WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiology devices therapeutic

  1. Radiology and the mobile device: Radiology in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar G Panughpath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mobile devices is revolutionizing the way we communicate, interact, are entertained, and organize our lives. With healthcare in general and radiology in particular becoming increasingly digital, the use of such devices in radiologic practice is inevitable. This article reviews the current status of the use of mobile devices in the clinical practice of radiology, namely in emergency teleradiology. Technical parameters such as luminance and resolution are discussed. The article also discusses the benefits of such mobility vis-à-vis the current limitations of the technologies available.

  2. Radiology and the mobile device: Radiology in motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panughpath, Sridhar G; Kalyanpur, Arjun

    2012-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is revolutionizing the way we communicate, interact, are entertained, and organize our lives. With healthcare in general and radiology in particular becoming increasingly digital, the use of such devices in radiologic practice is inevitable. This article reviews the current status of the use of mobile devices in the clinical practice of radiology, namely in emergency teleradiology. Technical parameters such as luminance and resolution are discussed. The article also discusses the benefits of such mobility vis-à-vis the current limitations of the technologies available

  3. RADRELAY RADIOLOGICAL DATA LINK DEVICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpring, L.; Frank Heckendorn, F.

    2007-01-01

    The RadRelay effort developed small, field appropriate, portable prototype devices that allow radiological spectra to be downloaded from field radiological detectors, like the identiFINDER-U, and transmitted to land based experts. This communications capability was designed for the U. S. Coast Guard (USCG) but is also applicable to the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) personnel working in remote locations. USCG Level II personnel currently use the identiFINDER-U Hand-Held Radioisotope ID Devices (HHRIID) to detect radiological materials during specific boarding operations. These devices will detect not only radiological emissions but will also evaluate those emissions against a table of known radiological spectra. The RadRelay has been developed to significantly improve the functionality of HHRIID, by providing the capability to download radiological spectra and then transmit them using satellite or cell phone technology. This remote wireless data transfer reduces the current lengthy delay often encountered between the shipboard detection of unknown radiological material and the evaluation of that data by technical and command personnel. That delay is reduced from hours to minutes and allows the field located personnel to remain on station during the inspection and evaluation process

  4. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Emerging Technology Committee Report on Electronic Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Catherine C.; Yom, Sue S.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.; Harris, Eleanor; Price, Robert A.; Bevan, Alison; Pouliot, Jean; Konski, Andre A.; Wallner, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    The development of novel technologies for the safe and effective delivery of radiation is critical to advancing the field of radiation oncology. The Emerging Technology Committee of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology appointed a Task Group within its Evaluation Subcommittee to evaluate new electronic brachytherapy methods that are being developed for, or are already in, clinical use. The Task Group evaluated two devices, the Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy System by Xoft, Inc. (Fremont, CA), and the Intrabeam Photon Radiosurgery Device by Carl Zeiss Surgical (Oberkochen, Germany). These devices are designed to deliver electronically generated radiation, and because of their relatively low energy output, they do not fall under existing regulatory scrutiny of radioactive sources that are used for conventional radioisotope brachytherapy. This report provides a descriptive overview of the technologies, current and future projected applications, comparison of competing technologies, potential impact, and potential safety issues. The full Emerging Technology Committee report is available on the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Web site.

  5. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Emerging Technology Committee report on electronic brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Catherine C; Yom, Sue S; Podgorsak, Matthew B; Harris, Eleanor; Price, Robert A; Bevan, Alison; Pouliot, Jean; Konski, Andre A; Wallner, Paul E

    2010-03-15

    The development of novel technologies for the safe and effective delivery of radiation is critical to advancing the field of radiation oncology. The Emerging Technology Committee of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology appointed a Task Group within its Evaluation Subcommittee to evaluate new electronic brachytherapy methods that are being developed for, or are already in, clinical use. The Task Group evaluated two devices, the Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy System by Xoft, Inc. (Fremont, CA), and the Intrabeam Photon Radiosurgery Device by Carl Zeiss Surgical (Oberkochen, Germany). These devices are designed to deliver electronically generated radiation, and because of their relatively low energy output, they do not fall under existing regulatory scrutiny of radioactive sources that are used for conventional radioisotope brachytherapy. This report provides a descriptive overview of the technologies, current and future projected applications, comparison of competing technologies, potential impact, and potential safety issues. The full Emerging Technology Committee report is available on the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Web site. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Radiological response of ceramic and polymeric devices for breast brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista Nogueira, Luciana; Passos Ribeiro de Campos, Tarcisio

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the radiological visibility of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom was investigated for future applications in brachytherapy. The main goal was to determine the radiological viability of ceramic and polymeric devices in vitro by performing simple radiological diagnostic methods such as conventional X-ray analysis and mammography due to its easy access to the population. The radiological response of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom was determined using conventional X-ray, mammography and CT analysis. - Highlights: ► Radiological visibility of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom. ► The barium incorporation in the seed improves the radiological contrast. ► Radiological monitoring shows the position, orientation and degradation of devices. ► Simple radiological methods such as X-ray and mammography were used for radiological monitoring.

  7. Radiological Dispersion Devices: are we prepared?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohier, Alain [Decision Strategy Research Department (Radiation Protection Division), Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)]. E-mail: asohier@sckcen.be; Hardeman, Frank [Decision Strategy Research Department (Radiation Protection Division), Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    Already before the events of September 11th 2001 concern was raised about the spread of orphan sources and their potential use in Radiological Dispersion Devices by terrorist groups. Although most of the simulated scenarios foresee a rather limited direct health impact on the population, the affected region would suffer from the indirect consequences such as social disruption, cleanup requirements and economic costs. The nature of such a radiological attack would anyway be different compared to conventional radiological accidents, basically because it can happen anywhere at any time. Part of the response resides in a general preparedness scheme incorporating attacks with Radiological Dispersion Devices. Training of different potential intervention teams is essential. The response would consist of a prioritised list of actions adapted to the circumstances. As the psychosocial dimension of the crisis could be worse than the purely radiological one, an adapted communication strategy with the public aspect would be a key issue.

  8. Radiological Dispersion Devices: are we prepared?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohier, Alain; Hardeman, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Already before the events of September 11th 2001 concern was raised about the spread of orphan sources and their potential use in Radiological Dispersion Devices by terrorist groups. Although most of the simulated scenarios foresee a rather limited direct health impact on the population, the affected region would suffer from the indirect consequences such as social disruption, cleanup requirements and economic costs. The nature of such a radiological attack would anyway be different compared to conventional radiological accidents, basically because it can happen anywhere at any time. Part of the response resides in a general preparedness scheme incorporating attacks with Radiological Dispersion Devices. Training of different potential intervention teams is essential. The response would consist of a prioritised list of actions adapted to the circumstances. As the psychosocial dimension of the crisis could be worse than the purely radiological one, an adapted communication strategy with the public aspect would be a key issue

  9. 75 FR 68200 - Medical Devices; Radiology Devices; Reclassification of Full-Field Digital Mammography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 892 [Docket No. FDA-2008-N-0273] Medical Devices; Radiology Devices; Reclassification of Full- Field Digital... and Drugs, 21 CFR part 892 is amended as follows: PART 892--RADIOLOGY DEVICES 0 1. The authority...

  10. Active pixel as dosimetric device for interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servoli, L.; Baldaccini, F.; Biasini, M.; Checcucci, B.; Chiocchini, S.; Cicioni, R.; Conti, E.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Dipilato, A.C.; Esposito, A.; Fanó, L.; Paolucci, M.; Passeri, D.; Pentiricci, A.

    2013-01-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is a subspecialty of radiology comprehensive of all minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed using radiological devices to obtain image guidance. The interventional procedures are potentially harmful for interventional radiologists and medical staff due to the X-ray diffusion by the patient's body. The characteristic energy range of the diffused photons spans few tens of keV. In this work we will present a proposal for a new X-ray sensing element in the energy range of interest for IR procedures. The sensing element will then be assembled in a dosimeter prototype, capable of real-time measurement, packaged in a small form-factor, with wireless communication and no external power supply to be used for individual operators dosimetry for IR procedures. For the sensor, which is the heart of the system, we considered three different Active Pixel Sensors (APS). They have shown a good capability as single X-ray photon detectors, up to several tens keV photon energy. Two dosimetric quantities have been considered, the number of detected photons and the measured energy deposition. Both observables have a linear dependence with the dose, as measured by commercial dosimeters. The uncertainties in the measurement are dominated by statistic and can be pushed at ∼5% for all the sensors under test

  11. Terrorism: the threat of a radiological device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingshott, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organization building and detonating a 'dirty bomb' with a radiological component. The paper will discuss how such devices are made and how security of radiological material world wide will minimize the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the threat assessments against nuclear waste processing and storage sites, threats to nuclear plants and other sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device be detonated. (author)

  12. Center for Devices and Radiological Health Publications Index, August 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This is the first Publications Index to be published by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Previous indexes, titled 'Bureau of Radiological Health Publications Index', were published before the Center was formed in 1982 through the merger of the Bureau of Radiological Health and the Bureau of Medical Devices; the last of these indexes was published in October 1980. The 1988 edition contains records of medical device and radiological health documents authored or published by the Center from 1978 through 1986. It should not be considered all-inclusive since those documents for which bibliographic information was not available have been excluded. The Publications Index is being distributed to Center staff, state radiological health programs, and libraries on the Center's publication mailing list. The Center plans to update and publish the Index every other year to provide a convenient record of published Center documents

  13. Quality index of radiological devices: results of one year of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofani, Alessandro; Imbordino, Patrizia; Lecci, Antonio; Bonannini, Claudia; Del Corona, Alberto; Pizzi, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    The physical quality index (QI) of radiological devices summarises in a single numerical value between 0 and 1 the results of constancy tests. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the results of the use of such an index on all public radiological devices in the Livorno province over one year. The quality index was calculated for 82 radiological devices of a wide range of types by implementing its algorithm in a spreadsheet-based software for the automatic handling of quality control data. The distribution of quality index values was computed together with the associated statistical quantities. This distribution is strongly asymmetrical, with a sharp peak near the highest QI values. The mean quality index values for the different types of device show some inhomogeneity: in particular, mammography and panoramic dental radiography devices show far lower quality than other devices. In addition, our analysis has identified the parameters that most frequently do not pass the quality tests for each type of device. Finally, we sought some correlation between quality and age of the device, but this was poorly significant. The quality index proved to be a useful tool providing an overview of the physical conditions of radiological devices. By selecting adequate QI threshold values for, it also helps to decide whether a given device should be upgraded or replaced. The identification of critical parameters for each type of device may be used to improve the definition of the QI by attributing greater weights to critical parameters, so as to better address the maintenance of radiological devices.

  14. ESR paper on the proper use of mobile devices in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) have become key methods of communication, data access and data sharing for the population in the past decade. The technological capabilities of these devices have expanded very rapidly; for example, their in-built cameras have largely replaced conventional cameras. Their processing power is often sufficient to handle the large data sets of radiology studies and to manipulate images and studies directly on hand-held devices. Thus, they can be used to transmit and view radiology studies, often in locations remote from the source of the imaging data. They are not recommended for primary interpretation of radiology studies, but they facilitate sharing of studies for second opinions, viewing of studies and reports by clinicians at the bedside, etc. Other potential applications include remote participation in educational activity (e.g. webinars) and consultation of online educational content, e-books, journals and reference sources. Social-networking applications can be used for exchanging professional information and teaching. Users of mobile device must be aware of the vulnerabilities and dangers of their use, in particular regarding the potential for inappropriate sharing of confidential patient information, and must take appropriate steps to protect confidential data. • Mobile devices have revolutionized communication in the past decade, and are now ubiquitous. • Mobile devices have sufficient processing power to manipulate and display large data sets of radiological images. • Mobile devices allow transmission & sharing of radiologic studies for purposes of second opinions, bedside review of images, teaching, etc. • Mobile devices are currently not recommended as tools for primary interpretation of radiologic studies. • The use of mobile devices for image and data transmission carries risks, especially regarding confidentiality, which must be considered.

  15. Therapeutic radiology: the modalities and their effects on oral tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, R.L.; Doku, H.C.

    1971-01-01

    In recent years, therapeutic radiology has been used extensively in the management of head and neck malignancies. An increasing number of the population who have been exposed to such therapy are being seen by the dentist for dental treatment. It is recognized that radiation therapy may cause temporary and permanent alterations in tissue. A discussion of the various therapeutic modalities and their side effects on the oral tissues has been presented to aid the dental practitioner in understanding the problems and care of such patients

  16. Hospital management of mass radiological casualties: reassessing exposures from contaminated victims of an exploded radiological dispersal device (RDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Armin; Harper, Frederick Taylor; Smith, James M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the key issues in the aftermath of an exploded radiological dispersal device from a terrorist event is that of the contaminated victim and the concern among healthcare providers for the harmful exposures they may receive in treating patients, especially if the patient has not been thoroughly decontaminated. This is critically important in the event of mass casualties from a nuclear or radiological incident because of the essential rapidity of acute medical decisions and that those who have life- or limb-threatening injuries may have treatment unduly delayed by a decontamination process that may be unnecessary for protecting the health and safety of the patient or the healthcare provider. To estimate potential contamination of those exposed in a radiological dispersal device event, results were used from explosive aerosolization tests of surrogate radionuclides detonated with high explosives at the Sandia National Laboratories. Computer modeling was also used to assess radiation dose rates to surgical personnel treating patients with blast injuries who are contaminated with any of a variety of common radionuclides. It is demonstrated that exceptional but plausible cases may require special precautions by the healthcare provider, even while managing life-threatening injuries of a contaminated victim from a radiological dispersal device event.

  17. Radiological Medical Device Innovation: Approvals via the Premarket Approval Pathway From 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Comeron W; Hayman, Emily L; Finkle, Joshua H; Walter, Jessica R; Xu, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to critically assess the clinical evidence leading to radiologic medical device approvals via the premarket approval pathway from 2000 to 2015. This study used the publically available FDA premarket database for radiologic device approvals over the past 15 years (September 1, 2000, to August 31, 2015). Approval characteristics were collected for each device, and statistical analysis was performed on the data for each pivotal trial. Additionally, methodological quality of the pivotal trial was determined using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Twenty-three class III radiologic device approvals were identified, with breast imaging accounting for 16 (70%) and computer-aided detection software accounting for 9 (39%) approvals. The median premarket approval time was 475 days (range, 180-1,116). Twenty-one devices were approved on the basis of multireader, multicenter studies, one on the basis of a randomized controlled trial, and one on the basis of a preclinical technical equivalence trial. The median number of patients per pivotal trial was 201 (range, 25-3,946). Twenty-six of the 34 pivotal trials (76%) had at least one methodologic bias. Breast imaging devices had a greater number of patients per pivotal trial (P = .009) and more prospective studies. With regard to all modalities, increased time to device approval correlated with weaker trial quality (r = 0.600, P assessing diagnostic technologies. Given that radiologic devices play a key role in modern medicine, further efforts should be made to increase transparency of clinical data leading to approval. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Device for direct digitized radiology of small objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.; Favier, C.; Brebant, C.; Mogavero, R.

    1983-06-01

    A radiological device has been developed to obtain direct digitized views with a large integration time. A micro computer system with programs specially developed for the automatic materials defects evaluation is used. Some results concerning the weldings of electro-nuclear fuel pins are presented here [fr

  19. 78 FR 41937 - Joint Meeting of the Gastroenterology-Urology Panel and the Radiological Devices Panel of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0816] Joint Meeting of the Gastroenterology-Urology Panel and the Radiological Devices Panel of the Medical...: Gastroenterology-Urology Panel and Radiological Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General...

  20. Diagnostic efficacy of handheld devices for emergency radiologic consultation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, Rachel J

    2010-02-01

    Orthopedic injury and intracranial hemorrhage are commonly encountered in emergency radiology, and accurate and timely diagnosis is important. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the diagnostic accuracy of handheld computing devices is comparable to that of monitors that might be used in emergency teleconsultation.

  1. Training first responders on Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) and Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, Ken L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper will present an overview of the current training the author is presenting to First Responders (fire-fighters, emergency medical technicians, law enforcement and others) who may encounter either a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD or Dirty Bomb) or an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) as a part of their Emergency Response activities. The emphasis of the training is putting the radiological/nuclear material in perspective as compared with other Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) materials such as chemical and/or biological weapon agents. A goal of the training is to help this First Responder Community understand that under almost all conditions, they can perform their primary mission of 'putting out fires', rescuing and treating injured persons, and chasing 'bad guys' even in the presence of relatively large amount of radiological/nuclear contamination. The rare cases of high activity unshielded sources will be reviewed and explained. Current International guidance on dose 'limits' will be discussed. A discussion of the use of Time, Distance and Shielding as well as appropriate Personal Protective Clothing and how it will provide the needed protection while immediate actions take place early in an RDD/IND event, will take place. The use of appropriate radiation detection instrumentation, documented Standard Operating Procedures along with realistic training, drills and exercises are the key to a successful response to an RDD/IND event for this community of critical emergency responders. (author)

  2. Mycotic aneurysms : radiological diagnosis and therapeutic alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbano, J.; Arjonilla, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    To review mycotic aneurysms, their radiological diagnosis and therapeutic alternatives. Five men and a woman between 69 and 84 years old were diagnosed during the last 4 years with mycotic aneurysms. Three were in the aorta, one in the thoracic and two in the abdominal region; one was affecting the left primitive iliac artery, another the left popliteal artery and, in the last case, the medial cerebral artery. Hemo cultures were done on all patients. The surgical specimen was cultivated in 4. CAT was done on 5 patients, angiography on another five and Doppler ultrasound scan on two. Five patients showed positive hemo cultures and in two the surgical specimen culture was positive. The findings of the CAT were decisive in being able to suspect that the lesions were mycotic in nature. Three patients had to undergo emergency, expiring either in surgery or in postoperative care. One case was treated by means of aortic endo prosthesis, and one year later the patient remains asymptomatic. The cerebral aneurysm was embolized with metal coils and the patient remains asymptomatic three years later. The popliteal aneurysm underwent surgical intervention using an established protocol with good results. CAT is decisive in the diagnosis of mycotic aneurysms. Once detected, they must be treated without delay as their natural evolution is one of rapid expansion and rupture. Angiographies help in planning the treatment. Radiological intervention plays an important role in the treatment. (Author) 13 refs

  3. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Compliance Program Guidance Manual (FY 88). Section 4. Medical and radiological devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The FDA Compliance Program Guidance Manual provides a system for issuing and filing program plans and instructions directed to Food and Drug Administration Field operations for project implementation. Section IV provides those chapters of the Compliance Program Guidance Manual which pertain to the areas of medical and radiological devices. Some of the areas of coverage include laser and sunlamp standards inspections, compliance testing of various radiation-emitting products such as television receivers and microwave ovens, emergency response planning and policy, premarket approval and device manufacturers inspections, device problem reporting, sterilization of devices, and consumer education programs on medical and radiological devices

  4. "I Just bought my residents iPads… now what?" The integration of mobile devices into radiology resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Harprit S; Yucel, Edgar K

    2013-10-01

    This article describes how mobile technologies can improve the way we teach radiology and offers ideas to bridge the clinical gap with technology. Radiology programs across the country are purchasing iPads and other mobile devices for their residents. Many programs, however, do not have a concrete vision for how a mobile device can enhance the learning environment.

  5. 21 CFR 892.1980 - Radiologic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiologic table. 892.1980 Section 892.1980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1980 Radiologic table. (a) Identification. A radiologic...

  6. Arthroscopically assisted reduction of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation using a single double-button device: Medium-term clinical and radiological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, S-P; Payan, C; Le Hanneur, M; Loriaut, P; Boyer, P

    2018-02-01

    Double-button devices for endoscopic management of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation (ACJD) provide satisfactory short-term functional and radiological results. However, little exists in the literature regarding the long- and medium-term results of these implants, especially regarding the evolution of the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ). Satisfactory and steady long- and medium-term outcomes can be achieved in patients with acute ACJD undergoing endoscopically assisted ACJ repair using a single double-button device. A retrospective single-center study was conducted in patients with acute Rockwood III and IV ACJD treated endoscopically with a single double-button device from October 2008 to October 2010, allowing a minimum 5-year follow-up. Functional evaluation used Constant and Quick-DASH scores. Clinical evidence of dislocation recurrence was combined with bilateral Zanca views to assess coracoclavicular distance. Acromioclavicular osteoarthritis was evaluated on the Paxinos test and Zanca views. Nineteen of the 25 operated patients were seen at a mean 76.9±8.5 months' follow-up. Mean age was 34.4±8.3 years. Mean Constant and Quick-DASH scores were 96.2±5.1 and 0.9±1.6 points, respectively. Four patients had a recurrence of their initial dislocation, 3 of whom had positive Paxinos test, whereas the 15 patients without recurrence had a negative test (p=0.004). Five patients had radiological evidence of ACJ osteoarthritis: all 4 patients with recurrence and 1 without (p=0.001). Long- and medium-term radioclinical outcome of endoscopically assisted management of acute ACJD using a single double-button device seems to be satisfactory and steady over time. Recurrence of the initial dislocation appears to be related to onset of degenerative ACJ arthropathy. Therapeutic type IV-Retrospective case series. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Fiber-coupled Luminescence Dosimetry in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Radiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    2011-01-01

    . Some crystalline phosphors, such as carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) have the ability to store charge produced in the crystal during irradiation. The stored charge may later be released by fiber-guided laser light under emission of so-called optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The OSL signal......Fiber-coupled luminescence dosimetry is an emerging technology with several potentially attractive features of relevance for uses in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology: direct water equivalence (i.e. no significant perturbation of the radiation field in a water phantom or a patient), sub......-mm detector size, high dynamic range (below a mGy to several Gy), microsecond time resolution, and absence of electrical wires or other electronics in the dosimeter probe head. Fiber-coupled luminescence dosimetry systems typically consist of one or more small samples of phosphor, e.g. a mg of plastic...

  8. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Don, E-mail: lee.sangdon@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Viani, Brian [Simbol Mining Corp., Pleasanton, CA 94566 (United States); Drake, John [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); MacKinney, John [U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  9. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don; Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert; Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark; Viani, Brian; Drake, John; MacKinney, John

    2010-01-01

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  10. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) compliance program guidance manual and updates (FY 86). Section 4. Medical and radiological devices. Irregular report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The FDA Compliance Program Guidance Manual provides a system for issuing and filing program plans and instructions directed to Food and Drug Administration Field operations for project implementation. Section IV provides those chapters of the Compliance Program Guidance Manual which pertain to the areas of medical and radiological devices. Some of the areas of coverage include laser and sunlamp standards inspections, compliance testing of various radiation-emitting products such as television receivers and microwave ovens, emergency response planning and policy, premarket approval and device manufacturers inspections, device problem reporting, sterilization of devices, and consumer education programs on medical and radiological devices

  11. Mobile technology in radiology resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbage, Aiham C; Bedi, Harprit S

    2012-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that ownership of a mobile electronic device would result in more time spent learning radiology. Current trends in radiology residents' studying habits, their use of electronic and printed radiology learning resources, and how much of the funds allotted to them are being used toward printed vs electronic education tools were assessed in this study. A survey study was conducted among radiology residents across the United States from June 13 to July 5, 2011. Program directors listed in the Association of Program Directors in Radiology e-mail list server received an e-mail asking for residents to participate in an online survey. The questionnaire consisted of 12 questions and assessed the type of institution, the levels of training of the respondents, and book funds allocated to residents. It also assessed the residents' study habits, access to portable devices, and use of printed and electronic radiology resources. Radiology residents are adopters of new technologies, with 74% owning smart phones and 37% owning tablet devices. Respondents spend nearly an equal amount of time learning radiology from printed textbooks as they do from electronic resources. Eighty-one percent of respondents believe that they would spend more time learning radiology if provided with tablet devices. There is considerable use of online and electronic resources and mobile devices among the current generation of radiology residents. Benefits, such as more study time, may be obtained by radiology programs that incorporate tablet devices into the education of their residents. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanoscale architectural tuning of parylene patch devices to control therapeutic release rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierstorff, Erik; Lam, Robert; Ho, Dean

    2008-01-01

    The advent of therapeutic functionalized implant coatings has significantly impacted the medical device field by enabling prolonged device functionality for enhanced patient treatment. Incorporation of drug release from a stable, biocompatible surface is instrumental in decreasing systemic application of toxic therapeutics and increasing the lifespan of implants by the incorporation of antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. In this study, we have developed a parylene C-based device for controlled release of Doxorubicin, an anti-cancer chemotherapy and definitive read-out for preserved drug functionality, and further characterized the parylene deposition condition-dependent tunability of drug release. Drug release is controlled by the deposition of a layer of 20-200 nm thick parylene over the drug layer. This places a porous layer above the Doxorubicin, limiting drug elution based on drug accessibility to solvent and the solvent used. An increase in the thickness of the porous top layer prolongs the elution of active drug from the device from, in the conditions tested, the order of 10 min to the order of 2 d in water and from the order of 10 min to no elution in PBS. Thus, the controlled release of an anti-cancer therapeutic has been achieved via scalably fabricated, parylene C-encapsulated drug delivery devices.

  13. Medical device for applying therapeutic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokita, K.M.; Haller, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A device is described for applying therapeutic radiation from a preselected radiation source to a predetermined portion of a body comprising, in combination: a body member having: an external peripheral surface; a first end surface; and a second end surface spaced from the first end surface; the body member further comprising: at least first internal walls defining a first radiation source receiving channel means spaced a preselected distance from the peripheral surface, and having: a first portion extending from the second end surface to regions adjacent the first end surface; and a second portion extending from the first portion at the first end surface to the second end surface; and, the channel means communicating with regions external the body member at the second surface whereby the radiation source of a preselected intensity inserted at least along a preselected portion of the channel means is applied to the predetermined area of the body requiring therapeutic radiation treatment

  14. Risk perception of diagnostic and therapeutic radiological applications. Comparison of experts and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranz, L.; Macias, M.T.; Prades, A.; Sola, R.; Martinez-Arias, R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research has found many differences between experts and lay people in judgements of radiological risks. However, most of these studies were carried out on experts from nuclear power plants, regulatory bodies etc. This paper analyses the differences among several groups of 'experts' coming from the Health area and the lay people. A survey was designed to assess the perceived seriousness of seven diagnostic and therapeutic applications: conventional diagnostic radiology, computed tomography, chemotherapy, ecography examinations, radiotherapy, and diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The questionnaire was distributed to samples of experts (professionals exposed to ionizing radiations, and other health professionals), and outpatients. All samples were selected from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). The following comparisons will be presented: 1) Differences between experts' and the public; 2) differences among several groups of 'experts'; 3) within the 'expert' sample, differences between perceived seriousness as a patient and as a professional at risk; 4) within the public sample, individual differences related to some socio-demographic variables. A cross-cultural analysis of the above mentioned comparisons will also be carried out. (author)

  15. Risk perception of diagnostic and therapeutic radiological applications. Comparison of experts and the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, L. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Macias, M.T. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Prades, A.; Sola, R. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Arias, R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    Recent research has found many differences between experts and lay people in judgements of radiological risks. However, most of these studies were carried out on experts from nuclear power plants, regulatory bodies etc. This paper analyses the differences among several groups of 'experts' coming from the Health area and the lay people. A survey was designed to assess the perceived seriousness of seven diagnostic and therapeutic applications: conventional diagnostic radiology, computed tomography, chemotherapy, ecography examinations, radiotherapy, and diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The questionnaire was distributed to samples of experts (professionals exposed to ionizing radiations, and other health professionals), and outpatients. All samples were selected from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). The following comparisons will be presented: 1) Differences between experts' and the public; 2) differences among several groups of 'experts'; 3) within the 'expert' sample, differences between perceived seriousness as a patient and as a professional at risk; 4) within the public sample, individual differences related to some socio-demographic variables. A cross-cultural analysis of the above mentioned comparisons will also be carried out. (author)

  16. 21 CFR 892.1830 - Radiologic patient cradle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiologic patient cradle. 892.1830 Section 892.1830 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1830 Radiologic patient cradle. (a...

  17. Cost-effective therapeutic hypothermia treatment device for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen RH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available John J Kim,1,2 Nathan Buchbinder,1,† Simon Ammanuel,1,4,5,† Robert Kim,1,† Erika Moore,1 Neil O'Donnell,1 Jennifer K Lee,3 Ewa Kulikowicz,3 Soumyadipta Acharya,1 Robert H Allen,1,9 Ryan W Lee,6,7 Michael V Johnston4–81Department of Biomedical Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 4Kennedy Krieger Institute, 5Hugo W Moser Research Institute, 6Department of Neurology, 7Department of Pediatrics, 8Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; 9Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA†These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Despite recent advances in neonatal care and monitoring, asphyxia globally accounts for 23% of the 4 million annual deaths of newborns, and leads to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Occurring in five of 1000 live-born infants globally and even more in developing countries, HIE is a serious problem that causes death in 25%–50% of affected neonates and neurological disability to at least 25% of survivors. In order to prevent the damage caused by HIE, our invention provides an effective whole-body cooling of the neonates by utilizing evaporation and an endothermic reaction. Our device is composed of basic electronics, clay pots, sand, and urea-based instant cold pack powder. A larger clay pot, lined with nearly 5 cm of sand, contains a smaller pot, where the neonate will be placed for therapeutic treatment. When the sand is mixed with instant cold pack urea powder and wetted with water, the device can extract heat from inside to outside and maintain the inner pot at 17°C for more than 24 hours with monitoring by LED lights and thermistors

  18. Attention for pediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ming; Cheng Yongde

    2005-01-01

    Radiological interventions possess wide utilization in the diagnosis and treatment for pediatric patients. Pediatric interventional radiology is an important branch of interventional radiology and also an important branch of pediatric radiology. Pediatric interventional radiology has grown substantially over the last 30 years, radiologists closely cooperation with surgeons and other physicians providing a new horizon in the management of pediatric diseases in western countries. It includes pediatric cardiac interventional radiology, pediatric neuro-interventional radiology, pediatric vascular interventional radiology, pediatric nonvascular interventional radiology, pediatric tumor interventional radiology and others. In the United States, every children hospital which owns two hundred beds has to have special trained interventional radiologists in radiologic department installing with advanced digital subtraction angiographic equipment. Interventional therapeutic procedures and diagnostic angiography have been proceeding more and more for the congenital and acquired diseases of children. The promising results give use uprising and interventional therapy as an alternative or a replacement or supplement to surgical operation. Pediatric interventional radiology is rather underdeveloped in China with a few special pediatric interventional radiologist, lack of digital subtraction angiography equipment. Pediatric radiologists have no enough field for interventional procedures such as pediatric neuro-interventional radiology and pediatric vascular interventional radiology. In the contrary adult interventional radiologists do have better interventional jobs in China and Pediatric cardiologists also share the same trend. They perform angiocardiography for congenital heart diseases and treat congenital heart disease with interventional procedures including balloon dilation of valves and vessels, coil embolization of collaterals, patent ducts and other arterial fistulae

  19. 75 FR 384 - Event Problem Codes Web Site; Center for Devices and Radiological Health; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0576] Event Problem Codes Web Site; Center for Devices and Radiological Health; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  20. Emergency response guidance for the first 48 hours after the outdoors detonation of an explosive radiological dispersal device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Frederick Taylor; Musolino, Stephen V.

    2006-01-01

    Strategies and decisions to protect emergency responders, the public, and critical infrastructure against the effects of a radiological dispersal device detonated outdoors must be made in the planning stage, not in the early period just after an attack. This contrasts with planning for small-scale types of radiological or nuclear emergencies, or for a large-scale nuclear-power-type accident that evolves over many hours or days before radioactivity is released to the environment, such that its effects can be prospectively modeled and analyzed. By the time it is known an attack has occurred, most likely there will have been casualties, all the radioactive material will have been released, plume growth will be progressing, and there will be no time left for evaluating possible countermeasures. This paper offers guidance to planners, first responders, and senior decision makers to assist them in developing strategies for protective actions and operational procedures for the first 48 hours after an explosive radiological dispersal device has been detonated

  1. 21 CFR 892.1940 - Radiologic quality assurance instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiologic quality assurance instrument. 892.1940 Section 892.1940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1940 Radiologic quality assurance...

  2. Off label use of devices and drugs in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvavanjanja, R.C., E-mail: Rodrick.Zvavanjanja@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Odetoyinbo, T.O.; Rowlands, P.C.; Healey, A.; Abdelsalam, H.; Powell, S.; Evans, J.C.; Hughes, M.L.; Gould, D.A.; McWilliams, R.G. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    Aim: To establish how often off-label device and drug use occurs in interventional radiology (IR) in a UK tertiary referral hospital and consider the wider implications for the interventional radiologist. Materials and methods: Prospective data were collected during interventional procedures for 1 working week in a university hospital. Out-of-hours procedures and procedures outside the department were excluded. Operators were asked to record the drugs and devices used, the indication, and method of use. The instructions for use/summary of product characteristics were then studied for each device/drug used to assess if the use was on or off-label. Results: During the study period 52 cases were performed and data were available on 26 cases (50%). In 22 of the 26 cases (84%) there was evidence of off-label use of devices or drugs. Off-label use of drugs included treatment of venous malformations with Fibrovein{sup Copyright-Sign} (sodium tetradecyl sulphate), which is licensed for the treatment of varicose veins in the leg, and intra-arterial injection of heparin, which is licensed for intravenous and subcutaneous use. Off-label device use included placing vascular sheaths in the urinary tract, using angiographic catheters to guide wires in the urinary tract, using sheaths for thrombosuction, reshaping of the tip of most guidewires, and using angioplasty balloons to dislodge the arterial plug at fistula thrombectomy. Conclusion: Off-label device and drugs use is common in a UK tertiary hospital IR department and literature suggests this is common in the wider IR community. There are important clinical and legal implications for off-label use for patients and physicians.

  3. Off label use of devices and drugs in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvavanjanja, R.C.; Odetoyinbo, T.O.; Rowlands, P.C.; Healey, A.; Abdelsalam, H.; Powell, S.; Evans, J.C.; Hughes, M.L.; Gould, D.A.; McWilliams, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To establish how often off-label device and drug use occurs in interventional radiology (IR) in a UK tertiary referral hospital and consider the wider implications for the interventional radiologist. Materials and methods: Prospective data were collected during interventional procedures for 1 working week in a university hospital. Out-of-hours procedures and procedures outside the department were excluded. Operators were asked to record the drugs and devices used, the indication, and method of use. The instructions for use/summary of product characteristics were then studied for each device/drug used to assess if the use was on or off-label. Results: During the study period 52 cases were performed and data were available on 26 cases (50%). In 22 of the 26 cases (84%) there was evidence of off-label use of devices or drugs. Off-label use of drugs included treatment of venous malformations with Fibrovein © (sodium tetradecyl sulphate), which is licensed for the treatment of varicose veins in the leg, and intra-arterial injection of heparin, which is licensed for intravenous and subcutaneous use. Off-label device use included placing vascular sheaths in the urinary tract, using angiographic catheters to guide wires in the urinary tract, using sheaths for thrombosuction, reshaping of the tip of most guidewires, and using angioplasty balloons to dislodge the arterial plug at fistula thrombectomy. Conclusion: Off-label device and drugs use is common in a UK tertiary hospital IR department and literature suggests this is common in the wider IR community. There are important clinical and legal implications for off-label use for patients and physicians.

  4. Leaving patients to their own devices? Smart technology, safety and therapeutic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; Quick, Oliver

    2018-03-06

    This debate article explores how smart technologies may create a double-edged sword for patient safety and effective therapeutic relationships. Increasing utilization of health monitoring devices by patients will likely become an important aspect of self-care and preventive medicine. It may also help to enhance accurate symptom reports, diagnoses, and prompt referral to specialist care where appropriate. However, the development, marketing, and use of such technology raise significant ethical implications for therapeutic relationships and patient safety. Drawing on lessons learned from other direct-to-consumer health products such as genetic testing, this article explores how smart technology can also pose regulatory challenges and encourage overutilization of healthcare services. In order for smart technology to promote safer care and effective therapeutic encounters, the technology and its utilization must be safe. This article argues for unified regulatory guidelines and better education for both healthcare providers and patients regarding the benefits and risks of these devices.

  5. Radiological attacks and accidents. Medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuta, Hidenari

    2007-01-01

    Probability of the occurrence of radiological attacks appears to be elevated after the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11 in 2001. There are a lot of scenarios of radiological attack: simple radiological device, radiological disperse device (RDD or dirty bomb), attacks against nuclear reactor, improvised nuclear device, and nuclear weapons. Of these, RDD attack is the most probable scenario, because it can be easily made and can generate enormous psychological and economic damages. Radiological incidents are occurring to and fro in the world, including several cases of theft to nuclear facilities and unsuccessful terrorist attacks against them. Recently, a former Russian spy has allegedly been killed using polonium-210. In addition, serious radiological accidents have occurred in Chernobyl, Goiania, and Tokai-mura. Planning, preparation, education, and training exercise appear to be essential factors to cope with radiological attacks and accidents effectively without feeling much anxiety. Triage and psychological first aid are prerequisite to manage and provide effective medial care for mass casualties without inducing panic. (author)

  6. Drug Vaping: From the Dangers of Misuse to New Therapeutic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, V

    2016-12-16

    Users of e-cigarettes are unwitting volunteers participating in a worldwide epidemiological study. Because of the obvious benefits of e-cigarettes compared with traditional cigarette smoking, these electronic devices have been introduced all around the world to support tobacco smoking cessation. Same potential harm reduction could be considered by cannabis vaping for marijuana smokers. However, the toxicities of liquids and aerosols remain under investigation because although the use of e-cigarettes is likely to be less harmful than traditional cigarette smoking, trace levels of contaminants have been identified. Simultaneously, other electronic devices, such as e-vaporisers, e-hookahs or e-pipes, have been developed and commercialised. Consequently, misuse of electronic devices has increased, and experimentation has been documented on Internet web fora. Although legal and illegal drugs are currently consumed with these e-devices, no scientific papers are available to support the observations reported by numerous media and web fora. Moreover, building on illegal drug vaping and vaporisation with e-devices (vaping misuse), legal drug vaping (an alternative use of vaping) could present therapeutic benefits, as occurs with medical cannabis vaporisation with table vaporisers. This review seeks to synthesise the problems of e-cigarette and liquid refill toxicity in order to introduce the dangers of illegal and legal drugs consumed using vaping and vaporisation for recreational purposes, and finally, to present the potential therapeutic benefits of vaping as a new administration route for legal drugs.

  7. Drug Vaping: From the Dangers of Misuse to New Therapeutic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Varlet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Users of e-cigarettes are unwitting volunteers participating in a worldwide epidemiological study. Because of the obvious benefits of e-cigarettes compared with traditional cigarette smoking, these electronic devices have been introduced all around the world to support tobacco smoking cessation. Same potential harm reduction could be considered by cannabis vaping for marijuana smokers. However, the toxicities of liquids and aerosols remain under investigation because although the use of e-cigarettes is likely to be less harmful than traditional cigarette smoking, trace levels of contaminants have been identified. Simultaneously, other electronic devices, such as e-vaporisers, e-hookahs or e-pipes, have been developed and commercialised. Consequently, misuse of electronic devices has increased, and experimentation has been documented on Internet web fora. Although legal and illegal drugs are currently consumed with these e-devices, no scientific papers are available to support the observations reported by numerous media and web fora. Moreover, building on illegal drug vaping and vaporisation with e-devices (vaping misuse, legal drug vaping (an alternative use of vaping could present therapeutic benefits, as occurs with medical cannabis vaporisation with table vaporisers. This review seeks to synthesise the problems of e-cigarette and liquid refill toxicity in order to introduce the dangers of illegal and legal drugs consumed using vaping and vaporisation for recreational purposes, and finally, to present the potential therapeutic benefits of vaping as a new administration route for legal drugs.

  8. StarClose Vascular Closure Device: Prospective Study on 222 Deployments in an Interventional Radiology Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, Atique; Carter, Ranjana M. S.; Phillips-Hughes, Jane; Boardman, Philip; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    The StarClose device (Abbott Vascular Devices; Abbott Laboratories, Redwood City, CA) utilizes an externally placed Nitinol clip to achieve arterial closure following femoral artery puncture. The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy and complications of the StarClose device in patients undergoing interventional radiological procedures. Preprocedural clotting status, pulse and blood pressure, severity of vessel calcification, sheath size, and time to deployment were recorded. Postdeployment complications immediately postprocedure, at 1 h, at 2 h, and at 1 week were recorded. A duplex scan was performed in the first 10 patients to assess any immediate vascular complications. Deployments were successful in 96% achieving immediate hemostasis. Mean deployment time was 48 s. There were no major complications. The StarClose device was found to have a high technical and clinical efficacy

  9. Synopsis of History of American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 1958-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montana, Gustavo S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a synopsis of the history of the association of radiation oncologists in the United States, currently known as the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), with the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the organization. Methods and Materials: The history of ASTRO, from its beginning as the American Club of Therapeutic Radiologists, is the subject of a book that is to be released with the occasion of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Society in 2008. This book was prepared by members of ASTRO's History Committee and History Working Subcommittee. The source material for the book was the archives of the Society and recorded interviews, conducted by members of the subcommittee, of members of the Society and of the past and present Society staff. The book was also based on previously published material. This article used the source material used for the Society anniversary book. Results: This synopsis of the history of the Society will provide a source of reference for anyone interested in the history of the Society from its foundation in 1958 to the present, 2008

  10. Induction, maintenance, and reversal of therapeutic hypothermia with an esophageal heat transfer device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulstad, Erik; Metzger, Anja K; Courtney, D Mark; Rees, Jennifer; Shanley, Patrick; Matsuura, Timothy; McKnite, Scott; Lurie, Keith

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate a novel esophageal heat transfer device for use in inducing, maintaining, and reversing hypothermia. We hypothesized that this device could successfully induce, maintain (within a 1 °C range of goal temperature), and reverse, mild therapeutic hypothermia in a large animal model over a 30-h treatment protocol. Five female Yorkshire swine, weighing a mean of 65 kg (range 61-70) kg each, were anesthetized with inhalational isoflurane via endotracheal intubation and instrumented. The esophageal device was connected to an external chiller and then placed into the esophagus and connected to wall suction. Reduction to goal temperature was achieved by setting the chiller to cooling mode, and a 24h cooling protocol was completed before rewarming and recovering the animals. Histopathologic analysis was scheduled for 3-14 days after protocol completion. Average baseline temperature for the 5 animals was 38.6 °C (range 38.1-39.2 °C). All swine were cooled successfully, with average rate of temperature decrease of 1.3 °C/h (range 1.1-1.9) °C/h. Standard deviation from goal temperature averaged 0.2 °C throughout the steady-state maintenance phase, and no treatment for shivering was necessary during the protocol. Histopathology of esophageal tissue showed no adverse effects from the device. A new esophageal heat transfer device successfully and safely induced, maintained, and reversed therapeutic hypothermia in large swine. Goal temperature was maintained within a narrow range, and thermogenic shivering did not occur. These findings suggest a useful new modality to induce therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. General-purpose radiological examination device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, J

    1978-03-15

    Equipment is described suitable for all radiological examinations using x-ray and neuroradiological diagnostic machines. The equipment consists of a gimbal suspension supporting a base plate and an imaging system, a gantry on which a neurological seat is pivoted capable of isocentrically positioning the patient's head.

  12. An assessment of the terrorist threat to use a nuclear or radiological device in an attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingshott, B.F. [Grand Valley State University, 275C DeVos Center, 401 West Fulton Street, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 (United States)]. E-mail: kingshob@gvsu.edu

    2006-07-01

    This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organisation acquiring nuclear material to build weapons and how security of radiological material world wide will minimise the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the need to improve security at nuclear waste processing and storage sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device containing nuclear material be detonated. (author)

  13. Comparative Study on Radiological Impact Due To Direct Exposure to a Radiological Dispersal Device Using A Sealed Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most serious terrorist threats implies radiological dispersal devices (RDDs), the so-called dirty bombs, that combine a conventional explosive surrounded by an inflammatory material (like thermit) with radioactive material. The paper objective is to evaluate the radiological impact due to direct exposure to a RDD using a sealed radiation source (used for medical and industrial applications) as radioactive material. The simulations were performed for 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir radiation sources. In order to model the contamination potential level and radiation exposure due to radioactive material spreading from RDD, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's HOTSPOT 2.07 computer code was used. The worst case scenario has been considered, calculations being performed for two radioactive material dispersion models, namely General radioactive Plume and General Explosion. Following parameters evolution with distance from the radiation source was investigated: total effective dose equivalent, time-integrated air concentration, ground surface deposition and ground shine dose rates. Comparisons between considered radiation sources and radioactive material dispersion models have been performed. The most drastic effects on population and the environment characterize 60Co sealed radiation source use in RDD.

  14. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events.

  15. Features and limitations of mobile tablet devices for viewing radiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, J H

    2015-03-01

    Mobile radiological image display systems are becoming increasingly common, necessitating a comparison of the features of these systems, specifically the operating system employed, connection to stationary PACS, data security and rang of image display and image analysis functions. In the fall of 2013, a total of 17 PACS suppliers were surveyed regarding the technical features of 18 mobile radiological image display systems using a standardized questionnaire. The study also examined to what extent the technical specifications of the mobile image display systems satisfy the provisions of the Germany Medical Devices Act as well as the provisions of the German X-ray ordinance (RöV). There are clear differences in terms of how the mobile systems connected to the stationary PACS. Web-based solutions allow the mobile image display systems to function independently of their operating systems. The examined systems differed very little in terms of image display and image analysis functions. Mobile image display systems complement stationary PACS and can be used to view images. The impacts of the new quality assurance guidelines (QS-RL) as well as the upcoming new standard DIN 6868 - 157 on the acceptance testing of mobile image display units for the purpose of image evaluation are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Vascular Closure Devices in Interventional Radiology Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rafiuddin, E-mail: rafiuddin.patel@ouh.nhs.uk [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Muller-Hulsbeck, Stefan, E-mail: muehue@diako.de [Diakonissen Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology/Neuroradiology (Germany); Morgan, Robert, E-mail: robert.morgan@stgeorges.nhs.uk [St George’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Uberoi, Raman, E-mail: raman.uberoi@orh.nhs.uk [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Manual compression (MC) is a well-established technique for haemostasis following percutaneous arterial intervention. However, MC is labour and time intensive with potential limitations, particularly for patients who are coagulopathic, unable to comply with bed rest or obese and when large sheaths or anti-coagulants are used. There are a variety of vascular closure devices (VCDs) available to overcome these limitations. This review gives an overview of current VCDs, their mechanism of action, individual strengths and weaknesses, evidence base and utility in interventional radiology (IR) practice. The majority of the published evidence on VCDs is derived from patients undergoing cardiac interventions, which should be borne in mind when considering the applicability and transfer of this data for general IR practice. Overall, the evidence suggests that most VCDs are effective in achieving haemostasis with a similar rate of complications to MC although the complication profile associated with VCDs is distinct to that of MC. There is insufficient evidence to comparatively analyse the different types of VCDs currently available or reliably judge their cost-effectiveness. The interventional radiologist should have a thorough understanding of the available techniques for haemostasis and be able to identify and utilise the most appropriate strategy and closure technique for the individual patient.

  17. How Secure Is Your Radiology Department? Mapping Digital Radiology Adoption and Security Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Mark; Pianykh, Oleg S

    2016-04-01

    Despite the long history of digital radiology, one of its most critical aspects--information security--still remains extremely underdeveloped and poorly standardized. To study the current state of radiology security, we explored the worldwide security of medical image archives. Using the DICOM data-transmitting standard, we implemented a highly parallel application to scan the entire World Wide Web of networked computers and devices, locating open and unprotected radiology servers. We used only legal and radiology-compliant tools. Our security-probing application initiated a standard DICOM handshake to remote computer or device addresses, and then assessed their security posture on the basis of handshake replies. The scan discovered a total of 2774 unprotected radiology or DICOM servers worldwide. Of those, 719 were fully open to patient data communications. Geolocation was used to analyze and rank our findings according to country utilization. As a result, we built maps and world ranking of clinical security, suggesting that even the most radiology-advanced countries have hospitals with serious security gaps. Despite more than two decades of active development and implementation, our radiology data still remains insecure. The results provided should be applied to raise awareness and begin an earnest dialogue toward elimination of the problem. The application we designed and the novel scanning approach we developed can be used to identify security breaches and to eliminate them before they are compromised.

  18. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. The CIRSE registry of closure devices

  19. Outpatient invasive radiologic procedures - Diagnostic and therapeutic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a ''how-to'' book for radiologists who are planning to, or considering whether to establish outpatient practice in response to DRGs. It provides practical, expert advice on both the administrative and clinical sides of outpatient radiology. It focuses on the essentials of clinical practice in the outpatient setting - and how it differs from inpatient practice

  20. Educational course in emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velkova, K.; Stoeva, M.; Cvetkova, S.; Hilendarov, A.; Petrova, A.; Stefanov, P.; Simova, E.; Georgieva, V.; Sirakov, N.

    2012-01-01

    Emergency radiology is the part of radiology primarily focused on acute diagnosing conditions in ER patients. This advanced area of radiology improves the quality of care and treatment of patients and of the emergency medicine as a whole. The educational course in Emergency (ER) Radiology is available for medical students in their 8th and 9th semester. The main objective of the ER course is to obtain knowledge about the indications, possibilities and diagnostic value of the contemporary imaging methods in ER cases. Therapeutic methods under imaging control are also covered by the course. The curriculum of the course consists of 6 lectures and 12 practical classes. (authors)

  1. Main radiation protection actions for medical personnel as primary responders front of an event with radiological dispersive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, Hildanielle Ramos

    2015-01-01

    After the terrorist attack in New York, USA, in 2001, there was a worldwide concern about possible attacks using radioactive material in conventional detonators, called as Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb'. Several studies have been and are being made to form a global knowledge about this type of event. As until now, fortunately, there has not been an event with RDD, the Goiania Radiological Accident in Brazil, 1987, is used as a reference for decision-making. Several teams with technical experts should act in an event with RDD, but the medical staffs who respond quickly to the event must be properly protected from the harmful effects of radiation. Based on the radiological protection experts performance during the Goiania accident and the knowledge from lessons learned of many radiological accidents worldwide, this work presents an adaptation of the radiation protection actions for an event with RDD that helps a medical team as primary responders. The following aspects are presented: the problem of radioactive contamination from the explosion of the device in underground environment, the actions of the first responders and evaluation of health radiation effects. This work was based on specialized articles and papers about radiological accidents and RDD; as well as personal communication and academic information of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. The radiation protection actions, adapted to a terrorist attack event with RDD, have as a scenario a subway station in the capital. The main results are: the use of the basic radiation protection principle of time because there is no condition to take care of a patient keeping distance or using a shielding; the use of full appropriate protection cloths for contaminating materials ensuring the physical safety of professionals, and the medical team monitoring at the end of a medical procedure, checking for surface contamination. The main conclusion is that all medical actions

  2. Temperature control during therapeutic hypothermia for newborn encephalopathy using different Blanketrol devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptook, Abbot R; Kilbride, Howard; Shepherd, Edward; McDonald, Scott A; Shankaran, Seetha; Truog, William; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2014-12-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia improves the survival and neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with newborn encephalopathy of a hypoxic-ischemic origin. The NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) Whole Body Cooling trial used the Cincinnati Sub-Zero Blanketrol II to achieve therapeutic hypothermia. The Blanketrol III is now available and provides additional cooling modes that may result in better temperature control. This report is a retrospective comparison of infants undergoing hypothermia using two different cooling modes of the Blanketrol device. Infants from the NRN trial were cooled with the Blanketrol II using the Automatic control mode (B2 cohort) and were compared with infants from two new NRN centers that adopted the NRN protocol and used the Blanketrol III in a gradient mode (B3 cohort). The primary outcome was the percent time the esophageal temperature stayed between 33°C and 34°C (target 33.5°C) during maintenance of hypothermia. Cohorts had similar birth weight, gestational age, and level of encephalopathy at the initiation of therapy. Baseline esophageal temperature differed between groups (36.6°C ± 1.0°C for B2 vs. 33.9°C ± 1.2°C for B3, p<0.0001) reflecting the practice of passive cooling during transport prior to initiation of active device cooling in the B3 cohort. This difference prevented comparison of temperatures during induction of hypothermia. During maintenance of hypothermia the mean and standard deviation of the percent time between 33°C and 34°C was similar for B2 compared to B3 cohorts (94.8% ± 0.1% vs. 95.8% ± 0.1%, respectively). Both the automatic and gradient control modes of the Blanketrol devices appear comparable in maintaining esophageal temperature within the target range during maintenance of therapeutic hypothermia.

  3. Minutes of the 45. meeting of the American society of therapeutic radiology and oncology (Astro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racadot, S.; Mazeron, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The forty fifth meeting of the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) held at the center of congress in Salt Lake city in october 2003. 542 scientific works have been presented, whom 221 orally. Escalation of radiation doses in prostate cancers have been studied. Fractionation and hormones therapy in prostate cancers are reported. The bladder cancers made the object of information, the bronchi cancer ( non at small cells and at small cells) have been analysed. Cancers of the ORL sphere, mammary gland and brain metastases were presented. The radiotherapy as a palliative treatment of bone metastases made the object of a report. The receptors of the epidermoid growth factor has been shown as an important factor to predict the tumor response to irradiation. (N.C.)

