Sample records for radiologie gastrointestinales system

  1. Radiology trainer. Muskuloskeletal system. 2. ed.; Radiologie-Trainer. Bewegungsapparat

    Staebler, Axel [Orthopaedische Klinik Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Radiologische Praxis; Erlt-Wagner, Birgit (eds.) [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie


    The radiology training textbook is based on case studies of the clinical experience, including radiological imaging and differential diagnostic discussion. The scope of this volume is the musculoskeletal system; the following issues are covered: shoulder, upper arms: elbows, lower arms; wrist; spinal cord; pelvis; knee; feet.

  2. Radiology of the primary systemic vasculitides; Radiologie der primaeren systemischen Vaskulitiden

    Reuter, M.; Biederer, J.; Both, M.; Heller, M.L. [Universitaetsklinikum Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Schnabel, A. [Universitaetsklinik Luebeck (Germany). Poliklinik fuer Rheumatologie; Medizinische Krankenhausabteilung Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt GmbH (Germany); Sana Rheumazentrum Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany). Klinik fuer Internistische Rheumatologie und Klinische Immunologie; Reinhold-Keller, E.; Gross,W. [Universitaetsklinik Luebeck (Germany). Poliklinik fuer Rheumatologie; Medizinische Krankenhausabteilung Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt GmbH (Germany)


    Determination of disease extension and disease activity are in the foreground of diagnostic imaging in vasculitides. There are several radiologic modalities available each having specific indications. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) readily depicts granulomas and mucosal inflammations in the paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and orbits. Computed tomography detects osseous lesions of the skull. Due to its superb sensitivity MRI is an established screening modality for CNS vasculitides, although there are limitations with regard to specificity. In spite of its limited accuracy in most institutions angiography is still required for radiological confirmation of CNS vasculitis. Perfusion and diffusion MR-imaging may combine the advantages of ''conventional'' MRI and angiography. By now the method is not fully validated for vasculitides, however. Vascular disease in Takayasu's arteritis and in giant cell arteritis involving predominantly large and medium sized vessels is readily diagnosed by non invasive magnetic resonance angiography. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has proven to be an effective and save therapeutic modality for the cure of vascular stenoses and occlusions. Plain film radiography in two planes is the established modality for pulmonary imaging. In pulmonary vasculitides a more thorough analysis of lung disease is provided by high resolution computed tomography. Diagnostic imaging does substantially assist in the interdisciplinary management of patients suffering from vasculitides. (orig.) [German] Die Bestimmung der Krankheitsausdehnung und die Festlegung der Krankheitsaktivitaet stehen im Vordergrund der bildgebenden Diagnostik von Vaskulitiden. Fuer die eigentliche Diagnosefindung ist die Radiologie von untergeordneter Bedeutung. Die verschiedenen radiologischen Methoden weisen jeweils spezifische Indikationen auf. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) hat sich als hilfreich fuer die Diagnostik von Granulomen und

  3. Handbook of the diagnostic radiology. The cardiovascular system; Handbuch der diagnostishen Radiologie. Kardiovaskulaeres System

    Hahn, D. (ed.) [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik


    Cardiovascular system diseases are the most common causes for death besides the progress in medical sciences. The book contains the following contributions within two main chapters: The heart, normal anatomy and important variants, cardiac diseases, thoracic aorta and pulmonal vascular system, abdominal vascular system, peripheric vascular system, veins, supraaortal vascular system, thoracic and abdominal aorta, abdomial vascular system, kidney arteries, mesenterial vascular system, abdominopelvic vascular system, peripheric arteries, hemodialysis shunt, transjugular portosystemic shunt.

  4. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) - implications for radiology; Nephrogene systemische Fibrose (NSF) - Implikationen fuer die Radiologie

    Michaely, H.J.; Schoenberg, S.O. [Klinikum Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Mannheim (Germany); Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Thomsen, H.S. [Copenhagen University, Hospital at Herlev, Kopenhagen (Denmark); Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)


    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a systemic disease with a 5% mortality which was first described in 1997 and which only occurs in patients with severely impaired renal function (GFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m{sup 2}) and for which an association with previous administration of several Gd-chelates has been observed. According to retrospective case control studies the odds ratio for a patient with severely impaired renal function to develop NSF was increased by a factor of 22-32 when gadodiamide was administered. At this time there are approximately 250 confirmed cases of NSF of which 177 are associated with the administration of gadodiamide and 78 are associated with gadopentetate dimeglumine. This review article elucidates the postulated pathogenesis of NSF and provides an overview of the published statements and recommendations from international regulatory authorities and from international advisory boards. Even though the pathogenesis is not completely understood at this time, the European Pharmacovigilance Working Party has decided that gadodiamide and gadopentetate dimeglumine must not be used in high-risk patients. Other Gd-containing contrast agents should only be administered after thorough assessment of the indication and with minimized Gd dose. In the USA, the FDA has issued a black box warning for Gd-containing contrast agents. (orig.) [German] Die nephrogene systemische Fibrose (NSF) ist eine 1997 erstmals beschriebene systemische Erkrankung mit einer 5%igen Mortalitaet, die bislang ausschliesslich bei Patienten mit terminaler Niereninsuffizienz (glomerulaere Filtrationsrate [GFR] <30 ml/min/1,73 m{sup 2}) aufgetreten ist und fuer die eine Assoziation mit der vorherigen Verabreichung verschiedener Gadolinium- (Gd-)haltiger MR-Kontrastmittel beobachtet wurde. Laut retrospektiver Fall-Kontroll-Studien war die Odds Ratio fuer die Entwicklung einer NSF bei Patienten mit stark eingeschraenkter Nierenfunktion 22- bis 32-fach hoeher, wenn Gadodiamid

  5. Manifestaciones gastrointestinales en trastornos del espectro autista.

    Lenny G. González


    Existe una serie de desordenes gastrointestinales no reconocidos, que pueden contribuir a los problemas de bienestar de los niños autistas no verbales. Se presentan algunos que permiten determinar la posible asociación entre el cerebro y las disfunciones gastrointestinales en niños con desórdenes autistas.

  6. Manifestaciones gastrointestinales en trastornos del espectro autista.

    Lenny G. González


    Full Text Available Existe una serie de desordenes gastrointestinales no reconocidos, que pueden contribuir a los problemas de bienestar de los niños autistas no verbales. Se presentan algunos que permiten determinar la posible asociación entre el cerebro y las disfunciones gastrointestinales en niños con desórdenes autistas.

  7. E-learning in radiology - the practical use of the content management system ILIAS; E-Learning in der Radiologie - praktischer Einsatz des Content-Management-Systems Ilias

    Schuetze, B. [Abt. fuer Herz- und Thoraxchirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Mildenberger, P.; Kaemmerer, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany)


    Purpose: Due to the possibility of using different kinds of visualization, e-learning has the advantage of allowing individualized learning. A check should be performed to determine whether the use of the web-based content management system ILIAS simplifies the writing and production of electronic learning modules in radiology. Materials and methods: Internet-based e-learning provides access to existing learning modules regardless of time and location, since fast Internet connections are readily available. Results: Web Content Management Systems (WCMS) are suitable platforms for imparting radiology-related information (visual abilities like the recognition of patterns as well as interdisciplinary specialized knowledge). The open source product ILIAS is a free WCMS. It is used by many universities and is accepted by both students and lecturers. Its modular and object-oriented software architecture makes it easy to adapt and enlarge the platform. The employment of e-learning standards such as LOM and SCORM within ILIAS makes it possible to reuse contents, even if the platform has to be changed. Conclusion: ILIAS renders it possible to provide students with texts, images, or files of any other kind within a learning context which is defined by the lecturer. Students can check their acquired knowledge via online testing and receive direct performance feedback. The significant interest that students have shown in ILIAS proves that e-learning can be a useful addition to conventional learning methods. (orig.)

  8. Inmunidad contra los nematodos gastrointestinales: la historia caprina

    Armando Jacinto Aguilar-Caballero; J. F. J. Torres-Acosta; R. Cámara Sarmiento; Hoste, H.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.


    El objetivo de este trabajo es describir el estado del arte de la inmunidad de los caprinos contra los nematodos gastrointestinales. Las bases teóricas de la inmunidad se apoyan en la literatura disponible en rumiantes particularmente en las ovejas. Se presentan los hallazgos sobre la inmunidad innata y adquirida en los caprinos, los mecanismos efectores y los factores que influyen sobre el establecimiento de la respuesta inmune (humoral y celular) publicados en la literatura.

  9. Process management and controlling in diagnostic radiology; Prozessmanagement und Controlling in der Diagnostischen Radiologie im Krankenhaus

    Gocke, P.; Debatin, J.F. [Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Duerselen, L.F.J. [DxD Consulting, Dogern (Germany)


    Systematic process management and efficient quality control is rapidly gaining importance in our healthcare system. What does this mean for diagnostic radiology departments?To improve efficiency, quality and productivity the workflow within the department of diagnostic and interventional radiology at the University Hospital of Essen were restructured over the last two years. Furthermore, a controlling system was established. One of the pursued aims was to create a quality management system as a basis for the subsequent certification according to the ISO EN 9001:2000 norm.Central to the success of the workflow reorganisation was the training of selected members of the department's staff in process and quality management theory. Thereafter, a dedicated working group was created to prepare the reorganisation and the subsequent ISO certification with the support of a consulting partner. To assure a smooth implementation of the restructured workflow and create acceptance for the required ISO-9001 documentation, the entire staff was familiarized with the basic ideas of process- and quality-management in several training sessions.This manuscript summarizes the basic concepts of process and quality management as they were taught to our staff. A direct relationship towards diagnostic radiology is maintained throughout the text. (orig.) [German] Systematisches Prozessmanagement und effizientes Qualitaetsmanagement erlangen im Gesundheitswesen zunehmend an Bedeutung. Was bedeutet dies fuer die diagnostische Radiologie im Krankenhaus?Zur Steigerung von Effizienz, Qualitaet und Produktivitaet wurden im Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie des Universitaetsklinikums Essen in den vergangenen beiden Jahren nahezu saemtliche Arbeitsablaeufe reorganisiert. Darueber hinaus wurde ein Controllingsystem etabliert. Eines der damit verbundenen Ziele war es, ein Qualitaetsmanagementsystem zu erstellen, welches Grundlage fuer die angestrebte ISO-EN-9001

  10. de larvas de parásitos gastrointestinales de ovinos

    V\\u00EDctor \\u00C1lvarez C.


    Full Text Available Los parásitos gastrointestinales juegan un papel importante en los sistemas de producción animal, particularmente en los ovinos. El desarrollo de resistencia a los productos químicos ha creado un enorme problema para la producción. En busca de nuevas alternativas para el control integrado de parásitos, se utilizó aserrín de: pochote (Bombacopsis quinata, melina (Gmelina arborea, ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica y teca (Tectona grandis en coprocultivos de larvas de parásitos gastrointestinales de ovinos. Se recolectó muestras fecales directamente del recto de los animales en una finca en San José, Costa Rica y se determinó la carga parasitaria. Posteriormente se realizó los coprocultivos, utilizando como control aserrín de laurel (Cordia alliodora. El análisis de la eficacia de cada uno de los aserrines demostró que redujeron el crecimiento de las larvas entre un 65,4 y un 98,0% con relación al control.

  11. Interdisciplinary shock-room care: tasks for the radiologist from the viewpoint of the trauma surgeon; Interdisziplinaere Schockraumversorgung: Die Aufgaben der Radiologie aus unfallchirurgischer Sicht

    Mutschler, W.; Kanz, K.G. [Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Innenstadt der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)


    Efficient resuscitation of major trauma requests an interdisciplinary communication between trauma surgeons, anaesthesiologists and radiologists. Trauma outcome is significantly influenced by horizontal trauma team organisation and coherence to clinical algorithms, which allow fast diagnosis and intervention. A radiologist present on patients arrival in the trauma room provides a major impact on trauma care. Nevertheless optimal integration in the trauma team implies profound knowledge of the priorities of advanced trauma life support and trauma algorithms. His or her involvement is not limited to patient care only, also active participation in trauma room design, interdisciplinary algorithm development and trauma research are essential tasks for radiologists devoted to emergency radiology. Based on the pathophysiology of polytrauma and the structure of German trauma system, current concepts and proven clinical algorithms with special regard to the radiologist and his duties and tasks will are presented. (orig.) [German] Modernes Schockraummanagement mit dem Auftrag der zeitoptimierten Vernetzung diagnostischer und therapeutischer Handlungsablaeufe erfordert eine direkte Einbindung der Radiologie in das Schockraumteam im Sinne einer horizontalen Kommunikation zwischen Unfallchirurgie, Radiologie und Anaesthesie. Direkte Einbindung bedeutet dabei Einflussnahme auf Struktur- und Prozessqualitaet, Qualitaetsmanagement und interdisziplinaere Weiterentwicklung von Schockraumalgorithmen. Ausgehend von der Pathophysiologie des Polytraumas und der an Zeitgewinn orientierten Versorgungskette werden aktuelle diagnostische und therapeutische Algorithmen dargestellt und daraus die Aufgaben und Bedeutung der Radiologie im Schockraum abgeleitet. (orig.)

  12. Métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein: à propos de 2 cas

    Loubna, Mezouar; Mohamed, El Hfid; Tijani, El Harroudi; Fouzia, Ghadouani; Hanane, Haj Kacem; Zouhour, Bourhaleb; Asmae, Ouabdelmoumen


    Le cancer du sein est le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, notamment au Maroc, avec un taux de mortalité élevé. Les métastases gastro-intestinales d'un carcinome canalaire du sein sont rares. Leur diagnostic est difficile du fait de la nature non spécifique des symptômes. Nous rapportons deux observations originales de métastases gastroduodénales d'un cancer canalaire infiltrant du sein. Les métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein sont très rares; la présence de symptômes gastro-intestinaux chez une malade ayant un antécédent de cancer du sein doit faire suspecter une atteinte métastatique gastro-intestinale. PMID:24198876

  13. Differential diagnosis in pediatric radiology. Vol. 1. Skull, spine, skeleton; Differentialdiagnostik in der paediatrischen Radiologie. Bd. 1. Schaedel, Wirbelsaeule, Skelett

    Ebel, K.D. [ed.; Willich, E. [ed.; Richter, E. [ed.; Benz-Bohm, G.; Bliesener-Harzheim, J.A.; Ebel, K.D.; Oestreich, A.E.; Reinwein, H.; Schaper, J.; Schumacher, R.; Stoever, B.


    The book presents in-depth material covering the full scope of tasks and problems of differential diagnostic radiology in children. The particular approach chosen by the authors provides information that will solve even the most difficult cases, guiding the reader on his way from radiographic findings to appropriate diagnosis. All radiographic findings have been characterized and classified and put into a tabulated system relating them to the relevant differential diagnosis. The system of reference adopted specifies a given lesion or disease by reference to the most significant diagnostic keywords obtained from anamnesis, clinical data, and further diagnostic evaluation. The tentative diagnosis is taken as the basis for further specification illustrated by the characteristic X-ray pictures and full-text descriptions. Almost all diagnoses are accompanied by a comprehensive image documentation obtained by all currently available imaging methods. (MG) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Buch gibt einen kompletten Ueberblick ueeber die gesamte Bandbreite der Differentialdiagnostik in der Paediatrischen Radiologie und soll so auch in schwierigen Faeellen den Weg vom Roentgensymptom zur Diagnose ermoeglichen. Alle relevanten Roentgensymptome werden systematisch charakterisiert und die entsprechenden Differentialdiagnosen tabellarisch zusammengestellt. Jede Erkrankung wird durch Verweise auf die wichtigsten differentialdiagnostischen Stichworte aus Anamnese, Klinik und weiterfuehrende Diagnostik naeher eingegrenzt. Ausgehend von der Verdachtsdiagnose werden wegweisende Roentgenbefunde in Wort und Bild dargestellt. Fast alle erwaehnten Befunde werden durch Abbildungen unter Beruecksichtigung aller moderner bildgebenden Verfahren dokumentiert. (MG)

  14. Evaluación psicofisiológica de los trastornos gastrointestinales

    M. A. Simón


    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo fundamental presentar las técnicas psicofisiológicas de evaluación de 10s trastomos gastrointestinales más relevantes de cara a la práctica clínica en el ámbito de la psicología de la salud. Para ello, en un primer momento, se efectúan una serie de planteamientos iniciales acerca de los tipos de mecanismos conductuales que se supone pueden estar implicados en las mencionadas alteraciones, destacando más tarde las características gene...

  15. Cone beam CT in radiology; DVT in der Radiologie

    Dammann, Florian [ALB FILS KLINIKEN GmbH, Klinik am Eichert, Goeppingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie


    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a cross-sectional X-ray modality using an imaging system with cone-beam geometry. Unlike CT, the data set is acquired in a single circulation of a C-arm shaped tube-detector unit. Image characteristics vs. exposure dose ratio is similar to conventional CT, but varies widely depending on the CBVT device and the selected settings, and is limited to low dose/high noise applications. Up to now, only few data is available to estimate the clinical value of CBCT. Nevertheless, the use of CBCT is increasing drastically in the recent years, especially in the dental and ENT diagnostic field. For this reason the European Commission recently published guidelines concerning the clinical application of CBCT. These guidelines, as well as clinically relevant technical features of CBCT and examples of the most frequent dental applications are presented in the following article. (orig.)

  16. Incidental findings in musculoskeletal radiology; Zufallsbefunde in der muskuloskeletalen Radiologie

    Wuennemann, F.; Rehnitz, C.; Weber, M.A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Increasing numbers of conventional X-rays, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the inpatient, outpatient and scientific routine leads to an increasing number of incidental findings. The correct interpretation of these incidental findings with respect to the relevance and the evaluation concerning further work-up is an important task of radiologists. Description of common incidental findings in musculoskeletal imaging and their clinical classification. A PubMed literature search was performed using the following terms: incidental findings, population-based imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, non-ossifying fibroma, enchondroma, osteodystrophia deformans, chondrosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, simple bone cyst, unicameral bone cyst, solitary bone cyst, aneurysmal bone cyst, vertebral hemangioma, bone island, osteopoikilosis, Tarlov cyst and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Incidental findings are observed in up to 40% of imaging procedures. In up to 6% these incidental findings involve the skeletal system. Common incidental findings are discussed and their clinical relevance is explained. (orig.) [German] Mit steigender Menge an konventionellen Roentgen- sowie CT- und MRT-Bildern im stationaeren, ambulanten und wissenschaftlichen Alltag steigt unweigerlich auch die Zahl der Zufallsbefunde. Die korrekte Einordnung bzgl. deren Relevanz, ob eine weitere Abklaerung notwendig ist oder nicht, stellt eine wichtige Aufgabe des Radiologen dar. Vorstellung haeufiger Zufallsbefunde des muskuloskeletalen Systems und deren klinische Einordnung. Pubmed-Literaturrecherche zu den Stichworten ''incidental findings'', ''population-based imaging'', ''musculoskeletal imaging'', ''non-ossifying fibroma'', ''enchondroma'', ''osteodysthrophia deformans'', ''chondrosarcoma'', ''fibrous dysplasia'', &apos

  17. Prevalencia de Toxocara canis y otros parásitos gastrointestinales en caninos ambulantes de Sogamoso

    Erika Sarmiento-Medina; Roy José Andrade-Becerra; Julio Cesar Giraldo


    Durante los últimos años ha crecido la población de  caninos,  especialmente  los  ambulantes,  los cuales  son portadores de una  gran  variedad de parásitos gastrointestinales zoonóticos, destacándose la presencia de helmintos como la Toxocara canis. Este parásito, cuando  infesta al hombre, puede producir una afección por localización errática denominada “larva migrans”, por ser huésped  inespecífico. Esta enfermedad es particularmente importante en niños, ancianos y en personas  inmuno-de...

  18. Esclerosis lateral amiotrofica; complicaciones gastrointestinales en nutrición enteral domiciliaria

    R. Ramírez Puerta


    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar las complicaciones relacionadas con el soporte nutricional enteral en los pacientes con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica que forman parte de nuestro programa de ventilación mecánica domiciliaria, haciendo especial hincapié en las gastrointestinales. Método: Estudio retrospectivo de tipo descriptivo de enfermos que se incluyeron en nuestro Programa de Ventilación Mecánica Domiciliaria (PVMD dirigido por médicos intensivistas, mediante la revisión sistemática de historias clínicas (procedentes de una base de datos de Microsoft Access, durante los años 2004-2011. Resultados: Entre los años 2004-2011 se siguieron 73 pacientes con diagnostico de Esclerosis lateral amiotrófica: 34 de ellos (46,6% rechazaron el aporte nutricional a través de gastrostomía o de sonda nasogástrica, mientras que 39 (53,4% aceptaron su colocación. De los 39 pacientes en los que se inició la NED: 20 eran mujeres mujeres (51,3%. La edad media de los pacienes fue de 60,6 + 13,4 años (IC 95% 56,464,8. Los diagnósticos al ingreso en el PVMD fueron: ELA, 21 casos (53,8%, y ELA con afectación bulbar, 18 (43,1%. Se alimentaron a través de GEP 34 pacientes (87,2%, con gastrostomía quirúrgica 3 (7,7% y mediante sonda nasogástrica 3 (7,7%. La gastrostomía percutánea endoscópica se realizó tras la inclusión de los pacientes en el programa, con una media días de 222,7 + 356,6 (IC 95% 110,8-334,7. En pacientes con ELA la media fue de 271,4 + 449,5 días (IC 95% 130,3-412,1, con ELA y afectación bulbar de 126,4 + 131,3 días (IC 95% 90-172,6. El recambio de sonda fue de 7,3 + 4,8 meses (IC 95% 4-10,6. La nutrición enteral tuvo una duración media de 578,6 + 872,9 días (IC 95% 304,7-852,6. Se hallaron complicaciones en 35 pacientes (89,7%, y solamente en 4, no se encontró ninguna (10,3%. Ver tabla II. El estreñimiento se manifestó, después del inicio de la NE, en 30 pacientes (76,9%; sin embargo, ya existía previamente en 18 de

  19. Dose management in radiology. Review of the technological status; Dosismanagement in der Radiologie. Ein Ueberblick zum Stand der Technik

    Verius, M. [LKH Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)


    vollstaendige Erfassung der applizierten Dosen aller Modalitaeten und Optimierung der radiologischen Untersuchungen, was eine Senkung der applizierten Dosis zur Folge haben soll. Erreicht werden kann dies durch automatisierte Systeme, welche nicht nur die Erfassung der Dosisparameter uebernehmen, sondern auch die Bewertung und Analyse dieser Daten. Mit Warnlevels versehen, sollte ein solches System den Anwender (und weitere Personen) ueber moegliche bereits erfolgte und im besten Fall auch ueber zukuenftige Ueberschreitungen informieren und warnen koennen. Abhaengig von der bereitgestellten Information der Modalitaet koennen Dosismanagementsysteme auf verschieden tiefen Ebenen im Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiologie-/Krankenhausinformationssystem (RIS/KIS) oder auf die Headerinformation der Digital-Imaging-and-Communications-in-Medicine(DICOM)-Bilddaten zugreifen und auswerten. Ein praxistauglicher Einsatz solcher Systeme ist nur in enger Zusammenarbeit von medizinischem Personal, Medizinphysikern und IT-Administratoren moeglich. Es sind verschiedene Systeme kommerziell oder frei erhaeltlich, jedoch abhaengig von den Anforderungen der radiologischen Praxis bzw. Klinik ist eine individuelle Adaptierung sinnvoll und noetig. (orig.)

  20. Aspects of surgical treatment for gastro-intestinal stromal tumors; Chirurgische Therapieaspekte gastrointestinaler Stromatumoren

    Hohenberger, P. [Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim, Universitaet Heidelberg, Sektion Chirurgische Onkologie und Thoraxchirurgie, Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Mannheim (Germany)


    Gastro-intestinal stromal tumors (GIST) form the commonest subgroup of soft tissue sarcomas. They arise in the muscular layer of the esophagus, stomach, small intestines and rectum. Characteristic and important for the assessment of the extent of tumors is the peripheral rim vascularization of primary tumors and metastases. Indications for resection are given for tumors larger than 2 cm in size. Locally advanced GISTs can be advantageously treated with imatinib/sunitinib as neoadjuvant and it is often possible to select a low level of resection for this size of tumor and when the rim area is not hypervascularized. Even in the metastizing stage surgical treatment can be used for elimination of resistant metastases or for removal of residual tumor tissue in an attempt to counteract secondary tumor progression. The effect of this treatment is currently being tested in a randomized phase III study. (orig.) [German] Gastrointestinale Stromatumoren (GIST) stellen die haeufigste Subgruppe von Weichgewebesarkomen dar. Sie entstehen in der Muskularisschicht von Oesophagus, Magen, Duenndarm und Rektum. Charakteristisch und wichtig fuer die Einschaetzung des Tumorausmasses ist die Randvaskularisation von Primaertumoren und Metastasen. Die Indikation zur Resektion gilt fuer Tumoren ab 2 cm Groesse. Lokal fortgeschrittene GIST koennen sehr vorteilhaft mit Imatinib/Sunitinib neoadjuvant vorbehandelt werden, und es ist oft moeglich, bei der Tumorgroesse und wenn keine hypervaskularisierten Randbereiche vorliegen, ein geringeres Resektionsausmass zu waehlen. Auch im metastasierten Stadium hat die chirurgische Therapie einen Platz zur Eliminierung resistenter Metastasen bzw. zur Entfernung von Residualtumorgewebe als Versuch, einer sekundaeren Tumorprogression zu begegnen. Dieser Behandlungseffekt wird derzeit in einer randomisierten Phase-III-Studie ueberprueft. (orig.)

  1. Cargas y especies prevalentes de nematodos gastrointestinales en ovinos de pelo destinados al abasto

    Omar Andrés López Ruvalcaba


    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia y conteo de nematodos gastrointestinales (ngi de ovinos de pelo destinados al abasto. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un rastro en Villahermosa, Tabasco, donde se analizó el contenido gastrointestinal de 122 ovinos provenientes de diferentes municipios del estado de Tabasco (Centro, Emiliano Zapata, Centla, Huimanguillo y Teapa y Chiapas (Reforma. Se utilizó el procedimiento GLM del SAS para anal izar la influencia de la edad, sexo, estado fisiológico y mes de muestreo en los conteos de nematodos adultos totales y por especie. Las especies de nematodos encontrados fueron Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis y Cooperia curticei, además el cestodo Moniezia expansa. El 41 % (50/122 de los animales presentaron alguno de los anteriores parásitos. El mayor porcentaje de ovinos parasitados se encontró en los municipios de Huimanguillo (54 %, 22/41 y Centr o (40 %, 19/47. De los ovinos machos sacrificados (64/122, los de desecho (8/64 tuvieron el mayor número de ngi (2 190 ± 3263 y de las hembras (58/122, las vacías (40/58 presentaron la mayor cantidad de ngi (486 ± 1120. En los o vinos de 31 a 36 meses de edad, las cargas parasitarias (49 ± 143 fueron menores que en los animales de todas las de más edades. Se concluye que en la población de estudio la edad, sexo y estado fisiológico afectaron la prevalencia de nematodos adultos.


    Aranda R., Carmen; Grupo SALUVET-UPCH, Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima; Serrano-Martínez, Enrique; Grupo SALUVET-UPCH, Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima; Tantaleán V., Manuel; Grupo SALUVET-UPCH, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima; Quispe H., Marco; Grupo SALUVET-UPCH, Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima; Casas V., Gina; Grupo SALUVET-UPCH, Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima


    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar los parásitos gastrointestinales de felinos silvestres criados en cuatro parques zoológicos en el Perú, mediante la aplicación de cuatro técnicas parasitológicas convencionales (método directo, test de sedimentación en tubo, método de Sheather y tinción Ziehl-Nielsen). Se trabajó con 10 ejemplares de Panthera onca (4 machos y 6 hembras), 8 de Puma concolor (4 machos y 4 hembras), 6 de Leopardus pardalis (machos), 3 de Leopardus wiedii (1 macho ...

  3. Primer informe en México sobre la presencia de resistencia a ivermectina en bovinos infectados naturalmente con nematodos gastrointestinales

    Lisandro A. Encalada Mena; Ma. Eugenia López Arellano; Pedro Mendoza de Gives; Enrique Liébano Hernández; Víctor Vázquez Prats; Gerardo Vera Ycuspinera


    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue detectar resistencia a ivermectina en nematodos gastrointestinales en bovinos jóvenes infectados naturalmente en Campeche, México. El trabajo se llevó a cabo con base en una encuesta de manejo sanitario realizada a 35 ganaderos para la selección de hatos sospechosos de problemas de resistencia antihelmíntica. Becerros de seis a 12 meses de edad fueron seleccionados debido a que no habían recibido tratamiento antihelmíntico en un periodo mínimo de 60 días y...

  4. Prevalencia de síntomas funcionales gastrointestinales en niños escolarizados entre 10 y 18 años con obesidad en Bogotá

    Martínez Gualdrón, Lina Paola


    La obesidad ha sido considerada factor precipitante de trastornos funcionales gastrointestinales (TFGI).Objetivo: Establecer la frecuencia de síntomas y trastornos gastrointestinales funcionales en niños obesos escolarizados. Métodos: 792 niños con edades entre 10 y 18 años, de 6 colegios, fueron incluidos. Completaron el auto-cuestionario para TFGI diseñado por el comité de Roma III. La frecuencia de TFGI fue establecida usando los criterios actualmente vigentes. Se consideró población norma...

  5. Research trends in radiobiology since 40 years. a new approach: the enzymatic repair function of DNA, internal factor in evolution of biological systems under irradiation; Etude des tendances des recherches en radiologie depuis 40 ans. Une nouvelle voie de recherche: la fonction de reparation enzymatique de l'ADN, facteur interne d'evolution des systemes biologiques sous rayonnement

    Mouton, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In the first part of the report, the author attempts to draw an historical scheme of successive research working hypotheses in radiobiology since 1924. Less than a generation ago the effect of radiation exposure were viewed as being direct, immediate, irreparable and unmodifiable. Now it is generally accepted that radiation lesion can also be indirect, delayed, reparable and often modified with appropriate chemical or biochemical treatment. It was however in 1962-1964 that came the decisive breakthrough in radiobiology with the discovery that the cell possesses a natural active self-defense mechanism against whatever stress would affect the integrity of the genetic message contained in the DNA structure itself. The existence of what could be considered as a fourth DNA function i.e. self-repair by enzymatic action under genetic control-brings at least to radiobiology the missing molecular biology basis it needed to get out of its 'phenomenological night' after abandon of the generalization of Lea's theory through lack of experimental evidence. In the second part, which is a prospective one, the author tries to set an enlarged synthesis considering the possible role of DNA repair system not only in cell survival - in presence or absence of dose modifiers or mutagens - but also in the artificial and natural evolution of biological system exposed to sub-lethal doses of radiation. Most recent data from the literature fit well with what must be still considered as a general working hypothesis. Studies dealing with phenotypic and genotypic characters linked with the acquisition of gamma and UV radiation resistance in 'Escherichia coli K12' has been started by the author, in collaboration with O. Tremeau, in order to bring a new experimental contribution in this respect. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, l'auteur tente de retracer l'historique des hypotheses successives qui ont jalonne les avances de la radiobiologie depuis 1924

  6. Methods of process management in radiology; Methoden des Prozessmanagements in der Radiologie

    Teichgraeber, U.K.M.; Gillessen, C.; Neumann, F. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde im Virchow Klinikum


    , entsprechendes Fachwissen muss er sich in der Regel in Eigenregie aus Fachliteratur oder Kursen aneignen. Trotzdem wird vom Arzt ueber die medizinische Versorgung hinaus zunehmend verlangt, dass er seine Arbeitsablaeufe auch unter wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten optimiert. Es werden verschiedene Methoden des Prozessmanagements fuer ihre Anwendung in der Radiologie vorgestellt. Unter Zuhilfenahme von einfachen papierbasierten Methoden laesst sich bereits ein Grossteil von Arbeitsprozessanalysen durchfuehren. Bei komplexeren Ablaeufen wird man eine Methode waehlen, die eine moeglichst genaue qualitative und quantitative Aussage ueber zu erwartende Effekte liefert. Vorgestellt werden diesbezueglich die Netzplantechnik und die Prozesssimulation. (orig.)

  7. Prevalencia de Toxocara canis y otros parásitos gastrointestinales en caninos ambulantes de Sogamoso

    Erika Sarmiento-Medina


    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años ha crecido la población de  caninos,  especialmente  los  ambulantes,  los cuales  son portadores de una  gran  variedad de parásitos gastrointestinales zoonóticos, destacándose la presencia de helmintos como la Toxocara canis. Este parásito, cuando  infesta al hombre, puede producir una afección por localización errática denominada “larva migrans”, por ser huésped  inespecífico. Esta enfermedad es particularmente importante en niños, ancianos y en personas  inmuno-deprimidas; se adquiere por la ingesta de huevos viables de Toxocara spp. (Grodsinky, 2003. Así, el objetivo de este estudio  fue hacer una prevalencia para determinar la presencia de T canis y otros helmintos parásitos en el tracto digestivo de perros ambulantes, en la ciudad de Sogamoso, de los cuales, aleatoriamente en  los cinco puntos cardinales y teniendo en cuenta la edad y el sexo de los caninos se colectaron 150 muestras por toma de pellizco en las heces, a las cuales se les reali-zó  la  técnica de concentración de Richi-Frick, que se escogió por  su  especificidad para huevos de Toxocara spp. Los resultados arrojaron  los siguientes resultados: el 67,3% (101 de las muestras se encontraron contaminadas con al menos un tipo de entidad parasitaria;  la presencia de Toxocara canis como entidad sola o en infestación combi- nada  fue del 52,6%  (79. En cuanto la edad, en caninos de menos de uno año fue de 56,9 % y en adultos  jóvenes fue del 37,9%; respecto del sexo, las hembras  obtuvieron  el  25,3%, mientras  los machos el 74,7%. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, con el  fin de evitar la transmisión de parasitosis zoonóticas es necesario fomentar campañas de desparasitación y manejo adecuado delas heces de los caninos.

  8. Prevalencia de síntomas gastrointestinales en personas con sobrepeso y obesidad. Estudio epidemiológico en una población mexicana

    R. Bernal-Reyes; A. Monzalvo López; M. Bernal-Serrano


    ... múltiples y el aparato digestivo no es la excepción. Objetivo: Investigar la prevalencia de síntomas gastrointestinales en personas con sobrepeso y obesidad en una muestra representativa de la población mexicana. Métodos: Se realizó...

  9. Prevalencia de síntomas gastrointestinales en personas con sobrepeso y obesidad. Estudio epidemiológico en una población mexicana

    R. Bernal-Reyes


    Conclusiones: Los individuos con sobrepeso y obesidad tienen más síntomas gastrointestinales que aquellos con peso normal; al agrupar los síntomas más frecuentes, se observó que predominaron aquellos que son característicos de dispepsia, enfermedad por reflujo y mayor producción de gases intestinales.

  10. Thalidomide in refractory bleeding due to gastrointestinal angiodysplasias Talidomida en la hemorragia recidivante por angiodisplasias gastrointestinales

    Antonio Garrido


    Full Text Available Objectives: to assess the efficacy of thalidomide in the treatment of relapsed or refractory bleeding secondary to gastrointestinal angiodysplasia. Material and methods: we carried out a prospective study of 12 patients with bleeding due to gastrointestinal angiodysplasia refractory to conventional therapy who were treated with thalidomide. For each patient, we considered: age, sex, underlying disease, previous therapies, dose and duration of thalidomide treatment, evolution of haemoglobin levels and adverse effects of treatment. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics with SPSS v. 16. Results: seven men and 5 women with a mean age of 77 years were included in the present study. Five had some underlying pathology and all of them had received prior endoscopic/octreotide treatment. The dose of thalidomide administered was 200 mg/24 h and the duration of the treatment four months, with the exception of two patients in whom treatment was discontinued because of adverse side effects. Mean haemoglobin concentration before onset of treatment was 6.5 g/dL, at two months it was 11.3 g/dL and at the end of treatment 12.1 g/dL. Conclusions: thalidomide is an effective treatment in gastrointestinal bleeding due to angiodysplasia, but it was withdrawn due to side effects in 16% of the patients included in our study.Objetivos: valorar la eficacia de talidomida en la hemorragia recidivante y refractaria por angiodisplasias gastrointestinales. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo de 12 pacientes con hemorragia por angiodisplasias refractarios a la terapia convencional, que recibieron tratamiento con talidomida. Se determinó en cada caso: edad, sexo, patología de base, tratamientos previos, dosis y duración del tratamiento con talidomida, evolución de los valores de hemoglobina y efectos secundarios del tratamiento. Los datos fueron procesados mediante estadística descriptiva con SPSS versión 16. Resultados: se

  11. [Methods of exclusive irradiation of cancers of the breast. Société de Radiologie, 18 March 1974].


    It was the object of this round table to discuss the different techniques for treatment of breast cancer by radiation only, in order to seek out their common points. Six French Centres participated: the Foundation Curie (Paris), the Centre Anti-Cancéreux de l'Hôpital Sainte-Marguerite (Marseille), the Service de Radiologie de l'Hôpital Civil (Strasbourg), the Centre René-Huguenin (Saint-Cloud)k, the Service de Carcinologie Radiothérapique de l'Hôpital Henri-Mondor (Créteil) and the Institut Gustave-Roussy (Villejuif). Our readers can see the details of the treatments practiced by each of the six schools in their own particular techniques, in the following pages. We will confine ourselves here to a brief summary only. It should be recalled that these techniques for treatment of breast cancer by radiotherapy alone vere developed almost simultaneously in several different Centres around 1960, as a result of the revolution in radiotherapy which began in 1975 with the installation of tele-Cobalt...

