry, respectively. For the latter, both 1 litre samples (Marinelli-geometry) and 1 cm{sup 3} samples (well-type detectors) were applied in measurements. (author).

  12. Reconstructing historical radionuclide concentrations along the east coast of Ireland using a compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.N.; Clarke, S.; McDonald, P.; Goshawk, J.A.; Jones, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented that simulates the annually averaged transport of radionuclides, originating from the BNFL reprocessing plant at Sellafield, throughout the Irish Sea. The model, CUMBRIA77, represents the processes of radionuclide transport and dispersion in the marine environment and allows predictions of radionuclide concentration in various environmental media, including biota, to be made throughout the whole of the Irish Sea. In this paper we describe the use of the model to reconstruct the historical activity concentrations of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in a variety of environmental media in the western Irish Sea and along the Irish east coast back to 1950. This reconstruction exercise is of interest because only limited measurements of 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity are available prior to the 1980s. The predictions were compared to the available measured data to validate their accuracy. The results of the reconstruction indicate that activity concentrations of 137Cs in the western Irish Sea follow a similar, though slightly delayed and smoothed, profile to the discharges from the Sellafield site, with concentrations at the time of peak discharge (the mid-1970s) being around an order of magnitude higher than those measured in the 1980s and 1990s. By contrast, the concentrations of 239+240Pu at the time of peak discharges were similar to those presently measured. These differences reflect the distinct marine chemistries of the two nuclides, in particular the higher propensity of plutonium to bind to sediments leading to extended transport times. Despite these differences in behaviour the doses to Irish seafood consumers from 137Cs remain significantly higher than those from 239+240Pu

  13. Radiological consequences of radionuclide releases to sewage systems from hospitals in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Cruz, Idalmis de la [Facilia AB (Sweden); Bergman, Synnoeve [Vattenfall Power Consultants AB (Sweden); Hasselblad, Serena [Callido AB (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    as pulse releases of radionuclides. In a first step of applying the LUCIA model, realistic assessments of the external exposure of sewage workers and of exposures of the public are carried out for the Kungsaengsverket sewage plant in Uppsala. The results show that there is a significant probability (from 0.2 to close to 1) for the doses to exceed the exemption level for the radionuclides In-111 and I-131. In the case of In-111, there is also a significant probability (from 0.16 to close to 1) for the doses to exceed the dose constraint (100 {mu}Sv/a). A sensitivity study of the LUCIA model is performed, showing that the predicted concentrations in the digested sludge are highly sensitive to the distribution coefficient Kd between the liquid phase and the sludge. The efficiency of the wastewater treatment is, in addition, highly sensitive to the water flux. Specific values for the distribution coefficients for sludge are not available. Therefore, it is recommended to perform measurements for the determination of this parameter. The LUCIA model can then be used to interpret the measurements and derive values for the distribution coefficients. In a second step, the LUCIA model is extended to also address doses to the public. Dose estimates for all exposure pathways are presented for all sewage plants that are affected by radionuclide releases originating from hospitals. Effective dose factors are derived for the affected sewage plants, relating doses over the different pathways to the activity that is discharged annually and to the activity concentration in the wastewater. These effective dose factors can be used in order to estimate exposures associated with a certain release of activity in cases of changes of the annually administered activities of the different radionuclides. These factors also can be used if the effects of measures are to be evaluated to reduce the releases of individual radionuclides.

  14. Anthropogenic radionuclide fluxes and distribution in bottom sediments of the cooling basin of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marčiulionienė, D.; Mažeika, J.; Lukšienė, B.; Jefanova, O.; Mikalauskienė, R.; Paškauskas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Based on γ-ray emitting artificial radionuclide spectrometric measurements, an assessment of areal and vertical distribution of 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn activity concentrations in bottom sediments of Lake Drūkšiai was performed. Samples of bottom sediments from seven monitoring stations within the cooling basin were collected in 1988–1996 and 2007–2010 (in July–August). For radionuclide areal distribution analysis, samples from the surface 0–5 cm layer were used. Multi sample cores sliced 2 cm, 3 cm or 5 cm thick were used to study the vertical distribution of radionuclides. The lowest 137 Cs activity concentrations were obtained for two stations that were situated close to channels with radionuclide discharges, but with sediments that had a significantly smaller fraction of organic matter related to finest particles and consequently smaller radionuclide retention potential. The 137 Cs activity concentration was distributed quite evenly in the bottom sediments from other investigated monitoring stations. The highest 137 Cs activity concentrations in the bottom sediments of Lake Drūkšiai were measured in the period of 1988–1989; in 1990, the 137 Cs activity concentrations slightly decreased and they varied insignificantly over the investigation period. The obtained 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratio values in the bottom sediments of Lake Drūkšiai represented radioactive pollution with plutonium from nuclear weapon tests. Higher 60 Co and 54 Mn activity concentrations were observed in the monitoring stations that were close to the impact zones of the technical water outlet channel and industrial rain drainage system channel. 60 Co and 54 Mn activity concentrations in the bottom sediments of Lake Drūkšiai significantly decreased when operations at both INPP reactor units were stopped. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in bottom sediments revealed complicated sedimentation features, which may have been affected by a number of natural and

  15. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  16. Development of a computational system for monitoring data management in vivo of the radionuclides in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Arlene A. dos; Lucena, Eder A. de; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Dantas, Bernardo M.

    2014-01-01

    The management of in vivo monitoring process of internal contamination by radionuclides in human beings request a set of steps ranging from the spectrum acquisition to reporting. The spectrum analysis is the identification and quantification of radioactive materials present in organs and individual's body tissues submitted to monitoring procedures. The Body Counter Unit of IRD performs in vivo measurements emitting radionuclide photons in the 10-3000 keV energy range, using NaI type scintillation detectors (Tl) 8” x 4” and 3” x 3” and as semiconductor detectors type HPGe. The measuring system uses the Canberra Genie 2000 software for the acquisition of spectra with 1024 channels related to their respective energies. The counting are distributed in the spectrum due to the energy of the photons emitted by radionuclides of interest. The SIGMIV program (System for Management of in vivo monitoring), developed in MS Visual Basic 2010 accesses the spectrum after it is converted into an EXCEL spreadsheet. This program uses a bank Data developed in MS-Access to store information associated with each measurement, as counting and calibration parameters. SIGMIV generates a report containing personal information, activity and radionuclides of interest present in the body, associated with respective uncertainties and minimum activity detectable. The program SIGMIV optimized monitoring procedures 'in vivo', showing that is flexible, reliable and easy to handle, thus becoming an important tool for development routine in In vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD

  17. Improving the control of systematic uncertainties in precision measurements of radionuclide half-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towers, S.