  4. Assessment of radiological protection systems among diagnostic radiology facilities in North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Thokchom Dewan; Jayaraman, T; Arunkumar Sharma, B

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to assess the adequacy level of radiological protection systems available in the diagnostic radiology facilities located in three capital cities of North East (NE) India. It further attempts to understand, using a multi-disciplinary approach, how the safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology framed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to achieve adequate radiological protection in facilities, have been perceived, conceptualized, and applied accordingly in these facilities. About 30 diagnostic radiology facilities were randomly selected from three capitals of states in NE India; namely Imphal (Manipur), Shillong (Meghalaya) and Guwahati (Assam). A semi-structured questionnaire developed based on a multi-disciplinary approach was used for this study. It was observed that radiological practices undertaken in these facilities were not exactly in line with safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology of the AERB and the IAEA. About 50% of the facilities had registered/licensed x-ray equipment with the AERB. More than 80% of the workers did not use radiation protective devices, although these devices were available in the facilities. About 85% of facilities had no institutional risk management system. About 70% of the facilities did not carry out periodic quality assurance testing of their x-ray equipment or surveys of radiation leakage around the x-ray room, and did not display radiation safety indicators in the x-ray rooms. Workers in these facilities exhibited low risk perception about the risks associated with these practices. The majority of diagnostic radiology facilities in NE India did not comply with the radiological safety codes/standards framed by the AERB and IAEA. The study found inadequate levels of radiological protection systems in the majority of facilities. This study suggests a need to establish firm measures that comply with the radiological safety codes/standards of the

  5. Characterization of X-ray fields at the center for devices and radiological health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerra, F. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This talk summarizes the process undertaken by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) for establishing reference x-ray fields in its accredited calibration laboratory. The main considerations and their effects on the calibration parameters are discussed. The characterization of fields may be broken down into two parts: (1) the initial setup of the calibration beam spectra and (2) the ongoing measurements and controls which ensure consistency of the reference fields. The methods employed by CDRH for both these stages and underlying considerations are presented. Uncertainties associated with the various parameters are discussed. Finally, the laboratory`s performance, as evidenced by ongoing measurement quality assurance results, is reported.

  6. The use of models to help in the decision making process related to response after an RDD (Radiological dispersion device) event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Yves, Thalis Leon de Avila; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Maia, Arlei; Andrade, Edson Ramos de

    2011-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the assessment of radiological impacts for the public and the environment due to radionuclides being scattered by a radiological malevolent event has been a central focus. Models and computational codes have been developed and hypothetical scenarios have been formulated for establishing priority of countermeasures and protective actions; determining of generic operational guidelines; and assessment of risks for exposure population. In this study, a likely scenario was considered for evaluation of radiation exposures after a hypothetical radiological explosion of a 137 Cs device event in an urban environment. Joining to that, the main goal of this study is evaluating the usefulness of the sequential use of two codes for assessment of radiological consequence, and supporting decision making related to a RDD. A summary of the approaches of the two different codes, of their key inputs and outputs are presented. (author)

  7. Evidence-based radiology: a new approach to evaluate the clinical practice of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, S.; Felder-Puig, R.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last several years, the concept and methodology of evidence-based medicine (EBM) have received significant attention in the scientific community. However, compared to therapeutic medical disciplines, EBM-based radiological publications are still underrepresented. This article summarizes the principles of EBM and discusses the possibilities of their application in radiology. The presented topics include the critical appraisal of studies on the basis on EBM principles, the explanation of EBM-relevant statistical outcome parameters (e.g., ''likelihood ratio'' for diagnostic and ''number needed to treat'' for interventional procedures), as well as the problems facing evidence-based radiology. Evidence-based evaluation of radiological procedures does not only address aspects of cost-effectiveness, but is also particularly helpful in identifying patient-specific usefulness. Therefore it should become an integral part of radiologist training. (orig.)

  8. Complementary roles of interventional radiology and therapeutic endoscopy in gastroenterology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, David M; Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    radiology have resulted in the paradigm shift in the management of these conditions. In this paper, we discuss the patient's work up, indications, and complementary roles of endoscopic and angiographic management in the settings of gastrointestinal bleeding, enteral feeding, cecostomy tube placement...... and luminal strictures. These conditions often require multidisciplinary approaches involving a team of interventional radiologists, gastroenterologists and surgeons. Further, the authors also aim to describe how the fields of interventional radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are overlapping...

  9. The Swiss disaster management plan for coping with the aftermath of radiological dispersal devices - ''dirty bomb'' operational concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffel, F.; Blaettler, M.; Leonardi, A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the Swiss Federal Commission for NRBC Protection released a disaster management plan for coping with the aftermath of radiological dispersal devices. This paper summarises the basic concept and outlines the relevant bodies and agencies as well as their responsibilities. It also sets out the strategy to monitor radioactive contamination and the measures to prevent public radiation exposure. (orig.)

  10. Role of interventional radiology in the management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Raja S; Choi, Hyung Won; Mouser, Hans C; Narsinh, Kazim H; McCammack, Kevin C; Treesit, Tharintorn; Kinney, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) can lead to significant morbidity and mortality without appropriate treatment. There are numerous causes of acute GIB including but not limited to infection, vascular anomalies, inflammatory diseases, trauma, and malignancy. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of GIB depends on its location, severity, and etiology. The role of interventional radiology becomes vital in patients whose GIB remains resistant to medical and endoscopic treatment. Radiology offers diagnostic imaging studies and endovascular therapeutic interventions that can be performed promptly and effectively with successful outcomes. Computed tomography angiography and nuclear scintigraphy can localize the source of bleeding and provide essential information for the interventional radiologist to guide therapeutic management with endovascular angiography and transcatheter embolization. This review article provides insight into the essential role of Interventional Radiology in the management of acute GIB. PMID:24778770

  11. On-field evaluation of operator lens protective devices in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strocchi, S.; Chiaravalli, A.; Veronese, I.; Novario, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recent publication of the Euratom Directive 2013/59, adopting the reduction of eye lens dose limits from 150 to 20 mSv y"-"1, calls for the development of new tools and methodologies for evaluating the eye lens dose absorbed by the medical staff involved in interventional radiology practices. Moreover, the effectiveness of the protective devices, like leaded glasses, which can be employed for radiation protection purposes, must be tested under typical exposure scenarios. In this work, eye lens dose measurements were carried out on an anthropomorphic phantom simulating a physician bound to perform standard interventional neuroradiology angiographic procedures. The correlation between eye lens doses, in terms of Hp(0.07), and the equivalent dose [again in terms of Hp(0.07)] monthly measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters placed above the lead apron at the chest level was studied, in the presence and in the absence of different types of leaded glasses. (authors)

  12. Design and Development of a Bilateral Therapeutic Hand Device for Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhlaquor Rahman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The major cause of disability is stroke. It is the second highest cause of death after coronary heart disease in Australia. In this paper, a post stroke therapeutic device has been designed and developed for hand motor function rehabilitation that a stroke survivor can use for bilateral movement practice. A prototype of the device was fabricated that can fully flex and extend metacarpophalangeal (MCP, proximal interphalangeal (PIP and distal interphalangeal (DIP joints of the fingers, and interphalangeal (IP, metacarpophalangeal (MCP and trapeziometacarpal (IM joints of the thumb of the left hand (impaired hand, based on movements of the right hand's (healthy hand fingers. Out of 21 degrees of freedom (DOFs of hand fingers, the prototype of the hand exoskeleton allowed fifteen degrees of freedom (DOFs, with three degrees of freedom (DOFs for each finger and three degrees of freedom (DOFs for the thumb. In addition, testing of the device on a healthy subject was conducted to validate the design requirements.

  13. Radiological assessement of Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, F.; Palladino, M.; Stella, P.; Barbi, E.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-eight consecutive cases of patients affected by Crohn's disease, with ileum (23/58), colon (10/58) and ileo-colic (25/58) involvement were studied. A good overall sensitivity was reached by the radiological procedures employed (barium meal, barium enema, enterclysis). Enterclysis is proposed as a second-step method for the study of ileum involvement, because it provides a quite precise assessement of disease stage and extent. Some criteria for a rational use of current radiological procedures in follow-up of both surgically and medically treated patients are proposed. Moreover it is suggested that better coordination of anatomo-radiological and clinical aspects could improve the therapeutic approach and prognostic judgement in such cases

  14. Health surveillance of radiological work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauw, H.; Vliet, J.V.D.; Zuidema, H.

    1988-01-01

    Shielding x-ray devices and issuing film badges to radiological workers in 1936 can be considered the start of radiological protection in the Philips enterprises in the Netherlands. Shielding and equipment were constantly improved based upon the dosimetry results of the filmbadges. The problem of radioactive waste led to the foundation of a central Philips committee for radiological protection in 1956, which in 1960 also issued an internal license system in order to regulate the proper precautions to be taken : workplace design and layout, technological provisions and working procedures. An evaluation of all radiological work in 1971 learnt that a stricter health surveillance program was needed to follow up the precautions issued by the license. On one hand a health surveillance program was established and on the other hand all types of radiological work were classified. In this way an obligatory and optimal health surveillance program was issued for each type of radiological work

  15. Orthopedic radiology in the postoperative patient (practical orthopedic radiology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, B.N.; Gelman, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    This course examines various aspects of the radiologic examination of postoperative orthopedic patients. The operative indications, pertinent aspects of surgical technique, expected postoperative radiographic appearances, and radiographic findings indicating postoperative complications are discussed. The evaluation of total joint replacement surgery, spinal surgery, lower extremity procedures, and failed orthopedic devices and appliances are covered

  16. A fast and simple approach for the estimation of a radiological source from localised measurements after the explosion of a radiological dispersal device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urso, L.; Kaiser, J.C.; Woda, C.; Helebrant, J.; Hulka, J.; Kuca, P.; Prouza, Z.

    2014-01-01

    After an explosion of a radiological dispersal device, decision-makers need to implement countermeasures as soon as possible to minimise the radiation-induced risks to the population. In this work, the authors present a tool, which can help providing information about the approximate size of source term and radioactive contamination based on a Gaussian Plume model with the use of available measurements for liquid or aerosolised radioactivity. For two-field tests, the source term and spatial distribution of deposited radioactivity are estimated. A sensitivity analysis of the dependence on deposition velocity is carried out. In case of weak winds, a diffusive process along the wind direction is retained in the model. (authors)

  17. Standard practice for radiological examination using digital detector arrays

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice establishes the minimum requirements for radiological examination for metallic and nonmetallic material using a digital detector array (DDA) system. 1.2 The requirements in this practice are intended to control the quality of radiologic images and are not intended to establish acceptance criteria for parts or materials. 1.3 This practice covers the radiologic examination with DDAs including DDAs described in Practice E2597 such as a device that contains a photoconductor attached to a Thin Film Transistor (TFT) read out structure, a device that has a phosphor coupled directly to an amorphous silicon read-out structure, and devices where a phosphor is coupled to a CMOS (Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) array, a Linear Detector Array (LDA) or a CCD (charge coupled device) crystalline silicon read-out structure. 1.4 The DDA shall be selected for an NDT application based on knowledge of the technology described in Guide , and of the selected DDA properties provided by the manufactu...

  18. Pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.A. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography has made possible the excellent and basic work having to do with the characteristics of the trachea, its caliber, shape, and length in children. Another group of articles has to do with interventional pediatric radiology. This year there were a number of articles of which only a sample is included, dealing with therapeutic procedures involving drainage of abscesses, angioplasty, nephrostomy, therapeutic embolization, and the removal of esophageal foreign bodies. Obviously, there is no reason to think that techniques developed for the adult may not be applicable to the infant or child; also, there is no reason to believe that processes peculiar to the child should not be amenable to intervention, for instance, use of embolization of hepatic hemangioma and transluminal balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary valvular stenosis. Among the reports and reviews, the author would add that sonography remains a basic imaging technique in pediatric radiology and each year its application broadens. For example, there is an excellent article having to do with sonography of the neonatal and infant hip and evaluation of the inferior vena cava and the gallbladder. Nuclear medicine continues to play a significant role in diagnosis, which is featured in two articles concerned with problems of the hip

  19. Radiation Detection System for Prevention of Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Ho-Sik; Jang, Sung-Sun; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Jung-Soo

    2007-01-01

    After the September 11 terrorist attack, the threat of a potential for a radiological or nuclear terrorist attack became more apparent. The threats relating to radiological or nuclear materials include a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD), an Improved Nuclear Device (IND) or a State Nuclear Device (such as a Soviet manufactured suitcase nuclear weapon). For more effective countermeasures against the disaster, multilayer protection concept - prevention of smuggling of radioactive or nuclear material into our country through seaports or airports, detection and prevention of the threat materials in transit on a road, and prevention of their entry into a target building - is recommended. Due to different surrounding circumstances of where detection system is deployed, different types of radiation detection systems are required. There have been no studies on characteristics of detection equipment required under Korean specific conditions. This paper provides information on technical requirements of radiation detection system to achieve multi-layer countermeasures for the purpose of protecting the public and environment against radiological and nuclear terrorism

  20. Ceramic and polymeric devices for breast brachytherapy - Mammographic and CT response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Luciana B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2009-01-01

    The present research investigates the radiological visibility of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom (in vitro) for future applications in brachytherapy treatments. The main research goal is to investigate the viability of monitoring ceramic and polymeric devices, in vitro based on simple methods of radiological diagnostic, maintaining the easiest access to the population, represented by the conventional X-ray and mammography. The methodology involves the processing of ceramic devices constituted by bioglasses of Sm, SmBa, Ho, HoBa and the production of polymeric devices, such as polymeric membranes incorporating Ho e HoBa. Contrast agent of Barium was introduced in the syntheses of those devices to improve the radiological visibility in breast equivalent-tissue (TE) phantom. The breast phantom is constituted of glandular, adipose and skin TE, reproducing a 5 cm compressed real breast. In the compressed breast phantom, all types of ceramic and polymeric devices were implanted side by side. Radiological images were generated through X-ray equipment, mammography and computerized tomography (TC), for the samples implanted in the compressed breast phantom. The results show that SmBa and HoBa seeds on breast phantom presented suitable radiological visibility, on all the radiological diagnostic methods. However, the X-rays radiological visibility of Sm seeds without contrast was discreet. On mammography and TC images, it was not possible to identify those seeds, because the same ones were degraded after two months immersed in the glandular TE, after placed on the phantom. The Ho seeds were identified on all radiological diagnostic images, although non contrast agent in its constitution was added. However, the holmium polymeric membranes in direct contact with TE did not show Xray radiological visibility. However, the polymeric membranes of HoBa in the same conditions presented efficient X-rays radiological response. For mammography and TC methods

  1. Surgical requirements for radiological diagnostics of liver pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenberger, T.

    2004-01-01

    Radiology is an essential preoperative tool for a liver surgeon to plan extent of resection and potential difficulties during liver surgery. Primary goal in defining liver pathologies is a careful patients' history, a clinical evaluation and reviewing at least one radiological film one could acquire. Don't rely on written reports that may direct you in a useless track. This overview tries to address the essential radiological requests of a surgeon in defining liver tumors ethiology and best optional treatment. Major advances in radiologic diagnostics led to an improvement in the adequate staging of a given liver pathology. Therefore we are nowadays able to inform our patients about possible treatment options without leaving a big gap to possible intra-operative findings which may alter the therapy. Surgical exploration to define therapeutic strategies becomes fundamental only in a minority of patients with unclear preoperative imaging studies. Interdisciplinary groups should define future strategies in a patient with a given liver pathology. Specialisation has defined the hepatobiliary surgeon which should be consulted in case of a liver or biliary tumor to guide possible therapeutic treatment options. (orig.) [de

  2. Preventing radiological threat in the Republic of Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabulov, I.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Azerbaijan is a developing and transit country in the Caucasus, connecting East and West. In addition, Azerbaijan is neighboring countries with pronounced political instability, some of which have extensive nuclear infrastructure or try to develop nuclear infrastructure. Furthermore, in the recent past fundamentalist religious terrorism has taken roots in some of these countries. Therefore, in spite of the fact that the Republic of Azerbaijan has no nuclear facilities or nuclear materials in its own territory, it could be interesting for terrorist groups trying to develop a crude radiological dispersal device using radioactive sources that are widely used in everyday life especially in such areas as oil industry, medicine, agriculture and scientific researches. The issues of reduction and prevention of both radiological and nuclear terrorism threat are one of the main global challenges around the world. The Republic of Azerbaijan is a part of world community and so we are concerned that radioactive sources used for peaceful applications could be stolen by the terrorist groups and used in the development of radiological dispersal devices sometimes referred to as a 'dirty bomb'. It is obvious that using highly radioactive materials in radiological dispersal devices could be very disruptive to society, causing panic, environmental contamination, and large financial losses. One of the ways for reduction and prevention of radiological threat for the countries like Azerbaijan with underdeveloped nuclear security and radiation safety infrastructure is closely participation in the international cooperation programs. As an example of such cooperation, I would like to present the United States Department of Energy's International Radiological Threat Reduction (IRTR) Program. Good progress has made in the field of radiological security within the framework of this program that was started 2003. Actually, in comparison with any IAEA programs, the progress reached by

  3. Radiological terrorism and Australia's response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, D.

    2003-01-01

    A terrorist attack in Australia involving dispersal of radioactive material is different from conventional terrorist attacks involving explosives. The trauma experienced by victims during an explosive incident includes cuts, broken limbs, burns and shock. When an explosive device involving radioactive materials is involved, there are a number of additional characteristics including the contamination of victims and the surrounding area and the potential requirement for ongoing monitoring and decontamination. Response actions may require additional complex emergency response measures including immediate protective actions to protect those potentially exposed to contamination, mass casualty care, and public and mental health. There are concerns that terrorist organizations are showing increasing interest in acquiring radiological material that could be used with explosive. A dirty bomb or technically known as a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a device designed to spread radioactive contamination over a wide area and pose a health and safety threat to those within the contaminated area. The radioactive material could be in the form of a large chunk of material, fine powder, a liquid mist, or a gas. The material may also be spread in other ways, such as by simply emptying a container over the desired area. As RDD's do not require large amounts of explosives, there is unlikely to be a large numbers of casualties, however the areas contaminated by the radiological material may cause immediate and long term health risks to those exposed. An RDD is a weapon of Mass Disruption rather than destruction. While the likelihood of RDD's being employed by terrorist in Australia is still considered remote, Australia's emergency response organizations are developing plans to ensure a rapid and comprehensive response occurs should such an event occur in this country, The presentation will outline Australia's response arrangements at the local/state level and the type of federal

  4. The European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-European Institute of Radiotherapy (ESTRO-EIR) report on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance systems: a practical and technical review and guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine; Rasch, Coen; McNair, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has provided many technological advances in radiotherapy. The European Institute of Radiotherapy (EIR) was established by the European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) to provide current consensus statement with evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines on topics...

  5. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  6. SU-F-P-24: Radiological Disperse Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, R [NYC Dept of Health, NYC, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We are now living in a society of constant fear of terrorism. This topic is pertaining to give a general knowledge of what is a radiological dispersion device or RDD and in case of its detonation, what are the options open to public for a safe action in terms of reducing the exposure and knowing the proper steps. These RDD are also called dirty bombs. Methods: Compared to nuclear weapons, dirty bombs are easy to make. In order for a terrorist organization to construct and detonate a dirty bomb, it must acquire radioactive material by stealing it or buying it through legal or illegal channels. Possible RDD material could come from the millions of radioactive sources used in the industry, for medical purposes and in academic applications mainly for researches. These are, americium-{sup 241}, californium-{sup 252}, caesium-{sup 137}, cobalt-{sup 60}, iridium-{sup 192}, plutonium-{sup 238}, polonium-{sup 210}, radium-{sup 226} and strontium-{sup 90}. Results: Prompt detection of the type of radioactive material used will greatly assist advising people on the protective measures, like sheltering in place, or quickly leaving the immediate area. The effects of radiation are determined by:°the amount of radiation absorbed by body°the type of radiation °the distance from the radiation to an individual°the means of exposure absorbed by the skin, inhaled, or ingested; and length of time exposed. Conclusion: In any facility it is now much more important to keep a log list of all radioactive materials in use. In case there is a dirty bomb explosion, the chaos and economic cost could be enormous. The economic cost for the evaluation of the contamination, survey of people and surroundings and the after treatment, decontamination cost and effort will be a big challenge in any country. So awareness and preparation is the start to face this new type of challenge.

  7. The American Board of Radiology Maintenance of Certification (MOC) Program in Radiologic Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Stephen R.; Hendee, William R.; Paliwal, Bhudatt R.

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document the professional development of each diplomate of The American Board of Radiology (ABR) through its focus on the essential elements of quality care in Diagnostic Radiology and its subspecialties, and in the specialties of Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. The initial elements of the ABR-MOC have been developed in accord with guidelines of The American Board of Medical Specialties. All diplomates with a ten-year, time-limited primary certificate in Diagnostic Radiologic Physics, Therapeutic Radiologic Physics, or Medical Nuclear Physics who wish to maintain certification must successfully complete the requirements of the appropriate ABR-MOC program for their specialty. Holders of multiple certificates must meet ABR-MOC requirements specific to the certificates held. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate in the MOC, but are strongly encouraged to do so. MOC is based on documentation of individual participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Within these components, MOC addresses six competencies: medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice

  8. Response of the REWARD detection system to the presence of a Radiological Dispersal Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, R.; Baptista, M.; Barros, S.; Marques, J.; Vaz, P. [IST - Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066, Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Balbuena, J.; Disch, C. [Physical Institut, University of Freiburg Hermann-Herder-Str. 3 D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Fleta, C.; Jumilla, C.; Lozano, M. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona - IMB-CNM, CSIC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    In recent years an increased international concern has emerged about the radiological and nuclear (RN) threats associated with the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials that could be potentially used for terrorist attacks. The objective of the REWARD (Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System) project, co-funded by the European Union 7. Framework Programme Security, consisted in building a mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance, using a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit includes a GPS system and a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station, where it will be analyzed in real time and correlated with historical data from the tag location, in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. Due to its portability and accuracy, the system will be extremely useful in many different scenarios such as nuclear terrorism, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination or nuclear accidents. This paper shortly introduces the REWARD detection system, depicts some terrorist threat scenarios involving radioactive sources and special nuclear materials and summarizes the simulation work undertaken during the past three years in the framework of the REWARD project. The main objective consisted in making predictions regarding the behavior of the REWARD system in the presence of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD), one of the reference scenarios foreseen for REWARD, using the Monte Carlo simulation program MCNP6. The reference scenario is characterized in detail, from the i) radiological protection, ii) radiation detection requirements and iii) communications points of view. Experimental tests were performed at the Fire Brigades Facilities in Rome and at the Naples Fire Brigades, and the results, which validate the simulation work, are presented and analyzed. The response of the REWARD

  9. Response of the REWARD detection system to the presence of a Radiological Dispersal Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, R.; Baptista, M.; Barros, S.; Marques, J.; Vaz, P.; Balbuena, J.; Disch, C.; Fleta, C.; Jumilla, C.; Lozano, M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years an increased international concern has emerged about the radiological and nuclear (RN) threats associated with the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials that could be potentially used for terrorist attacks. The objective of the REWARD (Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System) project, co-funded by the European Union 7. Framework Programme Security, consisted in building a mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance, using a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit includes a GPS system and a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station, where it will be analyzed in real time and correlated with historical data from the tag location, in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. Due to its portability and accuracy, the system will be extremely useful in many different scenarios such as nuclear terrorism, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination or nuclear accidents. This paper shortly introduces the REWARD detection system, depicts some terrorist threat scenarios involving radioactive sources and special nuclear materials and summarizes the simulation work undertaken during the past three years in the framework of the REWARD project. The main objective consisted in making predictions regarding the behavior of the REWARD system in the presence of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD), one of the reference scenarios foreseen for REWARD, using the Monte Carlo simulation program MCNP6. The reference scenario is characterized in detail, from the i) radiological protection, ii) radiation detection requirements and iii) communications points of view. Experimental tests were performed at the Fire Brigades Facilities in Rome and at the Naples Fire Brigades, and the results, which validate the simulation work, are presented and analyzed. The response of the REWARD

  10. Global view on the radiological protection of patients: PAHO position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), founded in 1902, initiated a radiological health programme in the 1950s. Within this programme, there are currently three lines of work: (a) radiology services; (b) radiation safety; and (c) radiological emergencies. Radiology services deals with health services for diagnostic and interventional imaging, and for radiation therapy. Radiation safety studies the three types of exposures to both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation: occupational; medical; and public. Radiological emergencies involve radioactive waste management programmes and emergency plans. The radiological protection of patients is addressed in each of these areas: (a) when analysing the infrastructure of radiology services; and (b) when determining medical exposures; and (c) when investigating overexposures in interventional or therapeutic procedures or under-doses in radiation therapy. (author)

  11. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn

    2014-01-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  12. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  13. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, David

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear crisis in Fukushima and growing threats of nuclear terrorism must serve as a wake-up call, prompting greater action to prepare ourselves for nuclear and radiological disasters. Our strategy to prepare for these threats is multi-layered and the events of these past years have proved the necessity to re-evaluate the national and international preparedness goals on a scale never before considered. The programme of NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” has been focused on science and technology challenges associated with our need to improve the national and international capacity and capability to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from the nuclear and radiological disasters, including nuclear and radiological accident, terrorist attack by Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or by “Dirty Bomb”-Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), that pose the greatest risk to the national and international security and safety...

  14. Advent and evolution of radiology in dentistry from the end of the 19. century until today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This work traces the history of dental radiology from the discovery of the X rays by Roentgen to modern radiology. At the end of the 19. century, Roentgen, as other physicists, was fascinated by the study of cathodic rays. On the 8 november 1895, he discovered an unknown radiation: the X rays. It was the beginning of a revolution in dental and medical occupations but some radiology pioneers died because of the effects of this new radiation, having received a too high irradiation dose. At this time, the first radiology devices were not still available into a single piece. The dentist has, by his own means, to find the different elements of the device in spare parts. The dental radiological device is described at its beginnings: particularly its manufacture and its further evolution particularly with the Coolidge tube that is still used today. Relying on the historical aspects, the different techniques of radiology, that are used frequently in dentistry including the panoramic radiology and numerical radiology are raised. Our aim will be to show how the experiments of our predecessors make our everyday life. (O.M.) [fr

  15. Radiation protection in the intervenmtional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Benjamin V.; Lissek, Friedrich; Waldeck, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Interventional radiology and neuroradiology covers a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. A minimal invasive percutaneous access under imaging guidance is common for all these methods. The legal regulations for quality assurance are reviewed, technical possibilities for dose reduction and the importance of modern radiation protection procedures are discussed.

  16. Radiological aspects of Arthroplasties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Sara Eugenia; Barragan, John Henry; Narvaez, Jorge Andres

    2008-01-01

    The development of new surgical techniques, of new prosthetic materials, and the increase in life expectancy with greater coverage of health services has ugmented the performance of hip replacements in our country. The radiologist should be familiar with the different surgical techniques and prosthetic devices, the evaluation of its components and associated complications. The most frequently performed arthroplasties are: shoulder, elbow, hip and knee replacement. This article reviews the most frequent prosthetic devices used, the radiological aspects of arthroplasties and their most common complications.

  17. Emergency radiology curriculum at Medical University - Plovdiv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velkova, K.; Hilendarov, A.; Cvetkova, S.; Stoeva, M.; Petrova, A.; Stefanov, P.; Simova, E.; Georgieva, V.; Sirakov, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Recent advances in contemporary radiology turn it into one of the major sources for patient information with improved emergency techniques. Emergency Radiology (EP) focuses on acute diagnosing conditions in ER patients. Objectives: The main objective of this paper is to present the ER curriculum at Medical Imaging Department, Medical University - Plovdiv, aiming to deliver knowledge about the indications, possibilities and diagnostic value of the contemporary imaging methods in ER cases. Material and methods: The curriculum covers various aspects of ER Radiology - diagnostic imaging methods, contrast enhanced examinations, imaging topography, traumatic and acute conditions, physical and technical aspects. It includes 6 lectures and 12 practical classes. Results and discussion: The educational course in Emergency Radiology is available for medical students in their 8-th and 9-th semester. Therapeutic methods under imaging control are also covered by the course. Conclusion: Being one of the most advanced areas of radiology, ER improves the quality of care and treatment of patients and of the emergency medicine as a whole

  18. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters. PMID:20981425

  19. Prevention and preparedness for response to nuclear and radiological threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Challenges from smuggled or illegally transported radioactive sources with malevolent intention of causing potential threats to the society are much higher to those potential radiological emergencies from misplaced, orphan or lost radioactive sources. Large number of radioactive sources world over is transported for its application in various fields. The emergency preparedness and response system is less developed for potential radiological emergencies caused by them compared to those at nuclear facilities which are kept in readiness to respond to any kind of emergency. After the terrorist attack on WTC of 2001, there is significant concern world over about the malicious use of nuclear and other radioactive material. This calls for prevention of stealing/smuggling of radioactive materials and improving the emergency response system. Use of Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) are considered as possible radiological and nuclear threats, can lead to large area contamination in addition to the injuries caused by blast and thermal effects. (author)

  20. Film traffic queueing model for the DUMC radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, L.M.; Ravin, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the radiology department traffic model for Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) which simulates the flow of film through the department, and then incorporates the effect of introducing a PACS-type system into present operations. Each Radiology Section is considered separately for queuing of two types of film: old film (from previous exams) and new film (from the present exam). The amount of film in each queue at any time is controlled by controlling hours of operation, service times, delay, and arrival rates. The model also takes into account the use of film in each major radiology area. This gives some idea of the load on a device in that area as well as the amount of storage needed to adequately handle its daily load is local storage at the display device is desired

  1. The impact of communication materials on public responses to a radiological dispersal device (RDD) attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James

    2013-03-01

    It is a common assumption that, in the event of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) attack, a well-prepared and informed public is more likely to follow official recommendations regarding the appropriate safety measures to take. We present findings from a UK study investigating the ability of crisis communication to influence perceptions of risk and behavioral intentions in the general public in response to CBRN terrorism. We conducted a focus group study involving a scenario presented in mock news broadcasts to explore levels of public knowledge, information needs, and intended behavioral reactions to an attack involving an overt radiological dispersal device (RDD), or dirty bomb. We used the findings from these focus groups to design messages for the public that could be presented in a short leaflet. We then tested the effects of the leaflet on reactions to the same scenario in 8 further focus groups. The impact of the new messages on levels of knowledge, information needs, and intended compliance with official recommendations was assessed. The provision of information increased the perceived credibility of official messages and increased reported levels of intended compliance with advice to return to normal/stop sheltering, attend a facility for assessment and treatment, and return to a previously contaminated area after decontamination of the environment has taken place. Should a real attack with an RDD occur, having pretested messages available to address common concerns and information needs should facilitate the public health response to the attack.

  2. Cost/benefit of high technology in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethlin, J.H.

    1987-08-01

    High technology is frequently blamed as a main cause for the last decade's disproportionate rise in health expenditure. Total costs for all large diagnostic and therapeutic appliances are typically less than 1% of annual expenditure on health care. CT, DSA, MRI, interventional radiology, ESWL, US, mammography, computers in radiology and PACS may save 10-80% of total cost for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Expenditure on high technology is in general vastly overestimated. Because of its medical utility, a slower deployment cannot be desirable. (orig.)

  3. Cost/benefit of high technology in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethlin, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    High technology is frequently blamed as a main cause for the last decade's disproportionate rise in health expenditure. Total costs for all large diagnostic and therapeutic appliances are typically less than 1% of annual expenditure on health care. CT, DSA, MRI, interventional radiology, ESWL, US, mammography, computers in radiology and PACS may save 10-80% of total cost for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Expenditure on high technology is in general vastly overestimated. Because of its medical utility, a slower deployment cannot be desirable. (orig.)

  4. OPTICAL DEFLECTOR CREATION FOR LASER THERAPEUTIC DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Baranov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of optical deflector for management of laser radiation in physiotherapeutic devices. Design features and operation principles of electro-optical, optical-acoustic and mechanical deflectors, giving the possibility to carry out continuous or discrete scanning of a laser beam are shown. Operation mechanism of the mechanical type deflector on the example of domestic laser therapeutic scanners is described in detail. Application possibility in clinical practice for heating technique of the acupuncture points by volumetric scanning of tissues by the radiation of semiconductor lasers on wave lengths equal to 0,67 and 0,85 μm is investigated. Creation justification of the new type deflector is given. Comparison between stable and labile techniques of radiation is carried out. It is shown that more intensive warming up of a skin surface in acupuncture point projection is observed at volumetric scanning, rather than at planar scanning by laser beams. Temperature increase on a skin surface in projection of acupuncture points is detected at radiation in both the visible spectrum range (0,67 μm and the infrared range (0,85 μm. It gives the possibility to apply this scanning method to thermal photo-activation of the point and to extend an existing arsenal of laser reflexology methods. The optical deflector is offered for medical industry, making it possible to carry out volumetric scanning of a laser beam and to facilitate the medical personnel’s work in laser therapy and reflexology consulting rooms.

  5. Being prepared for emergency situations involving radiological dispersion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardemann, F.; Vandecasteele, C.; Sohier, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The events of 11 September 2001 and the evolution of the public perception of terrorism in the aftermath have given rise to concern that one day some terrorist group might make use of Radiological Dispersion Devices (RDD). Perhaps due to the attention that this issue has received from the media, a recent enquiry among the Belgian population has shown that the risk of a terrorist attack on nuclear facilities is believed to be high, and that terrorism in general is one of the major preoccupations, largely preceding environmental or technological risks. As such, it is worthwhile considering the response to this threat, focussing an expected characteristics of RDD scenarios, measurement strategies and advice for first interventions. Preventive measures are beyond the scope of this contribution. The purpose is not to present a dedicated solution to the problem nor to present an exhaustive list of problems and hypotheses, but to launch a framework for discussion with other participants, in order to generate some broadly accepted and sound principles for the response the day it would be necessary. The 'dirty bomb' scenario shows many differences as compared to 'traditional' emergency scenarios. A non exhaustive series of examples is given below: a) the source term is unpredictable, both the isotopic composition and the range of activities, although some information on 'candidate sources' is available in public literature. b) The location of the accident may be anywhere; it has a large probability within urban or strategic areas. The 'heart' of the crisis will presumably be in the public domain, not in a nuclear facility. An attack may arise in areas not having any presence of nuclear facilities in the vicinity or even in non-nuclear countries, which implies little expertise to respond. c) One may live the combination of important damage by the explosion combined with the a priori unknown existence of a radioactive, biological or chemical risk. d) There will be

  6. Czechoslovak congress of radiology with international participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The booklet contains 125 abstracts of papers presented at the congress, dealing with diagnostic and therapeutic applications of X-rays, 60 Co, 137 Cs, betatron radiation, with scintigraphy, angiography, lymphography, with radiosensitizers, contrast media and with a host of activities performed and results achieved at radiological departments. (A.K.)

  7. The radiological installation in dental office: selection and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirre, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This thesis for a PhD in dental surgery aimed at identifying and analysing different ways to optimise radiographs. In a first part, the author presents the characteristics of X rays, and dosimetric values used in dental offices. He describes the interaction of X rays with living cells by recalling the discovery of biological effects and the emergence of radiation protection, and by discussing the consequences for the patient as well as for the practician. In the next part, the author comments technological advances of devices, and means available to practicians to improve their performance. He presents X ray tubes, discusses factors which influence ray production, and selection criteria, indicates additional devices (beam application tubes, filtration, collimation), discusses the selection of the receiver (types of receivers used in intra-oral radiology, digital or silver film-based sensors), and describes the picture-taking process (radiological techniques, use of angulators and lead shielding). He finally discusses how to optimise intra-oral dental imagery through good practices which comprise optimisation, selection of apparatuses and devices, performance of the radiological act with a patient sitting in the armchair, and maintenance of a good image quality [fr

  8. Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology were studied as possible contaminants in the evaluations of A-bomb survivors in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study for radiation effects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki subjects received X-ray examinations elsewhere within three months of their ABCC visits at rates of 23 and 12%, respectively. Medical X-ray examinations were more frequent among survivors than comparison subjects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiologic practice steadily increased since 1948, and differed markedly by city. From 1946-70 the Hiroshima and Nagasaki X-ray bone marrow doses were 2,300 and 1,000 g-rads, respectively. By 1970, cumulated medical X-ray doses approximated A-bomb doses at distances from the hypocenters of 2,000 m in Hiroshima and 2,800 m in Nagasaki. ABCC X-ray examination doses per subject are routinely updated for comparison with A-bomb doses. Each subject's reported fluoroscopy, photofluorography and radiation therapy exposure elsewhere are for future reference. Dental radiography, though increasing, was not currently an important contributor to survivors' overall exposure. Radiation therapy exposures of 137 subjects were confirmed, and doses estimated for most. Two-thirds the treatments were for malignancies; therapy differed markedly by city; and five cancers possibly arose from earlier radiation therapy. This underscores the importance of considering diagnostic and therapeutic radiology when attributing diseases to the atomic bombs.

  9. New implantable therapeutic device for the control of an atrial fibrillation attack using the Peltier element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Sumiyoshi, Taketada; Koga, Chihiro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Miura, Hidekazu; Sugita, Norihiro; Tanaka, Akira; Yoshizawa, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    For the development of the new therapeutic device for the atrial fibrillation, implantable cooling device using Peltier element was developed in this study. An implantable cooling device had been consisted from Peltier element with transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS). 1st coil can be contacted from outside of the body, when the patients will feel palpitation. Electrical current will be induced to the implanted 2nd coil. Peltier element will able to cool the surface of the atrium. For the confirmation of the effect of the cooling device, trial manufacture model was developed. Animal experiments using six healthy adult goats after animal ethical committee allowance was carried out. Fourth intercostals space had been opened after anesthesia inhalation, and various sensors had been inserted. AF was induced by the electrical current with battery. As the results, AF had been recovered to the normal sinus rhythm after cooling in all six goats. So, this cooling system for the control of AF showed evident effect in these experiments. Smaller size cooling device has been under development aiming at totally implantable type. Catheter type cooling device for the insertion by the use of fiber-scope type is now under planning for the clinical application. This new type device may be able to become good news for the patients with uncontrollable AF.

  10. A Platform-Independent Plugin for Navigating Online Radiology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkman, Jason D; Awan, Omer A

    2016-06-01

    Software methods that enable navigation of radiology cases on various digital platforms differ between handheld devices and desktop computers. This has resulted in poor compatibility of online radiology teaching files across mobile smartphones, tablets, and desktop computers. A standardized, platform-independent, or "agnostic" approach for presenting online radiology content was produced in this work by leveraging modern hypertext markup language (HTML) and JavaScript web software technology. We describe the design and evaluation of this software, demonstrate its use across multiple viewing platforms, and make it publicly available as a model for future development efforts.

  11. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  12. Improved walking ability and reduced therapeutic stress with an electromechanical gait device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freivogel, Susanna; Schmalohr, Dieter; Mehrholz, Jan

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of repetitive locomotor training using a newly developed electromechanical gait device compared with treadmill training/gait training with respect to patient's ambulatory motor outcome, necessary personnel resources, and discomfort experienced by therapists and patients. Randomized, controlled, cross-over trial. Sixteen non-ambulatory patients after stroke, severe brain or spinal cord injury sequentially received 2 kinds of gait training. Study intervention A: 20 treatments of locomotor training with an electromechanical gait device; control intervention B: 20 treatments of locomotor training with treadmill or task-oriented gait training. The primary variable was walking ability (Functional Ambulation Category). Secondary variables included gait velocity, Motricity-Index, Rivermead-Mobility-Index, number of therapists needed, and discomfort and effort of patients and therapists during training. Gait ability and the other motor outcome related parameters improved for all patients, but without significant difference between intervention types. However, during intervention A, significantly fewer therapists were needed, and they reported less discomfort and a lower level of effort during training sessions. Locomotor training with or without an electromechanical gait trainer leads to improved gait ability; however, using the electromechanical gait trainer requires less therapeutic assistance, and therapist discomfort is reduced.

  13. Aerial Mobile Radiation Survey Following Detonation of a Radiological Dispersal Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Laurel E; Fortin, Richard; Buckle, John L; Coyle, Maurice J; Van Brabant, Reid A; Harvey, Bradley J A; Seywerd, Henry C J; McCurdy, Martin W

    2016-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in 2012 at the Defence Research and Development Canada's Suffield Research Centre in Alberta, Canada, during which three radiological dispersal devices were detonated. The detonations released radioactive (140)La into the air, which was then carried by winds and detectable over distances of up to 2 km. The Nuclear Emergency Response group of Natural Resources Canada conducted airborne radiometric surveys shortly following the explosions to map the pattern of radioactivity deposited on the ground. The survey instrument suite was based on large volume NaI(Tl) scintillation gamma radiation detectors, which were situated in a basket mounted exterior to the helicopter and oriented end-to-end to maximize the sensitivity. A standard geophysical data treatment was used to subtract backgrounds and to correct the data to produce counts due to (140)La at the nominal altitude. Sensitivity conversion factors obtained from Monte Carlo simulations were then applied to express the measurements in terms of surface activity concentration in kBq m(-2). Integrated over the survey area, the results indicate that only 20 to 25% of the bomb's original inventory of radioactive material is deposited within a 1.5-km radius of ground zero. These results can be accommodated with a simple model for the RDD behavior and atmospheric dispersion.

  14. Spectral matching research for light-emitting diode-based neonatal jaundice therapeutic device light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ruting; Guo, Zhenning; Lin, Jieben

    2015-09-01

    To decrease the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy and minimize the need for exchange transfusions, we report a novel design for light source of light-emitting diode (LED)-based neonatal jaundice therapeutic device (NJTD). The bilirubin absorption spectrum in vivo was regarded as target. Based on spectral constructing theory, we used commercially available LEDs with different peak wavelengths and full width at half maximum as matching light sources. Simple genetic algorithm was first proposed as the spectral matching method. The required LEDs number at each peak wavelength was calculated, and then, the commercial light source sample model of the device was fabricated to confirm the spectral matching technology. In addition, the corresponding spectrum was measured and the effect was analyzed finally. The results showed that fitted spectrum was very similar to the target spectrum with 98.86 % matching degree, and the actual device model has a spectrum close to the target with 96.02 % matching degree. With higher fitting degree and efficiency, this matching algorithm is very suitable for light source matching technology of LED-based spectral distribution, and bilirubin absorption spectrum in vivo will be auspicious candidate for the target spectrum of new LED-based NJTD light source.

  15. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a medical...

  16. Paediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric interventional radiology (PIR) is a rapidly-growing subspecialty, which offers a wide range of procedures applicable to almost all areas of hospital paediatrics. There are many important differences between paediatric and adult practice in interventional radiology, including disease processes and treatment goals, anatomical considerations, periprocedural patient management, radiation exposure optimisation and legal aspects. The use of retrievable or absorbable interventional devices such as stents will probably become more widespread in PIR practice. Recent advances in the technology of imaging equipment have been accompanied by an increase in the complexity of the work done by the radiographer. These developments present challenges and opportunities related to training and maintenance of skills, staffing arrangements, and the potential for advanced practice. It is likely that specialisation in PIR will become a more common role for radiographers in the future

  17. Pediatric surgical diseases. A radiological surgical case study approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Ciro; Esposito, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Radiologic evaluation of an infant or child suspected of having a surgical disease can be a complex problem. With this volume, the editors have created a book focused on pediatric imaging written by pediatricians, pediatric surgeons and pediatric radiologists. This book is a collection of over 200 case reports. The concept is a case study approach: The reader is given radiologic images (plain radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, etc.) and the clinical history of the patient. On the basis of this information, the reader is asked to identify a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Each case is complemented by information on the disease affecting the patient and the management of the case shown, including therapy and follow-up. This educational text is targeted at all medical professionals faced with a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic problems affecting infants and children. (orig.)

  18. Pediatric surgical diseases. A radiological surgical case study approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Ciro [Federico II Univ. of Naples (Italy). Chair of Pediatric Surgery; Esposito, Giovanni (eds.) [Federico II Univ. of Naples (Italy). School of Medicine

    2009-07-01

    Radiologic evaluation of an infant or child suspected of having a surgical disease can be a complex problem. With this volume, the editors have created a book focused on pediatric imaging written by pediatricians, pediatric surgeons and pediatric radiologists. This book is a collection of over 200 case reports. The concept is a case study approach: The reader is given radiologic images (plain radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, etc.) and the clinical history of the patient. On the basis of this information, the reader is asked to identify a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Each case is complemented by information on the disease affecting the patient and the management of the case shown, including therapy and follow-up. This educational text is targeted at all medical professionals faced with a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic problems affecting infants and children. (orig.)

  19. FE-001: EPR-First Responders: radiological dispersion device: field exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise is that the participants have to know the implementation an incident control, prioritize the medical requirements for victims, demonstrate the control of the scene and to install the safety cordons in a radiological emergency

  20. Lessons learned in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenough, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews aspects of the history of radiology with the goal of identifying lessons learned, particularly in the area of radiological protection of the patient in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. It is pointed out that since the days of Roentgen there has been a need not only to control and quantify the amount of radiation reaching the patient but also to optimize the imaging process to offer the greatest diagnostic benefit within allowable levels of patient dose. To this end, in diagnostic radiology, one finds the development of better films, X rays tubes, grids, screens and processing techniques, while in fluoroscopy, one sees the increased luminance of calcium tungstate. In interventional radiology, one finds an improvement in catheterization techniques and contrast agents. In nuclear medicine, the development of tracer techniques into modern cameras and isotopes such as technetium can be followed. In radiotherapy, one sees the early superficial X rays and radium sources gradually replaced with radon seeds, supervoltage, 60 Co and today's linear accelerators. Along with the incredible advances in imaging and therapeutic technologies comes the growing realization of the potential danger of radiation and the need to protect the patient (as well as physicians, ancillary personnel and the general population) from unnecessary radiation. The important lesson learned is that we must walk a tightrope, balancing the benefits and risks of any technology utilizing radiation to produce the greatest benefits at the lowest acceptable risk. The alternative techniques using non-ionizing radiation will have to be considered as part of the general armamentarium for medical imaging whenever radiation consequences are unacceptable. (author)

  1. Advantages and Disadvantages in Image Processing with Free Software in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Katrin Muradas; Méndez, Juan Antonio Juanes; de Miguel, Andrés Framiñan

    2018-01-15

    Currently, there are sophisticated applications that make it possible to visualize medical images and even to manipulate them. These software applications are of great interest, both from a teaching and a radiological perspective. In addition, some of these applications are known as Free Open Source Software because they are free and the source code is freely available, and therefore it can be easily obtained even on personal computers. Two examples of free open source software are Osirix Lite® and 3D Slicer®. However, this last group of free applications have limitations in its use. For the radiological field, manipulating and post-processing images is increasingly important. Consequently, sophisticated computing tools that combine software and hardware to process medical images are needed. In radiology, graphic workstations allow their users to process, review, analyse, communicate and exchange multidimensional digital images acquired with different image-capturing radiological devices. These radiological devices are basically CT (Computerised Tomography), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), PET (Positron Emission Tomography), etc. Nevertheless, the programs included in these workstations have a high cost which always depends on the software provider and is always subject to its norms and requirements. With this study, we aim to present the advantages and disadvantages of these radiological image visualization systems in the advanced management of radiological studies. We will compare the features of the VITREA2® and AW VolumeShare 5® radiology workstation with free open source software applications like OsiriX® and 3D Slicer®, with examples from specific studies.

  2. Underwater Shock Wave Research Applied to Therapeutic Device Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Shimokawa, H.

    2013-07-01

    The chronological development of underwater shock wave research performed at the Shock Wave Research Center of the Institute of Fluid Science at the Tohoku University is presented. Firstly, the generation of planar underwater shock waves in shock tubes and their visualization by using the conventional shadowgraph and schlieren methods are described. Secondly, the generation of spherical underwater shock waves by exploding lead azide pellets weighing from several tens of micrograms to 100 mg, that were ignited by irradiating with a Q-switched laser beam, and their visualization by using double exposure holographic interferometry are presented. The initiation, propagation, reflection, focusing of underwater shock waves, and their interaction with various interfaces, in particular, with air bubbles, are visualized quantitatively. Based on such a fundamental underwater shock wave research, collaboration with the School of Medicine at the Tohoku University was started for developing a shock wave assisted therapeutic device, which was named an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Miniature shock waves created by irradiation with Q-switched HO:YAG laser beams are studied, as applied to damaged dysfunctional nerve cells in the myocardium in a precisely controlled manner, and are effectively used to design a catheter for treating arrhythmia.

  3. Ionizing secondary radiation generated by analog radiological and digital coronary cine angiographic equipment. Influence of external protection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez N, Alfredo; Farias Ch, Eric; Silva J, Ana Maria; Leyton L, Fernando; Oyarzun C, Carlos; Ugalde P, Hector; Dussaillant, Gaston; Cumsille G, Angel

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a know hazard of radiological procedures. Aim: to compare the emission of secondary ionizing radiation from two coronary angiographic equipments, one with digital and the other with analog image generation. To evaluate the effectiveness of external radiological protection devices. Material and methods: environmental and fluoroscopy generated radiation in the cephalic region of the patient was measured during diagnostic coronary angiographies. Ionizing radiation generated in anterior left oblique protection (ALO) and anterior right oblique protection (ARO) were measured with and without leaded protections. In 19 patients (group 1), a digital equipment was used and in 21 (group 2), an analog equipment. Results: header radiation for group 1 and 2 was 1194±337 and 364±222 μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001). During fluoroscopy and with leaded protection generated radiation for groups 1 and 2 was 612±947 and 70±61μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001). For ALO projection, generated for groups 1 and 2 was 105±47 and 71±192 μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001). During filming the radiation for ALO projection for groups 1 and 2 was 7252±9569 and 1671±2038 μGray/h respectively (p=0.03). Out of the protection zone, registered radiation during fluoroscopy for groups 1 and 2 was 2800±1741 and 1318±954 μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001); during filming, the figures were 15500±5840 and 18961±10599 μGray/h respectively (NS). Conclusions: digital radiological equipment has a lower level of ionizing radiation emission than the analog equipment

  4. A cloud-based multimodality case file for mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkman, Jason D; Loehfelm, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Recent improvements in Web and mobile technology, along with the widespread use of handheld devices in radiology education, provide unique opportunities for creating scalable, universally accessible, portable image-rich radiology case files. A cloud database and a Web-based application for radiologic images were developed to create a mobile case file with reasonable usability, download performance, and image quality for teaching purposes. A total of 75 radiology cases related to breast, thoracic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neuroimaging subspecialties were included in the database. Breast imaging cases are the focus of this article, as they best demonstrate handheld display capabilities across a wide variety of modalities. This case subset also illustrates methods for adapting radiologic content to cloud platforms and mobile devices. Readers will gain practical knowledge about storage and retrieval of cloud-based imaging data, an awareness of techniques used to adapt scrollable and high-resolution imaging content for the Web, and an appreciation for optimizing images for handheld devices. The evaluation of this software demonstrates the feasibility of adapting images from most imaging modalities to mobile devices, even in cases of full-field digital mammograms, where high resolution is required to represent subtle pathologic features. The cloud platform allows cases to be added and modified in real time by using only a standard Web browser with no application-specific software. Challenges remain in developing efficient ways to generate, modify, and upload radiologic and supplementary teaching content to this cloud-based platform. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014.

  5. Development of a mobile device optimized cross platform-compatible oral pathology and radiology spaced repetition system for dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawi, Wisam; Easterling, Lauren; Edwards, Paul C

    2015-04-01

    Combining active recall testing with spaced repetition increases memory retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare students' perception and utilization of an electronic spaced repetition oral pathology-radiology system in dental hygiene education and predoctoral dental education. The study employed an open-source suite of applications to create electronic "flashcards" that can be individually adjusted for frequency of repetition, depending on a user's assessment of difficulty. Accessible across multiple platforms (iOS, Android, Linux, OSX, Windows) as well as via any web-based browser, this framework was used to develop an oral radiology-oral pathology database of case-based questions. This system was introduced in two courses: sophomore oral pathology for dental students and sophomore radiology for dental hygiene students. Students were provided free software and/or mobile tablet devices as well as a database of 300 electronic question cards. Study participants were surveyed on frequency and extent of use. Perception-based surveys were used to evaluate their attitudes towards this technology. Of the eligible students, 12 of 22 (54.5%) dental hygiene and 49 of 107 (45.8%) dental students responded to the surveys. Adoption rates and student feedback were compared between the two groups. Among the respondents, acceptance of this technology with respect to educational usefulness was similar for the dental and dental hygiene students (median=5 on a five-point scale; dental hygiene interquartile range (IQR)=0; dental IQR=1). Only a minority of the survey respondents (25% dental, 33% dental hygiene) took advantage of one of the main benefits of this technology: automated spaced repetition.