  12. Árboles y nemátodos gastrointestinales en bovinos jóvenes: Un nuevo enfoque de las investigaciones Trees and gastrointestinal nematodes in young cattle: a new research approach

    Mildrey Soca


    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento de los nemátodos gastrointestinales de los bovinos jóvenes en diferentes sistemas silvopastoriles, se desarrollaron en dos fases varias investigaciones que dieron origen a estos resultados: una etapa experimental en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", y una etapa de validación de los resultados en las Empresas Pecuarias "El Cangre" y "Valle del Perú", en la provincia de La Habana. Los géneros de nemátodos encontrados, en orden de importancia, fueron: Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia y Ostertagia, con valores de 60, 15, 13, 10 y 2%, respectivamente. El conteo fecal de huevos (CFH mostró diferencias significativas (PWith the objective of evaluating the behavior of the gastrointestinal nematodes of young cattle in different silvopastoral systems, several studies were developed in two stages which brought about these results: an experimental stage at the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages "Indio Hatuey", and a stage of validation of the results in the Livestock Production Firms "El Cangre" and "Valle del Perú", in Havana province. The genera of nematodes found, in order of importance, were: Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Ostertagia, with values of 60, 15, 13, 10 and 2%, respectively. The fecal count of eggs (FCE showed significant differences (P<0,01 from the second month of evaluation in favor of the silvopastoral. Estos resultados forman parte de la tesis presentada por la primera autora en opción al grado científico de Doctor en Ciencias Veterinarias, titulada "Los nemátodos gastrointestinales de los bovinos jóvenes. Comportamiento en los sistemas silvopastoriles cubanos". system (SS, with values below 600 epg, as compared to the system without trees in which it was maintained over 1 000 epg. No effects of the weight or the sex of the animals on this behavior were found. However, significant

  13. Sobrevivencia de las fases preparasíticas de nematodos gastrointestinales en bocashi elaborado con estiércol vacuno.

    Martha Orozco-Aceves


    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la sobrevivencia de las fases preparasíticas (huevos y larvas de nematodos gastrointestinales (NG en bocashi elaborado con estiércol vacuno. La investigación se realizó en la Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica en el año 2010. Abono orgánico tipo bocashi fue elaborado utilizando estiércol vacuno procedente de una finca lechera localizada en Poasito de Alajuela, Costa Rica. El estiércol contenía 600 huevos por gramo de heces (hpg de los NG de la suborden Strongylida, < 50 hpg de Strongyloides papillosus y < 50 hpg de Trichuris spp. Cuando el bocashi estuvo elaborado, veinte muestras fueron tomadas aleatoriamente y procesadas mediante el método cualitativo de Sheater y el cuantitativo de McMaster para determinar la presencia de huevos de NG y contabilizarlos. Adicionalmente, se montaron coprocultivos y se extrajeron los nematodos totales para determinar la presencia de larvas de NG. En el bocashi las cantidades de huevos de NG fueron bajas y no fue posible la cuantificación por el método estándar de McMaster. En todos los casos los huevos mostraron signos de degradación. Ninguna larva de NG fue observada en los coprocultivos ni en la extracción de nematodos totales. El bocashi contenía un alto número de nematodos bacteriófagos, cuya presencia es positiva. Las condiciones de elaboración del bocashi lograron disminuir las poblaciones de fases preparasíticas de NG y favorecieron la proliferación de organismos benéficos.

  14. Efecto de la variación fenotípica en la resistencia de corderos pelibuey a la infestación con nematodos gastrointestinales


    En México la parasitosis gastrointestinal es uno de los factores que causa alta mortalidad en ovinos y reduce la producción y rentabilidad de las explotaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la variación fenotípica a la infestación con nematodos gastrointestinales en ovinos Pelibuey (Ovis aries) en la Sierra de Tabasco. Se utilizaron 38 corderos de cuatro a cinco meses de edad (20 hembras y 18 machos), con un peso promedio inicial de 12.6 kg. El estudio se llevó a cabo en dos eta...

  15. Evaluación in vitro de hongos nematófagos para el control biológico de nemátodos gastrointestinales de rumiantes

    Martha Orozco A, M.Sc; Víctor Álvarez C, M.Sc; Ana Jiménez R, Ph.D; Óscar Acuña N, M.Sc


    Objetivo. Determinar la actividad depredadora in vitro de cepas de hongos nematófagos autóctonos de Costa Rica. Materiales y métodos. Dieciséis cepas de hongos nematófagos nativos de Costa Rica de los géneros Candelabrella musiformis, Arthrobotrys oligospora y Dactylella sp. Se evaluó in vitro la actividad depredadora de los hongos frente a nemátodos gastrointestinales como Haemonchus spp., Oesophagostomum sp. y Trichostrongylus sp aislados de pequeños rumiantes. Resultados. La actividad de ...

  16. La sélection génétique pour la maîtrise des strongyloses gastro-intestinales des petits ruminants

    de la Chevrotière, Claudia; Moreno, Carole; Jacquiet, Philippe


    La durabilité des systèmes d'élevage tropicaux et tempérés extensifs est à rechercher dans l'équilibre entre le milieu et les productions, animales et végétales. Ainsi, il est judicieux de choisir les animaux pour leur adaptation aux contraintes du milieu, plutôt que de chercher à les en soustraire. Dans ce contexte, les strongyloses gastro-intestinales représentent une contrainte pathologique majeure des petits ruminants, particulièrement en zone tropicale humide. Depuis quelques années, la ...

  17. Identificación y frecuencia de parásitos gastrointestinales en canes de la SAIS Túpac Amaru en el distrito de Canchayllo, Jauja, Perú

    Minaya, Ana; Serrano, Marcos


    El objetivo del estudio fue identificar parásitos gastrointestinales y su frecuencia en canes del distrito de Canchayllo, Jauja, Junín - Perú. Se colectaron 97 muestras frescas heces las cuales se sometieron a cuatro técnicas diagnósticas: examen directo, concentración por flotación, concentración por sedimentación, y tinción de Ziehl Neelsen. Del total de muestras analizadas el 73,2 % (71/97) resultaron positivas a parásitos. En las 71 muestras positivas se identificaron siete especies de pa...

  18. Eficiencia de la fermentación In vitro de los tractos gastrointestinales del monogástrico y del rumiante / Efficiency of the fermentation in vitro of gastrointestinal tract of monogastric and ruminants

    Álvarez Nivia, Diana María


    El proyecto de tesis eficiencia de la fermentación in vitro de los tractos gastrointestinales del monogástrico y del rumiante tiene como fin determinar a través de una técnica de laboratorio el potencial de tres (3) materias primas, Morera (Morus alba), Maíz (Zea mays) y Torta de Soya (Glicine max) comparativamente en los tractos gastrointestinales del monogástrico y el rumiante, determinando su digestibilidad enzimática, la cinética de producción de gas, la degradación de Fibra Detergente Ne...

  19. Case report: massive lower intestinal bleeding from ileal varices. Treatment with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS); Fallbericht: Massive untere gastrointestinale Blutung aus ilealen Varizen. Behandlung mittels transjugulaerem intrahepatischem portosystemischem Shunt (TIPSS)

    Lopez-Benitez, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Iinterventionelle Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Seidensticker, P.; Richter, G.M.; Stampfl, U.; Hallscheidt, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Iinterventionelle Radiologie


    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis is associated with a high mortality. Ileal varices and collaterals from ectopic vessels are extremely rare, encountered in less than 5% of the cirrhotic patients. The diagnosis is frequently delayed because the regular diagnostic methods such as gastroscopy or colonoscopy are unsuccessful in accurate the source of bleeding in the majority of the cases. We report an unusual case of massive and uncontrollable lower intestinal bleeding from ileal varices with right ovarian vein anastomosis in a 56 year-old female patient with liver cirrhosis and previous history of abdominal and pelvic surgery. The accurate angiographic and computed tomography diagnosis allowed fast decompression of the portal venous system using a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. (orig.) [German] Akute gastrointestinale Blutungen sind bei Leberzirrhosepatienten mit einer hohen Mortalitaet verbunden. Ileale Varizen und Kollateralen aus anderen ektopen Gefaessen des Darms sind extrem selten und treten bei weniger als 5% aller Zirrhosepatienten auf. Die Diagnosestellung erfolgt oft verspaetet, da die ueblichen diagnostischen Untersuchungsmethoden wie Gastroskopie oder Koloskopie in den meisten Faellen die Blutungsquelle nicht ausreichend darstellen. Wir berichten ueber einen ungewoehnlichen Fall von massiver und unkontrollierbarer unterer gastroinstestinaler (GI-)Blutung aus ilealen Varizen mit Verbindung zur rechten V. ovarica einer 56-jaehrigen Frau, bei der anamnestisch eine Leberzirrhose und abdominelle Operationen sowie Operationen im Bereich des Beckens bekannt waren. Die genaue angiographische und computertomographische Diagnose erlaubte eine rasche Dekompression des Portalvenensystems mittels eines transjugulaeren portosystemischen Shunts. (orig.)

  20. Cost benefit analysis in diagnostic radiology: glossary and definitions; Nutzen, Kosten und Analytik in der diagnostischen Radiologie: Definitionen und Glossar

    Golder, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Abt. Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin


    Cost efficiency analyses in clinical radiology require the application of methods and techniques that are not yet part of the academic qualifications of the specialists. The procedures used are borrowed from economics, decision theory, applied social sciences, epidemiology and statistics. Many expressions hail from the angloamerican literature and are presently not yet germanized unequivocally. This survey is intended to present main terms of cost efficiency analysis in the English version as well as a German translation, to give a clear definition and, if necessary, explanatory notes, and to illustrate their application by means of concrete radiologic examples. The selection of the terms is based on the hierarchical models of health technology assessment resp. clinical outcome research by Fryback and Thronbury resp. Maisey and Hutton. In concrete terms, both the differences between benefit, outcomes, and utility and the differences between effectiveness, efficacy and efficiency and the differences between direct, indirect, intangible, and marginal costs are explained. True cost efficiency analysis is compared with cost effectiveness analysis, cost identification analysis, cost minimization analysis, and cost utility analysis. Applied social sciences are represented by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 and the QALY conception. From decision theory both the analysis of hypothetical alternatives and the Markov model are taken. Finally, sensitivity analysis and the procedures of combined statistical evaluation of comparable results (meta-analysis) are quoted. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kosten-Nutzen-Analysen in der klinischen Radiologie erfordern den Einsatz von Methoden und Techniken, die nicht zum akademischen Ruestzeug der Fachvertreter gehoeren. Die verschiedenen Verfahren sind der Volkswirtschaftslehre, der Entscheidungstheorie, den angewandten Sozialwissenschaften, der Epidemiologie und der Statistik entlehnt. Viele Termini kommen aus dem angloamerikanischen


    D. Esteban-Andrés


    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 24 corderos Katahdin x Pelibuey, distribuidos al azar en cuatro grupos desafiados con los siguientes tratamientos: a 25 larvas infectantes (L 3 de nematodos gastrointestinales (NGI por kg de peso vivo (PV; b 50 L 3 PV, c 100 L 3 PV y el grupo testigo (0 larvas. El experimento se dividió en tres etapas: 1 infección experimental y estabulación de corderos, 2 reinfección en pastoreo y 3 estabulación. En cada etapa se determinó el número de huevos de nematodos por gramo de heces (HPG, el peso vivo (PV y el volumen celular aglomerado (VCA. El análisis se realizó con medidas repetidas en el tiempo. Los corderos infectados con 100 L 3 tuvieron mayor HPG (1.642 ± 1.183 que los infectados con 50 L 3 (1.140 ± 1.313 HPG y los de 25 L 3 (458 ± 371 HPG. Con 50 L 3 los corderos tuvieron el menor VCA (23,7 ± 4,8%. Con 100 L 3 se observó menor VCA que el grupo testigo y el de 25 L 3 (26,2 ± 3,9; 28,0 ± 4,1 y 27,3 ± 4,2 %, respectivamente. Las ganancias de peso se redujeron respecto al testigo en un 22% en los de 25 larvas, 60% en los de 50 larvas y 61% en los de 100 larvas. El grupo infectado con 100 larvas obtuvo, durante la segunda etapa, el menor HPG (2.033 ± 2.553 HPG, un incremento del VCA (27,8% y mayor ganancia de peso (3,7 kg que los otros grupos, por lo que se concluye que con la dosis de 100 L 3 se obtienen menores conteos fecales de huevos de NGI, mayor VCA y mejor ganancia de peso bajo condiciones de reinfección en pastoreo.

  2. Functional phlebology. Phlebography, function studies, interventional radiology. Funktionelle Phlebologie. Phlebographie, Funktionstests, interventionelle Radiologie

    Weber, J.; May, R.; Biland, L.; Endert, G.; Gottlob, R.; Justich, E.; Luebcke, P.; Mignon, G.; Moltz, L.; Partsch, H.; Petter, A.; Ritter, H.; Soerensen, R.; Widmer, L.K.; Widmer, M.T.; Zemp, E.


    The book presents a complete survey of the problems occurring in the venous system of the legs, pelvis, and abdomen. The material is arranged in the following main chapters: (1) Introduction to the phlebology of the low-pressure system in the lower part of the body; (2) Phlebographic methods; (3) Instrumented function studies and methods; (4) Pathologic findings; (5) Diagnostic methods and vein therapy; (6) Interventional radiology; (7) Expert opinions on venous lesions including insurance aspects. The first chapter encompasses a section briefly discussing the available instrumented diagnostic imaging methods. In view of the novel imaging methods, namely digital subtraction phlebology, sonography, CT and MRI, the classical phlebography remains the gold standard, so to speak: all currently available phlebographic methods for imaging the venes in the legs, pelvis and abdomen are explained and comparatively evaluated. Instrumented function tests such as Doppler effect ultrasound testing, plethysmography, peripheral and central phlebodynamometry (venous pressure measurement) are analysed for their diagnostic value and as alternative or supplementing techniques in comparison to phlebology. (orig./MG) With 843 figs., 101 tabs.

  3. Klinische Indikation für kardiovaskuläre Magnetresonanztomographie - Konsensusbericht der interdisziplinären Arbeitsgruppe der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Kardiologie und Radiologie

    Globits S


    Full Text Available Die kardiale MRT hat sich in der letzten Dekade als ergänzendes diagnostisches Verfahren in der Kardiologie etabliert, wobei die Methode zumeist als Entscheidungshilfe im oberen Bereich des diagnostischen Stufenplans Verwendung findet. Mittels MRT können bei vielen kardialen Erkrankungen relevante Zusatzinformationen gewonnen werden, bei selektiven Indikationen werden etablierte Verfahren nicht nur ergänzt sondern teilweise ersetzt. Um dieses diagnostische Potential zu nutzen, sollten folgende Voraussetzungen erfüllt werden: (1 Standardisierung der Untersuchungsprotokolle, (2 fixe Integration der kardialen MRT in das Curriculum Kardiologie/Radiologie, (3 Kooperation Kardiologie/Radiologie. Im folgenden Richtlinienpapier wird der sinnvolle Einsatz der Methode bei allen relevanten Indikationsgebieten übersichtlich dargestellt.

  4. Lesiones macroscópicas gastrointestinales y renales en pollos de engorda, criados con niveles altos de proteína de soya en la dieta

    René Morales López; Teresa Casaubon Huguenin; Ernesto Ávila González


    Para evaluar posibles lesiones gastrointestinales en pollos y su relación con un síndrome caracterizado por baja ganancia de peso, eliminación de alimento semidigerido en heces y moco de color naranja, que en México ha representado pérdidas para la industria, se desarrolló un estudio con pollos de engorda utilizando dietas altas en proteína sorgo más soya (T3:26% y T4:30%), en relación con dos dietas testigo adecuadas en proteína, una con sorgo más soya (T2:22%) y otra con sorgo, girasol y gl...

  5. Parásitos gastrointestinales y ectoparásitos de ungulados silvestres en condiciones de vida libre y cautiverio en el trópico mexicano

    José Manuel Mukul-Yerves


    Full Text Available Se identificaron los parásitos gastrointestinales y ectoparásitos presentes en venados cola blanca ( Odocoileus virginianus , pecarí de collar ( Pecari tajacu y venado temazate ( Mazama americana en condiciones de vida libre y cautiverio en el trópico mexicano. Se obtuvieron muestras fecales y ectoparásitos de 12 ungulados de vida libre que se cazaron para fines de subsistencia y de 55 ungulados en condiciones de cautiverio. Las muestras de excremento se analizaron mediante las pruebas de Flotación Centrifugada y McMaster para conocer los géneros y órdenes de parásitos que afectan a los ungulados; así como la excreción de huevos y ooquistes por gramo de excremento. Los ectoparásitos encontrados se identificaron taxonómicamente. Las muestras positivas a nematodos del orden Strongylida y protozoos del orden Eucoccidiorida se cultivaron para su identificación taxonómica a nivel de géneros. En venados cola blanca y temazate en cautiverio se identificaron los géneros Strongyloides, Trichuris, Capillaria, Mammomonogamus y Eimeria; mientras que en los pecaríes de collar los géneros Oesophagostomun, Eimeria e Isospora . En los tres ungulados de vida libre se identificó el género Strongyloides. Sólo se encontraron ectoparásitos en ungulados de vida libre, identificándose la pulga Pulex irritans y el piojo Gliricola porcelli en venados temazate y pecaríes de collar, mientras que la mosca Lipoptena sp se colectó en los venados cola blanca. La garrapata Amblyomma cajennese se encontró parasitando a las tres especies de ungulados estudiados. Se concluye que los ungulados silvestres del presente estudio estuvieron parasitados con nematodos gastrointestinales, protozoos del orden Eucoccidiorida, pulgas, piojos, moscas y garrapatas.

  6. Frecuencia de la infección por nemátodos gastrointestinales en ovinos y caprinos de cinco municipios de Antioquia

    Liseth Herrera O.


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de infección por nemátodos gastrointestinales en ovinos y caprinos de apriscos de algunos municipios de Antioquia. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo de corte realizado entre febrero y junio del 2011 en muestras de materia fecal de 84 caprinos y 11 ovinos distribuidos entre 2 y 132 meses de edad en 6 apriscos de Antioquia. Se determinó el recuento de huevos por gramo de heces (hpg usando la técnica de Mcmaster, y para obtención del estadio larvario 3, la técnica de Corticelli y Lai. Para la identificación del género de las larvas se emplearon claves taxonómicas de nemátodos gastrointestinales de ovinos y caprinos. Se calcularon la frecuencia y asociación entre los datos epidemiológicos y la infección por tricostrongilidos mediante la prueba de independencia de Chi cuadrado, y prueba de contraste U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados. La frecuencia de infección fue 86.6% y los nemátodos con mayor prevalencia fueron Haemonchus contortus (66.3%, Oesophagostomum spp., (38.9%, Trichostrongylus spp., (34.7% y Ostertagia spp., (24.2%. Se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre la proporción de infectados y no infectados según la raza. Conclusiones. Existen diferencias entre la frecuencia de infección de las razas Camuro, La mancha y Toggenburg, en comparación con otras razas de los mismos apriscos. Esta variación puede relacionarse con procesos de resistencia, reponiéndose a la infección, sobre los cuales se hace necesaria la realización de investigaciones enfocadas al estudio de mecanismos de acción en ovinos y caprinos de Antioquia.

  7. Stomatologická radiologie

    JIRKOVÁ, Kateřina


    The topic of this bachelor thesis is ?Dental Radiology.? The aim of this thesis is to create a summary about dental diagnoses and evaluate the benefits of modern imaging methods in dentistry. The work is to familiarize students with conventional as well as modern methods and technologies in dentistry. Furthermore, to introduce different types of examinations and indications to given examinations which are done in the field. Radiation protection in dental radiological examinations is also desc...


    Martha Orozco A, M.Sc


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la actividad depredadora in vitro de cepas de hongos nematófagos autóctonos de Costa Rica. Materiales y métodos. Dieciséis cepas de hongos nematófagos nativos de Costa Rica de los géneros Candelabrella musiformis, Arthrobotrys oligospora y Dactylella sp. Se evaluó in vitro la actividad depredadora de los hongos frente a nemátodos gastrointestinales como Haemonchus spp., Oesophagostomum sp. y Trichostrongylus sp aislados de pequeños rumiantes. Resultados. La actividad de los hongos fue muy heterogénea, presentándose resultados que van desde 9.8 a 99.6% de depredación. Conclusiones. El análisis estadístico demostró diferencias significativas en la actividad de los hongos; sin embargo, las cepas de A. oligospora mostraron un mejor desempeño en la captura de nemátodos comparado con las cepas de C. musiformis y Dactylella sp. La heterogeneidad encontrada responde a factores como: origen de las cepas, características intrínsecas de las mismas y especies de larvas utilizadas.

  9. Tratamiento quirúrgico de la obesidad mórbida. Caracterización de los receptores 5HT1A gastrointestinales en obesidad mórbida


    Estudios recientes muestran relación entre obesidad y síntomas gastrointestinales. Objetivos: 1. Determinar las características generales y la función gastrointestinal de pacientes obesos mórbidos sometidos a cirugía bariátrica. 2. Caracterizar los receptores serotoninérgicos 5-HT1A de fibra muscular lisa gastrointestinal (FMLGI) de los pacientes anteriores comparándolos con un control de pacientes sometidos a resección gastrointestinal sin sintomatología. Material y métodos: ...

  10. Helmintos gastrointestinales en aves acuáticas de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, México Gastrointestinal helminth in waterfowl of the upper Lerma river sub-basin, Mexico

    Marcela Martínez-Haro; Petra Sánchez-Nava; Guillermo Salgado-Maldonado; Felipe de Jesús Rodríguez-Romero


    Se realizó un inventario y se calcularon los parámetros de infección de los helmintos gastrointestinales de 36 ejemplares de aves acuáticas pertenecientes a las familias Anatidae, Rallidae y Threskiornithidae, procedentes de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, Estado de México, identificándose 20 especies: 9 tremátodos, 8 céstodos, 2 nemátodos y 1 acantocéfalo. De las 8 especies de céstodos, 6 son registros nuevos para el país y Pseudocorynosoma constrictum se registra por primera vez en Anas cr...

  11. Efectos de una intervención cognitivo-conductual sobre la adhesión terapéuti-ca y regulación emocional en pacientes con enfermedades gastrointestinales

    Caballero Suárez, Nancy Patricia; Universidad de Londres; Pérez Sánchez, Ivonne Nalliely; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; Herrera Cornejo, Martín Alberto; Hospital Juárez de México; Antonio Manrique, Martín; Hospital Juárez de México; Sánchez Sosa, Juan José; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México


    Las enfermedades gastrointestinales (EG) tienen alta prevalencia e implican un alto costo económico, social y personal, y se sabe que las emociones negativas desencadenan o exacerban los síntomas. Los pacientes con EG muestran escasa adhesión al tratamiento médico, y a pesar de los resultados favorables de las intervenciones psicológicas para coadyuvar el tratamiento médico de estos problemas, los avances farmacológicos han hecho de lado tales intervenciones; sin embargo, la respuesta al trat...

  12. Una revisión de los estudios en torno a enfermedades gastrointestinales. En busca de nuevas alternativas para el análisis de los procesos de salud-enfermedad

    Anahi Sy


    Nuestro interés por el tema surge de los resultados obtenidos en diferentes instancias de investigación interdisciplinaria, desarrollada en dos comunidades Mbya Guaraní de la provincia de Misiones, Argentina. En este contexto, observamos que la ocurrencia de enfermedades gastrointestinales, parasitarias en particular, no responde a un conjunto limitado de causas, sino que presenta múltiples causas de naturaleza diversa. En este sentido, se plantea la necesidad de identificar y evaluar aspectos socioculturales no contemplados en los estudios epidemiológicos tradicionales, a fin de reconocer las condiciones bioculturales en que se instalan y prosperan estas infecciones.

  13. Radiology trainer. Torso, internal organs and vessels. 2. ed.; Radiologie-Trainer. Koerperstamm, innere Organe und Gefaesse

    Staebler, Axel [Orthopaedische Klinik Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Radiologische Praxis; Erlt-Wagner, Birgit (eds.) [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie


    The radiology training textbook is based on case studies of the clinical experience, including radiological imaging and differential diagnostic discussion. The scope of this volume covers the torso, internal organs and vessels. The following issues are discussed: lungs, pleura, mediastinum; heart and vascular system; upper abdomen organs; gastrointestinal tract; urogenital system.

  14. Dietetic management in gastrointestinal complications from antimalignant chemotherapy Dietoterapia en complicaciones gastrointestinales de quimioterápicos

    L. Calixto-Lima; E. Martins de Andrade; Gomes, A.P.; M. Geller; R. Siqueira-Batista


    Antineoplastic chemotherapy (CT) represents the systemic treatment of malignant tumors. It can be used alone or combined with surgery and / or radiotherapy. The cytotoxic agents used in chemotherapy work on both cancerous cells and noncancerous cells of the body, generally resulting in high toxicity. The biological aggressiveness of chemotherapy particularly affects rapidly replicating cells, such as those of the digestive tract, resulting in adverse effects that impair food intake, leading t...

  15. Examinations for radiology. 1450 examination questions, with comments. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Facharztpruefung Radiologie. 1450 kommentierte Pruefungsfragen

    Albes, Guido [Klinikum Stuttgart (Germany). Neurozentrum


    The book on examinations for radiology contains 1450 examination questions, with comments. The chapter on technical fundamentals and radiation protection covers the topics X-ray technologies, ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography. The chapter on specific diagnostic radiology covers the topics brain, spinal cord, head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis organs and the muscoskeletal system.

  16. Dietetic management in gastrointestinal complications from antimalignant chemotherapy Dietoterapia en complicaciones gastrointestinales de quimioterápicos

    L. Calixto-Lima


    Full Text Available Antineoplastic chemotherapy (CT represents the systemic treatment of malignant tumors. It can be used alone or combined with surgery and / or radiotherapy. The cytotoxic agents used in chemotherapy work on both cancerous cells and noncancerous cells of the body, generally resulting in high toxicity. The biological aggressiveness of chemotherapy particularly affects rapidly replicating cells, such as those of the digestive tract, resulting in adverse effects that impair food intake, leading to compromised nutritional status and which may lead to cachexia. The main toxic effects of chemotherapy in the gastrointestinal tract include nausea, vomiting -these are the most frequent- constipation, diarrhea, xerostomia, mucositis, dysphagia and anorexia. Given the high frequency of such effects, nutritional intervention should be an integral part of cancer treatment, to maintain and/or improve the patient´s nutritional status and reduce or minimize the side effects caused by treatment. Accordingly, the goal of this study is to review dietetic conduct in the process of caring for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.La quimioterapia (QT representa el tratamiento antineoplásico sistémico de los tumores malignos. Puede ser utilizada solo o combinada con la cirugía y / o radioterapia. Los agentes quimioterápicos actúan en las células cancerosas y las células normales del cuerpo, siendo por lo general muy tóxicos. La agresividad de la quimioterapia afecta especialmente rápida replicación celular en el tracto digestivo, dando lugar a efectos adversos que impiden la ingesta de alimentos, dando lugar al estado nutricional comprometido y puede conducir a la caquexia. Los principales efectos tóxicos de la quimioterapia, el tracto gastrointestinal, como náuseas, vómitos estos son los más frecuentes- estreñimiento, diarrea, sequedad de boca, mucositis disfagia y anorexia. Dada la alta frecuencia de tales efectos, la intervención nutricional debe

  17. Lokalisationsdiagnostik af neuroendokrine gastrointestinale tumorer

    Kjær, Andreas; Knigge, Ulrich; Mortensen, Jann;


    Localization diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumours is relevant in relation to staging and planning of therapy, including surgery. Imaging modalities are also relevant in relation to biopsy guidance. Currently, the most frequently used methods are somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, computed...... tomography with contrast and endoscopic ultrasound. The strengths of the different modalities are discussed and it is concluded that frequently a combination of imaging modalities is necessary in the work-up of patients with neuroendocrine tumours....

  18. Behandling af neuroendokrine gastrointestinale tumorer

    Hansen, Carsten Palnaes; Langer, Seppo; Frevert, Susanne;


    of cure. Palliative therapy includes surgery and intra-arterial embolization of hepatic metastases, chemotherapy, biotherapy with interferon-alpha and radionuclear treatment. Tumour-targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies...

  19. Prevalencia de nemátodos gastrointestinales en ovinos en pastoreo en la parte alta del MPIO. De Cuetzala del Progreso, Guerrero-México

    Rojas Hernández, Saúl


    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del estudio fue conocer la prevalencia de nemátodos gastrointestinales (ngi y sus géneros en ovinos en pastoreo al inicio de la época. Durante el mes de noviembre de 2003 a enero de 2004 se tomaron muestras de 219 ovinos mayores de 4 meses en 16 hatos. Los animales se agruparon por sexo y edad (4 meses a un año y mayores de un año. Se de terminó la cuenta de huevos por gramo de heces (hpg usando la técnica de mcmaster modificada. Para identificar el género de los ngi presentes se realizaron coprocultivos mezclando las heces de los animales de cada hato. Se calculó la prevalencia de animales eliminando huevos de ngi en forma global y por grupos de sexo y edad. Se determinó las diferencias entre grupos por medio de ji cuadrada. La prevalencia de ngi en el presente estudio fue de 77.63%, la eliminación promedio de hpg fue de 595.35±90.50. No se encontró diferencias entre grupos de edad y la mayor prevalencia (78.63 y carga de hpg (598.52 ±119.78 se encontró en ovinos mayores de un año. Los géneros identificados de ngi fueron: haemonchus spp., con 32%, cooperia spp., con 30%, trichostrongylus spp., con 17.33% y oesophogostomun spp., con 13.67%. Además se encontró el género strongiloides spp., en un 7.00%. Se concluye que los ovinos en pastoreo al inicio de la época seca presentan alta prevalencia de ngi, siendo los géneros predominantes haemonchus spp., cooperia spp., y trichostrongylus spp., existen diferencias significativas en la prevalencia de acuerdo al grupo parasitario presente. AbstractThe objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes (gin and its genus in sheeps in grazing at the beginning of dry time in a cw2 climate. From november 2003 to january 2004 fecal samples were taken from 219 greater sheeps of four months in 16 sheeps herds. The animals were grouped by sex and age (four months to one year and older. A modified mcmaster technique was used to count the

  20. Determinación de poblaciones de parásitos gastrointestinales pulmonares y hepáticos en búfalos de agua (Bubalus bubalis) en el Magdalena Medio colombiano

    Germán Alonso Prada Sanmiguel; Luis Fernando Quevedo Martínez; Hernán Darío Vásquez Barrero


    La presente investigación se llevó a cabo en la hacienda bufalera La Suiza, localizada en el Magdalena Medio colombiano, de enero a diciembre del año 2004. El trabajo hizo parte de un macroproyecto de investigación sobre la especie bufalina, la cual involucró además de la presente investigación, la determinación de constantes fisiológicas, parámetros hematológicos y curvas de eliminación de huevos por gramo de parásitos gastrointestinales. De un total de 4200 búfalos se seleccionaron al azar ...

  1. Estudio anual de la eliminación de huevos y ooquistes de parásitos gastrointestinales y larvas de nemátodos pulmonares en ovinos de una estancia en Magallanes, Chile Annual study of the of egg and oocyst outputs of gastrointestinal parasites and lungworm larvae in a sheep station of Magallanes, Chile



    Full Text Available Con el fin de recabar antecedentes epidemiológicos sobre las endoparasitosis del ovino en Magallanes, XIIª Región de Chile, se trabajó en la estancia "Entre Vientos", comuna de Río Verde, durante un año (septiembre de 1999 a agosto del 2000. A partir de animales de 3 categorías de edad mantenidos bajo un sistema de explotación extensiva, compuestos por 9.800 corderos (nacidos durante la primavera de 1999, 1.800 borregas (1 año de edad y 13.500 ovejas (2 o más años de edad, se determinaron las tendencias de eliminación de huevos, ooquistes y larvas de parásitos gastrointestinales y pulmonares. Cada 14 días se obtuvo materia fecal desde el recto de 25 animales pertenecientes a cada grupo de edad, muestreados al azar, para realizar recuentos de huevos y diferenciación de larvas de nemátodos gastrointestinales, recuentos de huevos de cestodos, determinación de animales positivos a ooquistes de protozoos intestinales y detección de larvas de nemátodos pulmonares. Los corderos presentaron las mayores eliminaciones de huevos de nemátodos gastrointestinales durante el verano, con predominancia de los géneros Nematodirus y Ostertagia. En borregas y ovejas, las mayores eliminaciones de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus se produjeron en primavera, coincidiendo con el alza de la temperatura ambiental. La categoría más contaminante fue la de las ovejas en primavera, mientras que los corderos lo fueron en el verano. Durante la primavera, la mayor parte de los animales eliminó ooquistes de Eimeria spp., pero fueron los corderos los mayores contaminantes. La mayor oviposición de huevos de Moniezia expansa se registró en corderos y borregas, durante el verano y primavera respectivamente. Larvas de Dictyocaulus filaria se detectaron principalmente en corderos durante el otoño e invierno. No se diagnosticaron casos de parasitosis clínicas durante los meses del estudio, lo que se puede explicar dado el sistema de crianza extensivo y al

  2. Frecuencia de anorexia-caquexia y su asociación con síntomas gastrointestinales, en pacientes paliativos del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México

    Dana Aline Pérez Camargo

    Full Text Available Introducción: La anorexia-caquexia es un síndrome frecuente en pacientes oncológicos, particularmente en etapas avanzadas: la prevalencia global de anorexia-caquexia para-neoplásica oscila entre el 20-40% en los enfermos en la fase diagnóstica, y entre el 70-80% en la fase avanzada de la enfermedad. En los enfermos oncológicos es frecuente la coexistencia de alteraciones digestivas estructurales o funcionales, secundarias al crecimiento tumoral y a los fenómenos sistémicos de carácter metabólico, determinados por la interrelación tumor-huésped específicos de la anorexia-caquexia. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la frecuencia de anorexia-caquexia, y su asociación con síntomas gastrointestinales en pacientes en terreno paliativo del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Ciudad de México, atendidos en el servicio de Cuidados Paliativos. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico. Se incluyeron 100 pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer avanzado, con un rango de edad de 18 y 80 años, y una puntuación de Karnofsky >50, así como un ECOG<2; se excluyeron aquellos pacientes con mal estado general y que rechazaron participar en el estudio. Posterior a revisar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se les aplicó el cuestionario FAACT, así como la EGS. La institución que reclutó a los pacientes fue Instituto Nacional de Cancerología. Resultados y discusión: Los resultados muestran que el 61% (n=61 de los pacientes presentó anorexia-caquexia, mientras que no ocurrió así para el 39% (n=39. Al grupo de mujeres correspondió el 56% de la muestra (n=34, mientras que al de los hombres el 44% (n=27. Los síntomas gastrointestinales que se asociaron con la anorexia-caquexia, fueron: náusea (p= 0.0001, vómito (p=0.004, saciedad temprana (p=0.0005, disgeusia (p=0.0005 y disfagia (p=0.001. Conclusión: La anorexia y la caquexia se encuentran entre los síntomas más devastadores y habituales en

  3. Determinación de poblaciones de parásitos gastrointestinales pulmonares y hepáticos en búfalos de agua (Bubalus bubalis en el Magdalena Medio colombiano

    Germán Alonso Prada Sanmiguel


    Full Text Available La presente investigación se llevó a cabo en la hacienda bufalera La Suiza, localizada en el Magdalena Medio colombiano, de enero a diciembre del año 2004. El trabajo hizo parte de un macroproyecto de investigación sobre la especie bufalina, la cual involucró además de la presente investigación, la determinación de constantes fisiológicas, parámetros hematológicos y curvas de eliminación de huevos por gramo de parásitos gastrointestinales. De un total de 4200 búfalos se seleccionaron al azar 150 animales los cuales fueron divididos en tres grupos etáreos ( 36 meses. A cada animal se le tomó una muestra de materia fecal una vez al mes por un lapso de 12 meses, realizándose las pruebas parasitológicas de sedimentación flotación, Baermann, Dennis y coprocultivo. Se pudo determinar la no presencia de parásitos como Dictiocaulus spp, Fasciola spp y la presencia de Nematodirus spp, Cooperia spp Ostertagia spp, Trichuris spp, Oesofagostomum spp, Bunostomum spp, Trichostrongylus spp, Strongyloides spp, Eimeria spp, Moniezia spp, Toxacara spp y Haemonchus spp en la población bufalina de la hacienda La Suiza.

  4. Helmintos gastrointestinales en aves acuáticas de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, México Gastrointestinal helminth in waterfowl of the upper Lerma river sub-basin, Mexico

    Marcela Martínez-Haro


    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se calcularon los parámetros de infección de los helmintos gastrointestinales de 36 ejemplares de aves acuáticas pertenecientes a las familias Anatidae, Rallidae y Threskiornithidae, procedentes de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, Estado de México, identificándose 20 especies: 9 tremátodos, 8 céstodos, 2 nemátodos y 1 acantocéfalo. De las 8 especies de céstodos, 6 son registros nuevos para el país y Pseudocorynosoma constrictum se registra por primera vez en Anas crecca, Anas discors, Oxyura jamaicensis y Fulica americana. Los helmintos que presentaron las prevalencias más altas fueron los céstodos Hymenolepis megalops y Sobolevicanthus krabbeella en Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Anas cyanoptera y Anas crecca.A survey of helminth parasites in 36 waterfowl species from the upper Lerma River, in central Mexico was conducted. A total of 20 helminth species were recorded, including 9 trematodes, 8 cestodes, 2 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan. Six of the cestode species are recorded for the fisrt time from Mexican birds; the acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma constrictum is reported for the first time in Anas crecca, A. discors, Oxyura jamaicensis and Fulica americana. The highest prevalences were recorded for the cestodes Hymenolepis megalops and Sobolevicanthus krabbeella in Anas acuta, A. clypeata, A. cyanoptera and A. crecca.


    Z. K. Alarcón


    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar los parásitos gastrointestinales zoonóticos en caninos con dueño del área urbana del Municipio de La Mesa, Cundinamarca. Con este fin, se realizó un censo tipo encuesta que determinó la población real de caninos y arrojó un total 1142 perros censados; de éstos, sólo se incluyeron 897 en el estudio por contar con información completa. Se tomaron 122 muestras de materia fecal de los caninos, las cuales fueron analizadas mediante la técnica de concentración de formol– acetato de etilo y leídas por microscopía. La prevalencia total de parasitosis encontrada fue 19.67% (24/122. El parásito hallado con mayor frecuencia fue Ancylostoma spp. (17.21%, seguido de Trichuris spp. (1.63% y Giardia spp. (0.81%. En comparación con otros estudios en Colombia, la prevalencia hallada fue menor y no se encontraron multiparasitosis. No se constató relación (P > 0.05 entre la presencia de parásitos y las variables estudiadas (raza, edad, sexo, desparasitación, vacunación, fuente de agua de consumo y lugar donde habita. Se concluye que la presencia de parásitos encontrada constituye un riesgo para la salud humana y animal, y por lo tanto, es necesario implementar estrategias educativas y sanitarias en la comunidad y elaborar planes de desparasitación y diagnóstico parasitológico para las mascotas.

  6. Por una antropología médica crítica hoy. Reflexiones a partir de una investigación sobre los problemas gastrointestinales de los niños que pertenecen a una minoría étnica en Canadá

    Liliana Gómez Cardona


    En este artículo presentamos algunas reflexiones en torno a las perspectivas teóricas de la antropología médica, principalmente las perspectivas interpretativa, fenomenológica y crítica,  articuladas a los resultados de nuestra investigación sobre los problemas gastrointestinales padecidos por familias haitianas que migraron a Canadá. Se evidencia el carácter polisémico de estos problemas, la negociación de explicaciones tradicionales en la sociedad actual, y que la experiencia individual con...