    2013-01-01

    Many experiments designed to precisely determine the half-life of a radionuclide employ a long lived reference source to help determine the impact on the data of any systematic variation in the detector and associated electronics. The half-life of the radionuclide of interest is determined from the ratio of its decay rate data to the decay rate data from the reference source. This correction procedure assumes that any underlying systematic affects the data and reference measurements in exactly the same way. In this paper we show that when some systematic effects affect the two differently, the ratio procedure can leave artifacts in the corrected data that can compromise an unbiased and precise assessment of the radionuclide half-life. We describe two methods that can help overcome this problem. We also describe several statistical tests that help determine which effects may underlie systematic variations in the data. We discuss an illustrative example based on previously published 32 Si and 36 Cl data recorded by an experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We correct the data for systematic variation related to climate variation and estimate the 32 Si half-life to be T 1/2 =171.8±1.8. The reduction in uncertainty in the 32 Si half-life, relative to the previous estimate based upon this data, is equivalent to that which would be achieved through increasing the size of the data set by almost 3.5 times. - Author-Highlights: • Isotope decay data and reference source data can have differing systematics. • Differing systematics can inflate uncertainty of isotope half-life estimate. • We describe two methods to overcome this problem. • We describe statistical tests to determine which variables cause systematics. • We analyze Brookhaven 32Si/36Cl decay data as an illustrative example

  18. Radionuclides in plants in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a long-term study (from 2002 to 2008) on the concentrations of natural ( 7 Be, 210 Pb, 40 K) and fission ( 137 Cs) radionuclides in leaves of higher plants (linden and chestnut) in an urban area (city of Belgrade) are presented. The activity of the radionuclides was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The study is a part of the ongoing air quality monitoring programme in urban areas in the Republic of Serbia. (author) [sr

  19. Radionuclides in sporocarps of medicinaly important fungi of Fruska Gora hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaman, M.; Matavulj, M.; Čonkić, L.

    2002-01-01

    The content of radionuclides in six lignicolous saprophytic and parasitic fungal species was analyzed. Samples were collected in 1999 autumn at two sites of the Fruska Gora Hill. Since fungi absorb radionuclides mostly from the substrate, soil and tree samples were also collected and analyzed. Certain characteristics of fungal species play an important role in the process of radionuclide absorption. On the other hand, the degree of radionuclide accumulation is very important for the fungi of potential pharmaceutical significance. The results on the radioactivity concentration in the analyzed fungi could be used both for the bioindication investigations, soil and substrate contamination in particular, and for estimation of the forest ecological status. The activity concentration level of most critical radionuclide 137Cs was about ten times lower in these species then in Pholiota squarrosa, characterized by the highest activity concentration level of 55(4) Bq/kg (d.m.) [sr

  20. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  1. Development of autoradiographic method for measuring sorption of radionuclides on natural fracture surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muuronen, S.

    1983-11-01

    On the basis of positive results about sorption of radionuclides in rock thin sections an autoradiographic method applicable for measurement sorption of radionuclides on rough rock surfaces was developed. There is no method available because 1) a plane film cannot be used because due to the roughness of rock surfaces 2) rock samples used in this investigation cannot be studied with microscopes and 3) autoradiogram cannot be studied fixed on the surface of a rock sample because the colours of the minerals in the sample will interfere with the interpretation. This report discusses experimental work done to find an useful proedure. In the development of the method main emphasis was put on investigation of the following steps: 1) preparation of the sample for equilibration and spiking; 2) properties of the covering paint for the rock surface and 3) testing of autoradiographic methods using different nuclear emulsions. As the result of these experiments promising autoradiograms with gel emulsion for sawed rock surfaces and with stripping film for rough rock surfaces were obtained. The mineralogic disribution of sorbed activity is easily seen in autoradiograms. Much work must still be done to get reliable quantitative information from autoradiograms. For developing of the autoradiographic method sawed plane rock samples of quartz feldspar intergrowth, pegmatite and limestone were used. In addition core samples of tonalite and mica gneiss from Olkiluoto were utilized. The distribution coefficients (Ksub(a)) obtained for cesium were 560 x 10 -4 and 620 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 for tonalite and mica gneiss, respectively. The results are little higher but of the same order of magnitude as obtained by the autoradiographic method using rock thin sections and by the batch method using crused samples. The natural fracture surface sorption study is a logical step in determining the scaling factor from laboratory to field studies. Field data will be needed to determine whether laboratory

  2. Incorporation monitoring by measurements of activity concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breukelmann, G.; Dalheimer, A.; Dilger, H.; Henrichs, K.

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation monitoring of workers handling actinides is in many cases not possible by individual methods: The sensitivity of bioassay of methods (in vivo, in vitro) is not sufficient to detect amounts as required by the low annual limits of intake. Similar difficulties may occur with the use of radionuclides with very short physical half-lives. In these cases, the measuring of activity concentrations in the air is the only way to monitor the workers and to meet legal requirements. The essential problem connected with this approach is to make sure, that the air sample analyzed represents the average air inhaled actually. Correspondingly, the new system regulating the incorporation monitoring in Germany requires additional measures to ensure this representatively. (author)

  3. Measurement of natural radioactivity in chemical fertilizer and agricultural soil: evidence of high alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    People are exposed to ionizing radiation from the radionuclides that are present in different types of natural sources, of which phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important sources. Radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer belonging to 232Th and 238U series as well as radioisotope of potassium (40K) are the major contributors of outdoor terrestrial natural radiation. The study of alpha activity in fertilizers, which is the first ever in West Bengal, has been performed in order to determine the effect of the use of phosphate fertilizers on human health. The data have been compared with the alpha activity of different types of chemical fertilizers. The measurement of alpha activity in surface soil samples collected from the cultivated land was also performed. The sampling sites were randomly selected in the cultivated land in the Midnapore district, which is the largest district in West Bengal. The phosphate fertilizer is widely used for large agricultural production, mainly potatoes. The alpha activities have been measured using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The results show that alpha activity of those fertilizer and soil samples varies from 141 Bq/kg to 2,589 Bq/kg and from 109 Bq/kg to 660 Bq/kg, respectively. These results were used to estimate environmental radiation exposure on human health contributed by the direct application of fertilizers.

  4. Radionuclide characterization of environmental air around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gede Sutresna Wijaya; Anung Muharini

    2015-01-01

    Air is an important environmental component in human life. Presence of air pollutants or contaminants will have a negative impact on human health. According to the existence of a nuclear facility in Yogyakarta, the characterization of radionuclides in the air is absolutely necessary to ensure the safety of people and the environment and also to supervise the safe operation of the facility. In this research the characterization of radionuclides in the air was carried through the air sampling by using High Volume Air Sampler equipped with filter TFA 2133, followed by analysis using combination of a gamma and alpha spectrometers. The concentration of radioactivity in the air fluctuates depending on the time and duration of sampling. Characterization of gamma emitting radionuclides in the air is dominated by radon progeny radionuclides such as 214 Pb, 214 Bi with activity 20.09 ± 1.23 until 32.91 ± 4.87 Bq/m 3 and 31.22 ± 1.76 until 44.25 ± 4.91 Bq/m 3 . Alpha emitter radionuclide was dominated by 214 Po (7.69 MeV) which is also radon progeny and a primordial radionuclides. It can be concluded that the presence of radionuclides in the environmental air not as a product resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities in Yogyakarta. (author)

  5. Use of polyamfolit complexes of ethyl-amino-crotonate/acrylic acid with surface-active materials for radionuclide extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabdyrakova, A.M.; Artem'ev, O.I.; Protskij, A.V.; Bimendina, L.A.; Yashkarova, M.G.; Orazzhanova, L.K.