  6. Support to triage and public risk perception considering long-term response to a Cs-137 radiological dispersive device scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Cristiane Ps; Souza, Cláudio J; Camerini, Eduardo Sn; Alves, Isabela S; Vital, Hélio C; Healy, Matthew Jf; Ramos De Andrade, Edson

    2018-01-01

    A radiological dispersive device (RDD) spreads radioactive material, complicates the treatment of physical injuries, raises cancer risk, and induces disproportionate fear. Simulating such an event enables more effective and efficient utilization of the triage and treatment resources of staff, facilities, and space. Fast simulation can give detail on events in progress or future events. The resources for triage and treatment of contaminated trauma victims can differ for pure exposure individuals, while discouraging the "worried well" from presenting in the crisis phase by media announcement would relieve pressure on hospital facilities. The proposed methodology integrates capabilities from different platforms in a convergent way composed of three phases: (a) scenario simulation, (b) data generation, and (c) risk assessment for triage focused on follow-up epidemiological assessment. Simulations typically indicate that most of the affected population does not require immediate medical assistance. Medical triage for the few severely injured and the radiological triage to diminish the contamination with radioactivity will always be the priority. For this study, however, higher priorities should be given to individuals from radiological "warm" and "hot" zones as required by risk criteria. The proposed methodology could thus help to (a) filter and reduce the number of individuals to be attended, (b) optimize the prioritization of medical care, (c) reduce or prepare for future costs, (d) effectively locate the operational triage site to avoid possible contamination on the main facility, and (e) provide the scientific data needed to develop an adequate approach to risk and its proper communication.

  7. The evolving radiology landscape: the importance of effective leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, Giles W.L.; Guimaraes, Alexander S.; Mueller, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in technology and imaging techniques have propelled radiology into the centre of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. However, all this success has come at a price, with radiology departments persistently struggling to keep up with increasing demand. In response, radiologists in many countries are giving up an increasing proportion of their traditional workload, often driven by teleradiology, causing them to become less visible within their organizations. As such, radiologists now risk being viewed as commodities by their peers. The failure to meet the increasing stakeholder expectations is, at least in part, due to lack of radiology leadership. While the drivers for the radiology profession and the organizational structures for radiologists vary from country to country, this article will discuss the characteristics of good leadership and how these can be used to ensure radiologists remain centre stage in the provision of high-quality clinical care in any healthcare environment. (orig.)

  8. The evolving radiology landscape: the importance of effective leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boland, Giles W.L.; Guimaraes, Alexander S.; Mueller, Peter R. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Advances in technology and imaging techniques have propelled radiology into the centre of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. However, all this success has come at a price, with radiology departments persistently struggling to keep up with increasing demand. In response, radiologists in many countries are giving up an increasing proportion of their traditional workload, often driven by teleradiology, causing them to become less visible within their organizations. As such, radiologists now risk being viewed as commodities by their peers. The failure to meet the increasing stakeholder expectations is, at least in part, due to lack of radiology leadership. While the drivers for the radiology profession and the organizational structures for radiologists vary from country to country, this article will discuss the characteristics of good leadership and how these can be used to ensure radiologists remain centre stage in the provision of high-quality clinical care in any healthcare environment. (orig.)

  9. Science-based response planning guidance for the first 100 minutes of the response to a radiological dispersal device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolino, S.V.; Harper, F.T.

    2016-01-01

    The first 100 minutes of a response to a radiological dispersal device are critical as this period will set the stage for how the overall response will be executed. First responders will be tasked with multiple activities such as confirming a radiological release, conducting lifesaving rescue operations, issuing protective actions, and beginning characterization of the scene. These activities need to take place as soon as the responders arrive on the scene (the first few minutes). The effectiveness of these early activities will define how well or how poorly the response will be in the emergency phase. The document which is under development provides guidance that can be used for planning an effective response to an RDD that will result in protection of the responders and the members of the public. The information is based on research and results of extensive experiments conducted by the Department of Energy National Laboratories. This guidance provides a realistic estimate of the possible consequences of an RDD detonation and delineates five missions and ten tactics that should be executed by the first responders and local response agencies in the first 100 minutes of a response. The guidance includes recommendations on how to execute the strategy, equipment requirements including personal protective equipment and public messaging

  10. Radiology in cases of cerebral stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsting, M.; Reith, W.; Kummer, R. von; Sartor, K.

    1993-01-01

    Today radiologic methods play an important role in the diagnosis of cerebral stroke. The aim of the radiologist, however, should not only be to classify the stroke into the four main categories (ischemic stroke, intracerebral bleeding, subarachnoid hemorrhage, sinovenous thrombis), but also to interprete the findings with regard to the etiology of the disease. The pattern of lesions gives information about the etiology of ischemic stroke; the correct interpretation of these lesion patterns allows one to optimize therapeutic decisions. This paper additionally focusses on the differential diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage and the CT and MR signs of sinovenous thrombosis. New developed concepts in the field of stroke therapy and prophylaxis call for authority and continuous education of the radiolgist on this topic. Pure descriptions of radiologic findings without an understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease will be ignored by the clinician. On the other hand, the radiologist can turn the therapeutic decisions in the right direction by combining morphological descriptions with pathogenetic orientated interpretations. In this way, the radiolgist can contribute to the reduction of costs in the public health system. (orig.) [de

  11. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  12. Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological and Radiological Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense is a free, on-line journal dedicated to providing an international, peer-reviewed journal of original scientific research and clinical and doctrinal knowledge in the area of medical treatment and countermeasures for chemical, biological and radiological defense; and to developing and maintaining an archive of current research and development information on training, doctrine, and professional discussions of problems related to chemical, biological and radiological casualties. The Journal, www.JMedCBR.org, now in its fifth year, is sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to: Neuroprotectants; Bioscavengers for Nerve Agents; Medical Diagnostic Systems and Technologies; Medical Effects of Low Level Exposures; Toxicology and Biological Effects of TICs and TIMs; Broad Spectrum Medical Countermeasures; Treatments and Therapeutics for Bacterial, Viral and Toxin Agents; Radiological Medical Countermeasures; Clinical Treatment of Chemical, Biological or Radiological Casualties; Toxins Structures and Treatments. The Journal is supported by an editorial advisory board of distinguished scientists and researchers in the fields of CBR defense and medical treatment and countermeasures in eleven countries.(author)

  13. 21 CFR 892.1000 - Magnetic resonance diagnostic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnetic resonance diagnostic device. 892.1000 Section 892.1000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1000 Magnetic resonance diagnostic...

  14. Educational treasures in Radiology: The Radiology Olympics - striving for gold in Radiology education

    OpenAIRE

    Talanow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Radiology Olympics (www.RadiologyOlympics.com) - a collaboration with the international Radiology community for Radiology education, Radiolopolis (www.Radiolopolis.com). The Radiology Olympics honour the movers and shakers in Radiology education and offer an easy to use platform for educating medical professionals based on Radiology cases.

  15. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, J.M.; Moreau, J.F.; Nahum, H.; Bellet, M.

    1990-01-01

    The 17th International Congress of Radiology was conducted in two separate scientific sessions, one for radiodiagnosis and one for radiation oncology. Topics covered are: Radiobiology -radioprotection; imaging and data processing; contrast media; MRI; nuclear medicine; radiology and disasters; radiology of tropical diseases; cardiovascular radiology; interventional radiology; imaging of trauma; imaging of chest, gastro-intestinal tract, breast and genito-urinary tract; imaging in gynecology;imaging in oncology; bone and joint radiology; head and neck-radiology; neuro-radiology. (H.W.). refs.; fig.; tabs

  16. Report writing in skeletal radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, L.J.; Yochum, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    The formulation of reports in clinical practice is a standard method of documentation of a patient's history, examination findings, therapeutic regime, and prognosis, as well as other important features. In the practice of producing and interpreting diagnostic radiographs, report writing also serves a number of important roles, which include providing an accurate means of recording findings in instances of 1) medicolegal circumstances; 2) a standard for comparison with previous or later examinations; 3) a permanent record if the radiographs are lost or not immediately available for perusal; 4) communication with other practitioners and health professionals; and 5) expediating the treatment regime by providing a resume of important indications and contraindictions for therapy. In the radiological literature there is a distinct lack of material on report writing and very little as to what would be considered a standard style. Consequently, radiological reporting has increasingly become a subjective, personalized procedure, with each individual modifying the report according to previous training, experience, and needs. It is the purpose of this chapter to provide basic guidelines on the mechanisms of formulating adequate standardized reports in radiological examinations of the skeletal system

  17. Data processing in radiology: Resume and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, H.P.; Tiemann, J.

    1985-12-01

    The technical aspects of radiology are particularly suitable for electronic data processing. In addition to automation of radiological apparatus and tumour registration, there are three areas in radiology particularly suitable for electronic data processing: treatment planning, dose calculations and supervision of radiotherapy techniques in radio-oncology. It can be used for work processing in the office and for documentation, both in diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, and digital techniques can be employed for image transmission, storage and manipulation. Computers for treatment planning and dose calculation are standard techniques and suitable computers allow one to spot occasional and systematic errors during radiation treation treatment and to eliminate these. They also provide for the automatic generation of the required protocols. Word processors have proved particularly valuable in private practice. They are valuable for composing reports from their basic elements, but less valuable for texts that are stereotypes. The most important developments are in digital imaging, image storage and image transmission. The storage of images on video discs, transmission through fibre-optic cables and computer manipulation of images are described and the consequences and problems, which may affect the radiologist, are discussed.

  18. Data processing in radiology: Resume and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, H.P.; Tiemann, J.

    1985-01-01

    The technical aspects of radiology are particularly suitable for electronic data processing. In addition to automation of radiological apparatus and tumour registration, there are three areas in radiology particularly suitable for electronic data processing: treatment planning, dose calculations and supervision of radiotherapy techniques in radio-oncology. It can be used for work processing in the office and for documentation, both in diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, and digital techniques can be employed for image transmission, storage and manipulation. Computers for treatment planning and dose calculation are standard techniques and suitable computers allow one to spot occasional and systematic errors during radiation treation treatment and to eliminate these. They also provide for the automatic generation of the required protocols. Word processors have proved particularly valuable in private practice. They are valuable for composing reports from their basic elements, but less valuable for texts that are stereotypes. The most important developments are in digital imaging, image storage and image transmission. The storage of images on video discs, transmission through fibre-optic cables and computer manipulation of images are described and the consequences and problems, which may affect the radiologist, are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Signification of modern radiology in ophthalmooncology of child age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerinec, A.; Moczova, J.

    1997-01-01

    Authors in their work analyse importance of modern radiological methods in ophthalmooncology of child age. Computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are now very important methods for diagnostic, differential diagnostic and controlling therapeutic effects in retinoblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and hemangioma of the orbit and optic nerve glioma. (authors)

  20. The Pathology of Infection in the Department of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Dong a University Medical Center, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Yeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to understand the bacteriologic contamination level of radiological equipment which have frequent contacts with patients in the Department of Radiology of an university hospital in Busan area. Before sterilizing in-patient of the radiology rooms, MRSA, VRE, acinetobacter baumannii, candida albicans, and enterococcus sp. were detected. After sterilization, all the bacteria were not found. As examine times become longer, more bacteria were detected and after 7 hours, bacillus sp.(GPR), CNS, acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterococcus sp. were detected. After examining infected patients, bacillus sp.(GPR), VRE, enterococcus sp. CNS, and micrococcus sp. were detected and on the hands of radiological technologists, CNS, enterococcus sp. escherichia coli, and enterobacter sp. were detected. Similar species of bacteria were detected from each radiology room, but pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on the handles of portable radiological equipment and the chair in the waiting room. Therefore, it is the most important to regularly sterilize radiological equipment and devices which have frequent contacts with patients and to sterilize them right after the use of infected patients in order to prevent the spread of infection. Also, thorough hand washing, education on infection and management for the characteristics of Department of Radiology should be performed for the systematic prevention of infection.

  1. The Pathology of Infection in the Department of Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seong Gyu; Lee, Hyo Yeong

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to understand the bacteriologic contamination level of radiological equipment which have frequent contacts with patients in the Department of Radiology of an university hospital in Busan area. Before sterilizing in-patient of the radiology rooms, MRSA, VRE, acinetobacter baumannii, candida albicans, and enterococcus sp. were detected. After sterilization, all the bacteria were not found. As examine times become longer, more bacteria were detected and after 7 hours, bacillus sp.(GPR), CNS, acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterococcus sp. were detected. After examining infected patients, bacillus sp.(GPR), VRE, enterococcus sp. CNS, and micrococcus sp. were detected and on the hands of radiological technologists, CNS, enterococcus sp. escherichia coli, and enterobacter sp. were detected. Similar species of bacteria were detected from each radiology room, but pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on the handles of portable radiological equipment and the chair in the waiting room. Therefore, it is the most important to regularly sterilize radiological equipment and devices which have frequent contacts with patients and to sterilize them right after the use of infected patients in order to prevent the spread of infection. Also, thorough hand washing, education on infection and management for the characteristics of Department of Radiology should be performed for the systematic prevention of infection.

  2. The Changing Face of Vascular Interventional Radiology: The Future Role of Pharmacotherapies and Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, Charles R.; Bratby, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Interventional radiology has had to evolve constantly because there is the ever-present competition and threat from other specialties within medicine, surgery, and research. The development of new technologies, techniques, and therapies is vital to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and to ensure its continued success in the future. In part, this change will be due to improved chronic disease prevention altering what we treat and in whom. The most important of these strategies are the therapeutic use of statins, Beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and substances that interfere with mast cell degeneration. Molecular imaging and therapeutic strategies will move away from conventional techniques and nano and microparticle molecular technology, tissue factor imaging, gene therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, and photodynamic therapy will become an important part of interventional radiology of the future. This review looks at these new and exciting technologies

  3. The Changing Face of Vascular Interventional Radiology: The Future Role of Pharmacotherapies and Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, Charles R., E-mail: crtapping@doctors.org.uk; Bratby, Mark J., E-mail: mark.bratby@ouh.nhs.uk [Oxford University Hospitals, John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Interventional radiology has had to evolve constantly because there is the ever-present competition and threat from other specialties within medicine, surgery, and research. The development of new technologies, techniques, and therapies is vital to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and to ensure its continued success in the future. In part, this change will be due to improved chronic disease prevention altering what we treat and in whom. The most important of these strategies are the therapeutic use of statins, Beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and substances that interfere with mast cell degeneration. Molecular imaging and therapeutic strategies will move away from conventional techniques and nano and microparticle molecular technology, tissue factor imaging, gene therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, and photodynamic therapy will become an important part of interventional radiology of the future. This review looks at these new and exciting technologies.

  4. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoxall, A.T.

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  5. Accidental exposures in interventional radiology: lessons learned by the ASN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, C.; Valero, M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors outline that interventional radiology often requires long duration exposures of patients to ionizing radiations and thus stress that interventional radiology must be optimized to improve radioprotection of patients and operators. They notice that investigations performed by the ASN (the French Nuclear Safety Authority) on declared events revealed in some cases a lack of knowledge of devices by users, notably of functionalities allowing the applied doses to be controlled

  6. The formation of human resources in the area of imaging diagnosed and therapeutic of the Universidad de Costa Rica and its contribution to the services of radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine: period 1969 - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Avila, Maria Catalina

    2009-01-01

    The formation of human resources in the area of imaging diagnosed and therapeutic at the Universidad de Costa Rica, was carried out during the last 38 years and has been necessary to realize an assessment of that trajectory and value the impact it has had, the race today, in radiodiagnostic services, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. The present work was carried out in order of providing to the Escuela de Tecnologias en Salud, the Universidad de Costa Rica, radiology services, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and all those involved and interested in the area, a documented and rigorous analysis regarding the trajectory and characterization of the different stages of historical development of human resources training in imaging diagnosed and therapeutic. Also, suffered changes in the curriculum are considered in accordance with historical events and service needs. The analysis of each curriculum was performed and used for training of technicians and graduates in nuclear medicine and ionizing radiation, as well as the curriculum for the training of bachelors and degrees in imaging diagnosed and therapeutics, as part of the curriculum evolution in the formation of human resources. The strengths, deficiencies and challenge in each curriculum were presented, determining in this way how the changes made to the curriculum meet the needs and demands of radiology services, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. (author) [es

  7. Adnexal masses literature review, detection, characterization and radiological staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Gonzalez, Diana

    2011-01-01

    A literature review was conducted on radiological detection and characterization of major adnexal masses identified in ultrasound, computerized axial tomography and magnetic resonance. The characteristics, and incidence findings have been identified in imaging methods of benign adnexal masses and most common ovarian neoplasms. The proposed new classification of adnexal masses GI-RADS has been released. The report of adnexal ultrasound images were classified into 5 categories. They have relied on morphological findings and the likelihood of benignity or malignancy, in addition to the radiological staging submit. The purpose has been simplifying the diagnosis and better therapeutic for the patient behavior [es

  8. Evidence-based radiology: a new approach to evaluate the clinical practice of radiology; Evidenzbasierte Radiologie: Ein neuer Ansatz zur Bewertung von klinisch angewandter radiologischer Diagnostik und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, S. [Univ.Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Univ. Wien (Austria); Forschungsprogramm fuer Evidenzbasierte Medizinische Diagnostik, Inst. fuer Public Health, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Felder-Puig, R. [Ludwig-Boltzmann-Inst. fuer Health Technology Assessment, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-15

    Over the last several years, the concept and methodology of evidence-based medicine (EBM) have received significant attention in the scientific community. However, compared to therapeutic medical disciplines, EBM-based radiological publications are still underrepresented. This article summarizes the principles of EBM and discusses the possibilities of their application in radiology. The presented topics include the critical appraisal of studies on the basis on EBM principles, the explanation of EBM-relevant statistical outcome parameters (e.g., ''likelihood ratio'' for diagnostic and ''number needed to treat'' for interventional procedures), as well as the problems facing evidence-based radiology. Evidence-based evaluation of radiological procedures does not only address aspects of cost-effectiveness, but is also particularly helpful in identifying patient-specific usefulness. Therefore it should become an integral part of radiologist training. (orig.)

  9. The Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Protection of the Patient in Medical Imaging Procedures for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Purposes (Excluding Radiotherapy) using X-Rays in Israel - Risk - Cost and Benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shlomo, A.

    1998-10-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology is playing a major role in modern medicine. The utilization of devices emitting ionizing radiation for medical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is classified into three categories: a. Radiotherapy procedures for the treatment of malignant and benign tumors. b. Nuclear medicine procedures using radiopharmaceuticals that are introduced into the patient's body for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. c. Diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray imaging procedures. This group includes conventional radiography, conventional fluoroscopy, cardiac catheterization, angiography, CT, mammography, dental, and fluoroscopy operation procedures. A survey was carried out on a sample of three major Israeli hospitals in order to: 1. Determine the status of radiation protection of patients in Israel with regard to the use of x-rays in medical imaging and interventional radiology. 2. Assess the extent of exposure of the population to medical x-rays, and assess the collective risk in Israel in this relation (based on Icr-60). 3. Carry out a cost-benefit optimization procedure related to the means that should be used to reduce the exposure of Israeli patients under x-ray procedures. 4. Establish a of practical recommendations to reduce the x-ray radiation exposure of patients and to increase the image quality. 5. Establish a number of basic rules to be utilized by health policy makers in Israel

  10. The Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Protection of the Patient in Medical Imaging Procedures for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Purposes (Excluding Radiotherapy) using X-Rays in Israel - Risk - Cost and Benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Shlomo, A

    1998-10-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology is playing a major role in modern medicine. The utilization of devices emitting ionizing radiation for medical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is classified into three categories: a. Radiotherapy procedures for the treatment of malignant and benign tumors. b. Nuclear medicine procedures using radiopharmaceuticals that are introduced into the patient's body for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. c. Diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray imaging procedures. This group includes conventional radiography, conventional fluoroscopy, cardiac catheterization, angiography, CT, mammography, dental, and fluoroscopy operation procedures. A survey was carried out on a sample of three major Israeli hospitals in order to: 1. Determine the status of radiation protection of patients in Israel with regard to the use of x-rays in medical imaging and interventional radiology. 2. Assess the extent of exposure of the population to medical x-rays, and assess the collective risk in Israel in this relation (based on Icr-60). 3. Carry out a cost-benefit optimization procedure related to the means that should be used to reduce the exposure of Israeli patients under x-ray procedures. 4. Establish a of practical recommendations to reduce the x-ray radiation exposure of patients and to increase the image quality. 5. Establish a number of basic rules to be utilized by health policy makers in Israel.

  11. Research in diagnostic radiology: a holistic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    This 24th Annual Crookshank Lecture of the Royal College of Radiologists reviews the continuity and interactive relationships among the various components of radiological research, with particular reference to imaging. The following aspects are considered: 1) Clinical decision-making indications vs. yield and cost vs. utility in relation to diagnostic processes. 2) Generation of the image, including x-ray tubes, cinefluorography, ultrasound, CT, N.M.R.; biological radiation effects. 3) Enhancement of the image, optimised information yield. 4) Image perception 5) Boundaries of the radiological process, e.g. radioimmunoassay, isotopes in tumour therapy, venous sampling for assay 6) Image interpretation, its pathophysiological roots and resultant disease research 7) Impact of the image, and the effect of the decision process of therapeutic alternatives. (U.K.)

  12. Radiologic protection in intensive therapy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, H.; Juliana, C.; Gerusa, R.; Laurete, M.B.; Suelen, S.; Derech, Rodrigo D.A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of X-ray was a great achievement for humanity, especially for the medical community. In Intensive Care Units (ICUs), the RX tests, performed with mobile devices, add immense value to the diagnosis of inpatients who do not have the option to carry them out of bed. Following the technology and its improvements, fatalities arose from misuse of ionizing radiation, which mostly gave up for lack of knowledge of the biological effects caused by them, which leads to fear among professionals and often prevents a quick job and effectively by professionals of radiological techniques. The research it is a systematic review of the literature and justified by the scarcity of materials that reflect on the radiological protection in ICUs. For this study we found the Virtual Health Library (VHL) and Pubmed were indexed terms radiological protection and intensive care units, the search in Portuguese and English terms were used radiological protection and intensive care unit. The study aims to inform professionals of ICUs on the main aspects that refer to X-rays in hospital beds, the standards of radiological protection and personal protective equipment, thus avoiding possible damage to the biological health of workers, addressing subjects in rules and laws about the X radiation, emphasizing the protection of professionals in intensive care. It is clear, finally, that little research is conducted in the context of radiological protection of workers ICU's and this is a place that receives daily RX equipment, deserving more attention to protect the worker. (author)

  13. Joint CDRH (Center for Devices and Radiological Health) and state quality-assurance surveys in nuclear medicine: Phase 2 - radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, D.R.; Evans, C.D.

    1986-08-01

    The report discusses survey results on aspects of the quality assurance of radio-pharmaceuticals from 180 nuclear-medicine facilities in the United States. Data were collected from facilities in 8 states. Demographic information about nuclear-medicine operations and quality-assurance programs was gathered by state radiation-control-program personnel. The data collected from the survey show an incomplete acceptance of quality-assurance practices for radiopharmaceuticals. Most of the facilities in the survey indicated that, because an inferior radiopharmaceutical was prepared so infrequently, they did not believe it was cost-effective to perform extensive quality-assurance testing. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health hopes that the information from the survey will stimulate nuclear-medicine professionals and their organizations to encourage appropriate testing of all radiopharmaceuticals

  14. 78 FR 25747 - Gastroenterology and Urology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD... as catheters, cannulae or hollow needles. Chronic hemodialysis catheters are soft, blunt-tipped...

  15. The current status of interventional radiology in Canada: results of a survey by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millward, S.F.; Holley, M.L. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, Dept. of Radiology, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the current status of interventional radiology in Canada. A questionnaire was sent to 28 Canadian interventional radiologists (defined as a physician who performs any type of interventional procedure, including biopsies, but excluding interventional neuroradiology) practising in both tertiary and community hospitals in the major centres in all provinces except Prince Edward Island. Twenty-two (79%) of 28 surveys were completed and returned, providing data about 86 interventional radiologists (IRs). IRs were performing almost all of the following procedures at their institutions: inferior vena cava filter placement, venous angioplasty, dialysis fistula angioplasty, diagnostic and therapeutic pulmonary and bronchial artery procedures, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of the lower extremity and renal arteries, percutaneous abscess and biliary drainage procedures, percutaneous nephrostomy, and fibroid embolization. A second group of procedures, performed by both IRs and non-radiologists in most institutions, included: all types of central venous catheter placements, pleural drainage, and gastrostomy tube placement. Procedures not being performed by anyone in a number of institutions included: dialysis graft thrombolysis, varicocele embolization, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, palliative stenting of the gastrointestinal tract, fallopian tube recannalization, and liver and prostate tumour treatments. The factors most often limiting the respondents' ability to provide a comprehensive interventional service were the interventional radiology inventory budget and the availability of interventional radiology rooms; 50% of respondents indicated the number of available nurses, technologists and IRs was also an important limiting factor. IRs in Canada still play a major role in many of the most commonly performed procedures. However, limited availability of resources and personnel in many institutions may be hampering the ability of IRs to

  16. Cybersecurity in radiology: Access of public hot spots and public Wi-Fi and prevention of cybercrimes and HIPAA violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Perry; Kapadia, Neil; Acharya, Jay; Chang, Patricia T; Lefkovitz, Zvi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the steps that can be taken to ensure secure transfer of information over public and home networks, given the increasing utilization of mobile devices in radiology. With the rapid technologic developments in radiology, knowledge of various technical aspects is crucial for any practicing radiologist. Utilization of mobile devices, such as laptops, tablets, and even cellular phones, for reading radiologic studies has become increasingly prevalent. With such usage comes a need to ensure that both the user's and the patient's private information is protected. There are several steps that can be taken to protect sensitive information while using public networks. These steps include being diligent in reviewing the networks to which one connects, ensuring encrypted connections to web-sites, using strong passwords, and using a virtual private network and a firewall. As the role of information technology in modern radiology practice becomes more critical, these safety mechanisms must be addressed when viewing studies on any mobile device.

  17. The nuclear terrorist, radiological, biological, chemical threat. Medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourmelon, P.; Vidal, D.; Renaudeau, C.

    2005-01-01

    This book illustrates the cooperation of the civil and the military experts in the domain of the NBRC (nuclear, biological, radiological and chemical threat). The different aspects bond to the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, are discussed. Al topics of each domains (NRBC) are presented: historical and fundamental aspects, diagnostic, therapeutic and prevention. (A.L.B.)

  18. Quality Control Assessment of Radiology Devices in Kerman Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Jomehzadeh; Ali Jomehzadeh; Mohammad Bagher Tavakoli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Application of quality control (QC) programs at diagnostic radiology departments is of great significance for optimization of image quality and reduction of patient dose. The main objective of this study was to perform QC tests on stationary radiographic X-ray machines, installed in 14 hospitals of Kerman province, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, QC tests were performed on 28 conventional radiographic X-ray units in Kerman governmental hospitals, based ...

  19. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  20. Radiologic Equipment and Technicians according to the Distribution of the Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Choi, Jun Gu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide basic data in order to systematize the management of demand and supply of radiologic technicians, to pursue a fair regional distribution of educational institutions, and furthermore to keep reasonable medical treatment and fee. This research was carried out through the investigation of radiologic equipment and technicians according to the distribution of the population. We compared and analyzed the correlation between regional population, the number of clinics and hospitals, the number of medical imaging devices, and the number of radiologists and radiologic technicians in 5 cities without 'Gu' administrative units in 2008. 27,317 radiologic technicians have been produced since the administration of the national qualifying exam for radiologic technicians. About 18,000 radiologic technicians are currently working. There are 39 colleges or universities with Departments of Radiology and the admission quota is 2,120 students excluding one college. The ratio of radiologic equipment to radiologic technicians is 2.6 to 1. There is a dilemma in which some radiologic technicians fail to find appropriate jobs while some clinics or hospitals are in need of radiologic technicians. This dilemma is due to unreasonable regional discrepancies in pay system and welfare situation, and excessive profit-oriented recruiting system of clinics and hospitals. The increase of students of Radiologic Departments and approval of additional departments will end up with producing superfluous high academic degree holders, which is on the contrary to the government policy to produce more job opportunities. So the policy of increasing Radiologic Departments should be reconsidered.

  1. Radiology today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, M.W.; Heuck, F.H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The book encompasses the proceedings of a postgraduate course held in Salzburg in June 1980. 230 radiologists from 17 countries discussed here the important and practical advances of diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and ultrasound as they contribute to gastrointestinal, urologic, skeletal, cardiovascular, pediatric, and neuroradiology. The book contains 55 single contributions of different authors to the following main themes: Cardiovascular, Radiology, pulmonary radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, urinary tract radiology, skeletal radiology, mammography, lymphography, ultrasound, ENT radiology, and neuroradiology. (orig./MG)

  2. Response of the REWARD detection system to the presence of a Radiological Dispersal Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luís, R.; Fleta, C.; Balbuena, J.; Baptista, M.; Barros, S.; Disch, C.; Jumilla, C.; Lozano, M.; Marques, J.G.; Vaz, P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the REWARD project consisted in building a mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance, using a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit includes a GPS system and a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station, where it will be analyzed in real time and correlated with historical data from the tag location, in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The main objective of this work consisted in making predictions regarding the behavior of the REWARD system in the presence of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD), one of the reference scenarios foreseen for REWARD, using experimental data and the Monte Carlo simulation program MCNP6. Experimental tests were performed at the Fire Brigades Facilities in Rome and at the Naples Fire Brigades. The response of the REWARD detection system to the presence of an RDD is predicted and discussed. - Highlights: • A prototype mobile system for real-time, wide-area radiation surveillance was built. • Experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations were used to test the system. • The system is suitable to detect and identify radiation sources in threat scenarios.

  3. Radiation protection in the intervenmtional radiology; Strahlenschutz in der interventionellen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Benjamin V. [Institut fuer Radiobiologie der Bundeswehr, Muenchen (Germany); Ulm Univ. (Germany); Lissek, Friedrich; Waldeck, Stephan [Bundeswehrzentralkrankenhaus Koblenz (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2017-07-01

    Interventional radiology and neuroradiology covers a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. A minimal invasive percutaneous access under imaging guidance is common for all these methods. The legal regulations for quality assurance are reviewed, technical possibilities for dose reduction and the importance of modern radiation protection procedures are discussed.

  4. Pediatric radiology for medical-technical radiology assistants/radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppelt, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    The book on pediatric radiology includes the following chapter: differences between adults and children; psycho-social aspects concerning the patient child in radiology; relevant radiation doses in radiology; help for self-help: simple phantoms for image quality estimation in pediatric radiology; general information; immobilization of the patient; pediatric features for radiological settings; traumatology; contrast agents; biomedical radiography; computerized tomography; NMR imaging; diagnostic ultrasonography; handling of stress practical recommendations; medical displays.

  5. An Intercomparison of Model Predictions for an Urban Contamination Resulting from the Explosion of a Radiological Dispersal Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Jeong, Hyo Jun; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The METRO-K is a model for a radiological dose assessment due to a radioactive contamination in the Korean urban environment. The model has been taken part in the Urban Remediation Working Group within the IAEA's (International Atomic Energy Agency) EMRAS (Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety) program. The Working Croup designed for the intercomparison of radioactive contamination to be resulted from the explosion of a radiological dispersal device in a hypothetical city. This paper dealt intensively with a part among a lot of predictive results which had been performed in the EMRAS program. The predictive results of three different models (METRO-K, RESRAD-RDD, CPHR) were submitted to the Working Group. The gap of predictive results was due to the difference of mathematical modeling approaches, parameter values, understanding of assessors. Even if final results (for example, dose rates from contaminated surfaces which might affect to a receptor) are similar, the understanding on the contribution of contaminated surfaces showed a great difference. Judging from the authors, it is due to the lack of understanding and information on radioactive terrors as well as the social and cultural gaps which assessors have been experienced. Therefore, it can be known that the experience of assessors and their subjective judgements might be important factors to get reliable results. If the acquisition of a little additional information is possible, it was identified that the METRO-K might be a useful tool for decision support against contamination resulting from radioactive terrors by improving the existing model.

  6. An Intercomparison of Model Predictions for an Urban Contamination Resulting from the Explosion of a Radiological Dispersal Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Jeong, Hyo Jun; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee

    2009-01-01

    The METRO-K is a model for a radiological dose assessment due to a radioactive contamination in the Korean urban environment. The model has been taken part in the Urban Remediation Working Group within the IAEA's (International Atomic Energy Agency) EMRAS (Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety) program. The Working Croup designed for the intercomparison of radioactive contamination to be resulted from the explosion of a radiological dispersal device in a hypothetical city. This paper dealt intensively with a part among a lot of predictive results which had been performed in the EMRAS program. The predictive results of three different models (METRO-K, RESRAD-RDD, CPHR) were submitted to the Working Group. The gap of predictive results was due to the difference of mathematical modeling approaches, parameter values, understanding of assessors. Even if final results (for example, dose rates from contaminated surfaces which might affect to a receptor) are similar, the understanding on the contribution of contaminated surfaces showed a great difference. Judging from the authors, it is due to the lack of understanding and information on radioactive terrors as well as the social and cultural gaps which assessors have been experienced. Therefore, it can be known that the experience of assessors and their subjective judgements might be important factors to get reliable results. If the acquisition of a little additional information is possible, it was identified that the METRO-K might be a useful tool for decision support against contamination resulting from radioactive terrors by improving the existing model.

  7. Repository National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the facilities of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). It was established as an auxiliary organ of the Science and Technology Agency in 1957. In April 2016, it became a comprehensive radiology research and development department of the Quantum Science and Technology Research Organization, and has been performing 'research for medical use of radiation' and 'research for radiation safety and emergency radiation medical care' as the two pillars of research. The laboratory hospital is a sole monotechnic radiation hospital in Japan specializing in radiotherapy. Heavy particle accelerator for medical use has been constructed, and advancement of heavy particle therapy using rotating gantry is expected. At the clinical nuclear medicine department, research facilities involved in molecular imaging are cyclotron building, positron building, imaging diagnostic building, and exploratory research building, and they are equipped with are three large and small cyclotrons, clinical PET device, animal-specialized PET device, 7-tesla MRI. The nuclear medicine laboratory is equipped with four PET/CT devices, one PET device, and one gamma camera, and performing tumor examination and clinical research on psychiatric and neurological diseases. (A.O.)

  8. Interventional radiology (IVR). The history, status quo, and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furui, Shigeru; Kohtake, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IVR) is a clinical practice that therapy and/or biopsy are performed under guidance by images obtainable by the contrast angiography, ultrasonography, CT, MRI and so on. This paper describes its history, present status and future prospect. Actual operation procedure, recent trend and progress as well are explained in the order of arterial embolization, IVR in hepatic tumors, PTA (percutaneous transluminal angiography) and MS (metallic stent indwelling), MS applied to others than artery, S-G (stent-graft), IVR in portal hypertension, development of IVR devices in Japan, and radiation exposure and its protection in IVR. Many IVR devices have been developed in Japan for as long as these 30 years, a part of which is marketed. Skin exposure in patients is unavoidable in IVR with X-ray and thereby regulations by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) are introduced for their benefit. Systems for dose estimation in patients and efforts to reduce the dose are mentioned to be important and radiologists themselves should make effort to decrease their own exposure in consideration of the dose limits defined in the law. Problems in Japan are expensiveness of IVR devices, and slow-paced approval of new devices by authority and by health insurance agent. The author recommends doctors to have expert radiologist's advice in IVR. (R.T.)

  9. Analgesics and sedatives in vascular interventionist radiologic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio, M.A. de; Opta, J.M.; Pulido, J.M.; Encarnacion, C.E.; Arino, I., Fernandez, J.A.; Alfonso, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Interventionist radiology routinely requires the use of different drugs (analgesics and sedatives) in the course of a procedure. Aside from their therapeutic action, these drugs can produce secondary or undesirable effects, making necessary an in-depth knowledge of them to assure their safe and efficient management. The aim of this work is to provide the vascular interventionist radiologist with additional information on the management of those drugs that contribute to minimizing patient discomfort and pain in interventionist procedures. Author

  10. Audit of litigation against the accident and emergency radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, S; De Stefano, F; Mari, A; Savaia, F; Rosso, R; Derchi, L

    2009-09-01

    The aims of this study were to reduce and monitor litigation due to failure to diagnose a fracture, to evaluate whether the cases were due to radiological error or other problems in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients and to identify organisational, technical or functional changes or guidelines to improve the management of patients with suspected fracture and their expectations. We analysed the litigation database for the period 2004-2006 and extracted all episodes indicating failure to diagnose a fracture at the accident and emergency radiology department of our centre. The radiographs underwent blinded review by two experts, and each case was jointly analysed by a radiologist and a forensic physician to see what led to the compensation claim. We identified 22 events (2004 seven cases; 2005 eight cases; 2006 seven cases). Six cases were unrelated to radiological error. Six were due to imperceptible fractures at the time of the examination. These were accounted for by the presence of a major lesion distracting the examiner's attention from a less important associated lesion in one case, a false negative result in a patient examined on a incompletely radiolucent spinal board and underexposure of the coccyx region in an obese patient. Six cases were related to an interpretation error by the radiologist. In the remaining cases, the lesion being referred to in the compensation claim could either not be established or the case was closed by the insurance company without compensation. Corrective measures were adopted. These included planning the purchase of a higher performance device, drawing up a protocol for imaging patients on spinal boards, reminding radiologists of the need to carefully scrutinise the entire radiogram even after having identified a lesion, and producing an information sheet explaining to patients the possibility of false negative results in cases of imperceptible lesions and inviting them to return to the department if symptoms

  11. The radiological testing of consumer products 1976-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Dixon, D.W.

    1979-02-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board's source testing laboratory has been operational since 1976. In the intervening period the types of consumer product which have received most attention have been ionisation chamber smoke detectors and liquid crystal digital watches containing gaseous tritium light sources; the results obtained on these two types of device are the main subject of this report. The report also traces the development of the practical appraisal of these devices by the Board and describes the part played by the test results in the evolution of national and international standards. (author)

  12. Pediatric interventional radiology: vascular interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery. (author)

  13. Positive Response to Thermobalancing Therapy Enabled by Therapeutic Device in Men with Non-Malignant Prostate Diseases: BPH and Chronic Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanyan, Ivan Gerasimovich; Allen, Simon

    2016-04-18

    The most common types of non-malignant prostate diseases are benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis (CP). The aim of this study was to find out whether thermobalancing therapy with a physiotherapeutic device is effective for BPH and CP. During a 2.5-year period, 124 men with BPH over the age of 55 were investigated. Clinical parameters were tested twice: via the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and via ultrasound measurement of prostate volume (PV) and uroflowmetry maximum flow rate (Q max ), before and after six months of therapy. In 45 men with CP under the age of 55, the dynamics of the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) were studied. The results of the investigated index tests in men with BPH confirmed a decrease in IPSS ( p BPH and the improvement in NIH-CPSI-QoL in patients with CP after using a physiotherapeutic device for six months as mono-therapy, support the view that thermobalancing therapy with the device can be recommended for these patients. Furthermore, the therapeutic device is free of side effects.

  14. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R and D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development

  15. Characterization of workplaces in interventional radiology using active dosemeters ALARA OD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, I.; Milkovic-Kraus, S.; Mestrovic, T.; Suric-Mihic, M.; Vrtar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Because of progressive development and extended use of interventional radiology procedures it is highly recommended that all individuals involved in the process should be aware of the potential for both stochastic and deterministic effects due to occupational exposure. Interventional radiology procedures are essentially therapeutic and are performed by various medical specialists, not only by properly educated radiologists. As the procedures are performed in such a manner that certain number of medical staff are always needed near the patient, near the x- ray unit, ensuring 'safe' working environment in such radiation x-ray field geometry is a new challenge to regular radiation protection. In this work we are not primary concerned in relatively high doses delivered to patients undergoing interventional procedures. The patient is rather regarded as a secondary radiation source which emits scattered x-rays. The working staff, moving in mixed, primary and scattered x-ray field, is expected to be exposed to higher occupational doses due to combination of extended fluoroscopy times, elevated fluoroscopy currents and larger amount of radiographic images required. The protection of both patients and staff is to be upgraded. As passive dosemetes will give us clear knowledge only about the monthly integrated occupational dose, a reasonable doubt exists about the frequency and duration, of receiving the dose. Measuring dose rate is not a part of regular passive dosemeters monitoring systems. This is why we have developed active - electronic dosemeter device which provides us with additional dosimetry data about the frequency and duration of professional exposure burden. Digital dosemeter ALARA OD will record and integrate any occupational dose including the normal radiation background in the working area. It will record the time and duration of any fluoroscopic exposure done. This gives us the data about the dose rate of occupational radiation and frequency of

  16. Radiological Worker Training: Radiological Worker 2 study guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Upon completion of this training course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. Radiological Worker H Training, for the worker whose job assignment involves entry into Radiological Buffer Areas and all types of Radiation Contamination and Airborne Radioactivity Areas. This course is designed to prepare the worker to work safely in and around radiological areas and present methods to use to ensure individual radiation exposure is maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable

  17. Requirement of trained first responders and national level preparedness for prevention and response to radiological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the usage of radioactive sources in various fields and the present scenario of adopting various means of terrorism indicates a possible environment for malicious usage of radioactive sources. Many nations, India inclusive, have to strengthen further it's capability to deal with Nuclear/Radiological Emergencies. The probable radiological emergency scenario in public domain involves inadvertent melting of radioactive material, transport accident involving radioactive material/sources and presence of orphan sources as reported elsewhere. Explosion of Radiological Dispersal Device (RDDs) or Improvised Nuclear Devices (IND) leading to spread of radioactive contamination in public places have been identified by IAEA as probable radiological threats. The IAEA documents put lot of emphasis, at national level, on training and educational issues related with Radiological Emergencies. The agencies and institutions dealing with radioactive sources have few personnel trained in radiation protection. Experience so far indicates that public awareness is also not adequate in the field of radiological safety which may create difficulties during emergency response in public domain. The major challenges are associated with mitigation, monitoring methodology, contaminated and overexposed casualties, decontamination and media briefing. In this paper, we have identified the educational needs for response to radiological emergency in India with major thrust on training. The paper has also enumerated the available educational and training infrastructure, the human resources, as well as the important stake holders for development of sustainable education and training programme. (author)

  18. Radiological differential diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis; Radiologische Differenzialdiagnose der rheumatoiden Arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, M.C.; Klauser, A.S. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Department Radiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-02-15

    Establishing an early and reliable diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is of major importance but can be a great clinical challenge leading to direct therapeutic consequences. No single epidemiological, genetic, clinical, serological or radiological test exists which can exclusively diagnose RA. In general diagnosis of RA includes a case history, clinical signs, laboratory abnormalities and radiological examinations, viz. conventional radiography of the joints of the hands and feet. This review summarizes the most important radiological features of RA and the radiological findings of its closest differential diagnoses. (orig.) [German] Eine fruehe Diagnosestellung bei rheumatoider Arthritis (RA) stellt eine grosse klinische Herausforderung dar, da sich daraus unmittelbare therapeutische Konsequenzen ableiten. Es gibt keinen epidemiologischen, genetischen, klinischen, serologischen oder radiologischen Test, mit dessen alleiniger Anwendung die Diagnose der RA definitiv gestellt werden kann. Die Diagnose der RA erfolgt durch die Kombination von Patientenanamnese, klinischen Zeichen und serologischen Biomarkern in Zusammenschau mit der radiologischen Diagnostik, allen voran der Anwendung konventioneller Roentgenbilder der Haende und Fuesse. In diesem Uebersichtsartikel werden die wichtigsten radiologischen Merkmale zur Diagnose der RA und der diagnostisch haeufigsten Differenzialerkrankungen dargestellt. (orig.)

  19. Radiological clerkships as a critical curriculum component in radiology education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourdioukova, Elena V.; Verstraete, Koenraad L.; Valcke, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to explore the perceived value of clinical clerkships in the radiology curriculum as well as the impact of radiology clerkship on students' beliefs about the profession of radiology as a whole and as a career. Methods: This study is a sequel to a previous survey in which student perceptions about radiology curriculum components were investigated. The present study focuses on a further analysis of a subsection in this study, based on 14 statements about radiology clerkship and two statements about radiology as a career. Results: Perceived usefulness of the aspects of radiology clerkship as 'radiology examination', 'skills development' and 'diagnosis focus' were awarded the highest scores. The predict value of the subscale 'radiology examination' on the level of performance was very high (adjusted R 2 = 0.19, p < .001). Conclusion: Students expressed highly favorable evaluation of clerkship as a learning environment to learn to order and to interpret imaging studies as well as an unique possibility to attend various radiological examinations and to access to specific radiology software systems, as well as to get a better view on radiology and to improve image interpretation skills. This positive attitude towards clerkship is closely tied to students' beliefs about the profession of radiology as a whole. These aspects of dedicated radiology clerkship are crucial for effective and high-quality education as well as for the choice of radiology as a career.

  20. Radiological protection of the worker in medicine and dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The first three sections of this report concern general understanding of radiation protection, basic concepts for all workers, and practical problems common to all users of radiation in medicine and dentistry. The remaining sections cover specialist topics covering practical aspects in diagnostic radiology, dental radiography, the use of unsealed radionuclides (in the laboratory, diagnostic and therapeutic uses) balneotherapy, brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. (author).

  1. Radiological protection of the worker in medicine and dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The first three sections of this report concern general understanding of radiation protection, basic concepts for all workers, and practical problems common to all users of radiation in medicine and dentistry. The remaining sections cover specialist topics covering practical aspects in diagnostic radiology, dental radiography, the use of unsealed radionuclides (in the laboratory, diagnostic and therapeutic uses) balneotherapy, brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Diagnostic radiology 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulis, A.R.; Gooding, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This is the latest version of the continuing education course on diagnostic radiology given yearly by the Department of Radiology at the University of California, San Francisco. The lectures are grouped into sections on gastrointestinal radiology, mammography, uroradiology, magnetic resonance, hepatobiliary radiology, pediatric radiology, ultrasound, interventional radiology, chest radiology, nuclear medicine, cardiovascular radiology, and skeletal radiology. Each section contains four to eight topics. Each of these consists of text that represents highlights in narrative form, selected illustrations, and a short bibliography. The presentation gives a general idea of what points were made in the lecture

  3. 21 CFR 882.5050 - Biofeedback device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biofeedback device. 882.5050 Section 882.5050 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5050 Biofeedback device. (a) Identification. A biofeedback device is an instrument that provides a visual or auditory signal corresponding to...

  4. Nuclear radiation sensors and monitoring following a nuclear or radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Management of Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies arising from Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Devices (IND), Nuclear Reactors/Power plants and Nuclear War require measurement of ionizing radiations and radioactivity on an enhanced scale relative to the levels encountered in peaceful uses of ionizing radiations and radioactivity. It is heartening that since Hiroshima, Nagasaki nuclear disaster, the world has been quiet but since early 2000 there has been a fear of certain devices to be used by terrorists, which could lead to panic, and disaster due to dispersal of radioactivity by RDD, IND. Nuclear attack would lead to blast, thermal, initial nuclear radiation, nuclear fall out leading to gamma and neutron dose, dose rates in range from few R, R/h to kR, kR/h, and determinations of k Bq or higher order. Such situations have been visualized at national levels and National Disaster Management Authority NDMA has been established and Disaster Management Act 2005 has come into existence. NDMA has prepared guidelines for Nuclear and radiological emergency management highlighting preparedness, mitigation, response, capacity building, etc. Critical point in all these issues is detection of emergency, quick intimation to the concerned for action in shortest possible time. Upper most requirement by those involved in pursuing action, is radiation sensor based radiation monitors for personnel, area, and to assess contamination due to radioactivity.This presentation briefly describes the Indian scenario in the development of the radiation sensors and the sensor-based radiation monitors. (author)

  5. Nuclear radiation sensors and monitoring following a nuclear or radiological emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, P K [Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (India)

    2009-01-15

    Management of Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies arising from Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Devices (IND), Nuclear Reactors/Power plants and Nuclear War require measurement of ionizing radiations and radioactivity on an enhanced scale relative to the levels encountered in peaceful uses of ionizing radiations and radioactivity. It is heartening that since Hiroshima, Nagasaki nuclear disaster, the world has been quiet but since early 2000 there has been a fear of certain devices to be used by terrorists, which could lead to panic, and disaster due to dispersal of radioactivity by RDD, IND. Nuclear attack would lead to blast, thermal, initial nuclear radiation, nuclear fall out leading to gamma and neutron dose, dose rates in range from few R, R/h to kR, kR/h, and determinations of k Bq or higher order. Such situations have been visualized at national levels and National Disaster Management Authority NDMA has been established and Disaster Management Act 2005 has come into existence. NDMA has prepared guidelines for Nuclear and radiological emergency management highlighting preparedness, mitigation, response, capacity building, etc. Critical point in all these issues is detection of emergency, quick intimation to the concerned for action in shortest possible time. Upper most requirement by those involved in pursuing action, is radiation sensor based radiation monitors for personnel, area, and to assess contamination due to radioactivity.This presentation briefly describes the Indian scenario in the development of the radiation sensors and the sensor-based radiation monitors. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the field size in dental diagnostic radiology system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, P.S.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the field size of a dental X rays machine was evaluated considering the recommendation of the Brazilian Health Ministry Regulation 453 which established basic lines of radiological protection in medical and dental diagnostic radiology. The diameter of the field should not be superior to 6 cm in the localized end point, limiting the radiated area and protecting the head-neck region. The measurements were carried out in a dental X rays machine, Dabi Atlante, model Spectro 70X Seletronic. For the field size or useful beam determination, the intra-oral films were positioned on a plain surface to be exposed in four stages and two focus-film distances (FFD), 20 cm and 27.5 cm: 1) with spacer cone; 2) without spacer cone; 3) with spacer cone and film-holding device; 4) without spacer cone and film-holding device. The results show that the diameter of the field size is satisfactory only for FFD = 20 cm. When the film-holding device is used, which is recommended by the Regulation 453, item 5.8 d(ii), the diameter of the field size exceeds the maximum recommended value of 6 cm. (authors)

  7. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed. - Highlights: • The hazards associated to the use of radioactive sources must be taken into account. • Security issues are of paramount importance in the use of radioactive sources. • Radiation sources can be used to perpetrate terrorist acts (RDDs, INDs, REDs). • DSRS and orphan sources trigger radiological protection, safety and security concerns. • Regulatory control, from cradle to grave, of radioactive sources is mandatory.

  8. Interventional radiological therapy of benign low back pain syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huegli, R.W.; Jacob, A.L.; Steinbrich, W.

    2007-01-01

    Spinal affections belong to the most widespread sources of back pain. Beside medical history and clinical examination, the radiological investigation plays an important rote in the clinical workup especially with the modern Cross sectional imaging methods such as computed and magnetic resonance tomography. After exclusion of a malignant disease usually a conservative therapeutic approach is the first line treatment option. If the conservative treatment approach falls a minimalinvasive image guided diagnostic or therapeutic infiltration may be considered. Thereby the interventional radiologist should be a member of the team which decides the clinical strategy. This article describes epidemiology and pathophysiology, common pre-interventional diagnostic strategies, drugs, indications, possible complications and the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic minimally invasive image guided techniques in low back pain. In this context facet joint blockade, periradicular and peridural therapy as well as sacroiliac joint blockades are discussed

  9. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  10. Efficient radiologic reading environment by using an open-source macro program as connection software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han

    2012-01-01

    The objectives are (1) to introduce an easy open-source macro program as connection software and (2) to illustrate the practical usages in radiologic reading environment by simulating the radiologic reading process. The simulation is a set of radiologic reading process to do a practical task in the radiologic reading room. The principal processes are: (1) to view radiologic images on the Picture Archiving and Communicating System (PACS), (2) to connect the HIS/EMR (Hospital Information System/Electronic Medical Record) system, (3) to make an automatic radiologic reporting system, and (4) to record and recall information of interesting cases. This simulation environment was designed by using open-source macro program as connection software. The simulation performed well on the Window-based PACS workstation. Radiologists practiced the steps of the simulation comfortably by utilizing the macro-powered radiologic environment. This macro program could automate several manual cumbersome steps in the radiologic reading process. This program successfully acts as connection software for the PACS software, EMR/HIS, spreadsheet, and other various input devices in the radiologic reading environment. A user-friendly efficient radiologic reading environment could be established by utilizing open-source macro program as connection software. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficient radiologic reading environment by using an open-source macro program as connection software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Han

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives are (1) to introduce an easy open-source macro program as connection software and (2) to illustrate the practical usages in radiologic reading environment by simulating the radiologic reading process. Materials and methods: The simulation is a set of radiologic reading process to do a practical task in the radiologic reading room. The principal processes are: (1) to view radiologic images on the Picture Archiving and Communicating System (PACS), (2) to connect the HIS/EMR (Hospital Information System/Electronic Medical Record) system, (3) to make an automatic radiologic reporting system, and (4) to record and recall information of interesting cases. This simulation environment was designed by using open-source macro program as connection software. Results: The simulation performed well on the Window-based PACS workstation. Radiologists practiced the steps of the simulation comfortably by utilizing the macro-powered radiologic environment. This macro program could automate several manual cumbersome steps in the radiologic reading process. This program successfully acts as connection software for the PACS software, EMR/HIS, spreadsheet, and other various input devices in the radiologic reading environment. Conclusion: A user-friendly efficient radiologic reading environment could be established by utilizing open-source macro program as connection software.

