WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiological mass screening

  1. Influences of Radiology Trainees on Screening Mammography Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Jeffrey R; Taylor, Clayton R; Cubbison, Alyssa M; Erdal, B Selnur; Yildiz, Vedat O; Carkaci, Selin

    2016-05-01

    Participation of radiology trainees in screening mammographic interpretation is a critical component of radiology residency and fellowship training. The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify the effects of trainee involvement on screening mammographic interpretation and diagnostic outcomes. Screening mammograms interpreted at an academic medical center by six dedicated breast imagers over a three-year period were identified, with cases interpreted by an attending radiologist alone or in conjunction with a trainee. Trainees included radiology residents, breast imaging fellows, and fellows from other radiology subspecialties during breast imaging rotations. Trainee participation, patient variables, results of diagnostic evaluations, and pathology were recorded. A total of 47,914 mammograms from 34,867 patients were included, with an overall recall rate for attending radiologists reading alone of 14.7% compared with 18.0% when involving a trainee (P radiology trainees, with no change in cancer detection rate. Radiology faculty members should be aware of this potentiality and mitigate tendencies toward greater false positives. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pregnancy screening of adolescents and women before radiologic testing: does radiology need a national guideline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Kimberly

    2007-08-01

    Ionizing radiation has known teratogenic and cancer risks to fetuses. Policies for radiation exposure of pregnant patients during imaging tests in radiology departments vary widely and may or may not be in fully written form. No national guideline exists for how individual radiologists or radiology departments should protect fetuses from ionizing radiation exposure. With the rapid increase in the use of radiologic testing in general, particularly computed tomography, more adolescents and women undergo computed tomographic imaging and may unintentionally expose their fetuses. A national discussion within radiology organizations is needed to understand the advantages and disadvantages in the development of a national guideline for screening women of childbearing age for pregnancy before any procedures using ionizing radiation are performed. Given the increased public concern and increased use of radiologic testing, such a national guideline would improve consumer satisfaction and safety.

  3. PICTORIAL ESSAY Thymic masses: A radiological review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is diagnosed when there is >50% increase in thymic volume over ... masses and their normal variations have different pathological and management consequences. ... such as Cushing syndrome or multiple endocrine neoplasia types I and. II.

  4. Pictorial essay of radiological features of benign intrathoracic masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahminan Suut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increased exposure of patients to routine imaging, incidental benign intrathoracic masses are frequently recognized. Most have classical imaging features, which are pathognomonic for their benignity. The aim of this pictorial review is to educate the reader of radiological features of several types of intrathoracic masses. The masses are categorized based on their location/origin and are grouped into parenchymal, pleural, mediastinal, or bronchial. Thoracic wall masses that invade the thorax such as neurofibromas and lipomas are included as they may mimic intrathoracic masses. All examples are illustrated and include pulmonary hamartoma, pleural fibroma, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoid, and bronchoceles together with a variety of mediastinal cysts on plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Sometimes a multimodality approach would be needed to confirm the diagnosis in atypical cases. The study would include the incorporation of radionuclide studies and relevant discussion in a multidisciplinary setting.

  5. Relativity Screens for Misvalued Medical Services: Impact on Noninvasive Diagnostic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Silva, Ezequiel; Hawkins, C Matthew

    2017-06-01

    In 2006, the AMA/Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) introduced ongoing relativity screens to identify potentially misvalued medical services for payment adjustments. We assess the impact of these screens upon the valuation of noninvasive diagnostic radiology services. Data regarding relativity screens and relative value unit (RVU) changes were obtained from the 2016 AMA Relativity Assessment Status Report. All global codes in the 2016 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule with associated work RVUs were classified as noninvasive diagnostic radiology services versus remaining services. The frequency of having ever undergone a screen was compared between the two groups. Screened radiology codes were further evaluated regarding the RVU impact of subsequent revaluation. Of noninvasive diagnostic radiology codes, 46.0% (201 of 437) were screened versus 22.2% (1,460 of 6,575) of remaining codes (P < .001). Most common screens for which radiology codes were identified as potentially misvalued were (1) high expenditures (27.5%) and (2) high utilization (25.6%). The modality and body region most likely to be identified in a screen were CT (82.1%) and breast (90.9%), respectively. Among screened radiology codes, work RVUs, practice expense RVUs, and nonfacility total RVUs decreased in 20.3%, 65.9%, and 75.3%, respectively. All screened CT, MRI, brain, and spine codes exhibited decreased total RVUs. Policymakers' ongoing search for potentially misvalued medical services has disproportionately impacted noninvasive diagnostic radiology services, risking the introduction of unintended or artificial shifts in physician practice. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in radiological patterns, tumour characteristics and diagnostic precision between digital mammography and screen-film mammography in four breast cancer screening programmes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, Laia; Sala, Maria [IMIM-Hospital del Mar, Department of Epidemiology and Evaluation, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), EHEA Doctoral Program in Public Health. Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Barcelona (Spain); Romero, Anabel; Belvis, Francesc; Macia, Francesc; Castells, Xavier [IMIM-Hospital del Mar, Department of Epidemiology and Evaluation, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Sanchez, Mar [Government of Cantabria, General Directorate of Public Health, Department of Health, Santander (Spain); Ferrer, Joana [Radiology Unit. Hospital Santa Caterina, Girona (Spain); Salas, Dolores; Ibanez, Josefa [General Directorate Public Health and Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia (Spain); Vega, Alfonso [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Radiology Unit, Santander (Spain); Ferrer, Francesc [Hospital del Mar, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Service, Barcelona (Spain); Laso, M.S. [Breast Cancer Screening Unit Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    To compare tumour characteristics between cancers detected with screen-film mammography (SFM) and digital mammography (DM) and to evaluate changes in positive predictive values (PPVs) for further assessments, for invasive procedures and for distinct radiological patterns in recalled women. 242,838 screening mammograms (171,191 SFM and 71,647 DM) from 103,613 women aged 45-69 years, performed in four population-based breast cancer screening programmes in Spain, were included. The tumour characteristics and PPVs of each group were compared. Radiological patterns (masses, calcifications, distortions and asymmetries) among recalled women were described and PPVs were evaluated. The percentages of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were higher in DM than in SFM both in the first [18.5% vs. 15.8%(p = 0.580)] and in successive screenings [23.2% vs. 15.7%(p = 0.115)]. PPVs for masses, asymmetries and calcifications were higher in DM, being statistically significant in masses (5.3% vs. 3.9%; proportion ratio: 1.37 95%CI: 1.08-1.72). Among cancers detected by calcifications, the percentage of DCIS was higher in DM (60.3% vs. 46.4%, p = 0.060). PPVs were higher when DM was used, both for further assessments and for invasive procedures, with similar cancer detection rates and no statistically significant differences in tumour characteristics. The greatest improvements in PPVs were found for masses. (orig.)

  7. Radiologic Evaluation of Small Renal Masses (I: Pretreatment Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marhuenda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available When characterizing a small renal mass (SRM, the main question to be answered is whether the mass represents a surgical or nonsurgical lesion or, in some cases, if followup studies are a reasonable option. Is this a task for a urologist or a radiologist? It is obvious that in the increasing clinical scenario where this decision has to be made, both specialists ought to work together. This paper will focus on the principles, indications, and limitations of ultrasound, CT, and MRI to characterize an SRM in 2008 with a detailed review of relevant literature. Special emphasis has been placed on aspects regarding the bidirectional information between radiologists and urologists needed to achieve the best radiological approach to an SRM.

  8. Radiologic Evaluation of Small Renal Masses (II: Posttreatment Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the detection of small renal masses (SRMs and their best knowledge leads to a change in the therapeutic management of these lesions. The use of a less aggressive surgical technique or even an expectant attitude is the current tendency, in order to preserve as much renal function as possible. Imaging techniques are essential in the followup of these lesions. It allows us to know the postsurgical changes and possible complications due to treatment and the presence of local recurrence and metastases. Furthermore, a close radiological followup of SRM related to ablative treatments is mandatory. The purpose of this article is to reveal the imaging features of complications due to surgical or ablative treatments, local recurrence and metastasis, as well as their followup.

  9. PSA mass screening: is there enough evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Bernardo; Grasso, Angelica; dell'Orto, Paolo Guido; Albo, Giancarlo; Castle, Erik; Coelho, Rafael; Patel, Vip; Mottrie, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer plays an important role in widely understood aspects of men's health, and is becoming a growing problem in terms of public life. Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms among men. Male patients can live with prostate cancer for a long time so it is important to offer appropriate males adequate diagnostic tools and treatments. Prostate cancer and PSA potentially represent a “pair” of a disease and an appropriate indicator to be used in mass screening, but regardless of that there is still active debate about it. Extensive use of PSA screening has modified epidemiology of the diseases. Randomized controlled studies provided sufficient results regarding a reduction in mortality through PSA mass screening, while all agreed on risks of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. New and accurate screening tools are necessary, along with adequate counseling and risk stratification. PMID:24578912

  10. Radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Vassallo, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Radiology is the fastest developing field of medicine and these unprecedented advances have been mainly due to improving computer technology. Digital imaging is a technology whereby images are acquired in a computer format, so that they can be easily stored and recalled for display on any computer workstation. Digital image acquisition has been used in ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the start. The use of digital imaging in conventional X-rays, k...

  11. Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology Guideline for Lung Cancer Screening with Low-Dose CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Min [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yeon Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a nation-wide randomized controlled trial involving more than 50,000 current and former heavy smokers ages 55 to 74, compared the effects of two screening procedures (low-dose helical CT and standard chest radiography) on lung cancer mortality and found 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose CT. Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology (KSTR) planned to establish an effective guideline for lung cancer screening with low-dose CT to improve health of Korean people and to reduce harms from misuse of lung cancer screening with low-dose CT. KSTR guideline for lung cancer screening with low-dose CT established based on objective medical evidences obtained by NLST.

  12. Radiological environmental pathway screening analysis for the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckart, R.; Carr, D.; Conner, B.; Janke, R.; Janke, R.

    1989-11-01

    The University of Cincinnati is working with the Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio (WMCO) to develop remedial action residual radioactive material soil guidelines for the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). As a first step in developing these soil guidelines, a radiological environmental pathway screening analysis was performed. The purpose of the pathway screening analysis was to identify the radionuclides and environmental pathways that would lead to the highest exposure or dose to humans from residual radioactivity in the soil at the FMPC. In addition, the screening analysis identifies those pathways that are critical to a particular radioisotope.

  13. A critical synopsis of the diagnostic and screening radiology outcomes literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, C C; Black, W C; Jarvik, J G; Langlotz, C P

    1999-01-01

    In summary, the radiology outcomes research literature is both extensive and broad. The methodologic quality, however, is quite variable. Overall, this quality could be improved by intervention in two areas: methodologic dissemination and development. The number of researchers investigating radiology-related outcomes is high, and presently there are over 20 journals devoted exclusively to radiology research. Even with a relatively narrow definition of "outcomes," we identified over 200 radiology outcomes studies, most from the past few years. However, the methodologic quality of most of these articles was relatively low, with important design flaws and biases. Nonetheless, a substantial number of radiology publications do employ state-of-the-art research methods and innovative approaches to methodologic challenges. The quality of radiology outcomes research overall would benefit tremendously from dissemination of such research methods. Instruction in outcomes research methods is accessible to radiologists. For example, there have been several recent articles and series of articles on outcomes research methods in JAMA, including guidelines for the performance and reporting of cost-effectiveness analyses (38-40) and for developing clinical prediction rules (57). Within radiology, several recent articles have appeared on, among other things, cost-effectiveness analysis (34,59,60), assessing quality of life (43), screening for disease (53), and defining the study population (61). The research compendium compiled for the GERRAF (General Electric-Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Academic Fellowships) program remains a comprehensive methodologic source for many of the issues in radiology outcomes research, and outcomes research methods courses are offered every year at the Society for Health Services Research in Radiology and Society for Medical Decision Making meetings, as well as at the meeting of the Radiological Society of North America. Even

  14. Early discovery drug screening using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marshall M

    2002-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric methods useful for early discovery drug screening are reviewed. All methods described involve studies of non-covalent complexes between biopolymer receptors and small molecule ligands formed in the condensed phase. The complexes can be sprayed intact directly into the gas phase by ESI-MS using gentle experimental conditions. Gas phase screening applications are illustrated for drug ligand candidates non-covalently interacting with peptides, proteins, RNA, and DNA. In the condensed phase, the complexes can be also isolated, denatured and analyzed by ESI-MS to identify the small molecule ligands. Condensed phase drug screening examples are illustrated for the ESI-MS ancillary techniques of affinity chromatography, ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and capillary electrophoretic methods. Solid phase drug screening using MALDI-MS is illustrated for small molecule ligands bound to MALDI affinity probe tips and to beads. Since ESI and MALDI principally produce molecular ions, high throughput screening is achieved by analyzing mass indexed mixtures.

  15. The strategies of mass screen culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorozheikin Yevhen Petrovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with strategies of mass screen culture aimed at manipulation with images of death and violence. The author highlights the main ways of implementation of these strategies, their relationship with contemporary cultural trends. Also the article observes negative consequences of such strategy as screen “anesthesia” of human feelings through transformation of images of death and violence in a way of exception of moral evaluation of the act of violence and death deprivation in metaphysical and existential sense.

  16. Cluster mass estimates in screened modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gronke, Max; Mota, David F; Winther, Hans A

    2016-01-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study the effect of screened modified gravity models on the mass estimates of galaxy clusters. In particular, we focus on two novel aspects: (i) we study modified gravity models in which baryons and dark matter are coupled with different strengths to the scalar field, and, (ii) we put the simulation results into the greater context of a general screened-modified gravity parametrization. We compare the mass of clusters inferred via lensing versus the mass inferred via kinematical measurements as a probe of violations of the equivalence principle at Mpc scales. We find that estimates of cluster masses via X-ray observations is mainly sensitive to the coupling between the scalar degree of freedom and baryons -- while the kinematical mass is mainly sensitive to the coupling to dark matter. Therefore, the relation between the two mass estimates is a probe of a possible non-universal coupling between the scalar field, the standard model fields, and dark matter. Fina...

  17. Vitamin D: a poor screening tool for biochemical and radiological rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Giles T; Yates, Edward W; Wadia, Farokh; Paton, Robin W

    2012-10-01

    This retrospective study aims to determine if a relationship exists between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and the diagnosis of biochemical or radiological rickets in children with bone and joint pain, muscle fatigue or varus/valgus knees. A retrospective biochemistry database and case note study was undertaken on 115 new patients referred to the senior authors' elective Paediatric Orthopaedic Clinic in 2010. Their mean age was 10.95 years (95% CI 10.24-11.68). Mean serum vitamin D was 18.27 mcg/l (95% CI 16.13-20.41), while 30 mcg/l is the normal threshold. One hundred and three children (88%) had vitamin D levels below normal. Winter/springtime blood samples were more likely to be deficient and this was statistically significant. Three Asian females (2.61%) were diagnosed with radiological rickets. Vitamin D levels below normal are common in children presenting with vague limb or back pain, but this rarely presents with biochemical or radiological rickets. Serum vitamin D level is not a suitable screening tool for biochemical or radiological rickets. Vitamin D requirement in children is unclear and requires further study.

  18. Calvarial masses of infants and children. A radiological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willatt, J.M.G. E-mail: jonwillatt@doctors.org.uk; Quaghebeur, G

    2004-06-01

    Children frequently present with asymptomatic head lumps that have been discovered by their parents or by their hairdressers. Other children present with painful lumps or symptoms of intra-cranial masses with calvarial involvement. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of such masses and in subsequent surgical planning. We present a review of the types of lesion that may present in these ways.

  19. Static and non-static vector screening masses

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Bastian B; Meyer, Harvey B; Steinberg, Aman; Zapp, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Thermal screening masses of the conserved vector current are calculated both in a weak-coupling approach and in lattice QCD. The inverse of a screening mass can be understood as the length scale over which an external electric field is screened in a QCD medium. The comparison of screening masses both in the zero and non-zero Matsubara frequency sectors shows good agreement of the perturbative and the lattice results. Moreover, at $T\\approx 508\\mathrm{MeV}$ the lightest screening mass lies above the free result ($2\\pi T$), in agreement with the $\\mathcal{O}(g^2)$ weak-coupling prediction.

  20. Radiological Control of the Floating Mass Transducer Attached to the Round Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Todt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical rehabilitation of mixed hearing losses can be performed by coupling the floating mass transducer of the Vibrant Soundbridge to the round window. The quality of coupling the floating mass transducer to the round window is crucial for the audiological outcome. It was the aim of this study to further observe the different patterns of floating mass transducer position at the round window. We compared twenty patients with mixed hearing loss implanted with a floating mass transducer attached to the round window and 24 surgeries between 5/2007 and 6/2010. An evaluation of the chronological observation of the flat panel angiography-controlled position of the floating mass transducer at the round window with relation to the surgical report and the audiological outcome was done. We observed no changes in the mean pre- and postbone conduction thresholds. The floating mass transducer position was variable and could be radiologically classified and correlated with the audiologically outcome. A learning curve was observed from the earlier to later implantations. Postoperative, radiological evaluation of the location and angle of the floating mass transducer by means of flat panel tomography allowed us to classify the floating mass transducer position at the round window into 4 groups.

  1. Radiological Control of the Floating Mass Transducer Attached to the Round Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, G.; Wagner, J.; Mittmann, P.; Basta, Dietmar; Ernst, Arne

    2013-01-01

    The surgical rehabilitation of mixed hearing losses can be performed by coupling the floating mass transducer of the Vibrant Soundbridge to the round window. The quality of coupling the floating mass transducer to the round window is crucial for the audiological outcome. It was the aim of this study to further observe the different patterns of floating mass transducer position at the round window. We compared twenty patients with mixed hearing loss implanted with a floating mass transducer attached to the round window and 24 surgeries between 5/2007 and 6/2010. An evaluation of the chronological observation of the flat panel angiography-controlled position of the floating mass transducer at the round window with relation to the surgical report and the audiological outcome was done. We observed no changes in the mean pre- and postbone conduction thresholds. The floating mass transducer position was variable and could be radiologically classified and correlated with the audiologically outcome. A learning curve was observed from the earlier to later implantations. Postoperative, radiological evaluation of the location and angle of the floating mass transducer by means of flat panel tomography allowed us to classify the floating mass transducer position at the round window into 4 groups. PMID:24327808

  2. Radiological control of the floating mass transducer attached to the round window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, Ingo; Rademacher, G; Wagner, J; Mittmann, P; Basta, Dietmar; Ernst, Arne

    2013-01-01

    The surgical rehabilitation of mixed hearing losses can be performed by coupling the floating mass transducer of the Vibrant Soundbridge to the round window. The quality of coupling the floating mass transducer to the round window is crucial for the audiological outcome. It was the aim of this study to further observe the different patterns of floating mass transducer position at the round window. We compared twenty patients with mixed hearing loss implanted with a floating mass transducer attached to the round window and 24 surgeries between 5/2007 and 6/2010. An evaluation of the chronological observation of the flat panel angiography-controlled position of the floating mass transducer at the round window with relation to the surgical report and the audiological outcome was done. We observed no changes in the mean pre- and postbone conduction thresholds. The floating mass transducer position was variable and could be radiologically classified and correlated with the audiologically outcome. A learning curve was observed from the earlier to later implantations. Postoperative, radiological evaluation of the location and angle of the floating mass transducer by means of flat panel tomography allowed us to classify the floating mass transducer position at the round window into 4 groups.

  3. Safe management of mass fatalities following chemical, biological, and radiological incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David J; Jones, Kelly A; Mobbs, Shelly F; Sepai, Ovnair; Morgan, Dilys; Murray, Virginia S G

    2009-01-01

    Contaminated mass fatalities following the release of chemical, biological, or radiological agents pose a potential major health hazard. A United Kingdom government investigation has identified a number of areas of risk. This paper presents an outline of the findings of the study and describes specific pathways for the management of contaminated and non-contaminated fatalities. Factors determining the choice between cremation and burial are discussed. Effective decontamination remains a neglected area of study for both fatalities and casualties.

  4. Screening masses of mesons in 2+1 flavour QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, S

    2007-01-01

    We present results for screening masses of light and strange mesons in 2+1 flavour QCD using improved (p4fat3) staggered fermions on 6x24^3 lattices. We have studied the screening masses of scalar, pseudo-scalar, vector and axial-vector mesons along the line of constant physics, determined by a pion mass ~220 MeV and a kaon mass ~500 MeV. In order to investigate the cut-off and volume dependencies we have also performed studies of the meson screening correlators in the non-interacting theory using the p4 and the standard staggered discretizations.

  5. Applications of ambient mass spectrometry in high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Ping; Feng, Bao-Sheng; Yang, Jian-Wang; Chang, Cui-Lan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Hu-Wei

    2013-06-07

    The development of rapid screening and identification techniques is of great importance for drug discovery, doping control, forensic identification, food safety and quality control. Ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) allows rapid and direct analysis of various samples in open air with little sample preparation. Recently, its applications in high-throughput screening have been in rapid progress. During the past decade, various ambient ionization techniques have been developed and applied in high-throughput screening. This review discusses typical applications of AMS, including DESI (desorption electrospray ionization), DART (direct analysis in real time), EESI (extractive electrospray ionization), etc., in high-throughput screening (HTS).

  6. Comparing mass screening techniques for gastric cancer in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi Tashiro; Masatoshi Sano; Koichi Kinameri; Kazutaka Fujita; Yutaka Takeuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the efficacy of endoscopic mass screening for gastric cancer. METHODS: The data used in this study were the results of mass screening programs for gastric cancer in Niigata City from 2002 to 2004. The number of participants was 35089 in 2002, 34557 in 2003 and 36600 in 2004. The finding ratio referred to the final diagnosis of gastric cancer after a double check of endoscopic files and histological findings. The costs of identifying one case of gastric cancer were calculated based on the total expense for each screening program and additional close examinations. RESULTS: From the analysis of individual screening program with endoscopy, individual screening program with X-ray (ISX) and mass screening program with photofluorography (MSP) in reference to the finding ratio of gastric cancer, endoscopic examination was the best for detecting early gastric cancer, the finding ratio was 0.87% in 2004, approximately 2.7 and 4.6 times higher than those of the ISX and MSP groups. In addition, this novel method was the cheapest means regarding the cost of identifying one case of gastric cancer, which was estimated to be 1 608000 Japanese yen in 2004. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic mass screening is a promising method and can be effectively applied if a sufficient number of skilled endoscopists become available to staff the system and if city offices support it.

  7. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  8. A relation between screening masses and real-time rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B.B. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany); Francis, A. [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institute for Nuclear Physics,Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz,55099 Mainz (Germany); Laine, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Albert Einstein Center, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Meyer, H.B. [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institute for Nuclear Physics,Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz,55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-05-23

    Thermal screening masses related to the conserved vector current are determined for the case that the current carries a non-zero Matsubara frequency, both in a weak-coupling approach and through lattice QCD. We point out that such screening masses are sensitive to the same infrared physics as light-cone real-time rates. In particular, on the perturbative side, the inhomogeneous Schrödinger equation determining screening correlators is shown to have the same general form as the equation implementing LPM resummation for the soft-dilepton and photon production rates from a hot QCD plasma. The static potential appearing in the equation is identical to that whose soft part has been determined up to NLO and on the lattice in the context of jet quenching. Numerical results based on this potential suggest that screening masses overshoot the free results (multiples of 2πT) more strongly than at zero Matsubara frequency. Four-dimensional lattice simulations in two-flavour QCD at temperatures of 250 and 340 MeV confirm the non-static screening masses at the 10% level. Overall our results lend support to studies of jet quenching based on the same potential at T≳250 MeV.

  9. Implementation of a DOD ELAP Conforming Quality System at a FUSRAP Site Field Temporary Radiological Screening Laboratory - 13500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, M.S.; McElheny, G. [Cabrera Services Inc. 473 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT (United States); Houston, L.M.; Masset, M.R.; Spector, H.L. [United States Army Corps of Engineers -1776 Niagara Street, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A case study is presented on specific program elements that supported the transition of a temporary field radiological screening lab to an accredited operation capable of meeting client quality objectives for definitive results data. The temporary field lab is located at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Linde Site in Tonawanda, NY. The site is undergoing remediation under the direction of the United States Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District, with Cabrera Services Inc. as the remediation contractor and operator of the on-site lab. Analysis methods employed in the on-site lab include gross counting of alpha and beta particle activity on swipes and air filters and gamma spectroscopy of soils and other solid samples. A discussion of key program elements and lessons learned may help other organizations considering pursuit of accreditation for on-site screening laboratories. (authors)

  10. Body mass index and colon cancer screening: the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Kanwarpreet; Imam, Mohamad; Ismail, Bahaa Eldeen Senousy; Castro, Fernando

    2015-02-07

    Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) has been associated with a decreased incidence and mortality from CRC. However, patient adherence to screening is less than desirable and resources are limited even in developed countries. Better identification of individuals at a higher risk could result in improved screening efforts. Over the past few years, formulas have been developed to predict the likelihood of developing advanced colonic neoplasia in susceptible individuals but have yet to be utilized in mass screening practices. These models use a number of clinical factors that have been associated with colonic neoplasia including the body mass index (BMI). Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which obesity contributes to colonic neoplasia as well as clinical studies on this subject have proven the association between BMI and colonic neoplasia. However, there are still controversies on this subject as some studies have arrived at different conclusions on the influence of BMI by gender. Future studies should aim at resolving these discrepancies in order to improve the efficiency of screening strategies.

  11. Multidimensional Interactive Radiology Report and Analysis: standardization of workflow and reporting for renal mass tracking and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Darryl H.; Ma, Kevin; Yepes, Fernando; Nadamuni, Mridula; Nayyar, Megha; Liu, Brent; Duddalwar, Vinay; Lepore, Natasha

    2015-12-01

    A conventional radiology report primarily consists of a large amount of unstructured text, and lacks clear, concise, consistent and content-rich information. Hence, an area of unmet clinical need consists of developing better ways to communicate radiology findings and information specific to each patient. Here, we design a new workflow and reporting system that combines and integrates advances in engineering technology with those from the medical sciences, the Multidimensional Interactive Radiology Report and Analysis (MIRRA). Until recently, clinical standards have primarily relied on 2D images for the purpose of measurement, but with the advent of 3D processing, many of the manually measured metrics can be automated, leading to better reproducibility and less subjective measurement placement. Hence, we make use this newly available 3D processing in our workflow. Our pipeline is used here to standardize the labeling, tracking, and quantifying of metrics for renal masses.

  12. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  13. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  14. Increasing Sustained Participation in Free Mass Prostate Cancer Screening Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    1995; and Millon -Underwood, 1992). Previously, there was no known evidence in the literature for determinants of regular, sustained screening...Boyd, & Weinrich, 1997; Ashley & Haynes, 1996; Demark-Wahnefried, et al., 1995; Gelfand, Parzuchowski, Cort, & Powell, 1995; and Millon -Underwood, 1992...Perceived Severity of Disease X Cues To Action Mass media Campaigns Advice from others Reminder postcard from physician or dentist Illness of family

  15. Radiological assessment of cervical lateral mass screw angulations in Asian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariapan Sureisen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various lateral mass screw fixation methods have been described in the literature with various levels of safety in relation to the anterior neurovascular structures. This study was designed to radiologically determine the minimum lateral angulations of the screw to avoid penetration of the vertebral artery canalusing three of the most common techniques: Roy-Camille, An, and Magerl. Materials and Methods: Sixty normal cervical CT scans were reviewed. A minimum lateral angulation of a 3.5 mm lateral mass screw which was required to avoid penetration of the vertebral artery canal at each level of vertebra were measured. Results: The mean lateral angulations of the lateral mass screws (with 95% confidence interval to avoid vertebral artery canal penetration, in relation to the starting point at the midpoint (Roy-Camille, 1 mm medial (An, and 2 mm medial (Magerl to the midpoint of lateral mass were 6.8° (range, 6.3-7.4°, 10.3° (range, 9.8-10.8°, and 14.1° (range, 13.6-14.6° at C3 vertebrae; 6.8° (range, 6.2-7.5°, 10.7° (range, 10.0-11.5°, and 14.1° (range, 13.4-14.8° at C4 vertebrae; 6.6° (range, 6.0-7.2°, 10.1° (range, 9.3-10.8°, and 13.5° (range, 12.8-14.3° at C5 vertebrae and 7.6° (range, 6.9-8.3°, 10.9° (range, 10.3-11.6°, and 14.3° (range, 13.7-15.0° at C6 vertebrae. The recommended lateral angulations for Roy-Camille, Magerl, and An are 10°, 25°,and 30°, respectively. Statistically, there is a higher risk of vertebral foramen violation with the Roy-Camille technique at C3, C4 and C6 levels, P < 0.05. Conclusions: Magerl and An techniques have a wide margin of safety. Caution should be practised with Roy-Camille′s technique at C3, C4, and C6 levels to avoid vertebral vessels injury in Asian population.

  16. Using computer-extracted image features for modeling of error-making patterns in detection of mammographic masses among radiology residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing, E-mail: jing.zhang2@duke.edu; Ghate, Sujata V.; Yoon, Sora C. [Department of Radiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y. [Department of Radiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Kuzmiak, Cherie M. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Mazurowski, Maciej A. [Department of Radiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Mammography is the most widely accepted and utilized screening modality for early breast cancer detection. Providing high quality mammography education to radiology trainees is essential, since excellent interpretation skills are needed to ensure the highest benefit of screening mammography for patients. The authors have previously proposed a computer-aided education system based on trainee models. Those models relate human-assessed image characteristics to trainee error. In this study, the authors propose to build trainee models that utilize features automatically extracted from images using computer vision algorithms to predict likelihood of missing each mass by the trainee. This computer vision-based approach to trainee modeling will allow for automatically searching large databases of mammograms in order to identify challenging cases for each trainee. Methods: The authors’ algorithm for predicting the likelihood of missing a mass consists of three steps. First, a mammogram is segmented into air, pectoral muscle, fatty tissue, dense tissue, and mass using automated segmentation algorithms. Second, 43 features are extracted using computer vision algorithms for each abnormality identified by experts. Third, error-making models (classifiers) are applied to predict the likelihood of trainees missing the abnormality based on the extracted features. The models are developed individually for each trainee using his/her previous reading data. The authors evaluated the predictive performance of the proposed algorithm using data from a reader study in which 10 subjects (7 residents and 3 novices) and 3 experts read 100 mammographic cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology was applied for the evaluation. Results: The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the error-making models for the task of predicting which masses will be detected and which will be missed was 0.607 (95% CI,0.564-0.650). This value was statistically significantly different

  17. Impact of Breast Density Legislation on Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Supplemental Screening: A Survey of 110 Radiology Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Lina; Miyake, Kanae K; Leung, Jessica W T; Price, Elissa R; Liu, Yueyi I; Joe, Bonnie N; Sickles, Edward A; Thomas, William R; Lipson, Jafi A; Daniel, Bruce L; Hargreaves, Jonathan; Brenner, R James; Bassett, Lawrence W; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Lindfors, Karen K; Feig, Stephen A; Ikeda, Debra M

    2016-09-01

    Breast density notification laws, passed in 19 states as of October 2014, mandate that patients be informed of their breast density. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of this legislation on radiology practices, including performance of breast cancer risk assessment and supplemental screening studies. A 20-question anonymous web-based survey was emailed to radiologists in the Society of Breast Imaging between August 2013 and March 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Around 121 radiologists from 110 facilities in 34 USA states and 1 Canadian site responded. About 50% (55/110) of facilities had breast density legislation, 36% of facilities (39/109) performed breast cancer risk assessment (one facility did not respond). Risk assessment was performed as a new task in response to density legislation in 40% (6/15) of facilities in states with notification laws. However, there was no significant difference in performing risk assessment between facilities in states with a law and those without (p facilities in states with laws implemented handheld whole breast ultrasound (WBUS), automated WBUS, and tomosynthesis, respectively. The ratio of facilities offering handheld WBUS was significantly higher in states with a law than in states without (p facilities are offering supplemental screening with WBUS and tomosynthesis, and many are performing formal risk assessment for determining patient management.

  18. Non-Target Screening of Veterinary Drugs Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry on SmartMass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Liu, Xin; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Hai-Yan; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhou, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Non-target screening of veterinary drugs using tandem mass spectrometric data was performed on the SmartMass platform. This newly developed software uses the characteristic fragmentation patterns (CFP) to identify chemicals, especially those containing particular substructures. A mixture of 17 sulfonamides was separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and SmartMass was used to process the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data acquired on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The data were automatically extracted, and each sulfonamide was recognized and analyzed with a prebuilt analysis rule. By using this software, over 98 % of the false candidate structures were eliminated, and all the correct structures were found within the top 10 of the ranking lists. Furthermore, SmartMass could also be used to identify slightly modified contraband drugs and metabolites with simple prebuilt rules. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs.

  20. Teaching syllabus for radiological aspects of breast cancer screening with digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ongeval, Chantal; Van Steen, André; Bosmans, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the content of our new accreditation programme for radiologists' reading digital mammograms in a screening setting and to report our first experience with the new course. The course consisted of a theoretical part, given by the medical physicist, and a practical part given by the radiologist. The practical session is closely linked with the theoretical part and a reading session. The material is fully digital and can be presented on different platforms. In practice, the need for parallel soft-copy reading sessions on high-end workstations limits the number of participants. A high level of interactivity was noted between teacher and participant, with a thorough discussion of different digital mammography systems during a single teaching course. The main challenge for the teacher turned out to be the collection of representative material and the continuous updating of the material: new systems, processing techniques and artefacts need to be included regularly.

  1. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  2. Association of Radiologic Indicators of Frailty With 1-Year Mortality in Older Trauma Patients: Opportunistic Screening for Sarcopenia and Osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Stephen J; Pham, Tam N; Arbabi, Saman; Gross, Joel A; Damodarasamy, Mamatha; Bentov, Itay; Taitsman, Lisa A; Mitchell, Steven H; Reed, May J

    2017-02-15

    .3-78.8; P = .03) for sarcopenia, and 11.9 (95% CI, 1.3-107.4; P = .03) for osteopenia. More than half of older trauma patients in this study had sarcopenia, osteopenia, or both. Each factor was independently associated with increased 1-year mortality. Given the prevalent use of abdominopelvic CT in trauma centers, opportunistic screening for radiologic indicators of frailty provides an additional tool for early identification of older trauma patients at high risk for poor outcomes, with the potential for targeted interventions.

  3. Breast cancer screening: updated recommendations of the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Brazilian Breast Disease Society, and Brazilian Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrical Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Linei Augusta Brolini Dellê; Chala, Luciano Fernandes; Bauab, Selma di Pace; Schaefer, Marcela Brisighelli; dos Santos, Radiá Pereira; Maranhão, Norma Medicis de Albuquerque; Kefalas, Ana Lucia; Kalaf, José Michel; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci; Canella, Ellyete de Oliveira; Peixoto, João Emílio; de Amorim, Heverton Leal Ernesto; de Camargo Junior, Helio Sebastião Amâncio

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present the current recommendations for breast cancer screening in Brazil, as devised by the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, the Brazilian Breast Disease Society, and the Brazilian Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrical Associations. Materials and methods We analyzed scientific studies available in the Medline and Lilacs databases. In the absence of evidence, the recommendations reflected the consensus of a panel of experts. Recommendations Annual mammography screening is recommended for women 40-74 years of age. Among women ≥ 75 years of age, annual mammography screening should be reserved for those with an expected survival > 7 years. Complementary ultrasound should be considered for women with dense breasts. Complementary magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for women at high risk. When available, an advanced form of mammography known as tomosynthesis can be considered as a means of screening for breast cancer. PMID:28894332

  4. Mass detection with digitized screening mammograms by using Gabor features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Agyepong, Kwabena

    2007-03-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cancer among American women. The current lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is 13.4% (one in seven). Mammography is the most effective technology presently available for breast cancer screening. With digital mammograms computer-aided detection (CAD) has proven to be a useful tool for radiologists. In this paper, we focus on mass detection that is a common category of breast cancers relative to calcification and architecture distortion. We propose a new mass detection algorithm utilizing Gabor filters, termed as "Gabor Mass Detection" (GMD). There are three steps in the GMD algorithm, (1) preprocessing, (2) generating alarms and (3) classification (reducing false alarms). Down-sampling, quantization, denoising and enhancement are done in the preprocessing step. Then a total of 30 Gabor filtered images (along 6 bands by 5 orientations) are produced. Alarm segments are generated by thresholding four Gabor images of full orientations (Stage-I classification) with image-dependent thresholds computed via histogram analysis. Next a set of edge histogram descriptors (EHD) are extracted from 24 Gabor images (6 by 4) that will be used for Stage-II classification. After clustering EHD features with fuzzy C-means clustering method, a k-nearest neighbor classifier is used to reduce the number of false alarms. We initially analyzed 431 digitized mammograms (159 normal images vs. 272 cancerous images, from the DDSM project, University of South Florida) with the proposed GMD algorithm. And a ten-fold cross validation was used for testing the GMD algorithm upon the available data. The GMD performance is as follows: sensitivity (true positive rate) = 0.88 at false positives per image (FPI) = 1.25, and the area under the ROC curve = 0.83. The overall performance of the GMD algorithm is satisfactory and the accuracy of locating masses (highlighting the boundaries of suspicious areas) is relatively high. Furthermore, the GMD algorithm can

  5. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry: the case of newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Marca, Giancarlo

    2014-12-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) program is a complex and organized system consisting of family and personnel education, biochemical tests, confirmatory biochemical and genetic tests, diagnosis, therapy, and patient follow up. The program identifies treatable metabolic disorders possibly when asymptomatic by using dried blood spot (DBS). During the last 20 years tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) has become the leading technology in NBS programs demonstrating to be versatile, sensitive and specific. There is consistent evidence of benefits from NBS for many disorders detected by TMS as well as for congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, congenital adrenal hyperplasia by immune-enzymatic methods. Real time PCR tests have more recently been proposed for the detection of some severe combined immunodeficiences (SCID) along with the use of TMS for ADA and PNP SCID; a first evaluation of their cost-benefit ratio is still ongoing. Avoiding false negative results by using specific biomarkers and reducing the false positive rate by using second tier tests, is fundamental for a successful NBS program. The fully integration of NBS and diagnostic laboratories with clinical service is crucial to have the best effectiveness in a comprehensive NBS system.

  6. High-throughput mass spectrometric cytochrome P450 inhibition screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kheng B; Ozbal, Can C; Kassel, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a high-throughput assay to support rapid evaluation of drug discovery compounds for possible drug-drug interaction (DDI). Each compound is evaluated for its DDI potential by incubating over a range of eight concentrations and against a panel of six cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes: 1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4. The method utilizes automated liquid handling for sample preparation, and online solid-phase extraction/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/MS/MS) for sample analyses. The system is capable of generating two 96-well assay plates in 30 min, and completes the data acquisition and analysis of both plates in about 30 min. Many laboratories that perform the CYP inhibition screening automate only part of the processes leaving a throughput bottleneck within the workflow. The protocols described in this chapter are aimed to streamline the entire process from assay to data acquisition and processing by incorporating automation and utilizing high-precision instrument to maximize throughput and minimize bottleneck.

  7. High-Throughput Screening Using Mass Spectrometry within Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohman, Mattias; Wingfield, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In order to detect a biochemical analyte with a mass spectrometer (MS) it is necessary to ionize the analyte of interest. The analyte can be ionized by a number of different mechanisms, however, one common method is electrospray ionization (ESI). Droplets of analyte are sprayed through a highly charged field, the droplets pick up charge, and this is transferred to the analyte. High levels of salt in the assay buffer will potentially steal charge from the analyte and suppress the MS signal. In order to avoid this suppression of signal, salt is often removed from the sample prior to injection into the MS. Traditional ESI MS relies on liquid chromatography (LC) to remove the salt and reduce matrix effects, however, this is a lengthy process. Here we describe the use of RapidFire™ coupled to a triple-quadrupole MS for high-throughput screening. This system uses solid-phase extraction to de-salt samples prior to injection, reducing processing time such that a sample is injected into the MS ~every 10 s.

  8. Body mass index and participation in organized mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Sophie Sell; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2015-01-01

    screening, but hardly addressed the influence of potential effect-modifiers. We studied the association between objective measures of BMI and participation in mammographic screening in a Danish prospective cohort, and explored the influence of menopausal status, hormone therapy (HT), previous screening...... participation, and morbidities on this relationship. METHODS: A total of 5,134 women from the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort who were invited to population based mammographic screening in Copenhagen were included in analysis. Women were 50-64 years old at inclusion (1993-97) when their height and weight were...

  9. The application of tandem mass spectrometry to neonatal screening for inherited disorders of intermediary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chace, Donald H; Kalas, Theodore A; Naylor, Edwin W

    2002-01-01

    This review is intended to serve as a practical guide for geneticists to current applications of tandem mass spectrometry to newborn screening. By making dried-blood spot analysis more sensitive, specific, reliable, and inclusive, tandem mass spectrometry has improved the newborn detection of inborn errors of metabolism. Its innate ability to detect and quantify multiple analytes from one prepared blood specimen in a single analysis permits broad recognition of amino acid, fatty acid, and organic acid disorders. An increasing number of newborn screening programs are either utilizing or conducting pilot studies with tandem mass spectrometry. It is therefore imperative that the genetics community be familiar with tandem mass spectrometric newborn screening.