    2005-01-01

    Pentifylline of betaine structure was synthesised on the basis of 3-aminocrotonate and acrylic acid. Polyamfolit composition and its complexes with anionic surface-active material (lauryl sulfate of sodium) were determined. It is revealed that complex formation occurs with [polyamfolit]:[surface active material]=1:1 ratio and is accompanied by significant reduce of system characteristics viscosity. The paper presents results of [polyamfolit]:[surface active material] complex apply experimental investigation for radionuclide directed migration in soil. (author)

  6. Radionuclides and stable elements in the sediments of the Yesa Reservoir, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Ana; Gaspar, Leticia; Palazon, Leticia [Estacion Experimental Aula Dei (EEAD- CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Soil and Water; Valero-Garces, Blas [Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia (IPE-CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: The sediments accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (Central Spanish Pyrenees) have greatly decreased its water storage capacity and are a major threat to the sustainability of water resources in the region. This study examines the contents of radionuclides and stable elements in the reservoir sediments and relates their variations with the sediment composition and local sedimentary dynamics, particularly flood frequency and intensity, which are responsible for changes in the main supply and distribution of radionuclides in the basin. Materials and methods: The sedimentary sequence accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (471 Hm{sup 3}), which supplies water to ca. 1,000,000 people and for irrigation, was examined in two 4-m long sediment cores (Y1, Y2) and one profile (Y3) retrieved at its central part. In the sediments, radionuclide activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were measured using a hyperpure Ge coaxial detector. The stable elements Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Li, K and Na were analysed by ICP-OES. Complementary analyses to characterize the sediments included: XRD in the profile, grain size distribution by laser equipment and the contents of organic matter, carbonates and the residual fraction by loss on ignition. Results and discussion: The variation in radionuclide activities is associated with grain size and sediment composition. The activity levels (becquerels per kilogram) ranged between 20 and 43 for{sup 238}U, 14 and 40 for {sup 226}Ra, 7 and 56 for {sup 210}Pb, 19 and 46 for Th{sup 232}, 1 and 48 for {sup 137}Cs and 185 and 610 for {sup 40}K. Enriched activity levels are associated with clayey and silty layers, and depleted levels with sandy layers. The levels of radionuclides and trace elements were significantly lower in the cores than in the profile because of its higher silicate content and the influence of inflow of spring mineral-rich waters. The correlations among

  7. Distribution of 137Cs Radionuclide in Industrial Wastes Effluents of Gresik, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs was measured from industrial waste effluent of Gresik to Gresik Sea in east Java, Indonesia. The activity of 37Cs detected at all stations was much lower than in northeast Japan both before and after NPP Fukushima accident. This indicated that in Gresik industrials waste did not consist of 137Cs. The lowest activity 137Cs occurred at the station nearest to the industrial waste effluent that contained some particle ions that were able to scavenge 137Cs and then precipate this radionuclide. Furthermore, the greatest 137Cs occured at the station that has high current speeds that stirred up sediment to release 137Cs in seawater as a secondary source. The lowest salinity did not effect on the activity of 137Cs even though the lowest salinity and activity 137Cs occured at the same station

  8. Methodology for quantification of radionuclides used in therapy by bioanalysis 'in vitro'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C.; Sousa, Wanderson O.; Mesquita, Sueli A.; Santos, Maristela S.; Oliveira, S.M. Velasques de

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil, the radionuclides used for therapy are 131 ; 153 Sm, 90 Y and 177 Lu, under routine or experimentally. The quantification of the radiopharmaceutical activity excreted by the patient through the bioassay method, can be an important tool for individualized dosimetry, aiming the planning of subsequent therapies. The Bioanalysis In Vitro Laboratory (LBIOVT) of the Service of Individual monitoring (SEMIN) of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Brazil, has equipment and procedures for gamma and beta spectrometry. These detection systems are calibrated in energy and efficiency, and used standard reference sources provided by the National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LMNRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ). The LBIOVT Quality System follows the guidelines of the ISO-ABNT-17025 standard and annually, the laboratory participates in national (PNI) and international (PROCORAD). With respect to the excreta samples from patients, these are collected immediately after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. During the first 24 hours, they are collected with the patient hospitalized, and depending upon the physical half-life of the radionuclide can also be collected in the patient's home. Both in hospital and at home, the excreta is handled, stored and transported in accordance with standards for clinical research, radiation protection and transport of radioactive and biological materials. The specific activity radionuclide is referenced to the date and time of collection, allowing further evaluation of biological individual half-life. The care with the registration of excreted volumes as well as possible loss of excreta during collection, may interfere with the interpretation of the measures, since the results are provided in specific activity (Bq / L). Regarding the bioassay laboratory, these results are reliable when the laboratory is certified and participates in intercomparison programs of measures and methods. The laboratory

  9. Joint release rate estimation and measurement-by-measurement model correction for atmospheric radionuclide emission in nuclear accidents: An application to wind tunnel experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinpeng; Li, Hong; Liu, Yun; Xiong, Wei; Fang, Sheng

    2018-03-05

    The release rate of atmospheric radionuclide emissions is a critical factor in the emergency response to nuclear accidents. However, there are unavoidable biases in radionuclide transport models, leading to inaccurate estimates. In this study, a method that simultaneously corrects these biases and estimates the release rate is developed. Our approach provides a more complete measurement-by-measurement correction of the biases with a coefficient matrix that considers both deterministic and stochastic deviations. This matrix and the release rate are jointly solved by the alternating minimization algorithm. The proposed method is generic because it does not rely on specific features of transport models or scenarios. It is validated against wind tunnel experiments that simulate accidental releases in a heterogonous and densely built nuclear power plant site. The sensitivities to the position, number, and quality of measurements and extendibility of the method are also investigated. The results demonstrate that this method effectively corrects the model biases, and therefore outperforms Tikhonov's method in both release rate estimation and model prediction. The proposed approach is robust to uncertainties and extendible with various center estimators, thus providing a flexible framework for robust source inversion in real accidents, even if large uncertainties exist in multiple factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radionuclides sorption in clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siraky, G.; Lewis, C.; Hamlat, S.; Nollmann, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of clay soils is examined through a parametric study of the distribution coefficient (Kd) for the radionuclides of interest, Cs and Sr. This work is a preliminary stage of the migration studies of these nuclides in a porous medium (ground of Ezeiza, Argentina) and the evaluation of radiologic impact of the removal of low and intermediate activity wastes in shallow trenches. The determination of Kd is performed by a static technique or batch. The phases are separated by centrifugation at 20000 g during 1 hour. The activity of supernatant solution of Cs-137 and Sr-85 is measured in a detecting system of I Na(Tl) well-type. Two types of parameters were changed: a) those related to the determination method: phase separation (centrifugation vs. centrifugation plus filtration); equilibrium period, ratio solid/liquid; b) those related to the geochemical system: pH of contact solution, carrier concentration, competitive ions, ionic strength, desorption. It was observed that the modification of parameters in the Kd-measurement does not change the order of magnitude of results. (Author)

  11. An assessment of natural radionuclides in water of Langat River estuary, Selangor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzah, Zaini, E-mail: tengkuliana88@gmail.com; Rosli, Tengku Nurliana Tuan Mohd, E-mail: tengkuliana88@gmail.com; Saat, Ahmad, E-mail: tengkuliana88@gmail.com; Wood, Ab. Khalik, E-mail: tengkuliana88@gmail.com [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    An estuary is an area that has a free connection with the open sea and it is a dynamic semi-enclosed coastal bodies. Ex-mining, aquaculture and industrial areas in Selangor are the sources of pollutants discharged into the estuary water. Radionuclides are considered as pollutants to the estuary water. Gamma radiations emitted by natural radionuclides through their decaying process may give impact to human. The radiological effect of natural radionuclides which are {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, were explored by determining the respective activity concentrations in filtered water along the Langat estuary, Selangor. Meanwhile, in- situ water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total suspended solid (TSS), pH and turbidity were measured by using YSI portable multi probes meter. The activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in samples are in the range of 0.17 - 0.67 Bq/L, 0.16 - 0.97 Bq/L and 1.22 - 5.57 Bq/L respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of uranium-238 and thorium-232 were determined by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF). The thorium concentrations are between 0.17 ppm to 0.28 ppm and uranium concentrations were 0.25 ppm to 0.31 ppm. The results show activity concentrations of radionuclides are slightly high near the river estuary. The Radium Equivalent, Absorbed Dose Rate, External Hazard Index, and Annual Effective Dose of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K are also studied.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE, 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001(EPA, 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2010, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000032 mrem/yr, more than 300,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  15. Kinetic regularities of change in the concentration of radionuclides in the Georgian tea content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Katamadze, N.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Ginturi, Eh.N.