  7. Eficacia del extracto de las hojas del NeemAzadirachta indica A. Juss en el control de nemátodos gastrointestinales en ovino Pelibuey - Efficiency of the Neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaf extract in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in Pelibuey sheep

    Dublín, Devon Ronald, MVZ (Tesista


    Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Neem (Azadirachtina indica A. Juss sobre los nemátodos gastrointestinales en ovinos, se llevó a cabo un experimento en la colonia de ovino de CENPALAB.AbstractWith the objective of evaluating the effects of the watery extract of Neem (Azadirachtina indica A. Juss leaves on gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep, an experiment in the ovine colony of CENPALAB was carried out.

  8. Determinación inmunohistoquímica y utilidad pronóstica del receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico en los tumores estromales gastrointestinales Immnunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor and its prognostic value for gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Padilla, D.; Menéndez, P.; García, M; Villarejo, P.; T. Cubo; D. Gambí; R. Pardo; Martín, J.


    Introducción: el receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico, EGFR(HER-1), es un receptor de tirosina quinasas cuya activación permite un aumento de la proliferación celular, angiogénesis, proceso metastásico y disminución de la apoptosis celular. Nuestro objetivo es conocer el valor pronóstico de la inmunotinción de EGFR en tumores estromales gastrointestinales (GIST). Pacientes y método: estudio retrospectivo que incluye todos los GIST intervenidos quirúrgicamente entre 1995-2007 en el Se...

  9. Evaluación de la eficacia y persistencia de la moxidectina (10% e ivermectina (3,15% contra infecciones naturales de nematodos gastrointestinales en bovinos del trópico mexicano

    RI Rodríguez-Vivas


    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia y persistencia de ivermectina-3,15% (IVM-3,15% y moxidectina-10% (MOX-10% contra infecciones naturales de nematodos gastrointestinales (NGI en bovinos del trópico mexicano. Se utilizaron 33 bovinos hembras que fueron divididos en tres grupos de 11 animales recibiendo los siguientes tratamientos: grupo uno tratado con IVM-3,15% (0,63 mg/kg de pv vía subcutánea, grupo dos tratado con MOX-10% (1,0 mg/ kg de pv vía subcutánea, y grupo tres sin tratamiento (control. El conteo de huevos por gramo de heces se determinó mediante las pruebas McMaster los días 0, 3, 7, 14, 35, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91 y 98 postratamiento (PT. Asimismo, se realizaron coprocultivos de larvas L3 para la identificación de nematodos del orden strongylida mediante la técnica de Corticelli-Lai. La IVM-3,15% y MOX-10% presentaron eficacias similares (P > 0.001 del día 3 al 70 PT (100-75,7% y 100-93,1% respectivamente. La MOX-10% presentó mayor persistencia que la IVM-3,15% al día 77 PT. Los géneros de nematodos del orden strongylida identificados fueron Cooperia, Oesophagostomun, Ostertagia, Haemonchus y Trichostrongylus, siendo los dos últimos los más frecuentes. Se concluye que la IVM-3,15% y MOX-10% vía subcutánea presentan buena eficacia para el control de infecciones naturales de NGI del orden strongylida. Se observó que la MOX-10% presenta mayor persistencia que la IVM-3,15% (eficacia de 93,1% y 75,7% a los 70 días PT, respectivamente, probablemente asociado a la mayor dosis de MOX aplicada (1,6 veces.

  10. Curvas de eliminación de huevos por gramo de materia fecal de parásitos gastrointestinales en Búfalos de agua (Bubalus bubalis del Magdalena Medio Colombiano

    German Alonso Prada Sanmiguel


    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue realizado en la hacienda bufalera La Suiza, municipio de Puerto Nare Antioquia en el Magdalena Medio Colombiano. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar las variaciones en la eliminación de huevos por gramo (hpg de materia fecal de parásitos gastrointestinales durante los meses de enero a diciembre a un total de 150 Búfalos de agua (Bubalus bubalis, los cuales fueron divididos en tres grupos de cincuenta animales: menores de 12 meses de edad, de 13 a 36 meses de edad y mayores a 37 meses de edad seleccionados al azar de un inventario total de 4.200 Búfalos. La materia fecal se recolectó directamente del recto mes a mes durante un año, luego fue procesada mediante la técnica de Mc-Master modificada por Scmidht para el respectivo conteo de huevos. Se utilizó el programa Statistix para calcular la estadística descriptiva, la correlación entre las variables climáticas (Temperatura, Brillo Solar y Precipitación, y cada grupo de parásito; el análisis de varianza fue calculado en Microsoft Excel. Se establecieron las curvas de eliminación anual de huevos por gramo de materia fecal del orden Strongylida y los géneros Strongyloides, Toxocara y Eimeria. En el grupo de animales menores de 12 meses de edad los huevos de parásitos más constantes durante todo el año fueron Strongyloides spp. y ooquistes de Eimeria spp; en los grupos de 13 a 36 meses de edad y mayores de 37 meses, los parásitos más constantes fueron del orden Strongylida y del género Eimeria spp, siendo los huevos de Trichuris spp. Los huevos de menor eliminación; en cuanto a la eliminación de hpg de Toxocara vitulorum, sólo se encontró en el grupo menor de 12 meses de edad con una única presentación en los meses de enero, junio y agosto.

  11. Radiation dosage reduction in general dental practice using digital intraoral radiographic systems.

    Hayakawa, Y; Shibuya, H; Ota, Y; Kuroyanagi, K


    This report describes the radiation dosage reduction possible in the general dental practice with two CCD (charge-coupled device)-based intraoral radiographic systems: the RVG-S (Trophy Radiologie, Vincennes, France) and the Sens-A-Ray (Regam Medical Systems, Sundsvall, Sweden). Radiation dosages (air-kerma; Gy) necessary for obtaining clinically acceptable images were measured at the cone tip using an ionization chamber type 660-1 (Nuclear Associates, Victoreen, Inc., Carle Place, New York, USA). When the RVG-S was used with an Oramatic 70 (Trophy Radiologie) X-ray generator, dosages at the cone tip ranged from 322 to 612 microGy. These corresponded to 40-60% of the dosages necessary when using Ektaspeed dental X-ray film (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, New York, USA) with a Heliodent 70 (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) X-ray generator. At 60 kVp, the Sens-A-Ray reduced the dosage in the order of 30% compared with Ektaspeed dental X-ray film. Reduction in radiation dosage is one of the benefits of digital intraoral radiographic systems in general dental clinics. The RVG-S provides greater dose savings than does the Sens-A-Ray.

  12. Ocho diferentes especies de parásitos gastrointestinales fueron identificadas en cerdos de traspatio en El Municipio de El Sauce - León. Nicaragua (Eight different species gastrointestinal parasites were identified in free roaming pigs in EL Sauce - Leon. Nicaragua

    Luz A. Luna


    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó con cerdos criados en traspatio en el municipio de El Sauce, Departamento de León, Nicaragua En el primer estudio se determinó la prevalencia de Parásitos Gastrointestinales (PGI en 60 cerdos de patio sacrificados en matadero. Se identificaron 6 tipos de especies de parásitos gastrointestinales: Macrachantorinchus hirudinaceu, Oesophagustomun spp, Áscaris suum, Trichuris suis e Hyostrongylus rubidus, siendo este ultimo el de mayor prevalencia. Se determinó la prevalencia de PGI en heces de cerdos en dos grupos de edades. Se identificaron los helmintos Ascaris suum, Hyostrongylus, rubidus, Strongiloides ransomi, Oesophagostomun spp, y Trichuris suis. Los protozoos encontrados fueron Isospora suis y Eimeria sp. Con una mayor frecuencia se encontró Ascaris suum (42.86% e Hyostrongylus (39.80%, en el grupo mayor de seis meses, en el grupos menor de seis meses los más frecuentes eran Áscaris suum (48.98% y Trichuris (45.92%. La intensidad de infestación de H. rubidus fue significativamente más alto en grupo de cerdos mayores de seis y T. suis e Isospora suis tuvieron diferencia significativa en el grupo menor de seis meses. En resumen identificamos ocho especies de parásitos gastrointestinales en los cerdos de traspatio, que son de importancia económica. This work was done with free roaming pigs in El Sauce, Department of Leon, Nicaragua. In the first studies the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites were found in 60 pigs in the slaughterhouse where there was 6 types of gastrointestinal parasites identified: Macrachantorinchus hirudinaceus, Oesophagostomun spp, Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, Hyostrongylus rubidus, the last one with the biggest prevalence. Later the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in feces was found in two groups with different age, where the helminths Ascaris suum, Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Oesophagostomun spp, and Trichuris suis were identified. The protozoo that

  13. Manifestaciones gastrointestinales en trastornos del espectro autista

    Lenny G. González


    Full Text Available Unrecognized gastrointestinal disorders, may contribute to the behavioral problems of the non-verbal autistic patients. The objective of this article is to describe any observations about the possible association between the brain and gastrointestinal dysfunctions in children with autistic disorder.

  14. Imaging of thoracic trauma; Radiologie des Thoraxtraumas

    Uffmann, M.; Herold, C.J. [Universitaetsklinik Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiodiagnostik; Fuchs, M. [Universitaetsklinik Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Unfallchirurgie


    Blunt trauma to the chest results from transfer of kinetic energy to the human body. It may cause a wide range of mostly life-threatening injuries, including fractures of the thoracic skeleton, disintegration of the pleural space, contusion or laceration of pulmonary parenchyma and damage to the mediastinal structures. For a systematic approach it may be helpful to follow an organ-based evaluation of thoracic trauma. However, it should be borne in mind that subtle injuries may be associated with serious complications. Trauma to the chest may affect different anatomic compartments at the same time, requiring and extending diagnostic approach. Conventional radiography plays a major role in diagnosting thoracic trauma, complemented by ultrasound examination of the pleura and abdomen. It is well documented that CT scanning represents a major technological improvement for assessment of thoracic trauma. With the advent of fast helical CT scanning this method becomes more applicable for severly traumatized patients and potentially replaces other time-consuming procedures. State-of-the-art imaging of both projection and cross-sectional techniques provides useful information for immediate and appropriate treatment mandatory in patients with thoracic trauma. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Trauma des Thorax ist Folge einer erheblichen, meist stumpfen Gewalteinwirkung auf den Brustkorb und geht mit einem weiten Spektrum an groesstenteils lebendsbedrohlichen Organverletzungen einher. Aus Gruenden der Uebersichtlichkeit koennen die thorakalen Verletzungen in solche des Skeletts, der Pleura, der Lungen und der mediastinalen Strukturen eingeteilt werden. Haeufig besteht jedoch eine enge Verzahnung der Pathologien, und einzelne Symptome koennen Indikatoren fuer weitere, schwerwiegende Verletzungen sein. Darueber hinaus sind extrathorakale Koerperpartien und Organsysteme oftmals mitbetroffen, so dass eine umfassende diagnostische Strategie angewendet werden muss. Die schnelle Erstversorgung und der zuegige Transport in eine Notfallaufnahme mit adaequater Behandlung sind entscheidend fuer die Prognose des Traumapatienten. Die Projektionsradiographie des Thorax ist das Basisverfahren, ergaenzt durch die Ultraschalluntersuchung. Ein zuverlaessiges und genaues Verfahren ist die Spiralcomputertomographie, welcher sich aufgrund ihrer Schnelligkeit neue Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten eroeffnen. Die radiologische Diagnostik erbringt mit modernen Projektions- und Schnittbildverfahren unverzichtbare Informationen. Sie ist ein wichtiges Glied in der interdisziplinaerenen Zusammenarbeit mit dem Ziel eines rationalen, moeglichst schnell durchfuehrbaren Diagnose- und Therapiekonzeptes. (orig.)

  15. Methoden des Prozessmanagements in der Radiologie

    Teichgräber, Ulf


    Innerhalb eines Krankenhauses beeinflusst der Radiologe in einem Verbund von Fachabteilungen wesentlich die Liegezeiten von Patienten durch die diagnostische Information und die Verfügbarkeit seiner Dienstleistungen. Die Organisation und zeitliche Bemessung von radiologischen Untersuchungsabläufen werden dadurch um so wichtiger. Der Arzt wird im Rahmen seines Studiums und seiner Facharztweiterbildung nicht im Organisationsmanagement ausgebildet, entsprechendes Fachwissen muss er sich in der R...

  16. Modulation transfer function of a digital dental x-ray system.

    Chen, S K; Hollender, L


    An impulse train method to control aliasing was used to measure the modulation transfer function of a digital dental x-ray system (RVG 32000 ZHR, Trophy Radiologie, Vincennes, France). The detector of this system is composed of an intensifying screen, a fiber optics taper, and a charged couple device chip. The modulation transfer function could not be measured by impulse method such as the line spread function or edge response function because of aliasing from undersampling of the digital system. The system modulation transfer function was difficult to recover at the spatial frequencies smaller than the Nyquist frequency. The modulation transfer function beyond the Nyquist frequencies was impossible to recover in this study.

  17. Por una antropología médica crítica hoy. Reflexiones a partir de una investigación sobre los problemas gastrointestinales de los niños que pertenecen a una minoría étnica en Canadá

    Liliana Gómez Cardona


    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos algunas reflexiones en torno a las perspectivas teóricas de la antropología médica, principalmente las perspectivas interpretativa, fenomenológica y crítica,  articuladas a los resultados de nuestra investigación sobre los problemas gastrointestinales padecidos por familias haitianas que migraron a Canadá. Se evidencia el carácter polisémico de estos problemas, la negociación de explicaciones tradicionales en la sociedad actual, y que la experiencia individual con tales problemas trasciende la separación mentecuerpo, en la que se involucran las relaciones sociales. Las condiciones político-económicas en ese país y el legado hereditario colonial influyen sobre dicho problema en los niños y sus familias. Defendemos una perspectiva antropológica complementaria que integre aproximaciones teóricas, que sea sensible y crítica ante el contexto macrosocial, los códigos semiológicos culturales y la dimensión experiencial de los procesos de salud-enfermedad.

  18. Erfolgreiches Lernen in einem Blended Learning-Szenario im Vergleich mit der Präsenzausbildung - am Beispiel einer MTA-Ausbildung der Fachrichtung Radiologie [Successful learning in a blended learning scenario in comparison with face-to-face instruction - illustrated by the example of the training of medical technical assistants specialising in radiology

    Hohenberg, Gregor


    Full Text Available [english] Purpose: This article presents partial results of an evaluation study which compared a three-year blended learning scenario with traditional face-to-face training for medical technical assistants specialising in radiology. Methods: The blended learning approach investigated here is based on an individual tutoring approach, i.e. students work on the necessary training units during self-learning periods, while a tutor is available at all times via the Internet. Following the theory of constructivism, the tutor should see him- or herself as a coach supporting the learner working on the individual training units. As the Saarland University Hospital offers both face-to-face training and the blended learning course, it was possible to perform direct comparative tests. Results: On the basis of the final state examination results, it could be shown that the participants of the blended learning course achieved equivalent or slightly better exam results. Conclusion: The positive results of the blended learning participants gain increased significance against the backdrop of the demographic data of both groups of participants: with an average age of 43 (median: 43, the blended learning participants show a significantly higher life experience compared to the face-to-face training participants, who had an average age of 28 (median: 25. That shows that the blended learning method is a good method to be used by people working in radiology. [german] Zielsetzung: Dieser Artikel stellt Teilergebnisse einer Evaluationsstudie dar, deren Zielsetzung es ist, ein dreijähriges Blended learning-Szenario mit einer klassischen Präsenzausbildung für medizinisch-technische Assistenten der Fachrichtung Radiologie zu vergleichen. Methodik: Der hier untersuchte Blended Learning-Ansatz beruht auf einem individuellen Betreuungsansatz, d. h. während die Teilnehmenden in den Selbstlernphasen die Unterrichtseinheiten bearbeiten, steht jederzeit via Internet ein

  19. Efecto in vitro del extracto acuoso de Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight & Arn. en el desarrollo de las fases exógenas de estrongílidos gastrointestinales de ovinos In vitro effect of the aqueous extract of Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight &Arn. on the development of exogenous stages of gastrointestinal strongyles in sheep

    J Arece


    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto in vitro de extractos acuosos de hojas de marabú (Dichrostachys cinerea en la eclosión de huevecillos, el desarrollo larvario y la migración de las larvas del tercer estadio de estrongílidos gastrointestinales. Los tratamientos fueron tres concentraciones de extractos acuosos de hojas de marabú (500, 250 y 125 mg/mL, soluciones de albendazol y levamisol, así como el Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS y el dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO como controles; el diseño fue completamente aleatorizado. Los porcentajes de eclosión presentaron diferencias significativas entre postratamientos. El PBS ocasionó la mayor tasa de eclosión (96,68%; el 30,51% eclosionó con el albendazol y los extractos de hojas de marabú mostraron tasas de eclosión moderadas (entre 49,75 y 66,54%, al parecer dependientes de la dosis. El desarrollo de las larvas L1/L2 a las L3 tratadas con extracto acuoso de marabú también presentó efectos dosis-dependientes y diferencias significativas con respecto a los grupos controles positivos y negativos. La dosis de 500 mg/mL inhibió el desarrollo larvario en porcentajes similares a los del albendazol (8,89 y 1,28%, respectivamente. El medio PBS no interfirió en la capacidad de migración de las larvas, mientras que con el levamisol los valores se redujeron de 86,45 a 93,92%; los extractos acuosos también redujeron significativamente dicha migración, con valores entre 77,67 y 48,97%. Los extractos acuosos de D. cinerea presentaron actividad antihelmíntica in vitro en los tres estadios de desarrollo del ciclo exógeno de los estrongílidos gastrointestinales de ovinos; esta actividad resultó más evidente en el desarrollo y la migración de las larvas de estos nemátodos.The in vitro effect of aqueous extract of leaves from Dichrostachys cinerea on egg hatching, larval development and migration of third-stage larvae of gastrointestinal strongyles, was evaluated. The treatments were three concentrations of aqueous

  20. S2k guidelines for diverticular disease and diverticulitis. Diagnosis, classification, and therapy for the radiologist; S2k-Leitlinie Divertikelkrankheit und Divertikulitis. Diagnostik, Klassifikation und Therapie fuer die Radiologie

    Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Layer, G. [Ludwigshafen Hospital (Germany). Central Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology


    Diverticular disease and diverticulitis represent an increasingly common disease especially in patients with advanced age. The German Society of Digestive and Metabolic Diseases (DGVS) as well as the German Society of General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) in collaboration with the German Radiology Society (DRG) created and published S2k guidelines regarding this topic. Knowledge of the diagnosis and therapy of this common disease is extremely important for the radiologist for the daily clinical routine. In this article we review and discuss the most important clinical situations and algorithms of this disease focusing on radiological topics. Additionally, we introduce the new CCD (classification of diverticular disease) system regarding radiology.

  1. Evaluation of radiation exposure in interventional radiology (IR) using active personal dosimeters (APD); Evaluierung der Strahlenexposition in der Interventionellen Radiologie (IR) mit Hilfe von Aktiv-Personen-Dosimetern (APD)

    Neugschwandtner, K. [KH Hietzing mit NZ Rosenhuegel, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Krankenhausphysik; TU Wien (Austria). Atominstitut; Freund, R. [KH Hietzing mit NZ Rosenhuegel, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Krankenhausphysik; Mertikian, G. [KH Hietzing mit NZ Rosenhuegel, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Poljanc, K. [TU Wien (Austria). Atominstitut; Ibi, B. [KA Rudolfstiftung, Wien (Austria). Stabstelle Medizinphysik


    Increased awareness of high personal dose exposure of medical staff in interventional radiology (IR) demands an assessment of radiation protection procedures. Mandatory dose monitoring systems do not allow to relate dose to specific actions of the staff as they just accumulate a total dose per month. Doses of head and limbs are expected to be high as those body parts which are not protected by the lead apron. We decided to use a measuring system by Unfors, RaySafe i2 which is built for real- time- dosimetry of scattered radiation in pulsed X-ray fields. An increased dose of the body side closer to the X-ray source (left body side) was detected. This is due to the position and the posture of the radiologist during intervention. Separating the phases of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) from those of fluoroscopy allowed not only to list the separate accumulated doses, but showed as well a big difference in dose rate. The measurements revealed the need of an improvement of common radiation protection, especially while DSA.

  2. Patología médica y embarazo: Trastornos gastrointestinales, neurológicos, cardiovasculares y dermatológicos Medical disorders and pregnancy: Gastrointestinal, neurological, cardiovascular and dermatological disorders

    A.F. Pérez Rodríguez


    Full Text Available En la mujer embarazada se pueden presentar patologías médicas similares a la no gestante, si bien el cuadro clínico de algunas patologías así como el proceso diagnóstico o terapéutico puede estar alterado por los cambios que el embarazo produce en ella, así como por la presencia del feto, que en algunos casos puede limitar los métodos diagnósticos o las terapias a aplicar. En este trabajo se exponen las patologías digestivas, cardiovasculares, del sistema nervioso y dermatosis más relevantes por su frecuencia o por su gravedad, que pueden presentarse en una consulta de urgencias, con un enfoque práctico sobre el manejo inicial y sobre el pronóstico para la madre y el feto.A pregnant woman can present medical pathologies similar to a woman who is not pregnant. However, the clinical features of some pathologies and the diagnostic or therapeutic process might be altered due to changes produced by pregnancy and the presence of the foetus. In some cases this can limit the diagnostic methods or the therapies to be applied. This article sets out the digestive and cardiovascular pathologies, pathologies of the nervous system and dermatoses of greatest relevance due to their frequency or severity, which might be encountered in an emergency consultation. It also offers a practical approach for the initial handling and the prognosis for the mother and the foetus.

  3. Pólipos gastrointestinales en pediatría

    Josefina Monserrat Cázares-Méndez


    Full Text Available Antecedentes: el pólipo gastrointestinal es un tumor o crecimiento localizado que protruye desde la pared hacia la luz intestinal. Su manifestación clínica más común es la rectorragia recurrente; también puede causar dolor abdominal, prolapso del pólipo por el recto, prurito, dolor después de la defecación, diarrea mucosa o constipación de vientre. La colonoscopia es el procedimiento de elección para diagnosticar y tratar los pólipos. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas, colonoscópicas e histológicas de los pacientes pediátricos con poliposis colónica, atendidos en el Servicio de Gastroenterología y Nutrición del Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, México. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, transversal, retrospectivo, descriptivo. Se revisaron todos los expedientes de los pacientes a quienes se realizó estudio endoscópico del 4 de junio del 2010 al 31 de diciembre del 2013. Resultados: se revisaron 56 expedientes; 49 cumplían los criterios de inclusión con predominio del sexo masculino (59.2%. El síntoma principal de estos pacientes fue el sangrado moderado del tubo digestivo bajo no anemizante en 41 casos (83.7%; la localización más frecuente fue rectal (51%. Conclusiones: en pacientes preescolares y escolares con hemorragia de tubo digestivo bajo “no anemizante”, la primera posibilidad diagnóstica es un pólipo que debe ser diagnosticado, tratado y, en su caso, seguido por el tiempo necesario.

  4. Conducta anormal de enfermedad en pacientes con enfermedades gastrointestinales

    Vinaccia, Stefano; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Contreras, Francoise; Universidad de Santo Tomás; Bedoya, Maria Cristina; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Carrillo, Lina Maria; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Cuartas, María Juliana; Universidad de San Buenaventura; López, Nathalia; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Cano, Érika Janeth; Universidad de San Buenaventura


    El propósito de este estudio fue identificar las dimensiones de la conducta anormal de enfermedad, locus de control hacia la salud, niveles de depresión y propensión a la ansiedad en 60 pacientes con diagnóstico de colitis ulcerativa y colón irritable, así como establecer las diferencias entre ambos grupos. Para ello, se utilizaron los cuestionarios de Conducta de Enfermedad (IBQ), Depresión (CES.D) y Locus de Control hacia la Salud (MHLC), y asimismo la Escala de Propensión hacia la Ansiedad...

  5. Head-neck-radiology; Kopf-Hals-Radiologie

    Cohnen, Mathias (ed.) [Staedtische Kliniken Neuss Lukaskrankenhaus GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer klinische Radiologie


    The book on head-neck-radiology covers the following issues: (1) Methodic fundamentals: conventional radiography, angiography, sonography, computerized tomography, digital volume tomography, NMR imaging, nuclear medicine. (2) Base of the skull. (3) Petrous bone. (4) Pharynx. (5) Paranasal sinuses. (6) Eye socket. (7) Temporomandibular joint. (8) Salivary gland. (9) Oral cavity. (19) Parynx. (11) Neck soft tissue and lymph nodes. (12) Thyroid and parathyroid. (13) Teeth and jaw. (14) Interventions.

  6. Radiation protection in interventional radiology; Strahlenschutz in der interventionellen Radiologie

    Adamus, R.; Loose, R.; Galster, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg Nord, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Nuernberg (Germany); Wucherer, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg Nord, Institut fuer Medizinische Physik, Nuernberg (Germany); Uder, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Radiologie, Erlangen (Germany)


    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x-ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X-ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses. (orig.) [German] Die Anwendung ionisierender Strahlung in der Medizin scheint sowohl fuer Patienten als auch fuer beruflich exponierte Personen sicher zu sein. Die interventionellen Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre mit sehr durchleuchtungs- und dosisintensiven Eingriffen erfordern allerdings eine Intensivierung des Strahlenschutzes. Es empfiehlt sich, die zur Verfuegung stehenden Moeglichkeiten auszuschoepfen. Neben den Geraeteoptionen muss der Strahlenschutz am Eingriffstisch durch Bleilamellenaufstecker und montiertes Bleiglas intensiv betrieben werden. Besonderen Fokus muss auf den Schutz der Augen zur Kataraktvermeidung gelegt werden. Da dessen Ausbildung nach neuen Erkenntnissen moeglicherweise nicht mehr deterministisch zu sehen ist, hat die Internationale Strahlenschutzkommission (IRCP) den Grenzwert von 150 auf 20 Mikrosievert (mSv)/Jahr erniedrigt. Messungen belegen, dass unter Einhaltung aller Strahlenschutzmassnahmen plus Bleiglasbrille dieser einzuhalten ist. (orig.)

  7. The colon. Clinical radiology and endoscopy. Kolon: Klinische Radiologie - Endoskopie

    Rosenbusch, G.; Reeders, J.W.A.J.


    This comprehensive reference work presents in-depth information on the diagnostic radiology and endoscopy of the colon. After a brief review of the history of colon examinations, two chapters explain the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of the large intestine as well as the methods and techniques applied for radiological examination of the colon. The pathology and characteristical findings and the diagnostic evaluation of the various types of disease are the main subject, with the chapters discussing inflammations and tumors consuming by far most of the space, but there is also valuable information on vascular lesions, traumata, latrogenous or post-surgery lesions, among others, and on the characteristical findings in children. Numerous tables, radiographs and endoscopic images together with drawings illustrate and accompany the textbook information. (orig.). 492 figs., 95 tabs.

  8. Sedoanalgesia in interventional radiology; Analgosedierung in der interventionellen Radiologie

    Linsenmaier, U.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Wagner, P. [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Anaesthesiologie und Intensivmedizin; Ambulantes Operationszentrum, Muenchen Pasing (Germany)


    Purpose: Development of a save and effective protocol for analgosedation of patients undergoing painful interventional procedures. Material and Methods: In a prospective trial a consecutive series of 72 adult patients underwent analgosedation during painful interventions. A radiologist performed the analgosedation, the patients received a combination of a shortly effective piperidine derivative (Alfentanil [Rapifen {sup trademark} ]; 7.5-15 {mu}g/kg body weight) and Benzodiazepine (midazolam [Dormicum {sup trademark} ]; 20 {mu}g/kg body weight). After pre-procedure oxygenation patients were continuously monitored. Pain and discomfort were scored using an established visual-analog pain score (0-10). A control group (n=24) had received midazolam, pentazocine or fentanyl according to the study protocol. Results: All procedures could be carried out by an interventional radiologist and a nurse and/or technologist only. In 69/72 cases adequate analgosedation could be achieved. Injection of alfentanil was titrated, with a rapid onset and short acting effect of the analgesia. Patients reported an average pain score of 2.6 vs. 4.5 in the control group. Over 55% experienced no or mild pain (score 0-3), in the control group only 8% reached this level. Conclusion: A combination of shortly effective alfentanil and midazolam allows interventional radiologists to perform major procedures alone under effective analgosedation. This medication scheme is superior to the medication upon demand. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die Entwicklung eines einfach zu handhabenden Protokolls fuer Radiologen zur Analgosedierung bei schmerzhaften interventionellen Eingriffen. Methoden: Prospektiv wurden 72 konsekutive Patienten zusammengefasst, bei denen schmerzhafte interventionelle Eingriffe geplant waren. Die Anlagosedierung erfolgte mit einer Kombinationsmedikation aus kurzwirksamem Piperidinderivat (Alfentanil [Rapifen {sup trademark} ]; 7,5-15 {mu}g/kg KG) und Benzodiazepin (Midazolam [Dormicum {sup trademark} ]; 20 {mu}g/kg KG). Nach praeinterventioneller Oxygenierung wurde ein kontinuierliches Monitoring durchgefuehrt. Das subjektive Schmerzempfinden der Patienten wurde mit einem visuellen Analogscore (0-10) erfasst. Die Kontrollgruppe (n=24) hatte nach Bedarf Midazolam, Pentazocin (Fortral {sup trademark}) oder Fentanylcitrat (Fentanyl {sup trademark}) erhalten. Ergebnisse: Analgosedierung war in allen Faellen jeweils von einem Radiologen und einer Assistenzperson durchfuehrbar gewesen, in 69/72 Faellen wurde eine ausreichende Analgesie erreicht. Die Gabe von Alfentanil (Rapifen {sup trademark}) wurde titriert (0,4-2,5 mg). Das maximale Schmerzempfinden (0-10) der Patienten betrug durchschnittlich 2,6, in der Kontrollgruppe 4.5. Ueber 55% der Patienten gaben keine oder nur geringe Schmerzen (score 0-3) an, in der Kontrollgruppe waren dies lediglich 8%. Schlussfolgerungen: Der kombinierte Einsatz von kurzwirksamem Alfentanil und Midazolam ermoeglicht interventionellen Radiologen eine effektive Analgosedierung von Patienten bei schmerzhaften interventionellen Eingriffen. Diese Form der Analgosedierung ist der Medikation bei Bedarf deutlich ueberlegen. (orig.)

  9. Determinación inmunohistoquímica y utilidad pronóstica del receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico en los tumores estromales gastrointestinales Immnunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor and its prognostic value for gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    D. Padilla


    Full Text Available Introducción: el receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico, EGFR(HER-1, es un receptor de tirosina quinasas cuya activación permite un aumento de la proliferación celular, angiogénesis, proceso metastásico y disminución de la apoptosis celular. Nuestro objetivo es conocer el valor pronóstico de la inmunotinción de EGFR en tumores estromales gastrointestinales (GIST. Pacientes y método: estudio retrospectivo que incluye todos los GIST intervenidos quirúrgicamente entre 1995-2007 en el Servicio de Cirugía General y del Aparato Digestivo del Hospital General de Ciudad Real. Variables clínicas: edad, sexo, clínica, mortalidad, recidiva. Variables patológicas: a macroscópicas: localización, diámetro; b microscópicas: necrosis tumoral, índice mitótico, tipo celular; y c inmunohistoquímicas: vimentina (V9, Dako A/s; actina del músculo liso (HHF-35, Biogenex; CD34 (QBEND/10; S100 (Policlonal Dako A/S; CD117 (c-kit Rabbit, antihuman polyclonal antibody, 1:600; PDGFR-alfa (Rabbit polyclonal antibody, 1:50, Sta. Cruz Biotechnology. Variables moleculares pronósticas: P-53, PAb240 (DakoCytomation, 1:75, Ki-67, clona MIB1 (Dako, 1:120 y EGFR pharmDx™ Dako Autostainer (Dako, Dinamarca. Criterios de malignidad: criterios de Fletcher. Resultados: entre 1995 y 2007, 35 GIST, fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente en nuestro Servicio. Edad media: 61,11 ± 11,02, siendo mujeres en el 62,9% de los casos. Debutaron con hemorragia digestiva en un 40%. La mediana de seguimiento fue de 28 meses (3-133. La mortalidad fue de 54,3%, con recidiva del 40%. Variables morfológicas: la localización más frecuente fue gástrica, 51,4% (18. Existió necrosis tumoral en un 57,1%, 20. El patrón celular fue fusocelular en un 57,1%, y epitelioide en un 14,3%. El diámetro máximo fue de 9,58 ± 6,29. El índice mitótico por 50 campos de gran aumento fue de 13,44 ± 16,08. En un 51,45%, 18, fueron neoplasias de alto riesgo. Valores inmunohistoqu

  10. [The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) for ultrasound of the thyroid].

    Russ, G; Bigorgne, C; Royer, B; Rouxel, A; Bienvenu-Perrard, M


    To develop a standardized system for analyzing and reporting thyroid ultrasound, or Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS), in order to improve the management of patients with thyroid nodules. An atlas of imaging features, a standardized vocabulary, a report template and TIRADS categories 0 to 6 were defined, based on the BI-RADS system used for mammography. The diagnostic efficacy of the system was tested by a retrospective review of 500 nodules (159 cancers and 341 benign nodules) and comparing US imaging features to histological findings. Five signs allow accurate detection of 90% of thyroid cancers. The score of a nodule can be easily defined by using an organigram. Sensitivity, specificity and odds-ratio of the score were respectively 95%, 68% and 40. TIRADS is a quality assurance tool for thyroid ultrasound. It contains an image atlas, a standardized report and categories to evaluate thyroid nodules to easily assess the risk of individual nodules being cancers and facilitate patient management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS and Éditions françaises de radiologie. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) or French "classification ACR" What tool for what use? A point of view.

    Dilhuydy, Marie Hélène


    The American College of Radiology Task Force on Breast Cancer published in 2003 the fourth edition of BI-RADS for Mammography. It is a lexicon of mammography terms including illustrations of each feature described, followed by a reporting format with assessment categories according to the degree of concern. The aim is to reduce inconsistencies in mammography reports and recommendations for assessment, to facilitate outcome monitoring and to allow each radiologist to audit his own mammography practice. In France, the Société Française de Radiologie acquired the rights to translate BI-RADS, word for word and without adaptation or influence. The last edition was published in 2004. Simultaneously, French Haute Autorité de Santé and National Committee for Breast Cancer Screening proposed to all community practice mammography facilities a classification of detected abnormalities stating more clearly than BI-RADS do which feature has to be included in such and such assessment category and how to manage it. This "classification ACR" is adapted from BI-RADS but strongly influenced by the context of the French nationwide screening programme, and by European recommendations to limitate undesirable risks of screening such as false positive and overdiagnosis. The differences between the two systems are discussed.

  12. Sensor noise in direct digital imaging (the RadioVisioGraphy, Sens-a-Ray, and Visualix/Vixa systems) evaluated by subtraction radiography.

    Wenzel, A


    The aim of this study was to evaluate sensor noise with the use of the subtraction method in radiographs captured with three direct digital intraoral systems. Ten radiographs were taken of the lower left molar region of a phantom head at each of three exposure times: 0.20 seconds, 0.46 seconds, and 0.60 seconds with the use of the RadioVisioGraphy (Trophy Radiologie, Vincennes, France), Sens-a-Ray (Regam Medical Systems, AB, Sundsvall, Sweden), and Visualix (Gendex, Philips Medical Systems, Inc., Monza, Italy) systems. Neither the x-ray tube nor the phantom were moved between exposures, and the three sensors were identically positioned. The images were stored in the tagged image file format provided by the systems in 8-bit depth and imported by a subtraction program. Subtractions were performed between identical images taken with the three systems. The standard deviation for the distribution of the shades of grey in the subtraction image histogram served as an expression for image noise. Paired t tests evaluated differences between the standard deviations of the subtraction images from the three systems. The standard deviation increased with increasing exposure time for all three systems (p < 0.00001). The standard deviation for the images performed with Visualix were 6.47, 10.34, and 11.16 at exposure times 0.20, 0.46, and 0.60, respectively. For the RadioVisioGraphy, these values were 1.61, 2.03, and 2.18, and for Sens-a-Ray 2.90, 3.98, and 3.96, respectively. The differences between the systems were highly statistically significant (p < 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Radiation exposure of children in pediatric radiology, Pt. 8. Radiation doses during thoracoabdominal babygram and abdominal X-ray examination of the newborn and young infants; Zur Strahlenexposition von Kindern in der paediatrischen Radiologie. T. 8. Strahlendosen beim thorakoabdominalen babygramm und bei der abdomenaufnahme neugeborener und saeuglinge

    Schneider, Karl; Seidenbusch, M.C. [Abt. Radiologie, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany)


    Purpose: Reconstruction of radiation doses for the thoracoabdominal babygram and the abdomen X-ray from radiographic settings and exposure data acquired at Dr. von Hauner's Kinderspital (children's hospital of the University of Munich, DvHK) between 1976 and 2007; comparison of these dose values with values reported in the literature; recommendation of a reference dose value for the thoracoabdominal babygram. Materials and Methods: The data from all X-ray examinations performed since 1976 at DvHK were stored electronically in a database. After 30 years of data collection, the database now includes 305 107 radiological examinations (radiographs and fluoroscopies), especially 1493 thoracoabdominal babygrams and 3632 abdomen X-rays of newborns and young infants. With the computer program PAeDOS, a specific dose reconstruction algorithm was developed. Results: the entrance dose values of thoracoabdominal babygrams and abdomen X-rays in DvHK could be reduced in the last 30 years by a factor of 5 to 8. They are far below the entrance dose values reported by other radiology departments in Europe. Nevertheless, a slight increase in the entrance doses that correlates with the introduction of a digital storage phosphor system could be observed in the last years. Conclusion: because nearly all radiosensitive body organs in early life are involved during a thoracoabdominal babygram and because of the high radiation sensitivity of newborns, thoracoabdominal babygrams should be performed in neonatology with caution. A dose value of 1.0 cGy cm{sup 2} could serve as the actual reference dose value for the thoracoabdominal babygram of the newborn. (orig.)

  14. Combined use of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium for imaging and intervention. A hitherto widely ignored topic in radiological practice; Kombinierter zeitnaher Einsatz jod- und gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel in der diagnostischen und interventionellen Radiologie. Ein bisher vernachlaessigtes Kapitel der radiologischen Praxis

    Golder, W.