  12. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  13. Therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage with Conventional Treatment in Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the role of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage in addition to conventional treatment among two groups, with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, in terms of regression in serum IgE levels and clinical recurrence at 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Study Design: Aquasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July 2010 to December 2013. Methodology: The study was carried out on 132 patients who fulfilled the Greenberger and Patterson criteria and underwent a chest X-ray, an HRCT chest and classified radiologically as with Central Bronchiectasis (CB), High Attenuation Mucus (HAM) or Other Radiological Features (ORF). Baseline serum IgE levels were noted. All patients were given treatment including prednisolone and antifungal agent itraconazole for 4 months. Patients with ORF on HRCT chest and just received the medical treatment were labeled as conventional group. Those patients who had CB or HAM radiological features also underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL), labeled as BAL group. Clinical recurrence and serum IgE levels were noted at 3 and 6 months. Values were compared using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests respectively. Results: Around 78 (59.1 percentage) of patients underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage to remove the mucus plugs. The mean serum IgE levels at baseline were 3312.04 ± 2526.217 and 3486.15 ± 2528.324 IU/ml in the BAL and conventional groups respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in the mean serum IgE levels at 3 (p < 0.00) and 6 months (p < 0.001) of follow-up in BALas compared to conventional group. There was no significant difference in the clinical recurrence rate in both the groups (p=0.078 at 3 and 0.343 at 6 months respectively). Conclusion: Therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage may be a useful adjunct to treatment in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary

  14. Analysis of radiological protection and security in the radioactive diagnosis area in a third level hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin Vega, J.C.; Aazorin Nieto, J.; Rivera Montalvo, T.

    1998-01-01

    Results from the evaluation made to radiological security and protection conditions prevailing in 13 medical diagnosis rooms with X rays at the National Nutrition Institute Zlavador Zubiran (third level hospital), aiming to give adequate protection and radiological security devices to the staff exposed from that hospital and to comply fully with requirements set by the standards

  15. Poul Erik Andersen's radiological work on Osteochondrodysplasias and interventional radiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    Hospital. His significant experience and extensive scientific work has led to many posts in the Danish Society of Interventional Radiology, the European Society of Radiology and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe, where he is a fellow and has passed the European Board...... of Interventional Radiology - The European qualification in Interventional Radiology....

  16. Sampling on radiological protection training in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.

    2001-01-01

    Radiological security aspects were evaluated in radiology departments from Mexico City. The study was carried out in two stages, the first one evaluated 40 departments just before the implementation of the new Official Mexican Standards related to Radiological Security and Quality Control in Radiology; in the second stage 33 departments were evaluated 2 years after those standards were implanted, showing a favorable impact of the training programs for the type of answers obtained [es

  17. Central venous catheters: detection of catheter complications and therapeutical options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauer, B.; Beck, A.; Wagner, H.J.; Vivantes-Kliniken, Hellersdorf und Prenzlauer Berg

    2008-01-01

    For modern medicine central venous catheters play an important role for diagnostic and therapeutic options. Catheter implantation, complication detection and therapy of catheter complications are an increasing demand for the radiologist. The review article provides an overview of different catheter types, their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Catheter malpositions are usually detectable in conventional X-ray. Most malpositions are correctable using interventional-radiological techniques. In addition therapeutical options for thrombotic complications (venous thrombosis, catheter occlusion, fibrin sheath) are discussed. In case of an infectious catheter complication, usually a catheter extraction and re-implantation is necessary

  18. Assessment of Safety Parameters for Radiological Explosion Based on Gaussian Dispersion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Alok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hyungjoon; Kim, Hong Suk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    These sources if used with explosive (called RDD - radiological dispersion device), can cause dispersion of radioactive material resulting in public exposure and contamination of the environment. Radiological explosion devices are not weapons for the mass destruction like atom bombs, but can cause the death of few persons and contamination of large areas. The reduction of the threat of radiological weapon attack by terrorist groups causing dispersion of radioactive material is one of the priority tasks of the IAEA Nuclear Safety and Security Program.Emergency preparedness is an essential part for reducing and mitigating radiological weapon threat. Preliminary assessment of dispersion study followed by radiological explosion and its quantitative effect will be helpful for the emergency preparedness team for an early response. The effect of the radiological dispersion depends on various factors like radioisotope, its activity, physical form, amount of explosive used and meteorological factors at the time of an explosion. This study aim to determine the area affected by the radiological explosion as pre assessment to provide feedback to emergency management teams for handling and mitigation the situation after an explosion. Most practical scenarios of radiological explosion are considered with conservative approach for the assessment of the area under a threat for emergency handling and management purpose. Radioisotopes under weak security controls can be used for a radiological explosion to create terror and socioeconomic threat for the public. Prior assessment of radiological threats is helpful for emergency management teams to take prompt decision about evacuation of the affected area and other emergency handling actions. Comparable activities of Co-60 source used in radiotherapy and Sr-90 source of disused and orphaned RTGs with two different quantities of TNT were used for the scenario development of radiological explosion. In the Basic Safety Standard (BSS

  19. Assessment of Safety Parameters for Radiological Explosion Based on Gaussian Dispersion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Alok; Yu, Hyungjoon; Kim, Hong Suk

    2014-01-01

    These sources if used with explosive (called RDD - radiological dispersion device), can cause dispersion of radioactive material resulting in public exposure and contamination of the environment. Radiological explosion devices are not weapons for the mass destruction like atom bombs, but can cause the death of few persons and contamination of large areas. The reduction of the threat of radiological weapon attack by terrorist groups causing dispersion of radioactive material is one of the priority tasks of the IAEA Nuclear Safety and Security Program.Emergency preparedness is an essential part for reducing and mitigating radiological weapon threat. Preliminary assessment of dispersion study followed by radiological explosion and its quantitative effect will be helpful for the emergency preparedness team for an early response. The effect of the radiological dispersion depends on various factors like radioisotope, its activity, physical form, amount of explosive used and meteorological factors at the time of an explosion. This study aim to determine the area affected by the radiological explosion as pre assessment to provide feedback to emergency management teams for handling and mitigation the situation after an explosion. Most practical scenarios of radiological explosion are considered with conservative approach for the assessment of the area under a threat for emergency handling and management purpose. Radioisotopes under weak security controls can be used for a radiological explosion to create terror and socioeconomic threat for the public. Prior assessment of radiological threats is helpful for emergency management teams to take prompt decision about evacuation of the affected area and other emergency handling actions. Comparable activities of Co-60 source used in radiotherapy and Sr-90 source of disused and orphaned RTGs with two different quantities of TNT were used for the scenario development of radiological explosion. In the Basic Safety Standard (BSS

  20. Chronicle of pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz-Bohm, Gabriele; Richter, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    The chronicle of pediatric radiology covers the following issues: Development of pediatric radiology in Germany (BRD, DDR, pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in the Netherlands (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in Austria (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in Switzerland (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations).

  1. Request for information about radiological risks in the health area. A cross-cultural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, A.; Martinez-Arias, R.; Arranz, L.; Macias, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will present some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The project used a survey method to examine the social demands for information about radiological risks with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The following topics will be analysed: 1) The role of information as a means for feeling safe; 2) who should inform the public on radiological risks; and 3) what type of information the public would like to receive. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentionned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't had any association at the time). Correspondence analysis and other techniques of optimal scaling will be used. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to social demand for information about radiological risks. Our findings may have relevant implications for radiological risks communication programs. (author)

  2. Request for information about radiological risks in the health area. A cross-cultural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Arias, R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Arranz, L. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Macias, M.T. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    This paper will present some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The project used a survey method to examine the social demands for information about radiological risks with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The following topics will be analysed: 1) The role of information as a means for feeling safe; 2) who should inform the public on radiological risks; and 3) what type of information the public would like to receive. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentionned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't had any association at the time). Correspondence analysis and other techniques of optimal scaling will be used. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to social demand for information about radiological risks. Our findings may have relevant implications for radiological risks communication programs. (author)

  3. Radiological investigation of renovascular hypertension from IVU to digital subtraction angiography. A critical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, M.; Froment, A.; Pinet, F.; Huguet, M.

    1986-01-01

    For the last 20 years, the value of radiology in renovascular hypertension (RVH) is well established from diagnostic and therapeutic points of view. However things are changing now due to a better appraisal of the incidence of RVH, new antihypertensive drugs, and new radiological procedures (digital angiography, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty). The approach now takes in account the mode of imaging for a better evaluation of the renal artery stenosis and costs of the proceedings as well. Finally a new strategy has been set up for RVH patients management [fr

  4. Imaging and radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventional radiology; Diagnostic radiology; X-ray imaging ... DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY Diagnostic radiology helps health care professionals see structures inside your body. Doctors that specialize in the interpretation ...

  5. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, András; Talanow, Roland; Bágyi, Péter

    2013-05-01

    Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or "tablet PCs" are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for diagnostic reading, reference, learning, consultation, and for

  6. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Székely, András, E-mail: andras.szekely@gmail.com [Kenézy Hospital Department of Radiology, 4043 Debrecen, Bartók Béla út 2-26 (Hungary); Talanow, Roland, E-mail: roland@talanow.info [P.O. Box 1570, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States); Bágyi, Péter [Kenézy Hospital Department of Radiology, 4043 Debrecen, Bartók Béla út 2-26 (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    Background: Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or “tablet PCs” are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. Materials and methods: A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. Results: We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Conclusion: Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for

  7. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Székely, András; Talanow, Roland; Bágyi, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or “tablet PCs” are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. Materials and methods: A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. Results: We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Conclusion: Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for

  8. Quality control procedures of dental diagnostic radiology systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Paula Serra Sasaki

    2007-01-01

    This work presents quality control reference procedures for dental diagnostic radiology systems, following the recommendations of the Publication 453 of the Brazilian Health Ministry (PF453), to be applied in dental clinics, in order to achieve an improvement in the radiological image qualities and the patient dose reduction. All tests were applied in an intraoral X rays system, following the methodology developed and the requirements of the PF 453. In order to verify the best quality of the image in relation to the smaller exposition time an object test was also developed in this work. The use of this object allowed the reduction of the exposition time of 0.5 seconds, the maximum value of the linear region of the characteristic curve, for 0.2 seconds. The tested X rays system showed a very good agreement with the applied procedures, detaching the reduction of the skin entrance dose using the film-holding devices. However, the size of the field increased and exceeded the maximum value of 6 cm recommended in the standard. The importance of the quality control in dental diagnostic radiology systems is essential due to the constant use of X radiation in dental clinics. The PF453 recommends the frequency of at least two years for the constancy tests. However, it is suggested that the professional, surgeon-dentist, should be responsible for the internal control of the image quality obtained from the X rays device. This can be done through monthly exposures of the object test developed in this work. (author)

  9. Radiological Control Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  10. Radiological Control Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records

  11. Radiological English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribes, R. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Cordoba (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Ros, P.R. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Radiology

    2007-07-01

    The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)

  12. Radiological English

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribes, R.; Ros, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)

  13. A cross-site vascular radiology on-call service: the Manchester experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashleigh, R.J.; Butterfield, J.S.; Asquith, J.; Chalmers, N.; Murphy, G.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: A cross-site vascular radiology on-call service was established 5 years ago to cover two vascular centres in Manchester. We aimed to review the service. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective audit of out-of hours referrals and procedures over a three month period (March-May 2003) was undertaken. RESULTS: There were 52 incidents in 49 patients (mean 4 calls per week). Nine involved telephone advice only, the remainder (82%) required a procedure. Angiography was performed on 88% of patients and therapeutic radiological intervention on 50%. 71% of calls occurred at a weekend. 50% of the calls were from vascular surgery and 50% from other sources. The consultant vascular radiologist was present for 93% of procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The workload suggests that a vascular radiology on call service is justified in Manchester. There have been no major problems with its implementation and operation. This is a consultant led service, with very few cases being devolved to a specialist registrar (SpR)

  14. Handbook of radiologic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedgcock, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is organized around radiologic procedures with each discussed from the points of view of: indications, contraindications, materials, method of procedures and complications. Covered in this book are: emergency radiology chest radiology, bone radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, GU radiology, pediatric radiology, computerized tomography, neuroradiology, visceral and peripheral angiography, cardiovascular radiology, nuclear medicine, lymphangiography, and mammography

  15. RSVP radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirks, D.R.; Chaffee, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops a relative scale of value for pediatric radiology (RSVPR). Neither the HCFA/ACA Relative Value Scale nor the Workload Measurement System developed by Health and Welfare Canada specifically addressed pediatric radiologic examinations. Technical and professional charges for examinations at Children's Hospital Medical Center were reviewed and compared with time and cost analysis. A scale was developed with chest radiography (PA and lateral views) assigned a value of 1. After review by pediatric radiologic technologists, radiologic administrators, pediatric radiologists, and chairs of departments of children's hospitals, this proposed scale was modified to reflect more accurately relative value components of pediatric radiologic and imaging examinations

  16. Radiographic appearances of uncommon paediatric implants and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquia, Arlen; Watson, Tom A.; Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    As childhood survival of chronic illness improves, long-term implanted devices will be encountered more frequently in routine radiology. In our paediatric tertiary referral hospital, we have come across several types of implanted devices that were not confidently recognised or identified by front-line staff and were often only identified by discussion with the patient, family or clinical team. This pictorial review highlights the appearance of nonvascular devices on paediatric radiographs in order to help clinicians identify the most frequent complications and to improve awareness of these important devices. (orig.)

  17. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR. PART 6 - PRESENTATION OF THE DECOMMISSIONING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a possible solution for the designing of a device for the decommissioning of the horizontal fuel channels in the CANDU 6 nuclear reactor. The decommissioning activities are dismantling, demolition, controlled removal of equipment, components, conventional or hazardous waste (radioactive, toxic in compliance with the international basic safety standards on radiation protection. One as the most important operation in the final phase of the nuclear reactor dismantling is the decommissioning of fuel channels. For the fuel channels decommissioning should be taken into account the detailed description of the fuel channel and its components, the installation documents history, adequate radiological criteria for decommissioning guidance, safety and environmental impact assessment, including radiological and non-radiological analysis of the risks that can occur for workers, public and environment, the description of the proposed program for decommissioning the fuel channel and its components, the description of the quality assurance program and of the monitoring program, the equipments and methods used to verify the compliance with the decommissioning criteria, the planning of performing the final radiological assessment at the end of the fuel channel decommissioning. These will include also, a description of the proposed radiation protection procedures to be used during decommissioning. The dismantling of the fuel channel is performed by one device which shall provide radiation protection during the stages of decommissioning, ensuring radiation protection of the workers. The device shall be designed according to the radiation protection procedures. The decommissioning device assembly of the fuel channel components is composed of the device itself and moving platform support for coupling of the selected channel to be dismantled. The fuel channel decommissioning device is an autonomous device designed for

  18. Radiological anatomy - evaluation of integrative education in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, S; Schmiedl, A; Meyer, S; Giesemann, A; Pabst, R; Weidemann, J; Wacker, F K; Kirchhoff, T

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation and analysis of the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" established since 2007 at the Medical School Hannover (MHH) in comparison with conventional education. Anatomy and radiology are usually taught separately with a considerable time lag. Interdisciplinary teaching of these associated subjects seems logical for several reasons. Therefore, the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" was established in the second year of medical education, combining these two closely related subjects. This interdisciplinary course was retrospectively evaluated by consideration of a student questionnaire and staff observations. The advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching in medical education are discussed. The course ratings were excellent (median 1; mean 1.3 on a scale of 1 to 6). This is significantly (p radiology increased during the course (88 %). According to the students' suggestions the course was enhanced by a visitation in the Department of Radiology and the additional topic central nervous system. Integrative teaching of anatomy and radiology was well received by the students. Both, anatomical and radiological comprehension and the motivation to learn were improved. However, it should be considered, that the amount of work and time required by the teaching staff is considerably increased compared to traditional teaching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Analysis of the Radiology Reports from Radiology Clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Kwack, Kyu Sung; Cho, Jae Hyun; Jang, Eun Ho

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the form and content of the radiology reports from radiology clinics in Korea. One hundred and sixty six radiology reports from 49 radiology clinics were collected, and these reports were referred to the academic tertiary medical center from March 2008 to February 2009. These included reports for CT (n = 18), MRI (n = 146) and examinations not specified (n = 2). Each report was evaluated for the presence of required contents (demographics, technical information, findings, conclusion, the name, license number and signature of the radiologist and the referring facility). These requirements were based on the guideline of the American College of Radiology and the previous research. The name of the patient, the gender, the body part, the type of examination, the time of examination and the conclusion, the name of the radiologist and the name of facility were well recorded in over 90% of the radiology reports. However, the identification number of the patient, the referring facility, the referring physician, the use of contrast material, the clinical information, the time of dictation, the signature of the radiologist and the license number of the radiologist were poorly recorded (less than 50%). The optimal format of a radiology report should be established for reliable and valid communication with clinicians

  20. Historical perspective: eponyms of vascular radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPoce, Jason; Jimenez, Guillermo; Weintraub, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms are ubiquitous throughout the medical literature, especially the radiology lexicon. In particular, vascular radiology is replete with dozens of eponyms named after pathologic and anatomic features and various medical devices. Several disease processes are known exclusively by their eponyms or by both their eponyms and their descriptive names. Although some authors advocate abandoning eponyms in favor of more descriptive terms, the established history and common use of eponyms make it unlikely that they will disappear from the vocabulary. Radiologists should be familiar with both the eponymous and descriptive names of disease processes to ensure effective communication and prevent erroneous identification. Study of these eponyms provides information about these disease processes and other medical knowledge for use in daily practice. In addition, biographic information about the pertinent physicians can yield insights into the sometimes surprising origins of these eponyms. The authors provide biographic sketches of these physicians and discuss the clinical relevance of the anatomic features, malformations, and syndromes that bear their names. ©RSNA, 2014.

  1. Radiology research in mainland China in the past 10 years: a survey of original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wang, Yun Fei; Yang, Zhen Lu; Schoepf, U Joseph; Xu, Jiaqian; Lu, Guang Ming; Li, Enzhong

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the features and trends of Radiology research in Mainland China through bibliometric analysis of the original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology (ER) between 2006 and 2015. We reviewed the original articles published in Radiology and ER between 2006 and 2015. The following information was abstracted: imaging subspecialty, imaging technique(s) used, research type, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study results, funding declarations, international collaborations, number of authors, department and province of the first author. All variables were examined longitudinally over time. Radiology research in Mainland China saw a substantial increase in original research articles published, especially in the last 5 years (P Radiology research, neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology were the most productive fields; MR imaging was the most used modality, and a distinct geographic provenience was observed for articles published in Radiology and ER. Radiology research in Mainland China has seen substantial growth in the past 5 years with neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology as the most productive fields. MR imaging is the most used modality. Article provenience shows a distinct geographical pattern. • Radiology research in Mainland China saw a substantial increase. • Neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology are the most productive fields. • MRI is the most used modality in Mainland China's Radiology research. • Guangdong, Shanghai, and Beijing are the most productive provinces.

  2. Introduction of radiological protection; Pengenalan kepada perlindungan radiologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: basic principles of radiological protection , dose limit which was suggested, stochastic and nonstochastic effects, equivalent dose and alternative of it`s calculation, limit for the publics, ICRP (International Commission for Radiological Protection) recommendations, and the principles of radiological protection. Dangerous radiation sources also briefly summarized i.e. x-ray generators, reactor nucleus.

  3. Externally Acquired Radiological Data for the Clinical Routine - A Review of the Reimbursement Situation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Andreas G; Steinhäuser, René T; Rosenberg, Britta

    2018-02-07

     Interdisciplinary radiological conferences and boards can improve therapeutic pathways. Because of the reinterpretation and presentation of external image data, which already was read, an additional workload is created which is currently not considered by health care providers. In this review we discuss the ongoing basics and possibilities in health economy for a radiological second opinion for the outpatient and inpatient sector in Germany.  Based on up-to-date literature and jurisdiction, we discuss the most important questions for the reimbursement for second opinions and conference presentations of external image data in an FAQ format. Additionally, we focus on the recently introduced E-Health law accordingly.  Radiological services considering second opinion or board presentation of externally acquired image data are currently not adequately covered by health care providers. In particular, there is no reimbursement possibility for the inpatient sector. Only patients with private insurance or privately paid second opinions can be charged when these patients visit the radiologist directly.  Currently there is no adequate reimbursement possibility for a radiological second opinion or image demonstrations in clinical conferences. It will be essential to integrate adequate reimbursement by health care providers in the near future because of the importance of radiology as an essential diagnostic and therapeutic medical partner.   · Currently there is no reimbursement for image interpretation and presentation in boards.. · Second opinions can only be reimbursed for patients with private insurance or privately recompensed.. · The E-Health law allows reimbursement for tele-counsel in very complex situations.. · It will be crucial to integrate radiological second opinion in future reimbursement policies by health care providers.. · Schreyer AG, Steinhäuser RT, Rosenberg B. Externally Acquired Radiological Data for the Clinical Routine - A Review of

  4. Is hair loss a reality in neuro-interventional radiology?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gavagan, L

    2012-02-01

    Reports in the literature of radiation-induced hair loss are becoming increasingly common. This work describes a retrospective dose study of patients (n = 958) undergoing diagnostic (primarily cerebral angiograms) and therapeutic (primarily cerebral embolisation) procedures in a neuro-interventional suite. A comparison of patient doses as dose area product (DAP) readings from a single-plane image intensifier system (mean DAP value of 8772 cGy cm(2)) were compared with patient doses from a flat panel biplane system (mean DAP value of 7855 cGy cm(2)). Over 80 % of patients requiring neuro-interventional procedures were found to undergo two procedures or more. An estimated 7 % of therapeutic procedures were found to reach the International Commission on Radiological Protection threshold for temporary epilation.

  5. Mobile Software as a Medical Device (SaMD) for the Treatment of Epilepsy: Development of Digital Therapeutics Comprising Behavioral and Music-Based Interventions for Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afra, Pegah; Bruggers, Carol S; Sweney, Matthew; Fagatele, Lilly; Alavi, Fareeha; Greenwald, Michael; Huntsman, Merodean; Nguyen, Khanhly; Jones, Jeremiah K; Shantz, David; Bulaj, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Digital health technologies for people with epilepsy (PWE) include internet-based resources and mobile apps for seizure management. Since non-pharmacological interventions, such as listening to specific Mozart's compositions, cognitive therapy, psychosocial and educational interventions were shown to reduce epileptic seizures, these modalities can be integrated into mobile software and delivered by mobile medical apps as digital therapeutics. Herein, we describe: (1) a survey study among PWE about preferences to use mobile software for seizure control, (2) a rationale for developing digital therapies for epilepsy, (3) creation of proof-of-concept mobile software intended for use as an adjunct digital therapeutic to reduce seizures, and (4) broader applications of digital therapeutics for the treatment of epilepsy and other chronic disorders. A questionnaire was used to survey PWE with respect to preferred features in a mobile app for seizure control. Results from the survey suggested that over 90% of responders would be interested in using a mobile app to manage their seizures, while 75% were interested in listening to specific music that can reduce seizures. To define digital therapeutic for the treatment of epilepsy, we designed and created a proof-of-concept mobile software providing digital content intended to reduce seizures. The rationale for all components of such digital therapeutic is described. The resulting web-based app delivered a combination of epilepsy self-care, behavioral interventions, medication reminders and the antiseizure music, such as the Mozart's sonata K.448. To improve long-term patient engagement, integration of mobile medical app with music and multimedia streaming via smartphones, tablets and computers is also discussed. This work aims toward development and regulatory clearance of software as medical device (SaMD) for seizure control, yielding the adjunct digital therapeutic for epilepsy, and subsequently a drug-device combination

  6. GIS-based tools to identify tradeoffs between waste management and remediation strategies from radiological dispersal device incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, P.; Wood, J.; Snyder, E. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Boe, T. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Schulthiesz, D.; Peake, T.; Ierardi, M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Hayes, C.; Rodgers, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Management of waste and debris from the detonation of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) will likely comprise a significant portion of the overall remediation effort and possibly contribute to a significant portion of the overall remediation costs. As part of the recent National Level Exercise, Liberty RadEx, that occurred in Philadelphia in April 2010, a methodology was developed by EPA to generate a first-order estimate of a waste inventory for the hypothetical RDD from the exercise scenario. Determination of waste characteristics and whether the generated waste is construction and demolition (C&D) debris, municipal solid waste (MSW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, or low level radioactive waste (LLRW), and characterization of the wastewater that is generated from the incident or subsequent cleanup activities will all influence the cleanup costs and timelines. Decontamination techniques, whether they involve chemical treatment, abrasive removal, or aqueous washing, will also influence the waste generated and associated cleanup costs and timelines. This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop a tool to support RDD planning and response activities by assessing waste quantities and characteristics as a function of potential mitigation strategies and targeted cleanup levels. (author)

  7. GIS-based tools to identify tradeoffs between waste management and remediation strategies from radiological dispersal device incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, P.; Wood, J.; Snyder, E.; Boe, T.; Schulthiesz, D.; Peake, T.; Ierardi, M.; Hayes, C.; Rodgers, M.

    2011-01-01

    Management of waste and debris from the detonation of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) will likely comprise a significant portion of the overall remediation effort and possibly contribute to a significant portion of the overall remediation costs. As part of the recent National Level Exercise, Liberty RadEx, that occurred in Philadelphia in April 2010, a methodology was developed by EPA to generate a first-order estimate of a waste inventory for the hypothetical RDD from the exercise scenario. Determination of waste characteristics and whether the generated waste is construction and demolition (C&D) debris, municipal solid waste (MSW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, or low level radioactive waste (LLRW), and characterization of the wastewater that is generated from the incident or subsequent cleanup activities will all influence the cleanup costs and timelines. Decontamination techniques, whether they involve chemical treatment, abrasive removal, or aqueous washing, will also influence the waste generated and associated cleanup costs and timelines. This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop a tool to support RDD planning and response activities by assessing waste quantities and characteristics as a function of potential mitigation strategies and targeted cleanup levels. (author)

  8. Radiological departments. Chapter 4.3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The book deals with the problems of health, labor and fire protection in the public health service of the GDR as a whole. A special chapter treats these items concerning the conditions in radiological departments. In this connection the main legal regulations are presented. Introducing remarks on generation and properties of ionizing radiations and on biological radiation effects are outlined. Further, the responsibilities in radiation protection, maximum permissible radiation doses and the handling of X-ray devices, sealed and unsealed radiation sources are discussed

  9. Reference radiology in nephroblastoma: accuracy and relevance for preoperative chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, J.P.; Schrader, C.; Zieger, B.; Ley, S.; Troeger, J.; Furtwaengler, R.; Graf, N.; Leuschner, I.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: A reference radiologic diagnosis was carried out for the purpose of quality control and in order to achieve high diagnostic accuracy in the ongoing trial and study SIOP 2001/GPOH for renal tumors during childhood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the value of diagnostic imaging and the benefit of reference evaluation at a pediatric radiology center. Materials and Methods: In 2004 the imaging studies of 97 patients suspected of having a renal tumor were presented at the beginning of therapy. Diagnostic imaging was compared to the primary imaging results and the histological findings and was analyzed in regard to the therapeutic consequence (primary chemotherapy without prior histology). 77 MRI, 35 CT and 67 ultrasound examinations of 47 girls and 50 boys (mean age 4 years; one day to 15.87 years old) were analyzed. In addition to the histological findings, the reference pathological results were submitted in 86 cases. Results from the primary imaging corresponding to the histology and results from the reference radiology corresponding to the histology and results from the reference radiology corresponding to the histology were statistically compared in a binomial test. Results: In 76 of the reference-diagnosed Wilms' tumors, 67 were confirmed histologically. In 72 cases preoperative chemotherapy was initiated. In 5 cases neither a Wilms' tumor nor a nephroblastomatosis was found. 16 of 21 cases (76%) with reference-diagnosed non-Wilms' tumors were selected correctly. The results of the primary imaging corresponded to the histology in 71 cases, and those of the reference radiology in 82 cases. The statistical evaluation showed that the results of the reference radiology were significantly better (p=0.03971). (orig.)

  10. Extended outlook: description, utilization, and daily applications of cloud technology in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Perry; Kapadia, Neil; Chang, Patricia T; Acharya, Jay; Seiler, Michael; Lefkovitz, Zvi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the concept of cloud technology, its role in medical applications and radiology, the role of the radiologist in using and accessing these vast resources of information, and privacy concerns and HIPAA compliance strategies. Cloud computing is the delivery of shared resources, software, and information to computers and other devices as a metered service. This technology has a promising role in the sharing of patient medical information and appears to be particularly suited for application in radiology, given the field's inherent need for storage and access to large amounts of data. The radiology cloud has significant strengths, such as providing centralized storage and access, reducing unnecessary repeat radiologic studies, and potentially allowing radiologic second opinions more easily. There are significant cost advantages to cloud computing because of a decreased need for infrastructure and equipment by the institution. Private clouds may be used to ensure secure storage of data and compliance with HIPAA. In choosing a cloud service, there are important aspects, such as disaster recovery plans, uptime, and security audits, that must be considered. Given that the field of radiology has become almost exclusively digital in recent years, the future of secure storage and easy access to imaging studies lies within cloud computing technology.

  11. Interventional radiology and endovascular surgery in the treatment of ectopic pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornazari, Vinicius Adami Vayego; Szejnfeld, Denis; Elito, Julio Júnior; Goldman, Suzan Menasce [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The advent of interventional radiology enabled remarkable advances in diagnosis and treatment of several situations in obstetrics and gynecology. In the field of obstetrics, these advances include temporary occlusion of the iliac arteries to the management of placenta accreta and/or prior, arteriovenous fistulas after embolization of uterine curettage and management of ectopic uterine and extra-uterine pregnancies. The non-tubal ectopic pregnancy, either cervical, abdominal, ovarian or in a cesarean scar, often represents major therapeutic challenge, especially when exists a desire to maintain fertility. Despite the systemic methotrexate therapy and surgical resection of the ectopic gestational sac be the most used therapeutic options, the interventionist approach of non-tubal ectopic pregnancies, direct injection of methotrexate in the gestational sac and intra-arterial chemoembolization of uterine arteries constitute in the currently literature viable, safe, effective modalities with low morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and rapid clinical recovery. Because of little variety of materials used, and the increase in training of specialists in the area, the radiological intervention as a treatment option in ectopic pregnancies is financially viable and present considerable accessibility in the world and at most of Brazilian medical centers.

  12. Development of a statewide hospital plan for radiologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Delli Carpini, Domenico; Bohan, Michael; Werdmann, Michael; Wilds, Edward; Barlow, Agnus; Beck, Charles; Cheng, David; Daly, Nancy; Glazer, Peter; Mas, Peter; Nath, Ravinder; Piontek, Gregory; Price, Kenneth; Albanese, Joseph; Roberts, Kenneth; Salner, Andrew L.; Rockwell, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Although general guidelines have been developed for triage of victims in the field and for hospitals to plan for a radiologic event, specific information for clinicians and administrators is not available for guidance in efficient management of radiation victims during their early encounter in the hospital. A consensus document was developed by staff members of four Connecticut hospitals, two institutions of higher learning, and the State of Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and Office of Emergency Preparedness, with assistance of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. The objective was to write a practical manual for clinicians (including radiation oncologists, emergency room physicians, and nursing staff), hospital administrators, radiation safety officers, and other individuals knowledgeable in radiation monitoring that would be useful for evaluation and management of radiation injury. The rationale for and process by which the radiation response plan was developed and implemented in the State of Connecticut are reviewed. Hospital admission pathways are described, based on classification of victims as exposed, contaminated, and/or physically injured. This manual will be of value to those involved in planning the health care response to a radiologic event

  13. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edholm, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    This is a report describing diagnostic techniques used in radiology. It describes the equipment necessary for, and the operation of a radiological department. Also is described the standard methods used in radiodiagnosis. (K.A.E.)

  14. Radiology research in mainland China in the past 10 years: a survey of original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wang, Yun Fei; Yang, Zhen Lu; Lu, Guang Ming; Schoepf, U.J.; Xu, Jiaqian; Li, Enzhong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the features and trends of Radiology research in Mainland China through bibliometric analysis of the original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology (ER) between 2006 and 2015. We reviewed the original articles published in Radiology and ER between 2006 and 2015. The following information was abstracted: imaging subspecialty, imaging technique(s) used, research type, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study results, funding declarations, international collaborations, number of authors, department and province of the first author. All variables were examined longitudinally over time. Radiology research in Mainland China saw a substantial increase in original research articles published, especially in the last 5 years (P < 0.001). Within Mainland China's Radiology research, neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology were the most productive fields; MR imaging was the most used modality, and a distinct geographic provenience was observed for articles published in Radiology and ER. Radiology research in Mainland China has seen substantial growth in the past 5 years with neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology as the most productive fields. MR imaging is the most used modality. Article provenience shows a distinct geographical pattern. (orig.)

  15. Radiology research in mainland China in the past 10 years: a survey of original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wang, Yun Fei; Yang, Zhen Lu; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Xu, Jiaqian [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Li, Enzhong [National Natural Science Foundation of China, Department of Medical Science, Beijing (China)

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate the features and trends of Radiology research in Mainland China through bibliometric analysis of the original articles published in Radiology and European Radiology (ER) between 2006 and 2015. We reviewed the original articles published in Radiology and ER between 2006 and 2015. The following information was abstracted: imaging subspecialty, imaging technique(s) used, research type, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study results, funding declarations, international collaborations, number of authors, department and province of the first author. All variables were examined longitudinally over time. Radiology research in Mainland China saw a substantial increase in original research articles published, especially in the last 5 years (P < 0.001). Within Mainland China's Radiology research, neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology were the most productive fields; MR imaging was the most used modality, and a distinct geographic provenience was observed for articles published in Radiology and ER. Radiology research in Mainland China has seen substantial growth in the past 5 years with neuroradiology, vascular/interventional Radiology, and abdominal Radiology as the most productive fields. MR imaging is the most used modality. Article provenience shows a distinct geographical pattern. (orig.)

  16. Testing a Novel 3D Printed Radiographic Imaging Device for Use in Forensic Odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Tara L; Bruhn, Ann M; Giles, Bridget; Garcia, Hector M; Diawara, Norou

    2017-01-01

    There are specific challenges related to forensic dental radiology and difficulties in aligning X-ray equipment to teeth of interest. Researchers used 3D printing to create a new device, the combined holding and aiming device (CHAD), to address the positioning limitations of current dental X-ray devices. Participants (N = 24) used the CHAD, soft dental wax, and a modified external aiming device (MEAD) to determine device preference, radiographer's efficiency, and technique errors. Each participant exposed six X-rays per device for a total of 432 X-rays scored. A significant difference was found at the 0.05 level between the three devices (p = 0.0015), with the MEAD having the least amount of total errors and soft dental wax taking the least amount of time. Total errors were highest when participants used soft dental wax-both the MEAD and the CHAD performed best overall. Further research in forensic dental radiology and use of holding devices is needed. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Radiological protection in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padovani, R.

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) reduces the need for many traditional interventions, particularly surgery, so reducing the discomfort and risk for patients compared with traditional systems. IR procedures are frequently performed by non-radiologist physicians, often without the proper radiological equipment and sufficient knowledge of radiation protection. Levels of doses to patients and staff in IR vary enormously. A poor correlation exists between patient and staff dose, and large variations of dose are reported for the same procedure. The occurrence of deterministic effects in patients is another peculiar aspect of IR owing to the potentially high skin doses of some procedures. The paper reviews the use of IR and the radiological protection of patients and staff, and examines the need for new standards for IR equipment and the training of personnel. (author)

  18. Complications after arthroscopic coracoclavicular reconstruction using a single adjustable-loop-length suspensory fixation device in acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Kim, Nam-Ki

    2015-05-01

    . Additionally, 8 patients (44%) had complications associated with the adjustable-loop-length suspensory fixation device and surgical technical problems. Despite acceptable shoulder function restoration, adequate care should be exercised in surgical treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocation with a single adjustable-loop-length suspensory fixation device for optimal radiological outcomes. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CADASIL: pathogenesis, clinical and radiological findings and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common genetic cause of ischemic strokes and a most important model for the study of subcortical vascular dementia. This unrelentlessly progressive disease affects many hundreds of families all over the world but is not well studied in Brazil. This manuscript reviews pathogenetic, clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of CADASIL. The causal mutations are now very well known, but the same can not be said about its intimate pathogenetic mechanisms. The variable clinical presentation should lead physicians to actively pursue the diagnosis in many settings and to more thoroughly investigate family history in first degree relatives. A rational approach to genetic testing is however needed. Treatment of CADASIL is still largely empiric. High-quality therapeutic studies involving medications and cognitive interventions are strongly needed in CADASIL. (author)

  20. CADASIL: pathogenesis, clinical and radiological findings and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Charles [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). School of Medicine

    2010-04-15

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common genetic cause of ischemic strokes and a most important model for the study of subcortical vascular dementia. This unrelentlessly progressive disease affects many hundreds of families all over the world but is not well studied in Brazil. This manuscript reviews pathogenetic, clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of CADASIL. The causal mutations are now very well known, but the same can not be said about its intimate pathogenetic mechanisms. The variable clinical presentation should lead physicians to actively pursue the diagnosis in many settings and to more thoroughly investigate family history in first degree relatives. A rational approach to genetic testing is however needed. Treatment of CADASIL is still largely empiric. High-quality therapeutic studies involving medications and cognitive interventions are strongly needed in CADASIL. (author)

  1. Considerations regarding iodine prophylaxis in radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.; Rojo, A.M.; Dubner, D.; Bruno, H.

    1995-01-01

    The indication for the blockade of thyroid gland by the administration of stable iodide is the main countermeasure for diminishing the thyroid uptake of radioiodine following radiological accidents with potential release of radioiodine into the environment in order to avoid deterministic effects and to decrease the probability of stochastic effects. Iodine prophylaxis should be considered along with other countermeasures like sheltering indoors, evacuation and control on contaminated foods. In this communication different factors related to accidental situations regarding iodine prophylaxis are evaluated. A therapeutical scheme is proposed in order to be applied in countries of this region. (author). 4 refs

  2. An Essential Role for Coagulase in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Development Reveals New Therapeutic Possibilities for Device-Related Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapotoczna, Marta; McCarthy, Hannah; Rudkin, Justine K; O'Gara, James P; O'Neill, Eoghan

    2015-12-15

    High-level resistance to antimicrobial drugs is a major factor in the pathogenesis of chronic Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated, medical device-related infections. Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis revealed that biofilms grown for ≤ 24 hours on biomaterials conditioned with human plasma under venous shear in iron-free cell culture medium were significantly more susceptible to antistaphylococcal antibiotics. Biofilms formed under these physiologically relevant conditions were regulated by SaeRS and dependent on coagulase-catalyzed conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin. In contrast, SarA-regulated biofilms formed on uncoated polystyrene in nutrient-rich bacteriological medium were mediated by the previously characterized biofilm factors poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, fibronectin-binding proteins, or autolytic activity and were antibiotic resistant. Coagulase-mediated biofilms exhibited increased antimicrobial resistance over time (>48 hours) but were always susceptible to dispersal by the fibrinolytic enzymes plasmin or nattokinase. Biofilms recovered from infected central venous catheters in a rat model of device-related infection were dispersed by nattokinase, supporting the important role of the biofilm phenotype and identifying a potentially new therapeutic approach with antimicrobials and fibrinolytic drugs, particularly during the early stages of device-related infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A pilot study of radiation exposures arising from interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, S.; Giczi, F.; Gaspardy, G.; Temesi, A.; Ballay, L.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the past 25 years, considerable number of new therapeutic procedures have been worked out and adopted in radiology. These interventional procedures are mainly based on angiographic methods. During these procedures the exposure of patients and staff are usually greater than of conventional radiography and fluoroscopy as a consequence of longer fluoroscopy times and great number of cine-radiography. In the latest years radiation-induced skin injuries occurred in some patients. Injuries to physicians and staff performing interventional procedures have also been observed. In our days interventional procedures are widely used and more sophisticated procedures are worked out and adopted. Consequently, there is a need for the protection of the patient and the staff on a higher level. Radiation protection of intervention radiology deserves a distinguish attention. In Hungary interventional radiology were performed in 36 laboratories in 2003. According to statistical data the gross number of interventional radiological procedures were 19442. The most frequently performed procedures were the P.T.C.A., the coronary and ilio-femoral stent implantation and chemo-embolization. In 2004, the National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radio-hygiene and the National Patient Dose Evaluation Program started a pilot study of radiation exposures arising from interventional radiology procedures. During the study the patient exposure were measured by D.A.P.-meters. The patient skin dose and the staff dose were performed by thermoluminescent chips. In their presentation the authors present the most important results of the study. (authors)

  4. The radiological accident in Yanango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The use of nuclear technologies has fostered new, more effective and efficient medical procedures and has substantially improved diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. However, in order that the benefits of the use of ionizing radiation outweigh the potential hazards posed by this medium, it is important that radiation protection and safety standards be established to govern every aspect of the application of ionizing radiation. Adherence to these standards needs to be maintained through effective regulatory control, safe operational procedures and a safety culture that is shared by all. Occasionally, established safety procedures are violated and serious radiological consequences ensue. The radiological accident described in this report, which took place in Lilo, Georgia, was a result of such an infraction. Sealed radiation sources had been abandoned by a previous owner at a site without following established regulatory safety procedures, for example by transferring the sources to the new owner or treating them as spent material and conditioning them as waste. As a consequence, 11 individuals at the site were exposed for a long period of time to high doses of radiation which resulted inter alia in severe radiation induced skin injuries. Although at the time of the accident Georgia was not an IAEA Member State and was not a signatory of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, the IAEA still provided assistance to the Government of Georgia in assessing the radiological situation, while the World Health Organization (WHO) assisted in alleviating the medical consequences of the accident. The two organizations co-operated closely from the beginning, following the request for assistance by the Georgian Government. The IAEA conducted the radiological assessment and was responsible for preparing the report. The WHO and its collaborating centres within the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network

  5. Evaluating factors affecting the permeability of emulsions used to stabilize radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Garey A; Medina, Victor F

    2005-05-15

    Present strategies for alleviating radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or dirty bomb involve either demolishing and removing radioactive surfaces or abandoning portions of the area near the release point. In both cases, it is imperative to eliminate or reduce migration of the radioisotopes until the cleanup is complete or until the radiation has decayed back to acceptable levels. This research investigated an alternative strategy of using emulsions to stabilize radioactive particulate contamination. Emergency response personnel would coat surfaces with emulsions consisting of asphalt or tall oil pitch to prevent migration of contamination. The site can then be evaluated and cleaned up as needed. In order for this approach to be effective, the treatment must eliminate migration of the radioactive agents in the terror device. Water application is an environmental condition that could promote migration into the external environment. This research investigated the potential for water, and correspondingly contaminant, migration through two emulsions consisting of Topein, a resinous byproduct during paper manufacture. Topein C is an asphaltic-based emulsion and Topein S is a tall oil pitch, nonionic emulsion. Experiments included water adsorption/ mobilization studies, filtration tests, and image analysis of photomicrographs from an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and a stereomicroscope. Both emulsions were effective at reducing water migration. Conductivity estimates were on the order of 10(-80) cm s(-1) for Topein C and 10(-7) cm s(-1) for Topein S. Water mobility depended on emulsion flocculation and coalescence time. Photomicrographs indicate that Topein S consisted of greater and more interconnected porosity. Dilute foams of isolated spherical gas cells formed when emulsions were applied to basic surfaces. Gas cells rose to the surface and ruptured, leaving void spaces that penetrated throughout the emulsion. These

  6. Quality and Calibration of X-Ray Devices Used in Radiology

    OpenAIRE

    SONĞUR, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Calibration is defined as the relationship between the results obtained from the reference systems and the measurement devices, or briefly as the process of determining the magnitude of deviation from the correct values. The errors in the results produced by the measurement systems, which has been calibrated correctly, must be within the specified limits. Medical diagnosis and therapies are conducted by taking into account the results obtained from medical devices. So, the accuracy of the res...

  7. General Employee Radiological Training and Radiological Worker Training: Program management manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This manual defines and describes the DOE General Employee Radiological Training (GERT) and Radiological Worker I and II (RW I and II) Training programs. It includes material development requirements, standards and policies, and program administration. This manual applies to General Employee Radiological Training and Radiological Worker Training at all DOE contractor sites. The training materials of both GERT and RW I and II training reflect the requirements identified in the DOE Radiological Control Manual and DOE Order 5480.11. The training programs represent the minimum requirement for the standardized core materials. Each contractor shall implement the program in its entirety and may augment the standardized core materials to increase the general employee and radiological worker level of competency

  8. The role of the Therapeutic Goods Administration and the Medicine and Medical Devices Safety Authority in evaluating complementary and alternative medicines in Australia and New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dilip; Skinner, Margot; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, the regulation of complementary and alternative medicines and related health claims in Australia and New Zealand is managed in a number of ways. Complementary medicines, including herbal, minerals, nutritional/dietary supplements, aromatherapy oils and homeopathic medicines are regulated under therapeutic goods/products legislation. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), a division of the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing is responsible for administering the provisions of the legislation in Australia. The New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority (Medsafe) administers the provision of legislation in New Zealand. In December 2003 the Australian and New Zealand governments signed a Treaty to establish a single, bi-national agency to regulate therapeutic products, including medical devices prescription, over-the-counter and complementary medicines. A single agency will replace the Australian TGA and the New Zealand Medsafe. The role of the new agency will be to safeguard public health through regulation of the quality, safety and efficacy or performance of therapeutic products in both Australia and New Zealand. The major activities of the new joint Australia New Zealand therapeutic products agency are in product licensing, specifying labelling standards and setting the advertising scheme, together with determining the risk classes of medicines and creating an expanded list of ingredients permitted in Class I medicines. A new, expanded definition of complementary medicines is proposed and this definition is currently under consultation. Related Australian and New Zealand legislation is being developed to implement the joint scheme. Once this legislation is passed, the Treaty will come into force and the new joint regulatory scheme will begin. The agency is expected to commence operation no later than 1 July 2006 and will result in a single agency to regulate complementary and alternative medicines

  9. Radiology equipment maintenance and contract procurement in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Radiology equipment maintenance has a similar financial value to new device acquisition over the lifetime of the device. Comprehensive style contracts are dominant largely due to their ease of use and the potential to control budgetary costs, but costs are high. Creative procurement solutions can offer better value. The corrective portion of comprehensive contracts is estimated to be between 50% (Mobile C-Arm) to 92% (CT), which equates to $29.4 million; 80% of the total contract costs within the research population of this study. Many organizations could free up cash by better managing their maintenance costs, potentially creating funding opportunities for new equipment.

  10. Fast Running Urban Dispersion Model for Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) Releases: Model Description and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowardhan, Akshay [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Donetti, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Belles, Rich [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Eme, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Homann, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC)

    2017-05-24

    Aeolus is an efficient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code based on finite volume method developed for predicting transport and dispersion of contaminants in a complex urban area. It solves the time dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equation on a regular Cartesian staggered grid using a fractional step method. It also solves a scalar transport equation for temperature and using the Boussinesq approximation. The model also includes a Lagrangian dispersion model for predicting the transport and dispersion of atmospheric contaminants. The model can be run in an efficient Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) mode with a run time of several minutes, or a more detailed Large Eddy Simulation (LES) mode with run time of hours for a typical simulation. This report describes the model components, including details on the physics models used in the code, as well as several model validation efforts. Aeolus wind and dispersion predictions are compared to field data from the Joint Urban Field Trials 2003 conducted in Oklahoma City (Allwine et al 2004) including both continuous and instantaneous releases. Newly implemented Aeolus capabilities include a decay chain model and an explosive Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) source term; these capabilities are described. Aeolus predictions using the buoyant explosive RDD source are validated against two experimental data sets: the Green Field explosive cloud rise experiments conducted in Israel (Sharon et al 2012) and the Full-Scale RDD Field Trials conducted in Canada (Green et al 2016).

  11. Protecting National Critical Infrastructure against Radiological Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaar, I.; Halevy, I.; Berenstein, Z.; Sharon, A.

    2014-01-01

    National Critical Infrastructure (NCI) such as transportation, water, energy etc., are essential elements in a developed country's economy. As learned after the 9/11 attackxx, a terror attack on these complex system may cause thousands of casualties and significant economic damage. The attack can be a conventional one; like the train bombing in Spainxxi or the bus bombing in Londonxxii, or a non-conventional one; like the Sarin attack on the underground train in Tokyo, Japanxxiii. A radiological attack on a NCI is also feasiblexxiv. This type of attack must be taken into consideration due to the vulnerability of ani infrastructure to such an attack, and the severe economic outcome of itxxv. The radioactive materials that might be used by terrorists were recently identified and categorized in one of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series publicationxxvi,xxvii. The most common and therefore reachable radio nuclides are the gamma emitters 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir, the beta emitter 90Sr and the alpha emitters 241Pu, 238Pu and 241Am. A radiological event can be any of two principle scenarios. In the first scenario, a radiological dispersion device (RDD) or ôdirtyö bomb is used. This device consists of a radiation source which is detonated using conventional or improvised explosivesxxviii. Most of the casualties in this event will be from the explosion blast wave. However, some people might become contaminated with different levels of radiationxxix, some might need to go through some type of medical screening process and the costs of the total actions might be significantxxx. The second scenario involves a silent dispersion of radioactive material in a public site. In this event, there are no immediate known casualties, and the fact that people were exposed to radioactive material will be discovered only in the uncommon event when symptoms of radiation sickness will be identified due to exposure to high radiation dosexxxi, or if the radioactive material is discovered by a first

  12. Informatics in radiology: Efficiency metrics for imaging device productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengqi; Pavlicek, William; Liu, Patrick T; Zhang, Muhong; Langer, Steve G; Wang, Shanshan; Place, Vicki; Miranda, Rafael; Wu, Teresa Tong

    2011-01-01

    Acute awareness of the costs associated with medical imaging equipment is an ever-present aspect of the current healthcare debate. However, the monitoring of productivity associated with expensive imaging devices is likely to be labor intensive, relies on summary statistics, and lacks accepted and standardized benchmarks of efficiency. In the context of the general Six Sigma DMAIC (design, measure, analyze, improve, and control) process, a World Wide Web-based productivity tool called the Imaging Exam Time Monitor was developed to accurately and remotely monitor imaging efficiency with use of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) combined with a picture archiving and communication system. Five device efficiency metrics-examination duration, table utilization, interpatient time, appointment interval time, and interseries time-were derived from DICOM values. These metrics allow the standardized measurement of productivity, to facilitate the comparative evaluation of imaging equipment use and ongoing efforts to improve efficiency. A relational database was constructed to store patient imaging data, along with device- and examination-related data. The database provides full access to ad hoc queries and can automatically generate detailed reports for administrative and business use, thereby allowing staff to monitor data for trends and to better identify possible changes that could lead to improved productivity and reduced costs in association with imaging services. © RSNA, 2011.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of trauma CT in the trauma room versus the radiology department: the REACT trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltzherr, T.P.; Goslings, J.C. [Academic Medical Center, Trauma Unit Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bakker, F.C. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Traumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beenen, L.F.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olff, M. [Academic Medical Center, AMC de Meren, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meijssen, K. [VU University Medical Center, Economics Department, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Asselman, F.F. [Academic Medical Center, Concern Staff Department, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reitsma, J.B. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dijkgraaf, M.G.W. [Academic Medical Center, Clinical Research Unit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the REACT study group

    2013-01-15

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of trauma room CT compared with CT performed at the radiology department. In this randomised controlled trial, adult patients requiring evaluation in a level 1 trauma centre were included. In the intervention hospital the CT system was located within the trauma room and in the control hospital within the radiology department. Direct and indirect medical costs of the institutionalised stay and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were calculated. A total of 1,124 patients were randomised with comparable demographic characteristics. Mean number of non-institutionalised days alive was 322.5 in the intervention group (95 % CI 314-331) and 320.7 in the control group (95 % CI 312.1-329.2). Mean costs of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures per hospital inpatient day were EUR554 for the intervention group and EUR468 for the control group. Total mean costs in the intervention group were EUR16,002 (95 % CI 13,075-18,929) and EUR16,635 (95 % CI 13,528-19,743) for the control group (P = 0.77). The present study showed that in trauma patients the setting with a CT system located in the trauma room did not provide any advantages or disadvantages from a health economics perspective over a CT system located in the radiology department. (orig.)

  14. Cost-effectiveness of trauma CT in the trauma room versus the radiology department: the REACT trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltzherr, T.P.; Goslings, J.C.; Bakker, F.C.; Beenen, L.F.M.; Olff, M.; Meijssen, K.; Asselman, F.F.; Reitsma, J.B.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.W.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of trauma room CT compared with CT performed at the radiology department. In this randomised controlled trial, adult patients requiring evaluation in a level 1 trauma centre were included. In the intervention hospital the CT system was located within the trauma room and in the control hospital within the radiology department. Direct and indirect medical costs of the institutionalised stay and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were calculated. A total of 1,124 patients were randomised with comparable demographic characteristics. Mean number of non-institutionalised days alive was 322.5 in the intervention group (95 % CI 314-331) and 320.7 in the control group (95 % CI 312.1-329.2). Mean costs of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures per hospital inpatient day were EUR554 for the intervention group and EUR468 for the control group. Total mean costs in the intervention group were EUR16,002 (95 % CI 13,075-18,929) and EUR16,635 (95 % CI 13,528-19,743) for the control group (P = 0.77). The present study showed that in trauma patients the setting with a CT system located in the trauma room did not provide any advantages or disadvantages from a health economics perspective over a CT system located in the radiology department. (orig.)