    1990-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of a study of behavior of artificial radionuclides in Georgian tea technological products after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Station. A partial contribution of the activity of radionuclides 141 Ce, 140 La, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 140 Ba, 137 Cs, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, 134 Cs and 90 Sr to the total activity to Georgian tea samples. Maximum tolerated concentrations of radionuclides were assessed provided average annual tea consumption per capita was 1 kg. The maximum of solubility in the water phase falls on Cs radionuclides. The regularities of migration of half-lived radionuclides 3 yrs. After the Chernobyl accident were established

  16. The assessment of low-level contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate a new analytical technique to improve the radionuclide activity estimate from area measurements of small-area spectral peaks obtained using multi-channel spectrometry. These improvements are based on the application of Bayesian peak fitting, a method of peak fitting that allows the information contained in a spectrum to be used more fully than is possible with the method of gross counting currently employed. The study carried out showed that activity estimates and confidence intervals for activity could be more precisely defined, and the time-related costs reduced up to 50% when making activity measurements by the peak-fitting method (for a fixed detection limit) instead of gross counting. Testing of the method under real conditions would be the logical follow-up to the work achieved

  17. Radionuclide migration in groundwater. Annual progress report for 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Research has continued at a low-level waste disposal facility to characterize the physicochemical species of radionuclides migrating in groundwater. This facility consists of an unlined basin and connecting trench which receives effluent water containing low levels of a wide variety of fission and activation products and trace amounts of transuranic radionuclides. The effluent water percolates through the soil and a small fraction of it emerges at seepage springs located some 260 meters from the trench. The disposal basin and trench are very efficient in retaining most of the radionuclides, but trace amounts of a number of radionuclides existing in mobile chemical forms migrate in the groundwater from the trench to the springs. This facility provides the opportunity for characterizing the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration in groundwaters, identifying retardation processes, and validating geochemical models. 13 references, 25 figures, 23 tables

  18. Determination of scaling factors to estimate the radionuclide inventory in waste with low and intermediate-level activity from the IEA-R1 reactor; Determinacao de fatores de escala para estimativa do inventario de radionuclideos em rejeitos de media e baixa atividades do reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo

    2013-07-01

    Regulations regarding transfer and final disposal of radioactive waste require that the inventory of radionuclides for each container enclosing such waste must be estimated and declared. The regulatory limits are established as a function of the annual radiation doses that members of the public could be exposed to from the radioactive waste repository, which mainly depend on the activity concentration of radionuclides, given in Bq/g, found in each waste container. Most of the radionuclides that emit gamma-rays can have their activity concentrations determined straightforwardly by measurements carried out externally to the containers. However, radionuclides that emit exclusively alpha or beta particles, as well as gamma-rays or X-rays with low energy and low absolute emission intensity, or whose activity is very low among the radioactive waste, are generically designated as Difficult to Measure Nuclides (DTMs). The activity concentrations of these DTMs are determined by means of complex radiochemical procedures that involve isolating the chemical species being studied from the interference in the waste matrix. Moreover, samples must be collected from each container in order to perform the analyses inherent to the radiochemical procedures, which exposes operators to high levels of radiation and is very costly because of the large number of radioactive waste containers that need to be characterized at a nuclear facility. An alternative methodology to approach this problem consists in obtaining empirical correlations between some radionuclides that can be measured directly – such as {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, therefore designated as Key Nuclides (KNs) – and the DTMs. This methodology, denominated Scaling Factor, was applied in the scope of the present work in order to obtain Scaling Factors or Correlation Functions for the most important radioactive wastes with low and intermediate-activity level from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. (author)

  19. Twenty-five-year study of radionuclides in the Susquehanna river via periphyton biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John; Kreeger, Danielle; Harris, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This 25-y study monitored aquatic and terrestrial gamma-ray-emitting radionuclide levels near a nuclear power plant. It is the only known, long-term environmental survey of its kind. It was conducted neither by a utility owner, nor by a government agency, but rather by a private, environmental research institution. Compared to dozens of other flora and fauna, periphyton was found to be the best indicator to biomonitor the Susquehanna River, which runs near PPL Susquehanna's nuclear plant. Sampling began in 1979 before the first plant start-up and continued for the next 24 years. Monitoring began two months after the Three Mile Island accident of 28 March 1979 and includes Three Mile Island area measurements. Ongoing measurements detected fallout from Chernobyl in 1986, as well as I not released from PPL Susquehanna. Although this paper concentrates on radionuclides found in periphyton, the scope of the entire environmental program includes a wide variety of aquatic and land-based plants, animals, and inorganic matter. Other species and matter studied were fish, mussels, snails, crayfish, insects, humus, mushrooms, lichens, squirrels, deer, cabbage, tomatoes, coarse and flocculated sediment, and more. Results show periphyton works well for detection of radionuclide activity, even in concentrations less than 100 Bq kg (picocuries per gram amounts). Data indicate that PPL Susquehanna's radionuclide releases have had no known environmental or human health impact.

  20. Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, N.Q.; Giap, T.V.; Phan, N.T.; Truong, Y.; Binh, N.T; Sieu, L.N.; Hien, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclides from the reactor accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were observed in the surface air at stations in Hanoi, Dalat and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam, about 4500 km southwest of Japan, during the period from March 27 to April 22, 2011. The maximum activity concentrations in the air measured at those three sites were 193, 33 and 37 μBq m -3 for 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs, respectively. Peaks of radionuclide concentrations in the air corresponded to arrival of the air mass from Fukushima to Vietnam after traveling for 8 days over the Pacific Ocean. Cesium-134 was detected with the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity ratio of about 0.85 in line with observations made elsewhere. The 131 I/ 137 Cs activity ratio was observed to decrease exponentially with time as expected from radioactive decay. The ratio at Dalat, where is 1500 m high, was higher than those at Hanoi and HCMC in low lands, indicating the relative enrichment of the iodine in comparison to cesium at high altitudes. The time-integrated surface air concentrations of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the Southeast Asia showed exponential decrease with distance from Fukushima. (author)

  1. Natural radionuclides in Italian diet and their annual intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donatella Desideri; Maria Assunta Meli; Carla Roselli; Laura Feduzi; Nevio Forini; Alba Rongoni