    The synchronous use of chemically different contrast media in the same body compartment is a challenge for the radiologist, whether it is scheduled or unexpected. However, to inject contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium at the same time can be a prerequisite for the examination of several organs or organ systems. Unlike other topics of contrast-enhanced imaging procedures, the difficulties encountered with double contrast injections have been widely ignored in the literature. In the absence of reliable data from experimental and clinical studies the radiologist is dependent on case reports, information provided by the contrast media manufacturers, personal communications, mostly scanty personal experiences and a skilful time management, in order to overcome the situation. Only the combination of X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance arthrography can be performed without another thought. However, the more or less synchronous vascular application of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium requires vigilance. The more seriously ill the patient is, the more caution is advised even if the decision on the combined administration has to be reached urgently. The following overview gives a description of the properties of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium as far as interactions following simultaneous administration are concerned. Subsequently, the clinically relevant situations and constellations are outlined and analyzed. (orig.) [German] Die kombinierte Gabe zweier chemisch verschiedener Kontrastmittel stellt fuer den Radiologen eine Herausforderung dar. Der mehr oder weniger zeitgleiche Einsatz jod- und gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel kann sowohl geplant sein als auch bei der Untersuchung einer Reihe von Organen/Organsystemen unvorhergesehen notwendig werden. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Themen der kontrastverstaerkten Diagnostik ist dem Problem der Doppelinjektion in der Literatur bisher wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt worden

  15. Factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de fistulas gastrointestinales postoperatorias en Hospital Universitario Mayor

    Neira Rojas, Andrés Mauricio


    Estudio de tipo casos y controles que analiza los posibles factores de riesgo identificados en los pacientes llevados a cirugía abdominal mayor en el Hospital Universitario Mayor por el grupo de CIrugía General.

  16. Minimally invasive management of metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Minimalinvasive Therapieoptionen bei Metastasen gastrointestinaler Stromatumoren

    Kamusella, P.C.; Bethke, A.; Platzek, I.; Wiggermann, P.; Wissgott, C.; Stroszczynski, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Dresden, Radiologisches Institut, Dresden (Germany)


    Minimally invasive radiological procedures can lead to an improvement in the prognosis and the clinical symptoms in cases of metastases of gastro-intestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in the context of multimodal therapy concepts. In the context of interdisciplinary therapy decision-making radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and transarterial tumor embolization should be considered. (orig.) [German] Minimalinvasive radiologische Verfahren koennen bei Metastasierung eines gastrointestinalen Stromatumors (GIST) im Rahmen multimodaler Therapiekonzepte zu einer Verbesserung der Prognose und klinischen Symptomatik fuehren. Im Rahmen des interdisziplinaeren Therapienentscheids sollten die Radiofrequenzablation (RFA) und die transarterielle Tumorembolisation in Betracht gezogen werden. (orig.)

  17. Primært gastrointestinale symptomer ved malaria hos flygtningebørn

    St-Martin, Gry; Thusgaard, Mikkel; Simonsen, Hanne Marie


    We present three cases of malaria in refugee children newly arrived from Sub-saharan Africa. Only one of the three children had fever and all had high parasite loads (2,5-14% parasitemia). Malaria is an important differential diagnosis in refugees from endemic areas, regardless of whether...

  18. Mecanismos patogénicos de las lesiones gastrointestinales inducidas por meloxicam y piroxicam.

    Villegas Lama, Isabel


    Falta Palabras clave Los antiinflamatorios no esteroides (AINE) se encuentran entre los fármacos más consumidos en todo el mundo. Su amplia utilización está avalada por sus propiedades analgésicas, antiinflamatorias y antipiréticas. Sin embargo, el uso de estos fármacos se acompaña de efectos secundarios, que pueden aparecer hasta en el 25% de los pacientes, siendo los relacionados con el tracto digestivo un número importante. Se ha descrito todo un abanico de reacciones adversas a este ni...

  19. Bidrager montering af gastrointestinale biopsier på milliporefilter til en forbedret snitkvalitet?

    Asmussen, Lisa; Bernstein, Inge; Matzen, Peter;


    acceptable sections. The differences between these figures are not statistically significant. 41.7% of the mounted GIBs were placed with the mucosal surface facing the MF, which entails a risk of damaging the tissue. CONCLUSION: MF-mounting of GIB did not contribute to section quality. Since the handling...

  20. Realimentación en los casos de afecciones gastrointestinales en los niños

    Iriarte, Marco A.


    Señores : Ya os he hablado en conferencias anteriores sobre las reglas generales que deben seguirse, cuando un niño de menos de un año presenta una afección digestiva grave, sea una distrofia aguda de leche de vaca, sea la diarrea coleriforme, o la enterocolitis muco-hemorrágicaen todas las cuales el tratamiento por la dieta hídrica, debecomenzar la medicación y del cual os hice ya otra conferencia. También me ocupé del. caldo de legumbres introducido por el Profesor Mery y de las diferentes ...

  1. La radiologie est entree avant l'electricite dans les hopitaux de Paris.

    Pallardy, G


    The paper looks at the period from 1896 to the beginning of the 20th century and uses as example the installation of radiological equipment by Antoine Beclere, at his own cost, in his department of medicine at the Hopital Tenon, and later at the Hopital Saint-Antoine. The important role of Antoine Beclere in French radiology is recalled as well as his visionary concept of the medical applications of X-rays. The solutions found to ensure the running of the indispensable high tension generators in the two hospitals without electricity are evoked: first, a hand operated electrostatic machine, then an induction coil energized by an accumulator battery that had to be recharched outside. At the end of 1899 at Saint-Antoine, the situation is improved by the decision of the "Conseil de Surveillance" (the Safety Committee) to hook up the radiological equipment to the dynamos which produces electricity for the maternity ward. The problem is definitively solved in 1904, eight years after the first radiological examinations, by the construction of an electric power plant in the hospital. An overview of the electricity available in the Paris region at that time, with the multiplicity of electric power plants, and the great variety of currents provided, largely explains why the hospitals hesitated to use those services. Finally, diverse solutions adopted by other hospitals using radiology are examined, which include the uniting of radiology and photography departments run by "radiographers" who were not physicians, such as A. Londe at the Hopital La Salpetriere, G. Contremoulins at Necker, and Ch. Vaillant at Beaudelocque. In conclusion, the author explains why Antoine Beclere is chosen to illustrate this presentation. His name has been left to posterity because of his considerable accomplishments, which led to French diagnostic and therapeutic radiology being recognized as a medical speciality. His teaching of French and foreign physicians and his seminal work in the field earned him an international reputation and numerous honors. A hospital of the "Assistance Publique a Paris" now bears his name.

  2. French days of radiology (J.F.R.) 2005; Journees francaises de radiologie (JFR) 2005



    Five parts are presented, the nuclear safety authority informs the radiologists on the evolution of the regulation in radiation protection and its practical application; statements of medical and dental radiodiagnosis equipments; licensing for use of radiodiagnosis installation; to use the diagnosis reference levels in radiology to optimize the practices; radiation protection in interventional radiology. (N.C.)

  3. Radiation protection of patients in interventional radiology; Radioprotection du patient en radiologie interventionnelle

    Roche, A. [Departement d' imagerie, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)


    The purpose of this article is to provide radiologists with key elements of radiation protection for interventional radiology patients. The following points will be discussed: standards of the fluoroscopy units, dedicated dosimetry, risks (especially cutaneous) and means to reduce them, optimization of interventional radiology dose protocols, and national and international regulations. Appropriateness criteria in interventional radiology are national guidelines that should be implemented. (author)

  4. Diagnostic radiology of osteo-articular lesions; Radiologie der Knochen- und Gelenkerkrankungen

    Heuck, A. [ed.


    The textbook teaches the fundamentals as well as the ins and outs of diagnostic image analysis and hence may also serve as a reference book, e.g. for information on lesions of rare occurrence. It offers easy and rapid access to the systematically arranged material covering all relevant methods and findings. (orig./CB) [German] Gerade Anfaenger werden gerne an den 'Knochenplatz' gesetzt - und stellen dann fest, wie schwierig die exakte Analyse der konventionellen Bilder und wie gross die Zahl der Differentialdiagnosen ist. Dieses Buch lehrt die Grundlagen und Feinheiten der Bildanalyse und kann auch als konzentriertes Nachschlagewerk, z.B. zu seltenen Erkrankungen, genutzt werden. Durch CT und MRT ist die radiologische Beurteilung der Knochen- und Gelenkerkrankungen in vieler Hinsicht verbessert, fuer den einzelnen aber auch noch unueberschaubarer geworden. Dieses Buch bringt Uebersicht und Systematik in die Vielfalt der Methoden und Befunde. (orig.)

  5. Radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks in radiology; Strahleninduzierte DNA-Doppelstrangbrueche in der Radiologie

    Kuefner, M.A. [Dornbirn Hospital (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Brand, M.; Engert, C.; Uder, M. [Erlangen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schwab, S.A. [Radiologis, Oberasbach (Germany)


    Shortly after the discovery of X-rays, their damaging effect on biological tissues was observed. The determination of radiation exposure in diagnostic and interventional radiology is usually based on physical measurements or mathematical algorithms with standardized dose simulations. γ-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy is a reliable and sensitive method for the quantification of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in blood lymphocytes. The detectable amount of these DNA damages correlates well with the dose received. However, the biological radiation damage depends not only on dose but also on other individual factors like radiation sensitivity and DNA repair capacity. Iodinated contrast agents can enhance the x-ray induced DNA damage level. After their induction DSB are quickly repaired. A protective effect of antioxidants has been postulated in experimental studies. This review explains the principle of the γ-H2AX technique and provides an overview on studies evaluating DSB in radiologic examinations.

  6. Evaluation of radiation protection in interventional radiology; Evaluation de la radioprotection en radiologie interventionnelle

    Le Pape, I.; Aget, H. [Centre Hospitalie Universitaire de Tours, 37 (France); Rondeau du Royer, C. [Inspection Regional du Travail de la region Centre (France)


    The interventional radiology, relatively to the conventional radiology exposes particularly to ionizing radiations, because of the time of utilisation of the radioscopy. It is important to optimize the risk according to the ALARA principle. The efforts must be made on the following fields: the radiation protection means, the periodic and systematic monitoring of material, a regular evaluation of operators irradiation, the training of non radiologist operators, the respect of the legislation on the maximum permissible dose equivalents. (N.C.)

  7. French days of radiology (J.F.R.) 2005; Journees francaises de radiologie (JFR) 2005



    Five parts are presented, the nuclear safety authority informs the radiologists on the evolution of the regulation in radiation protection and its practical application; statements of medical and dental radiodiagnosis equipments; licensing for use of radiodiagnosis installation; to use the diagnosis reference levels in radiology to optimize the practices; radiation protection in interventional radiology. (N.C.)

  8. Modern imaging techniques in the pediatric radiology; Moderne Bildgebungstechniken in der paediatrischen Radiologie

    Staatz, Gundula [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz (Germany). Sektion Kinderradiologie; Stenzel, Martin [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Kinderradiologie


    The contribution on modern imaging techniques in the pediatric radiology covers the following topics: new sequencing techniques in pediatric skull MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): analysis of brain volume changes, diffusion weighted MRI, fractional anisotropy and fiber tracking, susceptibility weighted MRI; fetal MRI and whole-body MRI.

  9. De wetenschappelijke ontwikkelingen in de radiologie en radiotherapie binnen de geneeskunde in Nederland 1896-1922

    Simon, Kees


    Met de ontdekking van de röntgenstralen in 1895 werd niet simpelweg een nieuw gereedschap toegevoegd aan het arsenaal van de medicus. Zoiets gebeurt pas, aldus Thomas Kuhn, als de professionele gemeenschap haar traditionele onderzoeksmethode heeft gerevalueerd. Dit historisch onderzoek besteedt aand

  10. Radiology and pregnancy. Pt. 2. Clinical recommendations; Radiologie und Schwangerschaft. T. 2. Klinische Empfehlungen

    Weisser, G.; Neff, K.W.; Buesing, K.A. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Steil, V. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim (Germany)


    In spite of a growing number of radiological scans in pregnant women there is still a high level of uncertainty concerning radiation exposure to the fetus. At the same time, the risk of fetal radiation injury is frequently overestimated. This entails an avoidable fear in the pregnant patient and may delay urgently required imaging and thus lead to an increased risk for maternal and fetal health. As a consequence, radiological scans in pregnant patients do not only require a thorough medical check but also a careful estimate of the specific radiation exposure to the fetus. The previous first part of the article described the legal requirements in Germany, the technical exposure and pharmacological risks for the pregnant woman and the fetus. The current second article focuses on the risk analysis for examinations with ionizing radiation and will provide recommendations for typical indications for maternal and fetal imaging. (orig.) [German] Trotz einer wachsenden Zahl radiologischer Untersuchungen von Schwangeren bestehen oft Unsicherheiten ueber die Gefaehrdung des Feten durch eine begleitende Strahlenexposition. Dabei wird das Risiko fetaler Schaeden haeufig ueberschaetzt. Neben einer unnoetigen Verunsicherung der Schwangeren kann die Verzoegerung einer erforderlichen Bildgebung zu einer Gefaehrdung des muetterlichen und fetalen Gesundheitszustands fuehren. Vor jeder radiologischen Untersuchung einer schwangeren Patientin ist daher nicht nur die Indikation kritisch zu ueberpruefen, sondern auch eine Nutzen-Risiko-Abwaegung unter Beruecksichtigung des tatsaechlich zu erwartenden Risikos fuer den Feten durchzufuehren. Im ersten Teil des Artikels wurden die gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen sowie die technischen und pharmakologischen Belastungen fuer die Schwangere und den Fetus bei radiologischen Methoden behandelt. Im vorliegenden zweiten Teil wird auf die individuelle Risikoanalyse fuer Untersuchungen mit ionisierenden Strahlen eingegangen, und es werden klinische Empfehlungen zu typischen Fragestellungen muetterlicher und fetaler Erkrankungen gegeben. (orig.)

  11. Pharmaceuticals applied in the radiology department. Practitioners guide; Pharmaka in der Radiologie. Ein klinischer Leitfaden

    Hofer, U. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik


    Recommendations for the use of drugs in radiological practice, such as sedatives, analgesics, narcotics, anticoagulants, chemotherapeutic agents, contrast media, antibiotics etc.; pharmacologic effects; side effects; first aid. (MG)

  12. Integrative teaching in Radiology. A survey; Integrative Lehre in der Radiologie. Eine Bestandsaufnahme

    Dettmer, S.; Weidemann, J.; Wacker, F. [Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Fischer, V. [Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany). Office for Medical Education


    To survey integrative teaching in radiology at German universities. A questionnaire about radiological education was sent electronically to all 37 chairpersons of university radiology departments in Germany. The questions included the course type, teaching methods, concept, perception, and advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching. Statistical analysis was performed with nonparametric statistics and chi-square test. The survey was considered representative with a return rate of 68%. Integrative teaching is established at 4/5 of all departments. Integrative teaching is well accepted with an acceptance rate that is significantly higher in so-called 'Modellstudiengaengen' (model courses of study) (100%) compared to conventional courses of study (72%). The advantages of integrative teaching include linking of content (92%) and preparation for interdisciplinary work (76%). The disadvantages include high effort (75%) and time (67%) for organization. Furthermore, there is a risk that basic radiological facts and knowledge cannot be conveyed and that the visibility of radiology as an independent discipline is lost. Conventional radiological teaching has a similarly high acceptance (84%) compared to integrative courses (76%). Integrative teaching has a high acceptance among chairpersons in radiology in Germany despite the greater effort. A good interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for integrative teaching and at the same time this can be conveyed to the students. However, the visibility of radiology as a discipline and the possibility to cover basic radiological content must be ensured. Therefore, both conventional courses and integrative teaching seems reasonable, especially in cross-disciplinary subjects such as radiology.

  13. Measuring methods and classification in the muscoskeletal radiology; Messverfahren und Klassifikationen in der muskuloskelettalen Radiologie

    Waldt, Simone; Eiber, Matthias; Woertler, Klaus [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (TUM), Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie


    The book on measuring methods and classification in the musculoskeletal radiology covers the following topics: legs; hip joint; knee joint; foot; shoulder joint; elbow joint; wrist joint; spinal column; craniocervical transition region and cervical spine; muscular-skeletal carcinomas; osteoporosis; arthrosis; articular cartilage; hemophilia; rheumatic arthritis; muscular injuries; skeleton age.

  14. Diagnostic imaging in pregraduate integrated curricula; Radiologie in einem praegraduellen problembasiert-integrierten Medizincurriculum

    Kainberger, F.; Kletter, K. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Univ. Wien (Austria)


    Pregraduate medical curricula are currently undergoing a reform process that is moving away from a traditional discipline-related structure and towards problem-based integrated forms of teaching. Imaging sciences, with their inherently technical advances, are specifically influenced by the effects of paradigm shifts in medical education. The teaching of diagnostic radiology should be based on the definition of three core competencies: in vivo visualization of normal and abnormal morphology and function, diagnostic reasoning, and interventional treatment. On the basis of these goals, adequate teaching methods and e-learning tools should be implemented by focusing on case-based teaching. Teaching materials used in the fields of normal anatomy, pathology, and clinical diagnosis may help diagnostic radiology to play a central role in modern pregraduate curricula. (orig.)

  15. Pediatric radiology for medical-technical radiology assistants/radiologists; Paediatrische Radiologie fuer MTRA/RT

    Oppelt, Birgit


    The book on pediatric radiology includes the following chapter: differences between adults and children; psycho-social aspects concerning the patient child in radiology; relevant radiation doses in radiology; help for self-help: simple phantoms for image quality estimation in pediatric radiology; general information; immobilization of the patient; pediatric features for radiological settings; traumatology; contrast agents; biomedical radiography; computerized tomography; NMR imaging; diagnostic ultrasonography; handling of stress practical recommendations; medical displays.

  16. Examinations for radiologists. 1250 examination questions, with comments; Facharztpruefung Radiologie. 1250 kommentierte Pruefungsfragen

    Albes, G. [Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen-Ruettenscheid (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie


    The first section presents self-tests and learning tips for a realistic assessment and optimisation of students' learning styles. Rhetoric and communicative competences are looked into, and hints are given on how to organize ones's documents. The second section contains more than 1250 examination questions from all fields of radiology, with which examination situations can be simulated for self-studies. The student is shown how to provide structured answers to complex questions, how to solve clinical problems step by step, how to assess facts, to develop key statements, etc. (orig.)

  17. Patient dosimetry in classical radiology;Dosimetrie patient en radiologie classique

    Valero, M. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 Paris (France); Sirinelli, D. [Tours Univ., 37 (France); Chateil, J.F. [CHU Bordeaux, 33 (France)


    The objective is to give to the participants the means to determine, by simple methods, the dose delivered to skin during a radiological examination (conventional or numerical). The message to remember is: the use of a numerical detector does not lead systematically to reduce the dose at the patient. The dose.length product is a risk indicator. It is important to compare our practices to the procedures written in the guide of procedures and to note and to send to I.R.S.N. the dosimetry data relative to the dosimetry reference levels. (N.C.)

  18. Imaging of the late sequelae of spinal cord injuries; Radiologie von Spaetschaeden nach Rueckenmarkverletzungen

    Bodley, R. [Dept. of Radiology, National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury (United Kingdom)


    With an increasing ability to diagnose and treat the neurological complications, surveillance of the state of the spinal cord has now assumed great importance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or computerized tomography (CT) with myelography if MRI is contra-indicated is the method of choice and can demonstrate the pathology with great clarity. In most patients, midline sagittal T1W images are sufficient for screening purposes and for monitoring the success of treatment. Operative, imaging and postmortem studies have shown that the two main changes that occur are: (a) atrophic and (b) cystic - the microcystic and myxoid gel changes of myelomalacia, focal cysts and the larger, more expansive, syringomyelia. As yet, there is no standardization of terminology to describe the various pathological and radiological states. This is critical as only one condition, syringomyelia, is currently amenable to definitive surgery and without conformity, comparisons of incidence in different populations and assessment of the results of surgery are impossible. The published small studies of predominantly symptomatic patients at varying stages of chronicity give differing incidences of changes. Preliminary results of a surveillance MRI study of the spinal cord changes in 153 patients who had had a spinal cord injury over 20 years previously are presented. Altrophy was present in 62%, myelomalacia in 54%, syringomyelia in 22%, focal cysts in 9% and disruption in 7%. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Zunehmenden Verbesserungen in Diagnose und Behandlung von neurologischen Komplikationen haben die Bedeutung von Rueckenmarkkontrollen stark erhoeht. Als Methode der Wahl steht die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) zur Verfuegung. Als Screeningverfahren genuegt bei den meisten Patienten die Anfertigung einer mediansagittalen T1-gewichteten MR-Aufnahme. Dies ist auch bei Kontrollaufnahmen in der Nachbehandlung in vielen Faellen ausreichend. Operative, bildgebende und Postmortemstudien haben gezeigt, dass nach Rueckenmarktraumen 2 Hauptveraenderungen entstehen: 1. atrophische und 2. zystische. Die zystischen unterteilen sich in mikrozystische oder myxoidgelaehnliche Myelomalazien, fokale Zysten und groessere meist expansive Syringomyelien. MR-Kontrollen bei insgesamt 153 Patienten, deren Rueckenmarkveletzung mehr als 20 Jahre zurueckliegt, ergaben atrophische Veraenderungen in 62%, Myelomalazien in 54%, Syringomyelien in 22%, fokale Zysten in 9% und Rueckenmarkunterbrechungen in 7%. (orig./VHE)

  19. Differential diagnosis in the pediatric radiology; Differenzialdiagnosen in der paediatrischen Radiologie

    Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Blickmann, Johan G. (eds.) [Univ. of Rocherster Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Imaging Sciences URMC


    The book on differential diagnosis in the pediatric radiology covers the following issues: (1) Thorax, mediastinum, heart ad large blood vessels. (2) Abdomen and gastrointestinal tract. (3) Urogenital tract. (4) Skull, intracranial space and spinal cord. (5) Skeleton, bone joints and soft tissue. (6) Normative values.

  20. Radiology trainer. Head and neck. 2. ed.; Radiologie-Trainer. Kopf und Hals

    Staebler, Axel [Radiologie Muenchen-Harlaching (Germany); Erlt-Wagner, Birgit [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Hartmann, Marius (eds.) [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie


    The radiology training textbook is based on case studies of the clinical experience, including radiological imaging and differential diagnostic discussion. The scope of this volume is head - neck. The following issues are covered: tumor diseases, vascular diseases, infectious and inflammatory diseases and white matter diseases, congenital malformations, traumatic diseases, cranium and basis of the skull, eye socket, facial bones, neck, spinal canal.

  1. systems

    Alexander Leonessa


    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  2. Role of gut commensal microbiota regulating colonic sensory-related systems

    Aguilera Pujabet, Mònica


    La microbiota comensal del intestino se considera un factor clave en la homeostasis gastrointestinal. Las alteraciones funcionales gastrointestinales (síndrome del intestino irritable, SII) y las enfermedades inflamatorias intestinales (EII) se han relacionado con alteraciones de la microbiota comensal (disbiosis). Estos pacientes muestran una activación inmune local anormal, con respuestas motoras y sensoriales alteradas, que en el SII se traducen en estados de hipersensibilidad visceral. El...

  3. systems

    Patrick L. Brockett


    Full Text Available Suppose S={{Xnj,   j=1,2,…,kn}} is an infinitesimal system of random variables whose centered sums converge in law to a (necessarily infinitely divisible distribution with Levy representation determined by the triple (γ,σ2,M. If {Yj,   j=1,2,…} are independent indentically distributed random variables independent of S, then the system S′={{YjXnj,j=1,2,…,kn}} is obtained by randomizing the scale parameters in S according to the distribution of Y1. We give sufficient conditions on the distribution of Y in terms of an index of convergence of S, to insure that centered sums from S′ be convergent. If such sums converge to a distribution determined by (γ′,(σ′2,Λ, then the exact relationship between (γ,σ2,M and (γ′,(σ′2,Λ is established. Also investigated is when limit distributions from S and S′ are of the same type, and conditions insuring products of random variables belong to the domain of attraction of a stable law.

  4. system

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.; Vijande, J.


    Using local central Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interactions reproducing the low-energy parameters and phase shifts of the nn system, and the latest updates of the nΛ and ΛΛ Nijmegen ESC08c potentials, we study the possible existence of a bound state. Our results indicate that the is unbound, being just above threshold. We discuss the role played by the 1 S 0 nn repulsive term of the Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interaction. Supported by COFAA-IPN (México), Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad and EU FEDER (FPA2013-47443, FPA2015-69714-REDT, FPA2016-77177), Junta de Castilla y León (SA041U16) and Generalitat Valenciana PrometeoII/2014/066


    K. Swarnalatha


    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  6. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides, en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus.

    Paola Rodríguez


    Full Text Available El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides ha sido empleado en infusión de hojas y flores comocarminativo y digestivo, pero principalmente como antihelmíntico. Por lo tanto, el presenteestudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar el efecto antiparasitario del extracto de esta planta engallos de pelea (Gallus domesticus en un criadero de la ciudad de Tunja-Boyacá, ya que los propietarios de estas aves lo utilizan de manera artesanal como desparasitante natural. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 45 ejemplares, organizados en 3 grupos a los cuales, cada 15días y durante un mes, se les administró, por vía oral, 0,1 ml/ Kg de extracto de paico (grupoT2, 0.5ml/Kg de un medicamento comercial a base de Levamisol-Ivermectina (grupo T3 y0.5ml/ave de agua (grupo T1 control. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal con el objeto de determinar la presencia de huevos y/o larvas de parásitos, utilizando la técnica de Formol-Eter. Durante el estudio fueron identificados diferentes especies de ascaridia spp, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp, huevos y larvas de trichostrongylus. Posterior a la administracióndel tratamiento con extracto de paico se encontraron huevos de ascaridia galli, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp , y al suministrar la última dosis sólo se identificaron huevos de ascaridia galli e eimeria sp , lo que corrobora su efecto antiparasitario.

  7. Evaluatie van de mini-FLOTAC-methode voor de detectie van gastro-intestinale parasieten bij grote huisdieren


    A new technique, mini-FLOTAC, has recently been developed for the microscopic diagnosis of infections with gastro-intestinal nematodes in domestic animals. In this comparative study of diagnostic techniques, the mini-FLOTAC technique was compared to the commonly used McMaster technique for the detection and quantification of gastro-intestinal parasites in livestock as well as for the evaluation of the time needed to perform the assays. One hundred fecal samples (78 horses, 11 bovines, 6 sheep...

  8. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides), en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus).

    Paola Rodríguez; Elias Carvajal; Catalina Álavarez


    El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides) ha sido empleado en i...

  9. Sangrado oscuro y anemia crónica severa: discusión sobre dos causas gastrointestinales subvaloradas en Colombia

    Mosquera Klinger, Gabriel; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana-Hospital Universitario San Ignacio; Correa, Néstor Fabián; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana-Hospital Universitario San Ignacio; Concha Mejía, Alejandro; Hospital Universitario San Ignacio


    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is a common cause of chronic anemia, severity of anemia depends on the cause. We present the case of a patient with 2 causes undervalued in our midst. In the present article we present a case report of a farmer patient, without past medical history, who presented with symptoms of weakness, mucocutaneous pallor, documenting severe ferropenic anaemia, requering trasnfuctional support. We identified cameron lesions as the source of anaemia. El sangrado digest...

  10. Susceptibilidad de las bacterias aisladas de infecciones gastrointestinales agudas a la rifaximina y otros agentes antimicrobianos en México

    O. Novoa-Farías


    Conclusiones: La resistencia de las bacterias enteropatógenas a antimicrobianos utilizados en gastroenteritis es alta. La rifaximina fue activa contra el 99-100% de las bacterias en concentraciones alcanzables en el contenido intestinal con las dosis recomendadas.

  11. Développement d'un système robotique pour la radiologie interventionnelle sous IRM

    Abdelaziz, Salih


    Performing medical gestures under MRI is a promising medical approach. Todate, using MRI for interventions is still limited, despite the quality of the provided images. This limitation is mainly due to the confined physical space inside the tunnel and the complexity of the gestures. To make accessible such practices, a robotic assistance seems very relevant. However, it's a challenge for the designer, given the limited space and the strong magnetic field inside the bore. In this context, we h...

  12. Angioplasty, embolization, biopsy, drainage. Interventional methods in medical radiology. Angioplastie, Embolisation, Punktion, Drainagen. Interventionelle Methoden der Radiologie

    Friedmann, G.; Steinbrich, W.; Gross-Fengels, W. (eds.)


    In the field of diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology has been emerging as a significant tool allowing treatments such as catherization, embolization, and vascular stenting, assisted by the rapid development of digital imaging methods. For this reason, interventional radiology has been chosen as a main topic of the '6th Cologne Symposium on Biomedical Imaging Methods', where interventional methods have been given large space for presentation by experienced specialists, and for a comprehensive survey ranging from basic principles and tools for the variety of applications, the relevant pre- and after-treatment, to specialized techniques for complex tasks. The proceedings give the full texts and illustrations of all papers presented to the symposium. The topcis discussed are as follows: Accompanying drug therapy (1 paper), vascular recanalization (7 papers), local fibrinolytic therapy (1 paper), vascular stenting (4 papers), biopsy and drainage (5 papers), embolization (3 papers), and present status and future direction of interventional radiology in the U.S.A. (1 paper).

  13. Cross-disciplinary management of polytrauma patients: radiological screening and comparison; Interdisziplinaeres Management von polytraumatisierten Patienten: Beitrag der Radiologie

    Messmer, P. [Universitaetskliniken Basel, Dept. Chirurgie, Allgemeinchirurgische Klinik, Abt. Traumatologie (Switzerland); Loew, R.; Jacob, A.L. [Universitaetskliniken Basel, Dept. Medizinische Radiologie, Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie (Switzerland)


    The comprehensive survey addresses the various modalities available today for trauma screening and presents a comparative assessment of their value in respect of type of trauma and evidence provided. (orig./CB) [German] Die Versorgung polytraumatischer Patienten stellt hoechste Anforderungen an das Koennen des Radiologen. Neben einer schnellen und schonenden Durchfuehrung der notwendigen Diagnostik darf keine potenziell lebensbedrohende Verletzung uebersehen werden. Die Kriterien fuer eine rationelle Diagnostik wurden im ATLS-Kurs (Advanced Trauma Life Support) zusammengefasst. Es gilt, die sog. 'golden hour' moeglichst effektiv fuer die Primaerdiagnostik und -therapie zu nutzen. Haeufige Verletzungsformen beim Polytrauma sind das Schaedel-Hirn-Trauma, Thoraxverletzungen, Milzverletzungen, Leberverletzungen und Frakturen von Becken, Wirbelsaeule und Extremitaeten. Die Primaere und Sekundaere Radiologische Diagnostik ist abhaengig von der Ausstattung der Klinik und besteht aus einer abdominellen Sonographie, Thorax ap, Beckenuebersicht ap, Halswirbelsaeule seitlich sowie falls vorhanden aus CT und Angiographie. Ein definitiver Schritt zur Verkuerzung der Zeit bis zur Behandlung waeren sterile OP-Einheiten mit integrierter Roentgendiagnostik (moeglichst nativ und CT), die ein staendiges Umlagern und Transportieren des Patienten verhindern koennten. (orig.)

  14. Plan gauge in pediatric radiology: dosimetry (experience of ten months); Capteur plan en radiologie pediatrique: dosimetrie (experience de 10 mois)

    Fraysse, V.; Lacaze, M.T.; Ferran, J.L.; Couture, A.; Gardien, E


    The objectives were to optimize the radiological constants in the use of the sensors plans(shots) in general radiology. Definition of doses, calculation and communication to the parents of the received dose. (N.C.)

  15. Dose monitoring in radiology departments. Status quo and future perspectives; Dosismonitoring in der Radiologie. Status quo und Zukunftsperspektiven

    Boos, J. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Meineke, A. [Cerner Healthcare Services, Idstein (Germany); Bethge, O.T.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie


    The number of computed tomography examinations has continuously increased over the last decades and accounts for a major part of the collective radiation dose from medical investigations. For purposes of quality assurance in modern radiology a systematic monitoring and analysis of dose related data from radiological examinations is mandatory. Various ways of collecting dose data are available today, for example the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine - Structured Report (DICOM-SR), optical character recognition and DICOM-modality performed procedure steps (MPPS). The DICOM-SR is part of the DICOM-standard and provides the DICOM-Radiation Dose Structured Report, which is an easily applicable and comprehensive solution to collect radiation dose parameters. This standard simplifies the process of data collection and enables comprehensive dose monitoring. Various commercial dose monitoring software devices with varying characteristics are available today. In this article, we discuss legal obligations, various ways to monitor dose data, current dose monitoring software solutions and future perspectives in regard to the EU Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM.

  16. McCune-Albright syndrome: role of radiology; Syndrome de McCune-Albright, place de la radiologie

    Iffenecker, C.; Coevoet, V.; Higa, E.R.; Petit, M.C.; Fuerxer, F.; Doyon, D. [Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)


    McCune-Albright syndrome is a genetical disease with a mosaic distribution. It is characterized by skin pigmentations, fibrous dysplasia and sexual precocity but can also include others endocrinopathies. Two cases are reported illustrating the interest of radiological investigations in diagnosis, follow up and complications of this affection. (authors). 21 refs.

  17. Compression of digital images in radiology. Results of a consensus conference; Kompression digitaler Bilddaten in der Radiologie. Ergebnisse einer Konsensuskonferenz

    Loose, R. [Klinikum Nuernberg-Nord (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Braunschweig, R. [BG Kliniken Bergmannstrost, Halle/Saale (Germany). Klinik fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionsradiologie; Kotter, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik; Mildenberger, P. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Simmler, R.; Wucherer, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik


    Purpose: Recommendations for lossy compression of digital radiological DICOM images in Germany by means of a consensus conference. The compression of digital radiological images was evaluated in many studies. Even though the results demonstrate full diagnostic image quality of modality-dependent compression between 1:5 and 1:200, there are only a few clinical applications. Materials and Methods: A consensus conference with approx. 80 interested participants (radiology, industry, physics, and agencies) without individual invitation was organized by the working groups AGIT and APT of the German Roentgen Society DRG to determine compression factors without loss of diagnostic image quality for different anatomical regions for CT, CR/DR, MR, RF/XA examinations. The consent level was specified as at least 66 %. Results: For individual modalities the following compression factors were recommended: CT (brain) 1:5, CT (all other applications) 1:8, CR/DR (all applications except mammography) 1:10, CR/DR (mammography) 1:15, MR (all applications) 1:7, RF/XA (fluoroscopy, DSA, cardiac angio) 1:6. The recommended compression ratios are valid for JPEG and JPEG 2000 /Wavelet compressions. Conclusion: The results may be understood as recommendations and indicate limits of compression factors with no expected reduction of diagnostic image quality. They are similar to the current national recommendations for Canada and England. (orig.)

  18. From pathogen defence to food allergy; The multiple facets of the mucosal immune system

    Perrier, C.


    Résumé destiné à un large public Le système immunitaire associé aux muqueuses gastro-intestinales doit être capable de protéger notre organisme contre l'invasion de pathogènes. Parallèlement, il doit identifier en Cant que tels, des composés inoffensifs comme la nourriture ou les milliards de bactéries qui résident dans notre intestin. Le travail présenté ici aborde ces deux aspects essentiels au bon fonctionnement de notre muqueuse intestinale. Dans une première partie, la protéine nom...

  19. Hemorrhagic cholecystitis and hemobilia: two infrequent complications of systemic lupus erythematosus Colecistitis hemorrágica y hemofilia: dos complicaciones infrecuentes del lupus eritematoso sistémico

    Rocío García Pérez


    Full Text Available Introduction: the patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE often suffer gastrointestinal symptoms. The differential diagnosis should contemplate pathology of the gall bladder. We present the case of a patient with hemorrhagic lithiasic cholecystitis and hemobilia. Case report: 24 year old female diagnosed with SLE under treatment with Sintrom®, Dacortin® and Dolquine® that presented acute lithiasic cholecystitis and hemobilia with a distal calculus. Cholecystectomy and aperture of the ductus choledochus were performed allowing to confirm the hemobilia and to extract the calculus. Discussion: the treatment of cholecystitis in the patients with SLE is controversial due to the fact that most reviewed cases have been solved with cholecystectomy, or in other cases with conservative treatment with corticosteroids. We believe that the presence of cholelithiasis in a patient with SLE with pain on the right hypochondrium and ultrasound confirming the suspicion of cholecystitis demands a surgical treatment since the cause may be vascular, lithiasic or combined. Besides, the possible complications will not respond to pharmaceutical treatment.Introducción: los pacientes afectos de lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES sufren con frecuencia síntomas gastrointestinales. Debe incluirse en su diagnóstico diferencial la patología de la vesícula biliar. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con colecistitis alitiásica y hemobilia. Caso clínico: mujer de 24 años diagnosticada de LES en tratamiento con Sintrom®, Dacortin® y Dolquine® que presentó cuadro de colecisititis aguda litiásica y hemobilia, con presencia de cálculo enclavado en papila. Se realizó colecistectomía y apertu-ra del colédoco, lo que permitió confirmar la hemobilia y extracción del cálculo. Discusión: el tratamiento de la colecistitis en los pacientes con LES es controvertido ya que, aunque la mayoría de los casos revisados se han resuelto con la colecistectom

  20. [CASTOR-Radiology: software of management in a Unit of Medical Imaging: use in the CHU of Tours].

    Bertrand, P; Rouleau, P; Alison, D; Bristeau, M; Minard, P; Saad, B


    Despite the large volume of information circulating in radiology departments, very few of them are currently computerised, although computer processing is developing rapidly in hospitals, encouraged by the installation of PMSI. This article illustrates the example of an imaging department management software: CASTOR-Radiologie, Computerisation of part of the Hospital Information System (HIS) must allow an improvement in the efficacy of the service rendered, must reliably reflect the department's activity and must be able to monitor the running costs. CASTOR-Radiologie was developed in conformity with standard national specifications defined by the Public Hospitals Department of the French Ministry of Health. The functions of this software are: unique patient identification, HIS base, management of examination requests, allowing a rapid reply to clinician's requests, "real-time" follow-up of patients in the department, saving time for secretaries and technicians, medical files and file analysis, allowing analysis of diagnostic strategies and quality control, edition of analytical tables of the department's activity compatible with the PMSI procedures catalogue, allowing optimisation of the use of limited resources, aid to the management of human, equipment and consumable resources. Links with other hospital computers raise organisational rather than technical problems, but have been planned for in the CASTOR-Radiologie software. This new tool was very well accepted by the personnel.