  10. Screening Masses of Hot SU(2) Gauge Theory from the 3D Adjoint Higgs Model

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof; Petreczky, P

    1999-01-01

    We study the Landau gauge propagators of the lattice SU(2) 3d adjoint Higgs model, considered as an effective theory of high temperature 4d SU(2) gauge theory. From the long distance behaviour of the propagators we extract the screening masses. It is shown that the pole masses extracted from the propagators agree well with the screening masses obtained recently in finite temperature SU(2) theory. The relation of the propagator masses to the masses extracted from gauge invariant correlators is also discussed. In so-called lambda gauges non-perturbative evidence is given for the gauge independence of pole masses within this class of gauges.

  11. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina

    2017-01-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years...... national breast radiology bodies support screening mammography. • A first priority is double-reading biennial mammography for women aged 50-69 years. • Extension to 73-75 and from 40-45 to 49 years is also encouraged. • Digital mammography (not film-screen or computer radiography) should be used. • DBT...

  12. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/ Nuclear Incident: Further Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Amlôt, Richard; Williams, Richard; Rubin, G. James; Drury, John

    2016-01-01

    This short report presents a response to an article written by Cibulsky et al. (2016). The paper by Cibulsky et al. presents a useful and timely overview of the evidence surrounding the technical and operational aspects of mass casualty decontamination. It identifies three priority targets for future research, the third of which is how casualties' needs can be met in ways that best support compliance with and effectiveness of casualty decontamination. While further investigation into behavioural, communication and privacy issues during mass decontamination is warranted, there is now a substantial body of research in this area which is not considered in detail in the succinct summary provided by Cibulsky et al. (2016). In this short report, we summarise the available evidence around likely public behaviour during mass decontamination, effective communication strategies, and potential issues resulting from a lack of privacy. Our intention is to help further focus the research needs in this area and highlight topics on which more research is needed.

  13. Gluteal mass in a bodybuilder: radiological depiction of a complication of anabolic steroid use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ismail, Khalid; Torreggiani, William C.; Munk, Peter L.; Nicolaou, Savvas [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    The use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders is relatively common and associated with many side effects. Local side effects include tissue necrosis and soft tissue infection at the injection site. Systemic effects may be early epiphyseal closure in the immature skeleton, testicular atrophy, sterility, acne, gynaecomastia and liver disorders such as hepatitis. We report an unusual case of a bodybuilder who developed a large painful inflammatory soft tissue mass in his gluteal area. Multi-modality imaging showed direct evidence revealing the underlying cause of the mass being depot steroid injections. (orig.)

  14. Mass screening of 12 027 elderly men for prostate carcinoma by measuring serum prostate specific antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海峰; 王洪亮; 许宁; 李胜文; 计国义; 李晓萌; 潘玉琢; 张灵; 赵雪俭; 高洪文

    2004-01-01

    Background The incidence of prostate carcinoma (Pca) has been increasing in China. We detected Pca in elderly men in Changchun, north China and the significance of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in mass screening and clinical staging of Pca. Conclusions Serum PSA level is not only the golden standard for mass screening of Pca, but also the predictor for clinical stage of Pca. PSA testing revealed asymptomatic Pca cases in early, middle, and later stages in the elderly, suggesting that mass screening is of paramount importance.

  15. Bilateral submandibular gland aplasia with clinico-radiological mass due to prolapsing sublingual salivary tissue through mylohyoid boutonniere: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M; Strauss, M; Kassaie, A; Shotelersuk, V; DeGuzman, R

    2009-02-01

    Aplasia of major salivary glands is very rare. Compensatory hypertrophy of the rest of the glands can result in clinico-radiological masses. We present a report of a rare case of non-syndromic bilateral submandibular gland aplasia with hypertrophied sublingual salivary tissue, the latter herniating through mylohyoid boutonnière to present as a palpable mass on the left side with corresponding CT findings. Multiplanar evaluation is emphasised by utilizing multidetector CT.

  16. Fully automated screening of veterinary drugs in milk by turbulent flow chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Peters, R.J.B.; Zuiderent, R.; DiBussolo, J.M.; Martins, C.P.B.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in screening methods for quick and sensitive analysis of various classes of veterinary drugs with limited sample pre-treatment. Turbulent flow chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry has been applied for the first time as an efficient screening met

  17. Mass or high-risk screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Henneberg, E W; Fasting, H

    1997-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is known to be associated with various diseases, especially hypertension, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), and intermittent claudication. These associations have led to a debate about whether screening of older men for AAA...

  18. Mass or high-risk screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Henneberg, E W; Fasting, H

    1997-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is known to be associated with various diseases, especially hypertension, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), and intermittent claudication. These associations have led to a debate about whether screening of older men for AAA...

  19. Meson screening masses from lattice QCD with two light and the strange quark

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, M; Francis, A; van der Heide, J; Jung, C; Kaczmarek, O; Karsch, F; Laermann, E; Mawhinney, R D; Miao, C; Mukherjee, S; Petreczky, P; Rantaharju, J; Schmidt, C; Soeldner, W

    2010-01-01

    We present results for screening masses of mesons built from light and strange quarks in the temperature range of approximately between 140 MeV to 800 MeV. The lattice computations were performed with 2+1 dynamical light and strange flavors of improved (p4) staggered fermions along a line of constant physics defined by a pion mass of about 220 MeV and a kaon mass of 500 MeV. The lattices had temporal extents Nt = 4, 6 and 8 and aspect ratios of Ns / Nt \\geq 4. At least up to a temperature of 140 MeV the pseudo-scalar screening mass remains almost equal to the corresponding zero temperature pseudo-scalar (pole) mass. At temperatures around 3Tc (Tc being the transition temperature) the continuum extrapolated pseudo-scalar screening mass approaches very close to the free continuum result of 2 \\pi T from below. On the other hand, at high temperatures the vector screening mass turns out to be larger than the free continuum value of 2 \\pi T. The pseudo-scalar and the vector screening masses do not become degenerate...

  20. Cerebral Blastomycosis: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation of Solitary CNS Blastomycosis Mass-Like Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Stavrakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blastomycosis is a fungal infection rarely seen in clinical practice. Endemic to the Midwestern United States as well as the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Ontario, Blastomyces dermatitidis characteristically involves the skin and lungs. Central nervous system (CNS involvement, although a rare complication of this disease, can be fatal. The current literature on CNS blastomycosis primarily centers on the spectrum of traditional imaging features of T1- and T2-weighted imaging with which this entity can present. However, here we present the direct histopathologic correlation of the imaging findings of solitary mass like CNS blastomycosis, with an emphasis on the association of diffusion restriction within the lesion with a granulomatous immune response.

  1. [Mass screening of deafness in neonates using otoacoustic emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, M

    There is no clinical sign of hearing loss in the infant. Defective language acquisition and altered voice quality always occur late making early diagnosis essential for therapeutic management of deaf children. Subjective assessment of behavioral is highly dependent on the experience of the examinator and cannot be used as an effective routine method. Electrophysiological recordings of otoacoustic emissions have the advantage of allowing objective measurement. Otoacoustic emissions originate in the inner ear. A quantity of energy is transmitted via the tympanic membrane which acts as a microphone, allowing recordings in the external auditory canal. In certain infants these emissions are spontaneous and can be used to detect certain types of hearing loss. Stimulation is required however for screening tests. Recording provoked otoacoustic emissions is simple. A small probe in placed in the external auditory canal. This probe carries two microphones, one which emits clicks recorded by the other captor microphone. The examination lasts approximately 15 minutes, including the time needed to explain the procedure to the mother. There are two possible results. The presence of recorded otoacoustic emissions confirms that the inner ear is normal. If the absence of emissions is confirmed at a second examination, an evoked potential recording is required to identify the hearing loss. This safe, simple and reliable method for detecting hearing loss in infants is recommended for screening programmes during the neonatal period.

  2. A study of some energy dependent characteristics of X-ray screens used in diagnostic radiology : screen-film sensitivity, MTF and some related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Mikael

    1983-01-01

    Fluorescent x-ray screens are used in medical x-ray diagnostics to absorb x-ray photons and convert these x-ray photons to visible light. The light distribution from these screens are then registered on photographic film to give an x-ray image. Both the sensitivity and the resolution characteristics of these systems are dependent on the x-ray photon energy. To enable a study of these and some other energy dependent characteristics of x-ray screens a number of almost monoener-getic radiation s...

  3. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R. [Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C{sub 19}H{sub 29}NO{sub 5} compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C{sub 3} hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene.

  4. Pesticide residues screening in wine by mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Andrea F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a study (from PAN Europe covered 40 bottles of wine – 34 conventional and six organic ones – purchased inside the EU. According to the results, the 34 bottles of conventional wine together contained 148 pesticide residues. All 34 bottles contained from one to ten pesticides, bringing the average per bottle to more than four. Of the six bottles of organic wine tested, one sample contained a low concentration of a possibly carcinogenic pesticide. According to PAN Europe, the “contamination of wines is a direct result of over-reliance on pesticides in grape production”. This study, between others, to prove the importance of develop methods sensivity and confident for pesticide detection in wine. A multi-residue method was developed for the determination ca of 250 pesticide residues in wine using Quechers extraction, gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS. The method was validated with the evaluation of follow parameters: Linearity, Precision, Accuracy, Matrix effect, Limit of detection and Limit of Quantification. The method was approved and was able to quantify pesticide residues in more than 60 samples of wine.

  5. Mass spectrometric techniques for label-free high-throughput screening in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Thomas P; Horvath, Christopher R; Stout, Steven J; Kenney, Kristin L; Ho, Pei-I; Zhang, Ji-Hu; Vickers, Chad; Kaushik, Virendar; Hubbard, Brian; Wang, Y Karen

    2007-11-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is an important tool for finding active compounds to initiate medicinal chemistry programs in pharmaceutical discovery research. Traditional HTS methods rely on fluorescent or radiolabeled reagents and/or coupling assays to permit quantitation of enzymatic target inhibition or activation. Mass spectrometry-based high-throughput screening (MS-HTS) is an alternative that is not susceptible to the limitations imposed by labeling and coupling enzymes. MS-HTS offers a selective and sensitive analytical method for unlabeled substrates and products. Furthermore, method development times are reduced without the need to incorporate labels or coupling assays. MS-HTS also permits screening of targets that are difficult or impossible to screen by other techniques. For example, enzymes that are challenging to purify can lead to the nonspecific detection of structurally similar components of the impure enzyme or matrix of membraneous enzymes. The high selectivity of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) enables these screens to proceed with low levels of background noise to sensitively discover interesting hits even with relatively weak activity. In this article, we describe three techniques that we have adapted for large-scale (approximately 175,000 sample) compound library screening, including four-way parallel multiplexed electrospray liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MUX-LC/MS/MS), four-way parallel staggered gradient liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and eight-way staggered flow injection MS/MS following 384-well plate solid-phase extraction (SPE). These methods are capable of analyzing a 384-well plate in 37 min, with typical analysis times of less than 2 h. The quality of the MS-HTS approach is demonstrated herein with screening data from two large-scale screens.

  6. Radiological English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribes, R. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Cordoba (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Ros, P.R. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Radiology

    2007-07-01

    The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)

  7. Asymptomatic extrahepatic portal obstruction without portal hypertensive findings detected in ultrasonic mass screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, M; Ikawa, S; Kobayashi, J; Murawaki, Y; Horie, Y; Suou, T; Kawasaki, H; Miyoshi, Y

    1995-01-01

    We report three adult cases of extrahepatic portal obstruction (EHPO) detected by ultrasonic (US) mass screening. All these cases were asymptomatic with no abnormalities on hematological or biochemical tests. Only indocynanine green clearance test revealed a slight abnormality. By imaging modalities, the portal trunk could not be visualized and cavernous transformation could be visualized. There were no findings of portal hypertension, such as splenomegaly, esophageal varices and hepatofugal collaterals, in any of these cases. As many EHPOs without symptoms can be detected on US mass survey, US is considered to be the best modality for screening for this disease.

  8. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    culture techniques since 1998. However, using conventional culture methods is time consuming and laborious, and therefore a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Campylobacter detection assay suitable for mass screening of cloacal swab samples from broilers was developed. By comparing the PCR detection...... with conventional culture methods, significantly more samples were found positive for Campylobacter with the PCR method. The PCR method is rapid, sensitive and suitable for mass screening for Campylobacter in poultry. Using this PCR method Campylobacter can be detected within 15 h. Notably, the method can...

  9. Screening of drugs and toxic compounds with liquid chromatography-linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, François-Ludovic; Saint-Marcoux, Franck; Duretz, Bénédicte; Deporte, Didier; Lachatre, Gérard; Marquet, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    In clinical and forensic toxicology, general unknown screening is used to detect and identify exogenous compounds. In this study, we aimed to develop a comprehensive general unknown screening method based on liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. After solid-phase extraction, separation was performed using gradient reversed-phase chromatography. The mass spectrometer was operated in the information-dependent acquisition mode, switching between a survey scan acquired in the Enhanced Mass Spectrometry mode with dynamic subtraction of background noise and a dependent scan obtained in the enhanced product ion scan mode. The complete cycle time was 1.36 s. A library of 1000 enhanced product ion-tandem mass spectrometry spectra in positive mode and 250 in negative mode, generated using 3 alternated collision tensions during each scan, was created by injecting pure solutions of drugs and toxic compounds. Comparison with HPLC-diode array detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of 36 clinical samples showed that linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry could identify most of the compounds (94% of the total). Some compounds were detected only by 1 of the other 2 techniques. Specific clinical cases highlighted the advantages and limitations of the method. A unique combination of new operating modes provided by hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometers and new software features allowed development of a comprehensive and efficient method for the general unknown screening of drugs and toxic compounds in blood or urine.

  10. Mass Screening of Vision in the Cinemas and a Maculascope for the Masses: Revival of Haidinger’s Brush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodikullam V. Avudainayagam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidinger’s brush, an entoptic phenomenon, is very useful in checking central vision loss and eccentric fixation. Haidinger’s brush is also used to provide vision training for subjects affected by eccentric fixation/lazy eye. We propose the use of Haidinger’s brush for mass self-screening of vision in cinema theatres in one go and at no cost to the subjects. We also suggest a simple projection technology for mass vision screening of subjects in waiting rooms or at shop windows of eye-care practitioners. Finally, we propose a new affordable handheld device for vision training. The test and the devices that we propose would increase public awareness of eye health, improve vision in children, and help prevent blindness in the elderly.

  11. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  12. Nationwide study of the radiological screening of water for human consumption; Estudio a nivel nacional del tamizaje radiologico de agua de consumo humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez M, R.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Carreon G, E.; Parissi C, A., E-mail: rvelazquezm@yahoo.com [Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Eucalipto Mza. 12, Lote 7, Corredor Industrial Bruno Pagliai, 91697 Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    A screening test was carried out to the drinking water in the main cities of our country (Mexico). This study arises from the need that existed of having a radiological policy support in drinking water, which involved: the State Laboratory of Public Health of Veracruz State which has radiation analytical infrastructure. The study design was aimed to have the elements for further sanitary and/or epidemiological studies, so it was considered only the urban population to concentrate the major population of the country, as well as impact factors of water pollution by radiological materials: soils, precipitation, etc. The result of 928 samples from 14 states are presented and shows that they are consistent with the expected results, unable to be conclusive because the state participation was only of 43.5%, of which only 31% completed the shipment of samples in rainy and dry seasons. The State Laboratory of Public Health of Veracruz State has authorized methods by the Comision Federal para la Proteccion contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS) for the determination of gross beta and gross alpha radioactivity by the method of direct evaporation of samples of drinking water. A system of proportional flow detection under background calibrated was used. In the determination of gross beta values no greater than those established by the current national standard were detected. For gross alpha determination, the states with high rainfall and no mining industry located in the southeast of the country have lower values for gross alpha activity that the states in the north center of the country. Point values of gross alpha activity were detected in some states exceeding the standard values. (Author)

  13. Fluctuation in the concentrations of vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid in mass screening for neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, M; Miyake, H; Takeda, T; Yamashiro, K; Takasugi, N; Hanai, J; Kawai, T

    1990-09-01

    Fluctuations in the amount of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were studied in random urine samples from 13 infants with neuroblastoma. In patients with a small tumour, many samples contained amounts below the cut off values, suggesting that detection of a patient with neuroblastoma depended on mathematical probability. Using high performance liquid chromatography a patient with a tumour of about 10 g may well be overlooked, whereas a patient whose tumour weighs over 30 g would probably be detected. With qualitative screening, although more likely to miss a patient with low VMA excretion, a patient with a tumour weighing over 50 g would be detected. In a thorough hospital examination care should be exercised in interpreting borderline values of VMA and HVA; excretion information suggesting the existence of a tumour may aid localization by radiological imaging procedures.

  14. Medical swab touch spray-mass spectrometry for newborn screening of nicotine and cotinine in meconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bi-Cheng; Wang, Feng; Yang, Xiao; Zou, Wei; Wang, Jia-Chun; Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Huang, Ou-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Newborn screening is one of public health concerns designed to screen infants shortly after birth. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke such as nicotine has been reported to affect babies. Levels of nicotine and cotinine in meconium were widely used to evaluate the tobacco exposure of foetuses during pregnancy in a polluted environment. In this study, medical swabs were applied by using touch spray-mass spectrometry (TS-MS) to collect meconium from newborn infants for detection of nicotine and cotinine. Parameters such as choice of spray solvents, solvent volume and collision energy for screening of nicotine and cotinine were optimized. The limits of detection, reproducibility and matrix effect for analysis of meconium were also investigated. In this study, the levels of nicotine and cotinine in 54 puerpera volunteers were screened by TS-MS and were validated by using traditional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These results showed that medical swab TS-MS would be useful for newborn screening of nicotine and cotinine in meconium with high reproducibility, speed, sensitivity and specificity. The use of disposable medical swabs involves no sample preparation and no chromatographic separation, significantly reducing the cost and time required for screening a large number of clinical sample. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Radiological Features and Postoperative Histopathologic Diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiological Features and Postoperative Histopathologic Diagnosis of Intracranial Masses at Tikur Anbessa ... East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... features and postoperative histopathology diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions.

  16. Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

    2004-02-18

    The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to {gamma}-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It

  17. Radiology illustrated. Pediatric radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-One (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-11-01

    Depicts characteristic imaging findings of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. Will serve as an ideal diagnostic reference in daily practice. Offers an excellent teaching aid, with numerous high-quality illustrations. This case-based atlas presents images depicting the findings typically observed when imaging a variety of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. The cases are organized according to anatomic region, covering disorders of the brain, spinal cord, head and neck, chest, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, genitourinary system, and musculoskeletal system. Cases are presented in a form resembling teaching files, and the images are accompanied by concise informative text. The goal is to provide a diagnostic reference suitable for use in daily routine by both practicing radiologists and radiology residents or fellows. The atlas will also serve as a teaching aide and a study resource, and will offer pediatricians and surgeons guidance on the clinical applications of pediatric imaging.

  18. Detection, characterization, and screening of heme-binding molecules by mass spectrometry for malaria drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz-Durango, K.; Maciuk, A.; Harfouche, A.; Torijano-Gutierrez, S.; Jullian, J.C.; Quintin, J.; Spelman, K.; Mouray, E.; Grellier, P.; Figadere, B.

    2012-01-01

    Drug screening for antimalarials uses heme biocrystallization inhibition methods as an alternative to parasite cultures, but they involve complex processes and cannot detect artemisinin-like molecules. The described method detects heme-binding compounds by mass spectrometry, using dissociation of th

  19. Mass screenings at mass participation events: MedFest at Special Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Peter H; Eggers, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    MedFest events offer preparticipation physical evaluations to Special Olympics athletes. This free service can occur as free-standing events or can take place during Special Olympics Games. The goals of MedFest are to screen for conditions that are potentially life threatening or disabling or may predispose the athlete to injury or illness. The medication, cardiac, and neurologic histories are essential components of the evaluation. The majority of athletes screened during a MedFest event will be cleared for sports participation, but many will require some type of referral for further care. It is important for the organizers of the MedFest to have prearranged protocols to ensure that the athletes efficiently receive the required evaluations.

  20. Screening for Enzyme Inhibitors by Surface Plasmon Resonance Combined with Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jonas; Roepstorff, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel strategy to identify enzyme inhibitors that interact directly with their enzyme targets. In the approach, an enzyme is immobilized on a sensor chip, and it is determined whether the immobilized enzyme is still active by incubation with model substrates and mass...... substrate and mass spectrometric analysis. If the bound compound inhibits the enzyme, the inhibitor is eluted from the enzyme and characterized by mass spectrometry. To test the strategy, it has been applied to the well-characterized interaction between trypsin and pure bovine pancreas trypsin inhibitor....... Furthermore, fractions of plant extracts were screened for binding to and inhibition of carboxypeptidase B....

  1. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in in vitro drug metabolite screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Ari; Turpeinen, Miia; Pelkonen, Olavi

    2009-02-01

    A combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has proven its status as the most powerful analytical tool for screening and identifying drug metabolites in modern drug discovery. These techniques have become irreplaceable for drug metabolism laboratories, providing high amounts of information from a wide variety of samples. This review focuses on the most common and useful applications of these techniques when working on in vitro metabolism, more specifically with screening and identification of chemically stable or reactive metabolites formed via biotransformation reactions. Matching specific tasks and suitable instruments is a recurring consideration; for many reasons, the time-of-flight or orbitrap mass spectrometry provides clearly increased efficiency in metabolite profiling compared to other types of mass spectrometry.

  2. A new mass screening method for methylmercury poisoning using mercury-volatilizing bacteria from Minamata Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Naruse, I; Takizawa, Y

    1999-09-01

    A simplified mass screening method for methylmercury exposure was developed using methylmercury-volatilizing bacteria from Minamata Bay. Some bacteria can transform methylmercury into mercury vapor. Most mercury in the hair is methylmercury, which is readily extracted with HCl solution. Black spots are formed on X-ray film due to the reduction of Ag(+) emulsion with mercury vapor produced by methylmercury-volatilizing bacteria. By exploiting these characteristics, a screening method was developed, whereby the fur of rats injected with methylmercury chloride formed clear black spots on X-ray film, whereas the fur of rats injected with saline did not. Subsequently, 50 human hair samples were examined using this mass screening method. The method identified people who had high mercury concentration, over 20 microg/g. A few thousand hair samples may be screened in a day using this method because it is rapid, simple, and economical. This method, therefore, enables screening of persons with methylmercury poisoning in mercury-polluted areas.

  3. A Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Method for Screening Disulfide Tethering Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Kenneth K; Davies, Julia L; Merron, Connie; Ogden, Pierce; Sijbesma, Eline; Ottmann, Christian; Renslo, Adam R; Wilson, Christopher; Arkin, Michelle R

    2017-09-01

    We report the refinement of a high-throughput, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based screening method for the identification of covalent small-molecule binders to proteins. Using a custom library of 1600 disulfide-capped fragments targeting surface cysteine residues, we optimize sample preparation, chromatography, and ionization conditions to maximize the reliability and flexibility of the approach. Data collection at a rate of 84 s per sample balances speed with reliability for sustained screening over multiple, diverse projects run over a 24-month period. The method is applicable to protein targets of various classes and a range of molecular masses. Data are processed in a custom pipeline that calculates a percent bound value for each compound and identifies false positives by calculating significance of detected masses (signal significance). An example pipeline is available through Biovia's ScienceCloud Protocol Exchange. Data collection and analysis methods for the screening of covalent adducts of intact proteins are now fast enough to screen the largest covalent compound libraries in 1 to 2 days.

  4. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/Nuclear Incident with External Contamination: Guiding Principles and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulsky, Susan M; Sokolowski, Danny; Lafontaine, Marc; Gagnon, Christine; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David; Kreppel, Helmut; Biederbick, Walter; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Saito, Tomoya; Jourdain, Jean-René; Paquet, Francois; Li, Chunsheng; Akashi, Makoto; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Prosser, Lesley

    2015-11-02

    Hazardous chemical, radiological, and nuclear materials threaten public health in scenarios of accidental or intentional release which can lead to external contamination of people.  Without intervention, the contamination could cause severe adverse health effects, through systemic absorption by the contaminated casualties as well as spread of contamination to other people, medical equipment, and facilities.  Timely decontamination can prevent or interrupt absorption into the body and minimize opportunities for spread of the contamination, thereby mitigating the health impact of the incident.  Although the specific physicochemical characteristics of the hazardous material(s) will determine the nature of an incident and its risks, some decontamination and medical challenges and recommended response strategies are common among chemical and radioactive material incidents.  Furthermore, the identity of the hazardous material released may not be known early in an incident.  Therefore, it may be beneficial to compare the evidence and harmonize approaches between chemical and radioactive contamination incidents.  Experts from the Global Health Security Initiative's Chemical and Radiological/Nuclear Working Groups present here a succinct summary of guiding principles for planning and response based on current best practices, as well as research needs, to address the challenges of managing contaminated casualties in a chemical or radiological/nuclear incident.

  5. Subtraction of Spurious Centre-of-Mass Motion in Quark Delocalization and Colour Screening Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ling-Zhi; PANG Hou-Rong; HUANG Hong-Xia; PING Jia-Lun; WANG Fan

    2007-01-01

    The quark delocalization colour screening model provides an alternative approach for the NN intermediate range attraction, which is attributed to the σ meson exchange in the meson exchange and chiral quark model.However the quark delocalization induces the spurious centre-of-mass motion (CMM). A method for subtracting the spurious CMM proposed before is applied to the new scattering calculation. The subtraction of the spurious CMM results in an additional NN attraction. The NN scattering data are refitted by a fine tune of the colour screening constant.

  6. Imaging and radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventional radiology; Diagnostic radiology; X-ray imaging ... DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY Diagnostic radiology helps health care professionals see structures inside your body. Doctors that specialize in the interpretation ...

  7. Model prediction for temperature dependence of meson pole masses from lattice QCD results on meson screening masses

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Masahiro; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2016-01-01

    We propose a practical effective model by introducing temperature ($T$) dependence to the coupling strengths of four-quark and six-quark Kobayashi-Maskawa-'t Hooft interactions in the 2+1 flavor Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The $T$ dependence is determined from LQCD data on the renormalized chiral condensate around the pseudocritical temperature $T_c^{\\chi}$ of chiral crossover and the screening-mass difference between $\\pi$ and $a_0$ mesons in $T > 1.1T_c^\\chi$ where only the $U(1)_{\\rm A}$-symmetry breaking survives. The model well reproduces LQCD data on screening masses $M_{\\xi}^{\\rm scr}(T)$ for both scalar and pseudoscalar mesons, particularly in $T \\ge T_c^{\\chi}$. Using this effective model, we predict meson pole masses $M_{\\xi}^{\\rm pole}(T)$ for scalar and pseudoscalar mesons. For $\\eta'$ meson, the prediction is consistent with the experimental value at finite $T$ measured in heavy-ion collisions. We point out that the relation $M_{\\xi}^{\\rm scr}(T)-M_{\\xi}^{\\rm pole}(T) \\approx...

  8. Cross-disciplinary management of polytrauma patients: radiological screening and comparison; Interdisziplinaeres Management von polytraumatisierten Patienten: Beitrag der Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messmer, P. [Universitaetskliniken Basel, Dept. Chirurgie, Allgemeinchirurgische Klinik, Abt. Traumatologie (Switzerland); Loew, R.; Jacob, A.L. [Universitaetskliniken Basel, Dept. Medizinische Radiologie, Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie (Switzerland)

    2001-09-01

    The comprehensive survey addresses the various modalities available today for trauma screening and presents a comparative assessment of their value in respect of type of trauma and evidence provided. (orig./CB) [German] Die Versorgung polytraumatischer Patienten stellt hoechste Anforderungen an das Koennen des Radiologen. Neben einer schnellen und schonenden Durchfuehrung der notwendigen Diagnostik darf keine potenziell lebensbedrohende Verletzung uebersehen werden. Die Kriterien fuer eine rationelle Diagnostik wurden im ATLS-Kurs (Advanced Trauma Life Support) zusammengefasst. Es gilt, die sog. 'golden hour' moeglichst effektiv fuer die Primaerdiagnostik und -therapie zu nutzen. Haeufige Verletzungsformen beim Polytrauma sind das Schaedel-Hirn-Trauma, Thoraxverletzungen, Milzverletzungen, Leberverletzungen und Frakturen von Becken, Wirbelsaeule und Extremitaeten. Die Primaere und Sekundaere Radiologische Diagnostik ist abhaengig von der Ausstattung der Klinik und besteht aus einer abdominellen Sonographie, Thorax ap, Beckenuebersicht ap, Halswirbelsaeule seitlich sowie falls vorhanden aus CT und Angiographie. Ein definitiver Schritt zur Verkuerzung der Zeit bis zur Behandlung waeren sterile OP-Einheiten mit integrierter Roentgendiagnostik (moeglichst nativ und CT), die ein staendiges Umlagern und Transportieren des Patienten verhindern koennten. (orig.)

  9. [Abreugraphy and the introduction of mass X-ray screening to Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongre, Aksel

    2008-12-18

    The Brazilian radiologist Manoel de Abreu (1892 - 1962) was the first who succeeded in developing an apparatus suitable for mass radiography of the chest in the fight against tuberculosis. Within a few years, many countries had started to use mass radiography. The German professor Hans Holfelder (1891 - 1944) improved the apparatus and made a transportable version to be used in special buses and in assembly halls. When Germany attacked Norway in April 1940, the Chief Tuberculosis Inspector Otto Galtung (1904 - 81), was making plans for a nation-wide screening programme with mass radiography. He was fired by the Nazis who continued his work and started screening in 1943. The first mass radiography in Norway was carried out in Bergen in September 1940. Almost 11 000 pupils and teachers from all schools in Bergen were examined under the management of Holfelder, then an SS-Standartenführer (colonel) and radiologist in the occupation force. The screening was performed in co-operation with the municipal health authority who bought the apparatus in spring 1941.

  10. Hb mass measurement suitable to screen for illicit autologous blood transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottgiesser, Torben; Umhau, Markus; Ahlgrim, Christoph; Ruthardt, Sebastian; Roecker, Kai; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf

    2007-10-01

    An increase of hemoglobin (Hb) mass is the key target of blood doping practices to enhance performance as it is a main determinant of maximal oxygen uptake. Although detection methods exist for doping with recombinant EPO and homologous blood transfusions, autologous transfusions remain virtually undetectable. In this context, the most sensitive parameter would be a determination of Hb mass itself. The purpose therefore was to establish whether Hb mass measurements by the optimized CO-rebreathing method allow screening for the withdrawal and reinfusion of autologous red blood cells. The optimized CO-rebreathing method was used for evaluation of Hb mass in two groups at three time points (duplicate measurements: 1) baseline, 2) after donation, and 3) after reinfusion). Group I (N = 6) was to donate and receive 1 unit of packed red cells (PRC) in contrast to two PRC in group II (N = 4). The time span between withdrawal and reinfusion was 2 d. The mean Hb content of the blood units was 59.0 +/- 3.9 g (group I) and 108.3 +/- 1.3 g (group II). Hb mass decreased significantly after blood withdrawal (-89 +/- 16 g in group I and -120 +/- 14 g in group II) and increased significantly after reinfusion (group I: 70 +/- 16 g; group II: 90 +/- 9 g) but was lower than at baseline (group I: -19 +/- 17 g; group II: -30 +/- 14 g). The total error of measurements for the duplicate measures ranged between 0.8 and 3.1% (Hb mass: 6.4-22.1 g). Hb mass determination with the optimized CO-rebreathing method has sufficient precision to detect the absolute differences in Hb mass induced by blood withdrawal and autologous reinfusion. Thus, it may be suited to screen for artificially induced alterations in Hb mass.

  11. [Breast cancer mass screening in the Province of Liege. Results after 8 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordenne, W; Parmentier, J C; Delleuze, J M

    2000-08-01

    Breast cancer mass screening by mobile units started in 1992 in the Province of Liège (Belgium). This project is developed for rural areas and interests all women between 40-69 years old not regularly X-rayed in traditional breast cancer diagnosis centers. Despite lots of efforts population participation is low (25%). Nevertheless, the experiment results are encouraging: in a series of 31,443 women, 213 cancers were diagnosed, corresponding to a rate of 6.9/1000, 75% of which are of good prognosis. After an 8 years experiment, it is hoped that the population concerned becomes more sensitive to this mass screening project and one should expect a better collaboration with the other actors in the field of breast diseases diagnosis.

  12. Coupling of a scanning flow cell with online electrochemical mass spectrometry for screening of reaction selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Jan-Philipp; Zeradjanin, Aleksandar R.; Cherevko, Serhiy; Mayrhofer, Karl J. J.

    2014-10-01

    In this work the online coupling of a miniaturized electrochemical scanning flow cell (SFC) to a mass spectrometer is introduced. The system is designed for the determination of reaction products in dependence of the applied potential and/or current regime as well as fast and automated change of the sample. The reaction products evaporate through a hydrophobic PTFE membrane into a small vacuum probe, which is positioned only 50-100 μm away from the electrode surface. The probe is implemented into the SFC and directly connected to the mass spectrometer. This unique configuration enables fast parameter screening for complex electrochemical reactions, including investigation of operation conditions, composition of electrolyte, and material composition. The technical developments of the system are validated by initial measurements of hydrogen evolution during water electrolysis and electrochemical reduction of CO2 to various products, showcasing the high potential for systematic combinatorial screening by this approach.

  13. The inclusion of ADA-SCID in expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Giocaliere, Elisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Canessa, Clementina; Lippi, Francesca; Romano, Francesca; Guerrini, Renzo; Resti, Massimo; Azzari, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine-deaminase defect (ADA-SCID) is usually deadly in childhood because of severe recurrent infections. When clinical diagnosis is done, permanent damages due to infections or metabolite accumulation are often present. Gene therapy, bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy may be effective if started early. The aim of this study was to set-up a robust method suitable for screening with a minimized preparation process and with inexpensive running costs, for diagnosing ADA-SCID by tandem mass spectrometry. ADA-SCID satisfies all the criteria for inclusion in a newborn screening program. We describe a protocol revised to incorporate adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine testing into an expanded newborn screening program. We assessed the effectiveness of this approach testing dried blood spots from 4 genetically confirmed early-onset and 5 delayed-onset ADA-SCID patients. Reference values were established on 50,000 healthy newborns (deoxyadenosine <0.09μmol/L, adenosine <1.61μmol/L). We also developed a second tier test to distinguish true positives from false positives and improve the positive predictive value of an initial abnormal result. In the first 18 months, the pilot project has identified a newborn with a genetically confirmed defect in adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene. The results show that the method having great simplicity, low cost and low process preparations can be fully applicable to a mass screening program.

  14. Capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for screening of metabolic disorders in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senk, Petr; Kozák, Libor; Foret, Frantisek

    2004-06-01

    Clinical analyses always represent a challenge for the sensitivity and selectivity of the analytical techniques. Of the most critical are the techniques required for the quick determination of the disease state and application of the proper treatment in newborns. This short critical review overviews the present state of the art of the use of mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis for screening of metabolic disorders in newborns.

  15. Secular Trends in Neuroblastoma Mortality Before and After the Cessation of National Mass Screening in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanoda, Kota; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Yamamoto, Keiko; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2003, the Japanese government halted the national mass screening program for neuroblastoma (NB), which had been running since the mid-1980s. It is not known whether the NB mortality rate subsequently increased or decreased. Methods Utilizing vital statistics data from 1980 through 2006, we analyzed the secular trends in NB mortality by using cancer of the adrenal gland as a surrogate. We examined the validity of this substitution by comparing the results with data from death certificates. Using a joinpoint regression model, we examined the trends in age-specific mortality rates by calendar year and cumulative mortality rates by birth year. The cumulative mortality rate was analyzed for age under 1 or 2 years for infants born after the cessation of the mass screening program. Results The number of deaths from cancer of the adrenal gland was closely correlated with the number of deaths from NB. Significant decreases in the mortality rate were observed from 1980 through 2006 by calendar year for those aged under 1 year, 1 to 4 years, and 5 to 9 years. The cumulative mortality rates by birth year also significantly decreased from the 1980 birth cohort. Although the cumulative mortality rates under the age of 2 appear to have increased after the 2003 birth cohort, the change was not statistically significant. Conclusions No significant increase in the NB mortality rate was detected after the cessation of the mass screening program in Japan. However, continuous monitoring is still needed to fully evaluate this health policy decision. PMID:19652443

  16. Body mass index and colon cancer screening: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthur, Nisa M; Bolen, Shari; Gudzune, Kimberly; Brancati, Frederick L; Clark, Jeanne M

    2012-05-01

    Obesity is associated with increased colon cancer mortality and lower rates of mammography and Pap testing. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether obesity is associated with lower rates of colon cancer screening. We searched the PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases. Two investigators reviewed citations, abstracts, and articles independently. Two investigators abstracted study information sequentially and evaluated quality independently using standardized forms. We included all studies in our qualitative syntheses. We used random effects meta-analyses to combine those studies providing screening results by the following body mass index (BMI) categories: Normal, 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) (reference); overweight, 25-29.9 kg/m(2); class I obesity, 30-34.9 kg/m(2); class II obesity, 35-39.9 kg/m(2); and class III obesity, ≥ 40 kg/m(2). Of 5,543 citations, we included 23 articles. Almost all studies were cross-sectional and ascertained BMI and screening through self-report. BMI was not associated with colon cancer screening overall. The subgroup of obese white women reported lower rates of colon cancer screening compared with those with a normal BMI with combined ORs (95% CI) of 0.87 (0.82-0.93), 0.80 (0.65-0.99), and 0.73 (0.58-0.94) for class I, II, and III obesity, respectively. Results were similar among white men with class II obesity. Overall, BMI was not associated with colon cancer screening. Obese white men and women may be less likely to undergo colon cancer screening compared with those with a normal BMI. Further investigation of this disparity may reduce the risk of obesity-related colon cancer death.

  17. Environmental forensics in groundwater coupling passive sampling and high resolution mass spectrometry for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Coralie; Coureau, Charlotte; Togola, Anne

    2016-09-01

    One of the difficulties encountered when monitoring groundwater quality is low and fluctuating concentration levels and complex mixtures of micropollutants, including emerging substances or transformation products. Combining passive sampling techniques with analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) should improve environmental metrology. Passive samplers accumulate compounds during exposure, which improves the detection of organic compounds and integrates pollution fluctuations. The Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) were used in this study to sequester polar to semi-polar compounds. The methodology described here improves our knowledge of environmental pollution by highlighting and identifying pertinent compounds to be monitored in groundwater. The advantage of combining these two approaches is demonstrated on two different sites impacted by agricultural and/or urban pollution sources where groundwater was sampled for several months. Grab and passive sampling were done and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF). Various data processing approaches were used (target, suspect and non-target screening). Target screening was based on research from compounds listed in a homemade database and suspect screening used a database compiled using literature data. The non-target screening was done using statistical tools such as principal components analysis (PCA) with direct connections between original chromatograms and ion intensity. Trend plots were used to highlight relevant compounds for their identification. The advantage of using POCIS to improve screening of polar organic compounds was demonstrated. Compounds undetected in water samples were detected with these tools. The subsequent data processing identified sentinel molecules, molecular clusters as compounds never revealed in these sampling sites, and molecular fingerprints. Samples were compared and multidimensional

  18. Combinatorial Library Screening Coupled to Mass Spectrometry to Identify Valuable Cyclic Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperi, Silvia A; Giudicessi, Silvana L; Martínez-Ceron, María C; Gurevich-Messina, Juan M; Saavedra, Soledad L; Acosta, Gerardo; Cascone, Osvaldo; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Albericio, Fernando

    2016-06-02

    Combinatorial library screening coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis is a practical approach to identify useful peptides. Cyclic peptides can have high biological activity, selectivity, and affinity for target proteins, and high stability against proteolytic degradation. Here we describe two strategies to prepare combinatorial libraries suitable for MS analysis to accelerate the discovery of cyclic peptide structures. Both approaches use ChemMatrix resin and the linker 4-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid. One strategy involves the synthesis of a one-bead-two-peptides library in which each bead contains both the cyclic peptide and its linear counterpart to facilitate MS analysis. The other protocol is based on the synthesis of a cyclic depsipeptide library in which a glycolamidic ester group is incorporated by adding glycolic acid. After library screening, the ring is opened and the peptide is released simultaneously for subsequent MS analysis. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Large Scale Nanoparticle Screening for Small Molecule Analysis in Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagnik, Gargey B; Hansen, Rebecca L; Korte, Andrew R; Reichert, Malinda D; Vela, Javier; Lee, Young Jin

    2016-09-20

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested as efficient matrixes for small molecule profiling and imaging by laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS), but so far there has been no systematic study comparing different NPs in the analysis of various classes of small molecules. Here, we present a large scale screening of 13 NPs for the analysis of two dozen small metabolite molecules. Many NPs showed much higher LDI efficiency than organic matrixes in positive mode and some NPs showed comparable efficiencies for selected analytes in negative mode. Our results suggest that a thermally driven desorption process is a key factor for metal oxide NPs, but chemical interactions are also very important, especially for other NPs. The screening results provide a useful guideline for the selection of NPs in the LDI-MS analysis of small molecules.