    2014-01-01

    This study was dedicated to the evaluation of the background activity concentration of natural radionuclides as 228 Ra and 228 Th of 232 Th family, 226 Ra of 238 U family and 40 K in the Italian daily diet. These radionuclides were determined by gamma spectrometry. 40 K activity concentration, in the samples taken into account in the present paper, ranged between 70.5 (milk) and 181.1 Bq kg ww -1 (pasta), 226 Ra activity concentration ranged between 1.1 (milk) and 5.7 Bq kg ww -1 (pasta), 228 Ra and 228 Th activity concentration, in the same samples, ranged between 0.7 (milk) and 3.7 Bq kg ww -1 (pasta) and between 1.4 (milk) and 6.1 Bq kg ww -1 (flours) respectively. The annual intake of every radionuclide from foodstuffs ingestion was also calculated. The 94-95 % of the total intake comes from 40 K. For adults and children, the highest activity intake of all radioisotopes was from grain products, for infants it was from milk products. (author)

  2. Radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Ruth, C.; Samanek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology is discussed for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial function and perfusion, regional lung perfusion and ventilation, and for measuring central and peripheral hemodynamics. (H.W.). 16 refs

  3. Uptake, depuration, and radiation dose estimation in zebrafish exposed to radionuclides via aqueous or dietary routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinardy, Helena C., E-mail: helena.reinardy@plymouth.ac.uk [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, The University of Plymouth (United Kingdom); Teyssie, Jean-Louis, E-mail: J.Teyssie@iaea.org [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco); Jeffree, Ross A., E-mail: R.Jeffree@iaea.org [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco); Faculty of Science, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Copplestone, David, E-mail: David.copplestone@stir.ac.uk [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling (United Kingdom); Henry, Theodore B., E-mail: ted.henry@plymouth.ac.uk [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom); Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Jha, Awadhesh N., E-mail: A.Jha@plymouth.ac.uk [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, The University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-01

    Understanding uptake and depuration of radionuclides in organisms is necessary to relate exposure to radiation dose and ultimately to biological effects. We investigated uptake and depuration of a mixture of radionuclides to link bioaccumulation with radiation dose in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Adult zebrafish were exposed to radionuclides ({sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 75}Se, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 241}Am) at tracer levels (< 200 Bq g{sup -1}) for 14 d, either via water or diet. Radioactivity concentrations were measured in whole body and excised gonads of exposed fish during uptake (14 d) and depuration phases (47 d and 42 d for aqueous and dietary exposures respectively), and dose rates were modelled from activity concentrations in whole body and exposure medium (water or diet). After 14-day aqueous exposure, radionuclides were detected in decreasing activity concentrations: {sup 75}Se > {sup 65}Zn > {sup 109}Cd > {sup 110m}Ag > {sup 54}Mn > {sup 60}Co > {sup 241}Am > {sup 134}Cs (range: 175-8 Bq g{sup 1}). After dietary exposure the order of radionuclide activity concentration in tissues (Bq g{sup -1}) was: {sup 65}Zn > {sup 60}Co > {sup 75}Se > {sup 109}Cd > {sup 110m}Ag > {sup 241}Am > {sup 54}Mn > {sup 134}Cs (range: 91-1 Bq g{sup -1}). Aqueous exposure resulted in higher whole body activity concentrations for all radionuclides except {sup 60}Co. Route of exposure did not appear to influence activity concentrations in gonads, except for {sup 54}Mn, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 75}Se, which had higher activity concentrations in gonads following aqueous exposure. Highest gonad activity concentrations (Bq g{sup -1}) were for {sup 75}Se (211), {sup 109}Cd (142), and {sup 65}Zn (117), and highest dose rates ({mu}Gy h{sup -1}) were from {sup 241}Am (aqueous, 1050; diet 242). This study links radionuclide bioaccumulation data obtained in laboratory experiments with radiation dose determined by application of a dosimetry modelling tool, an

  4. Natural radionuclides in plants, soils and sediments affected by U-rich coal mining activities in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Díaz Francés, Inmaculada; Motta, João Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    Mining activities can increase the mobility of metals by accelerating the dissolution and leaching of minerals from the rocks and tailing piles to the environment and, consequently, their availability for plants and subsequent transfer to the food chain. The weathering of minerals and the disposal of coal waste in tailing piles can accelerate the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD), which is responsible for the higher dissolution of metals in mining areas. In this context, the behavior of U, Th and K in soils and sediment, and the transfer factor (TF) of 238 U, 234 U and 210 Po for soybean, wheat, pine and eucalyptus cultivated around a coal mine in southern Brazil was evaluated. Alpha and gamma spectrometry were used for the measurements of the activity concentration of the radioelements. 210 Po was the radionuclide that is most accumulated in the plants, especially in the leaves. When comparing the plant species, pine showed the highest TF values for 234 U (0.311 ± 0.420) for leaves, while eucalyptus showed the highest TF for 238 U (0.344 ± 0.414) for leaves. In general, TF were higher for the leaves of soybean and wheat when compared to the grains, and grains of wheat showed higher TF for 210 Po and 238 U than grains of soybean. Deviations from the natural U isotopic ratio were recorded at all investigated areas, indicating possible industrial and mining sources of U for the vegetables. A safety assessment of transport routes and accumulation of radionuclides in soils with a potential for cultivation is important, mainly in tropical areas contaminated with solid waste and effluents from mines and industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term development of the radionuclide exposure of murine rodent populations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabokon, N I; Smolich, I I; Kudryashov, V P; Goncharova, R I

    2005-12-01

    As a determinant of the associated health risks, the behavior of radionuclides in natural ecosystems needs to be better understood. Therefore, the activity concentration of various long-lived radionuclides released due to the Chernobyl accident, and the corresponding contributions to the whole-body dose rate, was studied as a function of time in mammalian indicator species inhabiting the natural forest ecosystems of Belarus, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) and the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollus). The activity concentrations of 137Cs, 134Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Pu and 241Am in soil and in animals were measured at five monitoring sites with different ground deposition of radionuclides at different distances from the destroyed reactor. The observed temporal pattern of the radionuclide activity concentration in the studied animal populations reflects the changes in biological availability of these isotopes for biota, mostly due to fuel particle destruction and appearance of dissolved and exchangeable forms of radionuclides. The time course of 134+137Cs activity concentrations in animal populations appeared as a sequence of increase, peak and decrease. Maximal levels of radiocesium occurred 1-2 years after deposition, followed by an exponential decrease. Concentrations of incorporated 90Sr increased up to the tenth year after deposition. The activity concentrations of transuranic elements (238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Pu and 241Am) were much lower than those of the other radionuclides, in the studied animals. A considerable activity of 241Am in animals from areas with high levels of contamination was firstly detected 5 years after deposition, it increased up to the tenth year and is expected to increase further in the future. Maximal values of the whole-body absorbed dose rates occurred during the year of deposition, followed by a decrease in the subsequent period. Generally, this decrease was monotonic, mainly determined by the decrease of the

  6. International Comparability of 131I, 201TI and 99mTc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa, P; Serra, R; Hernandez, A.T.; Varela, C

    2006-01-01

    This paper refers about the International Comparability of 131 I, 201 TI and 99m Tc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine. Traceability of activity measurements in nuclear medicine based in two aspects: Comparability of clinic results and the safe and effective use of drugs. A bilateral international comparison for activity measurements CIEMAT CENTIS DMR was done. 2000-2004 National Program for 99m Tc 201 TI, 131 I vial and syringe measurements in radionuclide calibrators including a simulated test for activity administration. It is employed the Cause Effect Diagram for the activity measurement result of a source in the calibrator and the statistical methods for comparing several characteristics of the obtained data. The result of the comparisons demonstrates that the measurement quality has increased from one year to another

  7. Radionuclides in peat bogs and energy peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helariutta, K.; Rantavaara, A.; Lehtovaara, J.