  1. Diagnóstico in vitro y en campo de resistencia antihelmíntica en nematodos gastrointestinales de pequeños rumiantes

    R. González-Garduño; ME López-Arellano; Ojeda-Robertos, N.; E Liébano-Hernández; P Mendoza-de Gives


    El problema de la resistencia antihelmíntica en trichostrongílidos se incrementa en la región tropical, tal es el caso de Chiapas, México. Las razas de ovinos de pelo son utilizadas frecuentemente por lo productores debido a su adaptación climática. Sin embargo, la incidencia de resistencia antihelmíntica requiere de métodos más sensibles para el diagnóstico y así aplicar los tratamientos adecuados. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la eficacia in vitro e in vivo de los tres princi...

  2. Efectos de recursos ricos en taninos sobre la biología y las comunidades de los parásitos gastrointestinales en corderos

    Arroyo López, Celia


    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología. Fecha de lectura: 22-05-2015 Las infestaciones producidas por nematodos del tracto gastrointestinal representan una patología importante en las explotaciones pecuarias ovinas y caprinas. Según la F.A.O. la transcendencia de los problemas parasitarios radica en la amenaza para la salud y el bienestar de los rumiantes, suponiendo además, un gran impacto económico en los...

  3. Primer diagnóstico de resistencia a ricobendazole y albendazole en nemátodos gastrointestinales parásitos de ovinos en Nicaragua.

    Rimbaud E., Pineda N., Soto J.L., Luna L., Morales X., Rivera G., Picado L.;


    Full Text Available ResumenEn Diciembre de 2005, fue reportado unaparasitosis persistente en ovinos de laregión de trópico seco del pacifico (Ciudadde Rivas a tratamientos implementadoscon albendazole. Se realizó un test dereducción del contaje de huevos porgramo (h.p.g. en el hato ovino, para loque se utilizaron 45 borregos de 5 a 8meses de edad seleccionados en la baseque tenían un promedio de h.p.g. superiora 500. Los borregos fueron divididos encinco grupos (1-5. Los borregos de losgrupos 1 a 4 fueron tratadosrespectivamente con inyección subcutáneade ivermectina (200 mcg/kg, levamisol(7.5 mg/kg y ricobendazole (3.75 mg/kgy al cuarto grupo dosificación oral dealbendazole al 10%, mientras que el grupo5 permaneció como control sintratamiento. El contaje de reducción dehuevos por gramo llevado a cabo diez díasmas tarde mostró una reducción del92.73% en los corderos tratados conivermectina, un 94.84% en los tratadoscon levamisol, y en los tratados conalbendazole y ricobendazole la reducciónfue del 69.22%. El cultivo de larvasrealizado posteriormente mostrócrecimiento de Haemonchus sp. en lasheces de los corderos tratados. Este es elprimer reporte en Nicaragua de un caso deHaemonchus sp. parasitando ovinosresistente a albendazole y ricobendazole.

  4. Segmental embolization of the gastroduodenal artery in a case of a perforated pseudoaneurysm and gastrointestinal bleeding; Segmentembolisation der Arteria gastroduodenalis bei perforiertem Pseudoaneurysma und gastrointestinaler Massivblutung

    Schmitt, R. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie der Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Nuernberg-Erlangen (Germany); Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie der Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Cavallaro, A.; Bautz, W. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie der Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Nuernberg-Erlangen (Germany)


    We present the history of a woman suffering from an extensive gastrointestinal bleeding due to liver cirrhosis and chronic pancreatitis. Selective angiogram of the celiac artery revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the gastroduodenal artery caused by inflammatory wall penetration. The life-threatening hemorrhage was completely stopped by embolization with three stainless steel coils after microcatheter engagement of the gastroduodenal artery. The particularity of this case is the restricted embolization of the aneurysm vessel segment, so the collateral circulation of the gastroduodenal and pancreaticoduodenal artery could be preserved. (orig.)

  5. Susceptibilidad a la rifaximina y otros antimicrobianos de bacterias aisladas en pacientes con infecciones gastrointestinales agudas en el sureste de México

    O. Novoa-Farias


    Resultados: La mayoría de las bacterias fueron Escherichia coli (55% en todas sus variantes patógenas, Shigella (16.8%, Salmonella (15.3%, Aeromonas (7.8% y menos de 5% Campylobacter, Yersinia, Vibrio y Plesiomonas. La susceptibilidad global acumulada a RIF fue del 69.1, el 90.8, el 98.9 y el 100% a las concentraciones de 100, 200, 400 y 800 μg/ml, respectivamente. La susceptibilidad global a los otros antibióticos fue: FOS 82.8%, CLO 76.8%, CIP 73.9%, FUR 64%, T-S 58.7%, NEO 55.8% y AMP 23.8%. La susceptibilidad a RIF 400 y 800 μg fue significativamente mayor que con los otros antimicrobianos (p  98% de las cepas bacterianas y alta frecuencia de resistencia a varios antimicrobianos comunes.

  6. Radioprotection of patients and workers in interventional and operating block radiology; La radioprotection des patients et des travailleurs en radiologie interventionnelle et au bloc operatoire

    Menechal, P. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, Div. de Bordeaux, 33 (France); Valero, M.; Megnigbeto, C.; Marchal, C.; Godet, J.L. [Autorite de surete nucleaire, Dir. des rayonnements ionisants et de la sante, 75 - Paris (France)


    Over the last ten years or so, extensive development in radiological and implantable equipment has generated significant growth in radio-guided procedures. The real benefit of these practices to patients explains their development. These procedures can be undertaken using not only dedicated, specific fixed installations and computed tomography scanners, but also mobile installations in facilities not designed for radiography, such as operating blocks. The complexity of these procedures and the times spent implementing the required radiation can lead to major detrimental effects on personnel and patients, if they are not fully controlled. Many specialist medical disciplines now perform invasive procedures guided by images. Optimisation of patient doses mainly depends on the training level of medical teams, the intrinsic performance characteristics of the equipment used, adjustment of the technical parameters and the presence or absence of qualified personnel. Optimisation of professional personnel exposure is complex and depends on the performance conditions of procedures, which can expose workers extensively and non-uniformly. Designation of personnel competent in radioprotection, assessment of risks and definition of controlled areas, analysis of workstations and dosimetric monitoring of operators (especially of body extremities) are difficult to implement. Use of collective and personal protective equipment must be improved. The general manager of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) has referred the matter to the permanent group of radioprotection experts (GPMED) to ensure that recommendations are drawn up in the short term. (authors)

  7. Patients and personnel radiation protection in interventional radiology and in surgery;La radioprotection des patients et des travailleurs en radiologie interventionnelle et au bloc operatoire

    Menechal, P. [Centre de Recherches en Psychopathologie et Psychologie Clinique - CRPPC, 69 - Lyon (France); Valero, M.; Godet, J.L. [Lyon-3 Univ. Jean Moulin, 69 (France)


    The development of the interventional radiology and acts realised under radiological guiding is a real benefit for patients. The doses delivered can however, generate important detriments (determinist effects). the patients and the personnel are exposed to important doses, heterogeneous and very different doses according the operator, the patient morphology and the treated pathology. This theme is considered by the the nuclear safety Authority as a priority in the medical medium. (N.C.)

  8. X-ray exposure in radiological procedures and CT-scanner: french reference levels; Le point sur les procedures en radiologie conventionnelle et en tomodensitometrie

    Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radiologie, HIA Val de Grace, 75 - Paris (France); Grenier, P.; Grellet, J.; Marshall-Depommier, E. [Societe Francaise de Radiologie, GH Pitier Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Beauvais, H.; Bourguignon, M. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, OPRI, 78 - le Vesinet (France)


    The directive 97/43 EURATOM is partially translated into French laws. The French Society of Radiology (S.F.R.), together with the French Office of Radiation Protection (O.P.R.I.), undertook to draw up a list of radiological procedures, to standardize and optimize these procedures (article 4) and to evaluate the resulting X-ray exposure (article 6) and, finally, set French reference levels. The SFR set up a task force where each radiological sub-specialty was represented. Each group wrote the description of the most usual procedures, which was then reviewed by another group of radiologists of the same sub-specialty, including both private practice and academic practice radiologists. From technical data of each procedure, the OPRI worked out a mean dose, expressed in dose.area product regarding radiographic procedures, and expressed in dose.length product in CT-scanner. These data are on-line on the web site of the SFR, and each radiologist can compare his or her practice to the standards of the specialty. The next step will consist in measuring the X-ray exposure of each procedure in a sufficient number of centers to set up French reference levels. (author)

  9. Detection of central venous catheters when using storage phosphor radiography in intensive-care radiology. Erkennbarkeit zentralvenoeser Katheter bei Einsatz der digitalen Lumineszenzradiographie in der intensivmedizinischen Radiologie

    Galanski, M.; Prokop, M.; Thorns, E.; Oestmann, J.W.; Reichelt, S.; Haubitz, B.; Milbradt, H.; Graeser, A.; Schaefer, C. (Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie); Verner, L. (Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover (Germany). Abt. Anaesthesiologie 1)


    The aim of the following study was to assess the impact of dose alterations on the detection of catheters. We compared the performance of well-exposed conventional and digital portable chest radiographs in the detection of thin catheters and tested the influence of dose alterations. Portable chest radiographs of 20 patients were obtained with conventional film/screen (FR) and with storage phosphors at 50% (SR{sub L}), 100% (SR{sub N}), and 250% (SR{sub H}) of the conventionally required exposure dose. The region of the mediastinum was subdivided into an average of 18 fields, 50% of which were superimposed with thin catheter segments. ROC analysis of 11 600 observations by 8 readers found only SR{sub H} equivalent to FR in catheter visualisation. Performance decreased significantly with SR{sub N} and SR{sub L}. Detection of low contrast catheters was found to be significantly decreased in storage phosphor radiographs obtained with standard exposure dose. A dose reduction is not feasible with current equipment if performance equivalent to conventional radiography is to be achieved. (orig.).

  10. Ewing's sarcoma, fibrogenic tumors, giant cell tumor, hemangioma of bone. Radiology and pathology; Ewing-Sarkom, fibrogene Tumoren, Riesenzelltumor, Haemangiom des Skeletts. Radiologie und Pathologie

    Freyschmidt, J. [Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Ostertag, H. [Klinikum Region Hannover GmbH, Pathologisches Institut, Hannover (Germany)


    Radiological imaging only reflects the anatomy and its pathological abnormalities. Therefore, the radiologist should be able to recognize the basic features of the pathological anatomy of bone tumors. This can only be learned working closely with a pathologist who is experienced in this field. On the other hand, the pathologist needs from the radiologist their diagnostic assessment with information on size, location, aggressiveness and the existence of a bone tumor's matrix, of the whole lesion, because he usually only receives a small part for examination in the form of a biopsy. In this article, the features and fundamentals (standards) of radiological-pathological cooperation as the mainstay for a precise diagnosis in bone tumors are outlined. The radiological appearance and the histopathological features behind it are presented for Ewing's sarcoma, fibrogenic tumors, giant cell tumor, and hemangioma of the bone. (orig.) [German] Radiologische Bilder spiegeln nichts anderes als die Anatomie und ihre pathologischen Abweichungen wider. Deshalb sollte der Radiologe die Grundzuege der pathologischen Anatomie auch von Knochentumoren kennen. Das kann er nur durch eine enge Zusammenarbeit mit einem auf diesem Gebiet erfahrenen Pathologen erlernen. Andererseits braucht der Pathologe vom Radiologen dessen diagnostische Einschaetzung mit Informationen ueber die Groesse, Lage, Aggressivitaet und das Vorhandensein einer Matrix eines Knochentumors und zwar von der gesamten Laesion, denn er bekommt inform einer Biopsie i. d. R. nur einen mehr oder weniger kleinen Teil zur Untersuchung. In diesem Beitrag werden die Grundzuege und Standards der radiologisch-pathologischen Zusammenarbeit aufgezeigt, auf denen eine praezise Diagnosestellung beruht. Radiologisches Erscheinungsbild und die dahintersteckenden - und erklaerenden - histopathologischen Merkmale werden fuer das Ewing-Sarkom, fuer fibrogene Tumoren, den Riesenzelltumor und das Haemangiom des Knochens praesentiert. (orig.)

  11. The thickened left ventricle: etiology, differential diagnosis and implications for cardiovascular radiology; Der dicke linke Ventrikel. Ursachen und Differenzialdiagnose der linksventrikulaeren Hypertrophie und Implikationen fuer die kardiovaskulaere Radiologie

    Bischoff, P.; Barkhausen, J.; Hunold, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Radke, P.W. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Medizinische Klinik II


    Hypertrophy of the left ventricular myocardium is a common finding and can be reliably detected by echocardiography, CT and MRI. Common causes include diseases associated with increased cardiac afterload as well as primary and secondary cardiomyopathy. With the opportunity to determine functional parameters and myocardial mass precisely as well as to detect structural changes of the cardiac muscle simultaneously, cardiac MRI is the most precise imaging method for quantifying left ventricular hypertrophy as well as determining the cause and the exact characterization of the myocardial changes. It is mandatory, however, to create a flexible, individually adapted examination protocol. This review presents useful diagnostic algorithms in relation to different underlying pathologies in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. (orig.)

  12. Presentation of the main regulatory provisions applicable in medical and dental radiology; Presentation des principales dispositions reglementaires de radioprotection applicables en radiologie medicale et dentaire



    The aim of this document is to give an overview of the regulation framework to physicians, radiologists, dental surgeons, medical personnel employers, and persons with abilities in radioprotection. It addresses the procedures of declaration and authorization of possession and use of electric equipment generating ionizing radiation, the different persons intervening to ensure the radioprotection of patients and workers, the laying-out conditions for a radiology installation, the different aspects of population and worker radioprotection and of patient radioprotection, the maintenance and quality control of medical equipment, the declaration of incidents at the ASN, and radioprotection inspection

  13. ''Activity based costing'' in radiology; ''Activity based costing'' in der Radiologie

    Klose, K.J. [Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik, Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Philipps-Universitaet, Marburg (Germany); Boettcher, J. [pphc GmbH, Ammersbeck (Germany)


    Background: The introduction of diagnosis related groups for reimbursement of hospital services in Germany (g-drg) demands for a reconsideration of utilization of radiological products and costs related to them. Methods: Traditional cost accounting as approach to internal, department related budgets are compared with the accounting method of activity based costing (ABC). The steps, which are necessary to implement ABC in radiology are developed.Conclusions: The introduction of a process-oriented cost analysis is feasible for radiology departments. ABC plays a central role in the set-up of decentralized controlling functions within this institutions. The implementation seems to be a strategic challenge for department managers to get more appropriate data for adequate enterprise decisions. The necessary steps of process analysis can be used for other purposes (Certification, digital migration) as well. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund. Die Oekonomisierung der Medizin in Deutschland, die in der beabsichtigten Einfuehrung der kostenhomogenen Verguetungsklassen nach den ''diagnosis related groups - DRG's'' ihren vorlaeufigen Hoehepunkt finden soll, erfordert eine Neuorientierung im Einsatz und in der Beurteilung der Wirtschaftlichkeit radiologischer Verfahren.Methode. Traditionelle Kostenrechnungen bzw. Verfahren zur internen Budgetierung werden der Prozesskostenbetrachtung (''activity based costing'' - ABC) gegenuebergestellt, deren auf radiologische Belange zugeschnittene Methodik Schritt fuer Schritt entwickelt wird.Ergebnisse. Die Betrachtung radiologischer Arbeitsprozesse auf der Basis des ABC gestattet anhand der bisher publizierten Ergebnisse eine bessere Einschaetzung von Steuerungsimpulsen, die zu einer Effizienzsteigerung in radiologischen Prozessen fuehren koennen.Schlussfolgerungen. Die Einfuehrung einer prozessorientierten Kostenanalyse ist fuer vielfaeltige Belange einer Radiologieabteilung moeglich. Sie stellt einen zentralen Baustein in der Entwicklung eines abteilungsinternen und damit dezentralen Controlling dar und ist damit als strategische Unternehmensaufgabe anzusehen, da hiermit eine handlungsrelevante Beurteilung der Geschaeftsprozesse moeglich ist.Die hierfuer noetigen Arbeiten im Sinne der Prozessanalyse lassen sich synergistisch fuer andere Zwecke (Zertifizierung, Digitalisierung) nutzen. (orig.)

  14. Radiology for veterinarians. An introduction to the second part of the veterinary examination. Radiologie fuer Veterinaermediziner. Eine Einfuehrung fuer den 2. klinischen Studienabschnitt

    Tempel, K.


    The author has made an attempt to comprise the extensive and heterogenic area of radiological topics in the sense of a studying support for the second part of the veterinary examination and as an introduction to the entire area. Numerous details, exact physical derivations and more extensive radiological tables and graphs had to be left out to achieve the brief and understandable form. On the other hand, in addition to the test subjects, at least a few of the particularly up-to-date problems of this branch had to be emphasized and the data necessary to assess them had to be given. This explains the extensive form of the manuscript and the frequent occurrence of numbers, especially in the chapters radioecology, radiobiology and radiotoxicology. (orig./MG) With 65 figs., 76 tabs.

  15. Measures of the French Society of Radiology in the field of radiation protection; Actions de la Societe francaise de radiologie dans le domaine de la radioprotection

    Ducou Le Pointe, Hubert [service de radiologie, Hopital d' enfants Armand-Trousseau, 28 Avenue du Docteur Arnold Netter, 75012 Paris (France)


    The SFR (French Society of Radiology), its regional delegations, in partnership with the organ societies and federations, and its radiation protection group, are working on various radiation protection topics, especially justification and optimisation. Their work in these areas involves: - drafting and publishing guides (correct use of medical imaging examinations, radiological procedures and practical guidelines to help radiologists assess their professional practices); - organizing continuous medical training and promoting research; - informing the patients about imaging examinations and the use of ionising radiation; - remaining in close contact with official organisations and taking part in international programmes. (author)

  16. Primary mediastino pulmonary tuberculosis in infancy; Apport de la radiologie standard et du scanner thoracique dans la tuberculose mediastino-pulmonaire du nourrisson

    Bourliere-Najean, B.; Boespflug, M.D.; Dubus, J.C.; Roybet, D.; Panuel, M.; Faure, F.; Kervella, H.; Devred, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)


    Primary mediastino pulmonary tuberculosis in infancy is increasing in France. Bacteriological diagnosis is difficult. The aim of the study is to assess the value of chest radiograph and CTscan for diagnosis of tuberculosis. We studied 15 infants, 3 month old to 18 month old, between November 1990 and June 1992. On plain film, lymphadenopathies were present in 13 cases and parenchymal disease in 10 cases, parenchymal nodular densities in 6 cases and pleural effusion in one case, displacement of the trachea in 6 cases. We found CTscan to be useful in delineating the lymphadenopathies and parenchymal changes. In 2 cases lymphadenopathies and in 2 cases alveolar condensation were discovered on CT scan as plain film was normal. In all cases lymphadenopathies were present in CTscan, often in right side and in al cases, lymphadenopathies were hypodense with peripheral enhancement. In conclusion, the association of right paratracheal nodes with displacement of trachea and alveolar consolidation is common in tuberculosis in infants. These findings when seen on chest radiographs must lead to perform a CTscan and suggest the diagnosis. (Authors). 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. The radiology of tropical diseases. X-ray diagnoses in the Third World; Tropen-Radiologie. Roentgendiagnostik in der Dritten Welt

    Vogel, H. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Ochsenzoll, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik


    Collected, evaluated and surveyed were X-ray findings for: 1. diseases not encountered in our latitudes; 2. diseases that are encountered but seen at other places to occur to an extent only very occasionally observed in our regions; 3. changes observed subsequent to treatments uncommon here that were, however, inevitable in the circumstances and had to be performed at the scene of the incident. The first group comprises diseases prevailing in the tropics and therefore generally known as ``tropical diseases``. The appropriate X-ray findings are surveyed in the book. More recently developed methods like ultrasonic procedures, computerized tomography and nmr imaging are taken account of. The third group is that of X-ray findings revealed after treatments uncommon here that were, however, inevitable in the circumstances and had to be performed at the scene of the incident. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden Roentgenbefunde gesammelt, ausgewertet und zusammengestellt von: 1. Erkrankungen, die in unseren Breitengraden nicht vorkommen, 2. Erkrankungen, die hier vorkommen, anderen Orts aber einen Auspraegungsgrad haben, der hier allenfalls ausnahmsweise gesehen wird. 3. Befunde nach Behandlungen, die hier nicht ueblich sind, vor Ort aber durch die Umstaende erzwungen werden. Zu der ersten Gruppe gehoeren die Erkrankungen, deren Vorkommen in den Tropen typisch ist und fuer die die Bezeichnung ``Tropenkrankheiten`` verbreitet ist. Die durch sie verursachten Roentgenbefunde sind in dem Buch dargestellt. Neue bildgebende Verfahren wie Ultraschalldiagnostik, Computertomographie und Kernspintomographie wurden beruecksichtigt. Die dritte Gruppe bilden die Roentgenbefunde nach Behandlungen, die hier nicht ueblich sind, vor Ort aber erzwungen werden. (orig.)

  18. Optimization approach within an interventional radiology department; Demarche d'optimisation au sein d'un service de radiologie interventionnelle

    Mozziconacci, J.G.; Brot, A.M. [Centre Hospitalier de Bourges, PCR, 18 (France); Jarrige, V. [Centre Hospitalier de Bourges, PSRPM, 18 (France)


    The authors present an approach aimed at optimizing working conditions and radioprotection for the different actors in interventional radiology. This approach comprises a monitoring of personnel dosimetry, a workstation analysis with risk assessment, and the taking into account of patient dosimetry. For each of these aspects, the authors discuss procedures and available devices (dosemeters and other detection or dose measurement equipment)

  19. A feasibility inquiry on the radiodermatitis secondary to an interventional radiology act;Une enquete de faisabilite sur les radiodermites secondaires a un geste de radiologie interventionnelle

    Roudier, C.; Pirard, Ph.; Donadieu, J. [Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (France)


    The radiodermatitis is a burning of skin tissue and subcutaneous tissue in relation with ionizing radiation. In the medical practice, outside radiotherapy excluded of our study, it is observed only with acts of interventional radiology. The consequences of a radiodermatitis can be aesthetic, with appearance of a scar or a definitive alopecia, functional with loss of substance needing sometimes a remedial surgical act and finally oncologic with a risk of localised skin cancer. A radiodermatitis can appear with a radiation dose of 2 grays and its intensity worsens with the dose. Since the late 1970's about 200 cases of radiodermatitis have been reported. the most of cases have been reported between 1993 and 2000 and less than ten cases have been reported since 2000, suggesting a possible reduction of incidence explainable by a concomitant improvement of technological quality of the equipment. In order to confirm this eventual trend az feasibility study has been organised and is reported in this article. Given the results, this complication is still existing. In spite of the small number of observed cases, it is to notice that every procedures of interventional radiology are concerned. The preliminary character of this study encourages the institute of Health surveillance to work on the elaboration of a program of radiodermatitis surveillance. It could be associated to actions of improvement of the prevention and follow-up of patients, of feedback, and making easy an optimization of the practices. (N.C.)

  20. MIRIAM: the PACS project in Paris: overview and implementation.

    Primo, H; Picard, J E


    In this article the authors describe the Management Informatique de la Radiologie et de l'Imagerie Médicale (MIRIAM) major picture archiving and communication system (PACS) project in Paris, France. The Assistance Publique of Paris, France is a healthcare provider and took the initiative to start the largest PACS program in Europe to date. The MIRIAM project will start in 1997 and will be used in different, consecutive phases. A consortium of several companies is in charge of the implementation. Thirty-three hospitals with 54 imaging departments will be integrated in one system.

  1. System Budgets

    Jeppesen, Palle


    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  2. System Identification

    Keesman, K.J.


    Summary System Identification Introduction.- Part I: Data-based Identification.- System Response Methods.- Frequency Response Methods.- Correlation Methods.- Part II: Time-invariant Systems Identification.- Static Systems Identification.- Dynamic Systems Identification.- Part III: Time-varying

  3. Gradient systems and mechanical systems

    Fengxiang Mei; Huibin Wu


    All types of gradient systems and their properties are discussed. Two problems connected with gradient sys-tems and mechanical systems are studied. One is the direct problem of transforming a mechanical system into a gradi-ent system, and the other is the inverse problem, which is transforming a gradient system into a mechanical system.

  4. Thermal systems; Systemes thermiques

    Lalot, S. [Valenciennes Univ. et du Hainaut Cambresis, LME, 59 (France); Lecoeuche, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. GIP, 59 - Douai (France)]|[Lille Univ. des Sciences et Technologies, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ahmad, M.; Sallee, H.; Quenard, D. [CSTB, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gascoin, N.; Gillard, P.; Bernard, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Explosion, Structure, 18 - Bourges (France); Gascoin, N.; Toure, Y. [Laboratoire Vision et Robotique, 18 - Bourges (France); Daniau, E.; Bouchez, M. [MBDA, 18 - Bourges (France); Dobrovicescu, A.; Stanciu, D. [Bucarest Univ. Polytechnique, Faculte de Genie Mecanique (Romania); Stoian, M. [Reims Univ. Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, UTAP/LTM, 51 (France); Bruch, A.; Fourmigue, J.F.; Colasson, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. Greth, 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Voicu, I.; Mare, T.; Miriel, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), LGCGM, IUT, 35 - Rennes (France); Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., Genie Mecanique, QC (Canada); Nemer, M.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 (France); Lasbet, Y.; Auvity, B.; Castelain, C.; Peerhossaini, H. [Nantes Univ., Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Thermocinetiquede Nantes, UMR-CNRS 6607, 44 (France)


    This session about thermal systems gathers 26 articles dealing with: neural model of a compact heat exchanger; experimental study and numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of test-cells with walls made of a combination of phase change materials and super-insulating materials; hydraulic and thermal modeling of a supercritical fluid with pyrolysis inside a heated channel: pre-dimensioning of an experimental study; energy analysis of the heat recovery devices of a cryogenic system; numerical simulation of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow inside a vertical tube; mixed convection inside dual-tube exchangers; development of a nodal approach with homogenization for the simulation of the brazing cycle of a heat exchanger; chaotic exchanger for the cooling of low temperature fuel cells; structural optimization of the internal fins of a cylindrical generator; a new experimental approach for the study of the local boiling inside the channels of exchangers with plates and fins; experimental study of the flow regimes of boiling hydrocarbons on a bundle of staggered tubes; energy study of heat recovery exchangers used in Claude-type refrigerating systems; general model of Carnot engine submitted to various operating constraints; the free pistons Stirling cogeneration system; natural gas supplied cogeneration system with polymer membrane fuel cell; influence of the CRN coating on the heat flux inside the tool during the wood unrolling process; transport and mixture of a passive scalar injected inside the wake of a Ahmed body; control of a laser welding-brazing process by infrared thermography; 2D self-adaptative method for contours detection: application to the images of an aniso-thermal jet; exergy and exergy-economical study of an 'Ericsson' engine-based micro-cogeneration system; simplified air-conditioning of telephone switching equipments; parametric study of the 'low-energy' individual dwelling; brief synthesis of

  5. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    Amatayakul, Margret K.


    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  6. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    Amatayakul, Margret K.


    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  7. Multibody Systems

    Wagner, Falko Jens


    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  8. Lymph system

    Lymphatic system ... neck, under the arms, and groin. The lymph system includes the: Tonsils Adenoids Spleen Thymus ... JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ...

  9. Systems effectiveness

    Habayeb, A R


    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  10. Bitcoin System

    Jan Lánský


    Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system components and their mutual relationships. A new system view of the stated terms constitutes author’s own contribution.

  11. Intelligent Systems

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The autonomous systems (AS) project, led by NASA Ames, is developing software for system operation automation. AS technology will help astronauts make more decisions...

  12. Systems Engineering

    Pellerano, Fernando


    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  13. Retrofitting Systems

    Rose, Jørgen


    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...... and methods, and the efficiency of the different systems are discussed....

  14. Efecto antihelmíntico in vitro de extractos de plantas sobre larvas infectantes de nematodos gastrointestinales de rumiantes In vitro anthelmintic effect of plant extracts against infective larvae of ruminants gastrointestinal nematode parasites

    FC Moreno; Gordon IJ; AD Wright; MA Benvenutti; CA Saumell


    Con el objeto de estudiar la capacidad antihelmíntica de algunas especies de plantas presentes en el Estado de Queensland, Australia, se evaluó el efecto in vitro de extractos de hojas de plantas en la migración de larvas infectantes (L3) de Haemonchus placei, Cooperia sp., Haemonchus contortus y Trichostrongylus colubriformis. En general, los extractos de plantas redujeron la migración de larvas de H. placei y Cooperia sp. Las plantas con mayor actividad antihelmíntica contra estas especies ...

  15. Results on prognostic value of mutations in localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST: in one single center Valor pronóstico de las mutaciones en tumores estromales gastrointestinales localizados (GIST: resultados de un solo centro

    Marina Garcés-Albir


    Full Text Available Introduction: to study the prognostic value of mutations in KIT or PDGFRA in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST managed in our department. Materials and methods: forty five patients with localized GIST underwent surgery between 1998 and 2010. Thirty six patients were enrolled in a retrospective study. DNA was isolated from 3 to 5 µm sections of fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Exon 9, 11, 13 and 17 of c-kit gene and exon 12 and 18 of PDGFRA were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results: tumors with mutations were larger at the surgery and showed higher mitotic count (p 50 mitosis/HPF (42 vs. 88%, p < 0.03. Multivariate analyses indicated that the mutations, mitotic counts, and tumor size were independent prognostic factors for survival in patients with localized GIST. Conclusions: in this series, having a detected mutation is a poor prognostic factor with significantly increased recurrence rate and shortens survival.

  16. Las plantas medicinales en el control de nemátodos gastrointestinales en cabras: potencial de las plantas que crecen en la región de Coquimbo, Chile

    M.A. MOYA


    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o potencial de plantas que crecem na região de Coquimbo, no controle de nematódeos gastrintestinais em caprinos. Nós usamos uma abordagem não-experimental para validar a eficácia potencial das plantas medicinais como anti-helmínticos. Esta validação foi realizada com base em uma revisão da extensa literatura consultada a respeito de plantas medicinais. Determinou-se o um potencial de eficácia das plantas, da consistência das informações sobre o uso tradicional, os compostos presentes e farmacologia. Analisamos também os dados dos potenciais efeitos adversos que impedem seu uso em animais. Antecedentes apoiam a um alto potencial da eficácia como anti-helmíntico para se três espécies de plantas que crescem na região de Coquimbo: Allium sativum L., Artemisia absinthium L. e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Os possíveis efeitos secundários do consumo de plantas medicinais ou seus derivados devem ser avaliadas em testes de campo antes de serem utilizados nas em escala produtiva.

  17. Suplementación energética y proteica en el control de nematodos gastrointestinales en corderas de pelo - Energetic and proteic supplementation in the gastrointestinal nematodes control in hair female lambs

    Luna-Palomera C


    Full Text Available ResumenUna alternativa eficiente en el control integrado de parásitos en el trópico es la suplementación estratégica de los corderos durante su desarrollo. El objetivo fue evaluar la suplementación energética y proteica sobre la ganancia de peso, huevos por gramo de heces (HPG y volumen del paquete celular (VPC en corderas de pelo desparasitadas selectivamente. Se asignaron 27 corderas de pelo distribuidas aleatoriamente a dietas con 3 Mcal EM y 20% de PC con 0% (HP0, n=9; 11.90±.85 kg, y 30% (HP30, n=9; 11.83±.85 kg base harina de palmiste (HP y solo pastoreo (PASTO, n=9; 12.22±.85 kg por 16 semanas. Se evaluó el peso vivo final (PVF, ganancia de peso (GDP, condición corporal (CC, conteo de huevos en heces transformado a logaritmo (ln HPG+1, FAMACHA© y hematocrito (Ht y la correlación entre ellos. El desempeño productivo y clínico de las corderas para GDP (109.36 vs. 109.45 gr d-1, ln HPG (4.25 vs. 4.40, Ht (29.97 vs. 29.19 %, índice FAMACHA© (1.58 vs. 1.56 entre HP0 y HP30 fueron semejantes (P>0.05, pero diferentes para las mismas variables conrespecto a las de PASTO (42.84 gr d-1, 5.92 ln HPG, 25.98 % y 1.59. El PVF, GDP y HPG fueron negativamente correlacionadas (P0.05, but different for the same variables to the PASTO female lambs (42.84 g d-1, 4.92 ln HPG,25.98 % and 1.59. The PVF, GDP and HPG were correlated negatively(P<0.05. The female lambs that were supplemented during its growingstep showed the height PVF, lower HPG and height values of PCV, whichwas reflected in a better performance and economic gains.

  18. Polimorfísmos genéticos de COX-1 y eNOS y hemorragias gastrointestinales: interacción con aire: Un estudio de casos y controles

    Salado Valdivieso, María Inés


    La hemorragia gastrointestinal alta es un cuadro grave que está producido por medicamentos en un porcentaje elevado de los casos. Ciertos fármacos como los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINE), los antiagregantes plaquetarios o los anticoagulantes orales, pueden dar lugar a una hemorragia que exija la hospitalización del paciente y, en ocasiones, provoque la muerte. Además de los fármacos, se han identificado otros factores que se asocian con la hemorragia gastrointestinal; entre ellos es...

  19. Primer diagnóstico de resistencia a levamisol y lactonas macrocíclicas en nemátodos gastrointestinales parásitos de ovinos en Nicaragua

    Rimbaud E., Zúniga P., Doña M., Pineda N., Luna L., Rivera G., Molina L., Gutiérrez J., y Vanegas J.


    Full Text Available Resumen.-En Diciembre de 2004, fue reportado una parasitosis persistente en ovinos de la región de trópico seco del pacifico (Ciudad de Granada a tratamientos implementados con levamisol e ivermectina. Se realizó un test de reducción del contaje de huevos por gramo (h.p.g. en el hato ovino, para lo que se utilizaron 40 borregos de 5 a 8 meses de edad seleccionados en la base que tenían un promedio de h.p.g. superior a 500. Los borregos fueron divididos en cuatro grupos (1-4. Los borregos de los grupos 1 a 3 fueron tratados respectivamente con inyección subcutánea de ivermectina (200 mcg/kg, levamisol (7.5 mg/kg y al tercer grupo dosificación oral de albendazole al 10%, mientras que el grupo 4 permaneció como control sin tratamiento. El contaje de reducción de huevos por gramo llevado a cabo diez días mas tarde mostró una reducción del 31.25% en los corderos tratados con ivermectina y un 87.5% en los tratados con levamisol, en los tratados con albendazole la reducción fue del 100%. El cultivo de larvas realizado posteriormente mostró crecimiento de Haemonchus sp. en las heces de los corderos tratados con ivermectina y levamisol. Este es el primer reporte de un caso de Haemonchus sp. parasitando ovinos resistente a ivermectina y levamisol.

  20. Microbiota, infecciones gastrointestinales, inflamación de bajo grado y antibioticoterapia en el síndrome de intestino irritable. Una revisión basada en evidencias

    M. Schmulson


    Conclusiones: Se requieren más estudios para determinar la microbiota intestinal propia del SII y las diferencias en inflamación de bajo grado entre SII-PI y SII-No PI. La rifaximina ha demostrado efectividad en el tratamiento del SII independientemente de los factores anteriores.

  1. Operating systems

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner


    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  2. Cryogenic Systems

    Hosoyama, Kenji


    In this lecture we discuss the principle of method of cooling to a very low temperature, i.e. cryogenic. The "gas molecular model" will be introduced to explain the mechanism cooling by the expansion engine and the Joule-Thomson expansion valve. These two expansion processes are normally used in helium refrigeration systems to cool the process gas to cryogenic temperature. The reverse Carnot cycle will be discussed in detail as an ideal refrigeration cycle. First the fundamental process of liquefaction and refrigeration cycles will be discussed, and then the practical helium refrigeration system. The process flow of the system and the key components; -compressor, expander, and heat exchanger- will be discussed. As an example of an actual refrigeration system, we will use the cryogenic system for the KEKB superconducting RF cavity. We will also discuss the liquid helium distribution system, which is very important, especially for the cryogenic systems used in accelerator applications. 1 Principles of Cooling and Fundamental Cooling Cycle 2 Expansion engine, Joule-Thomson expansion, kinetic molecular theory, and enthalpy 3 Liquefaction Systems 4 Refrigeration Systems 5 Practical helium liquefier/refrigeration system 6 Cryogenic System for TRISTAN Superconducting RF Cavity

  3. Expert System

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca


    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  4. Photons-based medical imaging - Radiology, X-ray tomography, gamma and positrons tomography, optical imaging; Imagerie medicale a base de photons - Radiologie, tomographie X, tomographie gamma et positons, imagerie optique

    Fanet, H.; Dinten, J.M.; Moy, J.P.; Rinkel, J. [CEA Leti, Grenoble (France); Buvat, I. [IMNC - CNRS, Orsay (France); Da Silva, A. [Institut Fresnel, Marseille (France); Douek, P.; Peyrin, F. [INSA Lyon, Lyon Univ. (France); Frija, G. [Hopital Europeen George Pompidou, Paris (France); Trebossen, R. [CEA-Service hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France)


    This book describes the different principles used in medical imaging. The detection aspects, the processing electronics and algorithms are detailed for the different techniques. This first tome analyses the photons-based techniques (X-rays, gamma rays and visible light). Content: 1 - physical background: radiation-matter interaction, consequences on detection and medical imaging; 2 - detectors for medical imaging; 3 - processing of numerical radiography images for quantization; 4 - X-ray tomography; 5 - positrons emission tomography: principles and applications; 6 - mono-photonic imaging; 7 - optical imaging; Index. (J.S.)