  20. High-throughput screening of small molecule libraries using SAMDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurard-Levin, Zachary A; Scholle, Michael D; Eisenberg, Adam H; Mrksich, Milan

    2011-07-11

    High-throughput screening is a common strategy used to identify compounds that modulate biochemical activities, but many approaches depend on cumbersome fluorescent reporters or antibodies and often produce false-positive hits. The development of "label-free" assays addresses many of these limitations, but current approaches still lack the throughput needed for applications in drug discovery. This paper describes a high-throughput, label-free assay that combines self-assembled monolayers with mass spectrometry, in a technique called SAMDI, as a tool for screening libraries of 100,000 compounds in one day. This method is fast, has high discrimination, and is amenable to a broad range of chemical and biological applications.

  1. High-throughput bioaffinity mass spectrometry for screening and identification of designer anabolic steroids in dietary supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqai, P.; Cevik, E.; Gerssen, A.; Haasnoot, W.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    A generic high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of known and unknown recombinant human sex hormone-binding globulin (rhSHBG)-binding designer steroids in dietary supplements. For screening,

  2. Mass spectrometric screening and identification of acidic metabolites in fulvic acid fractions of contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobelius, Carsten; Frimmel, Fritz H; Zwiener, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The anaerobic microbial degradation of aromatic and heterocyclic compounds is a prevalent process in contaminated groundwater systems. The introduction of functional groups into the contaminant molecules often results in aromatic and heterocyclic and succinic acids. These metabolites can be used as indicators for prevailing degradation processes. Therefore, there is a strong interest in developing analytical methods for screening and identification of these metabolites. In this study, neutral loss scans (NLS) by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry with losses of CO2 (NL ∆m/z = 44) and C2H4(CO2)2 (NL ∆m/z = 116) were applied for the first time successfully to screen selectively for acidic and succinic metabolites of aromatic and heterocyclic contaminants in two fulvic acid fractions from a contaminated site and a downstream region of a tar oil-polluted groundwater. Identification of these preselected signals was performed by high-resolution mass spectrometry with a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument. High-resolution mass and mass fragmentation data were then compared with a list of known metabolites from a literature search or matched with chemical databases supported with in silico fragmentation. Based on authentic analytical standards, several compounds from NLS were identified (e.g., 4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzoic acid, benzylsuccinic acid, naphthyl-2-methylsuccinic acid, 2-carboxyindane, and 2-carboxybenzothiophene) and tentatively identified (e.g., benzofuranmethylsuccinic acid and dihydrocarboxybenzothiophene) as aromatic, phenolic, heterocyclic, and succinic acids. The acidic metabolites were found exclusively in the contaminated region of the aquifer which indicates active biodegradation processes and no relevant occurrence of acidic metabolites in the downstream region.

  3. Risk communication considerations to facilitate the screening of mass populations for potential contamination with radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, R J; Sprau, D D; Morecook, R C

    2008-11-01

    Experience gained during a field training exercise with a Medical Reserve Corps unit on the screening of large groups of individuals for possible contamination with radioactive material revealed that while exercise participants were generally attentive to the proper use of protective equipment and detectors, they tended to overlook important basic risk communications aspects. For example, drill participants did not actively communicate with the persons waiting in line for screening, a step which would provide re-assurance, possibly minimize apprehension, and would clarify expectations. When questioned on this issue of risk communication, drill participants were often able to craft ad hoc messages, but the messages were inconsistent and likely would not have significantly helped diminish anxiety and maintain crowd control. Similar difficulties were encountered regarding messaging for persons determined to be contaminated, those departing the screening center, and those to be delivered to the media. Based on these experiences, the need for a suggested list of risk communication points was identified. To address this need, a set of risk communication templates were developed that focused on the issues likely to be encountered in a mass screening event. The points include issues such as the importance of remaining calm, steps for minimizing possible intake or uptake, considerations for those exhibiting acute injuries, expected screening wait times, the process to be followed and the information to be collected, the process to be undertaken for those exhibiting contamination, and symptoms to watch for after departure. Drill participants indicated in follow-up discussions that such pre-established risk communication templates would serve to enhance their ability to assist in times of emergency and noted the potential broader applicably of the approach for use in responses for other disasters types as well.

  4. Development of a Magnetic Microbead Affinity Selection Screen (MagMASS) Using Mass Spectrometry for Ligands to the Retinoid X Receptor-α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Michael D.; Walker, Elisabeth M.; Prehna, Gerd; Burton, Tristesse; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2016-12-01

    To overcome limiting factors in mass spectrometry-based screening methods such as automation while still facilitating the screening of complex mixtures such as botanical extracts, magnetic microbead affinity selection screening (MagMASS) was developed. The screening process involves immobilization of a target protein on a magnetic microbead using a variety of possible chemistries, incubation with mixtures of molecules containing possible ligands, a washing step that removes non-bound compounds while a magnetic field retains the beads in the microtiter well, and an organic solvent release step followed by LC-MS analysis. Using retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα) as an example, which is a nuclear receptor and target for anti-inflammation therapy as well as cancer treatment and prevention, a MagMASS assay was developed and compared with an existing screening assay, pulsed ultrafiltration (PUF)-MS. Optimization of MagMASS involved evaluation of multiple protein constructs and several magnetic bead immobilization chemistries. The full-length RXRα construct immobilized with amylose beads provided optimum results. Additional enhancements of MagMASS were the application of 96-well plates to enable automation, use of UHPLC instead of HPLC for faster MS analyses, and application of metabolomics software for faster, automated data analysis. Performance of MagMASS was demonstrated using mixtures of synthetic compounds and known ligands spiked into botanical extracts.

  5. Development of a Magnetic Microbead Affinity Selection Screen (MagMASS) Using Mass Spectrometry for Ligands to the Retinoid X Receptor-α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Michael D.; Walker, Elisabeth M.; Prehna, Gerd; Burton, Tristesse; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2017-03-01

    To overcome limiting factors in mass spectrometry-based screening methods such as automation while still facilitating the screening of complex mixtures such as botanical extracts, magnetic microbead affinity selection screening (MagMASS) was developed. The screening process involves immobilization of a target protein on a magnetic microbead using a variety of possible chemistries, incubation with mixtures of molecules containing possible ligands, a washing step that removes non-bound compounds while a magnetic field retains the beads in the microtiter well, and an organic solvent release step followed by LC-MS analysis. Using retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα) as an example, which is a nuclear receptor and target for anti-inflammation therapy as well as cancer treatment and prevention, a MagMASS assay was developed and compared with an existing screening assay, pulsed ultrafiltration (PUF)-MS. Optimization of MagMASS involved evaluation of multiple protein constructs and several magnetic bead immobilization chemistries. The full-length RXRα construct immobilized with amylose beads provided optimum results. Additional enhancements of MagMASS were the application of 96-well plates to enable automation, use of UHPLC instead of HPLC for faster MS analyses, and application of metabolomics software for faster, automated data analysis. Performance of MagMASS was demonstrated using mixtures of synthetic compounds and known ligands spiked into botanical extracts.

  6. Screening masses in the SU(3) pure gauge theory and universality

    CERN Document Server

    Falcone, R; Gravina, M; Papa, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We determine from Polyakov loop correlators the screening masses in th e deconfined phase of the (3+1)d SU(3) pure gauge theory at finite temperature near transition, for two different channels of angular momentum and parity. Their ratio is compared with that of the massive excitations with the same quantum numbers in the 3d 3-state Potts model in the broken phase near the transition point at zero magnetic field. Moreover we study the inverse decay length of the correlation between the real parts and between the imaginary parts of the Polyakov loop and compare the results with expectations from perturbation theory and mean-field Polyakov loop models.

  7. Screening masses in the SU(3) pure gauge theory and universality

    CERN Document Server

    Falcone, Rossella; Gravina, Mario; Papa, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We determine from Polyakov loop correlators the screening masses in the deconfined phase of the (3+1)d SU(3) pure gauge theory at finite temperature near the transition, for two different channels of angular momentum and parity. Their ratio is compared with that of the massive excitations with the same quantum numbers in the 3d 3-state Potts model in the broken phase near the transition point at zero magnetic field. Moreover we study the inverse decay length of the correlation between the real parts and between the imaginary parts of the Polyakov loop and compare the results with expectations from perturbation theory and mean-field Polyakov loop models.

  8. Uncertainty of mass discharge estimation from contaminated sites at screening level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Troldborg, M.; McKnight, Ursula S.

    Contaminated sites threaten groundwater resources worldwide. The number of contaminated sites is large and there are too few economic resources available to ensure a thorough investigation and remediation of them all. Risk assessment must already be done at a screening level in order to ensure...... (perchloroethylene) that has contaminated a clay till aquitard overlaying a limestone aquifer. The nature of the geology and the exact shape of the source are unknown. The decision factors in the Bayesian belief network for the site are presented. Model output is shown in the form of time varying mass discharge...

  9. Pseudoscalar susceptibilities and quark condensates: chiral restoration and lattice screening masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, A. Gómez [Departamento de Física Teórica II, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas,Universidad Complutense de Madrid,Plaza de las Ciencias 1, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Elvira, J. Ruiz de [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics,Universität Bonn,D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-03-29

    We derive the formal Ward identities relating pseudoscalar susceptibilities and quark condensates in three-flavor QCD, including consistently the η-η{sup ′} sector and the U{sub A}(1) anomaly. These identities are verified in the low-energy realization provided by ChPT, both in the standard SU(3) framework for the octet case and combining the use of the U(3) framework and the large-N{sub c} expansion of QCD to account properly for the nonet sector and anomalous contributions. The analysis is performed including finite temperature corrections as well as the calculation of U(3) quark condensates and all pseudoscalar susceptibilities, which together with the full set of Ward identities, are new results of this work. Finally, the Ward identities are used to derive scaling relations for pseudoscalar masses which explain the behavior with temperature of lattice screening masses near chiral symmetry restoration.

  10. First screening method for the simultaneous detection of seven allergens by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heick, J; Fischer, M; Pöpping, B

    2011-02-18

    The development of a multi-method for the detection of seven allergens based on liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction mode is described. It is based on extraction of the allergenic proteins from a food matrix, followed by enzymatic digestion with trypsin. The chosen marker peptides were implemented into one method that is capable of the simultaneous detection of milk, egg, soy, hazelnut, peanut, walnut and almond. This method has been used to detect all seven allergenic commodities from incurred reference bread material, which was baked according to a standard recipe from the baking industry. Detected concentrations ranged from 10 to 1000 μg/g, demonstrating that the mass spectrometric based method is a useful tool for allergen screening.

  11. Study on the Holdup and Mass Transfer Performances for Gas-Liquid-Liquid System in a Screen Plate Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The gas and dispersed phase holdups and mass transfer coefficients of liquid-iquid were determined for gas-liquid-liquid three phase system in a screen plate column. The flow pattern of gas-liquid-liquid three phase system was studied under different gas velocities. The shape factors showed the geometric properties of screen plates and the corrected drop characteristic velocities were introduced. The phase holdup in two phases was correlated. The research results indicated that mass transfer coefficient for liquid-liquid system in a column with screen plates and gas agitation was found to increase apparently.

  12. Newborn screening with tandem mass spectrometry: 12 months' experience in NSW Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, V; Carpenter, K; Wilcken, B

    1999-12-01

    Since 1998, the NSW Newborn Screening Program has used electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to analyse samples from all babies born in NSW and the ACT (approximately 95000 per year) for selected amino acids and acylcarnitines. The software rules editor initially interprets all results where ratio of analyte to internal standard is modified by input from the external standard curves per analyte. The numerical results are then downloaded to the NSW Newborn Screening database, which provides automatic, analyte specific follow-up test cascade. We have analysed samples from 137 120 consecutive newborns received by the program, requested repeat samples from 122 babies, and found abnormal levels in 17 babies with phenylketonuria, 1 tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency, 3 hyperphenylalaninaemia, 1 maple syrup urine disease, 1 tyrosinaemia type II, 1 congenital lactic acidosis, 2 medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 1 short-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 1 beta-ketothiolase deficiency, 2 vitamin B12 deficient babies of vegan mothers and 1 glutaric aciduria type I. Using population data plus that obtained from retrospective samples with proven disorders we have established cut-off levels for each analyte tested. This coupled with the ability of the database to provide ratios of various analytes gives excellent screening specificity and sensitivity for the detection of at least 40 rare inborn errors of metabolism.

  13. Novel Acoustic Loading of a Mass Spectrometer: Toward Next-Generation High-Throughput MS Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Ian; Stearns, Rick; Pringle, Steven; Wingfield, Jonathan; Datwani, Sammy; Hall, Eric; Ghislain, Luke; Majlof, Lars; Bachman, Martin

    2016-02-01

    High-throughput, direct measurement of substrate-to-product conversion by label-free detection, without the need for engineered substrates or secondary assays, could be considered the "holy grail" of drug discovery screening. Mass spectrometry (MS) has the potential to be part of this ultimate screening solution, but is constrained by the limitations of existing MS sample introduction modes that cannot meet the throughput requirements of high-throughput screening (HTS). Here we report data from a prototype system (Echo-MS) that uses acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) to transfer femtoliter-scale droplets in a rapid, precise, and accurate fashion directly into the MS. The acoustic source can load samples into the MS from a microtiter plate at a rate of up to three samples per second. The resulting MS signal displays a very sharp attack profile and ions are detected within 50 ms of activation of the acoustic transducer. Additionally, we show that the system is capable of generating multiply charged ion species from simple peptides and large proteins. The combination of high speed and low sample volume has significant potential within not only drug discovery, but also other areas of the industry.

  14. Interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbrich, W. (ed.) (Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Medizinische Radiologie); Gross-Fengels, W. (ed.) (Allgemeines Krankenhaus Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Klinische Radiologie)

    1993-01-01

    In interventional radiology adjunctive medical therapy can increase patient's comfort, and should further reduce the risks of the procedures. In order to fulfill the responsibility of the interventionist to the patients and to increase the success rate of the interventions, a profound knowledge of certain drugs is indispensable. This includes, for example, sedatives, analgesics, cardiovascular drugs and agents to prevent infections, thromboembolic complications or restenoses. Moreover, a good monitoring system during complex procedures will increase the safety of radiological interventions. These topics and several more are presented in this book. (orig.). 32 figs.

  15. On-Chip Peptide Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Protein Kinase Inhibitor Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Lai; Kim, Young-Pil; Son, Jin Gyeong; Son, Miyoung; Lee, Tae Geol

    2017-01-03

    Protein kinases are enzymes that are important targets for drug discovery because of their involvement in regulating the essential cellular processes. For this reason, the changes in protein kinase activity induced by each drug candidate (the inhibitor in this case) need to be accurately determined. Here, an on-chip secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging technique of the peptides was developed for determining protein kinase activity and inhibitor screening without a matrix. In our method, cysteine-tethered peptides adsorbed onto a gold surface produced changes in the relative peak intensities of the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated substrate peptides, which were quantitatively dependent on protein kinase activity. Using mass spectrometry imaging of multiple compartments on the gold surface in the presence of a peptide substrate, we screened 13,727 inhibitors, of which seven were initially found to have inhibitor efficiencies that surpassed 50%. Of these, we were able to identify a new breakpoint cluster region-abelson (BCR-ABL)(T315I) kinase inhibitor, henceforth referred to as KR135861. KR135861 showed no cytotoxicity and was subsequently confirmed to be superior to imatinib, a commercial drug marketed as Gleevec. Moreover, KR135861 exhibited a greater inhibitory effect on the BCR-ABL(T315I) tyrosine kinase, with an IC50 value as low as 1.3 μM. In in vitro experiments, KR135861 reduced the viability of both Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type BCR-ABL and BCR-ABL(T315I), in contrast to imatinib's inhibitory effects only on Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type BCR-ABL. Due to the surface sensitivity and selectivity of SIMS imaging, it is anticipated that our approach will make it easier to validate the small modifications of a substrate in relation to enzyme activity as well as for drug discovery. This mass spectrometry imaging analysis enables efficient screening for protein kinase inhibitors, thus permitting high-throughput drug screening with high accuracy

  16. Screening for inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase using pulsed ultrafiltration mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, D; van Breemen, R B

    1998-04-01

    A method of screening combinatorial libraries for inhibitors of eukaryotic dihydrofolate reductase has been developed using pulsed ultra-filtration electrospray mass spectrometry, which is a continuous-flow affinity separation system for extracting and identifying high affinity ligands in combinatorial libraries. In this application, pulsed ultrafiltration conditions were optimized for the isolation and identification of inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from a 22 compound library containing six known inhibitors of the enzyme including trimethoprim, aminopterin, methotrexate, pyrimethamine, folic acid, and folinic acid, and 16 compounds without known affinity. In order to optimize the screening method, sources of non-specific binding were identified and minimized. A significant source of non-specific binding for this set of library compounds was hydrophobic interaction with the surfaces of the ultrafiltration chamber. After affinity separation of bound (high affinity) versus free (low affinity) library compounds during pulsed ultrafiltration, receptor-bound ligands were released and eluted using either organic solvent or acidified mobile phase. Although 80% methanol easily disrupted the receptor-ligand complexes, organic solvent had the undesirable effect of releasing non-specifically bound compounds from the chamber and thereby increasing the background noise. Interference from non-specific binding was minimized by releasing bound ligands using a low pH mobile phase eluent instead of organic solvent. Under the conditions used, pulsed ultrafiltration mass spectrometry selectively identified the two library compounds with the highest affinity for dihydrofolate reductase, methotrexate and aminopterin.

  17. The advantages of incorporating liquid-based cytology (TACAS™) in mass screening for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Futagami, Masayuki; Watanabe, Jun; Sakuraba, Atsushi; Nagasawa, Kazuma; Maruyama, Hidetoshi; Sato, Shigemi

    2016-04-01

    We incorporated liquid-based cytology (LBC) in population-based screening for cervical cancer. The usefulness of using LBC in mass screening for cervical cancer was examined. From 2009 to 2014, 157,061 individuals underwent mass screening for cervical cancer in Aomori Prefecture. From 2009 to 2011, cells were collected from 82,218 individuals and the specimens were conventionally prepared (CP). From 2012 to 2014, cells were collected from 74,843 individuals and the specimens were prepared using LBC (TACAS™). Cytology results for the 2 sets of specimens were compared and differences in cytologic features were examined. ASC-US and more severe lesions were detected at a rate of 1.13 % by CP and 1.44 % by LBC, so LBC had a 1.3-fold higher rate of detection. LBC had a 1.6-fold higher rate of LSIL detection and a 1.2-fold higher rate of HSIL detection. CP detected cancer in 20 cases at a rate of 0.024 % while LBC detected cancer in 18 cases at a rate of 0.024 %. Cytodiagnosis of the 18 cases of SCC that LBC identified revealed that 7 were SCC, 8 were HSIL, and 3 were ASC-H. Atypical cells tended to be smaller with TACAS™. LBC reduced the time needed for microscopic examination of a single specimen by 42 % in comparison to CP. LBC using TACAS™ allowed the detection of slight lesions and slight changes in cells. LBC can lessen the burden on medical personnel and may lead to improved accuracy.

  18. Use of Clinical Decision Guidance as a New Public Health Tool for the Medical Management of Internal Contamination in Radiological Mass Casualty Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Albert L

    2016-09-01

    This review is a discussion of special issues associated with the medical and public health management of persons at risk of internal contamination from radionuclides, following various radiological mass-casualty scenarios, as well as definition, discussion and use of the Clinical Decision Guidance (CDG) in such scenarios. Specific medical countermeasures are available for reducing the internal radiation dose and the subsequent stochastic and deterministic risks to persons internally contaminated with radionuclides from nuclear power plant, fuel processing and nuclear weapon accidents/incidents. There is a public health need for rapidly identifying and quantifying the 'source term' of such radiation exposures and assessment of the associated committed doses, so that appropriate medical countermeasure(s) can be given as soon as possible. The CDG, which was initially defined in NCRP-161, was specifically developed to be a new public health tool for facilitating the integration of local community healthcare professionals into the general medical, mass casualty, triage and treatment response of internally contaminated populations.

  19. Simultaneous measurement in mass and mass/mass mode for accurate qualitative and quantitative screening analysis of pharmaceuticals in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Bueno, M J; Ulaszewska, Maria M; Gomez, M J; Hernando, M D; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2012-09-21

    A new approach for the analysis of pharmaceuticals (target and non-target) in water by LC-QTOF-MS is described in this work. The study has been designed to assess the performance of the simultaneous quantitative screening of target compounds, and the qualitative analysis of non-target analytes, in just one run. The features of accurate mass full scan mass spectrometry together with high MS/MS spectral acquisition rates - by means of information dependent acquisition (IDA) - have demonstrated their potential application in this work. Applying this analytical strategy, an identification procedure is presented based on library searching for compounds which were not included a priori in the analytical method as target compounds, thus allowing their characterization by data processing of accurate mass measurements in MS and MS/MS mode. The non-target compounds identified in river water samples were ketorolac, trazodone, fluconazole, metformin and venlafaxine. Simultaneously, this strategy allowed for the identification of other compounds which were not included in the library by screening the highest intensity peaks detected in the samples and by analysis of the full scan TOF-MS, isotope pattern and MS/MS spectra - the example of loratadine (histaminergic) is described. The group of drugs of abuse selected as target compounds for evaluation included analgesics, opioids and psychostimulants. Satisfactory results regarding sensitivity and linearity of the developed method were obtained. Limits of detection for the selected target compounds were from 0.003 to 0.01 μg/L and 0.01 to 0.5 μg/L, in MS and MS/MS mode, respectively - by direct sample injection of 100 μL.

  20. Applications of a catch and release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry assay for carbohydrate library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawiet, Amr; Shoemaker, Glen K; Daneshfar, Rambod; Kitova, Elena N; Klassen, John S

    2012-01-03

    Applications of a catch and release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay for screening carbohydrate libraries against target proteins are described. Direct ESI-MS measurements were performed on solutions containing a target protein (a single chain antibody, an antigen binding fragment, or a fragment of a bacterial toxin) and a library of carbohydrates containing multiple specific ligands with affinities in the 10(3) to 10(6) M(-1) range. Ligands with moderate affinity (10(4) to 10(6) M(-1)) were successfully detected from mixtures containing >200 carbohydrates (at concentrations as low as 0.25 μM each). Additionally, the absolute affinities were estimated from the abundance of free and ligand-bound protein ions determined from the ESI mass spectrum. Multiple low affinity ligands (~10(3) M(-1)) were successfully detected in mixtures containing >20 carbohydrates (at concentrations of ~10 μM each). However, identification of specific interactions required the use of the reference protein method to correct the mass spectrum for the occurrence of nonspecific carbohydrate-protein binding during the ESI process. The release of the carbohydrate ligands, as ions, was successfully demonstrated using collision-induced dissociation performed on the deprotonated ions of the protein-carbohydrate complexes. The use of ion mobility separation, performed on deprotonated carbohydrate ions following their release from the complex, allowed for the positive identification of isomeric ligands.

  1. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  2. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  3. Body mass index and up-to-date colorectal cancer screening among Marylanders aged 50 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menis, Mikhail; Kozlovsky, Bernard; Langenberg, Pat; Zhan, Min; Dwyer, Diane M; Israel, Ebenezer; Groves, Carmela; Hopkins, Annette; Steinberger, Eileen K

    2006-07-01

    Overweight and obese individuals are at increased risk for developing and dying from colorectal cancer. Studies suggest that overweight and obese women are more likely to avoid or delay cancer screening. Our objective was to determine whether overweight or obese adults aged 50 years and older living in Maryland in 2002 were less likely to be up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening than normal and underweight adults. The relationship between body mass index and colorectal cancer screening was evaluated based on responses from 3436 participants aged 50 years and older to the Maryland Cancer Survey 2002, a population-based random-digit-dial telephone survey. The survey contains self-reported information on colorectal cancer screening, height, weight, and potential confounders. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for age, sex, race, employment, marital status, education, area of residence, and health-care-related variables. Overall, 64.9% of Marylanders aged 50 and older were up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening. Compared with normal and underweight individuals, overweight individuals had similar odds of being up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.83-1.33). Obese individuals had slightly lower odds, but this difference was not statistically significant (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.65-1.09). Recommendation by a health care provider for colorectal cancer screening was strongly associated with up-to-date colorectal cancer screening (OR, 36.7; 95% CI, 28.7-47.0). Our study shows no statistically significant association between body mass index levels and up-to-date colorectal cancer screening. We recommend that physicians and other health care providers increase up-to-date colorectal cancer screening rates in the population by referring their patients for appropriate screening.

  4. Label free screening of enzyme inhibitors at femtomole scale using segmented flow electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuwen; Slaney, Thomas R; Kennedy, Robert T

    2012-07-03

    Droplet-based microfluidics is an attractive platform for screening and optimizing chemical reactions. Using this approach, it is possible to reliably manipulate nanoliter volume samples and perform operations such as reagent addition with high precision, automation, and throughput. Most studies using droplet microfluidics have relied on optical techniques to detect the reaction; however, this requires engineering color or fluorescence change into the reaction being studied. In this work, we couple electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to nanoliter scale segmented flow reactions to enable direct (label-free) analysis of reaction products. The system is applied to a screen of inhibitors for cathepsin B. In this approach, solutions of test compounds (including three known inhibitors) are arranged as an array of nanoliter droplets in a tube segmented by perfluorodecalin. The samples are pumped through a series of tees to add enzyme, substrate (peptides), and quenchant. The resulting reaction mixtures are then infused into a metal-coated, fused silica ESI emitter for MS analysis. The system has potential for high-throughput as reagent addition steps are performed at 0.7 s per sample and ESI-MS at up to 1.2 s per sample. Carryover is inconsequential in the ESI emitter and between 2 and 9% per reagent addition depending on the tee utilized. The assay was reliable with a Z-factor of ~0.8. The method required 0.8 pmol of test compound, 1.6 pmol of substrate, and 5 fmol of enzyme per reaction. Segmented flow ESI-MS allows direct, label free screening of reactions at good throughput and ultralow sample consumption.

  5. Newborn screening of inherited metabolic disorders by tandem mass spectrometry: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scaturro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inborn errors of metabolism are inherited biochemical disorders caused by lack of a functional enzyme, transmembrane transporter, or similar protein, which then results in blockage of the corresponding metabolic pathway. Taken individually, inborn errors of metabolism are rare. However, as a group these diseases are relatively frequent and they may account for most of neonatal mortality and need of health resources. The detection of genetic metabolic disorders should occur in a pre-symptomatic phase. Recently, the introduction of the tandem mass spectrometric methods for metabolite analysis has changed our ability to detect intermediates of metabolism in smaller samples and provides the means to detect a large number of metabolic disorders in a single analytical run. Screening panels now include a large number of disorders that may not meet all the criteria that have been used as a reference for years. The rationale behind inclusion or exclusion of a respective disorder is difficult to understand in most cases and it may impose an ethical dilemma. The current organization is an important tool of secondary preventive medicine, essential for children’s healthcare, but the strong inhomogeneity of the regional models of screening applied today create in the Italian neonatal population macroscopic differences with regards to healthcare, which is in effect mainly diversified by the newborn’s place of birth, in possible violation of the universal criterion of the equality of all citizens. Carefully weighed arguments are urgently needed since patient organizations, opinion leaders and politicians are pressing to proceed with expansion of neonatal population screening.

  6. [Variations in the diagnostic confirmation process between breast cancer mass screening units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal, Carmen; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Tardón, Adonina; Castells, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    To analyse variations in the diagnostic confirmation process between screening units, variations in the outcome of each episode and the relationship between the use of the different diagnostic confirmation tests and the lesion detection rate. Observational study of variability of the standardised use of diagnostic and lesion detection tests in 34 breast cancer mass screening units participating in early-detection programmes in three Spanish regions from 2002-2011. The diagnostic test variation ratio in percentiles 25-75 ranged from 1.68 (further appointments) to 3.39 (fine-needle aspiration). The variation ratio in detection rates of benign lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer were 2.79, 1.99 and 1.36, respectively. A positive relationship between rates of testing and detection rates was found with fine-needle aspiration-benign lesions (R(2): 0.53), fine-needle aspiration-invasive carcinoma (R(2): 0 28), core biopsy-benign lesions (R(2): 0.64), core biopsy-ductal carcinoma in situ (R(2): 0.61) and core biopsy-invasive carcinoma (R(2): 0.48). Variation in the use of invasive tests between the breast cancer screening units participating in early-detection programmes was found to be significantly higher than variations in lesion detection. Units which conducted more fine-needle aspiration tests had higher benign lesion detection rates, while units that conducted more core biopsies detected more benign lesions and cancer. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening Anti-Cancer Drugs against Tubulin using Catch-and-Release Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Darestani, Reza; Winter, Philip; Kitova, Elena N.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Klassen, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Tubulin, which is the building block of microtubules, plays an important role in cell division. This critical role makes tubulin an attractive target for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs to treat cancer. Currently, there is no general binding assay for tubulin-drug interactions. The present work describes the application of the catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay to investigate the binding of colchicinoid drugs to αβ-tubulin dimers extracted from porcine brain. Proof-of-concept experiments using positive (ligands with known affinities) and negative (non-binders) controls were performed to establish the reliability of the assay. The assay was then used to screen a library of seven colchicinoid analogues to test their binding to tubulin and to rank their affinities.

  8. Meson screening masses at finite temperature with Highly Improved Staggered Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Maezawa, Y; Karsch, F; Petreczky, P; Mukherjee, S

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first study of the screening properties of the mesonic excitations with strange ($s$) and charm ($c$) quarks, specifically the ground states of the pseudo-scalar and vector meson excitations for the $\\bar{s}s$, $\\bar{s}c$ and $\\bar{c}c$ flavor combinations, using the Highly Improved Staggered Quark action with dynamical physical strange quark and nearly-physical up and down quarks. By comparing with their respective vacuum meson masses and by investigating the influence of the changing temporal boundary conditions of the valence quarks we study the thermal modifications of these mesonic excitations. While the $\\bar{s}s$ states show significant modifications even below the chiral crossover temperature $T_c$, the modifications of the open-charm and charmonium like states become visible only for temperatures $T\\gtrsim T_c$ and $T\\gtrsim1.2T_c$, respectively.

  9. Body mass index cut-offs for screening for childhood overweight and obesity in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, V V; Khadilkar, A V; Borade, A B; Chiplonkar, S A

    2012-01-01

    To develop age and sex specific cut offs for BMI to screen for overweight and obesity in Indian children linked to an adult BMI of 23 and 28 kg/m2 respectively, using contemporary Indian data. Cross-sectional. Multicentric, School based. 19834 children were measured from 11 affluent schools from five major geographical regions of India. Data were analyzed using the LMS method, which constructs growth reference percentiles adjusted for skewness. Compared to the cut-offs suggested for European populations and those by the Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2007 Guidelines, the age and sex specific cut off points for body mass index for overweight and obesity for Indian children suggested by this study are lower. Contemporary cross-sectional age and sex specific BMI cut-offs for Indian children linked to Asian cut-offs of 23 and 28 kg/m2 for the assessment of risk of overweight and obesity, respectively are presented.

  10. Accurate-mass databases for comprehensive screening of pesticide residues in food by fast liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezcua, Milagros; Malato, Octavio; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2009-02-01

    Because of the international trade of fruits and vegetables and the lack of harmonized regulations on the use of pesticides worldwide, the development of comprehensive screening methods for analyzing hundreds of pesticides and other banned chemicals is very convenient. This work reports the development and evaluation of a rapid automated screening method for determining pesticide residues in food using liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) based on the use of an accurate-mass database. The database created includes data not only on the accurate masses of the target ions but also the characteristic in-source fragment ions (over 400 fragments included) and retention time data. This customized database was associated to commercially available software which extracted all the potential compounds of interest from the LC-TOFMS raw data of each sample and matched them against the database to search for targeted compounds in the sample. This automatic screening method requires a careful optimization of the accurate-mass window and retention time tolerances, which play a determinant role on the selectivity, accuracy, and throughput of the whole procedure. Values of 10 mDa for preliminary screening and 1 mDa/5 ppm for confirmation along with a +/-0.15 min retention time window were found to be optimum for the compounds and samples tested. The optimized methods enable the automated screening of ca. 300 compounds in less than 20 min including the LC-MS run and data processing. The proposed method was applied to 60 real samples, and the results of the positive findings compared well with those obtained using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method (triple quadrupole). The rates obtained on the identification of compounds in spiked and real samples in an automated fashion at different concentration levels were over 95% of the compounds, thus revealing as a convenient tool for the large-scale screening of

  11. Active renin mass concentration to determine aldosterone-to-renin ratio in screening for primary aldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available François Corbin1, Pierre Douville2, Marcel Lebel3 1Division of Biochemistry, l'Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; 2Division of Biochemistry; 3Division of Nephrology, L'Hôtel-Dieu de Québec Hospital and l'Université Laval, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Active renin mass concentration (ARC is independent of the endogenous level of angiotensinogen, and less variable and more reproducible than plasma renin activity. Reference values for the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR using ARC are still undefined. The objective of the present study was to determine the threshold of ARR using ARC measurement to screen for primary aldosteronism.Methods: A total of 211 subjects were included in the study, comprising 78 healthy normotensive controls, 95 patients with essential hypertension, and 38 patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism (20 with surgery-confirmed aldosterone-producing adenoma and 18 with idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia. Blood samples were drawn from ambulatory patients and volunteers in the mid-morning without specific dietary restriction for measuring plasma aldosterone concentration, ARC, and serum potassium.Results: Most normotensive controls and essential hypertension patients had ARR results below 100 pmol/ng, a value which corresponded to 3.3 times the median of these two groups.Conclusion: Patients with ARR values above this level should be considered for further investigation (confirmatory tests or for repeat testing should ARR values be borderline. This study indicates that ARC can be used reliably in determining ARR for primary aldosteronism screening.Keywords: primary aldosteronism, active renin mass concentration, aldosterone-to-renin ratio

  12. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Meng Li; Jiang Li; Ichiro Tsuji; Naoki Nakaya; Yoshikazu Nishino; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. Methods: We carded out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (< 4.1 ng/mL) by 1:10 according to age and place of employment. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer was then carded out. Results: After adjustment for education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage and diet, intake of soybean product was discovered to be inversely related to prostate cancer. Men who consumed soybean product more than twice per week on different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 551-560)

  13. Non-Zero Magnetic Screening Mass in QED and QCD at One Loop Level in Non-Equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, F; Nayak, G C; Cooper, Fred; Kao, Chung-Wen; Nayak, Gouranga C.

    2002-01-01

    Using the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path integral formalism we show that the magnetic screening mass in QED and QCD at one loop level is non-zero as long as the single particle distribution function f(\\vec{k}) is non-isotropic, {i.e.} it depends on the direction of the momentum. For isotropic distribution functions such as those corresponding to thermal equilibrium the magnetic screening mass at one loop level is found to be zero which is consistent with finite temperature field theory. The non-zero magnetic screening mass in non-isotropic non-equlibrium situations has fundamental importance in that it acts as a natural cut-off to remove infrared divergences in the magnetic sector. Thus it allows one to avoid infrared problems which previously made it difficult to use a transport theory approach using perturbative QCD or QED scattering kernels to study the thermalization of a QED or QCD plasma.

  14. Development of an online, publicly accessible naive Bayesian decision support tool for mammographic mass lesions based on the American College of Radiology (ACR) BI-RADS lexicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, Matthias; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Herda, Christoph [Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Chur (Switzerland); Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S. [University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-01

    To develop and validate a decision support tool for mammographic mass lesions based on a standardized descriptor terminology (BI-RADS lexicon) to reduce variability of practice. We used separate training data (1,276 lesions, 138 malignant) and validation data (1,177 lesions, 175 malignant). We created naive Bayes (NB) classifiers from the training data with tenfold cross-validation. Our ''inclusive model'' comprised BI-RADS categories, BI-RADS descriptors, and age as predictive variables; our ''descriptor model'' comprised BI-RADS descriptors and age. The resulting NB classifiers were applied to the validation data. We evaluated and compared classifier performance with ROC-analysis. In the training data, the inclusive model yields an AUC of 0.959; the descriptor model yields an AUC of 0.910 (P < 0.001). The inclusive model is superior to the clinical performance (BI-RADS categories alone, P < 0.001); the descriptor model performs similarly. When applied to the validation data, the inclusive model yields an AUC of 0.935; the descriptor model yields an AUC of 0.876 (P < 0.001). Again, the inclusive model is superior to the clinical performance (P < 0.001); the descriptor model performs similarly. We consider our classifier a step towards a more uniform interpretation of combinations of BI-RADS descriptors. We provide our classifier at www.ebm-radiology.com/nbmm/index.html. (orig.)

  15. Biological dosimetry by the triage dicentric chromosome assay: potential implications for treatment of acute radiation syndrome in radiological mass casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romm, Horst; Wilkins, Ruth C; Coleman, C Norman; Lillis-Hearne, Patricia K; Pellmar, Terry C; Livingston, Gordon K; Awa, Akio A; Jenkins, Mark S; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A; Oestreicher, Ursula; Prasanna, Pataje G S

    2011-03-01

    Biological dosimetry is an essential tool for estimating radiation dose. The dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) is currently the tool of choice. Because the assay is labor-intensive and time-consuming, strategies are needed to increase throughput for use in radiation mass casualty incidents. One such strategy is to truncate metaphase spread analysis for triage dose estimates by scoring 50 or fewer metaphases, compared to a routine analysis of 500 to 1000 metaphases, and to increase throughput using a large group of scorers in a biodosimetry network. Previously, the National Institutes for Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) sponsored a double-blinded interlaboratory comparison among five established international cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories to determine the variability in calibration curves and in dose measurements in unknown, irradiated samples. In the present study, we further analyzed the published data from this previous study to investigate how the number of metaphase spreads influences dose prediction accuracy and how this information could be of value in the triage and management of people at risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Although, as expected, accuracy decreased with lower numbers of metaphase spreads analyzed, predicted doses by the laboratories were in good agreement and were judged to be adequate to guide diagnosis and treatment of ARS. These results demonstrate that for rapid triage, a network of cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories can accurately assess doses even with a lower number of scored metaphases.

  16. Evaluation of mass screening for cancer : a model-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe main goal in evaluation of screening for cancer is to assist in decision making about a screening program: Should it be initiated at all? What screening policies can be recommended: what age groups, what frequency of screening. Should special attention be paid to high risk groups? If

  17. Non-target screening with high-resolution mass spectrometry : critical review using a collaborative trial on water analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emma L. Schymanski; Singer, Heinz P.; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Onghena, Matthias; et al

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In this article, a dataset from a collaborative non-target screening trial organised by the NORMAN Association is used to review the state-of-the-art and discuss future perspectives of non-target screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry in water analysis. A total of 18 institutes from 12 European countries analysed an extract of the same water sample collected from the River Danube with either one or both of liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detec...

  18. The "RTR" medical response system for nuclear and radiological mass-casualty incidents: a functional TRiage-TReatment-TRansport medical response model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdina, Chad M; Coleman, C Norman; Bogucki, Sandy; Bader, Judith L; Hayhurst, Robert E; Forsha, Joseph D; Marcozzi, David; Yeskey, Kevin; Knebel, Ann R

    2009-01-01

    Developing a mass-casualty medical response to the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND) or large radiological dispersal device (RDD) requires unique advanced planning due to the potential magnitude of the event, lack of warning, and radiation hazards. In order for medical care and resources to be collocated and matched to the requirements, a [US] Federal interagency medical response-planning group has developed a conceptual approach for responding to such nuclear and radiological incidents. The "RTR" system (comprising Radiation-specific TRiage, TReatment, TRansport sites) is designed to support medical care following a nuclear incident. Its purpose is to characterize, organize, and efficiently deploy appropriate materiel and personnel assets as close as physically possible to various categories of victims while preserving the safety of responders. The RTR system is not a medical triage system for individual patients. After an incident is characterized and safe perimeters are established, RTR sites should be determined in real-time that are based on the extent of destruction, environmental factors, residual radiation, available infrastructure, and transportation routes. Such RTR sites are divided into three types depending on their physical/situational relationship to the incident. The RTR1 sites are near the epicenter with residual radiation and include victims with blast injuries and other major traumatic injuries including radiation exposure; RTR2 sites are situated in relationship to the plume with varying amounts of residual radiation present, with most victims being ambulatory; and RTR3 sites are collection and transport sites with minimal or no radiation present or exposure risk and a victim population with a potential variety of injuries or radiation exposures. Medical Care sites are predetermined sites at which definitive medical care is given to those in immediate need of care. They include local/regional hospitals, medical centers, other

  19. SCREENING OF BODY MASS INDEX AND FUNCTIONAL FLATFOOT IN ADULT: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Chougala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a relation between flatfoot and increased Body Mass Index (BMI. Increased weight leads to increase plantar pressure causing reduced distance between ground and arches of the foot. The purpose of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of flat feet in college going students, to determine the relationship between flat foot and Body Mass Index (BMI, and to compare prevalence of flat foot among college boys and girls. Materials and Method: Samples were taken according to willingness for participation; informed consent was given and signed from them. Height and weight of subjects were measured by using standard apparatus. Total numbers of males screened were 46 and females were 182. BMI was considered as the index of obesity .The international BMI cut–off values were used to determine obesity (BMI> 95th percentile, and foot structure assessment was performed with Denis Method. Significant relationship between obesity and flatfoot was observed. Result: A significant relationship (P≤0.01 was found between the prevalence of flatfoot and BMI. Also males were found to have higher prevalence of flatfoot than women in the age group of 18-25 years. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that there is relationship between increased weight of person and structure of the foot. Males are more prone to flatfoot than females in the age group of 18-25 years.