  15. Main radiation protection actions for medical personnel as primary responders front of an event with radiological dispersive device; Principais acoes de protecao radiologica para equipe medica como primeiros respondedores frente a um evento com dispositivo de dispersao radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, Hildanielle Ramos

    2015-07-01

    After the terrorist attack in New York, USA, in 2001, there was a worldwide concern about possible attacks using radioactive material in conventional detonators, called as Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb'. Several studies have been and are being made to form a global knowledge about this type of event. As until now, fortunately, there has not been an event with RDD, the Goiania Radiological Accident in Brazil, 1987, is used as a reference for decision-making. Several teams with technical experts should act in an event with RDD, but the medical staffs who respond quickly to the event must be properly protected from the harmful effects of radiation. Based on the radiological protection experts performance during the Goiania accident and the knowledge from lessons learned of many radiological accidents worldwide, this work presents an adaptation of the radiation protection actions for an event with RDD that helps a medical team as primary responders. The following aspects are presented: the problem of radioactive contamination from the explosion of the device in underground environment, the actions of the first responders and evaluation of health radiation effects. This work was based on specialized articles and papers about radiological accidents and RDD; as well as personal communication and academic information of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. The radiation protection actions, adapted to a terrorist attack event with RDD, have as a scenario a subway station in the capital. The main results are: the use of the basic radiation protection principle of time because there is no condition to take care of a patient keeping distance or using a shielding; the use of full appropriate protection cloths for contaminating materials ensuring the physical safety of professionals, and the medical team monitoring at the end of a medical procedure, checking for surface contamination. The main conclusion is that all medical actions

  16. Consequence Assessment for Potential Scenarios of Radiological Terrorists Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeongki; Kim, Juyoul

    2007-01-01

    Radiological dispersal device (RDD) means any method used to deliberately disperse radioactive material to create terror or harm. Dirty bomb is an example of RDD, which usually consists of radioactive material and unconventional explosive. Dirty bomb was a problem long before September 11, 2001. In 1987, the Iraqi government tested a one-ton radiological bomb. The Iraqi tests confirmed that a dirty bomb is not effective as weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and that its main value is as a psychological weapon. In 1995, Chechen rebels buried a dirty bomb in a park in Moscow threatening to detonate one in the future if their demands were not met. Another good example of potential dirty bomb effects was an incident in Goiania, Brazil on September 18, 1987, where an orphaned medical source containing 1,375 Ci of Cs-137 resulted the death of four people and extensive environmental contamination. The purposes of radiological terrorists events are not to destroy or damage the target but to disperse radioactivity in the environment. They inflict panic on a public and economic damage by disruption of business. They also have influence on enormous clean-up costs by spreading radioactive contamination including secondary impacts on water supply reservoirs. Generally, two major long-term concerns following a RDD are human health and economic impacts. In this study, we developed potential scenarios of radiological terrorists events and performed their radiological consequence assessments in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE), projected cumulative external and internal dose, and ground deposition of radioactivity

  17. Consequence Assessment for Potential Scenarios of Radiological Terrorists Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeongki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juyoul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Radiological dispersal device (RDD) means any method used to deliberately disperse radioactive material to create terror or harm. Dirty bomb is an example of RDD, which usually consists of radioactive material and unconventional explosive. Dirty bomb was a problem long before September 11, 2001. In 1987, the Iraqi government tested a one-ton radiological bomb. The Iraqi tests confirmed that a dirty bomb is not effective as weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and that its main value is as a psychological weapon. In 1995, Chechen rebels buried a dirty bomb in a park in Moscow threatening to detonate one in the future if their demands were not met. Another good example of potential dirty bomb effects was an incident in Goiania, Brazil on September 18, 1987, where an orphaned medical source containing 1,375 Ci of Cs-137 resulted the death of four people and extensive environmental contamination. The purposes of radiological terrorists events are not to destroy or damage the target but to disperse radioactivity in the environment. They inflict panic on a public and economic damage by disruption of business. They also have influence on enormous clean-up costs by spreading radioactive contamination including secondary impacts on water supply reservoirs. Generally, two major long-term concerns following a RDD are human health and economic impacts. In this study, we developed potential scenarios of radiological terrorists events and performed their radiological consequence assessments in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE), projected cumulative external and internal dose, and ground deposition of radioactivity.

  18. Guía terapéutica del Dispositivo Grupos de Terapia Focalizada- GTF para adolescentes violentos Therapeutic guide of the Focalised Therapy Group device - FTG for violent adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Quiroga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Programa de Psicología Clínica para Adolescentes, Sede Regional Sur, UBA se creó un dispositivo diagnóstico-terapéutico denominado Grupo de Terapia Focalizada-GTF. Este dispositivo consiste en la conformación de grupos cerrados, con temática focalizada y orientación psicodinámica que constan de diez sesiones de una vez por semana de una hora y media de duración. En este trabajo presentaremos: 1- la importancia del desarrollo de guías clínicas a nivel internacional, 2- la caracterización intrapsíquica e intersubjetiva de los adolescentes violentos y las dificultades que presentan para los abordajes terapéuticos psicodinámicos clásicos. 3- las características del dispositivo GTF, 4- la guía terapéutica del dispositivo GTF que incluye los objetivos específicos, el desarrollo de los mismos y la técnica específica para cada una de las sesiones. Esta guía terapéutica fue aplicada a 9 GTF para adolescentes tempranos violentos. El Análisis de Resultados y Proceso Terapéutico de esta muestra a la que se aplicó la guía permite pensar que este dispositivo con objetivos predeterminados y con actividades específicas para cada una de las sesiones, constituye un marco de contención estable en contrasposición a la realidad disruptiva, cambiante y con alto riesgo psicosocial en la que viven estos adolescentes.Within the framework of the Program of Clinical Psychology for Adolescents, Southern Branch of the School of Psychology, UBA, a diagnostic-therapeutic device called Focalised Therapy Group- FTG has been created. This device involves forming closed groups with focalised topics and psychodynamic orientation, which consists of ten sessions that last an hour and a half each and are held once a week. In this research work we will present: 1- the importance of developing a clinic guide at an international level; 2- the intrapsychic and intersubjective description of the violent adolescents and the dificulties they have to be

  19. A cavernous haemangioma of breast in male: radiological-pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreira, C.; Romero, C.; Urbasos, M.; Pinto, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Francisco, J.M. de

    2001-01-01

    Vascular tumours of the breast are especially rare in men, and a majority of them are angiosarcomas. In fact, we found only four cases of haemangioma in males in the literature. We present a case of cavernous haemangioma in a male aged 48 years, and which commenced as a palpable mass. We performed differential diagnosis and radiological-pathological correlation. We established the correct classification of this case histologically, and decided on the definitive therapeutic approach. (orig.)

  20. Radiation protection and quality assurance in dental radiology: I. Intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Beneyto, Y.; Alcaraz, M.; Jodar-Porlan, S.; Saura-Iniesta, A.M.; Velasco-Hidalgo, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies 2524 official reports on quality assurance in dental radiography, made in the context of the three first revisions of these dental clinics as a result of the entry into force of the regulations establishing the duties for these types of facilities. In the results section we present a quantitative analysis of the facilities equipped with an intraoral device, making a special reference to the brands they have available, as well as their physical features (KV, mAs, filtration, length of cone) and the deviations detected in their operation. Some of the features in the process of obtaining radiological images at those facilities (film control, development time, liquid renewal) are determined, and the average dose of ionizing radiation used in order to obtain the radiological image of the same tooth is presented. This paper shows, in a quantitative way, the characteristic features of intraoral dental radiology in our medium. The study is intended to be continued during the next years, which would allow the assessment of the prospective improvement in dental radiological performances as a result of the newly established regulations. (author)

  1. 75 FR 14510 - Implementation of Device Registration and Listing Requirements Enacted in the Public Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Theresa McDonald, Center for Devices and Radiological Health (HFZ-307... assigned HDE number for a device approved for marketing under section 520(m) of the FD&C Act. This proposal...

  2. MEMO radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner-Manslau, C.

    1989-01-01

    This radiology volume is a concise handbook of imaging techniques, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy, albeit that the main emphasis is on classic radiology. It offers, for instance, a survey of radiological findings for the most frequent pathological conditions, many overviews of differential diagnosis, a glossary of the technical bases of radiology and so forth. The contents are divided into the following chapters: Physical and biological bases; skeleton; thorax with the subdivisions lungs, heart, mediastinum, and pleura; gastrointestinal tract with the subsections esophagus, small and large intestine; liver; biliary tract; pancreas; retroperitoneal space; kidney; suprarenal glands; bladder; blood vessels, lymph nodes, spleen; mammary glands; female genitals; prostate and scrotum, epididymis and seminal vesicle. (orig./MG) With 23 figs [de

  3. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  4. Radiology and fine art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Slobodan; Stošić-Opinćal, Tatjana; Tomić, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    The radiologic aesthetics of some body parts and internal organs have inspired certain artists to create specific works of art. Our aim was to describe the link between radiology and fine art. We explored 13,625 artworks in the literature produced by 2049 artists and found several thousand photographs in an online image search. The examination revealed 271 radiologic artworks (1.99%) created by 59 artists (2.88%) who mainly applied radiography, sonography, CT, and MRI. Some authors produced radiologic artistic photographs, and others used radiologic images to create artful compositions, specific sculptures, or digital works. Many radiologic artworks have symbolic, metaphoric, or conceptual connotations. Radiology is clearly becoming an original and important field of modern art.

  5. Radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    An International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization was held in Malaga, Spain, from 26 to 30 March 2001. The Government of Spain hosted this Conference through the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, the Junta de Andalucia, the Universidad de Malaga and the Grupo de Investigacion en Proteccion Radiologica de la Universidad de Malaga (PRUMA). The Conference was organized in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the following professional societies: International Organization of Medical Physicists (IOMP), International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), International Society of Radiation Oncology (ISRO), International Society of Radiology (ISR), International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) and World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB). This publication contains contributed papers submitted to the Conference Programme Committee. The papers are in one of the two working languages of this Conference, English and Spanish. The topics covered by the Conference are as follows: Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (radiography), Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (fluoroscopy), Radiological protection issues in specific uses of diagnostic radiology, such as mammography and computed tomography (with special consideration of the impact of digital techniques), Radiological protection in interventional radiology, including fluoroscopy not carried out by radiologists, Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine, Developing and

  6. Radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization was held in Malaga, Spain, from 26 to 30 March 2001. The Government of Spain hosted this Conference through the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, the Junta de Andalucia, the Universidad de Malaga and the Grupo de Investigacion en Proteccion Radiologica de la Universidad de Malaga (PRUMA). The Conference was organized in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the following professional societies: International Organization of Medical Physicists (IOMP), International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), International Society of Radiation Oncology (ISRO), International Society of Radiology (ISR), International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) and World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB). This publication contains contributed papers submitted to the Conference Programme Committee. The papers are in one of the two working languages of this Conference, English and Spanish. The topics covered by the Conference are as follows: Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (radiography), Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (fluoroscopy), Radiological protection issues in specific uses of diagnostic radiology, such as mammography and computed tomography (with special consideration of the impact of digital techniques), Radiological protection in interventional radiology, including fluoroscopy not carried out by radiologists, Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine, Developing and

  7. Extracellular matrix biomimicry for the creation of investigational and therapeutic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellowe, Amanda S; Gonzalez, Anjelica L

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a web of fibrous proteins that serves as a scaffold for tissues and organs, and is important for maintaining homeostasis and facilitating cellular adhesion. Integrin transmembrane receptors are the primary adhesion molecules that anchor cells to the ECM, thus integrating cells with their microenvironments. Integrins play a critical role in facilitating cell-matrix interactions and promoting signal transduction, both from the cell to the ECM and vice versa, ultimately mediating cell behavior. For this reason, many advanced biomaterials employ biomimicry by replicating the form and function of fibrous ECM proteins. The ECM also acts as a reservoir for small molecules and growth factors, wherein fibrous proteins directly bind and present these bioactive moieties that facilitate cell activity. Therefore biomimicry can be enhanced by incorporating small molecules into ECM-like substrates. Biomimetic ECM materials have served as invaluable research tools for studying interactions between cells and the surrounding ECM, revealing that cell-matrix signaling is driven by mechanical forces, integrin engagement, and small molecules. Mimicking pathological ECMs has also elucidated disease specific cell behaviors. For example, biomimetic tumor microenvironments have been used to induce metastatic cell behaviors, and have thereby shown promise for in vitro cancer drug testing and targeting. Further, ECM-like substrates have been successfully employed for autologous cell recolonization for tissue engineering and wound healing. As we continue to learn more about the mechanical and biochemical characteristics of the ECM, these properties can be harnessed to develop new biomaterials, biomedical devices, and therapeutics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Bacteriological Monitoring of Radiology Room Apparatus in the Department of Radiological Technology and Contamination on Hands of Radiological Technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Chil

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of microorganisms were examined for the bucky tables in the radiology rooms of the department of radiological technology, the aprons, handles of various apparatus, handles of mobile radiological apparatus, and hands of the radiological technologists. As a result, relatively larger amounts of bacteria were found on the handles of the mobile radiological apparatus and the aprons. Among the isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter baumanni (7.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.9%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.7%), Enterobacter cloaceae (0.6%), Providenica rettgeri (0.6%) are known as the cause of nosocomial infection (hospital acquired infection). In addition, similar colonies were also found on the hands of the radiological technologists such as microorganisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.6%), Yersinia enterocolotica (5.4%), Acinetobacter baumanni (4.2%), Enterobacter cloaceae (2.4%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.8%), Yersinia pseuotuberculosis (18%), Enterobacter sakazakii (1.2%), and Escherichia coli (0.6%). In particular, this result indicates clinical significance since Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli show strong pathogenicity. Therefore, a continuous education is essential for the radiological technologists to prevent the nosocomial infection.

  9. Bacteriological Monitoring of Radiology Room Apparatus in the Department of Radiological Technology and Contamination on Hands of Radiological Technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Chil [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Distribution of microorganisms were examined for the bucky tables in the radiology rooms of the department of radiological technology, the aprons, handles of various apparatus, handles of mobile radiological apparatus, and hands of the radiological technologists. As a result, relatively larger amounts of bacteria were found on the handles of the mobile radiological apparatus and the aprons. Among the isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter baumanni (7.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.9%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.7%), Enterobacter cloaceae (0.6%), Providenica rettgeri (0.6%) are known as the cause of nosocomial infection (hospital acquired infection). In addition, similar colonies were also found on the hands of the radiological technologists such as microorganisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.6%), Yersinia enterocolotica (5.4%), Acinetobacter baumanni (4.2%), Enterobacter cloaceae (2.4%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.8%), Yersinia pseuotuberculosis (18%), Enterobacter sakazakii (1.2%), and Escherichia coli (0.6%). In particular, this result indicates clinical significance since Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli show strong pathogenicity. Therefore, a continuous education is essential for the radiological technologists to prevent the nosocomial infection.

  10. Radiological diagnosis in patients with head injury alone or in combination with multiple trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.; Linsenmaier, U.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Reiser, M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. Head injury alone or in combination with multiple trauma is the main cause of death and severe disability in individuals under 45 years old. This review is intended to describe the relevant imaging modalities, to analyze their specific value and limitations and to illustrate the most important radiologic findings. The indications for diagnostic imaging within the context of an interdisciplinary linkage of diagnostic and therapeutic measures are discussed.Material and methods. Recent publications are analyzed and compared to the experiences of our own hospital. In terms of a critical synoptic assessment the currently best standard of care is described in consideration of an interdisciplinary care concept.Results. Radiologic imaging modalities crucially contribute to the complete injury assessment and provide an indispensable basis for any therapeutic decision. Comprehensive neuromonitoring and reliable demonstration of delayed or secondary brain damage is impossible without modern imaging technology. Computed tomography (CT) further continues to be the most important imaging modality, while magnetic resonance imaging despite it's partly superior diagnostic informations remains reserved to particular diagnostic problems.Conclusions. Suitable constructive prerequisites, an interdisciplinary care concept and integration of the radiologist in hospital-adapted diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms significantly improves the outcome of patients with acute head injury. Beside the correct diagnosis itself the time to establish a diagnosis above all has a crucial impact on successful management and good outcome of these patients. (orig.) [de

  11. Post-operative orbital imaging: a focus on implants and prosthetic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Ashok; Mankad, Kshitij; Poitelea, Cornelia; Verity, David H.; Davagnanam, Indran

    2014-01-01

    Accurate interpretation of orbital imaging in the presence of either orbital implants requires a sound knowledge of both the surgical approach used and the imaging characteristics of the implanted devices themselves. In this article, the radiological appearance of the various devices used in ophthalmology, and their relationship to other orbital structures, is reviewed. In addition, the intended anatomical location, function of these devices, and clinical indications for their use are provided. (orig.)

  12. Portrayal of radiology in a major medical television series: How does it influence the perception of radiology among patients and radiology professionals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, T.; Merkle, E.M.; Boll, D.T.; Leyendecker, J.R.; Gupta, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    To assess how the portrayal of Radiology on medical TV shows is perceived by patients and radiology professionals. In this IRB-approved study with patient consent waived, surveys were conducted among adult patients scheduled for radiological examinations and radiology professionals. The questionnaire investigated medical TV watching habits including interest in medical TV shows, appearance of radiological examination/staff, radiology's role in diagnosis-making, and rating of the shows' accuracy in portraying radiology relative to reality. One hundred and twenty-six patients and 240 professionals (133 technologists, 107 radiologists) participated. 63.5 % patients and 63.2 % technologists rated interest in medical TV shows ≥5 (scale 1-10) versus 38.3 % of radiologists. All groups noted regular (every 2nd/3rd show) to >1/show appearance of radiological examinations in 58.5-88.2 % compared to 21.0-46.2 % for radiological staff appearance. Radiology played a role in diagnosis-making regularly to >1/show in 45.3-52.6 %. There is a positive correlation for interest in medical TV and the perception that radiology is accurately portrayed for patients (r = 0.49; P = 0.001) and technologists (r = 0.38; P = 0.001) but not for radiologists (r = 0.01). The majority of patients perceive the portrayed content as accurate. Radiologists should be aware of this cultivation effect to understand their patients' behaviour which may create false expectations towards radiological examinations and potential safety hazards. (orig.)

  13. Positive Response to Thermobalancing Therapy Enabled by Therapeutic Device in Men with Non-Malignant Prostate Diseases: BPH and Chronic Prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gerasimovich Aghajanyan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common types of non-malignant prostate diseases are benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and chronic prostatitis (CP. The aim of this study was to find out whether thermobalancing therapy with a physiotherapeutic device is effective for BPH and CP. Methods: During a 2.5-year period, 124 men with BPH over the age of 55 were investigated. Clinical parameters were tested twice: via the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS and via ultrasound measurement of prostate volume (PV and uroflowmetry maximum flow rate (Qmax, before and after six months of therapy. In 45 men with CP under the age of 55, the dynamics of the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI were studied. Results: The results of the investigated index tests in men with BPH confirmed a decrease in IPSS (p < 0.001, a reduction in PV (p < 0.001, an increase in Qmax (p < 0.001, and an improvement of quality of life (QoL (p < 0.001. NIH-CPSI scores in men with CP indicated positive dynamics. Conclusions: The observed positive changes in IPSS, PV, and Qmax in men with BPH and the improvement in NIH-CPSI-QoL in patients with CP after using a physiotherapeutic device for six months as mono-therapy, support the view that thermobalancing therapy with the device can be recommended for these patients. Furthermore, the therapeutic device is free of side effects.

  14. The improvement of diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    The 8. Pan-African Congress of Radiology and Imaging on the improvement of diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in Africa was hosted in Nairobi Kenya. The conference focusses on Review of Radiation Safety in Medical X-Ray Diagnosis, Medical Practitioners of Radiology & Imaging in the Dock. It also addresses issues Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Clinicians, Practicing at the Kenyatta National Hospital on Ionizing Radiation and Procurement in the Imaging Department. The Need for Understanding Technical Specifications,Students Experience in Radiography, Radioiodine Therapy for Graves’ Disease, Role of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease in Rural health facilities were areas interest. Diabetes Mellitus and the Musculoskeletal System, Imaging the Traumatized Spine ‘Clearing the Cervical Spine’, The Radiation Safety Culture: Image Gently and Radiation Protection of the Young Patient: Kenya perspective were discussed during the conference

  15. Current radiology. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.H.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. They are: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional Vascular Radiology, Genitourinary Radiology, Skeletal Radiology, Digital Subtraction Angiography, Neuroradiology, Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Degenerative Diseases of the Lumbar Spine, The Lung, Otolaringology and Opthalmology, and Pediatric Radiology: Cranial, Facial, Cervical, Vertebral, and Appendicular

  16. Medical Ethics in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Soon Ho

    2010-01-01

    According to the recent developments in radiological techniques, the role of radiology in the clinical management of patients is ever increasing and in turn, so is the importance of radiology in patient management. Thus far, there have been few open discussions about medical ethics related to radiology in Korea. Hence, concern about medical ethics as an essential field of radiology should be part of an improved resident training program and patient management. The categories of medical ethics related with radiology are ethics in the radiological management of patient, the relationship of radiologists with other medical professionals or companies, the hazard level of radiation for patients and radiologists, quality assurance of image products and modalities, research ethics, and other ethics issues related to teleradiology and fusion imaging. In order to achieve the goal of respectful progress in radiology as well as minimizing any adverse reaction from other medical professions or society, we should establish a strong basis of medical ethics through the continuous concern and self education

  17. Radiological characterisation of V1 NPP technological systems and buildings - Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofova, Kristina; Rapant, Tibor; Svitek, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    V1 NPP at Jaslovske Bohunice site has been finally shutdown after 28 years of successful operation in 2006 (Unit 1) and 2008 (Unit 2). At present, both units are finally shutdown and since July 2011 under decommissioning license. The preparation of V1 NPP decommissioning has been supported and partly financed by the Bohunice International Decommissioning Support Fund (BIDSF), under the administration of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. From 06/2008 to 12/2011 AMEC Nuclear Slovakia, together with partners STM Power and EWN GmbH, carried out BIDSF B6.4 project - Decommissioning database development (DDB). The main purpose of the B6.4 project was to develop a physical and radiological inventory database to support V1 NPP decommissioning process planning and performance. One of the specific deliverable tasks within the B6.4 project was deliverable D12 - Characterization of activated equipment and civil structures based on measurement, sampling and analyses performed on the samples. The scope of deliverable services within D12 task consisted of: 1. Categorization of activated components ; 2. Development of single working programs for their radiological monitoring and sampling ; 3. Preparation of sampling device and revision of all handling equipment; 4. Dose rate monitoring and sampling of: - Civil structures from reactors shaft on both units ; - Components placed in HLW storage, (so called 'Mogilnik') - connection rods, absorbers ; of control rod assemblies and neutron flux measurement channels ; - Reactor pressure vessel and shielding assemblies at both units of V1 NPP, reactor; internals from Unit 2 of V1 NPP; 5. Analysis of samples ; 6. Determination of radiological inventory ; 7. Import of radiological data for activated components into DDB. During sampling, mainly remotely controlled sampling device and radiation resistant camera with LED lightening for visual checking of all performed activities was used. In total, 125 samples have been taken

  18. Analysis of papers in radiological journals in recent years: a comparison of journal of Korean radiologic society and radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Suh; Kim, Jae Kyun; Han, Dong Bok; Lim, Tae Hwan

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine current trends and the mode of future development in the field of medical radiology and to promote research among the nation's radiologists by analyzing the contents of the Journal of the Korean Radiologic Society(JKRS) and Radiology. The number of articles published in JKRS each year between 1990 and 1994 was counted. The research articles in JKRS(n=740) and in Radiology(n=1748) between 1992 and 1994 were categorized according to the objective, type, topic, materials, and radiologic techniques of their contents on the basis of predetermined criteria. Domestic Masters theses(n=126) and doctoral dissertations(n=75) accepted between 1990 and 1994, and domestic materials published in international journals (n=416) between 1986 and 1994 were also categorized using the same criteria. The greatest increase in the number of articles published in JKRS was seen during 1994. The majority of these aimed to retrospectively analyse the findings of diseases while the majority of articles published in Radiology dealt prospectively with the development and/or evaluation of diagnostic methods. More variety of topics and issues was seen in Radiology than in JKRS. The number of articles of domestic materials published in international journals increased from 1986 to 1994, while the number of articles of foreign materials published in Korea was relatively stationary : A significant number of theses and dissertations dealt, mostly prospectively, with studies of pathophysiologic and/or pharmacologic mechanisms using animal models. In order to understand both current trends and the direction and mode of future developments in the field of radiology, and to be able to actively deal with challenges at the forefront of radiologic development, it is essential to review research articles published in radiology-related journals

  19. Occurrence of undesirable tissue reaction in interventional vascular radiology; La radiologie interventionnelle et les risques associes: etude d'un cas clinique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thouveny, Francine [Service de radiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 4, rue Larrey, 49933 Angers Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-07-15

    After lengthy technological development, the constantly evolving diagnostic and therapeutic interventional radiology procedures have become vital factors in patient care. X-rays remain the key tool for these techniques in a large number of cases, including certain complex vascular pathologies for which endovascular treatment is associated with prolonged irradiation. The risk they represent are however outweighed by the underlying therapeutic stakes and remains of secondary medical concern. In these difficult cases, which require maximum concentration on the intervention, the practitioner will need to be aided by tools that strictly limit and monitor the dose. The manufacturers and radiological physicists must be involved in configuring the facilities used and the health professionals in determining reference levels and professional recommendations that take account of the dose optimisation tools. (authors)

  20. Novel real-time 3D radiological mapping solution for ALARA maximization, D and D assessments and radiological management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubart, Philippe; Hautot, Felix [AREVA Group, 1 route de la Noue, Gif sur Yvette (France); Morichi, Massimo; Abou-Khalil, Roger [AREVA Group, Tour AREVA-1, place Jean Millier, Paris (France)

    2015-07-01

    Good management of dismantling and decontamination (D and D) operations and activities is requiring safety, time saving and perfect radiological knowledge of the contaminated environment as well as optimization for personnel dose and minimization of waste volume. In the same time, Fukushima accident has imposed a stretch to the nuclear measurement operational approach requiring in such emergency situation: fast deployment and intervention, quick analysis and fast scenario definition. AREVA, as return of experience from his activities carried out at Fukushima and D and D sites has developed a novel multi-sensor solution as part of his D and D research, approach and method, a system with real-time 3D photo-realistic spatial radiation distribution cartography of contaminated premises. The system may be hand-held or mounted on a mobile device (robot, drone, e.g). In this paper, we will present our current development based on a SLAM technology (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) and integrated sensors and detectors allowing simultaneous topographic and radiological (dose rate and/or spectroscopy) data acquisitions. This enabling technology permits 3D gamma activity cartography in real-time. (authors)

  1. Novel real-time 3D radiological mapping solution for ALARA maximization, D and D assessments and radiological management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubart, Philippe; Hautot, Felix; Morichi, Massimo; Abou-Khalil, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Good management of dismantling and decontamination (D and D) operations and activities is requiring safety, time saving and perfect radiological knowledge of the contaminated environment as well as optimization for personnel dose and minimization of waste volume. In the same time, Fukushima accident has imposed a stretch to the nuclear measurement operational approach requiring in such emergency situation: fast deployment and intervention, quick analysis and fast scenario definition. AREVA, as return of experience from his activities carried out at Fukushima and D and D sites has developed a novel multi-sensor solution as part of his D and D research, approach and method, a system with real-time 3D photo-realistic spatial radiation distribution cartography of contaminated premises. The system may be hand-held or mounted on a mobile device (robot, drone, e.g). In this paper, we will present our current development based on a SLAM technology (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) and integrated sensors and detectors allowing simultaneous topographic and radiological (dose rate and/or spectroscopy) data acquisitions. This enabling technology permits 3D gamma activity cartography in real-time. (authors)

  2. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  3. Entrance surface dose in cerebral interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Rico, M.; Lopez-Rendon, X.; Rivera-Ordonez, C. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez, 14269 DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    At the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures of interventional radiology are carried out. Since the procedures can last from some minutes to several hours, the absorbed dose for the patient could increase dangerously. An investigation had begun in order to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD) using 25 thermoluminiscent dosimeters TLD-100 and 8 strips of 15 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2} of Gafchromic XR-QA2 film bound in a holder of 15 Multiplication-Sign 15 cm{sup 2} in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) positions during all the procedure. The results show that maximum ESD could be from 0.9 to 2.9 Gy for the PA position and between 1.6 and 2.5 Gy for the lateral position. The average ESD was between 0.7 and 1.3 Gy for the PA position, and from 0.44 to 1.1 Gy for the lateral position in a therapeutic procedure.

  4. Entrance surface dose in cerebral interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera-Rico, M.; López-Rendón, X.; Rivera-Ordóñez, C. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I.

    2012-01-01

    At the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN) diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures of interventional radiology are carried out. Since the procedures can last from some minutes to several hours, the absorbed dose for the patient could increase dangerously. An investigation had begun in order to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD) using 25 thermoluminiscent dosimeters TLD-100 and 8 strips of 15 ×1 cm 2 of Gafchromic XR-QA2 film bound in a holder of 15×15 cm 2 in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) positions during all the procedure. The results show that maximum ESD could be from 0.9 to 2.9 Gy for the PA position and between 1.6 and 2.5 Gy for the lateral position. The average ESD was between 0.7 and 1.3 Gy for the PA position, and from 0.44 to 1.1 Gy for the lateral position in a therapeutic procedure.

  5. Pediatric radiology malpractice claims - characteristics and comparison to adult radiology claims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal A.; Taylor, George A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dwyer, Kathy; Yu-Moe, Winnie [CRICO Risk Management Foundation, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Medical malpractice is the primary method by which people who believe they have suffered an injury in the course of medical care seek compensation in the United States and Canada. An increasing body of research demonstrates that failure to correctly diagnose is the most common allegation made in malpractice claims against radiologists. Since the 1994 survey by the Society of Chairmen of Radiology in Children's Hospitals (SCORCH), no other published studies have specifically examined the frequency or clinical context of malpractice claims against pediatric radiologists or arising from pediatric imaging interpretation. We hypothesize that the frequency, character and outcome of malpractice claims made against pediatric radiologists differ from those seen in general radiology practice. We searched the Controlled Risk Insurance Co. (CRICO) Strategies' Comparative Benchmarking System (CBS), a private repository of approximately 350,000 open and closed medical malpractice claims in the United States, for claims related to pediatric radiology. We further queried these cases for the major allegation, the clinical environment in which the claim arose, the clinical severity of the alleged injury, indemnity paid (if payment was made), primary imaging modality involved (if applicable) and primary International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) diagnosis underlying the claim. There were a total of 27,056 fully coded claims of medical malpractice in the CBS database in the 5-year period between Jan. 1, 2010, and Dec. 31, 2014. Of these, 1,472 cases (5.4%) involved patients younger than 18 years. Radiology was the primary service responsible for 71/1,472 (4.8%) pediatric cases. There were statistically significant differences in average payout for pediatric radiology claims ($314,671) compared to adult radiology claims ($174,033). The allegations were primarily diagnosis-related in 70% of pediatric radiology claims. The most common imaging modality

  6. Pediatric radiology malpractice claims - characteristics and comparison to adult radiology claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, Micheal A.; Taylor, George A.; Dwyer, Kathy; Yu-Moe, Winnie

    2017-01-01

    Medical malpractice is the primary method by which people who believe they have suffered an injury in the course of medical care seek compensation in the United States and Canada. An increasing body of research demonstrates that failure to correctly diagnose is the most common allegation made in malpractice claims against radiologists. Since the 1994 survey by the Society of Chairmen of Radiology in Children's Hospitals (SCORCH), no other published studies have specifically examined the frequency or clinical context of malpractice claims against pediatric radiologists or arising from pediatric imaging interpretation. We hypothesize that the frequency, character and outcome of malpractice claims made against pediatric radiologists differ from those seen in general radiology practice. We searched the Controlled Risk Insurance Co. (CRICO) Strategies' Comparative Benchmarking System (CBS), a private repository of approximately 350,000 open and closed medical malpractice claims in the United States, for claims related to pediatric radiology. We further queried these cases for the major allegation, the clinical environment in which the claim arose, the clinical severity of the alleged injury, indemnity paid (if payment was made), primary imaging modality involved (if applicable) and primary International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) diagnosis underlying the claim. There were a total of 27,056 fully coded claims of medical malpractice in the CBS database in the 5-year period between Jan. 1, 2010, and Dec. 31, 2014. Of these, 1,472 cases (5.4%) involved patients younger than 18 years. Radiology was the primary service responsible for 71/1,472 (4.8%) pediatric cases. There were statistically significant differences in average payout for pediatric radiology claims ($314,671) compared to adult radiology claims ($174,033). The allegations were primarily diagnosis-related in 70% of pediatric radiology claims. The most common imaging modality implicated in

  7. Pediatric radiology malpractice claims - characteristics and comparison to adult radiology claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Micheál A; Dwyer, Kathy; Yu-Moe, Winnie; Taylor, George A

    2017-06-01

    Medical malpractice is the primary method by which people who believe they have suffered an injury in the course of medical care seek compensation in the United States and Canada. An increasing body of research demonstrates that failure to correctly diagnose is the most common allegation made in malpractice claims against radiologists. Since the 1994 survey by the Society of Chairmen of Radiology in Children's Hospitals (SCORCH), no other published studies have specifically examined the frequency or clinical context of malpractice claims against pediatric radiologists or arising from pediatric imaging interpretation. We hypothesize that the frequency, character and outcome of malpractice claims made against pediatric radiologists differ from those seen in general radiology practice. We searched the Controlled Risk Insurance Co. (CRICO) Strategies' Comparative Benchmarking System (CBS), a private repository of approximately 350,000 open and closed medical malpractice claims in the United States, for claims related to pediatric radiology. We further queried these cases for the major allegation, the clinical environment in which the claim arose, the clinical severity of the alleged injury, indemnity paid (if payment was made), primary imaging modality involved (if applicable) and primary International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) diagnosis underlying the claim. There were a total of 27,056 fully coded claims of medical malpractice in the CBS database in the 5-year period between Jan. 1, 2010, and Dec. 31, 2014. Of these, 1,472 cases (5.4%) involved patients younger than 18 years. Radiology was the primary service responsible for 71/1,472 (4.8%) pediatric cases. There were statistically significant differences in average payout for pediatric radiology claims ($314,671) compared to adult radiology claims ($174,033). The allegations were primarily diagnosis-related in 70% of pediatric radiology claims. The most common imaging modality implicated in

  8. MP3 audio-editing software for the department of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Qingfen; Sun Canhui; Li Ziping; Meng Quanfei; Jiang Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MP3 audio-editing software in the daily work in the department of radiology. Methods: The audio content of daily consultation seminar, held in the department of radiology every morning, was recorded and converted into MP3 audio format by a computer integrated recording device. The audio data were edited, archived, and eventually saved in the computer memory storage media, which was experimentally replayed and applied in the research or teaching. Results: MP3 audio-editing was a simple process and convenient for saving and searching the data. The record could be easily replayed. Conclusion: MP3 audio-editing perfectly records and saves the contents of consultation seminar, and has replaced the conventional hand writing notes. It is a valuable tool in both research and teaching in the department. (authors)

  9. Radiological protection and quality control for diagnostic radiology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baorong, Yue

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are 43,000 diagnostic departments, nearly 70,000 X-ray diagnostic facilities, 7,000 CT, 250 million for the annual total numbers of X-ray examinations, 120,000 occupationally exposed workers in diagnostic radiology. 'Basic standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources' is promulgated on October, 2002. This basic standard follows the BSS. 'Rule on the administration of radio-diagnosis and radiotherapy', as a order of the Ministry of Health No. 46, is promulgated by Minister of Health on January 24, 2006. It includes general provisions, requirements and practice, establishment and approval of radio-diagnosis and radiotherapy services, safeguards and quality assurance, and so on. There are a series of radiological protection standards and quality control standards in diagnostic radiology, including 'radiological protection standard for the examination in X-ray diagnosis', 'radiological health protection standards for X-ray examination of child-bearing age women and pregnant women', 'radiological protection standards for the children in X-ray diagnosis', 'standards for radiological protection in medical X-ray diagnosis', 'specification for radiological protection monitoring in medical X-ray diagnosis', 'guide for reasonable application of medical X-ray diagnosis', 'general aspects for quality assurance in medical X-ray image of diagnosis', 'specification of image quality control test for the medical X-ray diagnostic equipment', 'specification of image quality assurance test for X-ray equipment for computed tomography', 'specification for testing of quality control in computed radiography (CR)' and 'specification for testing of quality control in X-ray mammography'. With the X-ray diagnostic equipment, there are acceptant tests, status tests and routing tests in large hospitals. It is poor for routing test in middle and smaller hospitals. CT is used widely in diagnostic radiology, however most workers in CT

  10. Radiological evaluation of the cervical spinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, W. K.; Koh, B. H.; Hahm, C. K.; Kim, J. J. [School of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Acute injuries of the cervical spine are the most common causes of severe disability following trauma, yet the diagnosis of these injuries are often delayed and the treatment, inadequate. Traumatic injuries of the cervical spine are diagnosed by radiological examinations. And complete evaluations of bony structures and soft tissue changes on conventional radiograms are very important for determining the therapeutic plans and prognoses of the injuries patients. During the period of 5 years from June 1976 to May 1981, the radiological and clinical evaluation had been made on 38 patients suffered from acute cervical spinal injuries which were confirmed by the radiological examinations. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of total 38 patients was broad ranging from 19 years to 72 years. 2. The most common cause of injury was traffic accident, next fall down, other accident respectively. 3. Levels of the cervical spinal injuries were as follows: Upper cervical spine in 15.8%, lower cervical spine in 84.2%, and the most common injuries level was C 5. Most of the lower cervical spinal injuries were located in the vertebral body and spinous process. 4. Anatomical sites of the cervical spinal injuries were as follows; vertebral body in 55.5%, spinous process in 23.7%, neural arch in 15.8%, and locked facet in 18.4%, etc. 5. Most of the patients with severe mental changes were injuries in upper cervical spine rather than lower. And most of the patients with quadriplegia or paraplegia were shown marked disruption of spinal canal.

  11. Radiological evaluation of the cervical spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, W. K.; Koh, B. H.; Hahm, C. K.; Kim, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Acute injuries of the cervical spine are the most common causes of severe disability following trauma, yet the diagnosis of these injuries are often delayed and the treatment, inadequate. Traumatic injuries of the cervical spine are diagnosed by radiological examinations. And complete evaluations of bony structures and soft tissue changes on conventional radiograms are very important for determining the therapeutic plans and prognoses of the injuries patients. During the period of 5 years from June 1976 to May 1981, the radiological and clinical evaluation had been made on 38 patients suffered from acute cervical spinal injuries which were confirmed by the radiological examinations. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of total 38 patients was broad ranging from 19 years to 72 years. 2. The most common cause of injury was traffic accident, next fall down, other accident respectively. 3. Levels of the cervical spinal injuries were as follows: Upper cervical spine in 15.8%, lower cervical spine in 84.2%, and the most common injuries level was C 5. Most of the lower cervical spinal injuries were located in the vertebral body and spinous process. 4. Anatomical sites of the cervical spinal injuries were as follows; vertebral body in 55.5%, spinous process in 23.7%, neural arch in 15.8%, and locked facet in 18.4%, etc. 5. Most of the patients with severe mental changes were injuries in upper cervical spine rather than lower. And most of the patients with quadriplegia or paraplegia were shown marked disruption of spinal canal

  12. TU-AB-204-01: Device Approval Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, J.

    2016-01-01

    The responsibilities of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have increased since the inception of the Food and Drugs Act in 1906. Medical devices first came under comprehensive regulation with the passage of the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In 1971 FDA also took on the responsibility for consumer protection against unnecessary exposure to radiation-emitting devices for home and occupational use. However it was not until 1976, under the Medical Device Regulation Act, that the FDA was responsible for the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. This session will be presented by the Division of Radiological Health (DRH) and the Division of Imaging, Diagnostics, and Software Reliability (DIDSR) from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) at the FDA. The symposium will discuss on how we protect and promote public health with a focus on medical physics applications organized into four areas: pre-market device review, post-market surveillance, device compliance, current regulatory research efforts and partnerships with other organizations. The pre-market session will summarize the pathways FDA uses to regulate the investigational use and commercialization of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy medical devices in the US, highlighting resources available to assist investigators and manufacturers. The post-market session will explain the post-market surveillance and compliance activities FDA performs to monitor the safety and effectiveness of devices on the market. The third session will describe research efforts that support the regulatory mission of the Agency. An overview of our regulatory research portfolio to advance our understanding of medical physics and imaging technologies and approaches to their evaluation will be discussed. Lastly, mechanisms that FDA uses to seek public input and promote collaborations with professional, government, and international organizations, such as AAPM, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC

  13. TU-AB-204-01: Device Approval Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfino, J. [Food & Drug Administration (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The responsibilities of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have increased since the inception of the Food and Drugs Act in 1906. Medical devices first came under comprehensive regulation with the passage of the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In 1971 FDA also took on the responsibility for consumer protection against unnecessary exposure to radiation-emitting devices for home and occupational use. However it was not until 1976, under the Medical Device Regulation Act, that the FDA was responsible for the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. This session will be presented by the Division of Radiological Health (DRH) and the Division of Imaging, Diagnostics, and Software Reliability (DIDSR) from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) at the FDA. The symposium will discuss on how we protect and promote public health with a focus on medical physics applications organized into four areas: pre-market device review, post-market surveillance, device compliance, current regulatory research efforts and partnerships with other organizations. The pre-market session will summarize the pathways FDA uses to regulate the investigational use and commercialization of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy medical devices in the US, highlighting resources available to assist investigators and manufacturers. The post-market session will explain the post-market surveillance and compliance activities FDA performs to monitor the safety and effectiveness of devices on the market. The third session will describe research efforts that support the regulatory mission of the Agency. An overview of our regulatory research portfolio to advance our understanding of medical physics and imaging technologies and approaches to their evaluation will be discussed. Lastly, mechanisms that FDA uses to seek public input and promote collaborations with professional, government, and international organizations, such as AAPM, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC

  14. Machine learning and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Radiology in Medical Education: A Pediatric Radiology Elective as a Template for Other Radiology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmes, Melissa A; Hyatt, Eddie; Penrod, Cody H; Fleming, Amy E; Singh, Sudha P

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, the pediatric radiology elective for medical students and pediatric residents constituted a morning teaching session focused mainly on radiography and fluoroscopy. A more structured elective was desired to broaden the exposure to more imaging modalities, create a more uniform educational experience, and include assessment tools. In 2012, an introductory e-mail and formal syllabus, including required reading assignments, were sent to participants before the start date. A rotating weekly schedule was expanded to include cross-sectional imaging (ultrasound, CT, MR) and nuclear medicine. The schedule could accommodate specific goals of the pediatric resident or medical student, as requested. Starting in 2013, an online pre-test and post-test were developed, as well as an online end-of-rotation survey specific to the pediatric radiology elective. Taking the Image Gently pledge was required. A scavenger hunt tool, cue cards, and electronic modules were added. Pre-test and post-test scores, averaged over 2 years, showed improvement in radiology knowledge, with scores increasing by 27% for medical students and 21% for pediatric residents. Surveys at the end of the elective were overwhelmingly positive, with constructive criticism and complimentary comments. We have successfully created an elective experience in radiology that dedicates time to education while preserving the workflow of radiologists. We have developed tools to provide a customized experience with many self-directed learning opportunities. Our tools and techniques are easily translatable to a general or adult radiology elective. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A NOVEL, REMOVABLE, CERROBEND, BEAM-BLOCKING DEVICE FOR RADIATION THERAPY OF THE CANINE HEAD AND NECK: PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael S; Berlato, Davide; Vanhaezebrouck, Isabelle; Gordon, Ira K; Hansen, Katherine S; Theon, Alain P; Holt, Randall W; Trestrail, Earl A

    2017-01-01

    Radiation therapy of the head and neck can result in mucositis and other acute affects in the oral cavity. This prospective pilot study evaluated a novel, intraoral, beam-blocking device for use during imaging and therapeutic procedures. The beam-blocking device was made from a metal alloy inserted into a coated frozen dessert mold (Popsicle® Mold, Cost Plus World Market, Oakland, CA). The device was designed so that it could be inserted into an outer shell, which in turn allowed it to be placed or removed depending on the need due to beam configuration. A Farmer type ionization chamber and virtual water phantom were used to assess effects of field size on transmission. Six large breed cadaver dogs, donated by the owner after death, were recruited for the study. Delivered dose at the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the device, with and without the alloy block in place, were measured using radiochromic film. It was determined that transmission was field size dependent with larger field sizes leading to decreased attenuation of the beam, likely secondary to scatter. The mean and median transmission on the ventral surface without the beam-blocking device was 0.94 [range 0.94-0.96]. The mean and median transmission with the beam-blocking device was 0.52 [range 0.50-0.57]. The mean and median increase in dose due to backscatter on the dorsal surface of the beam-blocking device was 0.04 [range 0.02-0.04]. Findings indicated that this novel device can help attenuate radiation dose ventral to the block in dogs, with minimal backscatter. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  17. Importance of establishing radiation protection culture in Radiology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploussi, Agapi; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P

    2016-02-28

    The increased use of ionization radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the rapid advances in computed tomography as well as the high radiation doses delivered by interventional procedures have raised serious safety and health concerns for both patients and medical staff and have necessitated the establishment of a radiation protection culture (RPC) in every Radiology Department. RPC is a newly introduced concept. The term culture describes the combination of attitudes, beliefs, practices and rules among the professionals, staff and patients regarding to radiation protection. Most of the time, the challenge is to improve rather than to build a RPC. The establishment of a RPC requires continuing education of the staff and professional, effective communication among stakeholders of all levels and implementation of quality assurance programs. The RPC creation is being driven from the highest level. Leadership, professionals and associate societies are recognized to play a vital role in the embedding and promotion of RPC in a Medical Unit. The establishment of a RPC enables the reduction of the radiation dose, enhances radiation risk awareness, minimizes unsafe practices, and improves the quality of a radiation protection program. The purpose of this review paper is to describe the role and highlight the importance of establishing a strong RPC in Radiology Departments with an emphasis on promoting RPC in the Interventional Radiology environment.

  18. Radiology education: a radiology curriculum for all medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Laura; Kok, Ellen M; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2017-09-26

    Diagnostic errors in radiology are frequent and can cause severe patient harm. Despite large performance differences between radiologists and non-radiology physicians, the latter often interpret medical images because electronic health records make images available throughout the hospital. Some people argue that non-radiologists should not diagnose medical images at all, and that medical school should focus on teaching ordering skills instead of image interpretation skills. We agree that teaching ordering skills is crucial as most physicians will need to order medical images in their professional life. However, we argue that the availability of medical images is so ubiquitous that it is important that non-radiologists are also trained in the basics of medical image interpretation and, additionally in recognizing when radiological consultancy should be sought. In acute situations, basic image interpretations skills can be life-saving. We plead for a radiology curriculum for all medical students. This should include the interpretation of common abnormalities on chest and skeletal radiographs and a basic distinction of normal from abnormal images. Furthermore, substantial attention should be given to the correct ordering of radiological images. Finally, it is critical that students are trained in deciding when to consult a radiologist.

  19. Radiation protection and quality assurance in dental radiology: II. Panoramic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodar-Porlan, S.; Alcaraz, M.; Martinez-Beneyto, Y.; Saura-Iniesta, A.M.; Velasco-Hidalgo, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies 278 official reports on quality assurance in dental radiology in the context of the first revision of these dental clinics, as a result of the entry into force of the regulations establishing the duties for these types of facilities. In the results section we present a quantitative analysis of the facilities equipped with an panoramic radiology apparatus, making a special reference to the brands they have available, as well as their physical features (kV, mA, filtration) and the deviations detected in their operation. Some of their features in the process of obtaining radiological images at those facilities (film control, development time, liquid renewal) are determined, and the average dose of ionising radiation used in order to obtain the same tooth radiological image is presented. This paper shows, in a quantitative way, the characteristic features of panoramic radiology in our medium. The study is intended to be continued during the next years, which would allow the assessment of the prospective improvement in dental radiological performances as a result of the newly established regulations. (author)

  20. Radiology education: a radiology curriculum for all medical students?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Laura; Kok, E.M.; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic errors in radiology are frequent and can cause severe patient harm. Despite large performance differences between radiologists and non-radiology physicians, the latter often interpret medical images because electronic health records make images available throughout the hospital. Some

  1. Radiological optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.

    1998-01-01

    Radiological optimization is one of the basic principles in each radiation-protection system and it is a basic requirement in the safety standards for radiation protection in the European Communities. The objectives of the research, performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, are: (1) to implement the ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for optimization techniques in decision-aiding; (3) to optimize radiological assessment models by validation and intercomparison; (4) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (5) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (6) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (7) to investigate existing software programmes in the domain of multi criteria analysis. The main achievements for 1997 are given

  2. Radiology systems architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, S R; Greenes, R A

    1996-05-01

    This article focuses on the software requirements for enterprise integration in radiology. The needs of a future radiology systems architecture are examined, both at a concrete functional level and at an abstract system-properties level. A component-based approach to software development is described and is validated in the context of each of the abstract system requirements for future radiology computing environments.

  3. Proposal of a technical guide for the evaluation and management of the solitary pulmonary nodule in function of the radiological characteristics obtained by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinton Hidalgo, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    A guide is proposed to guide clinical personnel in early diagnosis, assessment and management of the solitary pulmonary nodule, with high potential of to develop lung cancer, in function of the radiological characteristics obtained by computed tomography. The management of patients with diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule is standardized with the purpose of to unify diagnostic criteria in a multidisciplinary and institutional environment. Tomographic radiological characteristics are described to allow the suspicion of the solitary pulmonary nodule benignity or malignity. A flow diagram is developed to guide the physician to an adequate monitoring, control and eventual therapeutic treatment. A clear and structured perspective of the diagnostic and therapeutic process is provided to the treating physician and patient [es

  4. Radiological controls integrated into design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindred, G.W. [Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co., Perry, OH (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Radiological controls are required by law in the design of commercial nuclear power reactor facilities. These controls can be relatively minor or significant, relative to cost. To ensure that radiological controls are designed into a project, the health physicist (radiological engineer) must be involved from the beginning. This is especially true regarding keeping costs down. For every radiological engineer at a nuclear power plant there must be fifty engineers of other disciplines. The radiological engineer cannot be an expert on every discipline of engineering. However, he must be knowledgeable to the degree of how a design will impact the facility from a radiological perspective. This paper will address how to effectively perform radiological analyses with the goal of radiological controls integrated into the design package.

  5. New era of the relationship between Chinese interventional radiology sub-society and journal of interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linsun

    2009-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed interventional radiology in China to go from a very initial clinical practice to an important medical player in modern medicine. Recently, a friendly collaboration has been successfully established between the Chinese Interventional Radiology Sub-society and the Journal of Interventional Radiology. The Chinese Interventional Radiology Sub-society will take the full responsibility for the academic governance of the Journal of Interventional Radiology and the Journal of Interventional Radiology will formally become the sole interventional academic periodical of the Chinese Interventional Radiology Sub-society in China. This collaboration will surely make Chinese interventional radiology to initiate a new era,promote the further development of interventional radiology at home and enable the Journal of Interventional Radiology to step into the international medical circle. (authors)

  6. STRAPIR, an European initiative for optimizing radiation protection in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Loon, R. van; Padovani, R.; Maccia, C.; Eggermont, G.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, a European initiative for optimizing radiation protection in interventional radiology was proposed by 8 research groups. The project acronym was STPAPIR (Staff Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology). Interventional Radiology involves an important number of specialists and their risk level is not well known, since dosimetric records exhibit important discrepancies. Many professionals using these techniques are not radiologists and the basic rules of radiation protection, known by radiologists, are not always correctly and completely followed, hence the use of protection devices is not as regular as desirable. Additionally, x-ray systems not specifically designed for interventional procedures are still used in many hospitals, what entails a significant occupational risk increase to the specialists. Some relevant questions for regulatory bodies are presented, namely, reliability of the actual data banks for occupational dosimetry, use of two personal dosimeters for assessing effective dose, actions to strengthen the systematic use of personal dosimeters and protection tools, proposals for specific training in radiation protection and use of x-ray systems specifically designed for interventional procedures, publication of reports about accidents and incidents, are also discussed. (author)

  7. Emergency preparedness and response to 'Not-in-a-Facility' radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grlicarev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of lessons learned from the past radiological accidents, which have not occurred in an operating facility, i.e. 'not-in-a-facility' radiological emergencies. A method to analyze status of prevention of accidents is proposed taking into account the experiences and findings from the past events. The main emergency planning items are discussed, which would render effective response in case of such emergencies. Although the IAEA has published many documents about establishing an adequate emergency response capability, it is not an easy task to bring these recommendations into life. This paper gives some hints how to overcome the most obvious difficulties while users of these documents trying to adapt the guidance to their own needs. The special cases of alpha emitters and radiological dispersal devices were considered separately. The balanced approach to emergency response is promoted throughout the text, which means that a level of preparedness should be commensurate to the threat and the existing resources should be used to the extent possible. (author)

  8. The use of ionising radiation screening devices in airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2010-01-01

    Although the NEA generally focuses on radiological protection at nuclear power plants and related facilities, it also addresses other areas of radiological protection of interest to member countries. A particular subject of recent importance concerns the use of ionising radiation screening devices as part of airport security efforts. Modern body scanners can produce human images that can be used to detect weapons that may be hidden beneath a person's clothing. Heightened concerns over terrorist threats to airline flights have prompted many countries to consider the use, or expanded use of body scanners. The use of such devices raises a wide series of questions, some of which concern the radiological protection of those who might be scanned. As such, the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety (IACRS), an expert body in which the NEA works together with several other international organisations addressing radiological protection issues, recently developed a joint information paper laying out the key radiological protection and other issues that should be or have been considered when making decisions as to whether ionising radiation body scanners should be deployed in airports. This article provides an overview of the information paper. In assessing the possible use of X-ray body scanners, there are two significant radiological protection issues that may be of relevance with regard to the government decision whether their use is justified. First, although the individual exposures are very low, the exposure experienced by the scanned population as a whole will depend on whether all passengers are systematically scanned, or alternatively whether passengers are selected for scanning randomly or on the basis of specific criteria. The manner in which passengers would be selected would need to be known in order to appropriately assess the full radiological protection impact of scanner use. Second, the use of X-ray body scanners on sensitive groups, such as pregnant

  9. Registration and monitoring of radiation exposure from radiological imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, F.; Pinto dos Santos, D.; Hempel, J.; Dueber, C.; Mildenberger, P.