  5. The radiological `second opinion` online through the Internet. Report on implementation and analysis of the diagnostic certainty of transmitted images; Die `Zweite Meinung` in der Radiologie Online ueber das Internet. Bericht ueber die Implementierung und Analyse der Befundungssicherheit von Schnittbildern

    Ricke, J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Donk, E. van der [Het Nederlands Kanker Inst. Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Biometrics Dept.; Wolf, M. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Ostendorf, B. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Rheumazentrum; Hosten, N. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Zielinski, C. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Liebig, T. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Stroszczinski, C. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Loez-Haenninen, E. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Lemke, A.J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Gillessen, C. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Guervit, Oe. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Amthauer, H. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Kleinholz, L. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Bartelink, H. [Het Nederlands Kanker Inst. Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany)


    Numerous medical on-line services have already been established in the world-wide Internet. In connection with the Information service TELESCAN, sponsored by the EU, a pilot project has been initiated which offers a radiological `second opinion` via the transmission of radiological findings and images that have been previously rendered anonymous. In addition to a description of the basic implementation, tests of the diagnostic certainty of the transmitted over the Internet, and then evaluated on the receiver`s monitor. Both the transfer of originally generated digital image files (in ACR-NEMA or DICOM) as well as graphic files after digitization of X-ray films, for example by a document camera, is possible via e-mail. Visualization by the receiver requires the use of current proprietary software for special medical image formats, while standard graphic formats such as GIFF or JPEG can be visualized with the usual Internet software. In an ROC analysis, 56 individual images of cranial computed tomographs, half with pathological findings such as space-occupying lesions, infarcts, or brain edema, were tested with regard to the diagnostic certainty after digitization and transmission. In comparison with the original film findings, there was a slight but statistically not significant reduction in diagnostic certainty of the images evaluated on screen after transfer via the Internet. We believe that this result is due to the low local resolution, low dynamic range, the high image noise and of CT arising from the window technique. The same parameters are probably valid for MRI. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Internet hat sich bereits eine Vielzahl medizinischer Online-Dienstleistungen etabliert. In Verbindung mit dem EU-gefoerderten Informationsdienst TELESCAN wurde ein Pilotprojekt initiiert, das eine radiologische `Zweite Meinung` durch Versenden von anonymisierten radiologischen Bildern und Befunden anbietet. Neben der Beschreibung der Implementierungsgrundlagen wurde die Befundungssicherheit von kraniellen Computertomographien getestet, die mit einer Dokumentenkamera digitalisiert, ueber das Internet verschickt und auf einem Monitor befundet wurden. Der Transfer sowohl von originaer generierten digitalen Bilddateien (in ACR-NEMA oder DICOM) als auch von Grafikdateien nach Digitalisierung von Roentgenfilmen beispielsweise durch eine Dokumentenkamera ist ueber eine Verknuepfung mit e-mail moeglich. Die Visualisierung beim Empfaenger erfordert fuer die speziellen medizinischen Bildformate derzeit proprietaere Software, Standard Grafikformate wie GIFF oder JPEG werden von der ueblichen Internet-Software visualisiert. In einer ROC-Analyse wurden 56 Einzelbilder kranieller Computertomographien mit zur Haelfte pathologischen Befunden bei Raumforderungen, Infarzierungen oder Hirnoedem hinsichtlich der Befundungssicherheit nach Digitalisierung mit einer Dokumentenkamera geprueft. Gegenueber der Filmbefundung ergab sich eine geringfuegige, statistisch nicht signifikante Minderung der Befundungsqualitaet der ueber das Internet transfierierten und am Monitor befundeten Bilder. Dieses Ergebnis fuehren wir auf die geringe Ortsaufloesung und das durch die Fenstertechnik vergleichsweise hohe Bildrauschen der CT bei geringem Grauwertumfang zurueck, wobei gleiche Parameter wahrscheinlich auch fuer die MRT gelten. Das Ergebnis kann nicht auf konventionelle Radiographie einschliesslich der Mammographie uebertragen werden, da im Vergleich zu den genannten Schnittbildverfahren deren Ortsaufloesung und Grauwertumfang hoch und das Bildrauschen wesentlich niedriger liegen. (orig.)

  6. Die Integration eines computerbasierten Anatomie-Lernprogramms im Curriculum der Ausbildung Medizinisch-technischer Assistenten der Fachrichtung Radiologie [The integration of a computer-based tutorial in anatomy into an educational curriculum for student radiographers/technicians

    Niewald, Marcus


    Full Text Available [english] Purpose: Anatomy is an important subject in the education of radiographers and radiotherapy technicians. The enormous amount of information may render efficient learning more difficult and lead to sub-optimal results. The purpose of this study was to test whether the introduction of a computer-based tutorial enhances learning success in anatomy. Methods: A commercially available tutorial in anatomy especially adapted to the requirements of the education of radiographers and which facilitated and structured the frequent repetition of the material was introduced into the conventional curriculum. The tutorial was used during normal lessons, and work with it was obligatory. The students could learn anatomical structures and landmarks repeatedly as well as test themselves. The scores obtained in the final examinations two years prior to introduction of this tutorial were compared with those obtained two years after introduction. Results: Students’ knowledge in anatomy could be markedly improved. Conclusion: An efficient and time-saving method of learning became possible. It was important to integrate the tutorial into the normal curriculum. The test results show the feasibility of this educational concept. [german] Zielsetzung: In der MTA-Ausbildung nimmt Anatomie einen wichtigen Platz ein. Die große Stofffülle erschwert jedoch ein effizientes zeitsparendes Lernen und führt auch bei motivierten Schülern oft zu mangelndem Lernerfolg. Es sollte geprüft werden, ob dieser durch Einführung computerbasierten Lernens verbessert werden kann. Methodik: Ein auf die Erfordernisse der MTRA-Ausbildung von den Autoren angepasstes kommerzielles Anatomie-Lernprogramm, das den Schülern das notwendige häufige Wiederholen des Materials erleichtert und strukturiert, wurde im Rahmen des Pflichtunterrichtes den Schülern zur Verfügung gestellt. Diese konnten damit anatomische Sachverhalte sich einprägen, beliebig oft wiederholen und ihr Wissen testen. Die Examensergebnisse jeweils zweier Jahrgänge vor und nach der Einführung des Programms wurden verglichen. Ergebnisse: Durch die Einführung des Programms konnten die Anatomiekenntnisse von MTA-Schülern bei gleichem Zeitaufwand deutlich verbessert werden. Schlussfolgerung: Durch gezieltes Üben derjenigen Elemente, die noch nicht ausreichend im Langzeitgedächtnis verankert sind, war eine effiziente und zeitsparende Art des Lernens möglich. Wichtig ist eine Einbettung des eLearning-Tools in den normalen Unterrichtsablauf. Die deutlich besseren Examensergebnisse nach Einführung unserer Anatomie-Lernplattform sprechen für die Richtigkeit des Konzeptes.

  7. Status of radiation protection in interventional radiology. Assessment of inspections in 2009 by the ASN; Etat de la radioprotection en radiologie interventionnelle. Bilan des inspections 2009 par l'ASN



    This report first describes the organization of inspections performed in health institutions, indicates the inspected establishments, the types of fixed installations in interventional radiology, the use of imagery in the operating theatre, and discusses the regulatory arrangements applicable to interventional radiology (in the Public Health Code, in the Labour Code). Then, the report discusses the results of inspections regarding radiation protection in interventional radiology: application of public health code arrangements (justification, patient training in radiation protection, radiological procedures and protocols, patient dosimetry monitoring), application of Labour Code arrangements (designation of the person with expertise in radiation protection, risk assessment and delimitation of monitored and controlled areas, workstation analysis, workers' training in radiation protection, individual protection equipment, workers' dosimetric monitoring, workers' medical monitoring, radiation protection technical controls), significant events, radiation protection in operating theatre. Propositions are stated regarding the differences noticed within or between the health establishments, the methodological and organisational difficulties faced by persons with expertise in radiation protection (PCR), the need of an interdisciplinary team

  8. How to promote the optimization of radioprotection in interventional radiology: the ASN's point of view; Comment favoriser l'optimisation de la radioprotection en radiologie interventionnelle: le point de vue de l'ASN

    Menechal, Ph. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, Division de Bordeaux, 75 - Paris (France); Valero, M.; Godet, J.L [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, Direction des rayonnements ionisants et de la sante, 75 - Paris (France)


    Within a context of development of interventional imagery practices, radioprotection in interventional radiology and in operating theatre suite where ionizing radiation are used has become a matter of concern. Before the publication of a work group created at the initiative of the ASN (the French nuclear safety authority) with a professional group (the GPMED, the permanent group of radioprotection experts for medical and forensics applications of ionizing radiations), the authors, members of the ASN, based on declared events and radioprotection inspection reports, give an overview of the faced challenges and problems and of progresses to be made in terms of radioprotection, dosimetry, procedures, and personnel qualification. They make a distinction between the patient radioprotection issue and the worker radioprotection issue

  9. An approach to patient dose optimisation in interventional radiology at the Clermont-Ferrand Hospital Centre; Demarche d'optimisation de la dosimetrie des patients en radiologie interventionnelle au CHU de Clermont-Ferrand

    Guersen, Joel; Chabrot, Pascal; Cassagnes, Lucie; Gabrillargues, Jean; Boyer [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire - CHU, Clermont-Ferrand (France)


    In late October 2009, a serious event occurred in the imaging unit of the Clermont- Ferrand university hospital, corresponding to localised pruritic erythematous cutaneous lesions which resemble radiation-induced damage, following a double pelvic arterial embolization, which saved the life of a young female patient. The imaging unit and the General Management of the University Hospital notified ASN of the event and an on-site dosimetric appraisal carried out by IRSN confirmed that there was a very strong probability that the cutaneous symptoms were attributable to radiation. An internal inquiry concluded that there was a problem with optimisation of the machine parameters in the angiography facility concerned. The imaging unit then initiated a Patient dosimetry optimisation process for the 3 vascular radiology and vascular neuro-radiology facilities in the establishment, divided into 3 main phases dealing with: - image acquisition rates; - the high-voltage settings of the facility concerned, following notification of the event to AFSSAPS, implicating the manufacturer; - the radioscopy and radiography image acquisition parameters, following intervention by the IRSN experts at the request of the imaging unit. On the facility concerned, the reduction in the X-ray dose delivered to the patients was initially 30%, then 35% and finally 25%, representing a total reduction by a factor of three. (authors)

  10. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in exo-buccal dental radiology; Medecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide a l'analyse des risques en radiologie dentaire exobuccale

    Gauron, C. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, INRS, Dept. Etudes et Assistance Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)


    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of exo-buccal dental radiology. In the first part, several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment

  11. The interventional radiology: means of reduction and optimization of medical personnel exposure; La radiologie interventionnelle: moyens de reduction et d'optimisation de l'exposition du personnel medical

    Maccia, C. [Centre d' Assurance de Qualite des Applications Technologiques dans le Domaine de la Sante, CAATS, 92 - Bourg-la-Reine (France); Vano, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Guibelalde, E. [Faculdad de Medicina, Universidad de Madrid (Spain)


    The measures envisaged to make an optimization of the radiation protection are in the use of materials adapted to the situation, the use of dosemeters devoted to the doses evaluation for particularly sensitive organs , the introduction of ophthalmic examinations and finally, the information and training of every category of personnel in radiation protection. (N.C.)

  12. Radiological evaluation of the therapeutic response of malignant diseases. Status quo, innovative developments and requirements for radiology; Radiologische Beurteilung des Therapieansprechens maligner Erkrankungen. Status quo, innovative Entwicklungen und Anforderungen an die Radiologie

    Hoeink, A.J.; Heindel, W.; Buerke, B. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology


    In consequence of the rapid development of newer targeted and personalized tumor therapies, radiology as an essential component of the treatment concept of numerous malignant diseases needs to improve in order to adequately capture and evaluate the effects, but also the side effects of these novel therapeutic agents. The early recognition of therapy response or failure is crucial for the optimal planning of the further treatment and can therefore have direct impact on the chances of recovery and the survival time of oncological patients. In previous years, the goal of medical imaging was to just qualitatively assess the increase or reduction in the size of tumors and their metastases, which was often achieved by a simple subjective estimation of the tumor findings by the diagnosing radiologist. Nowadays, radiology is faced with the challenge of evaluating changes during therapy quantitatively and of visualizing therapeutic effects that are more discrete (e.g. necrosis, altered tumor perfusion). The importance of an adequate assessment of therapy response is further underlined by the fact that in these days, a good portion of oncological patients are enrolled in clinical trials, in which the quantitative radiological evaluation of malignant disorders is an important surrogate parameter. On the basis of this development, the demands for radiology to provide more sophisticated assessments of therapy response and documentation of imaging findings have been constantly growing. The following article provides an overview of the established and still widely spread but in particular also the latest imaging modalities and evaluation criteria with regard to oncological diseases as well as of the increasing demands on radiology that result from these developments. Beyond that, future advancements in tumor imaging are taken into account and the new challenges these developments will bring are discussed.

  13. Medical liability and patient law in Germany. Main features with particular focus on treatments in the field of interventional radiology; Arzthaftung und Patientenrechtegesetz in Deutschland. Die Grundzuege unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Behandlungen auf dem Gebiet der Interventionellen Radiologie

    Sommer, S.A.; Geissler, R. [Kapp and Geissler Lawyers, Stuttgart (Germany); Stampfl, U.; Radeleff, B.A.; Kauczor, H.U.; Sommer, Christof M. [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Wolf, M.B. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Radiology (E010); Richter, G.M. [Klinikum Stuttgart (Germany). Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Pereira, P.L. [SLK Kliniken, Heilbronn (Germany). Radiology, Minimally-invasive Therapies and Nuclearmedicine


    On February 26th, 2013 the patient law became effective in Germany. Goal of the lawmakers was a most authoritative case law for liability of malpractice and to improve enforcement of the rights of the patients. The following article contains several examples detailing legal situation. By no means should these discourage those persons who treat patients. Rather should they be sensitized to to various aspects of this increasingly important field of law. To identify relevant sources according to judicial standard research was conducted including first- and second selection. Goal was the identification of jurisdiction, literature and other various analyses that all deal with liability of malpractice and patient law within the field of Interventional Radiology - with particular focus on transarterial chemoembolization of the liver and related procedures. In summary, 89 different sources were included and analyzed. The individual who treats a patient is liable for an error in treatment if it causes injury to life, the body or the patient's health. Independent of the error in treatment the individual providing medical care is liable for mistakes made in the context of obtaining informed consent. Prerequisite is the presence of an error made when obtaining informed consent and its causality for the patient's consent for the treatment. Without an effective consent the treatment is considered illegal whether it was free of treatment error or not. The new patient law does not cause material change of the German liability of malpractice law.

  14. Retention of contrast media in the history of radiology. Sequelae of the former use of thorotrast and new challenges; Kontrastmittelretention in der Geschichte der Radiologie. Folgen der frueheren Thorotrastanwendungen und neue Herausforderungen

    Kaick, G. van; Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)


    Detection of gadolinium deposits in patients who have repeatedly been administered intravenous gadolinium chelates have given rise to concern regarding the long-term safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast media. Nevertheless, negative long-term clinical effects have not yet been observed. In some publications parallels have been drawn to the sequelae of thorotrast that was formerly used for arterial angiography. In this article the history of thorotrast use is briefly described and in particular why, despite warnings, this substance was used frequently and worldwide. A brief summary of the results of the German Thorotrast Study revealed that high excess rates were only observed for primary malignant liver tumors after a 15-year or longer latency period and to a lesser degree of leukemias, as well as for severe local complications due to paravascular injections, particularly in the neck region. Based on this historical review, we will venture to take stock of the outcome from the ''success story'' of this contrast agent. (orig.) [German] Der Nachweis von Gadoliniumablagerungen im Koerper von Patienten nach mehrfacher Injektion von Gadoliniumchelaten hat Irritationen ausgeloest. Gleichwohl gibt es bislang keine Hinweise auf resultierende klinische Spaetfolgen. In verschiedenen Veroeffentlichungen wird auf moegliche Parallelen zu den Folgen der Anwendung des frueheren Roentgenkontrastmittels Thorotrast hingewiesen. In diesem Beitrag wird die Geschichte der Thorotrastanwendung dargelegt, insbesondere weshalb es trotz der Warnungen zur haeufigen, weltweiten Anwendung des Praeparats kam. Aus einer kurzen Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Thorotraststudie wird deutlich, dass erst nach einer ueber 15-jaehrigen Latenzzeit hohe Exzessraten an primaeren Lebertumoren und in geringerem Masse auch an Leukaemien auftraten und schwerwiegende Folgen paravasaler Injektionen v. a. im Halsbereich beobachtet wurden. In einem historischen Rueckblick wagen wir den Versuch einer Bilanz ueber die Auswirkungen der ''Erfolgsgeschichte'' des Kontrastmittels. (orig.)

  15. Current role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (2011). A clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies of Cardiology and Radiology; Aktueller Stellenwert der MSCTA in der Koronargefaessdiagnostik (2011). Klinischer Leitfaden der Oesterreichischen Gesellschaften fuer Kardiologie und Radiologie

    Hergan, K. [Salzburger Landeskliniken, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniv. (Austria). Universitaetsinst. fuer Radiologie; Globits, S. [Landesklinikum St. Poelten (Austria). 3. Medizinische Abt./Kardiologie; Loewe, C. [Medizinische Univ. Wien (AT). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik] (and others)


    The clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies for Cardiology and Radiology on the actual role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases includes the following issues: CT calcium scoring; CT angiography (CTA) of the coronaries; actually recommended application of MDCR; generally inappropriate use of the technique for specific patients; radiation exposure; structural and organizational framework.

  16. The ORAMED European project: optimization of the use of operational dosimeters in interventional radiology; Projet europeen oramed: optimisation de l'utilisation des dosimetres operationnels en radiologie interventionnelle

    Clairand, I.; Debroas, J.; Donadille, L.; Itie, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Denoziere, M. [CEA Saclay, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ginjaume, M. [Institute of Energy Technology, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) (Spain); Koukorava, C. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) (Greece); Krim, S.; Lebacq, A.L.; Struelens, L.; Vanhavere, F. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN) (Belgium); Martin, P. [MGP Intruments (MGPi) (France); Sans-Merce, M.; Tosic, M. [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA) (Switzerland)


    Within the frame of the ORAMED European project which concerns personnel radioprotection in the medical sector, the authors, members of a work group within this project, briefly report the study of the behaviour of some operational dosemeters which have been selected for their potential usability in interventional radiology. They indicate the required performance, evoke the performed tests, and discuss the results which revealed the limits of these dosimeters when used in interventional radiology

  17. Pulsed X-rays for interventional radiology: tests on active personal dosemeters (APD) (European project FP7 ORAMED WP3); Rayons X pulses pour la radiologie interventionnelle: tests sur dosimetres personnel actifs

    Denoziere, M.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Lecerf, N


    this report presents the results of the tests performed on Active Personal dosemeters (A.P.D.) to check their responses in pulsed X-ray beam used in interventional X-ray radiology. this work is one of the goal of O.R.A.M.E.D W.P.3. (Optimization of radiation protection for medical staff)The response of seven A.P.D.s types was measured in terms of dose equivalent Hp (10) for different pulsed X-ray width and dose rate. (author)

  18. Central online quality assurance in radiology. An IT solution exemplified by the German Breast Cancer Screening Program; Zentrale Online-Qualitaetssicherung in der Radiologie. Eine IT-Loesung am Beispiel des deutschen Mammografie-Screening-Programms

    Czwoydzinski, J.; Girnus, R.; Sommer, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Heindel, W.; Lenzen, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie


    Purpose: Physical-technical quality assurance is one of the essential tasks of the National Reference Centers in the German Breast Cancer Screening Program. For this purpose the mammography units are required to transfer the measured values of the constancy tests on a daily basis and all phantom images created for this purpose on a weekly basis to the reference centers. This is a serious logistical challenge. To meet these requirements, we developed an innovative software tool. Materials and Methods: By the end of 2005, we had already developed web-based software (MammoControl) allowing the transmission of constancy test results via entry forms. For automatic analysis and transmission of the phantom images, we then introduced an extension (MammoControl DIANA). This was based on Java, Java Web Start, the NetBeans Rich Client Platform, the Pixelmed Java DICOM Toolkit and the ImageJ library. Results: MammoControl DIANA was designed to run locally in the mammography units. This allows automated on-site image analysis. Both results and compressed images can then be transmitted to the reference center. We developed analysis modules for the daily and monthly consistency tests and additionally for a homogeneity test. Conclusion: The software we developed facilitates the immediate availability of measurement results, phantom images, and DICOM header data in all reference centers. This allows both targeted guidance and short response time in the case of errors. We achieved a consistent IT-based evaluation with standardized tools for the entire screening program in Germany. (orig.)

  19. Recommender systems

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad


    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  20. Material Systems

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael;


    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  1. Material Systems

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael


    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  2. Intelligent systems

    Irwin, J David


    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  3. Energetic Systems

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  4. Systemic darwinism.

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt


    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  5. cardiovascular system


    6.1 Cardiac arrhythmias 2006037 Electroanatomical systems guided circumferential pulmonary veins ablation for atrial fibrillation: initial experience from comparison between the EnSite -NavX and CARTO system LIU Xu(刘旭 ), et al. Dept Cardiol, Shanghai Chest Hosp, Shanghai, 200030, China. Chin J Cardiol 2005; 33 (22): 975 -978.

  6. Linear Systems.

    The report documents a series of seminars at Rome Air Development Center with the content equivalent to an intense course in Linear Systems . slanted toward the practicing engineer and introduces some of the fundamental concepts and techniques for analyzing linear systems . Techniques for

  7. Immune System

    Kuper, C.F.; Ruehl-Fehlert, C.; Elmore, S.A.; Parker, G.A.


    Cells of the immune system are found in every organ, from the classic lymphoid organs to tissues such as liver, mucosae, and omental adipose tissue. Toxicity to the immune system may be from a direct or indirect injury to lymphoid organs. The morphological responses range from lymphocyte depletion t

  8. Caste System

    Hoff, Karla


    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  9. Creative Systems

    Manelius, Anne-Mette; Beim, Anne


    Opsamling af diskussioner på konferencen og udstillingen Creative Systems i september/oktober 2007. Konferencen og Udstillingen Creative Systems sætter fokus på systemer som en positiv drivkraft i den kreative skabelsesproces. CINARK inviterede fire internationale kapaciteter, som indenfor hver...... deres felt har beskæftiget sig med udviklingen af systemer. Kieran Timberlake, markant amerikansk tegnestue; Mark West, Professor på University of Manitoba, Canada, og pioner indenfor anvendelse af tekstilforskalling til betonstøbninger; Matilda McQuaid, Arkitekturhistoriker og kurator på udstillingen...... om Extreme Textiles på amerikanske Cooper Hewit Design Museum, samt Professor Ludger Hovestadt, ved ETH, Zürich der fokuserer på udvikling og anvendelse af logaritmiske systemtilgange. Udstillingen diskuterede ud fra deres meget forskellige arbejder, det kreative potentiale i anvendelsen af systemer...

  10. Power system

    Hickam, Christopher Dale


    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  11. Reactive Systems

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  12. Dynamical systems

    Sternberg, Shlomo


    Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the

  13. Physical Systems

    Belkind, Ori


    Based on the concept of a physical system, this book offers a new philosophical interpretation of classical mechanics and the Special Theory of Relativity. According to Belkind's view the role of physical theory is to describe the motions of the parts of a physical system in relation to the motions of the whole. This approach provides a new perspective into the foundations of physical theory, where motions of parts and wholes of physical systems are taken to be fundamental, prior to spacetime, material properties and laws of motion. He defends this claim with a constructive project, deriving b

  14. Creative systems

    Beim, Anne


    At udvikle systemer har altid været et væsentligt element i den arkitektoniske skabelsesproces. Systemer er ikke nødvendigvis begrænsninger, men kan ses som positive faktorer i skabelses og fremstillinsprocessen. Center for Industriel Arkitektur, Cinark, har afholdt en international konference, en...... workshop og en udstilling under overskriften; Creative Systems. Artiklen præsenterer de fire oplægsholdere Matilda McQuaid, Mark West, Stephen Kieran og Ludger Hovestadt og en række diskussionstemaer....

  15. Recommender Systems

    Lü, Linyuan; Yeung, Chi Ho; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao


    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article, we review recent developments in recommender systems and discuss the major challenges. We compare and evaluate available algorithms and examine their roles in the future developments. In addition to algorithms, physical aspects are described to illustrate macroscopic behavior of recommender systems. Potential impacts and future directions are discussed. We emphasize that recommendation has a great scientific depth and combines diverse research fields which makes it of interests for physicists as well as interdisciplinar...

  16. Avionics Systems

    P.M. Soundar Rajan


    Full Text Available ‘Avionics’ systems, over the decades, have grown from simple communication radios and navigation equipments to complex integrated equipments primarily infiuenced by dominance of digital technology. Continuous growth in integrated circuit technology, functional integration of complete system on chip, very high speed communication channels and fault tolerant communication protocols have brought remarkable advancements in avionics systems. Further Mechanical and Pneumatic functional blocks are being replaced by digital systems progressively and decisively. New generation aircraft are being built around powerful avionics assets to provide stress free cockpit to the pilot.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.129-130, DOI:

  17. AEG System -

    Department of Transportation — The AEG System is used to create, revise, approve, and distribute text of the AEGS and Flight Standard Board (FSB)/Type Rating Report. The MMEL specifies under what...

  18. Bubble systems

    Avdeev, Alexander A


    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  19. Health systems

    Büchner, Vera Antonia; Hinz, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas


    This study investigates potential changes in hospital performance after health system entry, while differentiating between hospital technical and cost efficiency and hospital profitability. In the first stage we obtained (bootstrapped) data envelopment analysis (DEA) efficiency scores. Then......, genetic matching is used as a novel matching procedure in this context along with a difference-in-difference approach within a panel regression framework. With the genetic matching procedure, independent and health system hospitals are matched along a number of environmental and organizational...... characteristics. The results show that health system entry increases hospital technical and cost efficiency by between 0.6 and 3.4 % in four alternative post-entry periods, indicating that health system entry has not a transitory but rather a permanent effect on hospital efficiency. Regarding hospital...

  20. Bitcoin System

    Jan Lánský


    .... Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education...

  1. Systems failure.

    Macleod, Anna


    Systems Failure A solo exhibition of new work by Anna Macleod developed in conversation with curator Liz Burns. The Dock, Carrick on Shannon, Co Leitrim. Ireland. 12th February – 17th April 2010. The works for the exhibition Systems Failure include drawings, prints and small constructions that examine the delicate balance that exists between need and aspects of failure rooted in the relationship between humanity and land use. The work seeks to question the relationship between scient...

  2. Nanorobotic Systems

    Lixin Dong


    Full Text Available Two strategies towards the realization of nanotechnology have been presented, i.e., top-down and bottom up. The former one is mainly based on nanofabrication and includes technologies such as nano-lithography, nano-imprint, and etching. Presently, they are still 2D fabrication processes with low resolution. The later one is an assembly-based technique. At present, it includes such items as self-assembly, dip-pen lithography, and directed self-assembly. These techniques can generate regular nano patterns in large scales. To fabricate 3D complex nano devices there are still no effective ways by so far. Here we show our effort on the development of a nano laboratory, a prototype nanomanufacturing system, based on nanorobotic manipulations. In which, we take a hybrid strategy as shown in Fig. 1. In this system, nano fabrication and nano assembly can be performed in an arbitrary order to construct nano building blocks and finally nano devices. The most important feature in this system is that the products can be fed back into the system to shrink the system part by part leading to nanorobots. Property characterization can be performed in each intermediate process. Due to the nanorobotic manipulation system, dynamic measurement can be performed rather than conventional static observations.

  3. System-of-Systems Complexity

    Hermann Kopetz


    Full Text Available The global availability of communication services makes it possible to interconnect independently developed systems, called constituent systems, to provide new synergistic services and more efficient economic processes. The characteristics of these new Systems-of-Systems are qualitatively different from the classic monolithic systems. In the first part of this presentation we elaborate on these differences, particularly with respect to the autonomy of the constituent systems, to dependability, continuous evolution, and emergence. In the second part we look at a SoS from the point of view of cognitive complexity. Cognitive complexity is seen as a relation between a model of an SoS and the observer. In order to understand the behavior of a large SoS we have to generate models of adequate simplicity, i.e, of a cognitive complexity that can be handled by the limited capabilities of the human mind. We will discuss the importance of properly specifying and placing the relied-upon message interfaces between the constituent systems that form an open SoS and discuss simplification strategies that help to reduce the cognitive complexity.

  4. Systems Studies

    Graham, R.L.


    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  5. Monte Carlo Simulation of Mammography X-ray Units: a Comparison Between Different Electron Extensions of the EGS4 Code System

    Marziani, M.; Gambaccini, M.; Távora, L. M. N.; Taibi, A.

    The knowledge of diagnostic X-ray spectra is a parameter of primary importance for optimising radiologie examinations and for the evaluation of organ doses. The last decade of improvements in the diagnostic X-ray unit technology has brought an array of several anode and filter material combinations for X-ray tubes, notably in mammography. The direct measurement of X-ray spectra generated from such tubes is rarely practical, especially in a hospital or any other clinical environment. Moreover, the recorded pulse spectra have to be corrected for efficiency, resolution and energy dependence of the detector. Even resorting to tabulated spectra from published catalogues [1-3] could be impractical since for the most part the desired combination of target and exit window materials, anode angle, added filtration and peak-kilovoltage can't be easily found in such databases. Moreover, published tabulations are often based on semi-empirical models or fitting procedures which rarely try to mimic the underlying physics.

  6. Systemic trauma.

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke


    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering.

  7. Turbine system

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson


    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  8. System Description:

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam


    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...... data from computation, allowing for decidable type checking. The data level is LF [Robert Harper, Furio Honsell, and Gordon Plotkin. A framework for defining logics. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, 40(1):143-184, January 1993], which allows for the specification of deductive systems...

  9. Lubrication system

    Wadding, C.; Lagasse, N.L.; Milo, G.T.; Vankamerik, J.G.


    This patent describes a lubrication system for controlling the flow of lubricant as a function of the altitude at which a gas turbine engine is operating. This lubrication system is comprised of: 1.) A source of lubricant under pressure; 2.) A unit requiring lubrication; 3.) A movable valve in fluid communication with the source and with the unit for regulating the flow of lubricant from the source to the unit; and 4.) An altitude sensor associated with the movable valve for positioning the movable valve to control the flow of lubricant from the source to the unit, as a function of the altitude at which the engine is operating.

  10. Microbiology System


    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  11. [Systemic scleroderma].

    Hunzelmann, N


    Systemic scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the skin, internal organs and the musculoskeletal system. The presence of Raynaud phenomenon, anti-nuclear antibodies and pathologic capillaroscopy are early signs of the disease. Limited cutaneous SSc, diffuse cutaneous SSc and SSc-overlap syndromes are the main clinical subtypes. Multidisciplinary care is mandatory. Follow-up examinations should be performed at least annually in order to recognize in a timely fashion treatable organ involvement such as pulmonary arterial hypertension. Besides symptomatic treatment of organ involvement, immunosuppressive therapy is indicated for a progressive inflammatory course.

  12. Computer systems

    Olsen, Lola


    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  13. Irrigation System


    Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

  14. Immune System

    ... and mature there to become B cells or leave for the thymus gland, where they mature to become T cells. B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes have separate jobs to do: B lymphocytes are like the body's military intelligence system, seeking out their targets and sending defenses to ...

  15. Bricks / Systems

    and systems. The basis for this theme is the work conducted at the Utzon(x) Research Group at Aalborg University, in combination with the rich tradition and implementation of masonry work in Denmark, which has attracted increasing attention from architectural practitioners and researchers alike. How should...

  16. Multiagent systems

    Sycara, Katia P


    ... of such multiagent systems (MASs) are a core set of issues and research questions that have been studied over the years by the distributed AT community. In this article, I present some of the critical notions in MASs and the research work that has addressed them. I organize these notions around the concept of problem-solving coherence,...

  17. System Dynamics

    Morecroft, John

    System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.

  18. Systems chemistry

    Ludlow, R. Frederick; Otto, Sijbren


    The study of complex mixtures of interacting synthetic molecules has historically not received much attention from chemists, even though research into complexity is well established in the neighbouring fields. However, with the huge recent interest in systems biology and the availability of modern a

  19. Transport system

    Drenth, K.F.


    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  20. Solar system

    Homer, Charlene


    Thrill young astronomers with a journey through our Solar System. Find out all about the Inner and Outer Planets, the Moon, Stars, Constellations, Asteroids, Meteors and Comets. Using simplified language and vocabulary, concepts such as planetary orbits, the asteroid belt, the lunar cycle and phases of the moon, and shooting stars are all explored.

  1. Quorum Systems

    Förster, Klaus-Tycho


    What happens if a single server is no longer powerful enough to service all your customers? The obvious choice is to add more servers and to use the majority approach (e.g. Paxos, Chapter 2) to guarantee consistency. However, even if you buy one million servers, a client still has to access more ...... study the theory behind overlapping sets, known as quorum systems....

  2. Immune System

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  3. Systems Chronotherapeutics

    Innominato, Pasquale F.; Dallmann, Robert; Rand, David A.; Lévi, Francis A.


    Chronotherapeutics aim at treating illnesses according to the endogenous biologic rhythms, which moderate xenobiotic metabolism and cellular drug response. The molecular clocks present in individual cells involve approximately fifteen clock genes interconnected in regulatory feedback loops. They are coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei, a hypothalamic pacemaker, which also adjusts the circadian rhythms to environmental cycles. As a result, many mechanisms of diseases and drug effects are controlled by the circadian timing system. Thus, the tolerability of nearly 500 medications varies by up to fivefold according to circadian scheduling, both in experimental models and/or patients. Moreover, treatment itself disrupted, maintained, or improved the circadian timing system as a function of drug timing. Improved patient outcomes on circadian-based treatments (chronotherapy) have been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials, especially for cancer and inflammatory diseases. However, recent technological advances have highlighted large interpatient differences in circadian functions resulting in significant variability in chronotherapy response. Such findings advocate for the advancement of personalized chronotherapeutics through interdisciplinary systems approaches. Thus, the combination of mathematical, statistical, technological, experimental, and clinical expertise is now shaping the development of dedicated devices and diagnostic and delivery algorithms enabling treatment individualization. In particular, multiscale systems chronopharmacology approaches currently combine mathematical modeling based on cellular and whole-body physiology to preclinical and clinical investigations toward the design of patient-tailored chronotherapies. We review recent systems research works aiming to the individualization of disease treatment, with emphasis on both cancer management and circadian timing system–resetting strategies for improving chronic disease control and

  4. Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, and System and Software Architectures


    2009 Carnegie Mellon University Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, and System and Software Architectures Software Engineering Institute...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploring Enterprise, System of Systems, and System and Software Architectures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Carnegie Mellon University, Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY

  5. Systemic Architecture

    Poletto, Marco; Pasquero, Claudia


    design protocols developed to describe the city as a territory of self-organization. Collecting together nearly a decade of design experiments by the authors and their practice, ecoLogicStudio, the book discusses key disciplinary definitions such as ecologic urbanism, algorithmic architecture, bottom......This is a manual investigating the subject of urban ecology and systemic development from the perspective of architectural design. It sets out to explore two main goals: to discuss the contemporary relevance of a systemic practice to architectural design, and to share a toolbox of informational......-up or tactical design, behavioural space and the boundary of the natural and the artificial realms within the city and architecture. A new kind of "real-time world-city" is illustrated in the form of an operational design manual for the assemblage of proto-architectures, the incubation of proto...

  6. Decentralized Systems.


    source of interrupts can be generated at each element. These interrupts can be used to sample local state information I or to maintain a measure of...adjoining identifiers or system words. 2.7.2 Synonymous Symbols For convience some operators have a number of different representations They are...of this perfor- Sr tance measure for the programs sampled . The programs executed included the Sieve of Eratosthenes described in section 2.1, a

  7. Imaging System


    The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

  8. Blackboard Systems.


    article stated that although the importance of context, syntax, semantics, and phonological rules in the recognition of speech was accepted, no system had...of, from the lowest to the highest level: parametric, segmental, phonetic , phonemic, syllabic, lexical, phrasal, and conceptual levels (see Figure 3...from classification (classifying acoustic segments into phonetic classes), to recognition (recognizing words) to generation and 42SCe (25] for a

  9. Systemic Assurance


    simulations, cyber-physical robotic systems, and extremely large commercial Java programs. An important goal is to develop incrementally compostable...randomness and stochastic behavior, both as integral to algorithm design and as a consequence of multi- threading , (3) Concurrency and distribution, as the...should be involved in all four threads of the effort: Baseline Analysis of Codified Best Practices The baselining analysis for existing practices has

  10. Security system

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.


    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  11. Gasification system

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter


    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  12. Propulsion Systems


    definition we are choosing x to be aligned with the direction of flight. Thus, accounting for the possible rotation of the axes, the acceleration in...Monopropellants. In a monopropellant system, like the name suggests, there is one propellant which decomposes exothermically as it passes through a comes into contact with the catalyst bed. Subsequently, the ammonia decomposes into nitrogen and hydrogen in an endothermic reaction lowering the

  13. Law system and legislation system

    Boshno, Svetlana


    This paper is a continuation of publication of the «Jurisprudence» textbook by Svetlana Vladimirovna Boshno. Law system is a key element of general theory of law. The major fundamentals of its construction are subject matter and method of legal regulation. Of great importance is the division of legal regulation methods into mandative and dispositive ones. The paper articulates the concepts of institute and branch of law demonstrated through various examples. An important classification of bra...

  14. Linear systems

    Bourlès, Henri


    Linear systems have all the necessary elements (modeling, identification, analysis and control), from an educational point of view, to help us understand the discipline of automation and apply it efficiently. This book is progressive and organized in such a way that different levels of readership are possible. It is addressed both to beginners and those with a good understanding of automation wishing to enhance their knowledge on the subject. The theory is rigorously developed and illustrated by numerous examples which can be reproduced with the help of appropriate computation software. 60 exe

  15. Dynamical systems

    Birkhoff, George D


    His research in dynamics constitutes the middle period of Birkhoff's scientific career, that of maturity and greatest power. -Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society The author's great book€¦is well known to all, and the diverse active modern developments in mathematics which have been inspired by this volume bear the most eloquent testimony to its quality and influence. -Zentralblatt MATH In 1927, G. D. Birkhoff wrote a remarkable treatise on the theory of dynamical systems that would inspire many later mathematicians to do great work. To a large extent, Birkhoff was writing about his o

  16. Nuclear systems

    Todreas, Neil E


    Principal Characteristics of Power ReactorsIntroductionPower CyclesPrimary Coolant SystemsReactor CoresFuel AssembliesAdvanced Water- and Gas-Cooled Reactors (Generation III And III+)Advanced Thermal and Fast Neutron Spectrum Reactors (Generation IV)ReferencesProblemsThermal Design Principles and ApplicationIntroductionOverall Plant Characteristics Influenced by Thermal Hydraulic ConsiderationsEnergy Production and Transfer ParametersThermal Design LimitsThermal Design MarginFigures of Merit for Core Thermal PerformanceThe Inverted Fuel ArrayThe Equivalent Annulus ApproximationReferencesProble

  17. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda


    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  18. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda


    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  19. Systemic Planning

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  20. Model Systems

    Francisco Rodríguez-Trelles


    Full Text Available Current efforts to study the biological effects of global change have focused on ecological responses, particularly shifts in species ranges. Mostly ignored are microevolutionary changes. Genetic changes may be at least as important as ecological ones in determining species' responses. In addition, such changes may be a sensitive indicator of global changes that will provide different information than that provided by range shifts. We discuss potential candidate systems to use in such monitoring programs. Studies of Drosophila subobscura suggest that its chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are responding to global warming. Drosophila inversion polymorphisms can be useful indicators of the effects of climate change on populations and ecosystems. Other species also hold the potential to become important indicators of global change. Such studies might significantly influence ecosystem conservation policies and research priorities.