  20. Fast Screening of Chicken Egg Lysozyme in White Wine Products by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-quan; JIANG Jie; LI Ming; ZHAO Zhan-feng; FU Jun

    2012-01-01

    Fast detection of trace lysozyme,one of the most important food allergens in white wine samples,was achieved by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry without sample pretreatment in this study.The multiply-charged ions of m/z 1587 were chosen for the quantitative detection of lysozyme in white wine,showing linear dynamic signal responses in a range of 5-75 μg/mL with a linearity coefficient of 0.999 and an acceptable relative standard deviation(RSD)of 8.0%-15.0% for directly measuring lysozyme in the complex food samples.The limit of detection for lysozyme in white wine sample was calculated to be 5 μg/mL,which was lower than the amounts that can provoke allergic reactions(oral test with 3 mg or labial test with 1 mg/mL).A single sample analysis was completed within 1 min.The data demonstrate that extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is a useful tool for fast screening lysozyme in the complex matrix,showing promising application in the rapid detection of food allergen.

  1. Community perceptions of mass screening and treatment for malaria in Siaya County, western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuford, Kathryn; Were, Florence; Awino, Norbert; Samuels, Aaron; Ouma, Peter; Kariuki, Simon; Desai, Meghna; Allen, Denise Roth

    2016-02-06

    Intermittent mass screening and treatment (iMSaT) is currently being evaluated as a possible additional tool for malaria control and prevention in western Kenya. The literature identifying success and/or barriers to drug trial compliance and acceptability on malaria treatment and control interventions is considerable, especially as it relates to specific target groups, such as school-aged children and pregnant women, but there is a lack of such studies for mass screening and treatment and mass drug administration in the general population. A qualitative study was conducted to explore community perceptions of the iMSaT intervention, and specifically of testing and treatment in the absence of symptoms, before and after implementation in order to identify aspects of iMSaT that should be improved in future rounds. Two rounds of qualitative data collection were completed in six randomly selected study communities: a total of 36 focus group discussions (FGDs) with men, women, and opinion leaders, and 12 individual or small group interviews with community health workers. All interviews were conducted in the local dialect Dholuo, digitally recorded, and transcribed into English. English transcripts were imported into the qualitative software programme NVivo8 for content analysis. There were mixed opinions of the intervention. In the pre-implementation round, respondents were generally positive and willing to participate in the upcoming study. However, there were concerns about testing in the absence of symptoms including fear of covert HIV testing and issues around blood sampling. There were fewer concerns about treatment, mostly because of the simpler dosing regimen of the study drug (dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine) compared to the current first-line treatment (artemether-lumefantrine). After the first implementation round, there was a clear shift in perceptions with less common concerns overall, although some of the same issues around testing and general misconceptions

  2. [Non-target screening of organic pollutants in sediments and sludges using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and automated mass spectral deconvolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Ma, Huilian; Wang, Longxing; Chen, Jiping; Hou, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    A screening method in the combination of ultrasonic extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection and automated mass spectrometry deconvolution technique was developed for non-target screening of non-polar and weak polar pollutants in sediments and sludges. The samples were extracted by ultrasonication for 20 min using dichloromethane for three times. The extraction solutions were cleaned-up by gel permeation chromatography and a silica gel column, and then 3 g of copper powder was used to remove the sulfur by ultrasonication for 10 min. Parallel experiments were carried out for 5 times and the RSDs were ranged from 5.8% to 14.9%. Automated mass spectral deconvolution & identification system (AMDIS) would improve the resolution of overlapping peaks, and identify the pure mass spectrum of the analytes in the cases of stronger background interference and co-extracted substances covering. Standard spectrum databases, such as NISTDRUG, NISTEPA, NISTFDA, Mass Spectral Library, etc, would qualitatively identify the organic pollutants in the samples. As a result, a total of 290 organic pollutants were identified, of which 190 and 153 pollutants were found in sediments and sludges, respectively. The identified pollutants included the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority pollutants, pharmaceuticals, herbicides, antioxidants, intermediates, organic solvents and chemical raw materials. The proposed method is proved to be a promising one for non-target screening of complex matrix samples with the advantages of higher sensitivity and better repeatability.

  3. Session 6: High Throughput Screening of VOC Removal Catalysts in Scanning Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaccato, K.; Hagemeyer, A.; Lefort, L.; Turner, H.; Volpe, A.; Weinberg, H. [Symyx Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered an important group of air pollutants. We have targeted more efficient VOC removal catalysts with high activity for total combustion at low temperature, negligible organics slip, high selectivity to CO{sub 2} without production of intermediate CO, oxygenates or cracking products. Butane was used as the model feed for VOC in Symyx' high-throughput Scanning Mass Spectrometer. The screening protocol encompassed bulk (unsupported) mixed metal oxides calcined in air at 400 C. Transition metals M{sub 1} known to have some oxidation activity M{sub 1}=Ti, V, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Re, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Ag, were combined with each other into binaries as well as doped with M{sub 2} = K, Cs, Mg, Sr, Sc, Y, Ce, Sm, Zr, Nb, Ta, Zn, Cd, B, Al, In, Sn, Pb, P, Sb, Bi and Te, using 5- point compositional gradients (5 different compositions per binary). Five M/Z values were monitored, namely 44, 68, 70, 72 and 98. CO{sub 2} at M/Z equal to 44 is the dominant product, and only traces of oxygenates are formed. Co, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu are identified as the most active metals. Subsequently, CoCrM{sub 3} and CrZnM{sub 3} ternaries were synthesized and screened with M{sub 3} selected from M{sub 3} Li, K, Cs, Mg, Sr, Y, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ag, Zn, Al, Ga, In, Sn, Pb, P, Sb and Bi, (M{sub 3} {<=} 10%, 15 different compositions/ternaries; 3 copies: (a) unsupported, calcined at 400 C, (b) unsupported, calcined at 600 C, (c) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, calcined at 400 C). CoCr ternaries from Symyx' library archive were also screened. High CO{sub 2} production for the CoCr/400 C systems was observed. Catalyst compositions were then optimized in focus libraries. An example for a CoCrTi/CoVSi bis-ternary focus library will be discussed in detail. VPO catalysts were used as 'standards' to establish the correlation between primary and tertiary screening. High CO{sub 2} signals were also observed for Co-rich CoCr and CoCrTi systems. The best Co

  4. Retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Antonio; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscollà, Clara

    2016-04-01

    A new methodology for the retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air was developed, using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), including two systematic workflows (i) post-run target screening (suspect screening) and (ii) non-target screening. An accurate-mass database was built and used for the post-run screening analysis. The database contained 240 pesticide metabolites found in different matrixes such as air, soil, water, plants, animals and humans. For non-target analysis, a "fragmentation-degradation" relationship strategy was selected. The proposed methodology was applied to 31 air samples (PM10) collected in the Valencian Region (Spain). In the post-target analysis 34 metabolites were identified, of which 11 (3-ketocarburan, carbofuran-7-phenol, carbendazim, desmethylisoproturon, ethiofencarb-sulfoxide, malaoxon, methiocarb-sulfoxide, N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-L-alanine, omethoate, 2-hydroxy-terbuthylazine, and THPAM) were confirmed using analytical standards. The semiquantitative estimated concentration ranged between 6.78 and 198.31 pg m(-3). Likewise, two unknown degradation products of malaoxon and fenhexamid were elucidated in the non-target screening.

  5. Comparison of LAMP and PCR for molecular mass screening of sand flies for Leishmania martiniquensis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Kato, Hirotomo; Yeewa, Ranchana; Muengpan, Amontip; Polseela, Raxsina; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L. martiniquensis and L. siamensis in sand fly vectors. OBJECTIVE The present study was aimed to validate malachite green-LAMP (MG-LAMP) and PCR-mkDNA techniques to detect L. martiniquensis in sand fly vectors, compared with the conventional PCR of internal transcribed spacer 1 (PCR-ITS1). METHODS We compared the validity of LAMP of 18S rRNA gene and PCR-mkDNA, to PCR-ITS1 in simulation model of L. martiniquensis infection in Sergentomyia gemmea sand flies. Attributable to the sensitivity and specificity, PCR-mkDNA was consecutively applied to detect L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals captured in the newly identified affected region of Lamphun Province, Thailand. FINDINGS AND MAIN CONCLUSIONS Results showed that PCR-mkDNA could detect at least one promastigote per sand fly, which was 10-time superior to LAMP and PCR-ITS1. In addition, PCR-mkDNA was more specific, able to differentiate L. martiniquensis from other viscerotropic Leishmania species, such as L. siamensis, L. (L.) donovani, and L. (L.) infantum. Consecutively, mass screening of L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals by PCR-mkDNA was implemented in a new affected area of Thailand where a patient with leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection resides; however Leishmania DNA was undetected. In conclusion, PCR-mkDNA is a promising tool for molecular mass screening of L. martiniquensis

  6. Clinical validation of cutoff target ranges in newborn screening of metabolic disorders by tandem mass spectrometry : A worldwide collaborative project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHugh, David M. S.; Cameron, Cynthia A.; Abdenur, Jose E.; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Adair, Ona; Al Nuaimi, Shahira Ahmed; Ahlman, Henrik; Allen, Jennifer J.; Antonozzi, Italo; Archer, Shaina; Au, Sylvia; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Baker, Mei; Bamforth, Fiona; Beckmann, Kinga; Pino, Gessi Bentz; Berberich, Stanton L.; Binard, Robert; Boemer, Francois; Bonham, Jim; Breen, Nancy N.; Bryant, Sandra C.; Caggana, Michele; Caldwell, S. Graham; Camilot, Marta; Campbell, Carlene; Carducci, Claudia; Cariappa, Rohit; Carlisle, Clover; Caruso, Ubaldo; Cassanello, Michela; Miren Castilla, Ane; Castineiras Ramos, Daisy E.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Chandrasekar, Ram; Ramos, Alfredo Chardon; Cheillan, David; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Childs, Thomas A.; Chrastina, Petr; Sica, Yuri Cleverthon; Cocho de Juan, Jose Angel; Elena Colandre, Maria; Cornejo Espinoza, Veronica; Corso, Gaetano; Currier, Robert; Cyr, Denis; Czuczy, Noemi; D'Apolito, Oceania; Davis, Tim; de Sain-Van der Velden, Monique G.; Delgado Pecellin, Carmen; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Di Stefano, Cristina Maria; Dotsikas, Yannis; Downing, Melanie; Downs, Stephen M.; Dy, Bonifacio; Dymerski, Mark; Rueda, Inmaculada; Elvers, Bert; Eaton, Roger; Eckerd, Barbara M.; El Mougy, Fatma; Eroh, Sarah; Espada, Mercedes; Evans, Catherine; Fawbush, Sandy; Fijolek, Kristel F.; Fisher, Lawrence; Franzson, Leifur; Frazier, Dianne M.; Garcia, Luciana R. C.; Garcia-Valdecasas Bermejo, Maria Sierra; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Gerace, Rosemarie; Giordano, Giuseppe; Irazabal, Yolanda Gonzalez; Greed, Lawrence C.; Grier, Robert; Grycki, Elyse; Gu, Xuefan; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Hagar, Arthur F.; Han, Lianshu; Hannon, W. Harry; Haslip, Christa; Hassan, Fayza Abdelhamid; He, Miao; Hietala, Amy; Himstedt, Leslie; Hoffman, Gary L.; Hoffman, William; Hoggatt, Philis; Hopkins, Patrick V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hughes, Kerie; Hunt, Patricia R.; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Hynes, June; Ibarra-Gonzalez, Isabel; Ingham, Cindy A.; Ivanova, Maria; Jacox, Ward B.; John, Catharine; Johnson, John P.; Jonsson, Jon J.; Karg, Eszter; Kasper, David; Klopper, Brenda; Katakouzinos, Dimitris; Khneisser, Issam; Knoll, Detlef; Kobayashi, Hirinori; Koneski, Ronald; Kozich, Viktor; Kouapei, Rasoul; Kohlmueller, Dirk; Kremensky, Ivo; la Marca, Giancarlo; Lavochkin, Marcia; Lee, Soo-Youn; Lehotay, Denis C.; Lemes, Aida; Lepage, Joyce; Lesko, Barbara; Lewis, Barry; Lim, Carol; Linard, Sharon; Lindner, Martin; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Lorey, Fred; Loukas, Yannis L.; Luedtke, Julie; Maffitt, Neil; Magee, J. Fergall; Manning, Adrienne; Manos, Shawn; Marie, Sandrine; Hadachi, Sonia Marchezi; Marquardt, Gregg; Martin, Stephen J.; Matern, Dietrich; Gibson, Stephanie K. Mayfield; Mayne, Philip; McCallister, Tonya D.; McCann, Mark; McClure, Julie; McGill, James J.; McKeever, Christine D.; McNeilly, Barbara; Morrissey, Mark A.; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi; Mulcahy, Eleanor A.; Nikoloudis, Dimitris; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Oglesbee, Devin; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Ombrone, Daniela; Ojodu, Jelili; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Reoyo, Sherly Pardo; Park, Hyung-Doo; Pasquali, Marzia; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Patel, Pallavi; Pass, Kenneth A.; Peterson, Colleen; Pettersen, Rolf D.; Pitt, James J.; Poh, Sherry; Pollak, Arnold; Porter, Cory; Poston, Philip A.; Price, Ricky W.; Queijo, Cecilia; Quesada, Jonessy; Randell, Edward; Ranieri, Enzo; Raymond, Kimiyo; Reddic, John E.; Reuben, Alejandra; Ricciardi, Charla; Rinaldo, Piero; Rivera, Jeff D.; Roberts, Alicia; Rocha, Hugo; Roche, Geraldine; Greenberg, Cheryl Rochman; Egea Mellado, Jose Maria; Jess Juan-Fita, Maria; Ruiz, Consuelo; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Rutledge, S. Lane; Ryu, Euijung; Saban, Christine; Sahai, Inderneel; Salazar Garcia-Blanco, Maria Isabel; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro; Schenone, Andrea; Schoos, Roland; Schweitzer, Barb; Scott, Patricia; Seashore, Margretta R.; Seeterlin, Mary A.; Sesser, David E.; Sevier, Darrin W.; Shone, Scott M.; Sinclair, Graham; Skrinska, Victor A.; Stanley, Eleanor L.; Strovel, Erin T.; Jones, April L. Studinski; Sunny, Sherlykutty; Takats, Zoltan; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Teofoli, Francesca; Thompson, J. Robert; Tomashitis, Kathy; Domingos, Mouseline Torquado; Torres, Jasmin; Torres, Rosario; Tortorelli, Silvia; Turi, Sandor; Turner, Kimberley; Tzanakos, Nick; Valiente, Alf G.; Vallance, Hillary; Vela-Amieva, Marcela; Vilarinho, Laura; von Doebeln, Ulrika; Vincent, Marie-Francoise; Vorster, B. Chris; Watson, Michael S.; Webster, Dianne; Weiss, Sheila; Wilcken, Bridget; Wiley, Veronica; Williams, Sharon K.; Willis, Sharon A.; Woontner, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yssel, Melissa; Zakowicz, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To achieve clinical validation of cutoff values for newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry through a worldwide collaborative effort. Methods: Cumulative percentiles of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots of approximately 25-30 million normal newborns and 10,742 deiden

  7. Screening for proteolytic activities in snake venom by means of a multiplexing electrospray ionization mass spectrometry assay scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesener, André; Perchuc, Anna-Maria; Schöni, Reto; Wilmer, Marianne; Karst, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    A multiplexed mass spectrometry based assay scheme for the simultaneous determination of five different substrate/product pairs was developed as a tool for screening of proteolytic activities in snake venom fractions from Bothrops moojeni. The assay scheme was employed in the functional characteriza

  8. Clinical validation of cutoff target ranges in newborn screening of metabolic disorders by tandem mass spectrometry : A worldwide collaborative project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHugh, David M. S.; Cameron, Cynthia A.; Abdenur, Jose E.; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Adair, Ona; Al Nuaimi, Shahira Ahmed; Ahlman, Henrik; Allen, Jennifer J.; Antonozzi, Italo; Archer, Shaina; Au, Sylvia; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Baker, Mei; Bamforth, Fiona; Beckmann, Kinga; Pino, Gessi Bentz; Berberich, Stanton L.; Binard, Robert; Boemer, Francois; Bonham, Jim; Breen, Nancy N.; Bryant, Sandra C.; Caggana, Michele; Caldwell, S. Graham; Camilot, Marta; Campbell, Carlene; Carducci, Claudia; Cariappa, Rohit; Carlisle, Clover; Caruso, Ubaldo; Cassanello, Michela; Miren Castilla, Ane; Castineiras Ramos, Daisy E.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Chandrasekar, Ram; Ramos, Alfredo Chardon; Cheillan, David; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Childs, Thomas A.; Chrastina, Petr; Sica, Yuri Cleverthon; Cocho de Juan, Jose Angel; Elena Colandre, Maria; Cornejo Espinoza, Veronica; Corso, Gaetano; Currier, Robert; Cyr, Denis; Czuczy, Noemi; D'Apolito, Oceania; Davis, Tim; de Sain-Van der Velden, Monique G.; Delgado Pecellin, Carmen; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Di Stefano, Cristina Maria; Dotsikas, Yannis; Downing, Melanie; Downs, Stephen M.; Dy, Bonifacio; Dymerski, Mark; Rueda, Inmaculada; Elvers, Bert; Eaton, Roger; Eckerd, Barbara M.; El Mougy, Fatma; Eroh, Sarah; Espada, Mercedes; Evans, Catherine; Fawbush, Sandy; Fijolek, Kristel F.; Fisher, Lawrence; Franzson, Leifur; Frazier, Dianne M.; Garcia, Luciana R. C.; Garcia-Valdecasas Bermejo, Maria Sierra; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Gerace, Rosemarie; Giordano, Giuseppe; Irazabal, Yolanda Gonzalez; Greed, Lawrence C.; Grier, Robert; Grycki, Elyse; Gu, Xuefan; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Hagar, Arthur F.; Han, Lianshu; Hannon, W. Harry; Haslip, Christa; Hassan, Fayza Abdelhamid; He, Miao; Hietala, Amy; Himstedt, Leslie; Hoffman, Gary L.; Hoffman, William; Hoggatt, Philis; Hopkins, Patrick V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hughes, Kerie; Hunt, Patricia R.; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Hynes, June; Ibarra-Gonzalez, Isabel; Ingham, Cindy A.; Ivanova, Maria; Jacox, Ward B.; John, Catharine; Johnson, John P.; Jonsson, Jon J.; Karg, Eszter; Kasper, David; Klopper, Brenda; Katakouzinos, Dimitris; Khneisser, Issam; Knoll, Detlef; Kobayashi, Hirinori; Koneski, Ronald; Kozich, Viktor; Kouapei, Rasoul; Kohlmueller, Dirk; Kremensky, Ivo; la Marca, Giancarlo; Lavochkin, Marcia; Lee, Soo-Youn; Lehotay, Denis C.; Lemes, Aida; Lepage, Joyce; Lesko, Barbara; Lewis, Barry; Lim, Carol; Linard, Sharon; Lindner, Martin; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Lorey, Fred; Loukas, Yannis L.; Luedtke, Julie; Maffitt, Neil; Magee, J. Fergall; Manning, Adrienne; Manos, Shawn; Marie, Sandrine; Hadachi, Sonia Marchezi; Marquardt, Gregg; Martin, Stephen J.; Matern, Dietrich; Gibson, Stephanie K. Mayfield; Mayne, Philip; McCallister, Tonya D.; McCann, Mark; McClure, Julie; McGill, James J.; McKeever, Christine D.; McNeilly, Barbara; Morrissey, Mark A.; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi; Mulcahy, Eleanor A.; Nikoloudis, Dimitris; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Oglesbee, Devin; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Ombrone, Daniela; Ojodu, Jelili; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Reoyo, Sherly Pardo; Park, Hyung-Doo; Pasquali, Marzia; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Patel, Pallavi; Pass, Kenneth A.; Peterson, Colleen; Pettersen, Rolf D.; Pitt, James J.; Poh, Sherry; Pollak, Arnold; Porter, Cory; Poston, Philip A.; Price, Ricky W.; Queijo, Cecilia; Quesada, Jonessy; Randell, Edward; Ranieri, Enzo; Raymond, Kimiyo; Reddic, John E.; Reuben, Alejandra; Ricciardi, Charla; Rinaldo, Piero; Rivera, Jeff D.; Roberts, Alicia; Rocha, Hugo; Roche, Geraldine; Greenberg, Cheryl Rochman; Egea Mellado, Jose Maria; Jess Juan-Fita, Maria; Ruiz, Consuelo; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Rutledge, S. Lane; Ryu, Euijung; Saban, Christine; Sahai, Inderneel; Salazar Garcia-Blanco, Maria Isabel; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro; Schenone, Andrea; Schoos, Roland; Schweitzer, Barb; Scott, Patricia; Seashore, Margretta R.; Seeterlin, Mary A.; Sesser, David E.; Sevier, Darrin W.; Shone, Scott M.; Sinclair, Graham; Skrinska, Victor A.; Stanley, Eleanor L.; Strovel, Erin T.; Jones, April L. Studinski; Sunny, Sherlykutty; Takats, Zoltan; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Teofoli, Francesca; Thompson, J. Robert; Tomashitis, Kathy; Domingos, Mouseline Torquado; Torres, Jasmin; Torres, Rosario; Tortorelli, Silvia; Turi, Sandor; Turner, Kimberley; Tzanakos, Nick; Valiente, Alf G.; Vallance, Hillary; Vela-Amieva, Marcela; Vilarinho, Laura; von Doebeln, Ulrika; Vincent, Marie-Francoise; Vorster, B. Chris; Watson, Michael S.; Webster, Dianne; Weiss, Sheila; Wilcken, Bridget; Wiley, Veronica; Williams, Sharon K.; Willis, Sharon A.; Woontner, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Yahyaoui, Raquel

    Purpose: To achieve clinical validation of cutoff values for newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry through a worldwide collaborative effort. Methods: Cumulative percentiles of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots of approximately 25-30 million normal newborns and 10,742

  9. Clinical validation of cutoff target ranges in newborn screening of metabolic disorders by tandem mass spectrometry : A worldwide collaborative project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHugh, David M. S.; Cameron, Cynthia A.; Abdenur, Jose E.; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Adair, Ona; Al Nuaimi, Shahira Ahmed; Ahlman, Henrik; Allen, Jennifer J.; Antonozzi, Italo; Archer, Shaina; Au, Sylvia; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Baker, Mei; Bamforth, Fiona; Beckmann, Kinga; Pino, Gessi Bentz; Berberich, Stanton L.; Binard, Robert; Boemer, Francois; Bonham, Jim; Breen, Nancy N.; Bryant, Sandra C.; Caggana, Michele; Caldwell, S. Graham; Camilot, Marta; Campbell, Carlene; Carducci, Claudia; Cariappa, Rohit; Carlisle, Clover; Caruso, Ubaldo; Cassanello, Michela; Miren Castilla, Ane; Castineiras Ramos, Daisy E.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Chandrasekar, Ram; Ramos, Alfredo Chardon; Cheillan, David; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Childs, Thomas A.; Chrastina, Petr; Sica, Yuri Cleverthon; Cocho de Juan, Jose Angel; Elena Colandre, Maria; Cornejo Espinoza, Veronica; Corso, Gaetano; Currier, Robert; Cyr, Denis; Czuczy, Noemi; D'Apolito, Oceania; Davis, Tim; de Sain-Van der Velden, Monique G.; Delgado Pecellin, Carmen; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Di Stefano, Cristina Maria; Dotsikas, Yannis; Downing, Melanie; Downs, Stephen M.; Dy, Bonifacio; Dymerski, Mark; Rueda, Inmaculada; Elvers, Bert; Eaton, Roger; Eckerd, Barbara M.; El Mougy, Fatma; Eroh, Sarah; Espada, Mercedes; Evans, Catherine; Fawbush, Sandy; Fijolek, Kristel F.; Fisher, Lawrence; Franzson, Leifur; Frazier, Dianne M.; Garcia, Luciana R. C.; Garcia-Valdecasas Bermejo, Maria Sierra; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Gerace, Rosemarie; Giordano, Giuseppe; Irazabal, Yolanda Gonzalez; Greed, Lawrence C.; Grier, Robert; Grycki, Elyse; Gu, Xuefan; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Hagar, Arthur F.; Han, Lianshu; Hannon, W. Harry; Haslip, Christa; Hassan, Fayza Abdelhamid; He, Miao; Hietala, Amy; Himstedt, Leslie; Hoffman, Gary L.; Hoffman, William; Hoggatt, Philis; Hopkins, Patrick V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hughes, Kerie; Hunt, Patricia R.; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Hynes, June; Ibarra-Gonzalez, Isabel; Ingham, Cindy A.; Ivanova, Maria; Jacox, Ward B.; John, Catharine; Johnson, John P.; Jonsson, Jon J.; Karg, Eszter; Kasper, David; Klopper, Brenda; Katakouzinos, Dimitris; Khneisser, Issam; Knoll, Detlef; Kobayashi, Hirinori; Koneski, Ronald; Kozich, Viktor; Kouapei, Rasoul; Kohlmueller, Dirk; Kremensky, Ivo; la Marca, Giancarlo; Lavochkin, Marcia; Lee, Soo-Youn; Lehotay, Denis C.; Lemes, Aida; Lepage, Joyce; Lesko, Barbara; Lewis, Barry; Lim, Carol; Linard, Sharon; Lindner, Martin; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Lorey, Fred; Loukas, Yannis L.; Luedtke, Julie; Maffitt, Neil; Magee, J. Fergall; Manning, Adrienne; Manos, Shawn; Marie, Sandrine; Hadachi, Sonia Marchezi; Marquardt, Gregg; Martin, Stephen J.; Matern, Dietrich; Gibson, Stephanie K. Mayfield; Mayne, Philip; McCallister, Tonya D.; McCann, Mark; McClure, Julie; McGill, James J.; McKeever, Christine D.; McNeilly, Barbara; Morrissey, Mark A.; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi; Mulcahy, Eleanor A.; Nikoloudis, Dimitris; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Oglesbee, Devin; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Ombrone, Daniela; Ojodu, Jelili; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Reoyo, Sherly Pardo; Park, Hyung-Doo; Pasquali, Marzia; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Patel, Pallavi; Pass, Kenneth A.; Peterson, Colleen; Pettersen, Rolf D.; Pitt, James J.; Poh, Sherry; Pollak, Arnold; Porter, Cory; Poston, Philip A.; Price, Ricky W.; Queijo, Cecilia; Quesada, Jonessy; Randell, Edward; Ranieri, Enzo; Raymond, Kimiyo; Reddic, John E.; Reuben, Alejandra; Ricciardi, Charla; Rinaldo, Piero; Rivera, Jeff D.; Roberts, Alicia; Rocha, Hugo; Roche, Geraldine; Greenberg, Cheryl Rochman; Egea Mellado, Jose Maria; Jess Juan-Fita, Maria; Ruiz, Consuelo; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Rutledge, S. Lane; Ryu, Euijung; Saban, Christine; Sahai, Inderneel; Salazar Garcia-Blanco, Maria Isabel; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro; Schenone, Andrea; Schoos, Roland; Schweitzer, Barb; Scott, Patricia; Seashore, Margretta R.; Seeterlin, Mary A.; Sesser, David E.; Sevier, Darrin W.; Shone, Scott M.; Sinclair, Graham; Skrinska, Victor A.; Stanley, Eleanor L.; Strovel, Erin T.; Jones, April L. Studinski; Sunny, Sherlykutty; Takats, Zoltan; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Teofoli, Francesca; Thompson, J. Robert; Tomashitis, Kathy; Domingos, Mouseline Torquado; Torres, Jasmin; Torres, Rosario; Tortorelli, Silvia; Turi, Sandor; Turner, Kimberley; Tzanakos, Nick; Valiente, Alf G.; Vallance, Hillary; Vela-Amieva, Marcela; Vilarinho, Laura; von Doebeln, Ulrika; Vincent, Marie-Francoise; Vorster, B. Chris; Watson, Michael S.; Webster, Dianne; Weiss, Sheila; Wilcken, Bridget; Wiley, Veronica; Williams, Sharon K.; Willis, Sharon A.; Woontner, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yssel, Melissa; Zakowicz, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To achieve clinical validation of cutoff values for newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry through a worldwide collaborative effort. Methods: Cumulative percentiles of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots of approximately 25-30 million normal newborns and 10,742 deiden

  10. Balancing the false negative and positive rates in suspect screening with high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry using multivariate statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeynst, Leendert; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof

    2015-02-17

    Modern high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enables full-spectrum trace level analysis of emerging environmental organic contaminants. This raises the opportunity for post-acquisition suspect screening when no reference standards are a priori available. When setting up a conventional screening identification train based on successively different identification criteria including mass error and isotope fit, the false negative rate typically accumulates upon advancing through the decision tree. The challenge is thus to elaborate a well-balanced screening, in which the different criteria are equally stringent, leading to a controllable number of false negatives. Presented is a novel suspect screening approach using liquid-chromatography Orbitrap HRMS. Based on a multivariate statistical model, the screening takes into account the accurate mass error of the mono isotopic ion and up to three isotopes, isotope ratios, and a peak/noise filter. As such, for the first time, controlling the overall false negative rate of the screening algorithm to a desired level (5% in this study) is achieved. Simultaneously, a well-balanced identification decision is guaranteed taking the different identification criteria as a whole in a holistic statistical approach. Taking into account 1, 2, and 3 isotopes decreases the false positive rate from 22, 2.8 to <0.3%, but the cost of increasing the median limits of identification from 200, 2000 to 2062 ng L(-1), respectively, should also be considered. As proof of concept, 7 biologically treated wastewaters were screened toward 77 suspect pharmaceuticals resulting in the indicative identification of 25 suspects. Subsequently obtained reference standards allowed confirmation for 19 out of these 25 pharmaceutical contaminants.

  11. Body Mass Index and Cancer Screening in Older American Indian and Alaska Native Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla; McDonald, Leander R.; Ludtke, Richard L.; Allery, Alan J.; Bogart, T. Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Ramsey, Scott D.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Regular screenings are important for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. There are several barriers to receiving timely cancer screening, including overweight/obesity. No study has examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Purpose: To describe the…

  12. Drug screening of hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegstad, S; Khiabani, H Z; Kristoffersen, L; Kunøe, N; Lobmaier, P P; Christophersen, A S

    2008-06-01

    Hair has become an important matrix for drug analysis, complementary to blood and urine as a matrix. A prolonged detection window makes hair analysis suitable for the detection of exposure to illegal and medicinal drugs for periods up to 12 months. In the present study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for drug screening in hair was developed and validated. To 20 mg of hair, 0.45 mL of acetonitrile/25 mM formic acid (5:95 v/v) and 50 microL of deuterated internal standards were added, and the sample was incubated in a water bath at 37 degrees C for 18 h. LC separation was achieved with a Zorbax SB-Phenyl column (2.1 x 100 mm, 3.5-microm particle). Mass detection was performed by positive ion mode electrospray LC-MS-MS and included the following drugs/metabolites: nicotine, cotinine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, 7-aminonitrazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, oxazepam, diazepam, alprazolam, zopiclone, zolpidem, carisoprodol, meprobamate, buprenorphine, and methadone. Within- and between-assay relative standard deviations varied from 2.0% to 12% and 2.7% to 15%, respectively. The accuracies were in the range of -24% to 16%, and recoveries ranged from 25% to 100%. The LC-MS-MS method proved to be simple and robust for the determination of drugs in hair. It has been used for authentic samples in our laboratory in the past year.

  13. Screening new psychoactive substances in urban wastewater using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariño, Iria; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bagnati, Renzo; Martins, Claudia P B; Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of drug residues in urban wastewater could complement epidemiological studies in detecting the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS), a continuously changing group of drugs hard to monitor by classical methods. We initially selected 52 NPS potentially used in Italy based on seizure data and consumption alerts provided by the Antidrug Police Department and the National Early Warning System. Using a linear ion trap-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer, we designed a suspect screening and a target method approach and compared them for the analysis of 24 h wastewater samples collected at the treatment plant influents of four Italian cities. This highlighted the main limitations of these two approaches, so we could propose requirements for future research. A library of MS/MS spectra of 16 synthetic cathinones and 19 synthetic cannabinoids, for which analytical standards were acquired, was built at different collision energies and is available on request. The stability of synthetic cannabinoids was studied in analytical standards and wastewater, identifying the best analytical conditions for future studies. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first stability data on NPS. Few suspects were identified in Italian wastewater samples, in accordance with recent epidemiological data reporting a very low prevalence of use of NPS in Italy. This study outlines an analytical approach for NPS identification and measurement in urban wastewater and for estimating their use in the population.

  14. PDA-phone-based instant transmission of radiological images over a CDMA network by combining the PACS screen with a Bluetooth-interfaced local wireless link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Keun; Yoo, Sun K; Park, Jeong Jin; Kim, Sun Ho

    2007-06-01

    Remote teleconsultation by specialists is important for timely, correct, and specialized emergency surgical and medical decision making. In this paper, we designed a new personal digital assistant (PDA)-phone-based emergency teleradiology system by combining cellular communication with Bluetooth-interfaced local wireless links. The mobility and portability resulting from the use of PDAs and wireless communication can provide a more effective means of emergency teleconsultation without requiring the user to be limited to a fixed location. Moreover, it enables synchronized radiological image sharing between the attending physician in the emergency room and the remote specialist on picture archiving and communication system terminals without distorted image acquisition. To enable rapid and fine-quality radiological image transmission over a cellular network in a secure manner, progressive compression and security mechanisms have been incorporated. The proposed system is tested over a code division Multiple Access 1x-Evolution Data-Only network to evaluate the performance and to demonstrate the feasibility of this system in a real-world setting.

  15. Receptor-based high-throughput screening and identification of estrogens in dietary supplements using bioaffinity liquid-chromatography ion mobility mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqai, P.; Gómez Blesa, N.; Major, H.; Pedotti, P.; Varani, L.; Ferrero, V.E.V.; Haasnoot, W.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    A high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of recombinant human estrogen receptor a (ERa) ligands in dietary supplements. For screening, a semi-automated mass spectrometric ligand binding assay

  16. Mucocele of the appendix. Radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Shingo; Satani, Kenichiro; Ozuki, Taizo [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan); Shindou, Hiroaki; Saguchi, Toru; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Katsumata, Kenji [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan). Hachioji Medical Center; Kotake, Fumio [Tokyo Medical Coll., Ami, Ibaraki (Japan). Kasumigaura Hospital

    2002-04-01

    Radiological findings of CT and MRI were evaluated in 11 cases of mucocele of the appendix. Mucocele is a rare disease entity and preoperative diagnosis is very important. The radiological findings were a well defined cystic mass with a wall of variable thickness. Nodular lesion in the wall of the mucocele may be a suggestive finding of malignant case of mucocele. (author)

  17. Affinity mesh screen materials for selective extraction and analysis of antibiotics using transmission mode desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Samuel H; Wang, Evelyn H; Gurak, John A; Bhawal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rajendrasing; Wijeratne, Aruna B; Edwards, Brian L; Foss, Frank W; Timmons, Richard B; Schug, Kevin A

    2013-06-25

    The extraction of active compounds from natural sources has shown to be an effective approach to drug discovery. However, the isolation and identification of natural products from complex extracts can be an arduous task. A novel approach to drug discovery is presented through the use of polymer screens functionalized with an l-lysine-d-alanine-d-alanine (Kaa) peptide to create new affinity capture mesh screen materials. The Kaa sequence is a well-characterized specific binding site for antibiotics that inhibit cell wall synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. The detailed synthesis and characterization of these novel screen materials are presented in this work. Polypropylene mesh screens were first coated with a poly(acrylic acid) film by pulsed plasma polymerization. The synthesized Kaa peptide was then covalently attached to carboxylic acid groups through a condensation reaction. An analysis of captured compounds was performed in a rapid fashion with transmission-mode desorption electrospray ionization (TM-DESI) mass spectrometry. A proof of principle was demonstrated to show the ability of the novel affinity capture materials to select for a macrocyclic antibiotic, vancomycin, over a negative control compound, spectinomycin. With further development, this method may provide a rapid screening technique for new antibacterial compounds, for example, those extracted from natural product sources having a limited supply. Here, we show that the screen can capture vancomycin preferentially over spectinomycin in a spiked extract of tea leaves.

  18. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.stranorossi@rm.unicatt.it [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Bermejo, Ana [Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av S. Francisco s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pascali, Vincenzo L. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg{sup −1}, and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg{sup −1} for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg{sup −1}, giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened.

  19. Urine Mescaline Screening With a Biochip Array Immunoassay and Quantification by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battal, Dilek; Barnes, Allan J; Castaneto, Marisol S; Martin, Thomas M; Klette, Kevin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-12-01

    Mescaline, the primary psychoactive chemical in peyote cactus, has been consumed for thousands of years in ancient religious ceremonies. The US military wanted to determine if mescaline intake was a problem for personnel readiness. Twenty thousand seventeen urine specimens negative for cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, and amphetamines were tested for mescaline with the Randox Drugs of Abuse V (DOA-V) biochip array immunoassay at the manufacturer's recommended cutoff of 6 mcg/L. A sensitive and specific method for mescaline quantification in urine was developed and fully validated. Extracted analytes were derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and pentafluoropropanol and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with electron impact ionization. Standard curves, using linear least squares regression with 1/x weighting, were linear from 1 to 250 mcg/L with coefficients of determination >0.994. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision was 90.4%. Mean extraction efficiencies were >92.0% across the linear range. This fully validated method was applied for the confirmation of urinary mescaline in 526 presumptive-positive specimens and 198 randomly selected presumptive-negative specimens at the manufacturer's 6 mcg/L cutoff. No specimen confirmed positive at the GC/MS limit of quantification of 1 mcg/L. Results indicated that during this time frame, there was insufficient mescaline drug use in the military to warrant routine screening in the drug testing program. However, mescaline stability, although assessed, could have contributed to lower prevalence. We also present a validated GC/MS method for mescaline quantification in urine for reliable confirmation of suspected mescaline intake.

  20. Coronary artery calcium screening : current status and recommendations from the European Society of Cardiac Radiology and North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Stillman, Arthur E.; Halliburton, Sandra S.; Kalender, Willi A.; Moehlenkamp, Stefan; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Shaw, Leslee J.; Stanford, William; Taylor, Allen J.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Wexler, Lewis; Raggi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Current guidelines and literature on screening for coronary artery calcium for cardiac risk assessment are reviewed for both general and special populations. It is shown that for both general and special populations a zero score excludes most clinically relevant coronary artery disease. The importan

  1. Current radiology. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.H.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. They are: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional Vascular Radiology, Genitourinary Radiology, Skeletal Radiology, Digital Subtraction Angiography, Neuroradiology, Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Degenerative Diseases of the Lumbar Spine, The Lung, Otolaringology and Opthalmology, and Pediatric Radiology: Cranial, Facial, Cervical, Vertebral, and Appendicular.

  2. Non-target screening with high-resolution mass spectrometry: critical review using a collaborative trial on water analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Emma L; Singer, Heinz P; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Ipolyi, Ildiko M; Oswald, Peter; Krauss, Martin; Schulze, Tobias; Haglund, Peter; Letzel, Thomas; Grosse, Sylvia; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Bletsou, Anna; Zwiener, Christian; Ibáñez, María; Portolés, Tania; de Boer, Ronald; Reid, Malcolm J; Onghena, Matthias; Kunkel, Uwe; Schulz, Wolfgang; Guillon, Amélie; Noyon, Naïke; Leroy, Gaëla; Bados, Philippe; Bogialli, Sara; Stipaničev, Draženka; Rostkowski, Pawel; Hollender, Juliane

    2015-08-01

    In this article, a dataset from a collaborative non-target screening trial organised by the NORMAN Association is used to review the state-of-the-art and discuss future perspectives of non-target screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry in water analysis. A total of 18 institutes from 12 European countries analysed an extract of the same water sample collected from the River Danube with either one or both of liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection. This article focuses mainly on the use of high resolution screening techniques with target, suspect, and non-target workflows to identify substances in environmental samples. Specific examples are given to emphasise major challenges including isobaric and co-eluting substances, dependence on target and suspect lists, formula assignment, the use of retention information, and the confidence of identification. Approaches and methods applicable to unit resolution data are also discussed. Although most substances were identified using high resolution data with target and suspect-screening approaches, some participants proposed tentative non-target identifications. This comprehensive dataset revealed that non-target analytical techniques are already substantially harmonised between the participants, but the data processing remains time-consuming. Although the objective of a "fully-automated identification workflow" remains elusive in the short term, important steps in this direction have been taken, exemplified by the growing popularity of suspect screening approaches. Major recommendations to improve non-target screening include better integration and connection of desired features into software packages, the exchange of target and suspect lists, and the contribution of more spectra from standard substances into (openly accessible) databases. Graphical Abstract Matrix of identification approach versus identification confidence.

  3. Rapid screening for drugs of abuse in biological fluids by ultra high performance liquid chromatography/Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagerdeo, Eshwar; Schaff, Jason E

    2016-08-01

    We present a UPLC(®)-High Resolution Mass Spectrometric method to simultaneously screen for nineteen benzodiazepines, twelve opiates, cocaine and three metabolites, and three "Z-drug" hypnotic sedatives in both blood and urine specimens. Sample processing consists of a high-speed, high-temperature enzymatic hydrolysis for urine samples followed by a rapid supported liquid extraction (SLE). The combination of ultra-high resolution chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry allows all 38 analytes to be uniquely detected with a ten minute analytical run. Limits of detection for all target analytes are 3ng/mL or better, with only 0.3mL of specimen used for analysis. The combination of low sample volume with fast processing and analysis makes this method a suitable replacement for immunoassay screening of the targeted drug classes, while providing far superior specificity and better limits of detection than can routinely be obtained by immunoassay.