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for reducing radiation exposure are an important part of optimizing medical imaging and therefore a relevant quality factor in radiology. Regarding the medical radiation exposure, computed tomography has a special relevance. The use of the integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) radiation exposure monitoring (REM) profile is the upcoming standard for organizing and collecting exposure data in radiology. Currently most installed base devices do not support this profile generating the required digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) dose structured reporting (SR). For this reason different solutions had been developed to register dose exposure measurements without having the dose SR object. Registration and analysis of dose-related parameters is required for constantly optimizing examination protocols, especially computed tomography (CT) examinations based on the latest research results in order to minimize the individual radiation dose exposure from medical imaging according to the principle as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). (orig.) [de

  10. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  11. Socioeconomic trends in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. (orig.)

  12. Use of audio-visual methods in radiology and physics courses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, P

    1987-03-15

    Today's medicine utilizes sophisticated equipment for radiological, biochemical and microbiological investigation procedures and analyses. Hence it is necessary that physicans have adequate scientific and technical knowledge of the apparatus they are using so that the equipment can be used in the most effective way. Partly this knowledge is obtained from science-orientated courses in the preclinical stage of the study program for medical students. To increase the motivation to study science-courses (medical physics) audio-visual methods are used to describe diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the clinical routines.

  13. Professional Acceptance Of Electronic Images In Radiologic Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Joseph N.; Curtis, David J.; Kerlin, Barbara D.; Olmsted, William W.

    1983-05-01

    During the past four years, a large number of radiographic images have been interpreted in both film and video modes in an effort to determine the utility of digital/analogue systems in general practice. With the cooperation of the Department of Defense, the MITRE Corporation, and several university-based radiology departments, the Public Health Service has participated in laboratory experiments and a teleradiology field trial to meet this objective. During the field trial, 30 radiologists participated in the interpretation of more than 4,000 diagnostic x-ray examinations that were performed at distant clinics, digitized, and transmitted to a medical center for interpretation on video monitors. As part of the evaluation, all of the participating radiologists and the attending physicians at the clinics were queried regarding the teleradiology system, particularly with respect to the diagnostic quality of the electronic images. The original films for each of the 4,000 examinations were read independently, and the findings and impressions from each mode were compared to identify discrepancies. In addition, a sample of 530 cases was reviewed and interpreted by a consensus panel to measure the accuracy of findings and impressions of both film and video readings. The sample has been retained in an automated archive for future study at the National Center of Devices and Radiological Health facilities in Rockville, Maryland. The studies include a comparison of diagnostic findings and impressions from 1024 x 1024 matrices with those obtained from the 512 x 512 format used in the field trial. The archive also provides a database for determining the effect of data compression techniques on diagnostic interpretations and establishing the utility of image processing algorithms. The paper will include an analysis of the final results of the field trial and preliminary findings from the ongoing studies using the archive of cases at the National Center for Devices and Radiological

  14. Interactive computer-based training program for radiological workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinoskey, P.A.; Camacho, P.I.; Wells, L.

    2000-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is redesigning its existing Computer-Based Training (CBT) programs for radiological workers. The redesign represents a major effort that is aimed at producing a single highly interactive and flexible CBT program. The new CBT program is designed to address a variety of radiological workers, including researchers, x-ray operators, and individuals working in tritium, uranium, plutonium, and accelerator facilities. The program addresses the diversity of backgrounds found at a national laboratory. The CBT program includes photographs, line drawings and illustrations, sound, video, and simulations, and it allows for easy insertion and replacement of text, graphics, sound, and video. The new design supports timely updates and customization for use at other University of California sites. The CBT program is divided into ten basic modules. Introduction and Lessons Learned, History and Uses, Fundamentals, Background Radiation, Biological Effects of Radiation, Characteristics of Radionuclides, Radiological Controls, Monitoring, Emergency Response, Responsibilities. Some of the main modules features as many as seven or eight submodules. For example, the module on Characteristics of Radionuclides features submodules on common radionuclides, tritium uranium, plutonium, x-ray machines, E-beam devices, radiographic devices, and accelerators. Required submodules are tailored to an individual's type of work and facility, and they are determined by the answers to an onscreen questionnaire given at the outset of training. Individuals can challenge most individual modules, but certain submodules will be mandatory based on the initial survey. For example, individuals working in the uranium facility will be required to complete the submodule on 'History and Uses of Uranium'. However, all other submodules under the main module, 'History and Uses', will be available if selected for preview. For each module, an opportunity is provided for further

  15. Designer exosomes produced by implanted cells intracerebrally deliver therapeutic cargo for Parkinson's disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryosuke; Bojar, Daniel; Rizzi, Giorgio; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; El-Baba, Marie Daoud; Saxena, Pratik; Ausländer, Simon; Tan, Kelly R; Fussenegger, Martin

    2018-04-03

    Exosomes are cell-derived nanovesicles (50-150 nm), which mediate intercellular communication, and are candidate therapeutic agents. However, inefficiency of exosomal message transfer, such as mRNA, and lack of methods to create designer exosomes have hampered their development into therapeutic interventions. Here, we report a set of EXOsomal transfer into cells (EXOtic) devices that enable efficient, customizable production of designer exosomes in engineered mammalian cells. These genetically encoded devices in exosome producer cells enhance exosome production, specific mRNA packaging, and delivery of the mRNA into the cytosol of target cells, enabling efficient cell-to-cell communication without the need to concentrate exosomes. Further, engineered producer cells implanted in living mice could consistently deliver cargo mRNA to the brain. Therapeutic catalase mRNA delivery by designer exosomes attenuated neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation in in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease, indicating the potential usefulness of the EXOtic devices for RNA delivery-based therapeutic applications.

  16. Emergency department radiology: Reality or luxury? An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, D.R.; Blickman, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in society and developments within emergency care affect imaging in the emergency department. It is clear that radiologists have to be pro-active to even survive. High quality service is the goal, and if we are to add value to the diagnostic (and therapeutic) chain of healthcare, sub-specialization is the key, and, although specifically patient-oriented and not organ-based, emergency and trauma imaging is well suited for that. The development of emergency radiology in Europe and the United States is compared with emphasis on how different healthcare systems and medical cultures affect the utilization of Acute Care imaging.

  17. Dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents the radiological manifestations of the maxillodental region in a suitable manner for fast detection and correct diagnosing of diseases of the teeth, soft tissue, and jaws. Classification therefore is made according to the radiological manifestations of the diseases and not according to etiology. (orig./MG) [de

  18. [Case-based interactive PACS learning: introduction of a new concept for radiological education of students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, A; Kröpil, P; Heusch, P; Buchbender, C; Sewerin, P; Blondin, D; Lanzman, R S; Miese, F; Ostendorf, B; Bölke, E; Mödder, U; Antoch, G

    2011-11-01

    Medical curricula are currently being reformed in order to establish superordinated learning objectives, including, e.g., diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive competences. This requires a shifting from traditional teaching methods towards interactive and case-based teaching concepts. Conceptions, initial experiences and student evaluations of a novel radiological course Co-operative Learning In Clinical Radiology (CLICR) are presented in this article. A novel radiological teaching course (CLICR course), which combines different innovative teaching elements, was established and integrated into the medical curriculum. Radiological case vignettes were created for three clinical teaching modules. By using a PC with PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) access, web-based databases and the CASUS platform, a problem-oriented, case-based and independent way of learning was supported as an adjunct to the well established radiological courses and lectures. Student evaluations of the novel CLICR course and the radiological block course were compared. Student evaluations of the novel CLICR course were significantly better compared to the conventional radiological block course. Of the participating students 52% gave the highest rating for the novel CLICR course concerning the endpoint overall satisfaction as compared to 3% of students for the conventional block course. The innovative interactive concept of the course and the opportunity to use a web-based database were favorably accepted by the students. Of the students 95% rated the novel course concept as a substantial gain for the medical curriculum and 95% also commented that interactive working with the PACS and a web-based database (82%) promoted learning and understanding. Interactive, case-based teaching concepts such as the presented CLICR course are considered by both students and teachers as useful extensions to the radiological course program. These concepts fit well into competence-oriented curricula.

  19. White Paper: Curriculum in Interventional Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, Andreas H; Bücker, Arno; Hohl, Christian; Berlis, Ansgar

    2017-04-01

    Purpose  Scope and clinical importance of interventional radiology markedly evolved over the last decades. Consequently it was acknowledged as independent subspecialty by the "European Union of Medical Specialists" (UEMS). Based on radiological imaging techniques Interventional Radiology is an integral part of Radiology. Materials und Methods  In 2009 the German Society for Interventional Radiology and minimally-invasive therapy (DeGIR) developed a structured training in Interventional Radiology. In cooperation with the German Society of Neuroradiology (DGNR) this training was extended to also cover Interventional Neuroradiology in 2012. Tailored for this training in Interventional Radiology a structured curriculum was developed, covering the scope of this modular training. Results  The curriculum is based on the DeGIR/DGNR modular training concept in Interventional Radiology. There is also an European Curriculum and Syllabus for Interventional Radiology developed by the "Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe" (CIRSE). The presented curriculum in Interventional Radiology is designed to provide a uniform base for the training in Interventional Radiology in Germany, based on the competencies obtained during residency. Conclusion  This curriculum can be used as a basis for training in Interventional Radiology by all training sites. Key Points: · Interventional Radiology is an integral part of clinical radiology. · The German Society for Interventional Radiology and minimally-invasive therapy (DeGIR) developed a curriculum in Interventional Radiology. · This curriculum is an integrative basis for the training in interventional. Citation Format · Mahnken AH, Bücker A, Hohl C et al. White Paper: Curriculum in Interventional Radiology. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 309 - 311. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Radioprotective shield - an adequate radioprotective device for routine stomatological radiodiagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltschke, F [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Univ., Greifswald (German Democratic Republic); Taschner, P; Koenig, W; Menzel, B [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic)

    1975-01-01

    Starting from the shortcomings of the radioprotective devices at present used in routine stomatological radiodiagnosis, the authors describe the advantages of a radioprotective shield which has been produced in the Greifswald University Stomatological Clinic. On the basis of dosimetric studies, the National Board for Nuclear Safety and Radiological Protection of the GDR (Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz der DDR) could demonstrate the suitability of this shield as a radioprotective device for routine stomatological radiodiagnosis.

  1. Precision Radiology Residency Training: Special Distinction Tracks for Noninterpretative Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Elizabeth; Solnes, Lilja; Horton, Karen M; Johnson, Pamela T

    2018-06-01

    The role of a radiologist has expanded beyond the tripartite mission of patient care, education, and research to include cross-specialty consultation for patient management, innovative solutions to improve health-care quality and safety, device design, and policy advocacy. As such, radiology residency programs should incorporate formalized training to prepare residents for these various professional roles. Since the 2015-2016 academic year, five training tracks focused on noninterpretative skills have been integrated into our residency training program: Clinician Educator, Quality Improvement, Entrepreneurship/Innovation, Health Policy Advocacy, and High-Value Care. Each track is longitudinal, with a set of requirements throughout the residents' training necessary to achieve certification at graduation. To date nine residents have participated in the programs, including two who received distinction in two separate tracks. Residents in each of the tracks have implemented successful initiatives related to the focus area. As such, these tracks enrich training by ensuring that residents make meaningful contributions to the department and institution during their training and disseminate successful initiatives through presentation at national meetings and publications. The duration of a radiology residency and resources available in an academic center provide opportunities for residency program directors to advance residents' skills in important noninterpretative components of radiology practice. Regardless of whether residents pursue academic medicine or private practice, these skills are necessary for graduates to become valuable members of a radiology practice and serve as national leaders in the field of radiology. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear medicine and its radiological protection in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.

    2001-01-01

    The China Society of Nuclear Medicine was established on 27 May 1980. Since then, nuclear medicine in clinical diagnosis and therapy has been developed rapidly in China. So far there are more than 4000 members of the Society, and more than 350 sets of SPECT and 12 sets of PET have been installed and are busily running in clinic nowadays and about 1 million patients with different types of diseases have obtained nuclear medicine imaging examinations per year. Concerning the nuclear medicine therapy, a lot of patients with many types of diseases obtained benefit from radioisotope therapy. Accordingly, several Policies and Regulations have been enacted by the Government for the radiological protection. Furthermore, a special book titled 'Standardization in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine' has been promulgated in June, 1997 by the Health Administration of People's Republic of China, and this book is distributed to almost every nuclear medicine physician and technician in China for their reference in routine nuclear medicine work or research. In this book three parts of the contents are covered: Policies and Regulations for the radiological protection, basic knowledge and clinical nuclear medicine applications. (author)

  3. Radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.; Azorin V, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    This work is directed to all those people related with the exercise of the radiological protection and has the purpose of providing them a base of knowledge in this discipline so that they can make decisions documented on technical and scientist factors for the protection of the personnel occupationally exposed, the people in general and the environment during the work with ionizing radiations. Before de lack of a text on this matter, this work seeks to cover the specific necessities of our country, providing a solid presentation of the radiological protection, included the bases of the radiations physics, the detection and radiation dosimetry, the radiobiology, the normative and operational procedures associates, the radioactive wastes, the emergencies and the transport of the radioactive material through the medical and industrial applications of the radiations, making emphasis in the relative particular aspects to the radiological protection in Mexico. The book have 16 chapters and with the purpose of supplementing the given information, are included at the end four appendixes: 1) the radioactive waste management in Mexico, 2-3) the Mexican official standards related with the radiological protection, 4) a terms glossary used in radiological protection. We hope this book will be of utility for those people that work in the investigation and the applications of the ionizing radiations. (Author)

  4. Drug vaping applied to cannabis: Is "Cannavaping" a therapeutic alternative to marijuana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Vincent; Concha-Lozano, Nicolas; Berthet, Aurélie; Plateel, Grégory; Favrat, Bernard; De Cesare, Mariangela; Lauer, Estelle; Augsburger, Marc; Thomas, Aurélien; Giroud, Christian

    2016-05-26

    Therapeutic cannabis administration is increasingly used in Western countries due to its positive role in several pathologies. Dronabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) pills, ethanolic cannabis tinctures, oromucosal sprays or table vaporizing devices are available but other cannabinoids forms can be used. Inspired by the illegal practice of dabbing of butane hashish oil (BHO), cannabinoids from cannabis were extracted with butane gas, and the resulting concentrate (BHO) was atomized with specific vaporizing devices. The efficiency of "cannavaping," defined as the "vaping" of liquid refills for e-cigarettes enriched with cannabinoids, including BHO, was studied as an alternative route of administration for therapeutic cannabinoids. The results showed that illegal cannavaping would be subjected to marginal development due to the poor solubility of BHO in commercial liquid refills (especially those with high glycerin content). This prevents the manufacture of liquid refills with high BHO concentrations adopted by most recreational users of cannabis to feel the psychoactive effects more rapidly and extensively. Conversely, "therapeutic cannavaping" could be an efficient route for cannabinoids administration because less concentrated cannabinoids-enriched liquid refills are required. However, the electronic device marketed for therapeutic cannavaping should be carefully designed to minimize potential overheating and contaminant generation.

  5. Radiology trainer. Musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Erlt-Wagner, B.

    2006-01-01

    This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)

  6. Sequestration Coating Performance Requirements for Mitigation of Contamination from a Radiological Dispersion Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.

    2009-01-01

    Immediate action would be necessary to minimize the effects of a radiological 'dirty bomb' detonation in a major city. After a dirty bomb has been detonated, vehicular and pedestrian traffic, as well as weather effects, would increase the spread of loose contamination, making control and recovery more difficult and costly. While contaminant migration and chemical binding into surface materials can be relatively rapid, the immediate treatment of surfaces with large quantities of an appropriate compound could alleviate much of the difficulty in decontamination. The EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), in collaboration with ASTM International, is currently developing performance standards for materials which could be applied to exterior surfaces contaminated by an RDD to mitigate the spread and migration of radioactive contamination. These performance standards are being promulgated via an ASTM Standard Specification to be published by ASTM International. Test methods will be developed to determine if candidate coatings meet the performance requirements stipulated in the ASTM performance standard. These test methods will be adapted from existing standard methods, or will be devised through laboratory research. The final set of test methods will be codified in an ASTM or other standard test method. The principal market for products described in the ASTM performance standard would be federal, state and local government emergency responders and response planners, decontamination service providers and those whose interests include protection and recovery of real estate potentially at risk from radiological terrorism. (authors)

  7. Radiological and physiological studies on the role of some therapeutic agents used for internal decontamination of radionuclides from male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangood, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    With the earths increasing nuclear arsenal and the growing use of nuclear energy, the possibility of radiological accidents involving release of radioactive materials, internal contamination may consequently occurs via inhalation, ingestion or absorption of radioisotopes.Therefore, the present work was oriented to deal with four topics related to the internal decontamination of two of the most widely used isotopes, namely 134 Cs and 60 Co from contaminated rats:-In vitro study aimed to select agents that can strongly bind the two metal ions and elucidate the best conditions and the factors affecting this binding. The tested agents were bentonite, vermiculite and Prussian blue (PB). The sorption capacity of PB and vermiculite for both metal ions was high and equivalent to more than 10 11 Bq 137 Cs or 60 Co per gram sorbent. As bentonite has lower capacity to both isotopes, further in vivo experiments were performed with PB and vermiculite.-In vivo studies, via 5 groups of rats, devoted to investigate the kinetics of excretion of 134 Cs and/or 60 Co from contaminated rats. The biological half lives of excretion, excretion stages for both isotopes and the effect of route of entry on the excretion were estimated.-In vivo studies aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PB + vermiculite and CaDTPA as therapeutic agents for accelerating the elimination of 134 Cs and/or 60 Co from contaminated rats. The study was performed via 6 groups of rats given different regimes of therapy. The results showed the high efficiency of PB + vermiculite for accelerating elimination of 134 Cs and orally administrated 60 Co while CaDTPA succeeded in accelerating intraperitoneally administrated 60 Co. The study proved that oral administration of PB + vermiculite and injection with CaDTPA at the same time is very effective in accelerating elimination of both contaminants simultaneously.-The physiological studies aimed to evaluate the hazardous effects of 134 Cs and/or 60 Co incorporation and

  8. Imaging findings and therapeutic alternatives for peripheral vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Santos, Daniela dos; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Abud, Daniel Giansante

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral vascular malformations represent a spectrum of lesions that appear through the lifetime and can be found in the whole body. Such lesions are uncommon and are frequently confounded with infantile hemangioma, a common benign neoplastic lesion. In the presence of such lesions, the correlation between the clinical and radiological findings is extremely important to achieve a correct diagnosis, which will guide the best therapeutic approach. The most recent classifications for peripheral vascular malformations are based on the blood flow (low or high) and on the main vascular components (arterial, capillary, lymphatic or venous). Peripheral vascular malformations represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, and complementary methods such as computed tomography, Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, in association with clinical findings can provide information regarding blood flow characteristics and lesions extent. Arteriography and venography confirm the diagnosis, evaluate the lesions extent and guide the therapeutic decision making. Generally, low flow vascular malformations are percutaneously treated with sclerosing agents injection, while in high flow lesions the approach is endovascular, with permanent liquid or solid embolization agents. (author)

  9. Radiology and social media: are private practice radiology groups more social than academic radiology departments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, McKinley; Choy, Garry; Boland, Giles W; Saini, Sanjay; Prabhakar, Anand M

    2015-05-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of use of the most commonly used social media sites among private radiology groups (PRGs) and academic radiology departments (ARDs). The 50 largest PRGs and the 50 ARDs with the highest level of funding from the National Institutes of Health were assessed for presence of a radiology-specific social media account on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, YouTube, and LinkedIn. Measures of organizational activity and end-user activity were collected, including the number of posts and followers, as appropriate; between-group comparisons were performed. PRGs adopted Facebook 12 months earlier (P = .02) and Twitter 18 months earlier (P = .02) than did ARDs. A total of 76% of PRGs maintained ≥1 account on the social media sites included in the study, compared with 28% of ARDs (P Instagram, 2%. The prevalence of radiology-specific social media accounts for ARDs was: Facebook, 18%; LinkedIn, 0%; Twitter, 24%; YouTube, 6%; Pinterest, 0%; and Instagram, 0%. There was no significant difference between ARDs and PRGs in measures of end-user or organizational activity on Facebook or Twitter. Use of social media in health care is emerging as mainstream, with PRGs being early adopters of Facebook and Twitter in comparison with ARDs. Competitive environments and institutional policies may be strong factors that influence how social media is used by radiologists at the group and department levels. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiology online: information, education, and networking--a summary of the 2012 Intersociety Committee Summer Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Gerald D; Naeger, David M

    2013-05-01

    The "new online" (Web 2.0) world is evolving rapidly, and the digital information, education, and networking resources available to radiologists have exploded over the past 2 decades. The 2012 Intersociety Committee Summer Conference attendees explored the online resources that have been produced by societies, universities, and commercial entities. Specific attention was given to identifying the best products and packaging them in tablet computers for use by residents and practicing radiologists. The key functions of social networking websites and the possible roles they can play in radiology were explored as well. It was the consensus of the attendees that radiologic digital resources and portable electronic devices have matured to the point that they should become an integral part of our educational programs and clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiological diagnostics in hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, U.; Kuhn, F.P.; Gruetzner, G.

    1991-01-01

    The most important radiologically detectable effects of the primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism of the skeletal system and the periarticular soft tissue structures are presented. In the following sensitivity and specificity of radiological imaging - sonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, arteriography and selective venous sampling - in the preoperative diagnostic of the parathyroid adenomas are discussed. Therefore, radiological imaging can be omitted before primary surgery. It was only in secondary surgery that radiological process proved useful and a guide during surgical intervention. (orig.) [de

  12. Radiology – Changing Role in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Khalilur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    also as a major contributor to treatment and recovery. Working in tandem with other disciplines, radiology has had a major impact on achievements in such significant areas as early cancer detection, speedy trauma analysis, precise stroke localization and many others.7 Interventional radiology, one of the subspecialty areas of radiology, uses the imaging modalities of diagnostic radiology to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures, such as that in laparoscopic gallstone surgery. The number of interventional radiology examinations has shown a huge rise, increasing by over 50% since 2007. Therapeutic radiology, better known as radiation oncology uses radiation to treat diseases such as cancer using a form of treatment called radiation therapy.5,8 The last few decades have witnessed dramatic innovations and improvisations in imaging technology. In all sense radiological advances have revolutionized the practice of modern medicine. Imaging now uses a wide range of modalities that vary in their mode of image acquisition. In order to request the correct imaging technique and thereby improve patient management, it is useful for the practicing clinician to be conversant with all imaging techniques available, their advantages as well as limitations, indications and contraindications of each modality.

  13. Occupational exposure for workers in interventional radiological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An interventional radiological examination is a diagnostic or therapeutic in any organ or anatomical region using images acquired with ionizing radiation. Compared to other radiological acquisition, personnel who perform interventional procedures, which involve long fluoroscopy times and a high workload may receive radiation doses comparable to the dose limits. Therefore to ensure that no person be subjected to an unacceptable risk from radiation, that need for accurate individual monitoring has arisen. In this work, the doses received by physician in cardiac angiography were evaluated and the results of two months were presented. Only 7 physicians were monitored. Hence the data available is presented, and it is hoped to provide some information on the assessment of occupational exposure in interventional radiological examination. Measurements were done using Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) and a calibrated Harshaw Reader. Two TLDs were used by each physician, one worn under a protective apron at the waist (H W ) and the other worn outside and above the apron at the neck (H N ). The effective dose E was estimated from the formula: E (estimated) = 0.5 H W + 0.025 H N . From the result obtained it was concluded that, the weak point of radiation protection philosophy in medical application is in the work of interventional physicians who have no full time decision like the radiologist physicians and therefore haven't enough knowledge about the radiation and radiation protection. So they are the highest risk group among physicians and to whom the efforts must be directed. (author)

  14. Pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz-Bohm, G.

    1997-01-01

    Pediatric radiology is an important subsection of diagnostic radiology involving specific difficulties, but unfortunately is quite too often neglected as a subject of further education and training. The book therefore is not intended for specialists in the field, but for radiologists wishing to plunge deeper into the matter of pediatric radiology and to acquire a sound, basic knowledge and information about well-proven modalities, the resulting diagnostic images, and interpretation of results. The book is a compact guide and a helpful source of reference and information required for every-day work, or in special cases. With patients who are babies or children, the challenges are different. The book offers all the information needed, including important experience from pediatric hospital units that may be helpful in diagnostic evaluation, information about specific dissimilarities in anatomy and physiology which affect the imaging results, hints for radiology planning and performance, as well as information about the various techniques and their indication and achievements. The book presents a wide spectrum of informative and annotated images. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Impact of Simulation-Based Training on Radiology Trainee Education in Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Ashley A; Ebuoma, Lilian O; Ortiz-Perez, Tamara; Sepulveda, Karla A; Severs, Frederick J; Wang, Tao; Benveniste, Ana Paula; Sedgwick, Emily L

    2017-12-05

    The aim of this study is to determine the impact of a simulation-based ultrasound-guided (USG) breast biopsy training session on radiology trainee procedural knowledge, comfort levels, and overall procedural confidence and anxiety. Twenty-one diagnostic radiology residents from a single academic institution were recruited to participate in an USG breast biopsy training session. The residents filled out a questionnaire before and after the training session. Ten multiple-choice questions tested general knowledge in diagnostic breast ultrasound and USG breast biopsy concepts. Subjective comfort levels with ultrasound machine and biopsy device functionality, patient positioning, proper biopsy technique, image documentation, needle safety and overall procedural confidence and anxiety levels were reported on a 5-point Likert scale before and after training. Participants demonstrated significant improvement in number of correctly answered general knowledge questions after training (P simulation-based USG breast biopsy training session may improve radiology trainee procedural knowledge, comfort levels, and overall procedural confidence. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiologic protection in intensive therapy units; Protecao radiologica em unidades de terapia intensiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea, H.; Juliana, C.; Gerusa, R.; Laurete, M.B.; Suelen, S., E-mail: andrea.huhn@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: juliana@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: gerusa@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: laurete@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: suelen.saraiva@ifsc.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Derech, Rodrigo D.A., E-mail: dagostiniderech@gmail.com [Policlinica Municipal Sul, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The discovery of X-ray was a great achievement for humanity, especially for the medical community. In Intensive Care Units (ICUs), the RX tests, performed with mobile devices, add immense value to the diagnosis of inpatients who do not have the option to carry them out of bed. Following the technology and its improvements, fatalities arose from misuse of ionizing radiation, which mostly gave up for lack of knowledge of the biological effects caused by them, which leads to fear among professionals and often prevents a quick job and effectively by professionals of radiological techniques. The research it is a systematic review of the literature and justified by the scarcity of materials that reflect on the radiological protection in ICUs. For this study we found the Virtual Health Library (VHL) and Pubmed were indexed terms radiological protection and intensive care units, the search in Portuguese and English terms were used radiological protection and intensive care unit. The study aims to inform professionals of ICUs on the main aspects that refer to X-rays in hospital beds, the standards of radiological protection and personal protective equipment, thus avoiding possible damage to the biological health of workers, addressing subjects in rules and laws about the X radiation, emphasizing the protection of professionals in intensive care. It is clear, finally, that little research is conducted in the context of radiological protection of workers ICU's and this is a place that receives daily RX equipment, deserving more attention to protect the worker. (author)

  17. Biliary parasites: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Niraj; Shaw, Joanna; Jain, Mamta K

    2008-04-01

    Parasitic infections of the biliary tract are a common cause of biliary obstruction in endemic areas. This article focuses on primary biliary parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, and Fasciola gigantica. Tropical and subtropical countries have the highest incidence and prevalence of these infections. Diagnosis is made primarily through direct microscopic examination of eggs in the stool, duodenal, or bile contents. Radiologic imaging may show intrahepatic ductal dilatation, whereas endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography can be used diagnostically and therapeutically. However, oral treatment is inexpensive and effective for most of these parasites and can prevent untoward consequences. Primary and alternative treatments are available and are reviewed in this article.

  18. CT- and MR-guided interventions in radiology. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, Andreas H.; Wilhelm, Kai E.; Ricke, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Revised and extended second edition that covers a broad range of non-vascular interventions guided by CT or MR imaging. Discusses in detail indications, materials, techniques, and results. Includes a comprehensive section on interventional oncology. Richly illustrated source of information and guidance for all radiologists who deal with non-vascular procedures. Interventional radiology is an indispensable and still expanding area of modern medicine that encompasses numerous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Cross-sectional imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) have emerged as important techniques for non-vascular interventions, including percutaneous biopsy, drainage, ablation, and neurolysis. Various organs, diseases, and lesions can be approached in this way, permitting the treatment and management of tumors, fluid collections, and pain, the embolization of endoleaks, the provision of access to hollow organs, etc. Accordingly, interventional radiology is now an integral component of the interdisciplinary management of numerous disorders. The revised and significantly extended second edition of this volume covers a broad range of non-vascular interventions guided by CT or MR imaging. Indications, materials, techniques, and results are all carefully discussed. A particularly comprehensive section is devoted to interventional oncology as the most rapidly growing branch of interventional radiology. In addition, detailed information is provided that will assist in establishing and developing an interventional service. This richly illustrated book will be a most valuable source of information and guidance for all radiologists who deal with non-vascular procedures.

  19. French Sizing of Medical Devices is not Fit for Purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibriya, Nabil; Hall, Rebecca; Powell, Steven; How, Thien; McWilliams, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of the study is to quantify the variation in the metric equivalent of French size in a range of medical devices, from various manufacturers, used in interventional radiology.MethodsThe labelling of a range of catheters, introducers, drains, balloons, stents, and endografts was examined. Products were chosen to achieve a broad range of French sizes from several manufacturers. To assess manufacturing accuracy, eight devices were selected for measurement using a laser micrometer. The external diameters of three specimens of each device were measured at centimeter intervals along the length of the device to ensure uniformity.ResultsA total of 200 labels of interventional radiology equipment were scrutinized. The results demonstrate a wide variation in the metric equivalent of French sizing. Labelled products can vary in diameter across the product range by up to 0.79 mm.The devices selected for measurement with the non-contact laser micrometer demonstrate acceptable manufacturing consistency. The external diameter differed by 0.05 mm on average.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale by different manufacturers of medical devices. This has the potential to lead to problems using coaxial systems especially when the products are from different manufacturers. It is recommended that standard labelling should be employed by all manufacturers conveying specific details of the equipment. Given the wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale, our opinion is that this scale either needs to be abandoned or be strictly defined and followed

  20. An Updated Comprehensive Risk Analysis for Radioisotopes Identified of High Risk to National Security in the Event of a Radiological Dispersion Device Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alexandra R.

    An updated global survey of radioisotope production and distribution was completed and subjected to a revised "down-selection methodology" to determine those radioisotopes that should be classified as potential national security risks based on availability and key physical characteristics that could be exploited in a hypothetical radiological dispersion device. The potential at-risk radioisotopes then were used in a modeling software suite known as Turbo FRMAC, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, to characterize plausible contamination maps known as Protective Action Guideline Zone Maps. This software also was used to calculate the whole body dose equivalent for exposed individuals based on various dispersion parameters and scenarios. Derived Response Levels then were determined for each radioisotope using: 1) target doses to members of the public provided by the U.S. EPA, and 2) occupational dose limits provided by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The limiting Derived Response Level for each radioisotope also was determined.

  1. Cone-beam computed tomography imaging: therapeutic staff dose during chemoembolisation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Jijo; Vogl, Thomas J; Chacko, Annamma; Mbalisike, Emmanuel C

    2014-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is an important requirement to perform real-time therapeutic image-guided procedures on patients. The purpose of this study is to estimate the personal-dose-equivalent and annual-personal-dose from CBCT imaging during transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE). Therapeutic staff doses (therapeutic and assistant physician) were collected during 200 patient (65  ±  15 years, range: 40–86) CBCT examinations over six months. Absorbed doses were assessed using thermo-luminescent dosimeters during patient hepatic TACE therapy. We estimated personal-dose-equivalent (PDE) and annual-personal-dose (APD) from absorbed dose based on international atomic energy agency protocol. APD for therapeutic procedure was calculated (therapeutic physician: 5.6 mSv; assistant physician: 5.08 mSv) based on institutional work load. Regarding PDE, the hands of the staff members received a greater dose compared to other anatomical locations (therapeutic physician: 56 mSv, 72 mSv; assistant physician: 12 mSv, 14 mSv). Annual radiation doses to the eyes and hands of the staff members were lower compared to the prescribed limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). PDE and APD of both therapeutic staff members were within the recommended ICRP-103 annual limit. Dose to the assistant physician was lower than the dose to the therapeutic physician during imaging. Annual radiation doses to eye-lenses and hands of both staff members were lower than prescribed limits. (paper)

  2. Surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploumis Avraam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspinous distraction devices (IPDD are indicated as stand-alone devices for the treatment of spinal stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of patients undergoing surgery for spinal stenosis with a combination of unilateral microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. Methods This is a prospective clinical and radiological study of minimum 2 years follow-up. Twenty-two patients (average age 64.5 years with low-back pain and unilateral sciatica underwent decompressive surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry Disability Index and walking capacity plus radiologic measurements of posterior disc height of the involved level and lumbar lordosis Cobb angle were documented both preoperatively and postoperatively. One-sided posterior subarticular and foraminal decompression was conducted followed by dynamic stabilization of the diseased level with an IPDD (X-STOP. Results The average follow-up time was 27.4 months. Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index improved statistically significantly (p Conclusions The described surgical technique using unilateral microdecompression and IPDD insertion is a clinically effective and radiologically viable treatment method for symptoms of spinal stenosis resistant to non-operative treatment.

  3. Doses to patients from dental radiology in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedittini, M.; Maccia, C.; Lefaure, C.; Fagnani, F.

    1989-01-01

    In France, a national study was undertaken to estimate both dental radiology practices (equipment and activity) and the associated population collective dose. This study was done in two steps: A nationwide survey was conducted on the practitioner categories involved in dental radiology, and dosimetric measurements were performed on patients and on an anthropomorphic phantom by using conventional dental x-ray machines and pantomographic units. A total of 27.5 x 10(6) films were estimated to have been performed in 1984; 6% of them were pantomographic and 94% were conventional. Most of the organ doses measured for one intra-oral film were lower than 1 mGy (100 mrad); pantomogram dose values were generally higher than intra-oral ones. The collective effective dose equivalent figure was 2,000 person-Sv (2 x 10(5) person rem) leading to a per head dose equivalent of 0.037 mSv (3.7 mrem). The study allowed authors to identify ways to reduce the patient dose in France (e.g., implementing the use of long cone devices and controlling darkroom practices)

  4. Endoscopic-radiological findings in metastatic obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerder, U.; Heyder, N.; Riemann, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Metastatic obstructive jaundice usually results from an occlusion of the common hepatic or bile duct. More rarely, the underlying cause is a disseminated intrahepatic infiltration that has led to the occlusion of the bile canaliculi. The endoscopic-radiological examination techniques usually permit a reliable differentiation between neoplasms originating primarily in the biliary tract, and ductal occlusions caused by metastatic disease. In addition to this, both ERC and PTC permit the placement of an internal or external biliary drain during one and the same procedure. ERC represents a highly suitable method for the follow-up monitoring or documentation of the therapeutic effect of biliary drainage, radiotherapy and/or polychemotherapy. With the aid of regular follow-up examinations, recurrent diesase can be detected early on, and appropriately treated. (orig.)

  5. Thyroid radiofrequency ablation: Updates on innovative devices and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Sun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Chung, Sae Rom; Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Auh Whan [Dept. of Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Section, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-known, effective, and safe method for treating benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. Thyroid-dedicated devices and basic techniques for thyroid RFA were introduced by the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) in 2012. Thyroid RFA has now been adopted worldwide, with subsequent advances in devices and techniques. To optimize the treatment efficacy and patient safety, understanding the basic and advanced RFA techniques and selecting the optimal treatment strategy are critical. The goal of this review is to therefore provide updates and analysis of current devices and advanced techniques for RFA treatment of benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers.

  6. Feasibility study for a realistic training dedicated to radiological protection improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courageot, E.; Kutschera, R.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.; Jahan, S.; Riedel, A.; Therache, B.

    2013-01-01

    An evident purpose of the radiological protection training is to use suitable protective equipment and to behave correctly if unexpected working conditions happen. A major difficulty of this training consist in having the most realistic reading from the monitoring devices for a given exposure situation, but without using real radioactive sources. A new approach is developed at EDF R/D for radiological protection training. This approach combines different technologies, in an environment representative of the workplace but geographically separated from the nuclear power plant: a training area representative of a workplace, a Man Machine Interface used by the trainer to define the source configuration and the training scenario, a geo-localization system, fictive radiation monitoring devices and a particle transport code able to calculate in real time the dose map due to the virtual sources. In a first approach, our real-time particles transport code, called Moderato, used only an attenuation low in straight line. To improve the realism further, we would like to switch a code based on the Monte Carlo transport of particles like Geant 4 or MCNPX instead of Moderato. The aim of our study is the evaluation of the code in our application, in particular, the possibility to keep a real time response of our architecture. (authors)

  7. Radiological evaluation of dysphagia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Chen, Y.M.

    1986-11-21

    Dysphagia is a common complaint in patients presenting for radiological or endoscopic examination of the esophagus and is usually due to functional or structural abnormalities of the esophageal body or esophagogastric region. The authors review the radiological evaluation of the esophagus and esophagogastric region in patients with esophageal dysphagia and discuss the roentgenographic techniques used, radiological efficacy for common structural disorders, and evaluation of esophageal motor function. Comparison is made with endoscopy in assessing dysphagia, with the conclusion that the radiological examination be used initially in patients with this complaint.

  8. Radiological evaluation of dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Chen, Y.M.

    1986-01-01

    Dysphagia is a common complaint in patients presenting for radiological or endoscopic examination of the esophagus and is usually due to functional or structural abnormalities of the esophageal body or esophagogastric region. The authors review the radiological evaluation of the esophagus and esophagogastric region in patients with esophageal dysphagia and discuss the roentgenographic techniques used, radiological efficacy for common structural disorders, and evaluation of esophageal motor function. Comparison is made with endoscopy in assessing dysphagia, with the conclusion that the radiological examination be used initially in patients with this complaint

  9. A project: 'Radiological protection in radiology', IAEA - Universidad Central de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.R.; Salazar, G.; Fermin, R.; Gonzalez, M.

    2001-01-01

    For several years a reference center of the UCV has been working on the project VEN/9/007 on dose reduction in diagnostic radiology sponsored by the IAEA. The dose and quality image was evaluated for different types of radiological study (conventional radiology, CT, mammography, interventional radiology) in different facilities at Caracas and others regions of the Venezuela. TL dosimeters were used to assess dose and reduction in dose. Based on the recommendations given by CEC documents on diagnostic quality criteria, a quality control program in radiological protection of patients and staff has been developed, for example: Pilot study by using TLD in personnel radiation monitoring. Comparative study between high and low kVp in chest. Evaluation and dose reduction in chest pediatric. Reduction of radiation dose in studies of billiards via Quality Image and reduction of the dose in studies of colon by enema. Radiation dose of staff in fluoroscopy procedures. Evaluation and dose reduction in dental radiography in public Institutions. A mammography accreditation program for Venezuela, applied to public hospitals. (author)

  10. Radiological Evaluation Standards in the Radiology Department of Shahid Beheshti Hospital (RAH) YASUJ Based on Radiology standards in 92

    OpenAIRE

    A َKalantari; SAM Khosravani

    2014-01-01

    Background & aim: Radiology personnel’s working in terms of performance and safety is one of the most important functions in order to increase the quality and quantity. This study aimed to evaluate the radiological standards in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj, Iran, in 2013. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was based on a 118 randomly selected graphs and the ranking list, with full knowledge of the standards in radiology was performed two times. Data were analyzed using descri...

  11. Prevalence of symptom control and palliative care abstracts presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Palmer, J. Lynn; Bruera, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Forty percent of all patients referred for radiotherapy are treated with palliative intent. The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) has recently emphasized the importance of radiation oncologists being skilled in the field of symptom control and palliative care (SCPC). The purpose of this study was to determine the number of abstracts relating to SCPC presented at the annual ASTRO meetings. Methods and Materials: The number of SCPC abstracts presented at ASTRO meetings between 1993 and 2000 was counted. Abstracts were included if they described populations with advanced or metastatic cancer for whom the goal of treatment was symptom palliation. The treatment sites and symptoms palliated were recorded. Results: Of 3511 abstracts presented at ASTRO between 1993 and 2000, an average of 47 (1.3%, range 0.9-2.2%/y) were related to SCPC. The most common treatment sites were bone, brain, and lung. Pain, bleeding, and neurologic and pulmonary symptoms were the ones most commonly palliated. Thirty-two percent of the SCPC abstracts involved randomized controlled trials, 47% had palliation of symptoms as a secondary treatment outcome, and in 21%, the symptomatic treatment outcome was not specifically stated. Conclusion: SCPC research has been poorly represented at the annual ASTRO meetings. Education and research in this field needs to be actively encouraged, because SCPC is an important component of a radiation oncologist's role in comprehensive patient care

  12. Highly cited works in radiology: the top 100 cited articles in radiologic journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagni, Matthew; Khan, Nickalus R; Cohen, Harris L; Choudhri, Asim F

    2014-08-01

    The number of citations a publication receives can be used to show its impact on a field of study. It may indicate the educational interest in a given population or underline a perceived or real educational gap. This article identifies and characterizes the 100 top cited publications in radiologic journals as of May 2013. All clinical radiologic journals listed by Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports in 2011 were identified. A total of 46 journals were identified, and all articles published within these journals were analyzed for citation counts. The top 100 highly cited articles were recorded. The most frequently cited radiologic articles appeared in 9 of the 46 journals. These included 59 articles in Radiology, 17 in Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 9 in the American Journal of Roentgenology, 5 in the British Journal of Radiology, 4 in Investigative Radiology, 2 in American Journal of Neuroradiology, 2 in European Radiology, 2 in Radiologic Clinics of North America, 1 in the Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, and 1 in Pediatric Radiology. The citation values ranged from 422 to 7506 with a mean of 751. Publication dates ranged from 1967 to 2006 with the 5-year period between 1986 and 1990 accounting for the largest percentage of articles. The most frequently studied radiologic modality was magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 28 articles), followed by vascular/interventional (19 articles) and nuclear medicine (13 articles). The central nervous system was the most frequently studied organ system (22 articles), followed by mixed organ systems (14 articles) and liver (12 articles). The top cited articles in radiologic journals span a wide range of imaging modalities, subspecialties, and organ systems. Topics that occurred frequently in the top 100 cited articles included contrast and radiopharmaceutical characterization, MRI of motion, percutaneous radiofrequency ablation in the liver and percutaneous vertebroplasty. We present a methodology that uses citation analysis to

  13. The use of audio-visual methods in radiology and physics courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, P.

    1987-01-01

    Today's medicine utilizes sophisticated equipment for radiological, biochemical and microbiological investigation procedures and analyses. Hence it is necessary that physicans have adequate scientific and technical knowledge of the apparatus they are using so that the equipment can be used in the most effective way. Partly this knowledge is obtained from science-orientated courses in the preclinical stage of the study program for medical students. To increase the motivation to study science-courses (medical physics) audio-visual methods are used to describe diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the clinical routines. (orig.)

  14. Therapeutic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Lawrence A

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  15. Communicating with the public following radiological terrorism: results from a series of focus groups and national surveys in Britain and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Julia M; Rubin, G James; Selke, Piet; Amlôt, Richard; Mowbray, Fiona; Rogers, M Brooke

    2013-04-01

    Incidents involving the exposure of large numbers of people to radiological material can have serious consequences for those affected, their community and wider society. In many instances, the psychological effects of these incidents have the greatest impact. People fear radiation and even incidents which result in little or no actual exposure have the potential to cause widespread anxiety and behavior change. The aim of this study was to assess public intentions, beliefs and information needs in the UK and Germany in response to a hidden radiological exposure device. By assessing how the public is likely to react to such events, strategies for more effective crisis and risk communication can be developed and designed to address any knowledge gaps, misperceptions and behavioral responses that are contrary to public health advice. This study had three stages. The first stage consisted of focus groups which identified perceptions of and reactions to a covert radiological device. The incident was introduced to participants using a series of mock newspaper and broadcast injects to convey the evolving scenario. The outcomes of these focus groups were used to inform national telephone surveys, which quantified intended behaviors and assessed what perceptions were correlated with these behaviors. Focus group and survey results were used to develop video and leaflet communication interventions, which were then evaluated in a second round of focus groups. In the first two stages, misperceptions about the likelihood and routes of exposure were associated with higher levels of worry and greater likelihood of engaging in behaviors that might be detrimental to ongoing public health efforts. The final focus groups demonstrated that both types of misunderstanding are amenable to change following targeted communication. Should terrorists succeed in placing a hidden radiological device in a public location, then health agencies may find that it is easier to communicate effectively

  16. Interventional radiological therapy of benign low back pain syndromes; Interventionell radiologische Therapie benigner lumbaler Schmerzsyndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huegli, R.W.; Jacob, A.L.; Steinbrich, W. [Universitaetsspital Basel (Switzerland). Interventionelle Radiologie

    2007-03-15

    Spinal affections belong to the most widespread sources of back pain. Beside medical history and clinical examination, the radiological investigation plays an important rote in the clinical workup especially with the modern Cross sectional imaging methods such as computed and magnetic resonance tomography. After exclusion of a malignant disease usually a conservative therapeutic approach is the first line treatment option. If the conservative treatment approach falls a minimalinvasive image guided diagnostic or therapeutic infiltration may be considered. Thereby the interventional radiologist should be a member of the team which decides the clinical strategy. This article describes epidemiology and pathophysiology, common pre-interventional diagnostic strategies, drugs, indications, possible complications and the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic minimally invasive image guided techniques in low back pain. In this context facet joint blockade, periradicular and peridural therapy as well as sacroiliac joint blockades are discussed.

  17. Radiological Worker Training: Radiological Worker 2 lesson plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Upon completion of this g course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for a radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. The participant will be able toidentify the fundamentals of radiation, radioactive material and radioactive contamination includes identify the three basic particles of an atom, define ionization, define ionizing radiation, radioactive material and radioactive contamination, distinguish between ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, define radioactivity and radioactive half-life

  18. Radiological interpretation: The 'step-child' in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    Radiology has a highly developed technique, an extensive scientific literature and is excellent for acquiring information; one must contrast with this the difficulties in interpreting the information. In an attempt to find the reason for this, the process of radiological interpretation has been scrutinised. Critical consideration has been given to errors in the interpretation of the findings and to problems arising from the use of the available data. An attempt is made, with the help of diagrams, to determine a pathway for further development of information handling in X-ray diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  19. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    The escalating number of radiodiagnostic investigations has, as a consequence, an increase in medical irradiation of patients and of cost of radiological services. Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme in this direction which has issued four technical reports which give practical recommendations on how to rationalize the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations

  20. Radiological source tracking in oil/gas, medical and other industries: requirements and specifications for passive RFID technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowla, Farid U. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface sensors that employ radioisotopes, such 241Am-Be and 137Cs, for reservoir characterization must be tracked for safety and security reasons. Other radiological sources are also widely used in medicine. The radiological source containers, in both applications, are small, mobile and used widely worldwide. The nuclear sources pose radiological dispersal device (RDD) security risks. Security concerns with the industrial use of radionuclide sources is in fact quite high as it is estimated that each year hundreds of sealed sources go missing, either lost or stolen. Risk mitigation efforts include enhanced regulations, source-use guidelines, research and development on electronic tracking of sources. This report summarizes the major elements of the requirements and operational concepts of nuclear sources with the goal of developing automated electronic tagging and locating systems.

  1. Radiological hazard assessment of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, D.D.; Vermeere, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    With the recent introduction of ESWL to the clinical environment, a new health physics challenge has entered the medical consulting area. The x-ray imaging systems used in the devices are of a conventional design, but in an unusual configuration that is difficult to properly assess. The scope of this paper considers specific evaluation problems, and deals with methods developed during experience with 4 units in California. Pertinent regulations are also covered, along with a synopsis of data obtained and ALARA recommendations

  2. Quality Control Assessment of Radiology Devices in Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jomehzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of quality control (QC programs at diagnostic radiology departments is of great significance for optimization of image quality and reduction of patient dose. The main objective of this study was to perform QC tests on stationary radiographic X-ray machines, installed in 14 hospitals of Kerman province, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, QC tests were performed on 28 conventional radiographic X-ray units in Kerman governmental hospitals, based on the protocols and criteria recommended by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI, using a calibrated Gammex QC kit. Each section of the QC kit incorporated different models. Results Based on the findings, kVp accuracy, kVp reproducibility, timer accuracy, timer reproducibility, exposure reproducibility, mA/timer linearity, and half-value layer were not within the acceptable limits in 25%, 4%, 29%, 18%, 11%, 12%, and 7% of the evaluated units (n=28, respectively. Conclusion As radiographic X-ray equipments in Kerman province are relatively old with a high workload, it is recommended that AEOI modify the current policies by changing the frequency of QC test implementation to at least once a year.