    2000-06-01

    The study was aimed at improving the general view on radionuclides contents in energy peat produced in Finland. The annual harvest of fuel peat in 1994 was studied extensively. Also thirteen peat bogs used for peat production and one bog in natural condition were analysed for vertical distributions of several radionuclides. These distributions demonstrate the future change in radioactivity of energy peat. Both natural nuclides emitting gamma radiation ( 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K) and radiocaesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) origin in fallout from a nuclear power plant accident (1986) and in atmospheric nuclear weapon tests were analysed. The beta and alpha active natural nuclides of lead and polonium ( 210 Pb, 210 Po) were determined on a set of peat samples. These nuclides potentially contribute to radiation exposure through inhalation when partially released to atmosphere during combustion of peat. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides often increased towards the deepest peat bog layers whereas the radioactive caesium deposited from atmosphere was missing in the deep layers. In undisturbed surface layers of a natural bog and peat production bogs the contents of 210 Pb and 210 Po exceeded those of the deeper peat layers. The nuclides of the uranium series in the samples were generally not in radioactive equilibrium, as different environmental processes change their activity ratios in peat. Radiation exposure from handling and utilisation of peat ash was estimated with activity indices derived from the data for energy peat harvested in 1994. Intervention doses were exceeded in a minor selection of samples due to 137 Cs, whereas natural radionuclides contributed very little to the doses. (orig.)

  8. Air concentrations of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides in the area Debrecen (Hungary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daroczy, S.; Dezsoe, Z.; Pazsit, A.; Buczko, Cs.M.; Somogyi, A.; Papp, Z.; Bolyos, A.; Nagy, J.; Raics, P.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol activity from the Chernobyl reactor accident are reported. The concentrations of 14 radionuclides were obtained by gamma spectrometry for the period 30 April - 9 May, 1986. Gross beta measurements were also done through 11 August 1986 of which 137 Cs activity concentrations were derived. 90 Sr activity concentrations were also determined for selected aerosol samples using nondestructive procedure. The time course of contamination observed in Debrecen (Hungary) is discussed in terms of trajectory analysis. Isotopic ratios are also used to trace down routes of contamined air. In addition, such ratios are also used to characterize the status of the damaged reactor at different times. (author) 15 refs.; 2 figs

  9. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  10. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  11. transfer factor of radionuclides from soil-to-palm oil produced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunjo Samuel

    The activity concentration of the natural radionuclides were determined using a single crystal 0.51cm x 0.51cmNaI ... variety of food, cosmetic and hygiene products, and can be .... solubility of the radionuclide that may lead to high uptake or.

  12. Development of magnetic calorimeters for absolute activity measurement; Developpement de calorimetres magnetiques pour la mesure absolue d'activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Qasimi, A.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D. [CEA Saclay, LNE-LNHB, Lab. National Henri Becquerel, LIST, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    We have developed a prototype magnetic calorimeter, operated at very low temperature, for absolute activity measurement of low energy emitting radionuclides. A weighed source of {sup 55}Fe has been enclosed inside the detector absorber assuring a high detection efficiency. The result of a preliminary activity measurement carried out with this prototype is compatible with a measurement by liquid scintillation counting. Apart from the high detection efficiency, this approach is particularly interesting since it introduces a new method into a field where only few measuring techniques are available. (authors)

  13. Distribution of natural radionuclides and uranium activity ratio in Gulf of Thailand sediments as base line data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Hideki, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Kritsananuwat, R.; Fukushi, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Chanyotha, S.; Pangza, K. [Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides and uranium activity ratio in marine sediments from selected coast, along the Gulf of Thailand to establish baseline data. Thailand has a plan to construct nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as coal-fired thermal power plants to generate adequate and reliable electricity supply for rapid growth of industrialization. Therefore, it is important to focus not only on security and adequacy of power system but also on environmental protection and monitoring and risk assessment. To carry out environmental monitoring, baseline data plays a significant role. These data should be established and available before set up of mega projects that could impact the environment and health. Therefore, we have collected samples from five areas in the Gulf of Thailand, which are proposed as potential sites, to set up power plants by Thailand government. A total number of fifty-four marine sediment samples were collected. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides e.g. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 40}K. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 40}K vary from 2.91-67.17 Bq/kg with an average of 26.64±14.57 Bq/kg, 4.42-109.17 Bq/kg with an average of 43.79±23.92 Bq/kg and 3.36-1004.56 Bq/kg with an average of 393.56±208.04 Bq/kg, respectively. The radiation hazard parameters including absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), radium equivalent activity (AGDE) and external hazard index (Hex) were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. We have noticed that sediments from two sites characterized by similar geological nature of landforms with a rocky coast have higher concentration of natural radionuclides. Concentration of uranium was determined using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotopic composition of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U were determined using

  14. Inverse modelling of radionuclide release rates using gamma dose rate observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Thomas; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Stohl, Andreas; von Haustein, Christoph; Thummerer, Severin; Wallner, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Severe accidents in nuclear power plants such as the historical accident in Chernobyl 1986 or the more recent disaster in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have drastic impacts on the population and environment. Observations and dispersion modelling of the released radionuclides help to assess the regional impact of such nuclear accidents. Modelling the increase of regional radionuclide activity concentrations, which results from nuclear accidents, underlies a multiplicity of uncertainties. One of the most significant uncertainties is the estimation of the source term. That is, the time dependent quantification of the released spectrum of radionuclides during the course of the nuclear accident. The quantification of the source term may either remain uncertain (e.g. Chernobyl, Devell et al., 1995) or rely on estimates given by the operators of the nuclear power plant. Precise measurements are mostly missing due to practical limitations during the accident. The release rates of radionuclides at the accident site can be estimated using inverse modelling (Davoine and Bocquet, 2007). The accuracy of the method depends amongst others on the availability, reliability and the resolution in time and space of the used observations. Radionuclide activity concentrations are observed on a relatively sparse grid and the temporal resolution of available data may be low within the order of hours or a day. Gamma dose rates, on the other hand, are observed routinely on a much denser grid and higher temporal resolution and provide therefore a wider basis for inverse modelling (Saunier et al., 2013). We present a new inversion approach, which combines an atmospheric dispersion model and observations of radionuclide activity concentrations and gamma dose rates to obtain the source term of radionuclides. We use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al., 1998; Stohl et al., 2005) to model the atmospheric transport of the released radionuclides. The

  15. Estimation of Total Error in DWPF Reported Radionuclide Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.B.

    1995-01-01

    This report investigates the impact of random errors due to measurement and sampling on the reported concentrations of radionuclides in DWPF's filled canister inventory resulting from each macro-batch. The objective of this investigation is to estimate the variance of the total error in reporting these radionuclide concentrations

  16. Beryllium-7 and {sup 210}Pb atmospheric deposition measured in moss and dependence on cumulative precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmar, M., E-mail: krmar@df.uns.ac.rs [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, Novi Sad (Serbia); Mihailović, D.T.; Arsenić, I. [Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, Novi Sad (Serbia); Radnović, D. [Faculty of Science, Biology Department, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, Novi Sad (Serbia); Pap, I. [Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2016-01-15