  4. Determination of urinary vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid by high performance liquid chromatography for mass screening of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Hanai, J; Takasugi, N; Takeda, T

    1986-10-01

    In order to develop a mass screening method for the early detection of neuroblastoma, we measured urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with an electrochemical detector. Urinary samples were collected on a piece of filter paper and then pre-treated by a simple method. Measurement of VMA and HVA was performed within a short period of time, and by about 80 samples per a day could be analyzed by automatic system. The method described herein proved to be reliable, and we thus recommend it as a useful method for measurement of both VMA and HVA, leading to more accurate detection of neuroblastoma in mass screening test.

  5. Radiological Control Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  6. Screening of the binding of small molecules to proteins by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry combined with protein microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenxi; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Buqing; He, Dacheng; Na, Na; Ouyang, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between bioactive small molecule ligands and proteins is one of the important research areas in proteomics. Herein, a simple and rapid method is established to screen small ligands that bind to proteins. We designed an agarose slide to immobilize different proteins. The protein microarrays were allowed to interact with different small ligands, and after washing, the microarrays were screened by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS). This method can be applied to screen specific protein binding ligands and was shown for seven proteins and 34 known ligands for these proteins. In addition, a high-throughput screening was achieved, with the analysis requiring approximately 4 s for one sample spot. We then applied this method to determine the binding between the important protein matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and 88 small compounds. The molecular docking results confirmed the MS results, demonstrating that this method is suitable for the rapid and accurate screening of ligands binding to proteins. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  7. Label-free high-throughput screening via mass spectrometry: a single cystathionine quantitative method for multiple applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Tom G; Choi, Bernard K; Geoghagen, Neil S; Jensen, Kristian K; Luo, Qi; LaMarr, William A; Makara, Gergely M; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Ozbal, Can C; Xiong, Yusheng; Dufresne, Claude; Luo, Ming-Juan

    2009-10-01

    Label-free mass spectrometric (MS) technologies are particularly useful for enzyme assay design for drug discovery screens. MS permits the selective detection of enzyme substrates or products in a wide range of biological matrices without need for derivatization, labeling, or capture technologies. As part of a cardiovascular drug discovery effort aimed at finding modulators of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), we used the RapidFire((R)) label-free high-throughput MS (HTMS) technology to develop a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for CBS activity. The in vitro assay used HTMS to quantify the unlabeled product of the CBS reaction, cystathionine. Cystathionine HTMS analyses were carried out with a throughput of 7 s per sample and quantitation over a linear range of 80-10,000 nM. A compound library of 25,559 samples (or 80 384-well plates) was screened as singlets using the HTMS assay in a period of 8 days. With a hit rate of 0.32%, the actives showed a 90% confirmation rate. The in vitro assay was applied to secondary screens in more complex matrices with no additional analytical development. Our results show that the HTMS method was useful for screening samples containing serum, for cell-based assays, and for liver explants. The novel extension of the in vitro analytical method, without modification, to secondary assays resulted in a significant and advantageous economy of development time for the drug discovery project.

  8. Preliminary ten year results from a randomised single centre mass screening trial for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S.; Juul, Svend; Fasting, Helge

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, several regions and countries are considering screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, The Chichester Aneurysms Screening Trial has reported poor long term benefit of screening for AAA. We therefore supplement previously published data with a preliminary......,333 were invited to an abdominal ultrasound scan at their district hospital. Information on all deaths until 15.3.2005 was obtained from the Office of Civil Registration. Information on AAA related deaths was obtained from the national registry of Causes of Deaths from 1.4.1994 to 31...

  9. Liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry screening procedure for urine samples in forensic casework compared to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Helena; Dame, Torsten; Sachs, Hans; Musshoff, Frank

    2016-07-04

    This work represents the development, validation, and application of a liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) screening method for the detection of pharmaceutical substances and illicit drugs (acidic, basic, and neutral organic drugs) in urine samples. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed using an LC-Triple TOF 5600 system with electrospray ionization operated in both positive and negative mode, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs), determined for 34 substances, were 70%). These four parameters served as identification criteria and are discussed according to their role in identifying compounds even without reference substances. In routine casework, two in-house XIC (extracted ion chromatogram) lists, consisting of 456 protonated and 26 deprotonated compounds were used and retention times for 365 compounds were available. Compared to the results found with the established gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure, the findings with the LC-QTOF-MS screening method showed a good comparability. Results that were not detected by LC-QTOF-MS because of a missing entry in the targeted XIC list could retrospectively be confirmed by simply entering the elemental formula of the relevant substance into the software and reprocessing the sample. LC-QTOF-MS offers an attractive technique for the fast and specific identification of illicit drugs and toxic compounds in urine samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Validation of a new mass screening tool for cognitive impairment: Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoda K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Keiichi Onoda,1 Tsuyoshi Hamano,2 Yoko Nabika,1 Atsuo Aoyama,1 Hiroyuki Takayoshi,1 Tomonori Nakagawa,1 Masaki Ishihara,1 Shingo Mitaki,1 Takuya Yamaguchi,1 Hiroaki Oguro,1 Kuninori Shiwaku,3 Shuhei Yamaguchi1 1Department of Neurology, 2Center for Community-Based Health Research and Education, Shimane University, Izumo, 3Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan Background: We have developed a new screening test for dementia that runs on an iPad and can be used for mass screening, known as the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version (CADi. The CADi consists of items involving immediate recognition memory for three words, semantic memory, categorization of six objects, subtraction, backward repetition of digits, cube rotation, pyramid rotation, trail making A, trail making B, and delayed recognition memory for three words. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the CADi. Methods: CADi evaluations were conducted for patients with dementia, healthy subjects selected from a brain checkup system, and community-dwelling elderly people participating in health checkups. Results: CADi scores were lower for dementia patients than for healthy elderly individuals and correlated significantly with Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Cronbach’s alpha values for the CADi were acceptable (over 0.7, and test–retest reliability was confirmed via a significant correlation between scores separated by a one-year interval. Conclusion: These results suggest that the CADi is a useful tool for mass screening of dementia in Japanese populations. Keywords: dementia, mass screening, early detection, iPad

  11. Microfluidic Chip-Based Online Screening Coupled to Mass Spectrometry: Identification of Inhibitors of Thrombin and Factor Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Janaki Krishnamoorthy; Otvos, Reka A; Kool, Jeroen; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2016-02-01

    Thrombin and factor Xa (FXa) are critical enzymes of the blood coagulation cascade and are excellent targets of anticoagulant agents. Natural sources present an array of anticoagulants that can be developed as antithrombotic drugs. High-resolution, online screening techniques have been developed for the identification of drug leads from complex mixtures. In this study, we have developed and optimized a microfluidic online screening technique coupled to nano-liquid chromatography (LC) and in parallel with a mass spectrometer for the identification of thrombin and FXa inhibitors in mixtures. Inhibitors eluting from the nano-LC were split postcolumn in a 1:1 ratio; half was fed into a mass spectrometer (where its mass is detected), and the other half was fed into a microfluidic chip (which acts as a microreactor for the online assays). With our platform, thrombin and FXa inhibitors were detected in the assay in parallel with their mass identification. These methods are suitable for the identification of inhibitors from sample amounts as low as sub-microliter volumes.

  12. Desorption electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry for the screening of veterinary drugs in cross-contaminated feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seró, Raquel; Núñez, Oscar; Bosch, Jaume; Grases, José M; Rodríguez, Pilar; Moyano, Encarnacion; Galceran, Martia Teresa

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a desorption electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-HRMS) screening method was developed for fast identification of veterinary drugs in cross-contaminated feedstuffs. The reliable detection was performed working at high resolution (70,000 full width half maximum, FWHM) using an orbitrap mass analyzer. Among the optimized DESI parameters, the solvent (acetonitrile/water, 80:20, v/v) and the sample substrate (poly-tetrafluoroethylene, PTFE) were critical to obtain the best sensitivity. To analyze the solid feed samples, different approaches were tested and a simple solid-liquid extraction and the direct analysis of an aliquot (2 μL) of the extract after letting it dry on the PTFE printed spot provided the best results. The identification of the veterinary drugs (target and non-target) in the cross-contaminated feedstuffs based on the accurate mass measurement and the isotopic pattern fit was performed automatically using a custom-made database. The positive cross-contaminated feed samples were quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The results obtained demonstrate that DESI-HRMS can be proposed as a fast and suitable screening method to identify positive cross-contaminated feedstuffs reducing the number of samples to be subsequently quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS, thus improving the productivity in quality control laboratories.

  13. Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F. [Depts. of Radiology, Surgery, and Pathology, Erciyes Univ. Medical Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions.

  14. A gas/liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the rapid screening of 250 pesticides in aqueous matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramouli, B.; Harvan, D.; Brittain, S.; Hass, R. [Eno River Labs, LLC. Durham, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Pesticide residues in food present a potentially serious and significant cause for concern. Many pesticides have been associated with significant health effects to the nervous and endocrine systems and some have been deemed carcinogenic. There are many well-established techniques for pesticide analysis. However, commercial pesticide methods have traditionally only been available for specific pesticide families, such as chlorinated pesticides or herbicides, and at detection limits ranging from 0.05 ppb to 1 ppm in aqueous matrices. Techniques that can quickly screen for the presence/absence of pesticide residues in food matrices are critical in ensuring the safety of food and water. This paper outlines a combined Gas Chromatographic-High Resolution Mass Spectrometric (GC-HRMS) and Liquid Chromatographic Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) screening assay for 250 pesticides that was developed for use in water, and soda samples at screening levels ranging from 0.1-5 ppb. The pesticides selected have been identified by the European Union as being of concern and the target of possible legislation. The list encompasses a variety of pesticide classes and compound groupings.

  15. Educational treasures in Radiology: The Radiology Olympics - striving for gold in Radiology education

    OpenAIRE

    Talanow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Radiology Olympics (www.RadiologyOlympics.com) - a collaboration with the international Radiology community for Radiology education, Radiolopolis (www.Radiolopolis.com). The Radiology Olympics honour the movers and shakers in Radiology education and offer an easy to use platform for educating medical professionals based on Radiology cases.

  16. Educational treasures in Radiology: The Radiology Olympics - striving for gold in Radiology education

    OpenAIRE

    Talanow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Radiology Olympics (www.RadiologyOlympics.com) - a collaboration with the international Radiology community for Radiology education, Radiolopolis (www.Radiolopolis.com). The Radiology Olympics honour the movers and shakers in Radiology education and offer an easy to use platform for educating medical professionals based on Radiology cases.

  17. Screening of Breast Mass in Iraqi Females: Al-Kindy Hospital Breast Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijdan Akram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to present the findings of a retrospective analysis in females with breast mass, the character of the women and the risk factors of breast cancer at Al-Kindy Breast Clinic Center. Approach: Data were collected during 2 months period using special form of questioner. The total number of studied sample was 60, which includes female patients living in Baghdad. Results: The highest prevalence of developing breast mass at age group 36-45 years, the majority of these women are housewives (81.7%, about (31.7% of the included sample were illiterate and only 10% graduated from college. (58.3% of the studied sample did not use contraception, while (30% of patients with breast mass had breast feeding on the other hand (70% did not had breast feeding, by self examination, (11.7% could not found the mass by themselves, (28.3% had a mass in the right breast, (50% had a mass in the left breast while (10% had the mass in both breasts. Conclusion: The study showed a high level of practice of breast-self examination among women in the sample under consideration, breast masses were more occurring at the third and fourth decades of life, the number of children may affect the development of breast mass and combined oral contraceptive has small increased risk of breast mass.

  18. Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Electrochemiluminescence Arrays Coupled with Enzyme-DNA Biocolloid Reactors and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvastkovs, Eli, G.; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James, F.

    2012-07-01

    New chemicals or drugs must be guaranteed safe before they can be marketed. Despite widespread use of bioassay panels for toxicity prediction, products that are toxic to a subset of the population often are not identified until clinical trials. This article reviews new array methodologies based on enzyme/DNA films that form and identify DNA-reactive metabolites that are indicators of potentially genotoxic species. This molecularly based methodology is designed in a rapid screening array that utilizes electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to detect metabolite-DNA reactions, as well as biocolloid reactors that provide the DNA adducts and metabolites for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. ECL arrays provide rapid toxicity screening, and the biocolloid reactor LC-MS approach provides a valuable follow-up on structure, identification, and formation rates of DNA adducts for toxicity hits from the ECL array screening. Specific examples using this strategy are discussed. Integration of high-throughput versions of these toxicity-screening methods with existing drug toxicity bioassays should allow for better human toxicity prediction as well as more informed decision making regarding new chemical and drug candidates.

  19. Metabolic toxicity screening using electrochemiluminescence arrays coupled with enzyme-DNA biocolloid reactors and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvastkovs, Eli G; Schenkman, John B; Rusling, James F

    2012-01-01

    New chemicals or drugs must be guaranteed safe before they can be marketed. Despite widespread use of bioassay panels for toxicity prediction, products that are toxic to a subset of the population often are not identified until clinical trials. This article reviews new array methodologies based on enzyme/DNA films that form and identify DNA-reactive metabolites that are indicators of potentially genotoxic species. This molecularly based methodology is designed in a rapid screening array that utilizes electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to detect metabolite-DNA reactions, as well as biocolloid reactors that provide the DNA adducts and metabolites for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. ECL arrays provide rapid toxicity screening, and the biocolloid reactor LC-MS approach provides a valuable follow-up on structure, identification, and formation rates of DNA adducts for toxicity hits from the ECL array screening. Specific examples using this strategy are discussed. Integration of high-throughput versions of these toxicity-screening methods with existing drug toxicity bioassays should allow for better human toxicity prediction as well as more informed decision making regarding new chemical and drug candidates.

  20. Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Electrochemiluminescence Arrays Coupled with Enzyme-DNA Biocolloid Reactors and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvastkovs, Eli G.; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2012-01-01

    New chemicals or drugs must be guaranteed safe before they can be marketed. Despite widespread use of bioassay panels for toxicity prediction, products that are toxic to a subset of the population often are not identified until clinical trials. This article reviews new array methodologies based on enzyme/DNA films that form and identify DNA-reactive metabolites that are indicators of potentially genotoxic species. This molecularly based methodology is designed in a rapid screening array that utilizes electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to detect metabolite-DNA reactions, as well as biocolloid reactors that provide the DNA adducts and metabolites for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. ECL arrays provide rapid toxicity screening, and the biocolloid reactor LC-MS approach provides a valuable follow-up on structure, identification, and formation rates of DNA adducts for toxicity hits from the ECL array screening. Specific examples using this strategy are discussed. Integration of high-throughput versions of these toxicity-screening methods with existing drug toxicity bioassays should allow for better human toxicity prediction as well as more informed decision making regarding new chemical and drug candidates. PMID:22482786

  1. First quantitative high-throughput screen in zebrafish identifies novel pathways for increasing pancreatic β-cell mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangliang; Rajpurohit, Surendra K; Delaspre, Fabien; Walker, Steven L; White, David T; Ceasrine, Alexis; Kuruvilla, Rejji; Li, Ruo-Jing; Shim, Joong S; Liu, Jun O; Parsons, Michael J; Mumm, Jeff S

    2015-07-28

    Whole-organism chemical screening can circumvent bottlenecks that impede drug discovery. However, in vivo screens have not attained throughput capacities possible with in vitro assays. We therefore developed a method enabling in vivo high-throughput screening (HTS) in zebrafish, termed automated reporter quantification in vivo (ARQiv). In this study, ARQiv was combined with robotics to fully actualize whole-organism HTS (ARQiv-HTS). In a primary screen, this platform quantified cell-specific fluorescent reporters in >500,000 transgenic zebrafish larvae to identify FDA-approved (Federal Drug Administration) drugs that increased the number of insulin-producing β cells in the pancreas. 24 drugs were confirmed as inducers of endocrine differentiation and/or stimulators of β-cell proliferation. Further, we discovered novel roles for NF-κB signaling in regulating endocrine differentiation and for serotonergic signaling in selectively stimulating β-cell proliferation. These studies demonstrate the power of ARQiv-HTS for drug discovery and provide unique insights into signaling pathways controlling β-cell mass, potential therapeutic targets for treating diabetes.

  2. Screening for renal insufficiency following ESUR (European Society of Urogenital Radiology) guidelines with on-site creatinine measurements in an outpatient setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledermann, H.P.; Mengiardi, B.; Schmid, A. [IMAMED Radiologie Nordwest, Basel (Switzerland); Froehlich, J.M. [Guerbet AG, Medical Affairs, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Bern, Radiology Department, Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    To report the results and implications for workflow following introduction of ESUR guidelines to screen for potential renal insufficiency (RI) in private practice with on-site creatinine measurements. A total of 1,766 consecutive outpatients scheduled for contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) completed the ESUR questionnaire enquiring about kidney disease, renal surgery, proteinuria, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gout or use of nephrotoxic drugs. Patients with positive risk factors underwent on-site creatinine measurement and calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Attending radiologists adapted subsequent imaging depending on renal function and presence of risk factors. One or more ESUR risk factors were present in 796 (45.1%) patients, including hypertension (37.7%), nephrotoxic medication (21.3%), diabetes mellitus (8.0%), proteinuria (3.9%), renal disease (4.1%), gout (3.1%) and renal surgery (2.6%). Pre-procedural creatinine measurements revealed severe RI (eGFR < 30 ml min{sup -1} 1.73 m{sup -2}) in 10 (1.3%) and moderate RI (eGFR 30-59 ml min{sup -1} 1.73 m{sup -2}) in 106 (13.8%). Imaging work-up was adapted in 132 (16.6%) as follows: reduction of contrast material dose (n = 85), CT without contrast (n = 40), changeover to MRI (n = 3) or scintigraphy (n = 4). Screening for RI following ESUR guidelines requires creatinine measurements in nearly half of outpatients scheduled for CECT and reveals moderate to severe renal impairment in 6.6%. (orig.)

  3. Screening Non-colored Phenolics in Red Wines using Liquid Chromatography/Ultraviolet and Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Duan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (LC/UV and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS libraries containing 39 phenolic compounds were established by coupling a LC and an ion trap MS with an electrospray ionization (ESI source, operated in negative ion mode. As a result, the deprotonated [M-H]- molecule was observed for all the analyzed compounds. Using MS/MS hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acids showed a loss of CO2 and production of a [M-H-44] - fragment and as expected, the UV spectra of these two compounds were affected by their chemical structures. For flavonol and flavonol glycosides, the spectra of their glycosides and aglycones produced deprotonated [M-H]- and [A-H]- species, respectively, and their UV spectra each presented two major absorption peaks. The UV spectra and MS/MS data of flavan-3-ols and stilbenes were also investigated. Using the optimized LC/MS/MS analytical conditions, the phenolic extracts from six representative wine samples were analyzed and 31 phenolic compounds were detected, 26 of which were identified by searching the LC/UV and MS/MS libraries. Finally, the presence of phenolic compounds was confirmed in different wine samples using the LC/UV and LC/MS/MS libraries.

  4. Mass screening programmes and trends in cervical cancer in Finland and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, van der Maaike A.; Pukkala, Eero; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.; Anttila, Ahti; Siesling, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    With respect to cervical cancer management, Finland and the Netherlands are comparable in relevant characteristics, e.g., fertility rate, age-of-mother at first birth and a national screening programme for several years. The aim of this study is to compare trends in incidence of and mortality from c

  5. A pictorial technique for mass screening of sorghum germplasm for anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, the foliar phase of anthracnose is one of the most destructive diseases of sorghum. In most cases, anthracnose resistance screening relies on the use of a spore suspension. This method is usually conducted after sundown and when there is the possibility of dew formation the following morn...

  6. Tandem Mass Neonatal Screening in Taiwan—Report from One Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Po Huang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: We found that MS/MS neonatal screening was valuable in the early diagnosis of severe and treatable inborn errors of metabolism such as organic acidemias and urea cycle disorders. It also detected less severe disorders that required only observation.

  7. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... REPORT IR QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NEWSLETTERS Practice Resources Practice Resources PRACTICE RESOURCES QUALITY ... REPORT IR QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NEWSLETTERS Practice Resources PRACTICE RESOURCES QUALITY IMPROVEMENT STANDARDIZED ...

  8. Interventional Radiology: Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... REPORT IR QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NEWSLETTERS Practice Resources Practice Resources PRACTICE RESOURCES QUALITY ... REPORT IR QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NEWSLETTERS Practice Resources PRACTICE RESOURCES QUALITY IMPROVEMENT STANDARDIZED ...

  9. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Patient information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology General News Multiple procedure payment reduction (MPPR) rate ... contact Eleanore Moye . Learn more . American Board of Radiology Announces Maintenance of Certification Part 3: ABR diplomates ...

  10. Laenderyggens degeneration og radiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper Kjaerulf; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2006-01-01

    and significant relationships between radiological findings and subjective symptoms have both been notoriously difficult to identify. The lack of consensus on clinical criteria and radiological definitions has hampered the undertaking of properly executed epidemiological studies. The natural history of LBP...

  11. Screening for DNA adducts by data-dependent constant neutral loss-triple stage mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette, Erin E; Goodenough, Angela K; Langouët, Sophie; Yasa, Isil; Kozekov, Ivan D; Spivack, Simon D; Turesky, Robert J

    2009-01-15

    A two-dimensional linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT/MS) was employed to simultaneously screen for DNA adducts of environmental, dietary, and endogenous genotoxicants, by data-dependent constant neutral loss scanning followed by triple-stage mass spectrometry (CNL-MS3). The loss of the deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated DNA adducts ([M + H - 116]+) in the MS/MS scan mode triggered the acquisition of MS3 product ion spectra of the aglycone adducts [BH2]+. Five DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were detected in human hepatocytes treated with 4-ABP, and three DNA adducts of the cooked-meat carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were identified in the livers of rats exposed to MeIQx, by the CNL-MS3 scan mode. Buccal cell DNA from tobacco smokers was screened for DNA adducts of various classes of carcinogens in tobacco smoke including 4-ABP, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); the cooked-meat carcinogens MeIQx, AalphaC, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylmidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); and the lipid peroxidation products acrolein (AC) and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). The CNL-MS3 scanning technique can be used to simultaneously screen for multiple DNA adducts derived from different classes of carcinogens, at levels of adduct modification approaching 1 adduct per 108 unmodified DNA bases, when 10 microg of DNA is employed for the assay.

  12. Screening-level estimates of mass discharge uncertainty from point measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The uncertainty of mass discharge measurements associated with point-scale measurement techniques was investigated by deriving analytical solutions for the mass discharge coefficient of variation for two simplified, conceptual models. In the first case, a depth-averaged domain w...

  13. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  14. Screening and determination of drugs in human saliva utilizing microextraction by packed sorbent and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rehim, Abbi; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    This study presents a new method for collecting and handling saliva samples using an automated analytical microsyringe and microextraction by packed syringe (MEPS). The screening and determination of lidocaine in human saliva samples utilizing MEPS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were carried out. An exact volume of saliva could be collected. The MEPS C8 -cartridge could be used for 50 extractions before it was discarded. The extraction recovery was about 60%. The pharmacokinetic curve of lidocaine in saliva using MEPS-LC-MS/MS is reported.

  15. Static quark-antiquark pair free energy and screening masses: continuum results at the QCD physical point

    CERN Document Server

    Borsanyi, Szabolcs; Katz, Sandor D; Szabo, Kalman K; Pasztor, Attila; Torok, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    We study the correlators of Polyakov loops, and the corresponding gauge invariant free energy of a static quark-antiquark pair in 2+1 flavor QCD at finite temperature. Our simulations were carried out on $N_t$ = 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 lattices using a Symanzik improved gauge action and a stout improved staggered action with physical quark masses. The free energies calculated from the Polyakov loop correlators are extrapolated to the continuum limit. For the free energies we use a two step renormalization procedure that only uses data at finite temperature. We also measure correlators with definite Euclidean time reversal and charge conjugation symmetry to extract two different screening masses, one in the magnetic, and one in the electric sector, to distinguish two different correlation lengths in the full Polyakov loop correlator. This conference contribution is based on the paper: JHEP 1504 (2015) 138

  16. Urinary antihypertensive drug metabolite screening using molecular networking coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mass spectrometry is the current technique of choice in studying drug metabolism. High-resolution mass spectrometry in combination with MS/MS gas-phase experiments has the potential to contribute to rapid advances in this field. However, the data emerging from such fragmentation spectral files pose challenges to downstream analysis, given their complexity and size. Objectives This study aims to detect and visualize antihypertensive drug metabolites in untargeted metabolomics expe...

  17. Rapid screening method for determination of Ecstasy and amphetamines in urine samples using gas chromatography-chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, M; Rosati, F; Pacifici, R; Zuccaro, R; Romolo, F S; Lopez, A

    2002-04-05

    The need for analytical screening tests more reliable and valid to detect amphetamine and related "designer drugs" in biological samples is becoming critical, due to the increasing diffusion of these drugs on the European illegal market. The most common screening procedures based on immunoassays suffer a number of limitations, including low sensitivity, lack of specificity and limited number of detectable substances. This paper describes a screening method based on gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) using positive chemical ionisation (PCI) detection. Methanol was used as reactant gas in the ionisation chamber. Molecular ions of different compounds were monitored, allowing a sensitivity of 5-10 ng/ml with high selectivity. The sensitivity of the method gives positive results in samples taken 48-72 h after intake of one dose of 50-100 mg. The method is simple and rapid. Sample preparation was limited to one liquid-liquid extraction, without any hydrolysis and derivatisation. Hydrolysis is critical to identify metabolites excreted as conjugates. Blank urine samples spiked with known amounts of amphetamine (AM), methylamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) and methylenedioxyphenyl-N-methyl-2-butanamine (MBDB) were analysed. The method was successfully tested on real samples of urine from people, whose use of amphetamine was suspected, and results were compared with results obtained with immunoassays.

  18. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Richard; Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Hernandez, Felix; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-11-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of >200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds.

  19. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielen, M.W.F. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: michel.nielen@wur.nl; Hooijerink, H. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Claassen, F.C. [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Engelen, M.C. van [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Beek, T.A. van [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-04-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS{sup n} spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future.

  20. Coupling Laser Diode Thermal Desorption with Acoustic Sample Deposition to Improve Throughput of Mass Spectrometry-Based Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarhoff, Zuzana; Wagner, Andrew; Picard, Pierre; Drexler, Dieter M; Zvyaga, Tatyana; Shou, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The move toward label-free screening in drug discovery has increased the demand for mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis. Here we investigated the approach of coupling acoustic sample deposition (ASD) with laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). We assessed its use in a cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition assay, where a decrease in metabolite formation signifies CYP inhibition. Metabolite levels for 3 CYP isoforms were measured as CYP3A4-1'-OH-midazolam, CYP2D6-dextrorphan, and CYP2C9-4'-OH-diclofenac. After incubation, samples (100 nL) were acoustically deposited onto a stainless steel 384-LazWell plate, then desorbed by an infrared laser directly from the plate surface into the gas phase, ionized by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and analyzed by MS/MS. Using this method, we achieved a sample analysis speed of 2.14 s/well, with bioanalytical performance comparable to the current online solid-phase extraction (SPE)-based MS method. An even faster readout speed was achieved when postreaction sample multiplexing was applied, where three reaction samples, one for each CYP, were transferred into the same well of the LazWell plate. In summary, LDTD coupled with acoustic sample deposition and multiplexing significantly decreased analysis time to 0.7 s/sample, making this MS-based approach feasible to support high-throughput screening (HTS) assays.

  1. [Measurement of serum PSA by DELFIA PSA kit and its application for mass screening. The Gunma Urological Oncology Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K; Watanabe, K; Higashi, H; Shinya, H; Okamura, K; Matsuo, Y; Yazima, H; Takezawa, Y; Yamanaka, H

    1993-09-01

    The significance of prostate specific antigen (PSA) measured by DELFIA PSA kit in the 1,177 serum samples examined by mass screening for prostate cancer was evaluated. All subjects were examined by questionnaire, digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and the subjects in whom prostate cancer was suspected from abnormal DRE and/or elevated PAP were recommended to receive the secondary screening for the presence of prostate cancer. All serum specimens used for this study were kept in our serum bank. The cut-off value was investigated between non-cancer subjects (diagnosed as normal, voiding disturbance or BPH) and prostate cancer patients. When the cut-off value was 2.89 ng/ml, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy as prostate marker was 80.6%, 90.0% and 89.4%, respectively. Therefore, the cut-off value was determined as 3.0 ng/ml. The significance of PSA was retrospectively evaluated compared to PAP in the subjects examined by our mass screening. Twenty eight of the 39 palpable prostate cancers which could not be detected from the PAP level were detected from the PSA level, namely the sensitivity of the detection using the PSA level is more excellent than that using PAP. However, the false negative rate obtained using PSA was high (30.3%) in the patients with stage B disease. The relationship among serum PSA concentration, prostate size estimated by DRE and age was investigated. PSA was increased with age and prostate size. This estimation should be confirmed by using an ultrasonography because the prostate size obtained by DRE is inaccurate as compared with that obtained by ultrasonography.

  2. The impact of the Polish mass breast cancer screening program on prognosis in the Pomeranian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokowski, Jarosław; Bartoszek, Krzystof; Kosowska, Anna; Kalinowski, Leszek; Jaśkiewicz, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic screening results in diagnosis of less advanced breast cancer (BC). A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials confirmed that BC screening reduces mortality. In 2007, the National Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) was established in Poland with the crucial aim of reducing mortality from BC. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the NBCSP on prognosis. Material and methods A single institution, non-randomized retrospective study was undertaken. The study population comprised 643 patients with BC treated in the Department of Surgical Oncology (DSO) at the Medical University of Gdansk over a 4-year period, from 01.01.2007 until 31.12.2010. Patients were divided into two groups: group A – patients who participated in the NBCSP (n = 238, 37.0%); and group B – patients who did not participate in the NBCSP (n = 405, 63.0%). Results Statistical analysis revealed that group A displayed a less advanced AJCC stage (more patients in AJCC stage I, p = 0.002), lower tumor diameter (more patients with pT1, p = 0.006, and pT pNO, p = 0.01). From 2009 to 2010 the NBCSP revealed a statistically significant benefit – significantly more patients in stage 0 + I (60.7% vs. 48.8%, p = 0.018) and with tumors pT < 15 mm (48.8% vs. 35.1%, p = 0.011) were observed in group A. Conclusions The study results revealed the beneficial impact of the NBCSP. Superior prognostic factors and favorable staging were observed in women who participated in the NBCSP. PMID:28261300

  3. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  4. An Economic Evaluation of Neonatal Screening for Inborn Errors of Metabolism Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittiphong Thiboonboon

    Full Text Available Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are a rare group of genetic diseases which can lead to several serious long-term complications in newborns. In order to address these issues as early as possible, a process called tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS can be used as it allows for rapid and simultaneous detection of the diseases. This analysis was performed to determine whether newborn screening by MS/MS is cost-effective in Thailand.A cost-utility analysis comprising a decision-tree and Markov model was used to estimate the cost in Thai baht (THB and health outcomes in life-years (LYs and quality-adjusted life year (QALYs presented as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER. The results were also adjusted to international dollars (I$ using purchasing power parities (PPP (1 I$ = 17.79 THB for the year 2013. The comparisons were between 1 an expanded neonatal screening programme using MS/MS screening for six prioritised diseases: phenylketonuria (PKU; isovaleric acidemia (IVA; methylmalonic acidemia (MMA; propionic acidemia (PA; maple syrup urine disease (MSUD; and multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD; and 2 the current practice that is existing PKU screening. A comparison of the outcome and cost of treatment before and after clinical presentations were also analysed to illustrate the potential benefit of early treatment for affected children. A budget impact analysis was conducted to illustrate the cost of implementing the programme for 10 years.The ICER of neonatal screening using MS/MS amounted to 1,043,331 THB per QALY gained (58,647 I$ per QALY gained. The potential benefits of early detection compared with late detection yielded significant results for PKU, IVA, MSUD, and MCD patients. The budget impact analysis indicated that the implementation cost of the programme was expected at approximately 2,700 million THB (152 million I$ over 10 years.At the current ceiling threshold, neonatal screening using MS/MS in the Thai context is not cost

  5. A microfluidic-based enzymatic assay for bioactivity screening combined with capillary liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Arjen R; Bruyneel, Ben; Krabbe, Johannes G; Lingeman, Henk; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Irth, Hubertus

    2005-11-01

    The design and implementation of a continuous-flow microfluidic assay for the screening of (complex) mixtures for bioactive compounds is described. The microfluidic chip featured two microreactors (1.6 and 2.4 microL) in which an enzyme inhibition and a substrate conversion reaction were performed, respectively. Enzyme inhibition was detected by continuously monitoring the products formed in the enzyme-substrate reaction by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In order to enable the screening of mixtures of compounds, the chip-based assay was coupled on-line to capillary reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the HPLC column being operated either in isocratic or gradient elution mode. In order to improve the detection limits of the current method, sample preconcentration based on a micro on-line solid-phase extraction column was employed. The use of electrospray MS allowed the simultaneous detection of chemical (MS spectra) and biological parameters (enzyme inhibition) of ligands eluting from the HPLC column. The present system was optimized and validated using the protease cathepsin B as enzyme of choice. Inhibition of cathepsin B is detected by monitoring three product traces, obtained by cleavage of the substrate. The two microreactors provided 32 and 36 s reaction time, respectively, which resulted in sufficient assay dynamics to enable the screening of bioactive compounds. The total flow rate was 4 microL min-1, which a 25-fold decrease was compared with a macro-scale system described earlier. Detection limits of 0.17-2.6 micromol L-1 were obtained for the screening of inhibitors, which is comparable to either microtiter plate assays or continuous-flow assays described in the literature.

  6. Simple and rapid screening procedure for 143 new psychoactive substances by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Tokarczyk, Bogdan

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, many new psychoactive substances (NPS) from several drug classes have appeared on the drug market. These substances, also known as 'legal highs', belong to different chemical classes. Despite the increasing number of NPS, there are few comprehensive screening methods for their detection in biological specimens. In this context, the purpose of this study was to develop a fast and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening procedure for NPS in blood. The elaborated method allows the simultaneous screening of 143 compounds from different groups (number of compounds): cathinones (36), phenethylamines (26), tryptamines (18), piperazines (9), piperidines (2), synthetic cannabinoids (34), arylalkylamines (7), arylcyclohexylamines (3), aminoindanes (2), and other drugs (6). Blood samples (0.2 mL) were precipitated with acetonitrile (0.6 mL). The separation was achieved with gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water in 14 min. Detection of all compounds was based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. The total number of transitions monitored in dynamic mode was 432. The whole procedure was rapid and simple. The limits of detection (LODs) estimated for 104 compounds were in the range 0.01-3.09 ng/mL. The extraction recoveries determined for 32 compounds were from 1.8 to 133%. The procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of forensic blood samples in routine casework. The developed method should have wide applicability for rapid screening of new drugs of abuse in forensic or clinical samples. The procedure can be easily expanded for more substances. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Screening method for benzodiazepines and hypnotics in hair at pg/mg level by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Marion; Concheiro, Marta; Cirimele, Vincent; Kintz, Pascal

    2005-10-15

    A procedure is presented for the screening of 16 benzodiazepines and hypnotics in human hair by LC-MS/MS (alprazolam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, bromazepam, clobazam, diazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, tetrazepam, triazolam, zaleplon and zolpidem). The method involves decontamination of hair with methylene chloride, hair cut into small pieces, incubation of 20 mg in phosphate buffer (pH 8.4) in the presence of 1 ng diazepam-d5 used as internal standard, liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether/methylene chloride (10/90) and separation using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limits of quantification for all benzodiazepines and hypnotics range from 0.5 to 5 pg/mg using a 20-mg hair sample. Linearity is observed from the limit of quantification of each compound to 200 pg/mg (r2 > 0.99). Coefficients of variation measured on six points and at two concentrations (10 and 50 pg/mg) range from 5 to 20% for all drugs but one. Extraction recovery, measured at the two same concentrations range from 32 to 76%. These results were found suitable to screen for 16 benzodiazepines in hair and detect them at very low concentrations, making this method suitable to monitor single dose.

  8. A combined study of heat and mass transfer in an infant incubator with an overhead screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginalski, Maciej K; Nowak, Andrzej J; Wrobel, Luiz C

    2007-06-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the major physical processes taking place inside an infant incubator, before and after modifications have been made to its interior chamber. The modification involves the addition of an overhead screen to decrease radiation heat losses from the infant placed inside the incubator. The present study investigates the effect of these modifications on the convective heat flux from the infant's body to the surrounding environment inside the incubator. A combined analysis of airflow and heat transfer due to conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation has been performed, in order to calculate the temperature and velocity fields inside the incubator before and after the design modification. Due to the geometrical complexity of the model, computer-aided design (CAD) applications were used to generate a computer-based model. All numerical calculations have been performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT, together with in-house routines used for managing purposes and user-defined functions (UDFs) which extend the basic solver capabilities. Numerical calculations have been performed for three different air inlet temperatures: 32, 34 and 36 degrees C. The study shows a decrease of the radiative and convective heat losses when the overhead screen is present. The results obtained were numerically verified as well as compared with results available in the literature from investigations of dry heat losses from infant manikins.

  9. Screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in snake venom by electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesener, André; Perchuc, Anna-Maria; Schöni, Reto; Schebb, Nils Helge; Wilmer, Marianne; Karst, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    An electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (ESI/MS)-based assay for the determination of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting activity in snake venom was developed. It allows the direct monitoring of the natural AChE substrate acetylcholine (AC) and the respective product choline. The assay sche

  10. Mass Spectrometry-Based Diagnosis of Hemoglobinopathies: A Potential Tool for the Screening of Genetic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rajdeep; Mitra, Gopa; Mathew, Boby; Bhat, Vijay; Ross, Cecil; Pal, Debnath; Mandal, Amit Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are caused by point mutation in globin gene that results in structural variant of hemoglobin. While 7 % of world populations are carrier of hemoglobinopathies, the prevalence of the disease varies between 3 to 17 % across different population groups in India. In a diagnostic laboratory, alkaline gel electrophoresis and cation exchange-based HPLC (CE-HPLC) are most widely used techniques for characterization of hemoglobin variants. In the above methods, the differential surface charge of hemoglobin molecule in variants is exploited for their characterization. Sometime, co-migration of variants in gel electrophoresis and co-elution or elution with unknown retention time in automated CE-HPLC might lead to ambiguity in the analysis of hemoglobinopathies. Under such circumstances, it is necessary to use other analytical methods that provide unambiguous results. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach and DNA sequence analysis are examples of such alternative methods. In the present study, liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has been used for three commonly observed variants in India, e.g., HbE, HbQ India and HbD Punjab that appeared with inappropriate results in the conventional analysis. A customized hemoglobin variant database has been used in the mass spectrometry-based analysis of those three variants. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was used to analyze above variant sample accurately.

  11. Screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in snake venom by electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesener, A.; Perchuc, Anna-Maria; Schöni, Reto; Schebb, Nils Helge; Wilmer, Marianne; Karst, U.

    2007-01-01

    An electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (ESI/MS)-based assay for the determination of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting activity in snake venom was developed. It allows the direct monitoring of the natural AChE substrate acetylcholine (AC) and the respective product choline. The assay sche

  12. Central online quality assurance in radiology. An IT solution exemplified by the German Breast Cancer Screening Program; Zentrale Online-Qualitaetssicherung in der Radiologie. Eine IT-Loesung am Beispiel des deutschen Mammografie-Screening-Programms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czwoydzinski, J.; Girnus, R.; Sommer, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Heindel, W.; Lenzen, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Physical-technical quality assurance is one of the essential tasks of the National Reference Centers in the German Breast Cancer Screening Program. For this purpose the mammography units are required to transfer the measured values of the constancy tests on a daily basis and all phantom images created for this purpose on a weekly basis to the reference centers. This is a serious logistical challenge. To meet these requirements, we developed an innovative software tool. Materials and Methods: By the end of 2005, we had already developed web-based software (MammoControl) allowing the transmission of constancy test results via entry forms. For automatic analysis and transmission of the phantom images, we then introduced an extension (MammoControl DIANA). This was based on Java, Java Web Start, the NetBeans Rich Client Platform, the Pixelmed Java DICOM Toolkit and the ImageJ library. Results: MammoControl DIANA was designed to run locally in the mammography units. This allows automated on-site image analysis. Both results and compressed images can then be transmitted to the reference center. We developed analysis modules for the daily and monthly consistency tests and additionally for a homogeneity test. Conclusion: The software we developed facilitates the immediate availability of measurement results, phantom images, and DICOM header data in all reference centers. This allows both targeted guidance and short response time in the case of errors. We achieved a consistent IT-based evaluation with standardized tools for the entire screening program in Germany. (orig.)

  13. Food quality and authenticity screening via easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcari, Andreia M; Fernandes, Gabriel D; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

    2016-02-21

    This review is the first to summarize a decade of studies testing the use of easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) and its several sister techniques, Venturi (V-EASI), thermal imprinting (TI-EASI) and Spartan (S-EASI) mass spectrometry in food quality control and authentication. Since minimal or no sample preparation is required, such ambient desorption/ionization techniques have been shown to provide direct, fast and selective fingerprinting characterization at the molecular level based on the pools of the most typical components. They have also been found to be applicable on intact, undisturbed samples or on simple solvent extracts. Fundamentals of EASI-MS and its sister techniques, including mechanisms, devices, parameters and strategies, as well as the many applications reported for food analysis, are summarized and discussed.