  3. Occupational exposure in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.J.; Lee, K.Y.; Cha, S.H.; Kang, Y.K.; Kim, H.J.; Oh, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to survey of radiation safety control and to measure occupational radiation exposure dose of staff in interventional radiology in Korea. Interventioanl radiology requires the operator and assisting personnel to remain close to the patient, and thus close to primary beams of radiation. Therefore exposure doses of these personnel are significant from a radiological protection point of view. We surveyed the status of radiation safety on interventional radiology of 72 hospitals. The result were that 119 radiation equipments are using in interventional radiology and 744 staffs are composed of 307 radiologists, 116 residents of radiology, 5 general physicians, 171 radiologic technologists and 145 nurses. 81.4% and 20.2 % of operating physicians are using neck collar protector and goggle respectively. The average radiation dose was measured 0.46±0.15 mSv/10 hours fluoroscopy inside examination room in radiation protection facilities. Occupational radiation exposure data on the staff were assessed in interventional radiology procedures from 8 interventional radiology equipments of 6 university hospitals. The dose measurements were made by placing a thermoluminesent dosimeter(TLD) on various body surface of operation and assistant staff during actual interventional radiology. The measured points were the corner of the eyes, neck(on the thyroid) , wrists, chest(outside and inside of the protector), and back. Average radiation equivalent dose of the corner of left eye and left wrist of operating physicians were 1.19 mSv(0.11∼4.13 mSv)/100 minutes fluoroscopy and 4.32 mSv(0.16∼11.0 mSv)/100 minutes fluoroscopy respectively. Average exposure dose may vary depending on the type of procedure, personal skills and the quality of equipment. These results will be contributed to prepare the guide line in interventional radiology in Korea

  4. TU-AB-204-02: Device Adverse Events and Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.

    2016-01-01

    The responsibilities of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have increased since the inception of the Food and Drugs Act in 1906. Medical devices first came under comprehensive regulation with the passage of the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In 1971 FDA also took on the responsibility for consumer protection against unnecessary exposure to radiation-emitting devices for home and occupational use. However it was not until 1976, under the Medical Device Regulation Act, that the FDA was responsible for the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. This session will be presented by the Division of Radiological Health (DRH) and the Division of Imaging, Diagnostics, and Software Reliability (DIDSR) from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) at the FDA. The symposium will discuss on how we protect and promote public health with a focus on medical physics applications organized into four areas: pre-market device review, post-market surveillance, device compliance, current regulatory research efforts and partnerships with other organizations. The pre-market session will summarize the pathways FDA uses to regulate the investigational use and commercialization of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy medical devices in the US, highlighting resources available to assist investigators and manufacturers. The post-market session will explain the post-market surveillance and compliance activities FDA performs to monitor the safety and effectiveness of devices on the market. The third session will describe research efforts that support the regulatory mission of the Agency. An overview of our regulatory research portfolio to advance our understanding of medical physics and imaging technologies and approaches to their evaluation will be discussed. Lastly, mechanisms that FDA uses to seek public input and promote collaborations with professional, government, and international organizations, such as AAPM, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC

  5. TU-AB-204-02: Device Adverse Events and Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, S. [Food & Drug Administration (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The responsibilities of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have increased since the inception of the Food and Drugs Act in 1906. Medical devices first came under comprehensive regulation with the passage of the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In 1971 FDA also took on the responsibility for consumer protection against unnecessary exposure to radiation-emitting devices for home and occupational use. However it was not until 1976, under the Medical Device Regulation Act, that the FDA was responsible for the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. This session will be presented by the Division of Radiological Health (DRH) and the Division of Imaging, Diagnostics, and Software Reliability (DIDSR) from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) at the FDA. The symposium will discuss on how we protect and promote public health with a focus on medical physics applications organized into four areas: pre-market device review, post-market surveillance, device compliance, current regulatory research efforts and partnerships with other organizations. The pre-market session will summarize the pathways FDA uses to regulate the investigational use and commercialization of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy medical devices in the US, highlighting resources available to assist investigators and manufacturers. The post-market session will explain the post-market surveillance and compliance activities FDA performs to monitor the safety and effectiveness of devices on the market. The third session will describe research efforts that support the regulatory mission of the Agency. An overview of our regulatory research portfolio to advance our understanding of medical physics and imaging technologies and approaches to their evaluation will be discussed. Lastly, mechanisms that FDA uses to seek public input and promote collaborations with professional, government, and international organizations, such as AAPM, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC

  6. Marks in Latin-American radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Almeida, S. de.

    1987-01-01

    An historical retrospective of Latin-American radiology is shortly presented. Several radiologic societies as well as personalities, scientists and doctors are reported emphasizing their contribuition to radiologic Latin-American culture. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. Radiological assessment of placement of the hysteroscopically inserted Essure permanent birth control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Ramos, R M; Azpeitia Armán, J; Aparicio Rodríguez-Miñón, P; Salazar Arquero, F J; Albillos Merino, J C

    2015-01-01

    Essure is a permanent birth control device that is inserted through the cervix by hysteroscopy. The device is placed in the fallopian tubes, where it causes occlusion by stimulating fibrosis. Patients can be followed up with plain-film X-rays, hysterosalpingography, and ultrasonography, although the devices can also be identified incidentally on CT and MRI. The follow-up of Essure is based on checking the criteria for appropriate positioning and correct functioning (tubal occlusion) and on diagnosing complications. The most common complications are perforation, migration (toward the uterine or peritoneal cavity), and occlusion failure. In hysterosalpingography, vascular intravasation is the most common cause of diagnostic error. Radiologists need to know how to recognize the device on different imaging techniques, how to check that it is correctly placed and functioning, and how to diagnose complications. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme which has issued four technical reports giving practical recommendations on how to rationalise the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations. (author)

  9. Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis: Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The US Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. The FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), which is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted State(s) and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division (M ampersand A) is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, and quality assurance. To assure consistency, completeness, and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures manual is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets, and operations of the FRMAC M ampersand A and the content and preparation of the manual

  10. Implementation of a remote system for monitoring of radiological areas of radiological areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez E, Walter; Galuppo G, Emiliano; Gutierrez G, Jorge; Reyes R, Jerson

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The present work shows the development of a radiation remote monitoring system which control radiological areas in the principal facilities at CCHEN and the development in the last years to use this system called SMARR (Remote Radiological Area Monitoring System). This is an important issue in radiological safety is to know 'on line' and in a 'continuously way' the radiological variables of areas, especially if in these areas people manage radioactive sources or material, the monitoring system are operative on La Reina and Lo Aguirre Nuclear Centers. This 'knowledge' gets a good support to the radiological safety to safeguard the environment and people in the facilities. Nuclear Chilean Commission: Actually, this system is daily operating to register the background radiation and level operation, for example of the facilities research reactor, cyclone, irradiators, in order to probe the behaviors under operational requirements. The system was made using common Geiger Muller and NaI detectors. This signal is received, data by data, for a collector computer which uses a Labview program to do this displayed on a screen computer using graphics to show the activity on a radiological area, and when the lectures pass a setting value automatically the system send by e-mail and text message which also can be received for cell phones enabled for this for the supervisor. Each monitored facility is completely independent of each other and store a data backup, also every installation are monitoring with server computer, it's concentrating the information and allow to view it on line in real time, trough the intranet and internet network. In addition, the information is stored in the special report in the server and available for to do a statistics and identify the operation periods, and control of radioactive sources. The Industry: The radiological protection on industry is necessary today, the typical instrumentation on the industry is growing up in the

  11. Intravitreal Devices for the Treatment of Vitreous Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Christoforidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The eye is a well-suited organ for local delivery of therapeutics to treat vitreous inflammation as well as other pathologic conditions that induce visual loss. Several conditions are particularly challenging to treat and often require chronic courses of therapy. The use of implantable intravitreal devices for drug delivery is an emerging field in the treatment of vitreous inflammation as well as other ophthalmologic diseases. There are unique challenges in the design of these devices which include implants, polymers, and micro- and nanoparticles. This paper reviews current and investigational drug delivery systems for treating vitreous inflammation as well as other pathologic conditions that induce visual loss. The use of nonbiodegradable devices such as polyvinyl alcohol-ethylene vinyl acetate polymers and polysulfone capillary fibers, and biodegradable devices such as polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, and polylactic-co-glycolic acid, polycaprolactones, and polyanhydrides are reviewed. Clinically used implantable devices for therapeutic agents including ganciclovir, fluocinolone acetonide, triamcinolone acetonide, and dexamethasone are described. Finally, recently developed investigational particulate drug delivery systems in the form of liposomes, microspheres, and nanoparticles are examined.

  12. Multidisciplinary response for a radiological accident developed in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Tadic, Matilde; Vazquez, Marina; Cateriano, Miguel; Jordan, Osvaldo; Rojas, Carlos A.; Portas, M.; Coppola, A.; De Lellis, M. del C.; Dovasio, F.

    2010-01-01

    In January 2009 during an oil well logging task in Rincon de los Sauces, Province of Neuquen, Argentina, and, as a result of the temporary loss of control of a 137 Cs sealed source of 92,5 GBq (2,5 Ci), two workers were allegedly exposed to ionizing radiation. The Health Emergency Coordination System in Neuquen activated the Radiological Emergency Intervention System of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA). An initial assessment of the accident scenario and the involved persons was performed. Two workers were were transfer to Buenos Aires for a biodosimetry evaluation. In Buenos Aires, the Burn Hospital performed the first diagnostic and therapeutic approach of the radioinduced skin injuries. The NRA estimated the biological absorbed doses and the studies of telethermography. The Italian Hospital was in charge of the studies using ultrasonography and Eco- Doppler. As a result of the multidisciplinary evaluation performed, one of the workers was diagnosed with superficial radioinduced dermatitis. The mentioned intervention highlighted the importance of multidisciplinary and multiparametric work for the evaluation of a radiological accident, as well as for the diagnosis and early treatment of the exposed persons. (authors) [es

  13. Decompressive craniectomy and hydrocephalus: proposal of a therapeutic flow chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraio, Simone; Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Mattoli, Maria Vittoria; Marziali, Giammaria; DE Bonis, Pasquale; Pompucci, Angelo; Anile, Carmelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2017-12-01

    Decompressive craniectomy (DC) may be necessary to save the lives of patients suffering from intracranial hypertension. However, this procedure is not complication-free. Its two main complications are hydrocephalus and the sinking skin-flap syndrome (SSFS). The radiological findings and the clinical evaluation may be not enough to decide when and/or how to treat hydrocephalus in a decompressed patient. SSFS and hydrocephalus may be not unrelated. In fact, a patient affected by hydrocephalus, after the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, can develop SSFS; on the other hand, SSFS per se can cause hydrocephalus. Treating hydrocephalus in decompressed patients can be challenging. Radiological findings and clinical evaluation may not be enough to define the most appropriate therapeutic strategy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and metabolic evaluations can represent important diagnostic tools for assessing the need of a CSF shunt in patients with a poor baseline neurologic status. Based on our experience, we propose a flow chart for treating decompressed patients affected by ventriculomegaly.

  14. Ergonomics in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, N. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nimitgoyal@doctors.org.uk; Jain, N.; Rachapalli, V. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    The use of computers is increasing in every field of medicine, especially radiology. Filmless radiology departments, speech recognition software, electronic request forms and teleradiology are some of the recent developments that have substantially increased the amount of time a radiologist spends in front of a computer monitor. Computers are also needed for searching literature on the internet, communicating via e-mails, and preparing for lectures and presentations. It is well known that regular computer users can suffer musculoskeletal injuries due to repetitive stress. The role of ergonomics in radiology is to ensure that working conditions are optimized in order to avoid injury and fatigue. Adequate workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction. We review the current literature pertaining to the role of ergonomics in modern-day radiology especially with the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstations.

  15. Ergonomics in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, N.; Jain, N.; Rachapalli, V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of computers is increasing in every field of medicine, especially radiology. Filmless radiology departments, speech recognition software, electronic request forms and teleradiology are some of the recent developments that have substantially increased the amount of time a radiologist spends in front of a computer monitor. Computers are also needed for searching literature on the internet, communicating via e-mails, and preparing for lectures and presentations. It is well known that regular computer users can suffer musculoskeletal injuries due to repetitive stress. The role of ergonomics in radiology is to ensure that working conditions are optimized in order to avoid injury and fatigue. Adequate workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction. We review the current literature pertaining to the role of ergonomics in modern-day radiology especially with the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstations

  16. Dose monitoring in radiology departments. Status quo and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, J.; Bethge, O.T.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of computed tomography examinations has continuously increased over the last decades and accounts for a major part of the collective radiation dose from medical investigations. For purposes of quality assurance in modern radiology a systematic monitoring and analysis of dose related data from radiological examinations is mandatory. Various ways of collecting dose data are available today, for example the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine - Structured Report (DICOM-SR), optical character recognition and DICOM-modality performed procedure steps (MPPS). The DICOM-SR is part of the DICOM-standard and provides the DICOM-Radiation Dose Structured Report, which is an easily applicable and comprehensive solution to collect radiation dose parameters. This standard simplifies the process of data collection and enables comprehensive dose monitoring. Various commercial dose monitoring software devices with varying characteristics are available today. In this article, we discuss legal obligations, various ways to monitor dose data, current dose monitoring software solutions and future perspectives in regard to the EU Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM.

  17. Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. Following a major radiological incident the FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted states and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis and quality assurance. This program includes: (1) Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed Wing and Helicopter, (2) Field Monitoring and Sampling, (3) Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories, (4) Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance, (5) Environmental Dosimetry, and (6) An integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures handbook is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets and operations of FRMAC monitoring and analysis and the content and preparation of this handbook

  18. Informatics in radiology: radiology gamuts ontology: differential diagnosis for the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budovec, Joseph J; Lam, Cesar A; Kahn, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an effort to add semantics, or "meaning," to empower automated searching and processing of Web-based information. The overarching goal of the Semantic Web is to enable users to more easily find, share, and combine information. Critical to this vision are knowledge models called ontologies, which define a set of concepts and formalize the relations between them. Ontologies have been developed to manage and exploit the large and rapidly growing volume of information in biomedical domains. In diagnostic radiology, lists of differential diagnoses of imaging observations, called gamuts, provide an important source of knowledge. The Radiology Gamuts Ontology (RGO) is a formal knowledge model of differential diagnoses in radiology that includes 1674 differential diagnoses, 19,017 terms, and 52,976 links between terms. Its knowledge is used to provide an interactive, freely available online reference of radiology gamuts ( www.gamuts.net ). A Web service allows its content to be discovered and consumed by other information systems. The RGO integrates radiologic knowledge with other biomedical ontologies as part of the Semantic Web. © RSNA, 2014.

  19. Comparison of the distribution of non-radiological and radiological fatal risk in Ontario industries (addendum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.K.; Forbes, W.F.; Hayward, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    Occupational limits for exposure to ionizing radiation, in force in Canada, are based on recommendations of international bodies, particularly the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To determine whether the ICRP assertions concerning the similarity of the distributions of occupational risk at the higher risk levels (from non-radiation and from radiation work) to Canada a study of the high end of the distributions of non-radiological risk of occupational fatalities in the province of Ontario was performed. For the present study total doses from exposure to sources of ionizing radiation for Ontario workers were converted to relative risk rates to allow direct comparison with the non-radiological results. In addition, absolute values for the radiological risk rates (RRR) were derived. The radiological risk estimates are based on workers who work both from nuclear reactions and from X-rays. The conclusion is made that the radiological and non-radiological risk rate (NRRR) distributions are similar in shape, but the RRR are approximately 1 to 27 percent of the NRRR, depending on the industry concerned

  20. Radiological assessment and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.; Sohier, A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological assessment and optimization are (1) to implement ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for radiological optimization in decision-aiding; (3) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (4) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (5) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (6) to investigate computer codes in the area of multi criteria analysis; (7) to organise courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in these areas for 1997 are summarised

  1. Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauert, R C

    2001-01-01

    For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to

  2. Radiology. 3. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, Maximilian; Kuhn, Fritz-Peter; Debus, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    The text book on radiology covers the following issues: Part A: General radiology: Fundamental physics: radiation biology; radiation protection fundamentals: radiologic methods; radiotherapy; nuclear medicine. Part B: Special radiology: Thorax; heart; urogenital tract and retroperitoneum; vascular system and interventional radiology; esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines; liver, biliary system, pancreas and spleen; mammary glands; central nervous system; spinal cord and spinal canal; basis of the skull, facial bones and eye socket; neck; pediatric imaging diagnostics.

  3. Central venous catheter placement by an interventional radiology unit: an australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. K. S.; Mossop, P. J.; Vrazas, J. I.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the outcomes of central venous catheter (CVC) placement carried out by an interventional radiology unit. A review of our hospital records identified 331 consecutive patients who underwent insertion of a tunnelled or non-tunnelled CVC between January 2000 and December 2004. Key outcome measures included the technical success rate of CVC insertion and the percentage of immediate ( 30 days) complications. A total of 462 CVCs were placed under radiological guidance, with an overall success rate of 98.9%. Immediate complications included one pneumothorax, which was diagnosed 7 days after subclavian CVC insertion, and eight episodes of significant haematoma or bleeding within 24 h of CVC insertion. No cases were complicated by arterial puncture or air embolus. Catheter-related sepsis occurred in 2% of non-tunnelled CVC and 8.9% of tunnelled CVC. The overall incidence of catheter-related sepsis was 0.17 per 100 catheter days. As the demand for chemotherapy and haemodialysis grows with our ageing population, interventional radiology suites are well placed to provide a safe and reliable service for the placement of central venous access devices

  4. Radiological Worker Training: Radiological Worker 1 lesson plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Upon completion of this training course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. Upon completion of this unit the participant will be able to identify the fundamentals of radiation, radioactive material and radioactive contamination. The participant will be able to select the correct response from a group of responses which verifies his/her ability to: Define ionizing radiation, radioactive material and radioactive contamination and identify the units used to measure radiation and radioactivity

  5. Federal support of radiological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Pervading the plans and objective outlined herein for continued and enhanced federal support of research in radiology is a challenge of unparalleled magnitude, for the economic foundation on which this support is based has rarely been more precarious. The new administration in Washington may well be the most fiscally constrained in half a century, and its stated interest in reducing federal expenditures could have disastrous consequences for the scientific research effort in this country, including that in radiology and the radiological sciences. The circumvention of these consequences may well require the dedicated effort of the entire scientific community over the next few months and years, including that part representing radiology and the radiological sciences

  6. Innovation is the permanent motivation to make continuous development of interventional radiology: comments about esophageal internal irradiation stent for the treatment of esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Gaojun

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of esophageal carcinoma is still a tough issue. Although metallic esophageal stent implantation is an important technique, as it can safety and quickly relieve the dysphagia caused by esophageal cancer, is has no effect on the malignant tumor itself. As a carrier of radioactive seeds, the novel esophageal stent plays functions of relieving dysphagia and conducting brachytherapy of the tumor, which creates a new therapy for esophageal carcinoma and expands the clinical significance of the stent implantation treatment. The history of interventional radiology indicates that it is the innovation that is the permanent motivation to make continuous development of interventional radiology. Innovations include new technology, new practical devices and new theories. Today, even if the interventional radiology has highly developed, innovation is till an 'unbreakable truth' for the development of interventional radiology and it makes the interventional radiology full of vitality. (author)

  7. Drug vaping applied to cannabis: Is “Cannavaping” a therapeutic alternative to marijuana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Vincent; Concha-Lozano, Nicolas; Berthet, Aurélie; Plateel, Grégory; Favrat, Bernard; De Cesare, Mariangela; Lauer, Estelle; Augsburger, Marc; Thomas, Aurélien; Giroud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic cannabis administration is increasingly used in Western countries due to its positive role in several pathologies. Dronabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) pills, ethanolic cannabis tinctures, oromucosal sprays or table vaporizing devices are available but other cannabinoids forms can be used. Inspired by the illegal practice of dabbing of butane hashish oil (BHO), cannabinoids from cannabis were extracted with butane gas, and the resulting concentrate (BHO) was atomized with specific vaporizing devices. The efficiency of “cannavaping,” defined as the “vaping” of liquid refills for e-cigarettes enriched with cannabinoids, including BHO, was studied as an alternative route of administration for therapeutic cannabinoids. The results showed that illegal cannavaping would be subjected to marginal development due to the poor solubility of BHO in commercial liquid refills (especially those with high glycerin content). This prevents the manufacture of liquid refills with high BHO concentrations adopted by most recreational users of cannabis to feel the psychoactive effects more rapidly and extensively. Conversely, “therapeutic cannavaping” could be an efficient route for cannabinoids administration because less concentrated cannabinoids-enriched liquid refills are required. However, the electronic device marketed for therapeutic cannavaping should be carefully designed to minimize potential overheating and contaminant generation. PMID:27228348

  8. 76 FR 50230 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health 510(k) Clearance Process; Recommendations Proposed in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... develop and implement a program of continuous quality improvement to track regulatory decisions on medical devices, identify potential process improvements in the medical device regulatory framework, and address... software used in devices, software used as devices, and software used as a tool in producing devices. 8...

  9. Radiological hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.

    1984-01-01

    The work of the (United Kingdom) National Radiological Protection Board is discussed. The following topics are mentioned: relative contributions to genetically significant doses of radiation from various sources; radon gas in non-coal mines and in dwelling houses; effects of radiation accidents; radioactive waste disposal; radiological protection of the patient in medicine; microwaves, infrared radiation and cataracts; guidance notes for use with forthcoming Ionising Radiations Regulations; training courses; personal dosimetry service; work related to European Communities. (U.K.)

  10. Evaluation of the Quality Control Program for Diagnostic Radiography and Fluoroscopy Devices in Syria during 2005-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Kharita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extensive use of diagnostic radiology is the largest contributor to total population radiation doses. Thus, appropriate equipment and safe practice are necessary for good-quality images with optimal doses. This study aimed to perform quality control (QC audit for radiography and fluoroscopy devices owned by private sector in Syria (2005-2013 to verify compliance of performance of X-ray machines with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. Materials and Methods: In this study, QC audit included 487 X-ray diagnostic machines, (363 radiography and 124 fluoroscopy devices, installed in 306 medical diagnostic radiology centers in 14 provinces in Syria. We employed an X-ray beam analyzer device (NERO model 8000, Victoreen, USA, which was tested and calibrated at the National Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory traceable to the IAEA Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Standard QC tool kits were used to evaluate tube and generator of the X-ray machines, which constituted potential (kVp, timer accuracy, radiation output consistency, tube filtration, small and large focal spot sizes, X-ray beam collimation and alignment, as well as high- and low-resolution and entrance surface dose in fluoroscopy. Results: According to our results, most of the assessed operating parameters were in compliance with the standards stipulated by the National Regulatory Authority. In cases of noncompliance for the assessed parameters, maximum value (28.77% pertained to accuracy of kVp calibration for radiography units, while the lowest value (2.42% belonged to entrance surface dose in fluoroscopy systems. Conclusion: Effective QC program in diagnostic radiology leads to obtaining information regarding quality of radiology devices used for medical diagnosis and minimizing the doses received by patients and medical personnel. The findings of this QC program, as the main part of QA program, illustrated that most

  11. Limitations of the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Panel Guidelines on the Use of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicini, Frank; Arthur, Douglas; Wazer, David; Chen, Peter; Mitchell, Christina; Wallace, Michelle; Kestin, Larry; Ye, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We applied the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Panel (CP) guidelines for the use of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) to patients treated with this technique to determine the ability of the guidelines to differentiate patients with significantly different clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 199 patients treated with APBI and 199 with whole-breast irradiation (WBI) (matched for tumor size, nodal status, age, margins, receptor status, and tamoxifen use) were stratified into the three ASTRO CP levels of suitability ('suitable,' 'cautionary,' and 'unsuitable') to assess rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure, distant metastases, disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival based on CP category. Median follow-up was 11.1 years. Results: Analysis of the APBI and WBI patient groups, either separately or together (n = 398), did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in 10-year actuarial rates of IBTR when stratified by the three ASTRO groups. Regional nodal failure and distant metastasis were generally progressively worse when comparing the suitable to cautionary to unsuitable CP groups. However, when analyzing multiple clinical, pathologic, or treatment-related variables, only patient age was associated with IBTR using WBI (p = 0.002). Conclusions: The ASTRO CP suitable group predicted for a low risk of IBTR; however, the cautionary and unsuitable groups had an equally low risk of IBTR, supporting the need for continued refinement of patient selection criteria as additional outcome data become available and for the continued accrual of patients to Phase III trials.

  12. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  13. Role of first responder's training in the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, V.; Sankhla, Rajesh; Verma, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Consequent to the terrorist attacks on WTC in USA and other similar terrorist attacks worldwide, there has been increasing public concern regarding the use of radioactive materials in a malevolent act. As the radioactive sources are widely used in the industries, terrorists may have access to these facilities and obtain the radioactive material suitable for making Radioactive Dispersal Device (RDD) often called as dirty bomb. Response to nuclear or radiological emergency may involve highly specialized agencies or technical experts. Hence well-coordinated arrangements must be integrated with those required for any other conventional emergencies. During radiological emergencies, emergency service personnel are expected to play a major role in the early response. Though these personnel are well equipped and trained in tackling the normal emergencies it is essential to train them to deal with the radiological emergencies due to inherent characteristics of radioactivity. For the effective management of radiological emergencies, these first responders are required to be trained in such a way that they understand the concept of radiation protection. This objective can be achieved by using a typical training module consisting of interactive class room lectures, practical sessions to use the instruments and handling of radioactive sources, demonstration of radiation protection practices, exhibition of all radiation survey instruments and protective equipment etc., display of various posters and RDD Emergency Exercise. (author)

  14. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim; Medeiros, Regina B.

    2013-01-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  15. Radiological sciences in Turkey: its past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozyar, E.

    2002-01-01

    After the discovery of X-rays in 1895, first X-rays was produced with an X-ray tube one year after in Istanbul and used with diagnostic and therapeutic aims thereafter. Parallel to the technological advances in radiology, radiation oncology and nuclear medicine, all kind of modern tools became available in Turkish Republic. There are two oncology institutes affiliated with major universities in Turkey currently. These institutions are located in Ankara and Istanbul and aimed for the research, education, and the application of the newest technology for the diagnosis and treatment in the field of basic and clinical oncology as well as in cancer epidemiology and prevention. Beside these comprehensive cancer centers there were more than 50 university hospitals with radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology facilities in Turkey. Diagnostic and interventional radiology was widely available in university and governmental hospitals. Currently conventional X-ray techniques, ultrasonography, mammography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, was available in most of the cities. Interventional procedures are performed in most of the centers. There are more than 20 university hospitals equipped with Cobalt-60 units, linear accelerators, LDR, MDR, HDR brachytherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, gamma knife, computerized treatment planning systems. All these departments have all facilities for precise in-vivo and in-vitro measurements mandatory for precise radiotherapy. Two comprehensive cancer centers have post graduate programs of radiation physics and treatment planning. The field of .nuclear medicine is rapidly growing in Turkey. Routine diagnostic services are given in almost every city. These diagnostic studies frequently performed include bone, renal, thyroid, lung and myocardial Perfusion, whole body Gallium scans, and other scintigraphic images such as gastrointestinal bleeding, gastroesophageal reflux, I-131-MIBG studies etc. Treatment is also

  16. An overview of dental radiology: a primer on dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manny, E.F.; Carlson, K.C.; McClean, P.M.; Rachlin, J.A.; Segal, P.

    1980-01-01

    To provide medical and scientific background on certain selected technologies generally considered to be of particular significance, the National Center for Health Care Technology (NCHCT) has commissioned a series of overview papers. This is one of several projects entered into jointly by the Bureau of Radiological Health (BRH) and NCHCT relating to the use of radiation for health care. Dental radiation protection has been a long-time interest of BRH. Both past and on-going efforts to minimize population radiation exposure from electronic products have included specific action programs directed at minimizing unnecessary radiation exposure to the population from dental radiology. Current efforts in quality assurance and referral criteria are two aspects of NCHCT's own assessment of this technology which are described within the larger picture presented in this overview. The issues considered in this document go beyond the radiation exposure aspects of dental x-ray procedures. To be responsive to the informational needs of NCHCT, the assessment includes various other factors that influence the practice of dental radiology. It is hoped this analysis will serve as the basis for planning and conducting future programs to improve the practice of dental radiology

  17. Radiology's value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  18. Gout. Radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo Suarez, Jose Felix; Pena Cortes, Mario; Rondon Herrera, Federico; Iglesias Gamarra, Antonio; Calvo Paramo, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we reviewed the clinical and radiological aspects of gout, showing the most frequent radiological findings that can guide to the correct diagnosis of the disease. The cases that we presented here have been analyzed for many years in our rheumatology service, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Bogota

  19. Devices for Emergency Hypothermia and Military Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gill, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing research by the Safar Center for Resuscitation Research and others, indicates the need for the development of compact, mobile, and portable devices for the induction of therapeutic hypothermia...

  20. The value of indicated computed tomography scan of the chest and abdomen in addition to the conventional radiologic work-up for blunt trauma patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deunk, J.; Dekker, H.M.; Brink, M.; Vugt, R. van; Edwards, M.J.R.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (CT) is more sensitive and specific in detecting traumatic injuries than conventional radiology is. However, still little is known about the diagnostic value and the therapeutic impact of indicated thoraco-abdominal CT scan when it is performed in

  1. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  2. Medical radiology terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Standardization achievements in the field of radiology induced the IEC to compile the terminology used in its safety and application standards and present it in publication 788 (1984 issue), entitled 'Medical radiology terminology'. The objective pursued is to foster the use of standard terminology in the radiology standards. The value of publication 788 lies in the fact that it presents definitions of terms used in the French and English versions of IEC standards in the field of radiology, and thus facilitates adequate translation of these terms into other languages. In the glossary in hand, German-language definitions have been adopted from the DIN standards in cases where the French or English versions of definitions are identical with the German wording or meaning. The numbers of DIN standards or sections are then given without brackets, ahead of the text of the definition. In cases where correspondance of the various texts is not so good, or reference should be made to a term in a DIN standard, the numbers are given in brackets. (orig./HP) [de

  3. The radiological technologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Radiologists rely upon the talents of the technologists with whom they work. Indeed, a good technologist will only enhance the radiologist's performance. Radiological technologists no longer solely take radiographs, but are involved in many more detailed areas of imaging, such as computered tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear radiology, ultrasound, angiography, and special procedures. They are also required to make decisions that affect the radiological examination. Besides the degree in radiological technology (RT), advanced degrees in nuclear medicine technology (NMT) and diagnostic medical sonography (RDMS) are attainable. The liability of the technologist is not the same as the radiologist involved, but the liability is potentially real and governed by a subdivision of jurisprudence known as agency law. Since plaintiffs and attorneys are constantly searching for new frontiers of medical liability, it is wise for the radiologist and technologist to be aware of the legalities governing their working relationship and to behave accordingly. The legal principles that apply to this working relationship are discussed in this chapter, followed by a presentation of some relevant and interesting cases that have been litigated

  4. Occupational radiological protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: occupational expossure (the ALARA principle, dose-equivalent limit, ICRP justification); radiological protection planning (general aspects, barrier estimation) and determination of the occupational expossures (individual monitoring). (M.A.) [pt

  5. CT pre-operative planning of a new semi-implantable bone conduction hearing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Eric K.C.; Bhatia, Kunwar S.S. [Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Tsang, Willis S.S.; Tong, Michael C.F. [Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Shi, Lin [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Hong Kong, SAR (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Chow Yuk Ho Technology Center for Innovative Medicine, Hong Kong, SAR (China)

    2016-06-15

    Accommodating a novel semi-implantable bone conduction hearing device within the temporal bone presents challenges for surgical planning. This study describes the utility of CT in pre-operative assessment of such an implant. Retrospective review of pre-operative CT, clinical and surgical records of 16 adults considered for device implantation. Radiological suitability was assessed on CT using 3D simulation software. Antero-posterior (AP) dimensions of the mastoid bone and minimum skull thickness were measured. CT planning results were correlated with operative records. Eight and five candidates were suitable for device placement in the transmastoid and retrosigmoid positions, respectively, and three were radiologically unsuitable. The mean AP diameter of the mastoid cavity was 14.6 mm for the transmastoid group and 4.6 mm for the retrosigmoid group (p < 0.05). Contracted mastoid and/or prior surgery were predisposing factors for unsuitability. Four transmastoid and five retrosigmoid positions required sigmoid sinus/dural depression and/or use of lifts due to insufficient bone capacity. A high proportion of patients being considered have contracted or operated mastoids, which reduces the feasibility of the transmastoid approach. This finding combined with the complex temporal bone geometry illustrates the importance of careful CT evaluation using 3D software for precise device simulation. (orig.)

  6. Radiological Control Manual. Revision 0, January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  7. Integrative teaching in Radiology. A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettmer, S.; Weidemann, J.; Wacker, F.; Fischer, V.

    2015-01-01

    To survey integrative teaching in radiology at German universities. A questionnaire about radiological education was sent electronically to all 37 chairpersons of university radiology departments in Germany. The questions included the course type, teaching methods, concept, perception, and advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching. Statistical analysis was performed with nonparametric statistics and chi-square test. The survey was considered representative with a return rate of 68%. Integrative teaching is established at 4/5 of all departments. Integrative teaching is well accepted with an acceptance rate that is significantly higher in so-called 'Modellstudiengaengen' (model courses of study) (100%) compared to conventional courses of study (72%). The advantages of integrative teaching include linking of content (92%) and preparation for interdisciplinary work (76%). The disadvantages include high effort (75%) and time (67%) for organization. Furthermore, there is a risk that basic radiological facts and knowledge cannot be conveyed and that the visibility of radiology as an independent discipline is lost. Conventional radiological teaching has a similarly high acceptance (84%) compared to integrative courses (76%). Integrative teaching has a high acceptance among chairpersons in radiology in Germany despite the greater effort. A good interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for integrative teaching and at the same time this can be conveyed to the students. However, the visibility of radiology as a discipline and the possibility to cover basic radiological content must be ensured. Therefore, both conventional courses and integrative teaching seems reasonable, especially in cross-disciplinary subjects such as radiology.

  8. Interactive, Computer-Based Training Program for Radiological Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinoskey, P.A.; Camacho, P.I.; Wells, L.

    2000-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is redesigning its Computer-Based Training (CBT) program for radiological workers. The redesign represents a major effort to produce a single, highly interactive and flexible CBT program that will meet the training needs of a wide range of radiological workers--from researchers and x-ray operators to individuals working in tritium, uranium, plutonium, and accelerator facilities. The new CBT program addresses the broad diversity of backgrounds found at a national laboratory. When a training audience is homogeneous in terms of education level and type of work performed, it is difficult to duplicate the effectiveness of a flexible, technically competent instructor who can tailor a course to the express needs and concerns of a course's participants. Unfortunately, such homogeneity is rare. At LLNL, they have a diverse workforce engaged in a wide range of radiological activities, from the fairly common to the quite exotic. As a result, the Laboratory must offer a wide variety of radiological worker courses. These include a general contamination-control course in addition to radioactive-material-handling courses for both low-level laboratory (i.e., bench-top) activities as well as high-level work in tritium, uranium, and plutonium facilities. They also offer training courses for employees who work with radiation-generating devices--x-ray, accelerator, and E-beam operators, for instance. However, even with the number and variety of courses the Laboratory offers, they are constrained by the diversity of backgrounds (i.e., knowledge and experience) of those to be trained. Moreover, time constraints often preclude in-depth coverage of site- and/or task-specific details. In response to this situation, several years ago LLNL began moving toward computer-based training for radiological workers. Today, that CBT effort includes a general radiological safety course developed by the Department of Energy's Hanford facility and a

  9. Quality control in dental diagnostic radiology : anomalous in the use of radiological equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Martinez-Beneyto, Y.; Jodar, S.; Velasco, E.; Garcia-Vera, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    7,176 official quality control reports on dental diagnostic radiology were studied, relating to dental clinics located in 37 Spanish provinces covering 16 different autonomous Regions. The reports were issued as a result of the entry into force of Royal Decree 2071/1995 on quality control in General Diagnostic Radiology facilities, this Royal Decree was replaced by R. D. 1976/1999. The reports were writen by the UTPR (Technical Unit of Radiological Protection) Agsigma S. A. L., a company approved by the Nuclear Safety Council, and they correspond with the official reports issued during 1996-2001. This meants that a 5-year period has been monitored in order to observe the impacts of the establlishment of this legislation on quality control in intraoral dental diagnostic radiology facilities. The results show that 72.79% of the reports checked in 2001 would comply with the European Union's official recommendation (70 kVp, 8 mA> 1.5 mm of Al and 20 cm collimator length). Significant alterations have detected in a third (30.59%) of the radiological equipment. (Author) 36 refs

  10. Continuing training in radiological protection as an effective means of avoiding radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Pelegrineli, S.Q.; Martins, G.; Lima, A.R.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    it is notorious that one of the main causes of radiological accidents is the lack of knowledge of radiological protection of workers. In order to meet the needs of professionals in acquiring a solid base in radiological protection and safety, was created in 2013, by the Casa Branca School / SP and technically supported by the company MAXIM Cursos, the 'Post-Graduation Course Lato Sensu de Radiological Protection in Medical, Industrial and Nuclear Applications', which offers a broad improvement in radiation protection. The course of 380 hours and duration of 18 months is divided into 13 modules, including theoretical classes, in person and online using the virtual classroom and practical training in radiation protection in general. In the end students should present a monograph, guided by a course teacher and reviewed by an Examining Bank. Five classes have been formed in these four years, totaling 92 students. In all, 51 monographs have been defended on topics of technical and scientific interest. For this, the Faculty consists of 25 professors, being 9 Doctors, 13 Masters and 3 Specialists in Radiological Protection

  11. [Marketing mix in a radiology department: challenges for future radiologists in management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claikens, B

    1998-08-01

    Radiology has gained an enviable position among medial specialities. Developments in new technology expand its horizons and the volume of radiologic imaging techniques and procedures increase far more than the overall growth in health care services. In this position radiology has become a prime target for restrictions, cutbacks, controlled financing in an area of managed care and new national health care policy based on partially fixed budgets. Future health care takers have to choose the best available diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Evidence based medicine, cost-utility analysis, diagnostic performance analysis, patient outcome analysis, technology assessment and guidelines for practice are means to guide us through our obligatory choice. Our major objective is to use the most performant available imaging technique or intervention to achieve the best possible outcome for our patient at lower possible costs. A strategic response from radiologists is required to meet the imperatives of this new management situation. They must do far more than interpret imaging procedures. They must work as efficient managers of imaging resources, organise their practices and define their marketing-strategies using the different, so-called, marketing-mix elements. The challenges will be great but the rewards are worth our best efforts. In this article we highlight the marketing responsibilities of future radiologists and their clinical practice in this new socio-economic environment and we present different useful marketing tools.

  12. Laenderyggens degeneration og radiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper Kjaerulf; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common conditions, and at the same time one of the most complex nosological entities. The lifetime prevalence is approximately 80%, and radiological features of lumbar degeneration are almost universal in adults. The individual risk factors for LBP and signi......Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common conditions, and at the same time one of the most complex nosological entities. The lifetime prevalence is approximately 80%, and radiological features of lumbar degeneration are almost universal in adults. The individual risk factors for LBP...... and significant relationships between radiological findings and subjective symptoms have both been notoriously difficult to identify. The lack of consensus on clinical criteria and radiological definitions has hampered the undertaking of properly executed epidemiological studies. The natural history of LBP...

  13. Recent trend of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.Y.; Kim, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    Present status and recent trend of diagnostic radiology have been reviewed. The interrelationships and Characteristics of various fields of radiology such as computed tomography, X-ray radiology, and nuclear medicine were discussed. The mevit of computed tomography and the promising use of short lived, accelerator produced radionuclides, and radiotherapy in nuclear medicine were emphasized. (author)

  14. An overview of leech and its therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimannan Sivachandran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hirudotherapy has a broad spectrum of therapeutic application in the medical field ranging from cardiology, gynaecology, ophthalmology, plastic and reconstructive surgeries. In medieval and early modern medicine, leeches were used to remove blood from patients in an attempt to balance the biological humours. Leeches are widely used to treat venous congestion in microvascular replantation, free and conventional flap surgery and traumatology. Recently, Food and Drug Administration has approved the usage of live leeches as medical device for therapeutic applications. Presently, some of the leech species have declined dramatically in its population due to the over utilization of leech for medicinal purposes and also due to pollution in several parts of the world particularly in European and Asian countries. This review presents an overview of leech including the history, biology, classification, and its application as medical device. Further, it also covers the controversies and misconception related to leech species identification and complications of post hirudotherapy.

  15. Radiological scenario modeling using the Hotspot code and potential financial impact of treatment of radiation induced cancer to the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Gabriel Fidalgo Queiroz da; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Rebello, Wilson Freitas; Araujo, Olga Maria Oliveira de

    2015-01-01

    The work aims to develop a methodology that is able to estimate the financial impact in a radiological emergency events, considering the radiation induced cancer, particularly leukemia. Considering a RDD - Radiological Dispersive Device, consisting of explosives and cesium-137 as radioactive material, a scenario building on the Rio de Janeiro was modeled. The convergence of a risk modeling platform (HotSpot 3.0), the analysis of excess relative risks for humans (BEIR V-Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation V), considering scenarios composed of contaminated areas, are secondary goals

  16. Role of radiology in occupational medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehmas, T.

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the contribution of radiology to occupational medicine as well as work-related problems in radiology dept.s. Research issues are emphasized. Radiology has been used especially when diagnosing occupational respiratory and locomotive system problems and solvent-induced encephalo- and hepatopathy. The aim of research in these areas is usually to characterize occupational diseases and to identify physico-chemical hazards in the work place by comparing between groups of workers and non-exposed controls. Radiological imaging allows an objective characterization of the disease, and it may clarify the pathogenesis of the process and provide a useful epidemiological tool. Advanced statistical methods are often needed to adjust analyses for confounding variables. As the diagnostic requirements are increasing, more sensitive and sophisticated radiological methods, such as high-resolution computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, may be required for the early recognition of occupational health risks. This necessitates good cooperation between occupational health units and well-equipped imaging dept.s. Considering occupational problems in radiology departments, the increasing use of digital radiology requires ergonomic measures to control and prevent locomotive problems caused by work with computers. Radiation protection measures are still worth concern, especially in interventional radiology

  17. Military radiology during the first world conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Vot, J.

    2016-01-01

    Published at the occasion of the centenary of the First World War, this article proposes an historical overview of the emergence and development of military medical radiology during this conflict. The author first describes the situation of radiology in the different armies and countries on the eve of the war as this application of radiology is relatively recent (it is based on Roentgen's discovery in 1895). He indicates the first steps of emergence of radiology department in military hospitals, the interest of military physicians in radiology and the availability of mobile equipment which had been actually presented at the parade on the 14 July 1914. The author then highlights some important personalities who have been important actors of the development, application and use of radiology and of military radiology during the war. He proposes an overview of radiological equipment in 1914, of the variety of vehicles adapted to transport and use such equipment. He also comments how radiology professionals were trained

  18. Interventional vascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, H.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The papers published during this past year in the area of interventional vascular radiology presented some useful modifications and further experiences both in the area of thromboembolic therapy and in dilation and thrombolysis, but no new techniques. As an introductory subject, an excellent monograph reviewing the current spectrum of pharmacoangiography was presented in Radiographics. Although the presented material is primarily in diagnostic application of various pharmacologic agents used today to facilitate demonstration of certain diagnostic criteria of various disease processes, both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive reaction to these agents are widely used in various therapeutic vascular procedures. This monograph should be reviewed by every angiographer whether or not he or she performs interventional procedures, and it would be very convenient to have this table available in the angiography suite. In a related subject, Bookstein and co-workers have written an excellent review concerning pharmacologic manipulations of various blood coagulative parameters during angiography. Understanding the proper method of manipulation of the bloodclotting factors during angiography, and especially during interventional angiography, is extremely important. Particularly, the method of manipulating the coagulation with the use of heparin and protamine and modification of the platelet activity by using aspirin and dipyridamole are succinctly reviewed. The systemic and selective thrombolytic activities of streptokianse are also discussed

  19. Imaging of implants on chest radiographs: a radiological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, K.; Thayur, N.; Husain, S.A.; Martin, R.P.; Wilde, P.

    2007-01-01

    Endovascular and percutaneous techniques have emerged as alternatives to surgical management in the treatment for a wide range of congenital and acquired cardiac, non-vascular and vascular conditions. Consequently, there has been an increasing use of implants such as closure devices, vascular stents (coronary, aortic, pulmonary and superior vena cava) and non-vascular stents like oesophageal and tracheo-bronchial stents. A large number of percutaneously sited implants are used for treating congenital cardiac anomalies such as atrial septal defects (ASD), ventricular septal defects (VSD), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). These implants take many shapes and forms. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the radiographic appearances of the various types of cardiovascular, bronchial and oesophageal implants that are visible on plain films. A brief outline of the aims and indications of various implant procedures, the general appearance of the commonest types of implants, and the radiological procedures are discussed. All radiologists are likely to come across implanted devices in plain film reporting. Imaging can be useful in identifying the device, assessing the position, integrity, and for the identification of complications related directly to the implant

  20. Imaging of implants on chest radiographs: a radiological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, K [Department of Clinical Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom); Thayur, N [Department of Clinical Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom); Husain, S A [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Bristol Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom); Martin, R P [Department of Cardiology, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Bristol (United Kingdom); Wilde, P [Department of Clinical Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Endovascular and percutaneous techniques have emerged as alternatives to surgical management in the treatment for a wide range of congenital and acquired cardiac, non-vascular and vascular conditions. Consequently, there has been an increasing use of implants such as closure devices, vascular stents (coronary, aortic, pulmonary and superior vena cava) and non-vascular stents like oesophageal and tracheo-bronchial stents. A large number of percutaneously sited implants are used for treating congenital cardiac anomalies such as atrial septal defects (ASD), ventricular septal defects (VSD), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). These implants take many shapes and forms. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the radiographic appearances of the various types of cardiovascular, bronchial and oesophageal implants that are visible on plain films. A brief outline of the aims and indications of various implant procedures, the general appearance of the commonest types of implants, and the radiological procedures are discussed. All radiologists are likely to come across implanted devices in plain film reporting. Imaging can be useful in identifying the device, assessing the position, integrity, and for the identification of complications related directly to the implant.

  1. Citation trend and suggestions for improvement of impact factor of Journal of Korean Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Hwang, Seong Su; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jeong, So Na

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the recent citation trend and to find a way to improve impact factor (IF) of the Journal of Korean Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JKSTRO) by analysis of Korean Medical Citation index (KoMCI) citation data of JKSTRO and comparison with that of mean citation data of all journals enlisted on KoMCI (KoMCI journals) during 2000-2005. All citation data of entire journals enlisted on KoMCI and JKSTRO from 2000 to 2005 were obtained from KoMCI. The trend of total and annual number of published articles and reference citations, total citations and self-citations per paper, IF and impact factor excluding self-citations (ZIF) were described and compared on both KoMCI journals an JKSTRO. Annual number of published articles was decreased for 6 years on both KoMCI journals and JKSTRO (32% and 38% reduction rate). The number of Korean journal references per article is 1.6 papers of JKSTRO comparing to 2.0 papers on KoMCI journals. The percentage of Korean references/total references increased from 5.0% in 2000 to 7.7% in 2005 on JKSTRO and from 8.5% in 2000 to 10.1% on KoMCI journals. The number of total citations received/paper on JKSTRO (average 1.333) is smaller than that of KoMCI journals (average 1.694), there was an increased rate of 67% in 2005 comparing to 2000. The percentage of self-citations/total citations (average 72%) on JKSTRO is slightly higher than that of KoMCI journals (average 61%)/ IF of JKSTRO was gradually improved and 0.144, 0.125, 0.088, 0.107, 0.187 and 0.203 in 2000-2005 respectively. However, ZIF of JKSTRO is steadily decreased from 0.038 in 2000 to 0.013 in 2005 except 0.044 in 2004. IF of JKSTRO was slightly improved but had some innate problem of smaller number of citations received . To make JKSTRO as a highly cited journal, the awareness of academic status of JKSTRO and active participation of every member of JKSTRO including encouraging self-citations of papers published recent 2 years and submission of English written papers, and

  2. Left ventricular assist device as destination therapy: application of the payment-by-results approach for the device reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, Andrea; Trippoli, Sabrina; Bonacchi, Massimo; Sani, Guido

    2009-08-01

    Value-based methods are increasingly used to reimburse therapeutic innovation, and the payment-by-results approach has been proposed for handling interventions with limited therapeutic evidence. Because most left ventricular assist devices are supported by preliminary efficacy data, we examined the effectiveness data of the HeartMate (Thoratec Corp, Pleasanton, CA) device to explore the application of the payment-by-results approach to these devices and to develop a model for handling reimbursements. According to our model, after establishing the societal economic countervalue for each month of life saved, each patient treated with one such device is associated to the payment of this countervalue for every month of survival lived beyond the final date of estimated life expectancy without left ventricular assist devices. Our base-case analysis, which used the published data of 68 patients who received the HeartMate device, was run with a monthly countervalue of euro 5000, no adjustment for quality of life, and a baseline life expectancy of 150 days without left ventricular assist devices. Sensitivity analysis was aimed at testing the effect of quality of life adjustments and changes in life expectancy without device. In our base-case analysis, the mean total reimbursement per patient was euro 82,426 (range, euro 0 to euro 250,000; N = 68) generated as the sum of monthly payments. This average value was close to the current price of the HeartMate device (euro 75,000). Sensitivity testing showed that the base-case reimbursement of euro 82,426 was little influenced by variations in life expectancy, whereas variations in utility had a more pronounced impact. Our report delineates an innovative procedure for appropriately allocating economic resources in this area of invasive cardiology.

  3. Integrative teaching in radiology - a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, S; Weidemann, J; Fischer, V; Wacker, F K

    2015-04-01

    To survey integrative teaching in radiology at German universities. A questionnaire about radiological education was sent electronically to all 37 chairpersons of university radiology departments in Germany. The questions included the course type, teaching methods, concept, perception, and advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching. Statistical analysis was performed with nonparametric statistics and chi-square test. The survey was considered representative with a return rate of 68 %. Integrative teaching is established at 4/5 of all departments. Integrative teaching is well accepted with an acceptance rate that is significantly higher in so-called "Modellstudiengängen" [model courses of study] (100 %) compared to conventional courses of study (72 %). The advantages of integrative teaching include linking of content (92 %) and preparation for interdisciplinary work (76 %). The disadvantages include high effort (75 %) and time (67 %) for organization. Furthermore, there is a risk that basic radiological facts and knowledge cannot be conveyed and that the visibility of radiology as an independent discipline is lost. Conventional radiological teaching has a similarly high acceptance (84 %) compared to integrative courses (76 %). Integrative teaching has a high acceptance among chairpersons in radiology in Germany despite the greater effort. A good interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for integrative teaching and at the same time this can be conveyed to the students. However, the visibility of radiology as a discipline and the possibility to cover basic radiological content must be ensured. Therefore, both conventional courses and integrative teaching seems reasonable, especially in cross-disciplinary subjects such as radiology. Both integrative teaching and conventional radiological teaching are highly accepted. The advantages include the linking of multidisciplinary content and the preparation for interdisciplinary cooperation

  4. Radiological studies on Egyptian mummies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this work as part of a mummy study project is to obtain the maximum amount of information through radiological methods with the minimum destruction of the object. For this proven radiological methods were used as well as conventional radiological methods which had not yet been used with mummy research and modern radiological methods using an electronic basis relative to their importance for the study of medical archaeological materials. It is shown that the knowledge which is gained from the use of a combination of classical radiological methods and computed tomography cannot be enhanced by an autopsy of the study objects. Since because of this the objects can be kept in their original condition, a later checking of the results is guaranteed with the possibility of clearing up remaining open questions by means of further developed methods. (orig.) [de

  5. The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J. (Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada))

    1991-05-01

    A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing.

  6. The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing

  7. How to Read Your Radiology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Index A-Z How to Read Your Radiology Report Imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging ( ... radiology report. top of page Sections of the Radiology Report Type of exam The type of exam ...

  8. Device for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinta, A.

    2002-01-01

    The invention refers to medicine, in particular to radiology. Summary of the invention consists in that the device for the radiotherapy includes a base a headrest, a mechanism for head fixation, means for placement of the formation element, the mechanism for head fixation representing a semicircle situated in horizontal position and fixed to the base with the possibility of displacement, in the centre of which it is installed a fixing arm, and the means for placement of the formation elements representing at least two semicircles, mounted in vertical position and fixed into supports with the possibility of mutual swiveling of each of them, between the headrest and the base being installed the neck support

  9. Radiology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, P.L.; Seltzer, S.E.; Gore, J.C.; Heiiman, R.S.; Abrams, H.L.; Davis, K.A.; Henkelman, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    On the leading edge in ''high-tech'' medicine, radiology is experiencing several revolutions simultaneously that promise an exciting future. New imaging methods and digital technologies not only offer novel ways to view tissues but also provide opportunities for quantitative evaluation of function and even permit determination of metabolic status. New approaches to technology assessment are being explored that alter the ways in which equipment and procedures are introduced into clinical medicine. With the plethora of radiology services available, the radiologist must serve as a consultant in the triage of patients in radiology and the dissemination of information from radiology. For similar reasons, training in diagnostic radiology may eventually accommodate to the concept of specialization along organ-system lines. Without question, radiology is destined for an exciting period as it moves into the 21st century

  10. Interventional Radiology in Paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippington, Samantha J; Goodwin, Susie J

    2015-01-01

    As in adult practice, there is a growing role for paediatric interventional radiology expertise in the management of paediatric pathologies. This review is targeted for clinicians who may refer their patients to paediatric interventional radiology services, or who are responsible for patients who are undergoing paediatric interventional radiology procedures. The article includes a brief overview of the indications for intervention, techniques involved and the commonest complications. Although some of the procedures described are most commonly performed in a tertiary paediatric centre, many are performed in most Children's hospitals.

  11. Radiologic technology educators and andragogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, M W; Simon-Galbraith, J A

    1984-01-01

    Radiologic technology educators are in constant contact with adult learners. However, the theoretical framework that radiologic educators use to guide their instruction may not be appropriate for adults. This article examines the assumptions of the standard instructional theory and the most modern approach to adult education-- andragogy . It also shows how these assumptions affect the adult learner in a radiologic education setting.