    This paper focuses on analysis of the time series of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb activity measured in moss, and the amount, as well as duration of precipitation, to gain a better understanding of the possible relationships between airborne radionuclide deposition and precipitation. Here we consider whether the amount of these airborne radionuclides in moss samples is a cumulative measure of radionuclide deposition and decay, and a new approach for analyses of the relationships between precipitation and moss activity concentrations is suggested. Through these analyses it was shown that comparison of cumulative activity measured at one location using moss, normalized by values of cumulative amount or duration of precipitation, showed different regimes of airborne radionuclide deposition. - Graphical abstract: Correlation between cumulative activity of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb measured in moss samples normalized by the cumulative precipitation. - Highlights: • Use of mosses in measurement of airborne radionuclides deposition was investigated • Prior work indicated {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb activities were not correlated with precipitation • This is unusual since radionuclides moss tissues depends on depositional fluxes. • A new method for study of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb depositional dynamics was developed • Different seasonal regimes of {sup 7}Be deposition are more noticeable in new technique.

  17. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  18. Distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides in chernozem soil/crop system from stationary experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarap, Nataša B; Rajačić, Milica M; Đalović, Ivica G; Šeremešić, Srđan I; Đorđević, Aleksandar R; Janković, Marija M; Daković, Marko Z

    2016-09-01

    The present paper focuses on the determination of radiological characteristics of cultivated chernozem soil and crops from long-term field experiments, taking into account the importance of distribution and transfer of radionuclides in the soil-plant system, especially in agricultural cropland. The investigation was performed on the experimental fields where maize, winter wheat, and rapeseed were cultivated. Analysis of radioactivity included determination of the gross alpha and beta activity as a screening method, as well as the activities of the following radionuclides: natural ((210)Pb, (235)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, (7)Be) and artificial ((90)Sr and (137)Cs). The activities of natural and artificial ((137)Cs) radionuclides were determined by gamma spectrometry, while the artificial radionuclide (90)Sr was determined by a radiochemical analytical method. Based on the obtained results for the specific activity of (40)K, (137)Cs, and (90)Sr, accumulation factors for these radionuclides were calculated in order to estimate transfer of radionuclides from soil to crops. The results of performed analyses showed that there is no increase of radioactivity that could endanger the food production through the grown crops.

  19. Study of radionuclide and element characterization of Angola marine sediment using low background gamma spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.C.P.; Vuong Huu Tan; Truong Y; Ho Manh Dung; Le Nhu Sieu; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of radionuclides and chemical elements in Angola marine sediment samples were determined by using low background gamma (LBG) spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The combination of radionuclide and elemental concentration values yielded synergy in the validation of analytical data and identification of sediment sources modeled by multivariate factor analysis. Varimax rotation factor analysis based on the elemental concentrations revealed five sources contributed to the sediment composition, i.e. crustal, sea-salt, industrial, coal-related and Se-related sources. (author)

  20. Radionuclides distribution coefficient of soil to soil-solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The present book addresses various issues related with the coefficient of radionuclides distribution between soil and soil solution. It consists of six sections and two appendices. The second section, following an introductory one, describes the definition of the coefficient and a procedures of its calculation. The third section deals with the application of the distribution coefficient to the prediction of movements of radionuclides through soil. Various methods for measuring the coefficient are described in the fourth section. The next section discusses a variety of factors (physical and chemical) that can affect the distribution coefficient. Measurements of the coefficient for different types of oils are listed in the sixth section. An appendix is attached to the book to show various models that can be helpful in applying the coefficient of distribution of radionuclides moving from soil into agricultural plants. (N.K.)

  1. Detection of radionuclides originating from a nuclear power plant in sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Suomela, M.

    1999-01-01

    Sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides entering the environment. Radionuclides originating in nuclear power stations have been detected in sludge found at wastewater treatment plants in communities near the power plants (NPP). The main contributor is the radionuclide discharges of the NPPs into the atmosphere, but workers may transmit small amounts through their clothes or skin, or from internal contamination. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the amounts of radionuclides in sewage sludge and to obtain information on transport of the radionuclides from the NPPs to the wastewater treatment plants. Under normal operating conditions and during annual maintenance and refuelling outages at the Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs, sewage sludge samples were taken at wastewater treatment plants in communities located in the vicinity of the plants. With the exception of 131 I, the most significant activities in discharges into the air from the Loviisa NPP were due to 110 mAg. The latter was also noted most frequently in the sewage sludge at the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Loviisa about 10 km from the Loviisa pressurised water reactor (PWR) NPP. The other nuclides probably originating from the Loviisa NPP were 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 58 Co, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 110 mAg and 124 Sb. In the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Rauma, about 10 km from the Olkiluoto boiling water reactor (BWR) NPP, the only nuclides possibly origination from the NPP were 54 Mn, 58 Co and 60 Co. In the wastewater treatment plant, the variation in concentration of 60 Co in sludge did not correlate with the activities measured in precipitation. The occurrence of the nuclide in the treatment plant did not correlate over time with the amounts of discharge from the NPP. This suggests that at least some of the activity was transported to the wastewater treatment plant via routes other than precipitation. Small amounts may be transported within NPP workers to sewage

  2. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2002-01-01

    The specific activity of alpha radionuclides was determined in biological samples. The biological samples were chosen in kinds of fish, concretely mackerels, herrings and haddocks. Experimental data were presented on the poster

  3. Bayesian Inference for Source Term Estimation: Application to the International Monitoring System Radionuclide Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    paradigm involving the fusion of sensor measurements of radionuclide activity concentration with the predictive outputs (model activity concentration...such as the normal operation of nuclear reactors and the production and use of medical isotopes [1] which can create difficulties in the interpretation...evidence integral is a one- dimensional integral which is conceptually easy to approximate numerically. In par- ticular, if we can evaluate the likelihood

  4. SLUDGE BATCH 5 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2008-01-01

    transferred to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides. Data presented in this report represents the measured or estimated radionuclide concentrations obtained from several standard and special analytical methods performed by Analytical Development (AD) personnel within SRNL. The method for I-129 measurement in sludge is described in detail. Most of these methods were performed on solutions resulting from the dissolutions of the slurry samples. Concentrations are given for twenty-nine radionuclides along with total alpha and beta activity. Values for total gamma and total gamma plus beta activities are also calculated. Results also indicate that 98% of the Tc-99 and 92% of the I-129 that could have been in this sludge batch have been removed by chemical processing steps in the SRS Canyons or Tank Farm

  5. Primordial radionuclides in drinking water from former tin-mining area elevated activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adekoya, O. I.; Adewoyin, K. A.; Olaleru, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The activity concentrations of the primordial radionuclides in drinking water from two former mining areas (Bisichi and Bukuru) in Jos, Plateau State in Nigeria have been studied. The activities were determined by a non-destructive analysis using a computerized gamma ray spectrometry system with high purity germanium (HPGe). The result show the average activity concentration for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for Bukuru and Bisichi to be respectively 1.20±0.02 Bq/l, 1.93±0.01 Bq/l, 4.75±0.14 Bq/l and 2.03±0.14 Bq/l, 2.20±0.13 Bq/l, 3.26±0.06 Bq/l. The annual effective doses due to the intake of drinking water from both locations approximately 2.80 mSv and 3.32 mSv respectively. These results are much higher then the reference level of a dose of 0.1 mSv/year from the intake of drinking water.