  14. Screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nola H; Ho, Emmie N M; Leung, David K K; Wan, Terence S M

    2005-04-29

    Anabolic steroids have the capability of improving athletic performance and are banned substances in the Olympic games as well as in horseracing and equestrian competitions. The control of their abuse in racehorses is traditionally performed by detecting the presence of anabolic steroids and/or their metabolite(s) in urine samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). However, this approach usually requires tedious sample processing and chemical derivatisation steps and could be very insensitive in detecting certain steroids. This paper describes a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) method for the detection of anabolic steroids that are poorly covered by GC-MS. Enzyme-treated urine was processed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a Bond Elut Certify cartridge, followed by a base wash for further cleanup. Separation of the steroids was carried out on a reversed-phase DB-8 column using 0.1% acetic acid and methanol as the mobile phase in a gradient elution programme. The mass spectrometer for the detection of the steroids was operated in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Urine samples fortified with 15 anabolic steroids (namely, androstadienone, 1-androstenedione, bolasterone, boldione, 4-estrenedione, gestrinone, methandrostenolone, methenolone, 17alpha-methyltestosterone, norbolethone, normethandrolone, oxandrolone, stenbolone, trenbolone and turinabol) at low ng/mL levels were consistently detected. No significant matrix interference was observed at the retention times of the targeted ion masses in blank urine samples. The method specificity, sensitivity, precision, recoveries, and the performance of the enzyme hydrolysis step were evaluated. The successful application of the method to analyse methenolone acetate administration urine samples demonstrated that the method could be effective in detecting anabolic steroids and their metabolites in horse

  15. Active renin mass concentration to determine aldosterone-to-renin ratio in screening for primary aldosteronism

    OpenAIRE

    Corbin F; Douville P; Lebel M

    2011-01-01

    François Corbin1, Pierre Douville2, Marcel Lebel3 1Division of Biochemistry, l'Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; 2Division of Biochemistry; 3Division of Nephrology, L'Hôtel-Dieu de Québec Hospital and l'Université Laval, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Active renin mass concentration (ARC) is independent of the endogenous level of angiotensinogen, and less variable and more reproducible than plasma ren...

  16. On-chip integration of droplet microfluidics and nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry for enzyme screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Joshua; Deng, Kai; Shih, Steve C C; Gao, Jian; Adams, Paul D; Singh, Anup K; Northen, Trent R

    2017-01-17

    Biological assays often require expensive reagents and tedious manipulations. These shortcomings can be overcome using digitally operated microfluidic devices that require reduced sample volumes to automate assays. One particular challenge is integrating bioassays with mass spectrometry based analysis. Towards this goal we have developed μNIMS, a highly sensitive and high throughput technique that integrates droplet microfluidics with nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS). Enzyme reactions are carried out in droplets that can be arrayed on discrete NIMS elements at defined time intervals for subsequent mass spectrometry analysis, enabling time resolved enzyme activity assay. We apply the μNIMS platform for kinetic characterization of a glycoside hydrolase enzyme (CelE-CMB3A), a chimeric enzyme capable of deconstructing plant hemicellulose into monosaccharides for subsequent conversion to biofuel. This study reveals NIMS nanostructures can be fabricated into arrays for microfluidic droplet deposition, NIMS is compatible with droplet and digital microfluidics, and can be used on-chip to assay glycoside hydrolase enzyme in vitro.

  17. Use of mass spectrometric methods for field screening of VOC`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.

    1994-11-01

    While mass spectrometric (MS) methods of chemical analysis, particularly gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), have been the mainstay of environmental organic analytical techniques in the laboratory through the use of EPA and other standard methods, field implementation is relatively rare. Instrumentation and methods now exist for utilizing MS and GC/MS techniques in the field for analysis of VOC`s in gas phase, aqueous, and soil media. Examples of field investigations utilizing HP 5971A and Viking SpectraTrak systems for analysis of VOC`s in all three media will be presented. Mass spectral methods were found to offer significant advantages in terms of speed of analysis and reliability of compound identification over field gas chromatography (GC) methods while preserving adequate levels of detection sensitivity. The soil method in particular provides a method for rapid in-field analysis of methanol preserved samples thus minimizing the problem of volatiles loss which typically occurs with routine use of the EPA methods and remote analysis. The high cost of MS instrumentation remains a major obstacle to more widespread use.

  18. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Otter, Don E; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-17

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching.

  19. Poul Erik Andersen's radiological work on Osteochondrodysplasias and interventional radiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    Hospital. His significant experience and extensive scientific work has led to many posts in the Danish Society of Interventional Radiology, the European Society of Radiology and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe, where he is a fellow and has passed the European Board...... of Interventional Radiology - The European qualification in Interventional Radiology....

  20. Essentials of skeletal radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics of skeletal radiology: Positioning of patients for diagnostic radiology and normal anatomy; congenital malformations of skeleton; measurements in radiology; spondylolisthesis; metabolic and endocrine diseases of bone and their diagnostic aspects; image processing of vertebrae, skeleton, bone fractures evaluations and epidemiological and social aspects of some bone diseases. Various modalities as CT scanning, NMR imaging, ultrasonography and biomedical radiography are briefly discussed in relation to bone pathology.

  1. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  2. Radiological Emergency Response Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical emergency radiological response event and incident of national significance data and surveillance, monitoring,...

  3. Establishment of health clinics as mass screening and referral systems for chronic non-communicable diseases in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Heidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to establish a comprehensive screening and referral system for chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD in the routine primary health care, and to determine the prevalence of diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia in adult population invited by public announcement to the Health clinics in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: This survey was conducted from March 2010, and the current paper presents data obtained until November 2011. To provide health services for prevention and control of CNCDs, with priority of type2 diabetes mellitus, Health clinics were established in different parts of Isfahan city with a population of approximately 2,100,000 in Iran. The general populations aged 30 years and above were invited to the Health clinics by public announcement. Results: A total of 198972 participants were screened. The mean age of participants was 47.8 years (48.5 men, 47.3 women, with a range of 1 to 95 years old and standard deviation of 12.3 years (12.7 men, 12.1 women. Overall, 22% of participants had impaired fasting glucose, 25% had hypercholesterolemia, 31% had hypertriglyceridemia, and 20% had metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The high prevalence of dysglycemia and diabetes in our survey may serve as confirmatory evidence about the importance of mass screening and early diagnosis of CNCDs′ risk factors. Our model of establishing Health clinics, as a comprehensive referral system in the routine primary health care can be adopted by Middle Eastern countries, where CNCDs notably diabetes are an emerging health problem.

  4. Screening of Brazilian fruit aromas using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, F; Valente, A L; dos Santos Tada, E; Rivellino, S R

    2000-03-17

    Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative analysis of the aromas of four native Brazilian fruits: cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Spreng.), cajá (Spondias lutea. L.), siriguela (Spondias purpurea, L.) and graviola (Anona reticulata, L). Industrialized pulps of these fruits were used as samples, and extractions with SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate, Carbowax and Carboxen were carried out. The analytes identified included several alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and terpernoids. The highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using the Carboxen fiber.

  5. IN VITRO MASS-SCREENING OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AS POTENTIAL BIOSORBENTS OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kinoshita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many radionuclides were scattered by the explosion at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. We examined whether lactic acid bacteria (LAB can sorb cesium ions (Cs+ and strontium ions (Sr2+ for radioprotection. Many strains showed biosorption to Cs+ and Sr2+ using an in vitro mass-screening although each strain showed different sorption. We selected MYU 111, MYU 758, and MYU 759 strains that showed especially high biosorption to Cs+ and/or Sr2+. MYU 111 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, and MYU 758 and 759 were Pediococcus pentosaceus. The selected strains tended to show higher biosorption when using the buffer method compared to the culture method. Further, they showed high biosorption at a low concentration of 1 ppb Cs+ and Sr2+ (max 28.8% and 97.7% sorption, respectively. This is the first study where lactic acid bacteria are shown to have biosorption of Cs+ and Sr2+.

  6. Variations in IBD (ACAD8) in children with elevated C4-carnitine detected by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina B; Bischoff, Claus; Christensen, Ernst;

    2006-01-01

    or compound heterozygous for variations in the IBD gene have been reported. We present IBD deficiency in an additional four newborns with elevated C(4)-carnitine identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) screening in Denmark and the United States. Three showed urinary excretions of isobutyryl......-glycine, and in vitro probe analysis of fibroblasts from two newborns indicated enzymatic IBD defect. Molecular genetic analysis revealed seven new rare variations in the IBD gene (c.348C>A, c.400G>T, c.409G>A, c.455T>C, c.958G>A, c.1000C>T and c.1154G>A). Furthermore, sequence analysis of the short-chain acyl...

  7. Clinical validation of cutoff target ranges in newborn screening of metabolic disorders by tandem mass spectrometry: a worldwide collaborative project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, David M S; Cameron, Cynthia A; Abdenur, Jose E; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Adair, Ona; Al Nuaimi, Shahira Ahmed; Åhlman, Henrik; Allen, Jennifer J; Antonozzi, Italo; Archer, Shaina; Au, Sylvia; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Baker, Mei; Bamforth, Fiona; Beckmann, Kinga; Pino, Gessi Bentz; Berberich, Stanton L; Binard, Robert; Boemer, François; Bonham, Jim; Breen, Nancy N; Bryant, Sandra C; Caggana, Michele; Caldwell, S Graham; Camilot, Marta; Campbell, Carlene; Carducci, Claudia; Bryant, Sandra C; Caggana, Michele; Caldwell, S Graham; Camilot, Marta; Campbell, Carlene; Carducci, Claudia; Cariappa, Rohit; Carlisle, Clover; Caruso, Ubaldo; Cassanello, Michela; Castilla, Ane Miren; Ramos, Daisy E Castiñeiras; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Chandrasekar, Ram; Ramos, Alfredo Chardon; Cheillan, David; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Childs, Thomas A; Chrastina, Petr; Sica, Yuri Cleverthon; de Juan, Jose Angel Cocho; Colandre, Maria Elena; Espinoza, Veronica Cornejo; Corso, Gaetano; Currier, Robert; Cyr, Denis; Czuczy, Noemi; D'Apolito, Oceania; Davis, Tim; de Sain-Van der Velden, Monique G; Delgado Pecellin, Carmen; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Di Stefano, Cristina Maria; Dotsikas, Yannis; Downing, Melanie; Downs, Stephen M; Dy, Bonifacio; Dymerski, Mark; Rueda, Inmaculada; Elvers, Bert; Eaton, Roger; Eckerd, Barbara M; El Mougy, Fatma; Eroh, Sarah; Espada, Mercedes; Evans, Catherine; Fawbush, Sandy; Fijolek, Kristel F; Fisher, Lawrence; Franzson, Leifur; Frazier, Dianne M; Garcia, Luciana R C; Bermejo, Maria Sierra García-Valdecasas; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Gerace, Rosemarie; Giordano, Giuseppe; Irazabal, Yolanda González; Greed, Lawrence C; Grier, Robert; Grycki, Elyse; Gu, Xuefan; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Hagar, Arthur F; Han, Lianshu; Hannon, W Harry; Haslip, Christa; Hassan, Fayza Abdelhamid; He, Miao; Hietala, Amy; Himstedt, Leslie; Hoffman, Gary L; Hoffman, William; Hoggatt, Philis; Hopkins, Patrick V; Hougaard, David M; Hughes, Kerie; Hunt, Patricia R; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Hynes, June; Ibarra-González, Isabel; Ingham, Cindy A; Ivanova, Maria; Jacox, Ward B; John, Catharine; Johnson, John P; Jónsson, Jón J; Karg, Eszter; Kasper, David; Klopper, Brenda; Katakouzinos, Dimitris; Khneisser, Issam; Knoll, Detlef; Kobayashi, Hirinori; Koneski, Ronald; Kozich, Viktor; Kouapei, Rasoul; Kohlmueller, Dirk; Kremensky, Ivo; la Marca, Giancarlo; Lavochkin, Marcia; Lee, Soo-Youn; Lehotay, Denis C; Lemes, Aida; Lepage, Joyce; Lesko, Barbara; Lewis, Barry; Lim, Carol; Linard, Sharon; Lindner, Martin; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Lorey, Fred; Loukas, Yannis L; Luedtke, Julie; Maffitt, Neil; Magee, J Fergall; Manning, Adrienne; Manos, Shawn; Marie, Sandrine; Hadachi, Sônia Marchezi; Marquardt, Gregg; Martin, Stephen J; Matern, Dietrich; Mayfield Gibson, Stephanie K; Mayne, Philip; McCallister, Tonya D; McCann, Mark; McClure, Julie; McGill, James J; McKeever, Christine D; McNeilly, Barbara; Morrissey, Mark A; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi; Mulcahy, Eleanor A; Nikoloudis, Dimitris; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Oglesbee, Devin; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Ombrone, Daniela; Ojodu, Jelili; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Reoyo, Sherly Pardo; Park, Hyung-Doo; Pasquali, Marzia; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Patel, Pallavi; Pass, Kenneth A; Peterson, Colleen; Pettersen, Rolf D; Pitt, James J; Poh, Sherry; Pollak, Arnold; Porter, Cory; Poston, Philip A; Price, Ricky W; Queijo, Cecilia; Quesada, Jonessy; Randell, Edward; Ranieri, Enzo; Raymond, Kimiyo; Reddic, John E; Reuben, Alejandra; Ricciardi, Charla; Rinaldo, Piero; Rivera, Jeff D; Roberts, Alicia; Rocha, Hugo; Roche, Geraldine; Greenberg, Cheryl Rochman; Mellado, José María Egea; Juan-Fita, María Jesús; Ruiz, Consuelo; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Rutledge, S Lane; Ryu, Euijung; Saban, Christine; Sahai, Inderneel; García-Blanco, Maria Isabel Salazar; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro; Schenone, Andrea; Schoos, Roland; Schweitzer, Barb; Scott, Patricia; Seashore, Margretta R; Seeterlin, Mary A; Sesser, David E; Sevier, Darrin W; Shone, Scott M; Sinclair, Graham; Skrinska, Victor A; Stanley, Eleanor L; Strovel, Erin T; Jones, April L Studinski; Sunny, Sherlykutty; Takats, Zoltan; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Teofoli, Francesca; Thompson, J Robert; Tomashitis, Kathy; Domingos, Mouseline Torquado; Torres, Jasmin; Torres, Rosario; Tortorelli, Silvia; Turi, Sandor; Turner, Kimberley; Tzanakos, Nick; Valiente, Alf G; Vallance, Hillary; Vela-Amieva, Marcela; Vilarinho, Laura; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Vincent, Marie-Francoise; Vorster, B Chris; Watson, Michael S; Webster, Dianne; Weiss, Sheila; Wilcken, Bridget; Wiley, Veronica; Williams, Sharon K; Willis, Sharon A; Woontner, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yssel, Melissa; Zakowicz, Wendy M

    2011-03-01

    To achieve clinical validation of cutoff values for newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry through a worldwide collaborative effort. Cumulative percentiles of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots of approximately 25–30 million normal newborns and 10,742 deidentified true positive cases are compared to assign clinical significance, which is achieved when the median of a disorder range is, and usually markedly outside, either the 99th or the 1st percentile of the normal population. The cutoff target ranges of analytes and ratios are then defined as the interval between selected percentiles of the two populations. When overlaps occur, adjustments are made to maximize sensitivity and specificity taking all available factors into consideration. As of December 1, 2010, 130 sites in 45 countries have uploaded a total of 25,114 percentile data points, 565,232 analyte results of true positive cases with 64 conditions, and 5,341 cutoff values. The average rate of submission of true positive cases between December 1, 2008, and December 1, 2010, was 5.1 cases/day. This cumulative evidence generated 91 high and 23 low cutoff target ranges. The overall proportion of cutoff values within the respective target range was 42% (2,269/5,341). An unprecedented level of cooperation and collaboration has allowed the objective definition of cutoff target ranges for 114 markers to be applied to newborn screening of rare metabolic disorders.

  8. New lysine-acetylated proteins screened by immunoaffinity and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The lack of selective extraction specific for lysine-acetylated proteins has been a major problem in the field of acetylation biology,though acetylation plays a key role in many biological processes.In this paper,we report for the first time the proteomic screening of lysine-acetylated proteins from a mouse liver tissue,by a new approach of immunoaffinity purification of lysine-acetylated peptides combined with nano-HPLC/MS/MS analysis.We have found 20 lysine-acetylated proteins with 21 lysine-acetylated sites,among which 12 lysine-acetylated proteins and 16 lysine-acetylated sites have never been reported before.Notably,three acetyltransferases harboring in mitochondrion are newly discovered acetyltransferases responsible for the acetylation of nonhistone proteins.We have explored the significant patterns of residue preference by the hierarchical clustering analysis of amino acid residues surrounding acetylation sites,which could be helpful to the prediction of new sites of lysine acetylation.Our findings provide more candidates for studying the important roles played by acetylation in diverse cellular pathways and related human diseases.

  9. The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Raymon H.; Mitmaker, Elliot J.; Clark, Orlo H., E-mail: orlo.clark@ucsfmedctr.org [Division of Endocrine Surgery, University of California San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero St, C-347, Box 1674, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)

    2010-05-20

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The diagnosis of thyroid nodules, made by neck examination and ultrasonography, is a common event occurring in over 50% of the patient population over the age of 50. Yet, only 5% of these patients will be diagnosed with cancer. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid nodules. However, 10–15% of these biopsies are inconclusive, ultimately requiring a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy. Consequently, research in thyroid biomarkers has become an area of active interest. In the 40 years since calcitonin was first described as the biomarker for medullary thyroid cancer, new biomarkers in thyroid cancer have been discovered. Advances in genomic and proteomic technologies have defined many of these novel thyroid biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive literature review of how these biomarkers have evolved from simple screening tests into a complex array of multiple markers to help predict the malignant potential and genetic signature of thyroid neoplasms.

  10. Planar chromatography mediated screening of tetracycline and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in milk by fluorescence and mass selective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yisheng; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2013-10-18

    A rapid and efficient method for preliminary screening of four tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycline) and three fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, marbofloxacin), mostly detected in milk, by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPTLC-FLD-ESI/MS) is highlighted. The optimized separation of the target antibiotics on ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid modified silica gel plates showed marked benefits for screening purposes. Besides, selective and sensitive densitometry in fluorescence mode was established with excitation at 366nm for the tetracyclines, 300nm for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and 280nm for marbofloxacin. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) with 95% confidence were in the range of 12-25 and 45-95μg/kg, respectively, in milk samples. Recoveries of target antibiotics from milk samples spiked at three critical levels (50, 100 and 150μg/kg) ranged from 76% to 105%. More importantly, a mass selective detection (MSD) was established as additional tool for confirmatory purposes. Using the elution-head based TLC-MS interface, the optimized elution flow consisting of acetonitrile/ammonium formate buffer (9/1, v/v) at a rate of 0.3mL/min enabled time-dependent resolution of analytes from the major interfering compounds, thus circumventing serious ion suppression effects. The established MSD assay also offered high sensitivity (25μg/kg) for confirmation, meeting Commission Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Engineering cell-compatible paper chips for cell culturing, drug screening, and mass spectrometric sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushui; He, Ziyi; Liu, Wu; Lin, Xuexia; Wu, Jing; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2015-10-28

    Paper-supported cell culture is an unprecedented development for advanced bioassays. This study reports a strategy for in vitro engineering of cell-compatible paper chips that allow for adherent cell culture, quantitative assessment of drug efficiency, and label-free sensing of intracellular molecules via paper spray mass spectrometry. The polycarbonate paper is employed as an excellent alternative bioscaffold for cell distribution, adhesion, and growth, as well as allowing for fluorescence imaging without light scattering. The cell-cultured paper chips are thus amenable to fabricate 3D tissue construction and cocultures by flexible deformation, stacks and assembly by layers of cells. As a result, the successful development of cell-compatible paper chips subsequently offers a uniquely flexible approach for in situ sensing of live cell components by paper spray mass spectrometry, allowing profiling the cellular lipids and quantitative measurement of drug metabolism with minimum sample pretreatment. Consequently, the developed paper chips for adherent cell culture are inexpensive for one-time use, compatible with high throughputs, and amenable to label-free and rapid analysis.

  12. Role of Radiology in Forensic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Chandrasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic radiology is a specialized area of medical imaging utilizing radiological techniques to assist physicians and pathologists in matter pertaining to the law. Postmortem dental radiographs are the most consistent part of the antemortem records that can be transmitted during the forensic examination procedures. Pathologists regularly use radiographic images during the course of autopsy to assist them in identification of foreign bodies or determination of death. Forensic radiology can be used in suspicious death or murder, in analysis of adverse medical events, solving legal matters, to detect child abuse, drug trafficking, body identification and disease identification. Using the possibilities of radiology, special characteristics of the internal structures of the dentomaxillofacial region can be revealed. We can also detect endodontic treatments, healing extraction sockets, implants or even tooth colored restoration. Therefore, we can give answers to problems dealing with identification procedures, mass disaster and dental age estimation.

  13. Newborn screening for sickling and other haemoglobin disorders using tandem mass spectrometry: A pilot study of methodology in laboratories in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Yvonne A; Henthorn, Joan

    2016-12-01

    To determine (i) if electrospray mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry with the SpOtOn Diagnostics Ltd reagent kit for sickle cell screening could be integrated into the English newborn screening programme, under routine screening conditions, and provide mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry results which match existing methods, and (ii) if common action values could be set for all manufacturers in the study, for all assessed haemoglobins, to indicate which samples require further investigation. Anonymised residual blood spots were analysed using the SpOtOn reagent kit as per manufacturer's instructions, in parallel with existing techniques at four laboratories. Mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry instrumentation at Laboratories A and B was AB Sciex (Warrington, UK) AP4000, and at Laboratories C and D, Waters Micromass (Manchester, UK), Xevo TQMS and Premier, respectively. There were 23,898 results accepted from the four laboratories. Excellent specificity at 100% sensitivity was observed for haemoglobin S, haemoglobin C, haemoglobin E and haemoglobin O(Arab). A common action value was not possible for Hb C, but action values were set by manufacturer. The two haemoglobin D(Punjab) cases at Laboratory D were not detected using the common action value. Conversely, false-positive results with haemoglobin D(Punjab) were a problem at the remaining three laboratories. This multicentre study demonstrates that it is possible to implement mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry into an established screening programme while maintaining consistency with existing methods for haemoglobinopathy screening. However, one of the instruments investigated cannot be recommended for use with this application. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Screening of dimethoate in food by isotope dilution and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Fabio; Di Donna, Leonardo; Macchione, Barbara; Maiuolo, Loredana; Perri, Enzo; Sindona, Giovanni

    2009-05-01

    Crop control is an important issue in both developed and developing countries. An environmentally friendly approach is represented by the so-called Integrated Pest Management (IPM), whereby synthetic pesticides are only applied as a last resort, under the strict control of suitable experts. European and US regulatory authorities, such as the US EPA, are constantly assessing the risks of exposure to the organophosphate (OP) class of pesticides and, among these, specifically dimethoate. The use of dimethoate is still allowed in many crops, including olives, which once was based in the Mediterranean area but now is expanding rapidly throughout the world. An important aspect of IPM protocols is represented by the availability of reliable and sensitive methods to detect pesticides residues. This paper describes an isotope dilution dimethoate assay based on the application of electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) by means of a deuterium-labeled internal standard.

  15. Screening of DUB activity and specificity by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritorto, Maria Stella; Ewan, Richard; Perez-Oliva, Ana B.; Knebel, Axel; Buhrlage, Sara J.; Wightman, Melanie; Kelly, Sharon M.; Wood, Nicola T.; Virdee, Satpal; Gray, Nathanael S.; Morrice, Nicholas A.; Alessi, Dario R.; Trost, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Deubiquitylases (DUBs) are key regulators of the ubiquitin system which cleave ubiquitin moieties from proteins and polyubiquitin chains. Several DUBs have been implicated in various diseases and are attractive drug targets. We have developed a sensitive and fast assay to quantify in vitro DUB enzyme activity using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Unlike other current assays, this method uses unmodified substrates, such as diubiquitin topoisomers. By analysing 42 human DUBs against all diubiquitin topoisomers we provide an extensive characterization of DUB activity and specificity. Our results confirm the high specificity of many members of the OTU and JAB/MPN/Mov34 metalloenzyme DUB families and highlight that all USPs tested display low linkage selectivity. We also demonstrate that this assay can be deployed to assess the potency and specificity of DUB inhibitors by profiling 11 compounds against a panel of 32 DUBs. PMID:25159004

  16. Comparision between body mass index and abdominal obesity for the screening for diabetes in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study about the usefulness of Waist-Height Ratio as a clinical marker in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based study of patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic and correlation of their Anthropometry data like waist circumference, height to other parameters namely body mass index (BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio, Blood pressure, Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, and Duration of Diabetes. Inclusion Criteria: Randomly selected 10 000 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic. Exclusion Criteria: Type 1 DM, Gestational Diabetes. Result: Waist-Height Ratio is a better parameter than Waist-Hip Ratio and it is significant in applying for people with different Stature with Normal BMI. Conclusion: Waist-Height Ratio is a better and easier tool when compared with BMI or Waist-Hip Ratio and can be used for assessment of Cardio-metabolic parameter for public health.

  17. Screening of agrochemicals in foodstuffs using low-temperature plasma (LTP) ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Joshua S; García-Reyes, Juan F; Harper, Jason D; Charipar, Nicholas A; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2010-05-01

    Low-temperature plasma (LTP) permits direct ambient ionization and mass analysis of samples in their native environment with minimal or no prior preparation. LTP utilizes dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) to create a low power plasma which is guided by gas flow onto the sample from which analytes are desorbed and ionized. In this study, the potential of LTP-MS for the detection of pesticide residues in food is demonstrated. Thirteen multi-class agricultural chemicals were studied (ametryn, amitraz, atrazine, buprofezin, DEET, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, imazalil, isofenphos-methyl, isoproturon, malathion, parathion-ethyl and terbuthylazine). To evaluate the potential of the proposed approach, LTP-MS experiments were performed directly on fruit peels as well as on fruit/vegetable extracts. Most of the agrochemicals examined displayed remarkable sensitivity in the positive ion mode, giving limits of detection (LOD) for the direct measurement in the low picogram range. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to confirm identification of selected pesticides by using for these experiments spiked fruit/vegetable extracts (QuEChERS, a standard sample treatment protocol) at levels as low as 1 pg, absolute, for some of the analytes. Comparisons of the data obtained by direct LTP-MS were made with the slower but more accurate conventional LC-MS/MS procedure. Herbicides spiked in aqueous solutions were detectable at LODs as low as 0.5 microg L(-1) without the need for any sample preparation. The results demonstrate that ambient LTP-MS can be applied for the detection and confirmation of traces of agrochemicals in actual market-purchased produce and in natural water samples. Quantitative analysis was also performed in a few selected cases and displayed a relatively high degree of linearity over four orders of magnitude.

  18. Neutral Loss Ion Mapping Experiment Combined with Precursor Mass List and Dynamic Exclusion for Screening Unstable Malonyl Glucoside Conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Yao, Shuai; Li, Shangrong; Yang, Wenzhi; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Qv, Hua; Guo, De-an

    2016-01-01

    Malonates are one type of the acylation conjugates and found abundantly in ginseng and soybean. Malonyl conjugates of ginsenosides and isoflavone glycosides were often considered as the characteristic components to evaluate various species and different forms of ginseng and soybean products because of their thermal instability. Another famous isoflavonoid-rich leguminous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Puerarin lobata (Gegen), has also been reported to contain malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin. However, the conjugates were found to present in very low amount and particularly unstable in the negative ion mode scan using LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). In order to screen and characterize the malonyl conjugates in Gegen, a specific method was designed and developed combining neutral loss ion mapping (NLIM) experiment and precursor mass list (PL) triggered data dependent acquisition (DDA). Along with the activation of dynamic exclusion (DE), the method was proven to be specific and efficient for searching the malonate derivatives from Gegen. Two samples were examined by the established method. A total of 66 compounds were found, and 43 of them were malonates of isoflavone glycoside. Very few compounds were reported previously in Gegen. The results are helpful to understand the constituents of Gegen with more insight. The study not only provided a method for analyzing the malonyl conjugates from complex matrices but also explored a way to trace other low amount components in TCMs.

  19. Comparison between a digital scanning system and a conventional screen film system in the full spine radiological procedure in pediatrics; Valoracion de un sistema de Scan digital frente a un sistema convencional cartulina pelicula en exploraciones de columna total en pediatria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espana, M. L.; Gomez, G.; Romero, A.; Minambres, A.; Albi, G.; Floriano, A.; Rodirguez, A.; Lopez Franco, P.

    2004-07-01

    To compare from both dosimetry and image quality standpoints, a digital scanning system with a conventional screen film system, in the full spine radiological procedure. The standard patient is considered to be 12 years old, and a sample of forty patients referred for full spine radiological procedure has been studied. Gonad shielding has been used in all the patients, and its efficiency has been evaluated. Dosimetric study includes Kerma-area product, and thorax and gonad entrance surface dose. Kerma area product has been measured using a transmission camera, and for entrance surface dose estimation both thermoluminescent dosemeter LiF: Mg, Cu, P and LiF: Mg, Ti have been utilized. Three radiologists have evaluated the image quality according to the degree of fulfilment of the image quality criteria. (Author) 22 refs.

  20. American College of Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American College of Radiology Login About Us Media Center Contact Us Follow us Shopping Cart (0) ACR Catalog Donate My ACR Join ACR ... ACR Catalog Education Center eLearning Exams & Assessments AIRP™ Radiology Leadership Institute ® Quality & Safety Accreditation Appropriateness Criteria ® Practice ...

  1. Physics of Radiology

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Harold Elford

    1983-01-01

    Authority, comprehensivity and a consummate manner of presentation have been hallmarks of The Physics of Radiology since it first saw publication some three decades past. This Fourth Edition adheres to that tradition but again updates the context. It thoroughly integrates ideas recently advanced and practices lately effected. Students and professionals alike will continue to view it, in essence, as the bible of radiological physics.

  2. Mass scale screening of common arboviral infections by an affordable, cost effective RT-PCR method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debjani Taraphdar; Arindam Sarkar; Shyamalendu Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To develop a rapid, cost effective RT-PCR method for the mass scale diagnosis of such diseases at the viremia stage to find out the actual disease burden in that area. Methods:For this purpose, cases with the history of only short febrile illness were considered. Thus 157 samples with the history of dengue/chikungunya like illness and only 58 samples with a history of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) were selected. Results:Out of 157 samples, 42 and 74 were detected as dengue and chikungunya, respectively and out of 58 AES cases only 23 could be detected as Japanese encephalitis by this RT-PCR method. Conclusions:This cost effective RT-PCR method can detect the total positive cases that remain undetected by ELISA method. Moreover, this method is capable to detect the viral RNA from patients’ sera even after the appearance of IgM antibody at one fifth costs as compared with the other commercially available kits.

  3. Screening of new huprines--inhibitors of acetylcholinesterases by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemianin, Anna; Ronco, Cyril; Dolé, Romain; Jean, Ludovic; Renard, Pierre-Yves; Lange, Catherine M

    2012-11-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) are one of the drugs families validated for clinical use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this reason, finding new more potent and more selective AChEIs is always of interest. Since 1961, the inhibitory activity of AChEI is evaluated through the Ellman's method. Herein, we reported a MS-based evaluation of potential new AChEI with the determination of their inhibitory activity (IC(50) and K(I)). Compared to the Ellman's method, that uses the substrate analog acetylthiocholine, the electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS) consists in monitoring the conversion ratio of a low concentration of the natural substrate - acetylcholine to choline. We present here the inhibition activity of huprine X and six of its derivates (bearing different functional groups at position 9) towards the recombinant human (rhAChE) and Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase (EelAChE). Mechanisms of action of selected inhibitors were evaluated by means of Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The Michaelis-Menten constants (K(M)), inhibitory constants (K(I)) were examined as well as the IC(50) to allow classifying a series of huprine derivatives by inhibition potency by a comparison with a reference (huprine X). Our results demonstrate that these drugs are very potent AChE inhibitors, especially (±)-huprine 6 with an inhibitory activity on recombinant human AChE (rhAChE) in the picomolar range. This study reveals the interest of huprine compounds in the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effects of the Cessation of Mass Screening for Neuroblastoma at 6 Months of Age: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioka, Akiko; Inoue, Masami; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Hara, Junichi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Sakata, Naoki; Yamato, Kazumi; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Kawa, Keisei

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2004, the Japanese government halted the 6-month mass screening program for neuroblastoma. We investigated whether its cessation had led to an increase not only in mortality due to this disease but also in the incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. Methods Study subjects were neuroblastoma patients retrieved from the population-based Osaka Cancer Registry. Trends of incidence and mortality from neuroblastoma were analyzed by calendar year and birth cohort. Prognostic factors, including stage and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog (MYCN) oncogene status, were compared before and after the cessation of mass screening. Results Age-standardized incidence rates in 2005–2009 (the cessation period of mass screening; 11.1 per million) were similar to those in 1975–1979 (the pre-screening period; 8.6 per million). Age-standardized mortality rates tended to decrease from 1975–1979 (4.0 per million) to 2005–2009 (2.7 per million) in parallel with the improvement in survival. Analysis by birth cohort indicated that the mortality rates in 2004–2005 (after cessation) for children 0–4 years of age were lower than those in 1975–1979 (O:E ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.03–0.90). For children 1–9 years of age, there was a not significant difference in the distribution of stage, MYCN oncogene status, and DNA ploidy between 1991–2003 (the mass screening period) and 2004–2008 (after cessation). Conclusions The cessation of mass screening for neuroblastoma does not appear to have increased mortality due to this disease or incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. PMID:26548355

  5. Toxin screening in phytoplankton: detection and quantitation using MALDI triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleno, Lekha; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2005-03-01

    The investigation of a MALDI triple quadrupole instrument for the analysis of spirolide toxins in phytoplankton samples is described in this study. A high-frequency (kHz) laser was employed for MALDI, generating a semicontinuous ion beam, thus taking advantage of the high duty cycle obtained in sensitive triple quadrupole MRM experiments. Initially, several experimental parameters such as type of organic matrix and concentration, solvent composition, and matrix-to-analyte ratio were optimized, and their impact on sensitivity and precision of the obtained ion currents for a reference spirolide, 13-desmethyl-C, was studied. In all quantitative experiments, excellent linearities in the concentration range between 0.01 and 1.75 microg/mL were obtained, with R2 values of 0.99 or higher. The average precision of the quantitative MALDI measurements was 7.4+/-2.4% RSD. No systematic errors were apparent with this method as shown by a direct comparison to an electrospray LC/MS/MS method. Most importantly, the MALDI technique was very fast; each sample spot was analyzed in less than 5 s as compared to several minutes with the electrospray assay. To demonstrate the potential of the MALDI triple quadrupole method, its application to quantitative analysis in several different phytoplankton samples was investigated, including crude extracts and samples from mass-triggered fractionation experiments. 13-Desmethyl spirolide C was successfully quantified in these complex samples at concentration levels from 0.05 to 90.4 microg/mL (prior to dilution to have samples fall within the dynamic range of the method) without extensive sample preparation steps. The versatility of the MALDI triple quadrupole method was also exhibited for the identification of unknown spirolide analogues. Through the use of dedicated linked scan functions such as precursor ion and neutral loss scans, several spirolide compounds were tentatively identified directly from the crude extract, without the usual time

  6. On-line derivatization gas chromatography with furan chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry for screening of amphetamines in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ghule, Anil; Liu, Jen-Yu; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2006-12-22

    A simple alternative method with minimal sample pretreatment is investigated for screening of amphetamines in small volume (using only 20 microL) of urine sample. The method is sensitive and selective. The method uses gas chromatography (GC) direct sample introduction (DSI) for on-line derivatization (acylation) of amphetamines to improve sensitivity. Furan as chemical ionization (CI) reagent in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is used to improve selectivity. Low background with sharp protonated molecular ion peaks of analytes is the evidence of improvement in sensitivity and selectivity. Blank urine samples spiked with known amounts of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine is analyzed. Selected ion monitoring of the characteristic product ions (m/z 119+136+150+163) using furan CI-MS/MS in positive ion mode is used for quantification. Limits of detection (LOD) between 0.4 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) between 1.0 and 2.0 ng mL(-1) are established. Linear response over the range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1) (r(2)>0.997) is observed for all analytes, except for methamphetamine (2.0-1000 ng mL(-1)). Good accuracy between 86 and 113% and precision ranging from 4 to 18% is obtained. The method is also tested on real samples of urine from suspected drug abusers. This method could be used for screening and determination of amphetamines in urine samples, however needs additional work for full validation.

  7. Extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and screening of fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. for its antimicrobial potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Terminalia chebula is called the "king of medicines" in Tibet and is always listed first in the Ayurvedic meteria medica because of its extraordinary powers of healing. Objective: Identification, isolation and screening of pyrogallol which are responsible for antimicrobial property of fruits of Terminalia chebula. Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate fraction of fruits of Terminalia chebula was subjected to Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS for the components present in the extract. Results: Sixty four constituents were identified out of which kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside flavonoid and Vitamin E has been detected for the first time in fruits of this plant. Pyrogallol (46.26% which was the major component of the extract in GC-MS analysis was isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity against selected test pathogens by Disc Diffusion Assay. Crude ethyl acetate fraction of the fruits was showing the same activity potential as was observed for pure pyrogallol which was the major component as per GC-MS analysis. The most sensitive species among the bacteria was Enterobacter aerogenes with highest inhibition zone (IZ = 31 mm; AI = 1.409 ± 0.046 even at minimum inhibitory concentration (0.039 mg/ml. Conclusion: Hence activity shown by crude ethyl acetate fraction might be due to pyrogallol present in the extract. On the basis of results it can be advocate that achieved crude ethyl acetate fraction can be explored for preparing antimicrobial drugs in future for the infectious caused by the pathogens tested in the study.

  8. SLC6A3 and body mass index in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Richard B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the contribution of the dopamine transporter to dopaminergic reward-related behaviors and anthropometry, we evaluated associations between polymorphisms at the dopamine transporter gene(SLC6A3 and body mass index (BMI, among participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. Methods Four polymorphisms (rs6350, rs6413429, rs6347 and the 3' variable number of tandem repeat (3' VNTR polymorphism at the SLC6A3 gene were genotyped in 2,364 participants selected from the screening arm of PLCO randomly within strata of sex, age and smoking history. Height and weight at ages 20 and 50 years and baseline were assessed by questionnaire. BMI was calculated and categorized as underweight, normal, overweight and obese (2, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of SLC6A3 genotypes and haplotypes were computed using conditional logistic regression. Results Compared with individuals having a normal BMI, obese individuals at the time of the baseline study questionnaire were less likely to possess the 3' VNTR variant allele with 9 copies of the repeated sequence in a dose-dependent model (** is referent; OR*9 = 0.80, OR99 = 0.47, ptrend = 0.005. Compared with individuals having a normal BMI at age 50, overweight individuals (A-C-G-* is referent; ORA-C-G-9 = 0.80, 95% CI 0.65–0.99, p = 0.04 and obese individuals (A-C-G-* is referent; ORA-C-G-9 = 0.70, 95% CI 0.49–0.99, p = 0.04 were less likely to possess the haplotype with the 3'variant allele (A-C-G-9. Conclusion Our results support a role of genetic variation at the dopamine transporter gene, SLC6A3, as a modifier of BMI.

  9. Relationship between functional movement screen scores, core strength, posture, and body mass index in school children in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Johnson, A Wayne; Adamson, Brynn

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of functionality should include parameters that consider postural control, limb asymmetries, range of motion limitations, proprioceptive deficits, and pain. An increasingly popular battery of tests, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), is purported to assess the above named parameters. The purpose of our study was twofold: (a) to report differences in total FMS scores in children, provide preliminary normative reference values of each of the 7 individual FMS scores for both genders and report on asymmetries and (b) to evaluate the relationship between total FMS scores, age, body mass index (BMI), core strength/stability, and postural angles to explore the possibility of using the FMS in the assessment of children's functional fitness. Descriptive data on 77 children aged 8-11 years were collected. The children performed core strength/stability exercises. Photographs were taken from a lateral view for later calculation of postural angles. The children performed the FMS while being videotaped for later review. The average total FMS score (of 21) was 14.9 (+1.9), and BMI was 16.4 (+2.2). Static posture is not related to results of the FMS. Core strength was positively correlated to the total FMS score (r = 0.31; p = 0.006). Over 60% demonstrated at least 1 asymmetry. The individual test scores indicate that none of the test items is too difficult for the children. Based on the screen's correlation to core strength, and the fact that it identifies areas of asymmetry, we suggest to further investigate its possible use in the assessment of children's functional fitness.

  10. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Tsz-Tsun; So, Pui-Kin; Zheng, Bo [Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control and State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen (China); Yao, Zhong-Ping, E-mail: zhongping.yao@polyu.edu.hk [Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control and State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen (China)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Simplified sample preparation method for direct analysis of edible oils by MALDI-MS. • Establishment of a preliminary MALDI-MS spectral database of edible oils. • Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils. - Abstract: Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils.