  1. Cognitive Systems

    and its relation and potential over current artificial intelligence architectures. Machine learning models that learn from data and previous knowledge will play an increasingly important role in all levels of cognition as large real world digital environments (such as the Internet) usually are too complex...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need......, cognitive psychology, and semantics. However, machine learning for signal processing plays a key role at all the levels of the cognitive processes, and we expect this to be a new emerging trend in our community in the coming years. Current examples of the use of machine learning for signal processing...

  2. Systemic Planning

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  3. Turbocompound system

    Fox, L.D.


    A turbocompound system is described for improving the performance of an internal combustion engine without substantially increasing an end viewed profile of the engine to which it is mounted in use. The system consists of: (a) an exhaust driven turbocharger means having an exhaust manifold means extending in an axial direction for collecting exhaust gases from engine cylinders and delivering the gases to an outlet end thereof, exhaust turbine means for extracting energy from the exhaust gases, the exhaust turbine means being provided with an inlet connected to the outlet end of the manifold and an outlet for discharging the exhaust gases, compressor means coupled to the exhaust turbine means for providing a supply of charge air under pressure to an air outlet thereof for delivery to air intake means of an internal combustion engine in use; (b) a power turbine means for extracting additional energy from the exhaust gases, the power turbine means having an intake connected to the outlet of the exhaust turbine means, and mounting means on a side of the power turbine means facing in a direction parallel to the axial direction of the exhaust manifold means that is constructed for being mounted, in use, on an end of an engine adjacent one end of a crankshaft of the engine; and (c) coupling means connected to the power turbine means for transferring mechanical energy produced by the power turbine means, the coupling means extending from the power turbine means to a power take-off end in a direction parallel to the axial length of the exhaust manifold means by an amount that is sufficient for enabling the power take-off end to be connected, in use, to an opposite end of the engine crankshaft from the one end thereof in a manner for transferring the mechanical energy produced by the power turbine means adjacent the one end of the crankshaft to the opposite end of the crankshaft without having to pass therethrough.

  4. Systems engineering simplified

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice


    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  5. Transmission Sur Fibres Optiques Dans Un Systeme D'Archivage Et De Communication D'Images Pour Des Applications Medicales

    Aaron, Gilles; Bonnard, Rene


    Dans l'hOpital, le besoin d'un reseau de communication electronique ne cesse de crottre au fur et a mesure de la numerisation des images. Ce reseau local a pour but de relier quelques sources d'images telles la radiologie numerique, la tomodensitometrie, la resonance magnetique nucleaire, l'echographie ultraso-nore etc..., a un systme d'archivage. Des consoles de visualisation interacti-ves peuvent etre utilisees dans les salles d'examens, les bureaux des medecins et les services de soins. Dans un tel systme, trois caracteristiques princi-pales doivent etre prises en compte le debit, la longueur du cable et le nombre de connexions. - Le debit est tr?)s important, en effet, un temps de reponse maxima de quel-ques secondes doit etre garanti pour des images de plusieurs millions d'ele-ments binaires. - La distance entre connexions peut etre de quelques km dans certains grands hopitaux. - Le nombre de connexions au reseau ne depasse jamais quelques dizaines car les sources d'images et les unites de traitement representent des materiels importants, par ailleurs les consoles de visualisation simples peuvent etre groupees en grappe. Toutes ces conditions sont remplies par les transmissions sur fibres optiques. Selon la topologie et la methode d'accNs, deux solutions peuvent etre envisa-gees : - Anneau actif - Etoile active ou passive Enfin, les developpements de Thomson-CSF en composants pour transmissions optiques pour les grands reseaux de tel4distribution nous apportent un support technologique et une production de masse qui diminuera les collts du materiel.

  6. Cardiovascular System


    7.1 Heart failure2007175 Effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on aldosterone and endothelin-1 in treatment of heart failure. FU Yao(付尧),et al. Dept Cardiol, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110001. Chin Cir J 2007;22(1):35-37. Obiective To study the efficacy and the effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide(rhBNP) on aldosterone and endothelin-1 in the treatment of congestive heart failure(CHF).Methods A randomized, open, controlled clinical trial was conducted in 35 patients with CHF. Eighteen received rhBNP and 17 were treated with nitroglycerin as controls. The changes hemodynamic indexes, the plasma concentrations of K+, Na+, aldo-sterone(ALD) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in order to examine the efficacy and mechanism of rhBNP. Results Between experiment and control groups significant differences were found in the decreasing of PCWP, PAP and plasma concentration of Na+, ALD, ET-1, and in the increasing of plasma concentration of K+ (P<0.05~0.01). Conclusion The mechanism of rhBNP may be associated with the overactivation of renin-angiotension-aldosterone system, and the inhibited production of endothelin-1.

  7. Pancreatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus Pancreatitis y lupus eritematoso sistémico

    J. Lariño Noia


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with SLE are common, specifically abdominal pain. However, the rate of pancreatic diseases is much lower and does not reach 5% according to published series in Europe and the USA. This association between SLE and pancreatic disease is basically at the expense of episodes of acute pancreatitis. An association with chronic pancreatitis is much more uncommon, and only four articles have been published showing this relationship. Three cases of SLE-associated pancreatitis are described, and disease onset, etiological factors, and clinical progression are analyzed. A review of the literature and a brief discussion about pathophysiological mechanisms and the role of corticosteroids are also included.Los síntomas gastrointestinales en los pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES son comunes, específicamente el dolor abdominal. Sin embargo la tasa de enfermedades pancreáticas es mucho menor, una tasa que no alcanza ni al 5% según las series publicadas en Europa y EE. UU. Esta asociación entre enfermedades pancreáticas y LES es fundamentalmente a expensas de episodios de pancreatitis aguda. La asociación con pancreatitis crónica es muchísimo más infrecuente, teniendo en cuenta que tan sólo cuatro artículos han sido publicados reflejando esta asociación. Describimos tres casos de asociación entre pancreatitis y LES, analizando el debut de la enfermedad, los factores etiológicos y también la evolución clínica. Hemos realizado, además, una breve discusión de la fisiopatología y del papel de corticosteroides, así como una revisión de la literatura.

  8. Systems Biology and Health Systems Complexity in;

    Donald Combs, C.; Barham, S.R.; Sloot, P.M.A.


    Systems biology addresses interactions in biological systems at different scales of biological organization, from the molecular to the cellular, organ, organism, societal, and ecosystem levels. This chapter expands on the concept of systems biology, explores its implications for individual patients

  9. System safety education focused on system management

    Grose, V. L.


    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  10. Respiratory System


    8.1 Respiratory failure2007204 Comparison of the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers and low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. WANG Xiaozhi(王晓芝),et al. Dept Respir & Intensive Care Unit, Binzhou Med Coll, Binzhou 256603. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(1):44-47. Objective To compare the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(LRM) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods A prospective, randomized comparison of BiPAP mechanical ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(test group) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation (control group) was conducted in 28 patients with ARDS. FiO2/PaO2 ratio, respiratory system compliance(Cs), central venous pressure (CVP), duration of ventilation support were recorded at 0 h, 48 h and 72 h separately. The ventilation associated lung injury and mortality at 28 d were also recorded. Results The FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (298±16) and (309±16) cm H2O, Cs were (38.4±2.2) and (42.0±1.3) ml/cm H2O, CVP were (13.8±0.8) and (11.6±0.7) cm H2O in the test group at 48 h and 72 h separately. In the control group, FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (212±12) and (246±17) cm H2O, Cs were (29.5±1.3) and (29.0±1.0) ml/cm H2O, CVP were 18.6±1.1 and (16.8±1.0) cm H2O. The results were better in the test group as compared with the control group (t=10.03-29. 68, all P<0.01). The duration of ventilation support in the test group was shorter than the control group [(14±3) d vs (19±3)d, t=4.80, P<0.01]. The mortality in 28 d and ventilation associated lung injury were similar in the two groups. Conclusion The results show that combination of LRM with BiPAP mode ventilation, as compared with the control group, contributes to the improved FiO2/PaO2 ratio, pulmonary compliance, stable homodynamic and shorter duration of ventilation support in patients with ARDs.

  11. Quality management system

    Lee, Mu Sung


    This book deals with ISO9001 quality management system which includes summary of this system such as classification of quality, principle of quality management, and definition, requirement and procedure of quality management system, introduction of ISO9001 system like model of ISO9001 quality management system, ISO certificate system, structure of ISO9001 standard, requirement of ISO9001 quality management system, process approach and documentation of system, propel cases of ISO9001 quality management system.

  12. Systems theory of interconnected port contact systems

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der


    Port-based network modeling of a large class of complex physical systems leads to dynamical systems known as port-Hamiltonian systems. The key ingredient of any port-Hamiltonian system is a power-conserving interconnection structure (mathematically formalized by the geometric notion of a Dirac struc

  13. Protecting Information in Systems of Systems

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro


    Systems of Systems (SoS) are dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, the SoS paradigm has a strong impact on system interoperability and on the securi

  14. Advanced Systems Theory Applied to AMB Systems

    Balini, H.M.N.K.


    In this thesis we look at the application of advanced systems theoretic algorithms for an experimental Active Magnetic Bearing System (AMB). These systems are inherently unstable and therefore require a feedback controller. Accurate modeling of these systems with input-output data is hindered due to

  15. Square conservation systems and Hamiltonian systems

    王斌; 曾庆存; 季仲贞


    The internal and external relationships between the square conservation scheme and the symplectic scheme are revealed by a careful study on the interrelation between the square conservation system and the Hamiltonian system in the linear situation, thus laying a theoretical basis for the application and extension of symplectic schemes to square conservations systems, and of those schemes with quadratic conservation properties to Hamiltonian systems.

  16. A Security Framework for Systems of Systems

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro


    Systems of systems consist of a wide variety of dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, this new paradigm has a strong impact on system

  17. Understanding Patterns for System of Systems Integration

    Kazman, Rick; Schmid, Klaus; Nielsen, Claus Ballegård


    of systems integration patterns. These characteristics at the same time support the architecting process by highlighting important issues a SoS architect needs to consider. We discuss the consolidated template and illustrate it with an example pattern. We also discuss the integration of this novel pattern......Architecting systems of systems is well known to be a formidable challenge. A major aspect in this is defining the integration among the systems that constitute the system of systems. In this paper, we aim to support the SoS architect by systematically developing a way to characterize system...

  18. Concept and System of Personification Control System

    Bai,Fengshuang; Yin,Yixin; Tu,Xuyan; Zhang,Ying


    This paper provides the system and conception of the Personification Control System (PCS) on the basis of Intelligent Control System based on Artificial life (ICS/AL), Artificial Emotion, Humanoid Control, and Intelligent Control System based on Field bus. According to system science and deciding of organize of biology, the Pyramid System of PCS are created. Then Pyramid System of PCS which is made up of PCS1/H, PCS1/S, PCS1/O, PCS1/C and PCS1/G is described.

  19. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.


    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  20. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab


    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  1. Integrated library systems.

    Goldstein, C M


    The development of integrated library systems is discussed. The four major discussion points are (1) initial efforts; (2) network resources; (3) minicomputer-based systems; and (4) beyond library automation. Four existing systems are cited as examples of current systems.

  2. Freshwater systems; Frisch gezapft

    Meyer, J.P.


    Increasingly, providers of solar systems are also offering freshwater systems, although these are more costly than combined storage systems. The contribution discusses the pros and cons of these systems as well as the freshwater quality. (orig.)

  3. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)


    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined.

  4. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael


    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  5. System of systems modeling and analysis.

    Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Longsine, Dennis E. (Intera, Inc., Austin, TX); Shirah, Donald N.


    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' that was conducted during FY 2003 and FY 2004. Systems that themselves consist of multiple systems (referred to here as System of Systems or SoS) introduce a level of complexity to systems performance analysis and optimization that is not readily addressable by existing capabilities. The objective of the 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' project was to develop an integrated modeling and simulation environment that addresses the complex SoS modeling and analysis needs. The approach to meeting this objective involved two key efforts. First, a static analysis approach, called state modeling, has been developed that is useful for analyzing the average performance of systems over defined use conditions. The state modeling capability supports analysis and optimization of multiple systems and multiple performance measures or measures of effectiveness. The second effort involves time simulation which represents every system in the simulation using an encapsulated state model (State Model Object or SMO). The time simulation can analyze any number of systems including cross-platform dependencies and a detailed treatment of the logistics required to support the systems in a defined mission.

  6. Computer System Design System-on-Chip

    Flynn, Michael J


    The next generation of computer system designers will be less concerned about details of processors and memories, and more concerned about the elements of a system tailored to particular applications. These designers will have a fundamental knowledge of processors and other elements in the system, but the success of their design will depend on the skills in making system-level tradeoffs that optimize the cost, performance and other attributes to meet application requirements. This book provides a new treatment of computer system design, particularly for System-on-Chip (SOC), which addresses th

  7. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    Kurbanov, Vugar


    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  8. Linking Political Systems and War Systems

    Harste, Gorm


    Decisive parts of the Western political system have demonstrated a seemingly surprising misinterpretation of military might. As Madelaine Albright has suggested, the mighty perceived themselves as "almighty". Political power seems to have invested in instrumental coercive power relations and found...... military coercion to be the appropriate mean. Using the system theory and the theory of systemic risks displayed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann the article demonstrates how military systems due to their own autonomy and autopoiesis do not fit into the idea of political government....... The Clausewitzian ideal of a political system that could continue its power games by means of war was moderated by Clausewitz' own analysis of "friction". How can a political system be so blind towards the possibilities of another system? What are the risks of systemic blind spots? The argument of the paper...

  9. Situation Awareness with Systems of Systems

    Laar, P. van de; Tretmans, J.; Borth, M.


    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security. Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier

  10. Linking Political Systems and War Systems

    Harste, Gorm


    Decisive parts of the Western political system have demonstrated a seemingly surprising misinterpretation of military might. As Madelaine Albright has suggested, the mighty perceived themselves as "almighty". Political power seems to have invested in instrumental coercive power relations and found...... military coercion to be the appropriate mean. Using the system theory and the theory of systemic risks displayed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann the article demonstrates how military systems due to their own autonomy and autopoiesis do not fit into the idea of political government....... The Clausewitzian ideal of a political system that could continue its power games by means of war was moderated by Clausewitz' own analysis of "friction". How can a political system be so blind towards the possibilities of another system? What are the risks of systemic blind spots? The argument of the paper...

  11. Engine Auxiliary System Guideline: Lubricating Oil Systems

    Linna, Joni


    This thesis was done for Wärtsilä Technical Services organization, the purpose of this work was to gather and structure information about the lubricating oil systems from the company’s internal databases, interviews with system specialists and from different literature sources covering Ship Power and Power Plant products. The outcome was a guideline, covering typical power plant and marine system descriptions, all components used in the lubricating oil system with their functional description...


    ERKAN, İbrahim Hakkı; Yılmaz, Ülkü Sultan; Türken, Hakan


    Tunnel formwork systems became the most widespread construction technology preferred in recent years in Turkey due to rapidity and economy. In this study, before all else, a brief information was given about the types and construction techniques of tunnel formwork systems. Then a reinforced concrete building sample was firstly modeled as it was constructed with the tunnel formwork system and secondly modeled as it was formed by a frame system with shear walls constructed by the traditional re...

  13. LCLS XTOD Attenuator System System Concept Report

    Kishiyama, K; Roeben, M; Trent, J; Ryutov, D; Shen, S


    The attenuator system for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been configured and analyzed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, performance analyses and selection of the vacuum components are presented in this System Conceptual Review (SCR) report. Also included are the plans for prototype, procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

  14. Designing information systems

    Blethyn, Stanley G


    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  15. Modeling learning technology systems as business systems

    Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos


    The design of Learning Technology Systems, and the Software Systems that support them, is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that defectively support the learning process. There is now justifiable, increasing effort in formalizing the engineering o

  16. Non linear system become linear system

    Petre Bucur


    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  17. Expert Systems for auditing management information systems

    Gheroghe Popescu


    Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.

  18. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    Salisbury, David F.


    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  19. The complement system in systemic autoimmune disease

    Chen, Min; Daha, Mohamed R.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.


    Complement is part of the innate immune system. Its major function is recognition and elimination of pathogens via direct killing and/or stimulation of phagocytosis. Activation of the complement system is, however, also involved in the pathogenesis of the systemic autoimmune diseases. Activation via

  20. Optical system defect propagation in ABCD systems

    McKinley, W.G.; Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    We describe how optical system defects (tilt/jitter, decenter, and despace) propagate through an arbitrary paraxial optical system that can be described by an ABCD ray transfer matrix. A pedagogical example is given that demonstrates the effect of alignment errors on a typical optical system....... © 1988 Optical Society of America...

  1. Observing System Evaluations Using GODAE Systems


    Journal of Marine Systems 35...dimensional temperature fields: A first approach based on simulated observations. Journal of Marine Systems 46:85-98. Langland, R.H., and N.L. Baker...capabilities of multisatellite altimeter missions: First results with real data in the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Marine Systems 65:190-211.

  2. Modeling learning technology systems as business systems

    Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos


    The design of Learning Technology Systems, and the Software Systems that support them, is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that defectively support the learning process. There is now justifiable, increasing effort in formalizing the engineering

  3. Biomedical signals and systems

    Tranquillo, Joseph V


    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  4. Psychology of system design

    Meister, D


    This is a book about systems, including: systems in which humans control machines; systems in which humans interact with humans and the machine component is relatively unimportant; systems which are heavily computerized and those that are not; and governmental, industrial, military and social systems. The book deals with both traditional systems like farming, fishing and the military, and with systems just now tentatively emerging, like the expert and the interactive computer system. The emphasis is on the system concept and its implications for analysis, design and evaluation of these many di

  5. Operating System Security

    Jaeger, Trent


    Operating systems provide the fundamental mechanisms for securing computer processing. Since the 1960s, operating systems designers have explored how to build "secure" operating systems - operating systems whose mechanisms protect the system against a motivated adversary. Recently, the importance of ensuring such security has become a mainstream issue for all operating systems. In this book, we examine past research that outlines the requirements for a secure operating system and research that implements example systems that aim for such requirements. For system designs that aimed to

  6. Lighting system with thermal management system

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc


    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  7. Lighting system with thermal management system

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc


    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  8. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  9. Intelligent test integration system

    Sztipanovits, J.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Kawamura, K.; Purves, B.; Williams, R.; Biglari, H.


    A new test technology is described which was developed for space system integration. The ultimate purpose of the system is to support the automatic generation of test systems in real time, distributed computing environments. The Intelligent Test Integration System (ITIS) is a knowledge based layer above the traditional test system components which can generate complex test configurations from the specification of test scenarios.

  10. Autonomous photovoltaic lighting system

    Ahmed A. A. Hafez; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni


    This paper introduces a comparison between the conventional and Photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems. A simple sizing procedure for a PV stand-alone system was advised. The paper also proposes a novel PV lighting system. The proposed system is simple, compact and reliable. The system operation was investigated by thoroughly mathematical and simulation work.

  11. Mapping biological systems to network systems

    Rathore, Heena


    The book presents the challenges inherent in the paradigm shift of network systems from static to highly dynamic distributed systems – it proposes solutions that the symbiotic nature of biological systems can provide into altering networking systems to adapt to these changes. The author discuss how biological systems – which have the inherent capabilities of evolving, self-organizing, self-repairing and flourishing with time – are inspiring researchers to take opportunities from the biology domain and map them with the problems faced in network domain. The book revolves around the central idea of bio-inspired systems -- it begins by exploring why biology and computer network research are such a natural match. This is followed by presenting a broad overview of biologically inspired research in network systems -- it is classified by the biological field that inspired each topic and by the area of networking in which that topic lies. Each case elucidates how biological concepts have been most successfully ...

  12. Operating System Performance Analyzer for Embedded Systems

    Shahzada Khayyam Nisar


    Full Text Available RTOS provides a number of services to an embedded system designs such as case management, memory management, and Resource Management to build a program. Choosing the best OS for an embedded system is based on the available OS for system designers and their previous knowledge and experience. This can cause an imbalance between the OS and embedded systems. RTOS performance analysis is critical in the design and integration of embedded software to ensure that limits the application meet at runtime. To select an appropriate operating system for an embedded system for a particular application, the OS services to be analyzed. These OS services are identified by parameters to establish performance metrics. Performance Metrics selected include context switching, Preemption time and interrupt latency. Performance Metrics are analyzed to choose the right OS for an embedded system for a particular application.

  13. Systems Architecture for a Nationwide Healthcare System.

    Abin, Jorge; Nemeth, Horacio; Friedmann, Ignacio


    From a national level to give Internet technology support, the Nationwide Integrated Healthcare System in Uruguay requires a model of Information Systems Architecture. This system has multiple healthcare providers (public and private), and a strong component of supplementary services. Thus, the data processing system should have an architecture that considers this fact, while integrating the central services provided by the Ministry of Public Health. The national electronic health record, as well as other related data processing systems, should be based on this architecture. The architecture model described here conceptualizes a federated framework of electronic health record systems, according to the IHE affinity model, HL7 standards, local standards on interoperability and security, as well as technical advice provided by AGESIC. It is the outcome of the research done by AGESIC and Systems Integration Laboratory (LINS) on the development and use of the e-Government Platform since 2008, as well as the research done by the team since 2013.

  14. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  15. Calo trigger acquisition system

    Franchini, Matteo


    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  16. Brain and Nervous System

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... brain is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  17. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Wassim M. Haddad


    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  18. Bridge Management Systems

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  19. Manned systems technology discipline

    Bretoi, Remus


    Viewgraphs on manned systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew-systems interfaces and interactions; crew training; on-board systems maintenance and support; habitability and environment; and computational human factors.

  20. System Software 7 Macintosh


    System 7 is a single-user graphical user interface-based operating system for Macintosh computers and was part of the classic Mac OS line of operating systems. It was introduced on May 13, 1991, by Apple Computer. It succeeded System 6, and was the main Macintosh operating system until it was succeeded by Mac OS 8 in 1997. Features added with the System 7 release included virtual memory, personal file sharing, QuickTime, QuickDraw 3D, and an improved user interface. This is the first real major evolution of the Macintosh system, bringing a significant improvement in the user interface, improved stability and many new features such as the ability to use multiple applications at the same time. "System 7" is the last operating system name of the Macintosh that contains the word "system". Macintosh operating systems were later called "Mac OS" (for Macintosh Operating System).

  1. Game Information System

    Warnars, Spits; Kingdom, United; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2310


    In this Information system age many organizations consider information system as their weapon to compete or gain competitive advantage or give the best services for non profit organizations. Game Information System as combining Information System and game is breakthrough to achieve organizations’ performance. The Game Information System will run the Information System with game and how game can be implemented to run the Information System. Game is not only for fun and entertainment, but will be a challenge to combine fun and entertainment with Information System. The Challenge to run the information system with entertainment, deliver the entertainment with information system all at once. Game information system can be implemented in many sectors as like the information system itself but in difference’s view. A view of game which people can joy and happy and do their transaction as a fun things.

  2. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    ... Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of ... CNS (PACNS). What is the cause of CNS Vasculitis? How the vessels in the brain become inflamed ...

  3. Immune System Quiz

    ... Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System Print A A A How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About KidsHealth ...

  4. What Are Expert Systems?

    d'Agapeyeff, A.


    Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

  5. The Trinity System

    Archer, Billy Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil, Benny Manuel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This paper describes the Trinity system, the first ASC Advanced Technology System (ATS-1). We describe the Trinity procurement timeline, the ASC computing strategy, the Trinity specific mission needs, and the Trinity system specifications.

  6. Marketing reporting system

    Hanić Hasan M.


    Full Text Available The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  7. Marketing reporting system

    Hanić Hasan M.


    The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  8. Small test SDHW systems

    Vejen, Niels Kristian


    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  9. Small test SDHW systems

    Vejen, Niels Kristian


    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  10. Law System in Japan

    Andreea Lorena Ponaru


    This article attempts to present and explain the main features of the japanese law system. Japanese Law system was reformed during the domination of Tokugawa shogun family. In 1870, Foreign Governmental Systems Study Office was founded. By judicial sentences many french laws were introduced in Japanese law system. Roma-Tokyo-Berlin Alliance (1936) introduced a strong German influence in the law system. The Japanese judicial system has known five periods. In the first (1869-1888) were introduc...

  11. Battery systems engineering

    Rahn, Christopher D


    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  12. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  13. Control system design method

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.


    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  14. Aeronautical Information System -

    Department of Transportation — The Aeronautical Information System (AIS) is a leased weather automated system that provides a means of collecting and distributing aeronautical weather information...

  15. Cognitive Medical Multiagent Systems

    Barna Iantovics


    Full Text Available The development of efficient and flexible agent-based medical diagnosis systems represents a recent research direction. Medical multiagent systems may improve the efficiency of traditionally developed medical computational systems, like the medical expert systems. In our previous researches, a novel cooperative medical diagnosis multiagent system called CMDS (Contract Net Based Medical Diagnosis System was proposed. CMDS system can solve flexibly a large variety of medical diagnosis problems. This paper analyses the increased intelligence of the CMDS system, which motivates its use for different medical problem’s solving.


    Han-Fu Chen


    Most of existing methods in system identification with possible exception of those for linear systems are off-line in nature, and hence are nonrecursive.This paper demonstrates the recent progress in recursive system identification.The recursive identifi-cation algorithms are presented not only for linear systems (multivariate ARMAX systems) but also for nonlinear systems such as the Hammerstein and Wiener systems, and the non-linear ARX systems.The estimates generated by the algorithms are online updated and converge the true values as time tends to infinity.

  17. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  18. Credit Management System

    US Agency for International Development — Credit Management System. Outsourced Internet-based application. CMS stores and processes data related to USAID credit programs. The system provides information...

  19. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin


    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  20. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  1. Systems engineering for very large systems

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  2. Metadata Management System for Healthcare Information Systems

    Patil, Ketan Shripat


    The Utah Department of Health (UDOH) uses multiple and diverse healthcare information systems for managing, maintaining, and sharing the health information. To keep track of the important details about these information systems such as the operational details, data semantics, data exchange standards, and personnel responsible for maintaining and managing it is a monumental task, with several limitations. This report describes the design and implementation of the Metadata Management System (MD...

  3. L-system fractals

    Mishra, Jibitesh


    The book covers all the fundamental aspects of generating fractals through L-system. Also it provides insight to various researches in this area for generating fractals through L-system approach & estimating dimensions. Also it discusses various applications of L-system fractals. Key Features: - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals - Dimension calculation for L-system fractals - Images & codes for L-system fractals - Research directions in the area of L-system fractals - Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals- Dimension calculation for L-system fractals- Images & codes for L-system fractals- Research directions in the area of L-system fractals- Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area

  4. Distributed computer control systems

    Suski, G.J.


    This book focuses on recent advances in the theory, applications and techniques for distributed computer control systems. Contents (partial): Real-time distributed computer control in a flexible manufacturing system. Semantics and implementation problems of channels in a DCCS specification. Broadcast protocols in distributed computer control systems. Design considerations of distributed control architecture for a thermal power plant. The conic toolset for building distributed systems. Network management issues in distributed control systems. Interprocessor communication system architecture in a distributed control system environment. Uni-level homogenous distributed computer control system and optimal system design. A-nets for DCCS design. A methodology for the specification and design of fault tolerant real time systems. An integrated computer control system - architecture design, engineering methodology and practical experience.

  5. Forming different planetary systems

    Ji-Lin Zhou; Ji-Wei Xie; Hui-Gen Liu; Hui Zhang; Yi-Sui Sun


    With the increasing number of detected exoplanet samples,the statistical properties of planetary systems have become much clearer.In this review,we summarize the major statistical results that have been revealed mainly by radial velocity and transiting observations,and try to interpret them within the scope of the classical core-accretion scenario of planet formation,especially in the formation of different orbital architectures for planetary systems around main sequence stars.Based on the different possible formation routes for different planet systems,we tentatively classify them into three major catalogs:hot Jupiter systems,standard systems and distant giant planet systems.The standard systems can be further categorized into three sub-types under different circumstances:solar-like systems,hot Super-Earth systems,and subgiant planet systems.We also review the theory of planet detection and formation in binary systems as well as planets in star clusters.

  6. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)


    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  7. Hot Spot Removal System: System description



    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.


    Tadeja Jere Jakulin


    Full Text Available Systems approach represents thinking outside the box and is connected to the transformation of common linear approach and thinking. Western society followed rules of classical western science, which form many centuries took analysis as mainstream of thinking and researching. One can find perfect and logical explanation for this. In the past, classical science researched matter and reached optimal results with analysis and analytical thinking. Nowadays more and more scientists research intangible world around matter and cooperate with prevailed, fastest growing service industry such as tourism. Following paper presents systems approach in tourism, which defines wideness, co-dependency among tourism system elements, and "big picture" point of view. In a frame of systems methodology, we will show the importance of systems approach in order to understand complexity in the area of tourism. At once an excellent example of the analytical approach will be shown in so called "the tip of the iceberg" theory, where events represent analytical thinking and structure or base of the iceberg represents systems approach. Complexity of the tourism systems will be explained and a model of a common tourism system developed. We claim that the analysis, in the past, caused technological progress; it caused the development of western science, which we now know it. It led to the discoveries but for dealing with contemporary complex challenges is not sufficient. Today a systems approach is suitable enough for dealing with complex question in the area of tourism and of course in global society.

  9. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz


    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  10. Recommender Systems for Social Tagging Systems

    Balby Marinho, Leandro


    Social Tagging Systems are web applications in which users upload resources (e.g., bookmarks, videos, photos, etc.) and annotate it with a list of freely chosen keywords called tags. This is a grassroots approach to organize a site and help users to find the resources they are interested in. Social tagging systems are open and inherently social; features that have been proven to encourage participation. However, with the large popularity of these systems and the increasing amount of user-contributed content, information overload rapidly becomes an issue. Recommender Systems are well known appl

  11. Power system protection 2 systems and methods


    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  12. STEP electronic system design

    Couch, R. H.; Johnson, J. W.


    The STEP electronic system design is discussed. The purpose of the design is outlined. The electronic system design is summarized and it is found that: an effective conceptual system design is developed; the design represents a unique set of capabilities; makes efficient use of available orbiter resources; the system capabilities exceed identified potential experiment needs.

  13. Nonlinear Hamiltonian systems

    Jørgensen, Michael Finn


    It is generally very difficult to solve nonlinear systems, and such systems often possess chaotic solutions. In the rare event that a system is completely solvable, it is said to integrable. Such systems never have chaotic solutions. Using the Inverse Scattering Transform Method (ISTM) two...

  14. Product Service Systems

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  15. Medical imaging systems

    Frangioni, John V


    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  16. Measuring Systemic Risk

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution's contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...

  17. Universal Index System

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah


    The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

  18. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of


    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  19. Central Dental Evacuation Systems.


    20 High-Vacuum Oral Evacuation System (HIVAC) for Oral Surgery, Periodontics, and Endodontics Treatment Rooms..................... 20...handpiece. Inlets to this system are required throughout the dental facility for all disciplines of patient treatment where coolant and irrigation liquids...System (HIVAC) for Oral Surgery, Periodontics, and Endodontics Treatment Rooms The HIVAC system is designed to build and sustain high vacuum pressures

  20. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    Kim, Kiseon


    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  1. System Performance and Testing

    Frei, U.; Oversloot, H.


    This chapter compares and contrasts the system performance of two widely used solar thermal systems using testing and simulation programs. Solar thermal systems are used in many countries for heating domestically used water. In addition to the simple thermosiphon systems, better designed pumped syst

  2. Expert Systems: An Overview.

    Adiga, Sadashiv


    Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…

  3. Information Systems Security Audit

    Gheorghe Popescu


    Full Text Available The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  4. ERP–systems

    Shustova I.


    In this work, we analyzed the existing ERP–systems of foreign and domestic manufacturers. Popular ERP–systems in the Republic of Belarus were considered. The leading ERP-systems in the domestic market and their features were described in detail. Finally, we described the steps that must be taken to select the most suitable ERP-system for a particular company.

  5. Type Systems for Bigraphs

    Elsborg, Ebbe; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sangiorgi, Davide

    of controls and a set of reaction rules, collectively a bigraphical reactive system (BRS). Possible advantages of developing bigraphical type systems include: a deeper understanding of a type system itself and its properties; transfer of the type systems to the concrete family of calculi that the BRS models...

  6. Product Service Systems

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  7. Information Systems Security Audit

    Gheorghe Popescu; Veronica Adriana Popescu; Cristina Raluca Popescu


    The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  8. ERP–systems

    Shustova I.


    In this work, we analyzed the existing ERP–systems of foreign and domestic manufacturers. Popular ERP–systems in the Republic of Belarus were considered. The leading ERP-systems in the domestic market and their features were described in detail. Finally, we described the steps that must be taken to select the most suitable ERP-system for a particular company.

  9. On generalized Volterra systems

    Charalambides, S. A.; Damianou, P. A.; Evripidou, C. A.


    We construct a large family of evidently integrable Hamiltonian systems which are generalizations of the KM system. The algorithm uses the root system of a complex simple Lie algebra. The Hamiltonian vector field is homogeneous cubic but in a number of cases a simple change of variables transforms such a system to a quadratic Lotka-Volterra system. We present in detail all such systems in the cases of A3, A4 and we also give some examples from higher dimensions. We classify all possible Lotka-Volterra systems that arise via this algorithm in the An case.

  10. Multiobjective Collaborative Optimization of Systems of Systems


    operationally independent. (System-ysem 1)..y Design ,I ’"esignReqm ts ... .em (Sy stem 1) S stems F S Funcion Overlap Reqmts...te m...284. Maier, M.W. & Rechtin, E. (2002). The art of systems architecting. (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC. Marglin, S. (1967). Public

  11. The Solar System as an Exoplanetary System

    Martin, Rebecca G


    With the availability of considerably more data, we revisit the question of how special our Solar System is, compared to observed exoplanetary systems. To this goal, we employ a mathematical transformation that allows for a meaningful, statistical comparison. We find that the masses and densities of the giant planets in our Solar System are very typical, as is the age of the Solar System. While the orbital location of Jupiter is somewhat of an outlier, this is most likely due to strong selection effects towards short-period planets. The eccentricities of the planets in our Solar System are relatively small compared to those in observed exosolar systems, but still consistent with the expectations for an 8-planet system (and could, in addition, reflect a selection bias towards high-eccentricity planets). The two characteristics of the Solar System that we find to be most special are the lack of super-Earths with orbital periods of days to months and the general lack of planets inside of the orbital radius of Me...

  12. Variable Structure Systems and Systems Zeros

    El-Ghezawi, O.M.E.; S. A. Billings; Zinober, A.S.I.


    The analysis of variable structure systems in the sliding mode yields the concept of equivalent control which leads naturally to a new method for determining the zeros and zero directions of linear multivariable systems. The analysis presented is conceptually easy and computationally attractive.

  13. Applications of membrane systems in distributed systems

    Aneta Binder; Rudolf Freund; Georg Lojka; Marion Oswald


    Based on the biological model of cell-to-cell communication proposed by A. Rustom et al. (Science, 2004, 303: 1007-1010), we investigate the possibilities to apply P systems with dynamic channels transporting membrane vesicles for describing processes in distributed systems.

  14. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    Jang, Hwan Young


    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  15. [Universal coaxial anesthetic system].

    Ungerer, M J; le Roux, F P


    A true universal co-axial anaesthetic system has been designed. This system may be used either as a Mapleson A circuit during spontaneous ventilation or as a Mapleson D circuit during controlled ventilation. Conversion to either system may be conveniently carried out by interchanging the pop-off valve and fresh gas inlet, without disconnecting the system from the patient. Resistance to flow of both tubes has been measured and was found to be within acceptable limits. The efficiency of this system in a Mapleson A arrangement was compared with that of a conventional Magill circuit during spontaneous breathing in 2 conscious volunteers. It was shown that no significant difference exists between these systems eith regard to rebreathing, and that the universal co-axial system may be used as efficiently and economically as the Magill circuit during spontaneous ventilation. The co-axial system can be easily connected to a circle system, combining the advantages of the two systems.

  16. Dynamical system synchronization

    Luo, Albert C J


    Dynamical System Synchronization (DSS) meticulously presents for the first time the theory of dynamical systems synchronization based on the local singularity theory of discontinuous dynamical systems. The book details the sufficient and necessary conditions for dynamical systems synchronizations, through extensive mathematical expression. Techniques for engineering implementation of DSS are clearly presented compared with the existing techniques.  This book also:  Presents novel concepts and methods for dynamical system synchronization Extends beyond the Lyapunov theory for dynamical system synchronization Introduces companion and synchronization of discrete dynamical systems Includes local singularity theory for discontinuous dynamical systems Covers the invariant domains of synchronization Features more than 75 illustrations Dynamical System Synchronization is an ideal book for those interested in better understanding new concepts and methodology for dynamical system synchronization, local singularity...

  17. Intrusion Detection System: Security Monitoring System



    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is an ad hoc security solution to protect flawed computer systems. It works like a burglar alarm that goes off if someone tampers with or manages to get past other security mechanisms such as authentication mechanisms and firewalls. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a device or a software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a management station.Intrusion Detection System (IDS has been used as a vital instrument in defending the network from this malicious or abnormal activity..In this paper we are comparing host based and network based IDS and various types of attacks possible on IDS.

  18. Measuring Systemic Risk

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas


    We present an economic model of systemic risk in which undercapitalization of the financial sector as a whole is assumed to harm the real economy, leading to a systemic risk externality. Each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall...... of components of SES to predict emerging systemic risk during the financial crisis of 2007–2009....

  19. Photovoltaic systems and applications


    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.