  6. Measuring the noble metal and iodine composition of extracted noble metal phase from spent nuclear fuel using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares, R.I.; Dayman, K.J.; Landsberger, S.; Biegalski, S.R.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Casella, A.J.; Brady Raap, M.C.; Schwantes, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Masses of noble metal and iodine nuclides in the metallic noble metal phase extracted from spent fuel are measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Nuclide presence is predicted using fission yield analysis, and radionuclides are identified and the masses quantified using neutron activation analysis. The nuclide compositions of noble metal phase derived from two dissolution methods, UO 2 fuel dissolved in nitric acid and UO 2 fuel dissolved in ammonium-carbonate and hydrogen-peroxide solution, are compared. - Highlights: • The noble metal phase was chemically extracted from spent nuclear fuel and analyzed non-destructively. • Noble metal phase nuclides and long-lived iodine were identified and quantified using neutron activation analysis. • Activation to shorter-lived radionuclides allowed rapid analysis of long-lived fission products in spent fuel using gamma spectrometry

  7. Non-conventional measurement techniques for the determination of some long-lived radionuclides produced in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.J.

    1992-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on non-radiometric analytical techniques for the determination of long-lived radionuclides are described. The methods which have been considered are accelerator mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. Neutron activation analysis has been commonly used for the determination of 129 I and 237 Np in environmental samples. Inductively coupled mass spectrometry seems likely to become the method of choice for the determination of 99 Tc, 237 Np and Pu-isotopes. The methods are discussed and the chemical separation methods described. (orig.)

  8. A database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region uranium province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) uranium province in the Australian wet-dry tropics. The database contains 5060 sample records and 57,473 concentration values. The data are for animal, plant, soil, sediment and water samples collected by the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) as part of its statutory role to undertake research and monitoring into the impacts of uranium mining on the environment of the ARR. Concentration values are provided in the database for 11 radionuclides ( 227 Ac, 40 K, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 238 U) and 26 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn). Potential uses of the database are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Migration of heavy natural radionuclides in a humid climatic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titaeva, N.A.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Taskaev, A.I.; Maslov, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Regularities and biochemical peculiarities of the migrations of heavy natural radionuclides in the environment are examined, with special reference to two regions in a humid climatic zone representing natural patterns of radionuclide distribution and to four plots artificially contaminated with high levels of natural radioactivity more than 20 years previously. It was determined that the migration of thorium, uranium, and radium isotopes through the rock-water-soil-plant system is dependent on many physiochemical properties of these radionuclides, their compounds, and the local environment. Isotopic activity ratios provide a useful tool for studying the direction of radionuclide migration and its influence on observed distribution patterns

  10. Contamination of soil and food with radionuclides from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.; Conkic, Lj.; Krmar, M.

    2004-01-01

    The results of systematic gamma spectroscopic analyses of fission products performed on the territory of SAP Vojvodina after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Samples of soil grass and food were periodically taken at 5 representative locations and the regions of highest activity concentration are identified on the basis of the results obtained. In the controlled chain soil-plants (feeds)-cow's (milk) on three characteristic locations (soil with different physico-chemical and mechanical properties) the activity concentration of fission radionuclides was determined and transfer factors for soil-plants; feed-milk were calculated. At the territory of hunting sites of SAP Vojvodina, artificial radionuclides were determined in meat and bones of fallow-deer, deer, boar and wild hare; and the highest content of radionuclides was found in meat and bones of boar. (author)

  11. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary investigation of PAGAT polymer gel radionuclide dosimetry of Tc-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kelly; Bailey, Dale; Hill, Brendan; Baldock, Clive

    2009-05-01

    PAGAT polymer gel was investigated as a suitable dosimeter materials for measuring absorbed dose from the unsealed source radionuclide Tc-99m. Differing amounts of Tc-99m over the range of 25-5000 MBq were introduced into a normoxic polymer gel mixture (PAGAT) in sealed nitrogen-filled P6 glass vials. After irradiation the gels were evaluated using MRI more than 48 hours after preparation to allow for radioactive decay. The dose delivered to the vial was also calculated empirically. R2 versus total activity curves were obtained over a number of experiments and these were used to evaluate the relationship between the amount of gel polymerization and the dose deposited by the radionuclide. A linear response up to 1000 MBq (corresponding to 20Gy) was displayed and was still behaving monotonically at 5000 MBq. Polymer gels offer the potential to measure radiation dose three-dimensionally using MRI.

  13. Sewage sludge as a sensitive indicator for airborne radionuclides from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemansson, T.

    1982-01-01

    Sewage sludge collected at waste water treatment plants located in the vicinity of nuclear power stations, has been shown to be a sensitive and convenient indicator for airborne locally released activation products, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 58 Co and 54 Mn. We have therefore been able to study the distribution and behaviour of these radionuclides in the terrestrial environment of three Swedish nuclear power stations. Comparative measurements on ground level air and on samples of lichen (Cladonia alpestris) and soil have also been performed. The variation by distance from the power station of 60 Co measured in sludge as well as on air-filters could be described by the same power function. The temporal variation of the activity concentration in sludge samples well reflects the variation of the reported release rate of airborne radionuclides from the power stations if the prevalent wind direction is taken into consideration. The relation between the activity ratio 60 Co/ 7 Be in air and in sludge was investigated and indicated that most of the detected 60 Co and part of 58 Co and 54 Mn activity is released from a local source and is dry deposited on the ground before it is washed off by rain. (Author)

  14. Activation cross sections of longer-lived radionuclides produced in germanium by alpha particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takács, S., E-mail: stakacs@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Takács, M.P.; Ditrói, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Haba, H.; Komori, Y. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    The cross sections of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural germanium were investigated by using the standard stacked foil target technique, the activation method and high resolution gamma spectrometry. Targets with thickness of about 1 μm were prepared from natural Ge by vacuum evaporation onto 25 μm thick polyimide (Kapton) backing foils. Stacks were composed of Kapton-Ge-Ge-Kapton sandwich target foils and additional titanium monitor foils with nominal thickness of 11 μm to monitor the beam parameters using the {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 51}Cr reaction. The irradiations were done with E{sub α} = 20.7 and E{sub α} = 51.25 MeV, I{sub α} = 50 nA alpha particle beams for about 1 h. Direct or cumulative activation cross sections were determined for production of the {sup 72,73,75}Se, {sup 71,72,74,76,78}As, and {sup 69}Ge radionuclides. The obtained experimental cross sections were compared to the results of theoretical calculations taken from the TENDL data library based on the TALYS computer code. A comparison was made with available experimental data measured earlier. Thick target yields were deduced from the experimental cross sections and compared with the data published before.

  15. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-156 radionuclides in clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachnov, V.; Valkovic, V.; Dekner, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains the results of the intercomparison IAEA-156 on the determination of radionuclides in clover. Initially participants were requested to determine the levels of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr and invited to provide data for other radionuclides. The participants included 46 laboratories located in 25 countries, and statistical evaluation of their data yield recommended values for these four radionuclides. Additional radionuclides reported were 210 Pb, 239 Pu and 125 Sb; however, insufficient data exists to statistically determine recommended values for these radionuclides