  11. Multiresidue Screening of Veterinary Drugs in Meat, Milk, Egg, and Fish Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, JeongWoo; Park, Su-Jeong; Park, Hae-Chul; Hossain, Md Akil; Kim, Myeong-Ae; Son, Seong-Wan; Lim, Chae-Mi; Kim, Tae-Wan; Cho, Byung-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    New approaches to veterinary drug screening based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF/MS) are rapid and have high selectivity and sensitivity. In this study, we developed a multiresidue method for screening over 100 veterinary drug residues using ion trap (IT)-ToF/MS. The screened compounds comprised major drug classes used in veterinary practice, representing the following: amphenicols, anthelmintics, benzimidazoles, β-lactams, coccidiostats, ionophores, macrolides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and tranquilizers. The method was developed based on chromatographic retention time, specific accurate mass, isotope distribution, and fragment data. Each compound was validated at three levels, and the mass accuracy, accuracy, and repeatability were calculated. All parameters showed acceptable values and conformed to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. This screening method can simultaneously analyze over 100 veterinary drugs in meat, milk, eggs, and fish in a single analytical run.

  12. A Comprehensive Review of School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Programs and Their Implications for School Health: Do the Controversies Accurately Reflect the Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Dominique G.; Bass, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whereas legislation for body mass index (BMI) surveillance and screening programs has passed in 25 states, the programs are often subject to ethical debates about confidentiality and privacy, school-to-parent communication, and safety and self-esteem issues for students. Despite this debate, no comprehensive analysis has been completed…

  13. Validation of a qualitative screening method for pesticides in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portoles, T.; Mol, J.G.J.; Sancho, J.V.; Lopez, F.J.; Hernandez, F.

    2014-01-01

    A wide-scope screening method was developed for the detection of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The method was based on gas chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (GC-(APCI)QTOF MS). A non-target acq

  14. Qualitative aspects and validation of a screening method for pesticides in vegetables and fruits based on liquid chromatography coupled to full scan high resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.G.J.; Zomer, P.; Koning, de A.

    2012-01-01

    The analytical capabilities of liquid chromatography with single-stage high-resolution mass spectrometry have been investigated with emphasis on qualitative aspects related to selective detection during screening and to identification. The study involved 21 different vegetable and fruit commodities,

  15. Target analysis and retrospective screening of veterinary drugs, ergot alkaloids, plant toxins and other undesirable substances in feed using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Nuria; Pastor, Agustín; Yusà, Vicent

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive strategy combining a quantitative method for 77 banned veterinary drugs, mycotoxins, ergot alkaloids and plant toxins, and a post-target screening for 425 substances including pesticides and environmental contaminants in feed were developed using a QuEChERS-based extraction and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The quantitative method was validated after previous statistical optimisation of the main parameters governing ionisation, and presented recoveries ranging, in general, from 80 to 120%, with a precision in terms of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) lower than 20%. The full-scan accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50000 FWHM and a mass accuracy lower than 5ppm. The method LOQ was lower than 12.5µgkg(-1) for the majority of the veterinary drugs and plant toxins and 20µgkg(-1) for ergot alkaloids. For post-target screening a customised theoretical database including the exact mass, the polarity of acquisition and the expected adducts was built and used for post-run retrospective screening. The analytical strategy was applied to 32 feed samples collected from farms of the Valencia Region (Spain). Florfenicol, zearalenone and atropine were identified and quantified at concentrations around 10µgkg(-1). In the post-target screening of the real samples, Sulfadiazine, Thrimetoprin and Pirimiphosmethyl were tentatively identified.

  16. A Comprehensive Review of School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Programs and Their Implications for School Health: Do the Controversies Accurately Reflect the Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Dominique G.; Bass, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whereas legislation for body mass index (BMI) surveillance and screening programs has passed in 25 states, the programs are often subject to ethical debates about confidentiality and privacy, school-to-parent communication, and safety and self-esteem issues for students. Despite this debate, no comprehensive analysis has been completed…

  17. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  18. Application of parallel liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for high throughput microsomal stability screening of compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongda; Nemes, Csaba; Jenkins, Kelly M; Rourick, Robyn A; Kassel, Daniel B; Liu, Charles Z C

    2002-02-01

    Solution-phase and solid-phase parallel synthesis and high throughput screening have enabled biologically active and selective compounds to be identified at an unprecedented rate. The challenge has been to convert these hits into viable development candidates. To accelerate the conversion of these hits into lead development candidates, early assessment of the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of these compounds is being made. In particular, in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) assays are being conducted at earlier and earlier stages of discovery with the goal of reducing the attrition rate of these potential drug candidates as they progress through development. In this report, we present an eight-channel parallel liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) system in combination with custom Visual Basic and Applescript automated data processing applications for high throughput early ADME. The parallel LC/MS system was configured with one set of gradient LC pumps and an eight-channel multiple probe autosampler. The flow was split equivalently into eight streams before the multiple probe autosampler and recombined after the eight columns and just prior to the mass spectrometer ion source. The system was tested for column-to-column variation and for reproducibility over a 17 h period (approximately 500 injections per column). The variations in retention time and peak area were determined to be less than 2 and 10%, respectively, in both tests. The parallel LC/MS system described permits time-course microsomal incubations (t(o), t5, t15, t30) to be measured in triplicate and enables estimations of t 1/2 microsomal stability. The parallel LC/MS system is capable of analyzing up to 240 samples per hour and permits the complete profiling up to two microtiter plates of compounds per day (i.e., 176 test substrate compounds + sixteen controls).

  19. High throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry screening of microbial growth conditions for maximal β-glucosidase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang eCheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biofuels via enzymatic hydrolysis of complex plant polysaccharides is a subject of intense global interest. Microbial communities are known to express a wide range of enzymes necessary for the saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks and serve as a powerful reservoir for enzyme discovery. However, the growth temperature and conditions that yield high cellulase activity vary widely, and the throughput to identify optimal conditions has been limited by the slow handling and conventional analysis. A rapid method that uses small volumes of isolate culture to resolve specific enzyme activity is needed. In this work, a high throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS based approach was developed for screening a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete, Thermobispora bispora, for β-glucosidase production under various growth conditions. Media that produced high β-glucosidase activity were found to be I/S + glucose or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Medium 84 + rolled oats, and M9TE + MCC at 45 °C. Supernatants of cell cultures grown in M9TE + 1% MCC cleaved 2.5 times more substrate at 45 °C than at all other temperatures. While T. bispora is reported to grow optimally at 60 °C in Medium 84 + rolled oats and M9TE + 1% MCC, approximately 40% more conversion was observed at 45 °C. This high throughput NIMS approach may provide an important tool in discovery and characterization of enzymes from environmental microbes for industrial and biofuel applications.

  20. A Comprehensive and Effective Mass Spectrometry-Based Screening Strategy for Discovery and Identification of New Brassinosteroids from Rice Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Peiyong; Yan, Jijun; Li, Bingbing; Fang, Shuang; Fan, Jinshi; Tian, Hailong; Shi, Yong; Tian, Weisheng; Yan, Cunyu; Chu, Jinfang

    2016-01-01

    The exploration and identification of new brassinosteroid (BR) compounds is critical to improve the biosynthetic research of BRs and expand the chemodiversity of active BRs. However, traditional methods are labor-intensive, time-consuming, and less sensitive. Here, we present a facile screening strategy for discovering and identifying novel BRs from plant tissues based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). A total of 14 potential BRs were discovered from only 1 g of rice tissues and structurally elucidated by following a MS-based clue, acquired through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) data-dependent enhanced product ion (EPI) scan, high resolution MS, and MS survey-dependent MS/MS. One of the 14 candidates was identified as 6-deoxo-28-homotyphasterol, a brand new BR compound that is reported for the first time in the BRs biosynthesis pathway. Detailed comparison with reference standards and quantitative level analysis in rice BR mutants confirmed the availability of the other candidates. This effective, yet simple method provides an efficient way to find more and more chemically new BR biosynthetic intermediates in plants, which is significant for complementing the biosynthesis and metabolism network of BRs. This strategy may also be used to discover unknown compounds of other plant hormone species as well as their key metabolites.

  1. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E.; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L.; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E.; Hall, Seth E.; Wieland, Jamie R.; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C.; Mulligan, Christopher C.

    2016-12-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines.

  2. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E.; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L.; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E.; Hall, Seth E.; Wieland, Jamie R.; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C.; Mulligan, Christopher C.

    2017-06-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Laenderyggens degeneration og radiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper Kjaerulf; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common conditions, and at the same time one of the most complex nosological entities. The lifetime prevalence is approximately 80%, and radiological features of lumbar degeneration are almost universal in adults. The individual risk factors for LBP and signi......Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common conditions, and at the same time one of the most complex nosological entities. The lifetime prevalence is approximately 80%, and radiological features of lumbar degeneration are almost universal in adults. The individual risk factors for LBP...... and significant relationships between radiological findings and subjective symptoms have both been notoriously difficult to identify. The lack of consensus on clinical criteria and radiological definitions has hampered the undertaking of properly executed epidemiological studies. The natural history of LBP...

  4. Radiologic Technology Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the radiologic technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories; Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); Program…

  5. Screen viewing, body mass index, cigarette smoking and sleep duration in Belgrade University student population: results of an observational, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Igor; Malbasa, Milica; Ristic, Sinisa; Turjacanin, Drenka; Medenica, Snezana; Paunovic, Jovana; Pantic, Senka

    2011-07-01

    Subjects that spend more time working on computers or watching television could have a higher body mass index. To assess the relationship between time spent in front of a screen and studying, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and sleep duration among university students. A cross-sectional study of 734 randomly selected students aged 21 ± 2 years (450 females) that responded an anonymous, structured questionnaire about time spent watching television or in front of a computer, time spent studying, number of daily hours of sleep, smoking habits and number of daily meals. Body mass index was also calculated for all subjects Among males, the number of daily sleep hours, time spent working with computers and number of daily meals were significantly higher and time spent studying was significantly lower than females. Nonsmokers ate a significantly higher number of meals and spent less time watching television. No association was observed between time spent in front of a screen and number of sleep hours of body mass index. Men and smokers spend more time working in computers. There is no association between body mass index and time spent in front of screens.

  6. Hygiene in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp-Schwoerer, A.; Daschner, F.

    1987-07-01

    A survey is given of the hygienic management in radiological departments with special regard to the handling of injections and infusions. It includes prevention of bacterial as well as viral infections. In radiological departments disinfection of X-ray tables is necessary only in exceptional cases. A special proposal for disinfection is added. A safe method of sterilisation of flexible catheders is included, which proved to prevent bacterial infection.

  7. Radiologic science for technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushong, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    This book provides in-depth coverage of physics, biology and protection for the radiologic technology student. It presents a significant portion of all of the science required of radiologic technology students under one cover. Chapter content reflects a readable and practical organization with outlines listed on the first page of each chapter and sample problems at the end. New to this edition are: new and expanded sections on radiation techniques, digital imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound.

  8. Double screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, Pierre [Department of Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hu, Wayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Joyce, Austin [Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ribeiro, Raquel H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  9. Application of high-throughput affinity-selection mass spectrometry for screening of chemical compound libraries in lead discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehender, Hartmut; Mayr, Lorenz M

    2007-02-01

    High-throughput screening of chemical libraries for compounds that interfere with a particular molecular target is among the most powerful methodologies applied in lead discovery at present. In this review, the authors describe a label-free, homogeneous, affinity-selection-based technology developed at Novartis, termed SpeedScreen, which is compared with similar technologies used for high-throughput screening in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. The focus at present of SpeedScreen is twofold: first, this technology is applied to orphan genomic targets and to those targets that are non-tractable by a functional assay; second, this technology is applied complementary to the well-established traditional methodologies for the screening of molecular targets. In summary, the authors discuss the value of affinity-selection-based high-throughput screening as a complementary technology to the common functional screening platforms and the benefits as well as the limitations of this new technology are outlined.

  10. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  11. Effectiveness of diagnostic screening tests in mass screening for COPD using a cooperative regional system in a region with heavy air pollution: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaki, Kenji; Ikeda, Hisao; Fukuda, Takeshi; Yuki, Fumiko; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Kawano, Yuhei; Kawasaki, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a cooperative healthcare model for early detection and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods This was a cross-sectional observational study. We performed diagnosis of COPD at 4 public health centres in Ōmuta, Japan from March 2015 to March 2016, by adding screening for COPD at the time of routine medical evaluations. All patients aged over 40 years were eligible to participate. Among 397 eligible patients, 293 agreed to participate in the study. Results The estimated prevalence of COPD in Ōmuta was 10% among patients aged over 40 years and was 17% among smokers. Among those who were screened, over half of them had questionnaire scores over the cut-off of 17 points and decreased FEV1/FVC%, indicating COPD (p>0.05). 30 patients with suspected COPD were referred for further investigation at a local central hospital, but only 6 underwent further medical examinations. Conclusions The combination of a COPD questionnaire and medical examination is effective as a COPD screening tool. Future research should investigate behavioural interventions for smoking cessation that can be offered in a cooperative model, as well as for improving participation in COPD screening and for encouraging early presentation for treatment in those suspected of having COPD. PMID:28082365

  12. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina

    2016-01-01

    be given to population screening programmes on a territorial basis, with double reading. Adoption of digital mammography (not film-screen or phosphor-plate computer radiography) is a priority, which also improves sensitivity in dense breasts. Radiologists qualified as screening readers should be involved...

  13. [Screening and confirmation of 24 hormones in cosmetics by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoyong; Wang, Fengmei; Niu, Zengyuan; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Gang; Chen, Junhui

    2014-05-01

    A method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS) was established to screen and confirm 24 hormones in cosmetics. Various cosmetic samples were extracted with methanol. The extract was loaded onto a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) using a gradient elution of acetonitrile/water containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid for the separation. The accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion was acquired by full scanning of electrostatic field orbitrap. The rapid screening was carried out by the accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion. The confirmation analysis for targeted compounds was performed with the retention time and qualitative fragments obtained by data dependent scan mode. Under the optimal conditions, the 24 hormones were routinely detected with mass accuracy error below 3 x 10(-6) (3 ppm), and good linearities were obtained in their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The LODs (S/N = 3) of the 24 compounds were hormones in 50 cosmetic samples. The results demonstrate that the method is a useful tool for the rapid screening and identification of the hormones in cosmetics.

  14. Wide-scope screening and quantification of 50 pesticides in wine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography/quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Cheng, Haiyan; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a wide scope screening method of pesticides in wine was established using liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) and liquid chromatography/quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT MS). Information dependent acquisition (IDA) experiments are used to obtain both MS and MS/MS information for LC-QTOF MS analysis. For LC-QqLIT MS analysis, MS/MS spectra of target pesticides were simultaneously acquired using Enhanced Product Ion (EPI) mode at very low concentrations to increase the confidence in analytical results of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) by library searching. Method validation was carried out using 50 pesticides commonly used in vineyards. The LOQs, linearity, repeatability were determined and good enough for quantification. The screening and quantification results obtained using LC-QTOF MS and LC-QqLIT MS were compared. Contaminants were screened against libraries containing over 2800 compounds based on accurate mass, isotopic patterns, and MS/MS spectra searching to extend the scope of this methodology to non-target screening.

  15. Prediagnostic Body Mass Index Trajectories in Relation to Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott P; Graubard, Barry I; Andreotti, Gabriella; Younes, Naji; Cleary, Sean D; Cook, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Evidence suggests that obesity in adulthood is associated with increased risk of "clinically significant" prostate cancer. However, studies of body mass index (BMI) across the adult life course and prostate cancer risks remain limited. In a prospective cohort of 69 873 men in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, we examined associations of prediagnostic BMI across the adult life course with risk of incident prostate cancer and fatal prostate cancer (prostate cancer-specific mortality). At 13 years of follow-up, we identified 7822 incident prostate cancer cases, of which 3078 were aggressive and 255 fatal. BMI trajectories were determined using latent-class trajectory modeling. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). BMI at age 20 years, 50 years, and baseline questionnaire (mean age = 63 years) were associated with increased risks of fatal prostate cancer (HRs = 1.27-1.32 per five-unit increase). In five BMI trajectories identified, fatal prostate cancer risk was increased in men who had a normal BMI (HR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.12) or who were overweight (HR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.35 to 5.18) at age 20 years and developed obesity by baseline compared with men who maintained a normal BMI. Aggressive and nonaggressive prostate cancer were not associated with BMI, and modest inverse associations were seen for total prostate cancer. Our results suggest that BMI trajectories during adulthood that result in obesity lead to an elevated risk of fatal prostate cancer. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Potential of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for screening and quantification of hexabromocyclododecane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Carlos; Portolés, Tania; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Abad, Esteban; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Fiedler, Heidelore; Gómara, Belén; Beltrán, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    A fast method for the screening and quantification of hexabromocyclododecane (sum of all isomers) by gas chromatography using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (GC-APCI-QqQ) is proposed. This novel procedure makes use of the soft atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source, which results in less fragmentation of the analyte than by conventional electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) sources, favoring the formation of the [M - Br](+) ion and, thus, enhancing sensitivity and selectivity. Detection was based on the consecutive loses of HBr from the [M - Br](+) ion to form the specific [M - H5Br6](+) and [M - H4Br5](+) ions, which were selected as quantitation (Q) and qualification (q) transitions, respectively. Parameters affecting ionization and MS/MS detection were studied. Method performance was also evaluated; calibration curves were found linear from 1 pg/μL to 100 pg/μL for the total HBCD concentration; instrumental detection limit was estimated to be 0.10 pg/μL; repeatability and reproducibility, expressed as relative standard deviation, were better than 7% in both cases. The application to different real samples [polyurethane foam disks (PUFs), food, and marine samples] pointed out a rapid way to identify and allow quantification of this compound together with a number of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE congeners 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, and 209) and two other novel brominated flame retardants [i.e., decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE)] because of their presence in the same fraction when performing the usual sample treatment.

  17. The Future of Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R. Margulis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been my good fortune to live and practice radiology during a long period of momentous change – to see the transformation of the discipline from a supportive service into a mainstream, essential branch of clinical medicine. I remember wearing red goggles to adapt my vision before performing fluoroscopy; observing the horrible, now thankfully obsolete, practice of ventriculography, which was considered advanced neuroradiology; and performing other, now rarely prescribed procedures, such as double-contrast barium enemas and intravenous pyelography. Witnessing the beginnings of interventional radiology, I suggested its name in an editorial. I also had the good fortune to see the introduction of computed tomography (CT and a technology first known as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Together with fellow members of a committee of the American College of Radiology and editors of prestigious radiological journals, I took part in changing the name of the latter modality to MRI, freeing it from threatening implications. Looking back on these experiences, one lesson stands out above all: Innovation and transformation never cease. Looking forward, it is clear that radiology, along with the rest of medicine, is now undergoing further momentous changes that will affect the future of all those already practicing as well as those yet to start their careers.

  18. RADIOLOGY INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade R. Babić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of information systems in health care is approaching the process of integration of various systems used in a single computer so that we witness today the omnipresent idea of merging the functions of the clinical-hospital (CHIS and radiology (RIS information system. Radiological Information System (RIS is a technology solution to complete computerization and modernization of the work of the radiology center, and transition from film to paper and ful electronic management and digital recordings. RIS creates the digital radiology center where information is always available at the right place and at the right time. Within the realisation of RIS, it is necessary to follow the standards and systems relating to the specific RIS, which are: DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System, HL7 (Health Level Seven. The relevant links of modern RIS are teleradiology and mobile radiology. The authors conclude that the introduction of RIS, HIS and other information systems are reflected in the automation, reduction of possible errors, increase in diagnostic and therapeutic quality, lower costs for materials, the increase in efficiency, saving time and others.

  19. Radiological protection; Proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin N, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Division de Ciencias e Ingenieria, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon de los Aldama, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    This work is directed to all those people related with the exercise of the radiological protection and has the purpose of providing them a base of knowledge in this discipline so that they can make decisions documented on technical and scientist factors for the protection of the personnel occupationally exposed, the people in general and the environment during the work with ionizing radiations. Before de lack of a text on this matter, this work seeks to cover the specific necessities of our country, providing a solid presentation of the radiological protection, included the bases of the radiations physics, the detection and radiation dosimetry, the radiobiology, the normative and operational procedures associates, the radioactive wastes, the emergencies and the transport of the radioactive material through the medical and industrial applications of the radiations, making emphasis in the relative particular aspects to the radiological protection in Mexico. The book have 16 chapters and with the purpose of supplementing the given information, are included at the end four appendixes: 1) the radioactive waste management in Mexico, 2-3) the Mexican official standards related with the radiological protection, 4) a terms glossary used in radiological protection. We hope this book will be of utility for those people that work in the investigation and the applications of the ionizing radiations. (Author)

  20. Screening and identification of various components in Thalictrum fortunei using a combination of liquid chromatography/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H X; Zeng, Y C; Jia, B Y; Fang, C F; Cheng, W M

    2012-02-01

    An approach for screening and identification of various components in a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), using a combination of LC/TOF-MS technique was described in this paper. The chemical profile of Thalictrum fortunei, well-known in TCM, was studied using the established method. The possibilities of screening and identifying non-target components inside TCM with modern data acquisition methods of acceleration time of flight mass spectrometers, such as data-dependent MS to MS/MS switching were investigated. As a result, 27 components were identified. This study was aimed to screen and identify the main components of T. fortunei using LC/TOF-MS, expecting to provide a rapid, sensitive, economical and systematical method for the identification and further quality evaluation of TCM preparation.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms based on five year results from a randomised hospital based mass screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S.; Juul, Svend; Fasting, Helge

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All 12,639 men born in the years 1921-1933 (aged 64-73) living in Viborg County, Denmark, were randomly allocated either to receive an invitation...... according to complications in patient records. RESULTS: Mean follow-up time was 52 months. 76.6% of invited men attended screening, and 191 (4.0%) had an AAA. As previously reported, the cumulative 5-year AAA-specific mortality in the invited group was significantly reduced by 67% compared to the control...... group (P = 0.003). The costs were estimated to be Euro 11.23 per scan. The costs per life-year saved were Euro 9057 (Euro 5872-20,063) after 5 years, and were expected to decrease to Euro 2708 (Euro 1758-6031) after 10 years and to Euro 1825 (Euro 1185-4063) after 15 years. CONCLUSION: Screening of 64...

  2. Radiological findings of pulmonary aspergillosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kounn Sik; Im, Chung Kie [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-02-15

    The pulmonary aspergillosis is a group of three separate disease, comprising invasive aspergillosis, aspergilloma, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or a disease process in which one of three entities overlap with another process such as mucoid impaction, pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia, bronchocentric granulomatosis, microgranulomatous hypersensitivity, or asthma. The radiological findings of 24 cases of pulmonary aspergillosis diagnosed and treated at Seoul National University Hospital during the past 7 years were analyzed retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnosis of 24 cases of pulmonary aspergillosis was aspergilloma in 16 cases, invasive aspergillosis in 2 cases, variant form of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in 3 cases, and endobronchial aspergillosis in 3 cases. 2. The underlying causes of the aspergilloma were healed tuberculous cavity in 6 cases, bronchiectasis in 8 cases, and no underlying cause were found in 2 cases. All the 16 cases of aspergilloma were correctly diagnosed without difficultly by demonstrating the intracavitary mass or air meniscus. 3. Radiological findings of the invasive aspergillosis in kidney transplant patients were multiple round nodules with early cavitation and formation of aspergilloma which shows slowly progressive cavitation over 13 months in one case, and diffusely scattered miliary nodules with occasional cavitation in the other case. 4. Classic allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis were not found in our series but variant form of ABPA was found in 3 young female patients. All the three patients shows some degree of central bronchiectasis and combined aspergilloma was found in 2 cases. 5. Three patients diagnosed as endobronchial aspergillosis-saprophytic infection of aspergillus in the bronchial tree-by bronchoscopic biopsy shows nonspecific radiological findings.

  3. Evaluation of a direct high-capacity target screening approach for urine drug testing using liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Aljona; Stephanson, Niclas Nikolai; Granelli, Ingrid; Villén, Tomas; Beck, Olof

    2012-11-15

    In this study a rapid liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was developed, validated and applied in order to evaluate the potential of this technique for routine urine drug testing. Approximately 800 authentic patient samples were analyzed for amphetamines (amphetamine and methamphetamine), opiates (morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, codeine and codeine-6-glucuronide) and buprenorphines (buprenorphine and buprenorphine-glucuronide) using immunochemical screening assays and mass spectrometry confirmation methods for comparison. The chromatographic application utilized a rapid gradient with high flow and a reversed phase column with 1.8 μm particles. Total analysis time was 4 min. The mass spectrometer operated with an electrospray interface in positive mode with a resolution power of >10,000 at m/z 956. The applied reporting limits were 100 ng/mL for amphetamines and opiates, and 5 ng/mL for buprenorphines, with lower limits of quantification were 2.8-41 ng/mL. Calibration curves showed a linear response with coefficients of correlation of 0.97-0.99. The intra- and interday imprecision in quantification at the reporting limits were amphetamines and opiates; 3.2% for buprenorphines) and negatives (1.8% for amphetamines; 0.6% for opiates; 0% for buprenorphines). The overall agreement between the two screening methods was between 94.2 and 97.4%. Comparison of data with the confirmation (LC-MS) results for all individual 9 analytes showed that most deviating results were produced in samples with low levels of analytes. False negatives were mainly related to failure of detected peak to meet mass accuracy criteria (±20 mDa). False positives was related to presence of interfering peaks meeting mass accuracy and retention time criteria and occurred mainly at low levels. It is concluded that liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry has potential both as a complement and as replacement of immunochemical screening

  4. Organizational decentralization in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    At present, most hospitals have a department of radiology where images are captured and interpreted. Decentralization is the opposite of centralization and means 'away from the centre'. With a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and broadband communications, transmitting radiology images between sites will be far easier than before. Qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons were performed in Norway. There was a response rate of 90%. Decentralization of radiology interpretations seems less relevant than centralization, but several forms of decentralization have a role to play. The respondents mentioned several advantages, including exploitation of capacity and competence. They also mentioned several disadvantages, including splitting professional communities and reduced contact between radiologists and clinicians. With the new technology decentralization and centralization of image interpretation are important possibilities in organizational change. This will be important for the future of teleradiology.

  5. Systematic screening and characterization of glycosides in tobacco leaves by liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry using neutral loss scan and product ion scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Sheng; Yu, Jingjing; Qin, Yaqiong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Xie, Fuwei

    2015-12-01

    Glycosides in tobacco leaves are highly important aromatic precursors. It is necessary to reveal glycosides in tobacco leaves to improve tobacco planting and processing. This study describes a method for the systematic screening of glycosides in tobacco leaves by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Although glycosides contain numerous aglycones, the number of glycans is limited. Based on a screening table of glycans designed for neutral loss scan, glycosides with different aglycones were systematically screened out. Then, the MS(2) fragment spectra of scanned glycosides were further obtained using product ion scan. By comparison with the spectra in online tandem mass spectral databases, reported references, and verification by commercial standards, 64 glycosides were detected, including 39 glycosides linked with monosaccharides, 18 glycosides linked with disaccharides and 7 glycosides linked with trisaccharides. It is noteworthy that glycosides linked with trisaccharides have previously been rarely reported in tobacco. This method appears to be a useful tool for the systematic screening and characterization of glycosides in tobacco and can potentially be applied to other plants.

  6. Screening of lysosomal storage disorders: application of the online trapping-and-cleanup liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombrone, Daniela; Malvagia, Sabrina; Funghini, Silvia; Giocaliere, Elisa; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Forni, Giulia; De Luca, Alessio; Villanelli, Fabio; Casetta, Bruno; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, new treatments have become available to treat some lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) and many studies suggest that there is a benefit with starting therapy early. Newborn screening should detect diseases early enough for prompt treatment. Some countries include additional conditions, such as some LSDs, into their newborn screening panels. Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) activity. Currently, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) or bone marrow transplantation is available and this has raised a growing interest for the development of a newborn screening test. In 2009, we reported a new fast and simplified tandem mass spectrometry-based method for quantifying five enzyme activities on dried blood spots. Here, we describe the inclusion of IDUA activity determination for the simultaneous detection of six lysosomal storage diseases. We have defined reference normal ranges by testing 680 healthy newborns and 240 adults. The assay was checked through three confirmed MPS I patients whose IDUA activity was below the normal range. Reproducibility of the assays has been established by assessing the intra-day and inter-day assay imprecisions. This quick assay has been devised to be implemented in newborn screening by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

  7. A simpler sampling interface of venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry for high-throughput screening enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Liu, Yang; Yang, YuHan; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2016-03-24

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is often required in enzyme inhibitor drugs screening. Mass spectrometry (MS) provides a powerful method for high-throughput screening enzyme inhibitors because its high speed, sensitivity and property of lable free. However, most of the MS methods need complicated sampling interface system. Overall throughput was limited by sample loading in these cases. In this study, we develop a simple interface which coupled droplet segmented system to a venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometer. It is fabricated by using a single capillary to act as both sampling probe and the emitter, which simplifies the construction, reduces the cost and shorten the sampling time. Samples sucked by venturi effect are segmented to nanoliter plugs by air, then the plugs can be detected by MS directly. This system eliminated the need for flow injection which was popular used in classic scheme. The new system is applied to screen angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. High-throughput was achieved in analyzing 96 samples at 1.6 s per sample. The plugs formation was at 0.5s per sample. Carry-over between samples was less than 5%, the peak height RSD was 2.92% (n = 15). Dose-response curves of 3 known inhibitors were also measured to validate its potential in drug discovery. The calculated IC50 agreed well with reported values.

  8. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  9. Radiology's value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  10. Use of time-of-flight mass spectrometry for large screening of organic pollutants in surface waters and soils from a rice production area in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Portolés Nicolau, Tania; Hernández Hernández, Félix; Díaz San Pedro, Ramón; Ibáñez Martínez, María; Bustos López, Martha Cristina; Botero Coy, Ana María; Fuentes, C. L.; Peñuela, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The irrigate district of Usosaldaña, an important agricultural area in Colombia mainly devoted to rice crop production, is subjected to an intensive use of pesticides. Monitoring these compounds is necessary to know the impact of phytosanitary products in the different environmental compartments. In this work, surface water and soil samples from different sites of this area have been analyzed by applying an analytical methodology for large screening based on the use of time-of-flight mass spe...

  11. Radiological worker training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  12. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, S.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilcox, D.P. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  13. Radiological sciences dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Dowsett, David

    2009-01-01

    The Radiological Sciences Dictionary is a rapid reference guide for all hospital staff employed in diagnostic imaging, providing definitions of over 3000 keywords as applied to the technology of diagnostic radiology.Written in a concise and easy to digest form, the dictionary covers a wide variety of subject matter, including:· radiation legislation and measurement · computing and digital imaging terminology· nuclear medicine radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals· radiographic contrast agents (x-ray, MRI and ultrasound)· definitions used in ultrasound and MRI technology· statistical exp

  14. High-grade histologic features of DCIS are associated with R5 rather than R3 calcifications in breast screening mammography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    Mammographic calcification is an important radiologic feature of early breast carcinoma whose index of suspicion for malignancy may be reported by a five-tier R-category system. This study aims to describe the histologic diagnoses underlying screen-detected mammographic calcifications using both digital and screen-film mammography, and to correlate these findings with radiologic R-categories. Patients attending the Merrion Breast Screening Unit in Dublin between 2000 and 2011 were identified, who underwent needle-core biopsy for assessment of mammographic calcifications without associated mass or architectural distortion. Radiologic R-category was correlated with biopsy and excision histology reports. A total of 776 cases of calcification were identified, involving 769 individual patients. The radiologic R-categories were as follows: R3 513 (66.1%), R4 192 (24.7%), R5 71 (9.1%). The positive predictive values for malignancy were R3 32.6%, R4 69.8%, R5 95.8%. Several histologic features of DCIS were associated with R5 rather than R3 radiology: high nuclear grade, solid or cribriform architecture, necrosis, periductal inflammation or fibrosis, and associated microinvasive or invasive carcinoma. Mammographic lesions and histologic whole and invasive tumors increased in size from R3 to R5. Radiologic size of calcifications correlated with whole (but not invasive) tumor size, although it tended to underestimate it by several millimeters. Digital-detected calcifications were more likely than screen-film detected to be categorized as R3 and less likely R4 or R5, and there was no significant difference in positive predictive value between the two imaging techniques in any R-category. In conclusion, histologic features of DCIS, in particular those associated with high grade, are associated with R5 radiology. There is no significant difference in positive predictive value for malignancy in any R-category between digital and screen-film mammography.

  15. HAMS: High-Affinity Mass Spectrometry Screening. A High-Throughput Screening Method for Identifying the Tightest-Binding Lead Compounds for Target Proteins with No False Positive Identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaduwage, Kasun P.; Go, Eden P.; Zhu, Zhikai; Desaire, Heather

    2016-09-01

    A major challenge in drug discovery is the identification of high affinity lead compounds that bind a particular target protein; these leads are typically identified by high throughput screens. Mass spectrometry has become a detection method of choice in drug screening assays because the target and the ligand need not be modified. Label-free assays are advantageous because they can be developed more rapidly than assays requiring labels, and they eliminate the risk of the label interfering with the binding event. However, in commonly used MS-based screening methods, detection of false positives is a major challenge. Here, we describe a detection strategy designed to eliminate false positives. In this approach, the protein and the ligands are incubated together, and the non-binders are separated for detection. Hits (protein binders) are not detectable by MS after incubation with the protein, but readily identifiable by MS when the target protein is not present in the incubation media. The assay was demonstrated using three different proteins and hundreds of non-inhibitors; no false positive hits were identified in any experiment. The assay can be tuned to select for ligands of a particular binding affinity by varying the quantity of protein used and the immobilization method. As examples, the method selectively detected inhibitors that have Ki values of 0.2 μM, 50 pM, and 700 pM. These findings demonstrate that the approach described here compares favorably with traditional MS-based screening methods.

  16. HAMS: High-Affinity Mass Spectrometry Screening. A High-Throughput Screening Method for Identifying the Tightest-Binding Lead Compounds for Target Proteins with No False Positive Identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaduwage, Kasun P.; Go, Eden P.; Zhu, Zhikai; Desaire, Heather

    2016-11-01

    A major challenge in drug discovery is the identification of high affinity lead compounds that bind a particular target protein; these leads are typically identified by high throughput screens. Mass spectrometry has become a detection method of choice in drug screening assays because the target and the ligand need not be modified. Label-free assays are advantageous because they can be developed more rapidly than assays requiring labels, and they eliminate the risk of the label interfering with the binding event. However, in commonly used MS-based screening methods, detection of false positives is a major challenge. Here, we describe a detection strategy designed to eliminate false positives. In this approach, the protein and the ligands are incubated together, and the non-binders are separated for detection. Hits (protein binders) are not detectable by MS after incubation with the protein, but readily identifiable by MS when the target protein is not present in the incubation media. The assay was demonstrated using three different proteins and hundreds of non-inhibitors; no false positive hits were identified in any experiment. The assay can be tuned to select for ligands of a particular binding affinity by varying the quantity of protein used and the immobilization method. As examples, the method selectively detected inhibitors that have Ki values of 0.2 μM, 50 pM, and 700 pM. These findings demonstrate that the approach described here compares favorably with traditional MS-based screening methods.

  17. Radiologic quality and safety: mapping value into radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensen, Stephen J; Johnson, C Daniel

    2005-12-01

    The authors have created a radiology quality map to help understand the opportunities for improvement in the radiologic safety, reliability, quality, and appropriateness of examinations and interventions. It entails 9 steps with dozens of specific opportunities for improving care to patients. The radiology profession has an obligation to robustly document and improve quality and safety in its practice.

  18. Action research regarding the optimisation of radiological protection for nurses during vascular interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hiroshige

    2015-06-01

    The optimisation and decision-making processes for radiological protection have been broadened by the introduction of re-examination or feedback after introducing protective measures. In this study, action research was used to reduce the occupational exposure of vascular interventional radiology (IR) nurses. Four radiological protection improvement measures were continuously performed in cooperation with the researchers, nurses and stakeholders, and the nurses' annual effective doses were compared before and after the improvements. First, the dosimetry equipment was changed from one electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) to two silver-activated phosphate glass dosimeters (PGDs). Second, the nurses were educated regarding maintaining a safe distance from the sources of scattered and leakage radiation. Third, portable radiation shielding screens were placed in the IR rooms. Fourth, the x-ray units' pulse rates were reduced by half. On changing the dosimetry method, the two PGDs recorded a 4.4 fold greater dose than the single EPD. Educating nurses regarding radiological protection and reducing the pulse rates by half decreased their effective doses to one-third and two-fifths of the baseline dose, respectively. No significant difference in their doses was detected after the placement of the shielding screens. Therefore, the action research effectively decreased the occupational doses of the vascular IR nurses.

  19. Validation of a qualitative screening method for pesticides in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portolés, T. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Mol, J.G.J. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Sancho, J.V.; López, Francisco J. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Hernández, F., E-mail: hernandf@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Applicability of GC-(APCI)QTOF MS as new tool for wide-scope screening of pesticides in fruits and vegetables demonstrated. • Validation of screening method according to SANCO/12571/2013. • Detection of the pesticides based on the presence of M+·/MH+ in most cases. • Screening detection limit 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} for 77% of the pesticides investigated. • Successful identification at 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} for 70% of the pesticides/matrix combinations. - Abstract: A wide-scope screening method was developed for the detection of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The method was based on gas chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (GC-(APCI)QTOF MS). A non-target acquisition was performed through two alternating scan events: one at low collision energy and another at a higher collision energy ramp (MS{sup E}). In this way, both protonated molecule and/or molecular ion together with fragment ions were obtained in a single run. Validation was performed according to SANCO/12571/2013 by analysing 20 samples (10 different commodities in duplicate), fortified with a test set of 132 pesticides at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20 mg kg{sup −1}. For screening, the detection was based on one diagnostic ion (in most cases the protonated molecule). Overall, at the 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} level, 89% of the 2620 fortifications made were detected. The screening detection limit for individual pesticides was 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} for 77% of the pesticides investigated. The possibilities for identification according to the SANCO criteria, requiring two ions with a mass accuracy ≤±5 ppm and an ion-ratio deviation ≤±30%, were investigated. At the 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} level, identification was possible for 70% of the pesticides detected during screening. This increased to 87% and 93% at the 0.05 and 0.20 mg kg{sup −1} level, respectively. Insufficient sensitivity for the second

  20. Practical considerations for the rapid screening for pesticides using ambient pressure desorption ionisation with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, S E; Lin, L A; Parrales, L

    2011-10-01

    A rapid screening method for pesticides has been developed to streamline the processing of produce entering the United States. Foam swabs were used to recover multi-class mixtures of 240, 140, 132 and 60 pesticides from the surfaces of apples, kiwis, peaches and tomatoes. The mixtures were selected to span a large range of chemical classes, polarities, solubilities and sizes to provide a broad look at how this technique will perform for a variety of analytes. The swabs were analysed using direct analysis in real-time (DART) ionisation coupled with a high-resolution Exactive Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer. This study expands the types of commodities analysed using this method and explores the feasibility of compositing multiple units of produce per batch to analyse a representative sample. It was established that whilst smooth-skinned produce, such as apples, maintained a high detection rate for the pesticide mixtures even when ten apples are swabbed with one foam disk, commodities with rougher surfaces, such as peaches, suffered a decrease in detection rate when ten peaches are swabbed with one foam disk. In order to maintain some consistency across the sample preparation process, a composite size of three units was selected. The varying topography of the commodities necessitated minor modifications to the method; for example, analysis of kiwi required that the hair on the surface be shaved prior to swabbing to achieve good recovery. Additionally, the effect of storage conditions on detection rate was analysed by spiking the surface of tomatoes at levels of 5 and 10 ng g(-1) for each pesticide, storing them under refrigeration and ambient conditions for 3 and 8 days, and then analysing the surface using this method. After 8 days of storage under both conditions more than 80% of the pesticides in the mixture were detected. Also, analysis of the multi-class mixtures was performed in both positive- and negative-ion mode and many classes were detected in both modes

  1. Radiological Approach to Forefoot Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Chung Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forefoot pain is a common clinical complaint in orthopaedic practice. In this article, we discuss the anatomy of the forefoot, clinical and radiological approaches to forefoot pain, and common painful forefoot disorders and their associated radiological features.

  2. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  3. Mass Screening of Multiple Abdominal Solid Organs Using Mobile Helical Computed Tomography Scanner—A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Ishikawa

    2007-04-01

    Conclusion: Qualitative diagnoses of solid tumours were difficult using CT findings without contrast medium. CT screening procedures require further investigation in aspect of the selection of examinees, CT scanning procedure, sensitivity and specificity, and cost-effectiveness.

  4. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  5. Radiology of spinal curvature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Smet, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book offers the only comprehensive, concise summary of both the clinical and radiologic features of thoracic and lumbar spine deformity. Emphasis is placed on idiopathic scoliosis, which represents 85% of all patients with scoliosis, but less common areas of secondary scoliosis, kyphosis and lordosis are also covered.