  12. Postoperative radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhenne, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the importance of postoperative radiology. Most surgical procedures on the alimentary tract are successful, but postoperative complications remain a common occurrence. The radiologist must be familiar with a large variety of possible surgical complications, because it is this specialty that is most commonly called on to render a definitive diagnosis. The decision for reoperation, for instance, is usually based on results from radiologic imaging techniques. These now include ultrasonography, CT scanning, needle biopsy, and interventional techniques in addition to contrast studies and nuclear medicine investigation

  13. Response to nuclear and radiological terrorism - the viewpoint from the security forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A threat of a malevolent act may be deemed to exist when information has been received that terrorists, criminals or other persons intend to: manufacture, use, transport, dispose radioactive materials in order to hide the nature of material; perpetrate a deliberate act to irradiate a person or persons; perpetrate a deliberate act to contaminate food or water supplies with radioactive materials; create and deploy a radiation dispersal device; perpetrate a deliberate act to contaminate a site or the environment with radioactive materials; or mount a sabotage attack upon a nuclear facility aimed at causing an uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. Security forces will be involved in all aspects of the response: at the scene, to lead, to control the crime scene and preserve evidence; at the hospitals, to identify and manage witnesses who may assist in the ensuing investigation, and to protect emergency medical personnel if perpetrators are part of the casualties; and at the regional and national coordination level, to manage the overall criminal investigation; to take under physical protection the seized materials. Law enforcement response: key considerations to all police (security and investigating) personnel at the scene of a terrorist act will include the following: do not approach the scene without proper radiological support; be aware of the possible presence of other radiological hazards; the radiological team will seek the removal of safety hazards. Work with that team to minimize hazards while not compromising the investigation. Minimize traffic through the scene: this will help reduce the spread of radioactive contamination, if present; people present at the scene need to be held for questioning. However, they will also have fears due to the presence of radiation. Work with the radiological team to minimize radiological hazards and fears while not compromising the investigation procedure. (author)

  14. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this text-book basic knowledge about radiology, biomedical diagnostic methods (radiography, computer tomography), nuclear medicine and safety and radiation protection of personnel on the radiodiagnostic place of work are presented

  15. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), US response to major radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    During the 1960's and 70's the expanded use of nuclear materials to generate electricity, to provide medical benefits, and for research purposes continued to grow in the United States. While substantial effort went into constructing plants and facilities and providing for a number of redundant backup systems for safety purposes, little effort went into the development of emergency response plans for possible major radiological accidents. Unfortunately, adequate plans and procedures had not been developed to co-ordinate either state or federal emergency response assets and personnel should a major radiological accident occur. This situation became quite evident following the Three Mile Island Nuclear Reactor accident in 1979. An accident of that magnitude had not been adequately prepared for and Pennsylvania's limited emergency radiological resources and capabilities were quickly exhausted. Several federal agencies with statutory responsibilities for emergency response, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and others provided extensive assistance and support during the accident. However, the assistance was not fully co-ordinated nor controlled. Following the Three Mile Island incident 13 federal agencies worked co-operatively to develop an agreement called the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP). Signed in November 1985, this plan delineated the statutory responsibilities and authorities of each federal agency signatory to the FRERP. In the event of a major radiological accident, the FRERP would be activated to ensure that a co-ordinated federal emergency response would be available to respond to any major radiological accident scenario. The FRERP encompasses a wide variety of radiological accidents, not just those stemming from nuclear power plants. Activation of the FRERP could occur from major accidents involving

  16. Radiological Protection Science and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Augustin; ); Mossman, Ken; Morgan, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of radiation at the end of the 19. century, the health effects of exposure to radiation have been studied more than almost any other factor with potential effects on human health. The NEA has long been involved in discussions on the effects of radiation exposure, releasing two reports in 1994 and 2007 on radiological protection science. This report is the third in this state-of-the-art series, examining recent advances in the understanding of radiation risks and effects, particularly at low doses. It focuses on radiobiology and epidemiology, and also addresses the social science aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. The report summarises the status of, and issues arising from, the application of the International System of Radiological Protection to different types of prevailing circumstances. Reports published by the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) in 1998 and 2007 provided an overview of the scientific knowledge available at that time, as well as the expected results from further research. They also discussed the policy implications that these results could have for the radiological protection system. The 2007 report highlighted challenges posed by developments in relation to medical exposure and by intentions to include the environment (i.e. non-human species), within the scope of the radiological protection system. It also addressed the need to be able to respond to a radiological terrorist attack. This report picks up on where the 1998 and 2007 reports left off, and addresses the state of the art in radiological prevention science and application today. It is divided into five chapters. Firstly, following broadly the structural topics from the 1998 and 2007 reports, the more purely scientific aspects of radiological protection are presented. These include cancer risk of low dose and dose rates, non-cancer effects and individual sensitivity. In view of the increasing

  17. Optimization of a therapeutic electromagnetic field (EMF) to retard breast cancer tumor growth and vascularity

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Ivan L; Markov, Marko S; Hardman, W Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Background This study provided additional data on the effects of a therapeutic electromagnetic field (EMF) device on growth and vascularization of murine 16/C mammary adenocarcinoma cells implanted in C3H/HeJ mice. Methods The therapeutic EMF device generated a defined 120 Hz semi sine wave pulse signal of variable intensity. Murine 16/C mammary adenocarcinoma tumor fragments were implanted subcutaneously between the scapulae of syngeneic C3H mice. Once the tumor grew to 100 mm3, daily EMF tr...

  18. 78 FR 19711 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health: Experiential Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... timely and continued access to safe, effective, high-quality medical devices and safe radiation-emitting...-acoustic stimulation using hybrid cochlear implants, preservation of residual hearing, postoperative...

  19. Preliminary report on operational guidelines developed for use in emergency preparedness and response to a radiological dispersal device incident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.-J.; Kamboj, S.; Domotor, S.; Wallo, A.; Environmental Science Division; DOE

    2006-12-15

    This report presents preliminary operational guidelines and supporting work products developed through the interagency Operational Guidelines Task Group (OGT). The report consolidates preliminary operational guidelines, all ancillary work products, and a companion software tool that facilitates their implementation into one reference source document. The report is intended for interim use and comment and provides the foundation for fostering future reviews of the operational guidelines and their implementation within emergency preparedness and response initiatives in the event of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) incident. The report principally focuses on the technical derivation and presentation of the operational guidelines. End-user guidance providing more details on how to apply these operational guidelines within planning and response settings is being considered and developed elsewhere. The preliminary operational guidelines are categorized into seven groups on the basis of their intended application within early, intermediate, and long-term recovery phases of emergency response. We anticipate that these operational guidelines will be updated and refined by interested government agencies in response to comments and lessons learned from their review, consideration, and trial application. This review, comment, and trial application process will facilitate the selection of a final set of operational guidelines that may be more or less inclusive of the preliminary operational guidelines presented in this report. These and updated versions of the operational guidelines will be made available through the OGT public Web site (http://ogcms.energy.gov) as they become finalized for public distribution and comment.

  20. Changes in IEC standards related to diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubszky, T.; Barsai, J.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Purposes. Technical Committee TC62 of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) deals with medical electrical equipment (i.e. medical devices using electricity). Standardization concerning diagnostic radiology equipment is task of its Sub-Committee SC62B. An outlook of its activities and present situation, and especially of radiation protection aspects, is given. Materials and methods. Third edition of basic safety standard for medical electrical equipment IEC 60601-1 was issued in 2005. Elaboration of new collateral and particular standards - applicable together with it - is in progress. These standards are generally at the same time also European - EN - and national standards. There is a great importance of radiation protection in diagnostic X-ray equipment. Collateral standard IEC 6060-1-3 about it was at first issued in 1994. Rapid development of imaging technology demands updating of requirements. SC62B in 2003 founded a maintenance team MT37 for preparation of the second edition of this standard. According to new safety philosophy of IEC all modality specific requirements are to be collected in 'safety and essential performance' particular standards. A new working group WG42 - founded in 2006 - elaborates a new particular standard IEC 60601-2-54 for radiographic and radioscopic equipment. Maintenance team MT32 deals with safety and performance standards for X-ray tube assemblies. The authors actively participate in these activities. Results and discussion. Present and future system of diagnostic radiology IEC standards and some interesting details are presented. Conclusions. International standards - although they are not 'obligatory' - are generally the basis of safety and performance certification of diagnostic radiology equipment and often also of their quality assurance.

  1. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1990-07-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) -- formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL) -- of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Fifteen different experiments were run during these 12 months, approximately the same as the previous two years. Brief summaries of each experiment are included. Accelerator usage is summarized and development activities are discussed. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Radiological diagnostics of muscle diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.A.; Essig, M.; Kauczor, H.U.

    2007-01-01

    Muscular diseases are a heterogeneous group of diseases with difficult differential diagnosis. This article reviews morphological and functional radiological techniques for assessment of muscular diseases. Morphological techniques can describe edema-like changes, lipomatous and atrophic changes of muscular tissue. However, these imaging signs are often not disease-specific. As a result, clinicians assign radiology a secondary role in the management of muscular diseases. Meanwhile, functional radiological techniques allow the assessment of muscle fiber architecture, skeletal muscle perfusion, myocellular sodium-homoeostasis, lipid- and energy-phosphate metabolism, etc. By detecting and spatially localizing pathophysiological phenomena, these new techniques can increase the role of radiology in muscular diseases. (orig.)

  3. Physics of Radiology

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Harold Elford

    1983-01-01

    Authority, comprehensivity and a consummate manner of presentation have been hallmarks of The Physics of Radiology since it first saw publication some three decades past. This Fourth Edition adheres to that tradition but again updates the context. It thoroughly integrates ideas recently advanced and practices lately effected. Students and professionals alike will continue to view it, in essence, as the bible of radiological physics.

  4. Radiological aspects of Gaucher disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Robert; Booth, Tom; Hargunani, Rikin; Wylie, Peter; Holloway, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Advances in imaging and the development of commercially available enzyme therapy have significantly altered the traditional radiology of Gaucher disease. The cost of treatment and need for monitoring response to therapy have magnified the importance of imaging. There are no recent comprehensive reviews of the radiology of this relatively common lysosomal storage disease. This article describes the modern imaging, techniques and radiological manifestations of Gaucher disease. (orig.)

  5. Radiological aspects of Gaucher disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Robert; Booth, Tom; Hargunani, Rikin; Wylie, Peter; Holloway, Brian [Royal Free Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Advances in imaging and the development of commercially available enzyme therapy have significantly altered the traditional radiology of Gaucher disease. The cost of treatment and need for monitoring response to therapy have magnified the importance of imaging. There are no recent comprehensive reviews of the radiology of this relatively common lysosomal storage disease. This article describes the modern imaging, techniques and radiological manifestations of Gaucher disease. (orig.)

  6. To improve the quality of the statistical analysis of papers published in the Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho; Ahn, Song Vogue

    2008-01-01

    To improve the quality of the statistical analysis of papers published in the Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JKOSTRO) by evaluating commonly encountered errors. Materials and Methods: Papers published in the JKOSTRO from January 2006 to December 2007 were reviewed for methodological and statistical validity using a modified version of Ahn's checklist. A statistician reviewed individual papers and evaluated the list items in the checklist for each paper. To avoid the potential assessment error by the statistician who lacks expertise in the field of radiation oncology; the editorial board of the JKOSTRO reviewed each checklist for individual articles. A frequency analysis of the list items was performed using SAS (version 9.0, SAS Institute, NC, USA) software. Results: A total of 73 papers including 5 case reports and 68 original articles were reviewed. Inferential statistics was used in 46 papers. The most commonly adopted statistical methodology was a survival analysis (58.7%). Only 19% of papers were free of statistical errors. Errors of omission were encountered in 34 (50.0%) papers. Errors of commission were encountered in 35 (51.5%) papers. Twenty-one papers (30.9%) had both errors of omission and commission. Conclusion: A variety of statistical errors were encountered in papers published in the JKOSTRO. The current study suggests that a more thorough review of the statistical analysis is needed for manuscripts submitted in the JKOSTRO

  7. Radiological characterisation - Know your objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindow, Veronica; Moeller, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When developing a programme for mapping the radiological characteristics of a facility to be decommissioned it is important to take into account the objectives of the programme. Will the results be used to plan for radiological control and selection of appropriate decontamination and dismantling techniques? Will the radiological inventory be used for dimensioning of future waste repositories? These are two examples of the applications for such studies, which could require that a radiological characterisation programme be adapted to provide the data appropriate to the intended use. The level of detail and scope needed for a radiological characterisation will also vary depending on how the data will be used. An application to free-release a facility requires a comprehensive survey and well documented analysis in order to ensure that no radioactive contamination above prescribed levels is present. A bounding calculation to determine the maximum anticipated volumes and activity of radioactive waste requires a different approach. During the past few years, older decommissioning studies for the Swedish nuclear power plants have been updated (or are in the process of being updated). The decommissioning study's main purpose is to estimate the cost for decommissioning. The cost estimation is based on material and activity inventories, which in turn is based on previous and, in some cases, updated radiological characterisations of the facilities. The radiological inventory is an important part of the study as it affects the cost of decommissioning but also the uncertainties and accuracy of the cost estimation. The presentation will discuss the challenges in specifying a radiological characterisation programme with multiple objectives, together with insights on how data delivered can be applied to yield results suitable for the intended purpose, without introducing excessive conservatism. The intent of the presentation is to define issues that can be of use in various aspects

  8. Expanding the scope of practice for radiology managers: radiation safety duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orders, Amy B; Wright, Donna

    2003-01-01

    In addition to financial responsibilities and patient care duties, many medical facilities also expect radiology department managers to wear "safety" hats and complete fundamental quality control/quality assurance, conduct routine safety surveillance in the department, and to meet regulatory demands in the workplace. All managers influence continuous quality improvement initiatives, from effective utilization of resource and staffing allocations, to efficacy of patient scheduling tactics. It is critically important to understand continuous quality improvement (CQI) and its relationship with the radiology manager, specifically quality assurance/quality control in routine work, as these are the fundamentals of institutional safety, including radiation safety. When an institution applies for a registration for radiation-producing devices or a license for the use of radioactive materials, the permit granting body has specific requirements, policies and procedures that must be satisfied in order to be granted a permit and to maintain it continuously. In the 32 U.S. Agreement states, which are states that have radiation safety programs equivalent to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission programs, individual facilities apply for permits through the local governing body of radiation protection. Other states are directly licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and associated regulatory entities. These regulatory agencies grant permits, set conditions for use in accordance with state and federal laws, monitor and enforce radiation safety activities, and audit facilities for compliance with their regulations. Every radiology department and associated areas of radiation use are subject to inspection and enforcement policies in order to ensure safety of equipment and personnel. In today's business practice, department managers or chief technologists may actively participate in the duties associated with institutional radiation safety, especially in smaller institutions, while

  9. Streamlining interventional radiology admissions: The role of the interventional radiology clinic and physician's assistant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.I. Jr.; Rizer, D.M.; Shuman, K.; White, E.J.; Adams, P.; Doyle, K.; Kinnison, M.

    1987-01-01

    During a 5-year period (1982-1987), 376 patients were admitted to an interventional radiology service where they were managed by the senior physician and interventional radiology fellows. Sixty-eight percent of patients were admitted for angioplasty and 32% for elective embolotherapy/diagnostic angiography. A one-half-day, twice weekly interventional radiology clinic and employment of a physician's assistant who performed preadmission history and physicals and wrote orders accounted, in part, for a decrease in hospital stay length from 3.74 days (1982-1983) to 2.41 days (1986-1987). The authors conclude that use of the clinic and the physician's assistant streamlines patient flow and the admitting process and is partially responsible for a decreased length of stay for patients admitted to an interventional radiology service

  10. A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Nathan

    , "Radiological Dispersal Devices: Assessing the Transnational Threat," Strategic Forum, No. 136, (March 1998), March 29, 2012, http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/forum136.htm.

  11. Radiology. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Maximilian [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Kuhn, Fritz-Peter [Klinikum Kassel (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Debus, Juergen [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie

    2011-07-01

    The text book on radiology covers the following issues: Part A: General radiology: Fundamental physics: radiation biology; radiation protection fundamentals: radiologic methods; radiotherapy; nuclear medicine. Part B: Special radiology: Thorax; heart; urogenital tract and retroperitoneum; vascular system and interventional radiology; esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines; liver, biliary system, pancreas and spleen; mammary glands; central nervous system; spinal cord and spinal canal; basis of the skull, facial bones and eye socket; neck; pediatric imaging diagnostics.

  12. Evidence-based Practice of Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Lisa P; Dunne, Ruth M; Carroll, Anne G; Malone, Dermot E

    2015-10-01

    Current health care reform in the United States is producing a shift in radiology practice from the traditional volume-based role of performing and interpreting a large number of examinations to providing a more affordable and higher-quality service centered on patient outcomes, which is described as a value-based approach to the provision of health care services. In the 1990 s, evidence-based medicine was defined as the integration of current best evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. When these methods are applied outside internal medicine, the process is called evidence-based practice (EBP). EBP facilitates understanding, interpretation, and application of the best current evidence into radiology practice, which optimizes patient care. It has been incorporated into "Practice-based Learning and Improvement" and "Systems-based Practice," which are two of the six core resident competencies of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and two of the 12 American Board of Radiology milestones for diagnostic radiology. Noninterpretive skills, such as systems-based practice, are also formally assessed in the "Quality and Safety" section of the American Board of Radiology Core and Certifying examinations. This article describes (a) the EBP framework, with particular focus on its relevance to the American Board of Radiology certification and maintenance of certification curricula; (b) how EBP can be integrated into a residency program; and (c) the current value and likely place of EBP in the radiology information technology infrastructure. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2015.

  13. Protracted Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Graves' Ophthalmopathy: A Pilot Study of Clinical and Radiologic Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casimiro de Deus Cardoso, Cejana; Giordani, Adelmo Jose [Department of Clinical and Experimental Oncology, Division of Radiotherapy, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Borri Wolosker, Angela Maria [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souhami, Luis [Department of Radiotherapy, McGill University Heath Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gois Manso, Paulo [Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza Dias, Rodrigo; Comodo Segreto, Helena Regina [Department of Clinical and Experimental Oncology, Division of Radiotherapy, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Araujo Segreto, Roberto, E-mail: segreto.dmed@epm.br [Department of Clinical and Experimental Oncology, Division of Radiotherapy, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and radiologic response of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy given low-dose orbital radiotherapy (RT) with a protracted fractionation. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients (36 orbits) received orbital RT with a total dose of 10 Gy, fractionated in 1 Gy once a week over 10 weeks. Of these, 9 patients received steroid therapy as well. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically at 6 months after treatment. Clinical response assessment was carried out using three criteria: by physical examination, by a modified clinical activity score, and by a verbal questionnaire considering the 10 most common signs and symptoms of the disease. Radiologic response was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Improvement in ocular pain, palpebral edema, visual acuity, and ocular motility was observed in all patients. Significant decrease in symptoms such as tearing (p < 0.001) diplopia (p = 0.008), conjunctival hyperemia (p = 0.002), and ocular grittiness (p = 0.031) also occurred. Magnetic resonance imaging showed decrease in ocular muscle thickness and in the intensity of the T2 sequence signal in the majority of patients. Treatments were well tolerated, and to date no complications from treatment have been observed. There was no statistical difference in clinical and radiologic response between patients receiving RT alone and those receiving RT plus steroid therapy. Conclusion: RT delivered in at a low dose and in a protracted scheme should be considered as a useful therapeutic option for patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

  14. Fixatives Used for Decommissioning and Maintenance of Radiological Facilities – 17537

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick; Fox, Don; Reese, Stephen; Banford, Anthony; Dodds, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom (UK) National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) have been collaborating for several years on materials and methods for the fogged/misted introduction of fixatives into radiologically contaminated facilities. The objective of the project is to deliver a process for reducing airborne radiological and/or mercury contamination and affixing loose contamination in place, thereby reducing contamination risk to employees and decreasing D&D cost and schedule. The developed process provides a reliable, unmanned method of introducing a coating that captures and fixes contamination in place within facilities. The INL coating, termed FX2, has undergone extensive non-radiological testing, including determination that it is non-flammable, affixes contamination and flows well through unusual geometries (testing at Florida International University). A series of non-active fogging trials for activity knock/tie-down application have been completed at NNL Workington on behalf of Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These trials performed by the NNL employed commercially available agricultural fogging equipment and the INL’s knock/tie-down latex formulation (FX-2). This testing successfully demonstrated the ability of the fogging devices to successfully spray the FX-2 formulation within various scenarios, and prepared the project for a radioactive trial. The INL has also developed a mercury vapor reducing form of the coating termed FX-Hg, which has shown great promise in laboratory studies.

  15. [Instruction in dental radiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, W.J.M. van der; Kreulen, C.M.; Berkhout, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic use of oral radiology is an essential part of daily dental practice. Due to the potentially harmful nature of ionising radiation, the clinical use of oral radiology in the Netherlands is framed by clinical practice guidelines and regulatory requirements. Undergraduate students receive

  16. Marketing a Radiology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David C; Rao, Vijay M; Flanders, Adam E; Sundaram, Baskaran; Colarossi, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    In addition to being a profession, the practice of radiology is a business, and marketing is an important part of that business. There are many facets to marketing a radiology practice. The authors present a number of ideas on how to go about doing this. Some marketing methods can be directed to both patients and referring physicians. Others should be directed just to patients, while still others should be directed just to referring physicians. Aside from marketing, many of them provide value to both target audiences. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Referral expectations of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.L.; Altmaier, E.; Berberoglu, L.; Morris, K.

    1989-01-01

    The expectation of the referring physician are key to developing a successful practice in radiology. Structured interviews with 17 clinicians in both community care and academic practice documented that accuracy of the radiologic report was the single most important factor in clinician satisfaction. Data intercorrelation showed that accuracy of report correlated with frequency of referral (r = .49). Overall satisfaction of the referring physician with radiology correlated with accuracy (r = .69), patient satisfaction (r = .36), and efficiency in archiving (r = .42). These data may be weighted by departmental managers to allocate resources for improving referring physician satisfaction

  18. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  19. Radiology education: a glimpse into the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarsbrook, A.F. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: andyscarsbrook1@aol.com; Graham, R.N.J. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Perriss, R.W. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    The digital revolution in radiology continues to advance rapidly. There are a number of interesting developments within radiology informatics which may have a significant impact on education and training of radiologists in the near future. These include extended functionality of handheld computers, web-based skill and knowledge assessment, standardization of radiological procedural training using simulated or virtual patients, worldwide videoconferencing via high-quality health networks such as Internet2 and global collaboration of radiological educational resources via comprehensive, multi-national databases such as the medical imaging resource centre initiative of the Radiological Society of North America. This article will explore the role of e-learning in radiology, highlight a number of useful web-based applications in this area, and explain how the current and future technological advances might best be incorporated into radiological training.

  20. Radiology education: a glimpse into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The digital revolution in radiology continues to advance rapidly. There are a number of interesting developments within radiology informatics which may have a significant impact on education and training of radiologists in the near future. These include extended functionality of handheld computers, web-based skill and knowledge assessment, standardization of radiological procedural training using simulated or virtual patients, worldwide videoconferencing via high-quality health networks such as Internet2 and global collaboration of radiological educational resources via comprehensive, multi-national databases such as the medical imaging resource centre initiative of the Radiological Society of North America. This article will explore the role of e-learning in radiology, highlight a number of useful web-based applications in this area, and explain how the current and future technological advances might best be incorporated into radiological training

  1. The Future of Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R. Margulis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been my good fortune to live and practice radiology during a long period of momentous change – to see the transformation of the discipline from a supportive service into a mainstream, essential branch of clinical medicine. I remember wearing red goggles to adapt my vision before performing fluoroscopy; observing the horrible, now thankfully obsolete, practice of ventriculography, which was considered advanced neuroradiology; and performing other, now rarely prescribed procedures, such as double-contrast barium enemas and intravenous pyelography. Witnessing the beginnings of interventional radiology, I suggested its name in an editorial. I also had the good fortune to see the introduction of computed tomography (CT and a technology first known as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Together with fellow members of a committee of the American College of Radiology and editors of prestigious radiological journals, I took part in changing the name of the latter modality to MRI, freeing it from threatening implications. Looking back on these experiences, one lesson stands out above all: Innovation and transformation never cease. Looking forward, it is clear that radiology, along with the rest of medicine, is now undergoing further momentous changes that will affect the future of all those already practicing as well as those yet to start their careers.

  2. Radiological Work Planning and Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtz, J E

    2000-01-01

    Each facility is tasked with maintaining personnel radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). A continued effort is required to meet this goal by developing and implementing improvements to technical work documents (TWDs) and work performance. A review of selected TWDs from most facilities shows there is a need to incorporate more radiological control requirements into the TWD. The Radioactive Work Permit (RWP) provides a mechanism to place some of the requirements but does not provide all the information needed by the worker as he/she is accomplishing the steps of the TWD. Requiring the engineers, planners and procedure writers to put the radiological control requirements in the work steps would be very easy if all personnel had a strong background in radiological work planning and radiological controls. Unfortunately, many of these personnel do not have the background necessary to include these requirements without assistance by the Radiological Control organization at each facility. In add...

  3. Implementation of a Radiological Safety Coach program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzen, K.K. [Safe Sites of Colorado, Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site; Langsted, J.M. [M.H. Chew and Associates, Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The Safe Sites of Colorado Radiological Safety program has implemented a Safety Coach position, responsible for mentoring workers and line management by providing effective on-the-job radiological skills training and explanation of the rational for radiological safety requirements. This position is significantly different from a traditional classroom instructor or a facility health physicist, and provides workers with a level of radiological safety guidance not routinely provided by typical training programs. Implementation of this position presents a challenge in providing effective instruction, requiring rapport with the radiological worker not typically developed in the routine radiological training environment. The value of this unique training is discussed in perspective with cost-savings through better radiological control. Measures of success were developed to quantify program performance and providing a realistic picture of the benefits of providing one-on-one or small group training. This paper provides a description of the unique features of the program, measures of success for the program, a formula for implementing this program at other facilities, and a strong argument for the success (or failure) of the program in a time of increased radiological safety emphasis and reduced radiological safety budgets.

  4. Implementation of a Radiological Safety Coach program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzen, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    The Safe Sites of Colorado Radiological Safety program has implemented a Safety Coach position, responsible for mentoring workers and line management by providing effective on-the-job radiological skills training and explanation of the rational for radiological safety requirements. This position is significantly different from a traditional classroom instructor or a facility health physicist, and provides workers with a level of radiological safety guidance not routinely provided by typical training programs. Implementation of this position presents a challenge in providing effective instruction, requiring rapport with the radiological worker not typically developed in the routine radiological training environment. The value of this unique training is discussed in perspective with cost-savings through better radiological control. Measures of success were developed to quantify program performance and providing a realistic picture of the benefits of providing one-on-one or small group training. This paper provides a description of the unique features of the program, measures of success for the program, a formula for implementing this program at other facilities, and a strong argument for the success (or failure) of the program in a time of increased radiological safety emphasis and reduced radiological safety budgets

  5. Development of radiology in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchigsuren, D.; Munkhbaatar, D.; Tuvshinjargal, D.; Onkhuudai, P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Radiology had been introduced in Mongolia by the establishment of the first X-Ray room at the First State Central Hospital in 1934. First radiologists in Mongolia were invited from the former Soviet Union; V. Sokolov, P. Omelchenko and others worked at the ''Burevestnik'' X-ray equipment of Russian production with high X-ray exposure and low capacity; they could perform only limited arts of Xray studies like fluoroscopy of thorax, stomach, esophagus and roentgenography of skull and extremities. The second X- ray equipment has been presented by the close friend of Lenin, the Director of People's Commissariat of Health Protection of the Soviet Union, Dr. N.A. Semashko; the present had been dedicated to the 10th Anniversary of Mongolian Health Care sector. During the military maneuvers at Khalkhin- Gol in 1939, several province hospitals and military hospitals had been supplied by the Xray equipment. During the period 1959-1960 all province hospitals, specialized hospitals had got X-ray unit. In 1955, Radii 226 had been used at first time in Mongolia for a treatment. In 1959, the State Radiological Clinic had been founded as a branch of X-ray cabinet of the First State Central Hospital. By the initiative of the absolvent of University of Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Dr. P. Onkhuudai, Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine was established on 31 PstP March 1975 at the First State Central Hospital, which performed urography, thyroid and liver studies using Iod-131, Au-198, Hg-203 isotopes. In 1982, the gamma-camera and radio immunological equipment had been donated by the World Health Organization, and the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine had been reorganized into Department of Nuclear Laboratory. Afterwards, in 1992 CT and SPECT diagnostics had been introduced at the First State Central Hospital, therefore new possibilities for high quality radiological diagnostic in Mongolia had been created. In 2007 the Siemens Magnetom 0.3 Tesla had been installed at the

  6. Hygiene in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp-Schwoerer, A.; Daschner, F.

    1987-01-01

    A survey is given of the hygienic management in radiological departments with special regard to the handling of injections and infusions. It includes prevention of bacterial as well as viral infections. In radiological departments disinfection of X-ray tables is necessary only in exceptional cases. A special proposal for disinfection is added. A safe method of sterilisation of flexible catheders is included, which proved to prevent bacterial infection. (orig.) [de

  7. Educational activities regarding exposure reduction in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Osamu; Yabe, Hitoshi; Katoh, Kyoichi; Ueki, Junko; Nakamura, Kimiyuki; Nakatani, Akira; Wakamatsu, Osamu; Satoh, Tsugio; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    As interventional radiology (IVR) has become widespread recently, skin injury caused by exposure to radiation have been reported in academic meetings, and are a major concern in academic circles. In 1986, The Japanese Society of Circulation Imaging Technology (CITEC)'s organized a group to engage in an actual condition survey on cineangiography. We have studied exposed doses to patients in the event of cardiac catheterization using ancate data available in Japan and made efforts to spread methods of reducing exposure doses through academic meetings and medical journal. In 1998, we set up the Radiation Exposure Control Committee. The committee's objectives were to reduce exposure doses to patients and operators during cardiovascular examinations, and establish concrete of technical methods and protection guidelines for exposed dose reduction. We have studied presentations at academic meetings and study meetings, etc., and classified the results into the following 5 categories: methods of reducing radiation by X-ray equipment, methods of reducing exposure using X-ray protection devices, exposure dosimetry, clinical cases of radiation exposure, and QC, QA. The committee issued a textbook based on the reports and have educated, guided and enlightened radiological technologists, nurses and ME by holding the 'Seminar for reduction technique of radiation exposure in circulator organs.' (author)

  8. Chemical modifications of therapeutic proteins induced by residual ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Louise; Sloey, Christopher; Zhang, Zhongqi; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Kim, Hyojin; Ren, Da; Kanapuram, Sekhar

    2015-02-01

    Ethylene oxide (EtO) is widely used in sterilization of drug product primary containers and medical devices. The impact of residual EtO on protein therapeutics is of significant interest in the biopharmaceutical industry. The potential for EtO to modify individual amino acids in proteins has been previously reported. However, specific identification of EtO adducts in proteins and the effect of residual EtO on the stability of therapeutic proteins has not been reported to date. This paper describes studies of residual EtO with two therapeutic proteins, a PEGylated form of the recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Peg-GCSF) and recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) formulated with human serum albumin (HSA). Peg-GCSF was filled in an EtO sterilized delivery device and incubated at accelerated stress conditions. Glu-C peptide mapping and LC-MS analyses revealed residual EtO reacted with Peg-GCSF and resulted in EtO modifications at two methionine residues (Met-127 and Met-138). In addition, tryptic peptide mapping and LC-MS analyses revealed residual EtO in plastic vials reacted with HSA in EPO formulation at Met-328 and Cys-34. This paper details the work conducted to understand the effects of residual EtO on the chemical stability of protein therapeutics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs [de

  10. [Radiologic picture of maxillary sinus aspergilloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, I; Bilska, J; Osmola, K; Nowaczyk, M T

    2010-06-01

    Mycotic infection of paranasal sinus could be the etiological factor of chronic sinusitis. The increase in number of fungal sinusitis cases have been reported recently among nonimmunocompromised patient after endodontic treatment of maxillary teeth. Nonspecific clinical signs and incorrect radiologic pictures interpretation as well as loss of therapeutic standards seems to be the cause of false negative diagnosis and difficulties in treatment of fungal sinusitis. Clinical and radiological picture of maxillary sinus aspergillosis was described in this paper. In the period of 2006-2009 in the Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery 19 patient with fungal maxillary sinusitis was treated. The endodontic treatment of maxillary teeth of the related side was performed previously in 80% examined cases. In 2 cases there were immunocompromised patients with immunosuppressive treatment. In 16 cases patients were referred to our Department due to metallic foreign body of the maxillary sinus. Routine diagnostic radiological imaging was performed in each case: paranasal sinus view--Water's view and panoramic radiograph (orthopantomograph). In 4 cases imaging was extended with computer tomography (CT) visualization. The surgical treatment was performed in each case. The final diagnosis was puted on histopathological examination and fungal culture. In 16 cases of analysed group histopathological examination and fungal culture revealed aspergilosis. In 2 cases fungal culture was negative, but histopathology slices confirm presence of hyphae of Aspergillus. In 1 case the root canal sealer was found in the maxillary sinus. In none case invasive form of aspergillosis was confirmed. In all cases Water's view of paranasal sinuses and ortopantomograph showed partially or totally clouded sinus with well-defined, single or multifocal radiopaque object similar to metallic foreign body. Characteristic finding in CT imaging was well-defined radiodence concretions that have been attributed to

  11. ICRP PUBLICATION 121: Radiological Protection in Paediatric Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khong, P-L.; Ringertz, H.; Donoghue, V.; Frush, D.; Rehani, M.; Appelgate, K.; Sanchez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Paediatric patients have a higher average risk of developing cancer compared with adults receiving the same dose. The longer life expectancy in children allows more time for any harmful effects of radiation to manifest, and developing organs and tissues are more sensitive to the effects of radiation. This publication aims to provide guiding principles of radiological protection for referring clinicians and clinical staff performing diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures for paediatric patients. It begins with a brief description of the basic concepts of radiological protection, followed by the general aspects of radiological protection, including principles of justification and optimisation. Guidelines and suggestions for radiological protection in specific modalities – radiography and fluoroscopy, interventional radiology, and computed tomography – are subsequently covered in depth. The report concludes with a summary and recommendations. The importance of rigorous justification of radiological procedures is emphasised for every procedure involving ionising radiation, and the use of imaging modalities that are non-ionising should always be considered. The basic aim of optimisation of radiological protection is to adjust imaging parameters and institute protective measures such that the required image is obtained with the lowest possible dose of radiation, and that net benefit is maximised to maintain sufficient quality for diagnostic interpretation. Special consideration should be given to the availability of dose reduction measures when purchasing new imaging equipment for paediatric use. One of the unique aspects of paediatric imaging is with regards to the wide range in patient size (and weight), therefore requiring special attention to optimisation and modification of equipment, technique, and imaging parameters. Examples of good radiographic and fluoroscopic technique include attention to patient positioning, field size and adequate collimation

  12. Versatile intraoperative MRI in neurosurgery and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrjänä, S K; Katisko, J P; Ojala, R O; Tervonen, O; Schiffbauer, H; Koivukangas, J

    2002-03-01

    Several models for the application of intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI) have recently been reported, most of them unique. Two fundamental issues need to be addressed: optimal use of the scanner to ensure a wide base for research, development and clinical application, and an organisational model that facilitates such use. While in our setting the IMRI project was initiated by the neurosurgeons, the need for wider use of the facilities was recognised since the beginning of the planning phase in 1996. An organisational model was developed that allowed for development of neurosurgical applications, radiological imaging, and radiological interventions and for the research and development work of the vendor. A resistive 0.23 T MR scanner was installed in a dedicated operating room environment. Unique to this scanner is the ability to turn off the magnet, allowing for normal OR activities and devices, and to turn on the magnet as needed with a relatively short six-minute ramp up time. A staged surgical technique was perfected, allowing for transfer of data to the neuronavigator outside the scanner during surgery. In neurosurgery, IMRI was used as one part of a neuronavigational system that included ultrasound imaging, intra-operative cortical stimulation during awake procedures, electrocorticography and two neuronavigators. 34 neurosurgical cases included 27 brain tumour resections, 5 brain tumour biopsies, 1 extirpation of an arterio-venous malformation, and 1 haematoma evacuation. The scanner could also be used for normal clinical imaging where obese patients, children, claustophobic patients and postoperative control examinations were the major groups. The radiologists performed 110 interventions, including bone and abdominal biopsies, nerve root infiltrations and local pain therapies, with the optical needle tracking system under continuous MRI guidance. The organisational model allowed frequent use of the facilities for both neurosurgery and radiology

  13. Radiology Architecture Project Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Raymond W; Hogan, Laurie; Teshima, Satoshi; Davidson, Scott

    2017-12-19

    The rapid pace of technologic advancement and increasing expectations for patient- and family-friendly environments make it common for radiology leaders to be involved in imaging remodel and construction projects. Most radiologists and business directors lack formal training in architectural and construction processes but are expected to play significant and often leading roles in all phases of an imaging construction project. Avoidable mistakes can result in significant increased costs and scheduling delays; knowledgeable participation and communication can result in a final product that enhances staff workflow and morale and improves patient care and experience. This article presents practical guidelines for preparing for and leading a new imaging architectural and construction project. We share principles derived from the radiology and nonradiology literature and our own experience over the past decade completely remodeling a large pediatric radiology department and building a full-service outpatient imaging center. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of radiological workstations and web-browser-based image distribution clients for a PACS project in hands-on workshops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Thomas; Handgraetinger, Oliver; Voellmy, Daniel R.; Marincek, Borut; Wildermuth, Simon; Link, Juergen; Ploner, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    The methodology and outcome of a hands-on workshop for the evaluation of PACS (picture archiving and communication system) software for a multihospital PACS project are described. The following radiological workstations and web-browser-based image distribution software clients were evaluated as part of a multistep evaluation of PACS vendors in March 2001: Impax DS 3000 V 4.1/Impax Web1000 (Agfa-Gevaert, Mortsel, Belgium); PathSpeed V 8.0/PathSpeed Web (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Wis., USA); ID Report/ID Web (Image Devices, Idstein, Germany); EasyVision DX/EasyWeb (Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven, Netherlands); and MagicView 1000 VB33a/MagicWeb (Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen, Germany). A set of anonymized DICOM test data was provided to enable direct image comparison. Radiologists (n=44) evaluated the radiological workstations and nonradiologists (n=53) evaluated the image distribution software clients using different questionnaires. One vendor was not able to import the provided DICOM data set. Another vendor had problems in displaying imported cross-sectional studies in the correct stack order. Three vendors (Agfa-Gevaert, GE, Philips) presented server-client solutions with web access. Two (Siemens, Image Devices) presented stand-alone solutions. The highest scores in the class of radiological workstations were achieved by ID Report from Image Devices (p<0.005). In the class of image distribution clients, the differences were statistically not significant. Questionnaire-based evaluation was shown to be useful for guaranteeing systematic assessment. The workshop was a great success in raising interest in the PACS project in a large group of future clinical users. The methodology used in the present study may be useful for other hospitals evaluating PACS. (orig.)

  15. Design of a positional tracking and radiological alarm system for transportation of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saindane, Shashank; Pujari, R.N.; Narsaiah, M.V.R.; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    The safety aspects during the transport of radioactive material have to ensure that even in event of accident the potential of radiation exposure to public is extremely small. Continuous monitoring and online data transfer to emergency control room will strengthen the emergency preparedness to response to any such accident during transport of radioactive material. The paper presents the combined application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and the Internet for tracking the shipment vehicle transporting radioactive isotopes for use in the medical industry. The key features of the prototype system designed are realtime radiological status update along with photo snap of the shipping flask at predefined interval along with positional coordinates, GIS platform and a web-based user interface. The system consists of a GM based radiation monitoring device (RMD) along with a LAN camera, GPS for tracking the shipment vehicle, a communications server, a web-server, a database server, and a map server. The RMD and tracking device mounted in the shipment vehicle collects location and radiological information on real-time via the GPS. This information is transferred continuously through GPRS to a central database. The users will be able to view the current location of the vehicle via a web-based application

  16. Initial radiation dose in critical organs el pediatric radiology in INEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, J. F.; Benavente, T.; Cisneros, F.

    2006-01-01

    The medical practices diagnostic, therapeutic and interventionists, the patients and professionals are exposed to a radiological risk that in many cases is a critic due to the severity of the damage that it might cause, for example for the cases of pregnant patients, children and in general in a the irradiation of organs of high risk as thyroid, gonads, crystalline, others. In this work I develop a methodology that allows determining the dose absorbed of the beam of X-ray. In the critical organs out of the region to examination in paediatric radiology of thorax, using a system shaped by detectors thermoluminescence of fluoride of lithium activated with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti), and of fluoride of calcium activated with disprosio (CaF2: Dy). The results show that by means of the implementation of this methodology it is possible to reduce up to 50% the dose received for the paediatric patients (in the critical organs thyroid, crystalline and gonads) in the diagnostic practices with X-ray. With this there would be to reducing up to 50% the possibility of appearance of an effect stochastic. (Author)

  17. 13. Device therapy in secondary hospital (without a cath lab: Feasibility, logistics and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jelani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Device therapy for conduction abnormalities, heart failure, primary or secondary SCD preventions is under delivered to requiring patients. Most of these devices are implanted at tertiary care centers in major cities of most countries. This makes the availability of these guideline guided therapies to a very small percentage of needy patients. Implant of such devices at a secondary hospital (without a cardiac cath lab with training of previously novice hospital staff and available resources as well as support of the industry is an alternative and very viable option to have such important therapy delivered to requiring patients. The usage of simple-readily available-C-arm in operating theatre (OR or the interventional radiology suite can be utilized for this purpose. OR nursing staff and radiology technicians can be trained –with help of nursing education department– to help in such procedures over a relatively short period. Technical support utilized from the vendors representatives is an alternative to face the lack of EP technicians in local or international market. The follow up of these patients in OPD can be organized with help of the vendors on regular basis under supervision of trained cardiologist/s. This model can help establish device therapy service at a secondary hospital without huge expenditure on infrastructure or facing the lack of recruitment of specialized technical support that is difficult to find –especially for smaller cities–. We present our experience at a 250 bed secondary hospital, with a relatively small cardiac unit (3 consultants, 5 hospitalists, 10 cardiac ECG/Echo techs and no cath lab of introduction of this service with the help of nursing education department and vendors supplying these devices as well as OR and radiology departments. Training of radiology technicians and OR nursing staff on the basic procedural support with few in-service demonstration helped prepare adequate staff helping during implant

  18. Radiological accidents, scenarios, planning and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis Delgado, Alexander.

    2008-01-01

    Radiological accidents, scenarios and the importance of a good planning to prevent and control these types of accidents are presented. The radiation can be only one of the risks in an accident, most of dominant radiological risks are not radiological (fire, toxic gases, etc.). The common causes of radiological accidents, potential risks such as external irradiation, internal contamination and the environment pollution are highlighted. In addition, why accidents happen and how they evolve is explained. It describes some incidents with the radiation occurred in Costa Rica from 1993 to 2007. The coordination of emergency management in Costa Rica in relation to a radiological accident, and some mechanisms of action that have practiced in other places are focuses. Among the final considerations are the need to finalize the national plan for radiological emergencies as a tool of empowerment for the teams of emergency care and the availability of information. Likewise the processes of communication, coordination and cooperation to avoid chaos, confusion and crisis are also highlighted [es

  19. Diagnostic and therapeutic peroral cholangioscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ho Moon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroral cholangioscopy (POC provides direct visualization of the bile duct and facilitates diagnostic or therapeutic intervention. The currently available single-operator POC systems are "Mother-baby" scope system, SpyGlass direct visualization system, and direct POC using a regular ultra-slim upper endoscope. Direct POC using an ultra-slim upper endoscope having a larger 2-mm working channel can provide a valuable and economic solution for evaluating bile-duct lesions. Main diagnostic procedures under direct POC are visual characterization and optically guided target biopsy for the indeterminate bile duct lesion. Image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow-band imaging has shown promise for more detailed evaluation of mucosal abnormality and can be performed under direct POC. Intracorporeal lithotripsy such as electrohydraulic lithotripsy or laser lithotripsy is a main therapeutic intervention of direct POC for patients with bile duct stones that are resistant to conventional endoscopic stone-removal procedures. Besides, tumor ablation therapy, such as photodynamic therapy and argon plasma coagulation may be also performed using direct POC. Further developments of the endoscope and specialized accessories or devices are expected to facilitate diagnostic and therapeutic role of this cholangioscopic procedure.

  20. Quality assurance in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The present guide endeavours to provide an outline of the type of quality assurance programme to be recommended for (1) routine implementation by those performing radiodiagnostic procedures (medical radiology technicians, medical physicists, and radiologists), (2) for application by the responsible national authorities, and (3) for use by international bodies such as the International Society of Radiology (ISR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)

  1. Radiological diagnosis of stomach cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlacher, B

    1981-05-01

    The problems of routine radiology and the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign gastric ulcers are gone into. The value of endoscopy combined with radiology is stressed. The patient, the physician, and the X-ray equipment have to meet certain requirements in order to obtain good images and make a correct interpretation. The most important aspect of radiology today is radiation protection, which is possible only with efficient equipment and experienced medical examiners.

  2. Radiological assistance program: Region I. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolino, S.V.; Kuehner, A.V.; Hull, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) is to make DOE resources available and provide emergency assistance to state and local agencies in order to control radiological hazards, protect the public health and safety, and minimize the loss of property. This plan is an integral part of a nationwide program of radiological assistance established by the US DOE, and is implemented on a regional basis. The Brookhaven Area Office (BHO) Radiological Assistance Program is applicable to DOE Region I, which consists of the New England States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and the District of Columbia. The BHO RAP-1 has been developed to: (a) ensure the availability of an effective radiological assistance capability to ensure the protection of persons and property; (b) provide guidelines to RAP-1 Team personnel for the evaluation of radiological incidents and implementation of corrective actions; (c) maintain liaison with other DOE installations, Federal, State and local organizations which may become involved in radiological assistance operations in Region I; and (d) encourage development of a local capability to cope with radiological incidents

  3. Computer program for storage of historical and routine safety data related to radiologically controlled facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, D.A.; Hall, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method for tracking and quick retrieval of radiological status of radiation and industrial safety systems in an active or inactive facility has been developed. The system uses a mini computer, a graphics plotter, and mass storage devices. Software has been developed which allows input and storage of architectural details, radiological conditions such as exposure rates, current location of safety systems, and routine and historical information on exposure and contamination levels. A blue print size digitizer is used for input. The computer program retains facility floor plans in three dimensional arrays. The software accesses an eight pen color plotter for output. The plotter generates color plots of the floor plans and safety systems on 8 1/2 x 11 or 20 x 30 paper or on overhead transparencies for reports and presentations

  4. Guidelines for radiological interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    The German Radiological Society, in cooperation with other German professional bodies, set up draft Guidelines for Radiological Interventions and submitted them to the professional community for discussion. The Guidelines are meant to assess the potential of radiological interventions as treatment alternatives to surgery or aggressive therapy such as chemotherapy. In fact, technical practicability on its own is insufficient to warrant intervention. The Guidelines are systematically compiled notions and recommendations whose aim it is to provide support to physicians and patients in choosing suitable medical care provisions (prevention, diagnosis, therapy, aftertreatment) in specific circumstances. A complete Czech translation of the Guidelines is given. (P.A.)

  5. Digital imaging in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J.D. Jr.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    This monograph on digital imaging provides a basic overview of this field at the present time. This paper covers clinical application, including subtraction angiography; chest radiology; genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and breast radiology; and teleradiology. The chest section also includes an explanation of multiple beam equalization radiography. The remaining chapters discuss some of the technical aspects of digital radiology. It includes the basic technology of digital radiography, image compression, and reconstruction information on the economics of digital radiography

  6. Radiological Work Planning and Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KURTZ, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Each facility is tasked with maintaining personnel radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). A continued effort is required to meet this goal by developing and implementing improvements to technical work documents (TWDs) and work performance. A review of selected TWDs from most facilities shows there is a need to incorporate more radiological control requirements into the TWD. The Radioactive Work Permit (RWP) provides a mechanism to place some of the requirements but does not provide all the information needed by the worker as he/she is accomplishing the steps of the TWD. Requiring the engineers, planners and procedure writers to put the radiological control requirements in the work steps would be very easy if all personnel had a strong background in radiological work planning and radiological controls. Unfortunately, many of these personnel do not have the background necessary to include these requirements without assistance by the Radiological Control organization at each facility. In addition, there seems to be confusion as to what should be and what should not be included in the TWD

  7. Radiation protection in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendel, H.; Stieve, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Because of the high growth rate of cell systems in phases of radiation exposure radiological investigations on children should not be considered unless there is a strong indication. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has worked out recommendations on radiation protection which have been published as an NCRP report. This report is most important even outside the USA. The present translation is aimed to contribute to better understanding of the bases and aims of radiation protection during radiological investigations on children. It addresses not only those physicians who carry out radiological investigations on children themselves but also all physicians requiring such investigations. For these physicians, but also for parents who are worried about the radiation risk to their children the report should be a useful source of information and decision aid ensuring, on the one hand, that necessary radiological investigations are not shunned for unjustified fear of radiation and that, on the other hand, all unnecessary exposure of children to radiation is avoided. Thus, it is to be hoped, the quality of pediatric radiological diagnostics will be improved. (orig./MG) [de

  8. History of metaphoric signs in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Stephen R., E-mail: bakersr@umdnj.edu; Noorelahi, Yasser M., E-mail: dr.ynoorelahi@gmail.com; Ghosh, Shanchita, E-mail: Ghoshs1@umdnj.edu; Yang, Lily C., E-mail: yangclily@gmail.com; Kasper, David J., E-mail: dkasp86@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To survey the nearly 100 year history of metaphoric sign naming in radiology describing the pace of their overall accumulation in the radiology canon, their specific rates of growth by modality and subspecialty and the characteristics of the referents to which the signs are attached. Materials and methods: A comprehensive list of metaphoric signs was compiled from a search of articles in several major English language radiology journals, from a roster compiled in a monograph on the subject published in 1984 and from a search of several databases to find signs published in the first half of the 20th century. Results: The growth of radiological metaphorical signs naming was slow for several decades after the first one was published in 1918. It then increased rapidly until the 1980s encompassing all modalities and subspecialties. Recently the practice has shown a marked and steady decline. Conclusion: Metaphoric sign naming was a frequently reported contribution to the radiological literature in the second half of the 20th century corresponding with Radiology's growth as a descriptive discipline. Its decline since then may be a consequence of Radiology's evolution into a more analytic, data-driven field of inquiry.

  9. History of metaphoric signs in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Stephen R.; Noorelahi, Yasser M.; Ghosh, Shanchita; Yang, Lily C.; Kasper, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To survey the nearly 100 year history of metaphoric sign naming in radiology describing the pace of their overall accumulation in the radiology canon, their specific rates of growth by modality and subspecialty and the characteristics of the referents to which the signs are attached. Materials and methods: A comprehensive list of metaphoric signs was compiled from a search of articles in several major English language radiology journals, from a roster compiled in a monograph on the subject published in 1984 and from a search of several databases to find signs published in the first half of the 20th century. Results: The growth of radiological metaphorical signs naming was slow for several decades after the first one was published in 1918. It then increased rapidly until the 1980s encompassing all modalities and subspecialties. Recently the practice has shown a marked and steady decline. Conclusion: Metaphoric sign naming was a frequently reported contribution to the radiological literature in the second half of the 20th century corresponding with Radiology's growth as a descriptive discipline. Its decline since then may be a consequence of Radiology's evolution into a more analytic, data-driven field of inquiry

  10. TU-AB-204-00: CDRH/FDA Regulatory Processes and Device Science Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The responsibilities of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have increased since the inception of the Food and Drugs Act in 1906. Medical devices first came under comprehensive regulation with the passage of the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In 1971 FDA also took on the responsibility for consumer protection against unnecessary exposure to radiation-emitting devices for home and occupational use. However it was not until 1976, under the Medical Device Regulation Act, that the FDA was responsible for the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. This session will be presented by the Division of Radiological Health (DRH) and the Division of Imaging, Diagnostics, and Software Reliability (DIDSR) from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) at the FDA. The symposium will discuss on how we protect and promote public health with a focus on medical physics applications organized into four areas: pre-market device review, post-market surveillance, device compliance, current regulatory research efforts and partnerships with other organizations. The pre-market session will summarize the pathways FDA uses to regulate the investigational use and commercialization of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy medical devices in the US, highlighting resources available to assist investigators and manufacturers. The post-market session will explain the post-market surveillance and compliance activities FDA performs to monitor the safety and effectiveness of devices on the market. The third session will describe research efforts that support the regulatory mission of the Agency. An overview of our regulatory research portfolio to advance our understanding of medical physics and imaging technologies and approaches to their evaluation will be discussed. Lastly, mechanisms that FDA uses to seek public input and promote collaborations with professional, government, and international organizations, such as AAPM, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC

  11. TU-AB-204-00: CDRH/FDA Regulatory Processes and Device Science Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    The responsibilities of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have increased since the inception of the Food and Drugs Act in 1906. Medical devices first came under comprehensive regulation with the passage of the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In 1971 FDA also took on the responsibility for consumer protection against unnecessary exposure to radiation-emitting devices for home and occupational use. However it was not until 1976, under the Medical Device Regulation Act, that the FDA was responsible for the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. This session will be presented by the Division of Radiological Health (DRH) and the Division of Imaging, Diagnostics, and Software Reliability (DIDSR) from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) at the FDA. The symposium will discuss on how we protect and promote public health with a focus on medical physics applications organized into four areas: pre-market device review, post-market surveillance, device compliance, current regulatory research efforts and partnerships with other organizations. The pre-market session will summarize the pathways FDA uses to regulate the investigational use and commercialization of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy medical devices in the US, highlighting resources available to assist investigators and manufacturers. The post-market session will explain the post-market surveillance and compliance activities FDA performs to monitor the safety and effectiveness of devices on the market. The third session will describe research efforts that support the regulatory mission of the Agency. An overview of our regulatory research portfolio to advance our understanding of medical physics and imaging technologies and approaches to their evaluation will be discussed. Lastly, mechanisms that FDA uses to seek public input and promote collaborations with professional, government, and international organizations, such as AAPM, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC

  12. Preparing Federal Coordinating Officers (FCOs) to Operate in Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Coordination Center RDD--Radiological Dispersal Device TOP OFF--Top Officials Exercise TQP--Tiered Qualifications Plan UC--Unified Command UCG ...National Press Club, Release No. FNF-06- 019, November 30, 2006. 101 W. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne, Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market ...Ask Open Ended Questions,” Evan Carmichael, http://www.evancarmichael.com/ marketing /80/ask-open-ended-questions.html (accessed on September 21, 2008

  13. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.