    V. Dvadnenko


    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  1. Systems Theory and Systems Approach to Leadership

    Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj


    Full Text Available Systems theory is product of the efforts of many researchers to create an intermediate field of coexistence of all sciences. If not for anything else, because of the magnitude that the use of systemic thinking and systemic approach has taken, it has become undisputed among the theories. Systems theory not only provides a glossary of terms with which researchers from different fields can be understood, but provides a framework for the presentation and interpretation of phenomena and realities. This paper addresses a systematic approach to leadership, as an attempt to dredge leadership and systems theory literature to find the meeting point. Systems approach is not an approach to leadership in terms of a manner of leader’s work, but it’s the leader's determination to factorize in his leadership the external environment and relationships with and among elements. Leader without followers is unable to exercise his leadership and to ensure their conviction he should provide a system, a structure, a purpose, despite the alternative chaos. Systems approach clarifies the thought on the complexity and dynamism of the environment and provides a framework for building ideas. If the general system theory is the skeleton of science (Boulding: 1956, this article aims to replenish it with leadership muscles by prominent authors who have written on systems theory and leadership, as well as through original ideas. In this work analytical methods were used (by analyzing approaches individually as well as synthetic methods (by assaying individual approaches in context of entirety. The work is a critical review of literature as well as a deductive analysis mingled with models proposed by authors through inductive analysis. Meta-analysis has been used to dissect the interaction and interdependence between leadership approaches.

  2. A distribution management system

    Verho, P.; Jaerventausta, P.; Kaerenlampi, M.; Paulasaari, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion of the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the vendors of the other systems. In the research project this alternative is preferred and used in developing an independent distribution management system

  3. A System of Systems Approach to the EU Energy System

    Jess, Tom; Madani, Kaveh; Mahlooji, Maral; Ristic, Bora


    Around the world, measures to prevent dangerous climate change are being adopted and may change energy systems fundamentally. The European Union (EU) is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emission by 20% by 2020 and by 80-95% by 2050. In order to achieve this, EU member states aim to increase the share of renewables in the energy mix to 20% by 2020. This commitment comes as part of a series of other aims, principles, and policies to reform the EU's energy system. Cost-efficiency in the emissions reductions measures as well as strategic goals under the Resource Efficient Europe flagship initiative which would include a more prudent approach to other natural resources such as water and land. Using the "System of Systems Approach", as from Hadian and Madani (2015), energy sources' Relative Aggregate Footprints (RAF) in the EU are evaluated. RAF aggregates across four criteria: carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and economic cost. The four criteria are weighted by resource availability across the EU and for each Member State. This provides an evaluation of the overall resource use efficiency of the EU's energy portfolio and gives insight into the differences in the desirability of energy sources across Member States. Broadly, nuclear, onshore wind, and geothermal are most desirable under equal criteria weights and EU average weighting introduces only small changes in the relative performance of only few technologies. The member state specific weightings show that most countries have similar energy technology preferences. However, the UK deviates most strongly from the average, with an even stronger preference for nuclear and coal. Sweden, Malta and Finland also deviate from the typical preferences indicating the complexity in play in reforming the EU energy system. Reference Hadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment: Are All Renewables Really Green? Ecological Indicators, 52, 194-206.

  4. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.


    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  5. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    Lum, Henry


    A system infrastructure must be properly designed and integrated from the conceptual development phase to accommodate evolutionary intelligent technologies. Several technology development activities were identified that may have application to rendezvous and capture systems. Optical correlators in conjunction with fuzzy logic control might be used for the identification, tracking, and capture of either cooperative or non-cooperative targets without the intensive computational requirements associated with vision processing. A hybrid digital/analog system was developed and tested with a robotic arm. An aircraft refueling application demonstration is planned within two years. Initially this demonstration will be ground based with a follow-on air based demonstration. System dependability measurement and modeling techniques are being developed for fault management applications. This involves usage of incremental solution/evaluation techniques and modularized systems to facilitate reuse and to take advantage of natural partitions in system models. Though not yet commercially available and currently subject to accuracy limitations, technology is being developed to perform optical matrix operations to enhance computational speed. Optical terrain recognition using camera image sequencing processed with optical correlators is being developed to determine position and velocity in support of lander guidance. The system is planned for testing in conjunction with Dryden Flight Research Facility. Advanced architecture technology is defining open architecture design constraints, test bed concepts (processors, multiple hardware/software and multi-dimensional user support, knowledge/tool sharing infrastructure), and software engineering interface issues.

  6. Micro Information Systems

    Ulslev Pedersen, Rasmus; Kühn Pedersen, Mogens


    such as medical and manufacturing. These new sensor applications have implications for information systems (IS) and, the authors visualize this new class of information systems as fractals growing from an established class of systems; namely that of information systems (IS). The identified applications...... and implications are used as an empirical basis for creating a model for these small new information systems. Such sensor systems are called embedded systems in the technical sciences, and the authors want to couple it with general IS. They call the merger of these two important research areas (IS and embedded...... systems) for micro information systems (micro-IS). It is intended as a new research field within IS research. An initial framework model is established, which seeks to capture both the possibilities and constraints of this new paradigm, while looking simultaneously at the fundamental IS and ICT aspects...

  7. Rover waste assay system

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Enhanced nurse call systems.


    This Evaluation focuses on high-end computerized nurse call systems--what we call enhanced systems. These are highly flexible systems that incorporate microprocessor and communications technologies to expand the capabilities of the nurse call function. Enhanced systems, which vary in configuration from one installation to the next, typically consist of a basic system that provides standard nurse call functionality and a combination of additional enhancements that provide the added functionality the facility desires. In this study, we examine the features that distinguish enhanced nurse call systems from nonenhanced systems, focusing on their application and benefit to healthcare facilities. We evaluated seven systems to determine how well they help (1) improve patient care, as well as increase satisfaction with the care provided, and (2) improve caregiver efficiency, as well as increase satisfaction with the work environment. We found that all systems meet these objectives, but not all systems perform equally well for all implementations. Our ratings will help facilities identify those systems that offer the most effective features for their intended use. The study also includes a Technology Management Guide to help readers (1) determine whether they'll benefit from the capabilities offered by enhanced systems and (2) target a system for purchase and equip the system for optimum performance and cost-effective operation.

  9. Nonlinearity of colloid systems oxyhydrate systems

    Sucharev, Yuri I


    The present monograph is the first systematic study of the non-linear characteristic of gel oxy-hydrate systems involving d- and f- elements. These are the oxyhydrates of rare-earth elements and oxides - hydroxides of d- elements (zirconium, niobium, titanium, etc.) The non-linearity of these gel systems introduces fundamental peculiarities into their structure and, consequently, their properties. The polymer-conformational diversity of energetically congenial gel fragments, which continu-ously transform under the effect of, for instance, system dissipation heat, is central to the au-thor's hy

  10. Embedded systems handbook networked embedded systems

    Zurawski, Richard


    Considered a standard industry resource, the Embedded Systems Handbook provided researchers and technicians with the authoritative information needed to launch a wealth of diverse applications, including those in automotive electronics, industrial automated systems, and building automation and control. Now a new resource is required to report on current developments and provide a technical reference for those looking to move the field forward yet again. Divided into two volumes to accommodate this growth, the Embedded Systems Handbook, Second Edition presents a comprehensive view on this area

  11. Generalized L systems

    陆汝钤; 张文妍


    This paper proposes the concept of generalized L systems, GL systems for short, which can describe asynchronized concurrent phenomena. We have proved that the GL systems are proper extensions of the traditional L systems. We have also defined a classification of GL systems and proved a sufficient and necessary condition for the equivalence of two subclasses of GL systems: two quivalent, iff k = j and there exists a common divisor g of all mr and a common divisor h of all ni such that i: mi/g = ni/h.

  12. Cooperating systems: Layered MAS

    Rochowiak, Daniel


    Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

  13. Microelectronic systems 1 checkbook

    Vears, R E


    Microelectronic Systems 1 Checkbook provides coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level 1 unit in Microelectronic Systems. However, it can be regarded as a basic textbook in microelectronic systems for a much wider range of studies. Each topic considered in the text is presented in a way that assumes the reader has little prior knowledge of electronics. The aim of the book is to provide an introduction to the concept of systems, to differentiate analogue and digital systems, and to describe the nature of microprocessor-controlled systems. An introduction to programming is

  14. Metrics for Multiagent Systems

    Lass, Robert N.; Sultanik, Evan A.; Regli, William C.

    A Multiagent System (MAS) is a software paradigm for building large scale intelligent distributed systems. Increasingly these systems are being deployed on handheld computing devices that rely on non-traditional communications mediums such as mobile ad hoc networks and satellite links. These systems present new challenges for computer scientists in describing system performance and analyzing competing systems. This chapter surveys existing metrics that can be used to describe MASs and related components. A framework for analyzing MASs is provided and an example of how this framework might be employed is given for the domain of distributed constraint reasoning.

  15. Introducing Systems Approaches

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

  16. Simulation of Polygeneration Systems

    Francesco Calise


    Full Text Available This Special Issue aims at collecting the recent studies dealing with polygeneration systems, with a special focus on the possible integration of different technologies into a single system, able to convert one or multiple energy sources into energy services (electricity, heat and cooling and other useful products (e.g., desalinized water, hydrogen, glycerin, ammonia, etc.. Renewable sources (solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal, as well as fossil fuels, feeding advanced energy systems such as fuel cells and cogeneration systems, are considered. Special attention is paid to control strategies and to the management of the systems in general. Studies including thermoeconomic analyses and system optimizations are presented.

  17. Continuous system modeling

    Cellier, Francois E.


    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  18. Smart SDHW systems

    Andersen, Elsa


    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. A smart SDHW is a system in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top...... periods in a laboratory. Numeric models of the systems have been developed. The models are verified with measured temperatures and energy quantities. In order to verify the good test results in the laboratory two of the smart SDHW systems have been installed in practice. Measurements will bee carried out...

  19. Test System Impact on System Availability

    Pau, L. F.


    The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance of the sys......The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance...... of the system subject to monitoring and test. A time-dependent Markov model is presented, and applied in three cases, with examples of numerical results provided for preventive maintenance decisions, design of an automatic test system, buffer testing in computers, and data communications....

  20. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    Carugati, Andrea


    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... provides a new way to see the development of a system in terms of the knowledge created in the process. The main practical implication of the framework is that it improves the managers' ability to guide ISD activities as knowledge activities embedded in a knowledge process, a crucial element in development...... of ISD, abandoning the idea of a monolithic approach to knowledge and presenting a pluralistic approach based on the idea that different inquiring systems can support micro-level ISD activities. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theoretical development of the framework...

  1. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    Carugati, Andrea


    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... provides a new way to see the development of a system in terms of the knowledge created in the process. The main practical implication of the framework is that it improves the managers' ability to guide ISD activities as knowledge activities embedded in a knowledge process, a crucial element in development...... of ISD, abandoning the idea of a monolithic approach to knowledge and presenting a pluralistic approach based on the idea that different inquiring systems can support micro-level ISD activities. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theoretical development of the framework...

  2. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    NELSON, R.E.


    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  3. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  4. System Information Distribution in Massive MIMO Systems

    Sörman, Simon


    The 5th generation mobile telecommunication system (5G) is currently being specified and developed, with large expectations on throughput and efficiency. While 4G and more specifically LTE might constitute a basis of the design of the network, there are some parts that should be improved. One thing to improve is the static signalling that occurs very frequently in a 4G network, of which system information such as synchronization signals, detection of network frequencies, operators, configurat...

  5. EPICS system: system structure and user interface

    West, R.E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Lahey, T.E.; Kramper, B.J.; MacKinnon, B.A.


    This paper present the user's view of and the general organization of the EPICS control system at Fermilab. Various subsystems of the EPICS control system are discussed. These include the user command language, software protection, the device database, remote computer interfaces, and several application utilities. This paper is related to two other papers on EPICS: an overview paper and a detailed implementation paper.

  6. Mathematical System Theory and System Modeling


    Choosing models related effectively to the questions to be addressed is a central issue in the craft of systems analysis. Since the mathematical description the analyst chooses constrains the types of issues he candeal with, it is important for these models to be selected so as to yield limitations that are acceptable in view of the questions the systems analysis seeks to answer. In this paper, the author gives an overview of the central issues affecting the question of model choice. To ...


    T. Wilson; R. Novotny


    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

  8. Business system: Sustainable development and anticipatory system

    Vojko Potočan


    Full Text Available The existence and development of humankind depends mainly upon the co-ordinated operation of all areas and levels of human activity. However, in theory and in practice there is no model of operation, which would provide a harmonized and target oriented development. A partial solution is offered by sustainable development, which tries to define and carry out common goals of mankind with a harmonized implementation of human activities at all levels of its living and behaviour. Companies belong to central institutions of modern society which essentially co–create the sustainability of society. The company’s endeavour by simulation to prepare models of their goals concerning their internal and external environment. On the base of systemic treatment, we can define companies as business system, which can survive in a log-run only on the basis of sustainable development. The business system can also be supported by the application of the anticipatory systems. The anticipatory systems can be, in this sense, understood as an entity of the methodological approach, techniques and modes of work. Their characteristics have, a direct impact on the determination of goals, on the orientation of operation, and hence on the achievement of the business system results.

  9. Operating System for Runtime Reconfigurable Multiprocessor Systems

    Diana Göhringer


    Full Text Available Operating systems traditionally handle the task scheduling of one or more application instances on processor-like hardware architectures. RAMPSoC, a novel runtime adaptive multiprocessor System-on-Chip, exploits the dynamic reconfiguration on FPGAs to generate, start and terminate hardware and software tasks. The hardware tasks have to be transferred to the reconfigurable hardware via a configuration access port. The software tasks can be loaded into the local memory of the respective IP core either via the configuration access port or via the on-chip communication infrastructure (e.g. a Network-on-Chip. Recent-series of Xilinx FPGAs, such as Virtex-5, provide two Internal Configuration Access Ports, which cannot be accessed simultaneously. To prevent conflicts, the access to these ports as well as the hardware resource management needs to be controlled, e.g. by a special-purpose operating system running on an embedded processor. For that purpose and to handle the relations between temporally and spatially scheduled operations, the novel approach of an operating system is of high importance. This special purpose operating system, called CAP-OS (Configuration Access Port-Operating System, which will be presented in this paper, supports the clients using the configuration port with the services of priority-based access scheduling, hardware task mapping and resource management.

  10. Integrated Reporting Information System -

    Department of Transportation — The Integrated Reporting Information System (IRIS) is a flexible and scalable web-based system that supports post operational analysis and evaluation of the National...

  11. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System

    Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena, Skyla) is used to prevent pregnancy. The manufacturer states that Mirena brand intrauterine ... to use an intrauterine system to prevent pregnancy. Levonorgestrel is in a class of medications called hormonal ...

  12. Saturated Switching Systems

    Benzaouia, Abdellah


    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  13. Central nervous system

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  14. Visitor Registration System

    US Agency for International Development — Visitor Registration System (VRS) streamlines visitor check-in and check-out process for expediting visitors into USAID. The system captures visitor information...

  15. Human Resource Accounting System

    Cerullo, Michael J.


    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  16. Geographical information systems

    Möller, Bernd


    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  17. Systemic banking crises

    O. Emre Ergungor; James B. Thomson


    Systemic banking crises can have devastating effects on the economies of developing or industrialized countries. This Policy Discussion Paper reviews the factors that weaken banking systems and make them more susceptible to crises.

  18. Inductive Monitoring System (IMS)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMS: Inductive Monitoring System The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a tool that uses a data mining technique called clustering to extract models of normal...

  19. Health System Measurement Project

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  20. Geographical information systems

    Möller, Bernd


    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  1. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)


    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  2. VT DSL Systems 2006

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT DSL Broadband System dataset (DSL2006) includes polygons depicting the extent of Vermont's DSL broadband system as of 12/31/2006. This data...

  3. Absorption heat pump system

    Grossman, G.


    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  4. Flight Systems Monitor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...

  5. Generalized adjoint systems

    Serakos, Demetrios


    This book defines and develops the generalized adjoint of an input-output system. It is the result of a theoretical development and examination of the generalized adjoint concept and the conditions under which systems analysis using adjoints is valid. Results developed in this book are useful aids for the analysis and modeling of physical systems, including the development of guidance and control algorithms and in developing simulations. The generalized adjoint system is defined and is patterned similarly to adjoints of bounded linear transformations. Next the elementary properties of the generalized adjoint system are derived. For a space of input-output systems, a generalized adjoint map from this space of systems to the space of generalized adjoints is defined. Then properties of the generalized adjoint map are derived. Afterward the author demonstrates that the inverse of an input-output system may be represented in terms of the generalized adjoint. The use of generalized adjoints to determine bounds for ...

  6. Handbook of systems toxicology

    Casciano, Daniel A; Sahu, Saura C


    "In the first handbook to comprehensively cover the emerging area of systems toxicology, the Handbook of Systems Toxicology provides an authoritative compilation of up-to-date developments presented...

  7. Gleason grading system

    ... Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  8. Interstitial hydrogen storage system

    Gell, H.A.


    A metal hydride fuel system is described that incorporates a plurality of storage elements that may be individually replaced to provide a hydrogen fuel system for combustion engines having a capability of partial refueling is presented.

  9. Information retrieval system

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III


    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  10. Contingent Information Systems Development

    van Slooten, C.; Schoonhoven, Bram


    Situated approaches based on project contingencies are becoming more and more an important research topic for information systems development organizations. The Information Services Organization, which was investigated, has recognized that it should tune its systems development approaches to the

  11. Silver recovery system data

    Boulineau, B.


    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  12. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  13. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  14. Cross Disciplinary Biometric Systems

    Liu, Chengjun


    Cross disciplinary biometric systems help boost the performance of the conventional systems. Not only is the recognition accuracy significantly improved, but also the robustness of the systems is greatly enhanced in the challenging environments, such as varying illumination conditions. By leveraging the cross disciplinary technologies, face recognition systems, fingerprint recognition systems, iris recognition systems, as well as image search systems all benefit in terms of recognition performance.  Take face recognition for an example, which is not only the most natural way human beings recognize the identity of each other, but also the least privacy-intrusive means because people show their face publicly every day. Face recognition systems display superb performance when they capitalize on the innovative ideas across color science, mathematics, and computer science (e.g., pattern recognition, machine learning, and image processing). The novel ideas lead to the development of new color models and effective ...

  15. Prosthetic Knee Systems

    ... Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Prosthetic Knee Systems Translated into plain language by Helen Osborne of ... Consulting Original article by Bill Dupes Prosthetic knee systems are among the most complex of all components. ...

  16. BioSystems

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NCBI BioSystems Database provides integrated access to biological systems and their component genes, proteins, and small molecules, as well as literature...

  17. Immune System and Disorders

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  18. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)

    Diseases and Conditions Multiple system atrophy (MSA) By Mayo Clinic Staff Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurological disorder that impairs your body's involuntary (autonomic) functions, including blood ...

  19. Designing automatic resupply systems.

    Harding, M L


    This article outlines the process for designing and implementing autoresupply systems. The planning process includes determination of goals and appropriate participation. Different types of autoresupply mechanisms include kanban, breadman, consignment, systems contracts, and direct shipping from an MRP schedule.

  20. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  1. Audit Management System

    Alconada, Federico


    In the need of renewing their system, the Internal Audit department has given a proposal for building a new one. Taking into consideration the problems of their system they elaborated a requirement's list with the functionalities and features they were expecting from the new management system. This new system would be primarily for the use of the Internal Audit staff but it would also support the follow-up of internal audit recommendations by potentially all CERN staff members.

  2. CCD digital radiography system

    Wang, Yi; Kang, Xi; Li, Yuanjing; Cheng, Jianping; Hou, Yafei; Han, Haiwei


    Amorphous silicon flat-panel detector is the mainstream used in digital radiography (DR) system. In latest years, scintillation screen coupled with CCD DR is becoming more popular in hospital. Compared with traditional amorphous silicon DR, CCD-DR has better spatial resolution and has little radiation damage. It is inexpensive and can be operated easily. In this paper, A kind of CCD based DR system is developed. We describe the construction of the system, the system performances and experiment results.

  3. System programming languages



    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  4. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    Olesen, Jørgen E


    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  5. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    Oprea, Tudor I.; Elebeoba E. May; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander


    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  6. Linear system theory

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.


    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  7. Logistics Management Information System


    The logistics information is the logistics manageme nt 's inevitable request. The paper introduces several kinds of logistics informat ion system and their functions in the logistics management, such as the warehous e management system (WMS) in the delivery center, the control system for transpo rtation and delivery, the supply chain management (SCM), the optimization of th e logistics system, etc. In the author's opinion, the development of logistics could been divided into four phases. And the logistic...

  8. Space power systems technology

    Coulman, George A.


    Reported here is a series of studies which examine several potential catalysts and electrodes for some fuel cell systems, some materials for space applications, and mathematical modeling and performance predictions for some solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers. The fuel cell systems have a potential for terrestrial applications in addition to solar energy conversion in space applications. Catalysts and electrodes for phosphoric acid fuel cell systems and for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell and electrolyzer systems were examined.

  9. Computer system identification

    Lesjak, Borut


    The concept of computer system identity in computer science bears just as much importance as does the identity of an individual in a human society. Nevertheless, the identity of a computer system is incomparably harder to determine, because there is no standard system of identification we could use and, moreover, a computer system during its life-time is quite indefinite, since all of its regular and necessary hardware and software upgrades soon make it almost unrecognizable: after a number o...

  10. Open quantum system identification

    Schirmer, Sophie G; Zhou, Weiwei; Gong, Erling; Zhang, Ming


    Engineering quantum systems offers great opportunities both technologically and scientifically for communication, computation, and simulation. The construction and operation of large scale quantum information devices presents a grand challenge and a major issue is the effective control of coherent dynamics. This is often in the presence of decoherence which further complicates the task of determining the behaviour of the system. Here, we show how to determine open system Markovian dynamics of a quantum system with restricted initialisation and partial output state information.

  11. Quantum System Identification

    Burgarth, Daniel; Yuasa, Kazuya


    The aim of quantum system identification is to estimate the ingredients inside a black box, in which some quantum-mechanical unitary process takes place, by just looking at its input-output behavior. Here we establish a basic and general framework for quantum system identification, that allows us to classify how much knowledge about the quantum system is attainable, in principle, from a given experimental setup. Prior knowledge on some elements of the black box helps the system identification...

  12. Content management systems (CMS)

    Oriahi, Harrison


    This thesis describes the three most common and widely used content management systems (CMS) used to power several millions of business websites on the internet. Since there are many other content managements systems online, this report provides some helpful guides on each of the three most used systems and the web design projects that each of them maybe most suitable. There are plenty of options when it comes to selecting a content management system for a development project and this the...

  13. Human Resource Management System

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; V.Sangeetha; Gopalakrishnan,S.


    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  14. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System


    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  15. The DISCUS Hardware System,


    it physically impossible for one processor to access another’s local program or workspace. It should be noted that the system - generator should handle...this gateway would be complex and how it would be used and linked to the system generator would also be difficult. Because of this it worth asking...which is by no means trivial to write, identified several faults in the system generator and operating system that would have otherwise been

  16. Hybrid Action Systems

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.


    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  17. Wireless power transfer system

    Arai, Hiroyuki


    This paper presents a survey of recent wireless power transfer systems. The issue of wireless power transfer is to achieve a highly efficient system with small positioning errors of the facilities setting. Several theories have been presented to obtain precise system design. This paper presents a summary of design theory for short range power transfer systems and detailed formulations based on a circuit model and an array of infinitesimal dipoles. In addition to these theories, this paper in...

  18. Spacecraft Energy Storage Systems

    Robinson, Wilf; Hanks, James; Spina, Len; Havenhill, Doug; Gisler, Gary; Ginter, Steve; Brault, Sharon


    Flywheel Energy Storage Systems represent an exciting alternative to traditional battery storage systems used to power satellites during periods of eclipse. The increasing demand for reliable communication and data access is driving explosive growth in the number of satellite systems being developed as well as their performance requirements. Power on orbit is the key to this performance, and batteries are becoming increasingly unattractive as an energy storage media. Flywheel systems offer ve...

  19. Unix operating system

    Liu, Yukun; Guo, Liwei


    ""UNIX Operating System: The Development Tutorial via UNIX Kernel Services"" introduces the hierarchical structure, principles, applications, kernel, shells, development, and management of the UNIX operation systems multi-dimensionally and systematically. It clarifies the natural bond between physical UNIX implementation and general operating system and software engineering theories, and presents self-explanatory illustrations for readers to visualize and understand the obscure relationships and intangible processes in UNIX operating system. This book is intended for engineers and researchers

  20. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    Olesen, Bjarne W.


    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  1. Lithium battery management system

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI


    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  2. Collaborative Micropayment Systems

    Parhonyi, R.; Pras, Aiko; Quartel, Dick; Yim, C.H.

    Around the world many different micropayment systems are in use. Because of this variety, content providers and customers may rely on different systems. As a result, customers may be unable to buy content from providers using a different system. This paper proposes a novel approach that allows

  3. Controllability of Quantum Systems

    Schirmer, S G; Solomon, A I


    An overview and synthesis of results and criteria for open-loop controllability of Hamiltonian quantum systems obtained using Lie group and Lie algebra techniques is presented. Negative results for open-loop controllability of dissipative systems are discussed, and the superiority of closed-loop (feedback) control for quantum systems is established.

  4. LOFAR Information System

    Begeman, K.; Belikov, A. N.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Dijkstra, F.; Holties, H.; Meyer-Zhao, Z.; Renting, G. A.; Valentijn, E. A.; Vriend, W. -J.


    In this paper, we present a newly designed and implemented scientific information system for the LOFAR Long Term Archive. It is a distributed multi-tier storage and data processing system that allows a number of users to process Petabytes of data. The LOFAR Information System is designed on the base

  5. The Quality System

    Brogaard Buus, Daniel; Eland, Morten Vestergaard; Lystlund, Rasmus


    In this article, we present our efforts to try to increase cohesiveness and connectivity between quests generated by a recreation of an existing procedural quest generation system, with an addition of a progressive tier system called Quality System. A study gave strong indications that the Quality...

  6. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    ... of or replacing specific hormones can treat many endocrine disorders in children and adolescents, some of which include: ... System Your Child's Growth Female Reproductive System Activity: Endocrine System Word! Hormones Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? Your Endocrine ...

  7. Flexible energy systems

    Lund, Henrik


    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  8. LED system reliability

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.


    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific ex

  9. Imaging systems and applications.

    Catrysse, Peter B; Imai, Francisco H; Linne von Berg, Dale C; Sheridan, John T


    Imaging systems have numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging system requires the integration of optics, sensing, image processing, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from fundamental theories to novel imaging modalities and provides a systems perspective to imaging.

  10. Personal Food System Mapping

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally


    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  11. Control Oriented System Identification


    The research goals for this grant were to obtain algorithms for control oriented system identification is to construct dynamical models of systems...and measured information. Algorithms for this type of nonlinear system identification have been given that produce models suitable for gain scheduled

  12. Compositional asynchronous membrane systems

    Cosmin Bonchis; Cornel Izbasa; Gabriel Ciobanu


    This paper presents an algorithmic way of building complex membrane systems by coupling elementary membranes. Its application seems particularly valuable in the case of asynchronous membrane systems, since the resulting membrane system remains asynchronous. The composition method is based on a handshake mechanism implemented by using antiport rules and promoters.

  13. Small Modular Biomass Systems



    This fact sheet provides information about modular biomass systems. Small modular biomass systems can help supply electricity to rural areas, businesses, and the billions of people who live without power worldwide. These systems use locally available biomass fuels such as wood, crop waste, animal manures, and landfill gas.

  14. IDC System Specification Document.

    Clifford, David J.


    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  15. Controllability in nonlinear systems

    Hirschorn, R. M.


    An explicit expression for the reachable set is obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. This class is described by a chain condition on the Lie algebra of vector fields associated with each nonlinear system. These ideas are used to obtain a generalization of a controllability result for linear systems in the case where multiplicative controls are present.

  16. Information extraction system

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James


    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  17. LOFAR Information System

    Begeman, K.; Belikov, A. N.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Dijkstra, F.; Holties, H.; Meyer-Zhao, Z.; Renting, G. A.; Valentijn, E. A.; Vriend, W. -J.

    In this paper, we present a newly designed and implemented scientific information system for the LOFAR Long Term Archive. It is a distributed multi-tier storage and data processing system that allows a number of users to process Petabytes of data. The LOFAR Information System is designed on the base

  18. Medical Information Systems.

    Smith, Kent A.


    Description of information services from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) highlights a new system for retrieving information from NLM's databases (GRATEFUL MED); a formal Regional Medical Library Network; DOCLINE; the Unified Medical Language System; and Integrated Academic Information Management Systems. Research and development and the…

  19. Personal Food System Mapping

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally


    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  20. System integration report

    Badler, N. I.; Korein, J. D.; Meyer, C.; Manoochehri, K.; Rovins, J.; Beale, J.; Barr, B.


    Several areas that arise from the system integration issue were examined. Intersystem analysis is discussed as it relates to software development, shared data bases and interfaces between TEMPUS and PLAID, shaded graphics rendering systems, object design (BUILD), the TEMPUS animation system, anthropometric lab integration, ongoing TEMPUS support and maintenance, and the impact of UNIX and local workstations on the OSDS environment.

  1. Solar tracking system

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.


    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.


    upward are usually indications of how effectively the system is developing or operating. The use of computers in information systems tends to increase...computers into information systems must always begin at the lowest level of aggregation in the job hierarchy. Only those information-processing jobs

  3. Development Expert System

    CAI Heng


    The expert system is a high-level technology.It is a sub-field of artificial intelligence.We demonstrated the character and software evaluation,carrying out an initial study of expert system.A good development expert system was developed.

  4. Enterprise Systems Analysis


    is unavailable until a remediation process fixes the contamination problem. The final infrastructure system is the internet. The internet operates...Enterprise Systems Analysis Technical Report SERC-2017-TR-106 April 30 2017 Principal Investigator: Dr. Michael Pennock, Stevens Institute...Date April 30, 2017 Copyright © 2017 Stevens Institute of Technology The Systems Engineering Research Center (SERC

  5. Lofar information system design

    Valentijn, E.; Belikov, A. N.


    The Lofar Information System is a solution for Lofar Long Term Archive that is capable to store and handle PBs of raw and processed data. The newly created information system is based on Astro-WISE - the information system for wide field astronomy. We review an adaptation of Astro-WISE for the new t

  6. Types of Data Systems

    Gould, Tate; Nicholas, Amy; Ruggiero, Tony; Blandford, William; Thayer, Sara; Bull, Bruce


    There are several types of data systems that support data from Part C/619 programs. Although the system types have similarities, each has its own unique characteristics and purposes. The attributes that make one type of data system a particularly good fit for one data-related need or function can be less desirable for another need or function. In…

  7. Energy systems security

    Voeller, John G


    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  8. Types of Data Systems

    Gould, Tate; Nicholas, Amy; Ruggiero, Tony; Blandford, William; Thayer, Sara; Bull, Bruce


    There are several types of data systems that support data from Part C/619 programs. Although the system types have similarities, each has its own unique characteristics and purposes. The attributes that make one type of data system a particularly good fit for one data-related need or function can be less desirable for another need or function. In…

  9. The complement system in systemic autoimmune disease.

    Chen, Min; Daha, Mohamed R; Kallenberg, Cees G M


    Complement is part of the innate immune system. Its major function is recognition and elimination of pathogens via direct killing and/or stimulation of phagocytosis. Activation of the complement system is, however, also involved in the pathogenesis of the systemic autoimmune diseases. Activation via the classical pathway has long been recognized in immune complex-mediated diseases such as cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In SLE, the role of complement is somewhat paradoxical. It is involved in autoantibody-initiated tissue damage on the one hand, but, on the other hand, it appears to have protective features as hereditary deficiencies of classical pathway components are associated with an increased risk for SLE. There is increasing evidence that the alternative pathway of complement, even more than the classical pathway, is involved in many systemic autoimmune diseases. This is true for IgA-dominant Henoch Schönlein Purpura, in which additional activation of the lectin pathway contributes to more severe disease. In anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis the complement system was considered not to be involved since immunoglobulin deposition is generally absent in the lesions. However, recent studies, both in human and animal models, demonstrated complement activation via the alternative pathway as a major pathogenic mechanism. Insight into the role of the various pathways of complement in the systemic autoimmune diseases including the vasculitides opens up new ways of treatment by blocking effector pathways of complement. This has been demonstrated for monoclonal antibodies to C5 or C5a in experimental anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome and ANCA-associated vasculitis.

  10. Petascale system management experiences.

    Desai, N.; Bradshaw, R.; Lueninghoener, C.; Cherry, A.; Coghlan, S.; Scullin, W. (LCF); ( MCS)


    Petascale High-Performance Computing (HPC) systems are among the largest systems in the world. Intrepid, one such system, is a 40,000 node, 556 teraflop Blue Gene/P system that has been deployed at Argonne National Laboratory. In this paper, we provide some background about the system and our administration experiences. In particular, due to the scale of the system, we have faced a variety of issues, some surprising to us, that are not common in the commodity world. We discuss our expectations, these issues, and approaches we have used to address them. HPC systems are a bellwether for computing systems at large, in multiple regards. HPC users are motivated by the need for absolute performance; this results in two important pushes. HPC users are frequently early adopters of new technologies and techniques. Successful technologies, like Infiniband, prove their value in HPC before gaining wider adoption. Unfortunately, this early adoption alone is not sufficient to achieve the levels of performance required by HPC users; parallelism must also be harnessed. Over the last 15 years, beowulf clustering has provided amazing accessibility to non-HPC-savvy and even non-technical audiences. During this time, substantial adoption of clustering has occurred in many market segments unrelated to computational science. A simple trend has emerged: the scale and performance of high-end HPC systems are uncommon at first, but become commonplace over the course of 3-5 years. For example, in early 2003, several systems on the Top500 list consisted of either 1024 nodes or 4096-8192 cores. In 2008, such systems are commonplace. The most recent generation of high-end HPC systems, so called petascale systems, are the culmination of years of research and development in research and academia. Three such systems have been deployed thus far. In addition to the 556 TF Intrepid system at Argonne National Laboratory, a 596 TF Blue Gene/L-based system has been deployed at Lawrence Livermore

  11. 2014 Runtime Systems Summit. Runtime Systems Report

    Sarkar, Vivek [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Budimlic, Zoran [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Kulkani, Milind [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    This report summarizes runtime system challenges for exascale computing, that follow from the fundamental challenges for exascale systems that have been well studied in past reports, e.g., [6, 33, 34, 32, 24]. Some of the key exascale challenges that pertain to runtime systems include parallelism, energy efficiency, memory hierarchies, data movement, heterogeneous processors and memories, resilience, performance variability, dynamic resource allocation, performance portability, and interoperability with legacy code. In addition to summarizing these challenges, the report also outlines different approaches to addressing these significant challenges that have been pursued by research projects in the DOE-sponsored X-Stack and OS/R programs. Since there is often confusion as to what exactly the term “runtime system” refers to in the software stack, we include a section on taxonomy to clarify the terminology used by participants in these research projects. In addition, we include a section on deployment opportunities for vendors and government labs to build on the research results from these projects. Finally, this report is also intended to provide a framework for discussing future research and development investments for exascale runtime systems, and for clarifying the role of runtime systems in exascale software.

  12. Reference Materials System: materials policy information system

    Bhagat, N.K.; Hoffman, K.C.


    The social and economic development of a nation is dependent on a reliable supply of materials and energy and on the efficient utilization of these resources. Decision making in industry and the formulation of government policies require a comprehensive information base encompassing the technical, economic, and environmental factors involved in the flow of materials through production processes and the overall economy. The Reference Materials System (RMS) is a network description of the flow of materials from resource extraction through refinement, production, and transportation processes to the utilization, maintenance, and recycling operations. The system has been employed for the assessment of material production technologies and for the evaluation of substitution possibilities. The RMS provides a framework for integrating engineering and economic information into a comprehensive systems framework. The network flow diagram is quantified in terms of the mass flow of all renewable and nonrenewable materials on an annual basis through each step of the system. A variety of data elements including capital and labor requirements may be organized in this framework to provide a Materials Policy Data Base. This process description of the materials system may also be coupled with economic policy models of the input--output or econometric variety to ensure proper analysis of the role of materials in the overall economy.

  13. Dynamical Systems Conference

    Gils, S; Hoveijn, I; Takens, F; Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Chaos


    Symmetries in dynamical systems, "KAM theory and other perturbation theories", "Infinite dimensional systems", "Time series analysis" and "Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis" were the main topics of the December 1995 Dynamical Systems Conference held in Groningen in honour of Johann Bernoulli. They now form the core of this work which seeks to present the state of the art in various branches of the theory of dynamical systems. A number of articles have a survey character whereas others deal with recent results in current research. It contains interesting material for all members of the dynamical systems community, ranging from geometric and analytic aspects from a mathematical point of view to applications in various sciences.

  14. Power system relaying

    Horowitz, Stanley H; Niemira, James K


    The previous three editions of Power System Relaying offer comprehensive and accessible coverage of the theory and fundamentals of relaying and have been widely adopted on university and industry courses worldwide. With the third edition, the authors have added new and detailed descriptions of power system phenomena such as stability, system-wide protection concepts and discussion of historic outages. Power System Relaying, 4th Edition continues its role as an outstanding textbook on power system protection for senior and graduate students in the field of electric power engineering and a refer

  15. Medical Imaging System


    The MD Image System, a true-color image processing system that serves as a diagnostic aid and tool for storage and distribution of images, was developed by Medical Image Management Systems, Huntsville, AL, as a "spinoff from a spinoff." The original spinoff, Geostar 8800, developed by Crystal Image Technologies, Huntsville, incorporates advanced UNIX versions of ELAS (developed by NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory for analysis of Landsat images) for general purpose image processing. The MD Image System is an application of this technology to a medical system that aids in the diagnosis of cancer, and can accept, store and analyze images from other sources such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  16. ALFA Detector Control System

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration


    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  17. ALFA Detector Control System

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration


    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  18. Leakage resilient password systems

    Li, Yingjiu; Deng, Robert H


    This book investigates tradeoff between security and usability in designing leakage resilient password systems (LRP) and introduces two practical LRP systems named Cover Pad and ShadowKey. It demonstrates that existing LRP systems are subject to both brute force attacks and statistical attacks and that these attacks cannot be effectively mitigated without sacrificing the usability of LRP systems. Quantitative analysis proves that a secure LRP system in practical settings imposes a considerable amount of cognitive workload unless certain secure channels are involved. The book introduces a secur

  19. Electric power systems

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G


    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  20. CNEOST Control Software System

    Wang, X.; Zhao, H. B.; Xia, Y.; Lu, H.; Li, B.


    In 2013, CNEOST (China Near Earth Object Survey Telescope) adapted its hardware system for the new CCD camera. Based on the new system architecture, the control software is re-designed and implemented. The software system adopts the message passing mechanism via WebSocket protocol, and improves its flexibility, expansibility, and scalability. The user interface with responsive web design realizes the remote operating under both desktop and mobile devices. The stable operating of software system has greatly enhanced the operation efficiency while reducing the complexity, and has also made a successful attempt for the future system design of telescope and telescope cloud.