  6. Paediatric musculoskeletal interventional radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Fruhwirth, Rodolfo; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Parapatt, George K; Toma', Paolo; Rollo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Interventional radiology technique is now well established and widely used in the adult population. Through minimally invasive procedures, it increasingly replaces surgical interventions that involve higher percentages of invasiveness and, consequently, of morbidity and mortality. For these advantageous reasons, interventional radiology in recent years has spread to the paediatric age as well. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the development, use and perspectives of these procedures in the paediatric musculoskeletal field. Several topics are covered: osteomuscle neoplastic malignant and benign pathologies treated with invasive diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures such as radiofrequency ablation in the osteoid osteoma; invasive and non-invasive procedures in vascular malformations; treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts; and role of interventional radiology in paediatric inflammatory and rheumatic inflammations. The positive results that have been generated with interventional radiology procedures in the paediatric field highly encourage both the development of new ad hoc materials, obviously adapted to young patients, as well as the improvement of such techniques, in consideration of the fact that childrens' pathologies do not always correspond to those of adults. In conclusion, as these interventional procedures have proven to be less invasive, with lower morbidity and mortality rates as well, they are becoming a viable and valid alternative to surgery in the paediatric population. PMID:26235144

  7. Radiologic Technology Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a radiologic technology program. The guide contains four major sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining purpose and objectives; a program description,…

  8. Radiologic manifestations in alcaptonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, P.; Andersen, P.E.

    1984-03-01

    Alcaptonuria is a rare, hereditary disorder of amino acid metabolism, secondary to lack of homogentisic acid oxydase. As a consequence, there is an accumulation of homogenitisic acid, which is excreted in the urine and deposited in the connective tissues. This deposition results in ochronotic pigmentation and arthropathy, of which some characteristic radiological findings are demonstrated.

  9. Ethical problems in radiology: radiological consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Bergamaschi, A

    2009-10-01

    One of the causes of the increasing request for radiological examinations occurring in all economically developed countries is the active role played by the patient-consumer. Consumerism places the radiologist in an ethical dilemma, between the principle of autonomy on the one hand and the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice on the other. The choice made by radiologists in moral dilemmas is inspired by an adherence to moral principles, which in Italy and elsewhere refer to the Judaeo-Christian tradition or to neo-Darwinian relativism. Whatever the choice, the radiologist is bound to adhere to that choice and to provide the patient with all the relevant information regarding his or her state of health.

  10. Mammographic screening: keeping women alive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of: Tabar L, Vitak B, Chen TH et al. Swedish Two-County Trial: impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality during 3 decades. Radiology 260(3), 658-663 (2011). In the 1980s, the periodic invitation of women aged 40-69 years for mammographic screening in the Swedish Two-Coun

  11. Validation of a qualitative screening method for pesticides in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolés, T; Mol, J G J; Sancho, J V; López, Francisco J; Hernández, F

    2014-08-01

    A wide-scope screening method was developed for the detection of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The method was based on gas chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (GC-(APCI)QTOF MS). A non-target acquisition was performed through two alternating scan events: one at low collision energy and another at a higher collision energy ramp (MS(E)). In this way, both protonated molecule and/or molecular ion together with fragment ions were obtained in a single run. Validation was performed according to SANCO/12571/2013 by analysing 20 samples (10 different commodities in duplicate), fortified with a test set of 132 pesticides at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20mg kg(-1). For screening, the detection was based on one diagnostic ion (in most cases the protonated molecule). Overall, at the 0.01mg kg(-1) level, 89% of the 2620 fortifications made were detected. The screening detection limit for individual pesticides was 0.01mg kg(-1) for 77% of the pesticides investigated. The possibilities for identification according to the SANCO criteria, requiring two ions with a mass accuracy ≤±5ppm and an ion-ratio deviation ≤±30%, were investigated. At the 0.01mg kg(-1) level, identification was possible for 70% of the pesticides detected during screening. This increased to 87% and 93% at the 0.05 and 0.20mg kg(-1) level, respectively. Insufficient sensitivity for the second ion was the main reason for the inability to identify detected pesticides, followed by deviations in mass accuracy and ion ratios.

  12. New UPLC coupled to mass spectrometry approaches for screening of non-volatile compounds as potential migrants from adhesives used in food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canellas, E; Nerín, C; Moore, R; Silcock, P

    2010-05-07

    The objective of this study was to identify the non-volatile compounds as potential migrants from adhesives used in food packaging. A number of the current acrylic adhesive formulations were extracted and prepared for analysis. The extracts were screened using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer detector (UPLC-TOF-MS). This approach allowed the identification of several components by a combination of exact mass and in-source collision induced dissociation (CID). Due to the lack of freely available information on adhesive formulations further analyses were undertaken using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-HDMS). Using the Mass Fragment tool to interrogate fragmentation data, a wide series of compounds were identified, demonstrating the usefulness and importance of these tools for difficult problems. Moreover, using several packaging materials containing adhesives, qualitative migration tests were performed with Tenax as a food simulant. Several non-volatile compounds were identified as well in the Tenax which emphasizes the importance of this work and demonstrates that even the non-volatile compounds have the potential to migrate into food which is in contact with packaging materials. The main characteristics of the screening study and the results obtained are shown and discussed.

  13. Orbitrap technology for comprehensive metabolite-based liquid chromatographic–high resolution-tandem mass spectrometric urine drug screening – Exemplified for cardiovascular drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfer, Andreas G.; Michely, Julian A.; Weber, Armin A.; Meyer, Markus R.; Maurer, Hans H., E-mail: hans.maurer@uks.eu

    2015-09-03

    LC–high resolution (HR)-MS well established in proteomics has become more and more important in bioanalysis of small molecules over the last few years. Its high selectivity and specificity provide best prerequisites for its use in broad screening approaches. Therefore, Orbitrap technology was tested for developing a general metabolite-based LC–HR-MS/MS screening approach for urinalysis of drugs necessary in clinical and forensic toxicology. After simple urine precipitation, the drugs and their metabolites were separated within 10 min and detected by a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer in full scan with positive/negative switching, and subsequent data dependent acquisition (DDA) mode. Identification criteria were the presence of accurate precursor ions, isotopic patterns, five most intense fragment ions, and comparison with full HR-MS/MS library spectra. The current library contains over 1900 parent drugs and 1200 metabolites. The method was validated for typical drug representatives and metabolites concerning recovery, matrix effects, process efficiency, and limits showed acceptable results. The applicability was tested first for cardiovascular drugs, which should be screened for in poisoning cases and for medication adherence of hypertension patients. The novel LC–HR-MS/MS method allowed fast, simple, and robust urine screening, particularly for cardiovascular drugs showing the usefulness of Orbitrap technology for drug testing. - Highlights: • First study on the application of Orbitrap technology for comprehensive drug screening in clinical and forensic toxicology. • Simple workup, sufficient separation, and powerful screening and identification using modern high resolution MS. • Validation of the assay according to guidelines for qualitative approaches. • Elucidation of the power of new data evaluation software in combination with a new reference drug and metabolite library. • Great relevance for science and practice in clinical and forensic

  14. Non-targeted acquisition strategy for screening doping compounds based on GC-EI-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry: A focus on exogenous anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Lucas Martins; Dos Santos, Leonardo; Zheng, Xin; Gujar, Amit; Cole, Jason; Padilha, Monica Costa; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2017-06-10

    This is a first look at a non-targeted screening method based on Orbitrap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology for a large number of banned compounds in sports found in urine, including exogenous anabolic steroids, β-agonists, narcotics, stimulants, hormone modulators, and diuretics. A simple sample preparation was processed in four steps: an enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, evaporation, and trimethylsilylation. All compounds were able to meet the World Anti-Doping Agency's sensitivity criteria with mass accuracies less than 1 ppm and with sufficient points across the peak by running the Orbitrap GC-MS in full-scan mode. In addition, we discuss our initial findings of using a full-scan selected ion monitoring-tandem mass spectrometry (SIM-MS/MS) approach as a way to obtain lower detection limits and reach desirable selectivity for some exogenous anabolic steroids. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Radiation exposure and radiological protection in interventional radiological procedures with special attention to neurointerventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Kouichirou; Sakai, Kunio [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yoshimura, Shutaro; Oka, Tetsuya; Ito, Jusuke

    2000-11-01

    It is necessary to interventional radiologists to understand the system of radiological protection recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection: justification, optimization, and individual dose and risk limits. Estimation and measurements of the radiation exposure to patients and personnel are important for radiological protection to avoid radiation injuries, such as temporal epilation and cataract. The practical principle of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) should be kept in any interventional radiological procedure. (author)

  16. [Screening and confirmation of carcinogenic dyes in textiles by high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Xiaoli; Luo, Xin; Niu, Zengyuan; Ye, Xiwen; Zhixu, Tang; Li, Jingying; Wang, Yongwei; Du, Wei

    2013-10-01

    A method of high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS) was used to screen and confirm carcinogenic dyes in textiles. The analytes were extracted from textile samples with pyridine/water (1/1, v/v) in a water bath under controlled conditions (95 degrees C, 150 r/min), and then filtered with a 0.22 microm polytetrafluoroetylene (PTFE) membrane. The eluates were separated on a CAPCELL PAK C18 column (100 mm x 2.0 mm, 5 microm) using gradient elution with acetonitrile/ 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution containing 0.01% formic acid (in positive mode) and acetonitrile/5 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution (in negative mode), and finally detected by HPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS in ESI modes. Full scan experiments were performed over the range of m/z 200-800. The screening and quantitative analysis were carried out by the accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion and the peak area in extracted chromatogram with accurate mass, respectively. The confirmatory analysis for target compounds was performed with the retention time and qualitative fragments obtained by data-dependent scan mode. Under the optimal conditions, nine carcinogenic dyes were routinely detected with mass accuracy below 5 x 10(-6) (5 ppm), and good linearities were provided in their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.125-25 mg/kg. The average recoveries at three spiked levels were in the range of 62.13%116.28% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 15%. The proposed method was applied to screen and confirm the nine carcinogenic dyes in textile samples. It is convenient and reliable.

  17. Evaluation of an Automated Information Extraction Tool for Imaging Data Elements to Populate a Breast Cancer Screening Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacson, Ronilda; Harris, Kimberly; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Tosteson, Tor D; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N A; Kaye, Abby; Gonzalez, Irina; Birdwell, Robyn; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer screening is central to early breast cancer detection. Identifying and monitoring process measures for screening is a focus of the National Cancer Institute's Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) initiative, which requires participating centers to report structured data across the cancer screening continuum. We evaluate the accuracy of automated information extraction of imaging findings from radiology reports, which are available as unstructured text. We present prevalence estimates of imaging findings for breast imaging received by women who obtained care in a primary care network participating in PROSPR (n = 139,953 radiology reports) and compared automatically extracted data elements to a "gold standard" based on manual review for a validation sample of 941 randomly selected radiology reports, including mammograms, digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of imaging findings vary by data element and modality (e.g., suspicious calcification noted in 2.6% of screening mammograms, 12.1% of diagnostic mammograms, and 9.4% of tomosynthesis exams). In the validation sample, the accuracy of identifying imaging findings, including suspicious calcifications, masses, and architectural distortion (on mammogram and tomosynthesis); masses, cysts, non-mass enhancement, and enhancing foci (on MRI); and masses and cysts (on ultrasound), range from 0.8 to1.0 for recall, precision, and F-measure. Information extraction tools can be used for accurate documentation of imaging findings as structured data elements from text reports for a variety of breast imaging modalities. These data can be used to populate screening registries to help elucidate more effective breast cancer screening processes.

  18. Screening antiallergic components from Carthamus tinctorius using rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shengli; Huang, Jing; Cui, Ronghua; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-01

    Carthamus tinctorius, used in traditional Chinese medicine, has many pharmacological effects, such as anticoagulant effects, antioxidant effects, antiaging effects, regulation of gene expression, and antitumor effects. However, there is no report on the antiallergic effects of the components in C. tinctorius. In the present study, we investigated the antiallergic components of C. tinctorius and its mechanism of action. A rat basophilic leukemia 2H3/cell membrane chromatography coupled online with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to screen antiallergic components from C. tinctorius. The screening results showed that Hydroxysafflor yellow A, from C. tinctorius, was the targeted component that retained on the rat basophilic leukemia 2H3/cell membrane chromatography column. We measured the amount of β-hexosaminidase and histamine released in mast cells and the key markers of degranulation. The release assays showed that Hydroxysafflor yellow A could attenuate the immunoglobulin E induced release of allergic cytokines without affecting cell viability from 1.0 to 50.0 μM. In conclusion, the established rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell membrane chromatography coupled with online high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method successfully screened and identified Hydroxysafflor yellow A from C. tinctorius as a potential antiallergic component. Pharmacological analysis elucidated that Hydroxysafflor yellow A is an effective natural component for inhibiting immunoglobulin E-antigen-mediated degranulation.

  19. Screening and characterization of reactive compounds with in vitro peptide-trapping and liquid chromatography/high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cong; Chupak, Louis S; Philip, Thomas; Johnson, Benjamin M; Gentles, Robert; Drexler, Dieter M

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes a novel methodology for the detection of reactive compounds using in vitro peptide-trapping and liquid chromatography-high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Compounds that contain electrophilic groups can covalently bind to nucleophilic moieties in proteins and form adducts. Such adducts are thought to be associated with drug-mediated toxicity and therefore represent potential liabilities in drug discovery programs. In addition, reactive compounds identified in biological screening can be associated with data that can be misinterpreted if the reactive nature of the compound is not appreciated. In this work, to facilitate the triage of hits from high-throughput screening (HTS), a novel assay was developed to monitor the formation of covalent peptide adducts by compounds suspected to be chemically reactive. The assay consists of in vitro incubations of test compounds (under conditions of physiological pH) with synthetically prepared peptides presenting a variety of nucleophilic moieties such as cysteine, lysine, histidine, arginine, serine, and tyrosine. Reaction mixtures were analyzed using full-scan LC-HRMS, the data were interrogated using postacquisition data mining, and modified amino acids were identified by subsequent LC-HRMS/mass spectrometry. The study demonstrated that in vitro nucleophilic peptide trapping followed by LC-HRMS analysis is a useful approach for screening of intrinsically reactive compounds identified from HTS exercises, which are then removed from follow-up processes, thus obviating the generation of data from biochemical activity assays.

  20. Radiological features of mucocele of the appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaane, P.

    1988-12-01

    The clinical features of mucocele of the appendix are nonspecific, and a correct preoperative diagnosis based on abdominal pain, a palpable mass in the right lower quadrant, and conventional radiography is rare. The diagnosis of appendiceal mucocele has become easier with the utilisation of the recent imaging techniques ultrasonography and computed tomography. Six patients with mucocele of the appendix are presented, and the characteristic radiological features and differential diagnosis are discussed.

  1. FastTrack to supercritical fluid chromatographic purification: Implementation of a walk-up analytical supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry screening system in the medicinal chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurigemma, Christine; Farrell, William

    2010-09-24

    Medicinal chemists often depend on analytical instrumentation for reaction monitoring and product confirmation at all stages of pharmaceutical discovery and development. To obtain pure compounds for biological assays, the removal of side products and final compounds through purification is often necessary. Prior to purification, chemists often utilize open-access analytical LC/MS instruments because mass confirmation is fast and reliable, and the chromatographic separation of most sample constituents is sufficient. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is often used as an orthogonal technique to HPLC or when isolation of the free base of a compound is desired. In laboratories where SFC is the predominant technique for analysis and purification of compounds, a reasonable approach for quickly determining suitable purification conditions is to screen the sample against different columns. This can be a bottleneck to the purification process. To commission SFC for open-access use, a walk-up analytical SFC/MS screening system was implemented in the medicinal chemistry laboratory. Each sample is automatically screened through six column/method conditions, and on-demand data processing occurs for the chromatographers after each screening method is complete. This paper highlights the "FastTrack" approach to expediting samples through purification.

  2. Maternal glucose level and body mass index measured at gestational diabetes mellitus screening and the risk of macrosomia: results from a perinatal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Leng, Junhong; Tang, Chen; Liu, Gongshu; Hay, John; Wang, Jing; Wen, Shiwu; Li, Zhenling; She, Ye

    2014-05-20

    To examine the impact of maternal blood glucose (BG) level and body mass index (BMI) measured at gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening on the risk of macrosomia. A perinatal cohort of women were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. 1951 women aged 19-42 years with valid values of BMI and BG level at GDM screening (24-28 weeks gestation), singleton birth and birth weight (BW)>2500 g. Primary outcome was macrosomia (BW>4000 g). BG level and BMI were measured at GDM screening. 191 (9.7%) newborns were macrosomia. The ORs (95% CIs) of macrosomia from multiple logistic regression were 1.14 (1.10 to 1.19, pmacrosomia were not statistically different for mothers in Q1 or Q2 of BMI regardless of the BG levels; the ORs for ≥Q3 of BMI were elevated significantly with the highest OR observed in Q5 of BMI and BG levels ≥7.8 (6.93 (2.61 to 18.43), pmacrosomia. These findings suggest that GDM screening may be a critical gestational time point to initiate maternal weight control oriented intervention strategy to lower the risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. The utility of fat mass index vs. body mass index and percentage of body fat in the screening of metabolic syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Pengju; Ma, Fang; Lou, Huiping; Liu, Yanping

    2013-01-01

    ...). Although body mass index (BMI) is the most frequently used method to assess overweightness and obesity, this method has been criticized because BMI does not always reflect true body fatness, which may be better evaluated...

  4. Radiological analysis of osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, C

    2000-09-30

    This paper is intended to provide medical radiation technologists with an overview of how radiology can play a role in the detection of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is defined as disease where there is a generalized or localized deficiency of bone matrix. This deficiency causes bones to become weak resulting in an increased risk of fracture. Current methods to detect bone deficiency involve the use of bone densitometry. Over the years both radioactivity and ionizing radiation have been used to measure bone density. Currently the preferred method of choice for bone densitometry is a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry unit. This unit has the greatest reliability and precision with a low absorbed dose to the patient. With early detection of the disease, treatment can begin and further bone loss prevented. In the future, radiology will continue to be a valuable asset in the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. (author)

  5. Radiologic aspects of lunatomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, F.; Schantz, K.

    1987-08-01

    A radiological classification of lunatomalacia, based upon the chronological radiologic manifestations in 93 patients is presented. Compression fractures were not seen as the initial event. Fifty-seven per cent of the patients had a short ulna (ulna minus variant). The presence of ulna minus variant was expecially observed in the younger patients. In 16 patients suffering from a lunate fracture and in 20 patients with lunate or perilunate luxations, lunatomalacia did not develop. Immobilization as treatment of the disorder resulted in a progressive course in all patients, but one, an 8-year-old girl. The lesion of the lunate was arrested and tended to heal following radial osteotomy in all patients. (orig.)

  6. Data mining in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  7. Radiology and Ethics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess medical ethics knowledge among trainees and practicing radiologists through an online survey that included questions about the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics and the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics. Most survey respondents reported that they had never read the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics or the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics (77.2% and 67.4% of respondents, respectively). With regard to ethics education during medical school and residency, 57.3% and 70.0% of respondents, respectively, found such education to be insufficient. Medical ethics training should be highlighted during residency, at specialty society meetings, and in journals and online resources for radiologists.

  8. Data mining in radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit T Kharat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  9. Data mining in radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-01-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  10. Disabling Radiological Dispersal Terror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M

    2002-11-08

    Terror resulting from the use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) relies upon an individual's lack of knowledge and understanding regarding its significance. Disabling this terror will depend upon realistic reviews of the current conservative radiation protection regulatory standards. It will also depend upon individuals being able to make their own informed decisions merging perceived risks with reality. Preparation in these areas will reduce the effectiveness of the RDD and may even reduce the possibility of its use.

  11. Microcephaly: a radiological review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrant, Ailbhe; Garel, Catherine; Germanaud, David; Lenoir, Marion; Pointe, Hubert Ducou le [Universite Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Radiology Department, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Villemeur, Thierry Billette de; Mignot, Cyril [Universite Paris V Rene Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Inserm, U567, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); Universite Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Paediatric Neurology Department, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France)

    2009-08-15

    Microcephaly results from inadequate brain growth during development. It may develop in utero, and therefore be present at birth, or may develop later as a result of perinatal events or postnatal conditions. The aetiology of microcephaly may be congenital (secondary to cerebral malformations or metabolic abnormalities) or acquired, most frequently following an ischaemic insult. This distinct radiological and pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology. (orig.)

  12. Radiological safety and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sea Young; Yoo, Y. S.; Lee, J. C.; Lee, T. Y.; Lee, J. L.; Kim, B. W.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Chung, R. I.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Han, Y. D.; Lee, J. I.; Lee, K. C.; Yoon, J. H.; Sul, C. W.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Seo, K. W.; Yoon, Y. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the annual results of radiological safety and control program of 1995. This program consists of working area monitoring including HANARO, personnel radiation monitoring, education for radiation protection. As a result, the objectives of radiation protection have been achieved satisfactorily through the activities mentioned above. Also, the calibration services were provided to insure accurate radiation measurement in the radiation working places. 21 figs., 39 tabs., 5 refs. (Author) .new.

  13. Wide-Scope Screening Method for Multiclass Veterinary Drug Residues in Fish, Shrimp, and Eel Using Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Sherri B; Storey, Joseph M; Lohne, Jack J; Andersen, Wendy C; Burger, Robert; Johnson, Aaron S; Madson, Mark R

    2017-01-13

    A screening method for veterinary drug residues in fish, shrimp, and eel using LC with a high-resolution MS instrument has been developed and validated. The method was optimized for over 70 test compounds representing a variety of veterinary drug classes. Tissues were extracted by vortex mixing with acetonitrile acidified with 2% acetic acid and 0.2% p-toluenesulfonic acid. A centrifuged portion of the extract was passed through a novel solid phase extraction cartridge designed to remove interfering matrix components from tissue extracts. The eluent was then evaporated and reconstituted for analysis. Data were collected with a quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer using both nontargeted and targeted acquisition methods. Residues were detected on the basis of the exact mass of the precursor and a product ion along with isotope pattern and retention time matching. Semiquantitative data analysis compared MS(1) signal to a one-point extracted matrix standard at a target testing level. The test compounds were detected and identified in salmon, tilapia, catfish, shrimp, and eel extracts fortified at the target testing levels. Fish dosed with selected analytes and aquaculture samples previously found to contain residues were also analyzed. The screening method can be expanded to monitor for an additional >260 veterinary drugs on the basis of exact mass measurements and retention times.

  14. Direct probe atmospheric pressure photoionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry for fast screening of flame retardants and plasticizers in products and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Gómez, A; Brandsma, S H; de Boer, J; Leonards, P E G

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we develop fast screening methods for flame retardants and plasticizers in products and waste based on direct probe (DP) atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) coupled to a high-resolution (HR) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. DP-APPI is reported for the first time in this study, and DP-APCI that has been scarcely exploited is optimized for comparison. DP-APPI was more selective than DP-APCI and also more sensitive for the most hydrophobic compounds. No sample treatment was necessary, and only a minimal amount of sample (few milligrams) was used for analysis that was performed within a few minutes. Both methods were applied to the analysis of plastic products, electronic waste, and car interiors. Polybrominated diphenylethers, new brominated flame retardants, and organophosphorus flame retardants were present in most of the samples. The combination of DP with HR mass spectra and data processing based on mass accuracy and isotopic patterns allowed the unambiguous identification of chemicals at low levels of about 0.025 % (w/w). Under untargeted screening, resorcinol bis(biphenylphosphate) and bisphenol A bis(bisphenylphosphate) were identified in many of the consumer products of which literature data are still very limited.

  15. [Screening method for 29 forbidden or limited synthetic pigments in cheese by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yansheng; Yang, Minli; Zhang, Feng; Feng, Feng; Chu, Xiaogang; Dong, Ying

    2011-07-01

    A screening method for 29 forbidden or limited synthetic pigments in cheese samples was established by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF MS). The pigments were extracted by n-hexane/water (3:1, v/v). After extraction, the n-hexane extract, water extract and residue, were obtained. The n-hexane extract was then cleaned-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The water extract was extracted by acetonitrile, and the residue by ammonia water/methanol (1:99, v/v). The results showed that the 29 synthetic pigments with a wide range of polarities were extracted effectively with the recoveries between 70% and 95%, and matched well by Q-TOF MS precision mass searching to the mass spectral library with matching scores between 59. 66 and 99. 47. The quantitative analysis of the 29 pigments was carried out by Target MS/MS. The limits of detection (LODs) for 8 Sudan dyes were 0.4-2.5 micro/kg while for 21 water-soluble synthetic pigments were 20-80 microg/kg. The screening method is suitable for a wide range of synthetic pigments, and can be applied to food samples with proteins and fat in matrix.

  16. A High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry Assay Coupled with Redox Activity Testing Reduces Artifacts and False Positives in Lysine Demethylase Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigle, Tim J; Swinger, Kerren K; Campbell, John E; Scholle, Michael D; Sherrill, John; Admirand, Elizabeth A; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Kuntz, Kevin W; Chesworth, Richard; Moyer, Mikel P; Scott, Margaret Porter; Copeland, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Demethylation of histones by lysine demethylases (KDMs) plays a critical role in controlling gene transcription. Aberrant demethylation may play a causal role in diseases such as cancer. Despite the biological significance of these enzymes, there are limited assay technologies for study of KDMs and few quality chemical probes available to interrogate their biology. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of self-assembled monolayer desorption/ionization (SAMDI) mass spectrometry for the investigation of quantitative KDM enzyme kinetics and for high-throughput screening for KDM inhibitors. SAMDI can be performed in 384-well format and rapidly allows reaction components to be purified prior to injection into a mass spectrometer, without a throughput-limiting liquid chromatography step. We developed sensitive and robust assays for KDM1A (LSD1, AOF2) and KDM4C (JMJD2C, GASC1) and screened 13,824 compounds against each enzyme. Hits were rapidly triaged using a redox assay to identify compounds that interfered with the catalytic oxidation chemistry used by the KDMs for the demethylation reaction. We find that overall this high-throughput mass spectrometry platform coupled with the elimination of redox active compounds leads to a hit rate that is manageable for follow-up work.

  17. Non-target screening of organic contaminants in marine salts by gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Roque; Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Portolés, Tania; Amat, Francisco; Hernández, Félix

    2011-08-15

    Gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) has been applied to characterize the organic pollution pattern of marine salt samples collected in saltworks from the Spanish Mediterranean coast. After dissolving the samples in water, a solid-phase extraction was applied reaching with a 250-preconcentration factor. The screening methodology allowed the detection of sample components without any kind of pre-selection of target pollutants. The identity of components detected was established by accurate mass measurements and comparison of experimental full-acquisition spectra with theoretical MS libraries. Several organic pollutants were identified in the samples, like plasticizers - potentially toxic to humans - and fragrances -included within the group of pharmaceuticals and personal care products-, among others. Our results indicate that these contaminants can be found in the marine salt after the crystallization process. GC-TOF MS is a powerful technique for wide-scope screening of (semi)volatile, low-polar organic contaminants, able to investigate the presence of a large number of compounds. Searching of contaminants is not restricted to a target list of compounds. Therefore, unexpected contaminants can be discovered in an efficient way, with better sensitivity and selectivity than other conventional analytical techniques, and making use of the powerful qualitative information provided by full-spectrum acquisition at accurate mass.

  18. Screening and identification of unknown contaminants in water with liquid chromatography and quadrupole-orthogonal acceleration-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeldijk, I; Vissers, J P; Kearney, G; Major, H; Van Leerdam, J A

    2001-09-21

    In order to assess and maintain the quality of surface waters, target compound monitoring is often not sufficient. Many unknown micro-contaminants are present in water, originating in municipal, industrial or agricultural effluents. Some of these might pose a risk to drinking water production and consequently to human health. The possibilities of screening surface water and identification of these non-target water pollutants with modern data acquisition possibilities of hybrid quadrupole-orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometers (Q-TOF), such as data-dependent MS to MS/MS switching were investigated. Using model compounds, a procedure for the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening of water extracts was developed, enabling the detection and identification of compounds at levels < or = 0.25 microg/l in surface water. Based on the accurate mass the elemental compositions for the precursor and product ions are calculated. The calculated chemical formulae are searched against the Merck index, the NIST library, an own database containing about 2,500 water pollutants (pesticides and other contaminants) as well as a CI-CID library containing tandem MS spectra of about 100 water contaminants. The developed approach was applied for the identification of unknown compounds, present in native surface water extract. For three of these compounds, structures were proposed. Confirmation of the proposed structures with standards was beyond the scope of this study.

  19. [Rapid screening and confirming carcinogenic banned azo colorants in textiles by high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Huan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Jing; Yan, Hua; Cui, Fengyun; Zhang, Zhaohui

    2013-09-01

    A method of high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap highresolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-LTP/Orbitrap MS) was ued to screen and confirm-banned azo colorants in textiles rapidly. The analytes were reduced to carcinogenic aromatic amines with sodium dithionite in citrate buffer solution. The reduced solution was extracted bydiatomite, and loadd onto an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 MM. 1.7 microm) with a gradient elution of methanol and 0.1% (v/v) methane acid aqueous solution, and finally detected by linear ion trap/orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry in positive ESI mode. In mass spectrometry method, the MS spectrum of high-resolution and the collision induced dissociation (CID) spectrum of data-dependent scan mode were used for screening analysis and conformation, respectively. The calibration curves showed a good linearity in the range of 0.05 -2.00 mg/b, and the correlation coefficients (r) were higher than 0.99. By detecting spiked samples, the limits of quantification were 0.08 mg/kg for all the residues and the recoveries were in the range of 65.5% - 111.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 0.87% and 2.49%. The results indicate that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles.

  20. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G. (ed.) [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  1. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim

    2012-05-04

    RATIONALE To enhance the ionization efficiencies in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry a dopant with favorable ionization energy such as chlorobenzene is typically used. These dopants are typically toxic and difficult to mix with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed and optimized using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Various single and multicomponent mixed dopants consisting of ethanol, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, anisole and toluene were evaluated. RESULTS Fourteen out of eighteen PAHs were successfully separated and detected at low pg/μL levels within 5 min with high mass accuracy ≤4 ppm. The optimal mixed multicomponent dopant consisted of ethanol/chlorobenzene/bromobenzene/anisole (98.975:0.1:0.9:0.025, v/v %) and it improved the limit of detection (LOD) by 2- to 10-fold for the tested PAHs compared to those obtained with pure chlorobenzene. CONCLUSIONS A novel multicomponent dopant that contains 99% ethanol and 1% mixture of chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and anisole was found to be an effective dopant mixture to ionize PAHs. The developed UPLC multicomponent dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry offered a rapid non targeted screening method for detecting the PAHs at low pg/;μL levels within a 5 min run time with high mass accuracy a;circ4 ppm. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Screening and quantitation of multiclass drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in hair by fast liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Romero, Juan C; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2011-07-15

    In this work, an automated screening method for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of 30 representative multiclass drugs (including opiates, cocaine and its main metabolite, cannabinoids, amphetamines and other stimulants in hair samples) has been developed using fast liquid-chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS). The identification and quantitation of the drugs were carried out by liquid chromatography using a C(18) column (4.6×50 mm) with 1.8 μm particle size. Accurate mass measurements of ions of interest (typically [M+H](+)) by electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the positive ionization mode were used for unambiguous confirmation of the targeted species. Three sample preparation methodologies were evaluated: (a) direct methanolic extraction by sonication, (b) acidic extraction, and (c) alkaline digestion. Direct methanolic extraction showed better recoveries and cleaner extracts. The limits of detection obtained in hair matrix were as low as 5 pg mg(-1) for cocaine and cannabidiol, ranging from 5 to 75 pg mg(-1) for the studied species while the LOQ ranged from 15 to 250 pg mg(-1). The method has been applied to six hair samples from drug consumer volunteers, where the presence of at least one drug was confirmed by accurate mass measurements within 2 ppm (mass error) in most cases. The present study demonstrates the usefulness of LC-TOFMS for both screening and quantitation purposes in drug testing in hair. In addition, the possibility of non-target or a posteriori data analysis of samples or the extension of the procedure for testing for additional compounds offers interesting features for forensic analysis.

  3. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH;

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their ......Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  4. Screening in veterinary drug analysis and sports doping control based on full-scan, accurate-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Mol, J.G.J.; Lommen, A.; Lyris, E.; Angelis, Y.S.; Vonaparti, A.; Stamou, M.; Georgakopoulos, C.G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    A common trend in food contaminants and sports doping control is towards a limited number of targeted, full-scan, accurate-mass spectrometry (MS) methods based on time-of-flight (TOF) or Fourier-transform orbital trap (Orbitrap) mass analyzers. Retrospective analysis of the full-scan datasets of sig

  5. Screening anti-tumor compounds from Ligusticum wallichii using cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Yuanyuan; An, Hongli; Feng, Liuxin; Wang, Sicen

    2015-07-14

    Tyrosine 367 Cysteine-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed. Tyrosine 367 Cysteine-HEK293 cells were used as cell membrane stationary phase. Specificity and reproducibility of the cell membrane chromatography was evaluated using 1-tert-butyl-3-{2-[4-(diethylamino)butylamino]-6-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-yl}urea, Nimodipine and dexamethasone acetate. Then, anti-tumor components acting on Tyrosine 367 Cysteine-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 were screened and identified from extracts of Ligusticum wallichii. Components from the extract were retained on the cell membrane chromatographic column. The retained fraction was directly eluted into high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry system for separation and identification. Finally, Levistolide A was identified as an active component from Ligusticum wallichii extracts. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide-formazan colorimetric assay revealed that Levistolide A inhibits proliferation of overexpressing the mutated receptor cells with dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 was also decrease under Levistolide A treatment. Flex dock simulation verified that Levistolide A could bind with the tyrosine kinase domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4. Therefore, Levistolide A screened by the cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry can arrest cell growth. In conclusion, the two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method can screen and identify potential anti-tumor ingredients which specifically act on the tyrosine kinase domain of the mutated fibroblast growth factor receptor 4. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of radioimmunoassay as a screen for antibiotics in confined animal feeding operations and confirmation by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.T.; Bumgarner, J.E.; Varns, J.L.; Daughtridge, J.V.; Thurman, E.M.; Hostetler, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately one-half of the 50 000000 lb of antibiotics produced in the USA are used in agriculture. Because of the intensive use of antibiotics in the management of confined livestock operations, the potential exists for the transport of these compounds and their metabolites into our nation's water resources. A commercially available radioimmunoassay method, developed as a screen for tetracycline antibiotics in serum, urine, milk, and tissue, was adapted to analyze water samples at a detection level of approximately 1.0 ppb and a semiquantitative analytical range of 1-20 ppb. Liquid waste samples were obtained from 13 hog lagoons in three states and 52 surface- and ground-water samples were obtained primarily from areas associated with intensive swine and poultry production in seven states. These samples were screened for the tetracycline antibiotics by using the modified radioimmunoassay screening method. The radioimmunoassay tests yielded positive results for tetracycline antibiotics in samples from all 13 of the hog lagoons. Dilutions of 10-100-fold of the hog lagoon samples indicated that tetracycline antibiotic concentrations ranged from approximately 5 to several hundred parts per billion in liquid hog lagoon waste. Of the 52 surface- and ground-water samples collected all but two tested negative and these two samples contained tetracycline antibiotic concentrations less than 1 ppb. A new liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method was used to confirm the radioimmunoassay results in 9 samples and also to identify the tetracycline antibiotics to which the radioimmunoassay test was responding. The new liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method with online solid-phase extraction and a detection level of 0.5 ??g/l confirmed the presence of chlorotetracycline in the hog lagoon samples and in one of the surface-water samples. The concentrations calculated from the radioimmunoassay were a factor of 1-5 times less than those calculated by the liquid

  7. Reinventing radiology reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Adema, Denise

    2005-01-01

    Lee Memorial Health System (LMHS), located in southwest Florida, consists of 5 hospitals, a home health agency, a skilled nursing facility, multiple outpatient centers, walk-in medical centers, and primary care physician offices. LMHS annually performs more than 300,000 imaging procedures with gross imaging revenues exceeding dollar 350 million. In fall 2002, LMHS received the results of an independent audit of its IR coding. The overall IR coding error rate was determined to be 84.5%. The projected net financial impact of these errors was an annual reimbursement loss of dollar 182,000. To address the issues of coding errors and reimbursement loss, LMHS implemented its clinical reimbursementspecialist (CRS) system in October 2003, as an extension of financial services' reimbursement division. LMHS began with CRSs in 3 service lines: emergency department, cardiac catheterization, and radiology. These 3 CRSs coordinate all facets of their respective areas' chargemaster, patient charges, coding, and reimbursement functions while serving as a resident coding expert within their clinical areas. The radiology reimbursement specialist (RRS) combines an experienced radiologic technologist, interventional technologist, medical records coder, financial auditor, reimbursement specialist, and biller into a single position. The RRS's radiology experience and technologist knowledge are key assets to resolving coding conflicts and handling complex interventional coding. In addition, performing a daily charge audit and an active code review are essential if an organization is to eliminate coding errors. One of the inherent effects of eliminating coding errors is the capturing of additional RVUs and units of service. During its first year, based on account level detail, the RRS system increased radiology productivity through the additional capture of just more than 3,000 RVUs and 1,000 additional units of service. In addition, the physicians appreciate having someone who "keeps up

  8. Screening of environmental contaminants in honey bee wax comb using gas chromatography-high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramos, M M; García-Valcárcel, A I; Tadeo, J L; Fernández-Alba, A R; Hernando, M D

    2016-03-01

    This study reports an analytical approach intended to be used for investigation of non-targeted environmental contaminants and to characterize the organic pollution pattern of bee wax comb samples. The method comprises a generic extraction followed by detection with gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), operated in electron impact ionization (EI) mode. The screening approach for the investigation of non-targeted contaminants consisted of initial peak detection by deconvolution and matching the first-stage mass spectra EI-MS(1) with a nominal mass spectral library. To gain further confidence in the structural characterization of the contaminants under investigation, the molecular formula of representative ions (molecular ion when present in the EI spectrum) and, for at least other two fragment ions, was provided for those with an accurate mass scoring (mass error bee wax comb. This approach has allowed the tentative identification of some GC-amenable contaminants belonging to different chemical groups, among them, phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), along with residues of veterinary treatments used in apiculture.

  9. Prospective diagnosis of 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in the Hmong population by newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matern, Dietrich; He, Miao; Berry, Susan A;

    2003-01-01

    developed athetoid cerebral palsy, and another had severe motor developmental delay with muscle atrophy. A sibling of the first patient is asymptomatic after prenatal diagnosis and early treatment. Family investigations in the second family revealed that the patient's mother was also affected...... but asymptomatic. METHODS: We report 8 additional patients identified by prospective newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Molecular genetic analysis performed for 3 of these patients revealed that all are homozygous for an 1165A>G mutation that causes skipping of exon 10 of the SBCAD gene...

  10. Screening and quantification of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables making use of gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M I; Portolés, T; López, F J; Beltrán, J; Hernández, F

    2014-11-01

    An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source has been used to enhance the potential of gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for screening and quantification purposes in pesticide residue analysis. A screening method developed in our laboratory for around 130 pesticides has been applied to fruit and vegetable samples, including strawberries, oranges, apples, carrots, lettuces, courgettes, red peppers, and tomatoes. Samples were analyzed together with quality control samples (at 0.05 mg/kg) for each matrix and for matrix-matched calibration standards. The screening strategy consisted in first rapid searching and detection, and then a refined identification step using the QTOF capabilities (MS(E) and accurate mass). Identification was based on the presence of one characteristic m/z ion (Q) obtained with the low collision energy function and at least one fragment ion (q) obtained with the high collision energy function, both with mass errors of less than 5 ppm, and an ion intensity ratio (q/Q) within the tolerances permitted. Following this strategy, 15 of 130 pesticides were identified in the samples. Afterwards, the quantitation capabilities were tested by performing a quantitative validation for those pesticides detected in the samples. To this aim, five matrices were selected (orange, apple, tomato, lettuce, and carrot) and spiked at two concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg), and quantification was done using matrix-matched calibration standards (relative responses versus triphenyl phosphate used as an internal standard). Acceptable average recoveries and relative standard deviations were obtained for many but not all pesticide-matrix combinations. These figures allowed us to perform a retrospective quantification of positives found in the screening without the need for additional analysis. Taking advantage of the accurate-mass full-spectrum data provided by QTOF MS, we searched for a higher number of compounds

  11. A rapid screening method to monitor expression of various recombinant proteins from prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jebanathirajah, J.A.; Andersen, S.; Blagoev, B.;

    2002-01-01

    Rapid methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to monitor recombinant protein expression from various prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell culture systems were devised. Intracellular as well as secreted proteins from both induced and constitutive...... expression systems were measured and monitored from whole cells and growth media, thus providing an alternative to time-consuming traditional methods for screening and monitoring of protein expression. The methods described here involve minimal processing of samples and are therefore relevant to high...

  12. Dual-Energy Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography: Enhancement Analysis on BI-RADS 4 Non-Mass Microcalcifications in Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yun-Chung; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lo, Yung-Feng; Tsai, Hsiu-Pei; Ueng, Shir-Hwa; Chen, Shin-Cheh

    2016-01-01

    Background Mammography screening is a cost-efficient modality with high sensitivity for detecting impalpable cancer with microcalcifications, and results in reduced mortality rates. However, the probability of finding microcalcifications without associated cancerous masses varies. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnosis and cancer probability of the non-mass screened microcalcifications by dual-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (DE-CESM). Patients and Methods With ethical approval from our hospital, we enrolled the cases of DE-CESM for analysis under the following inclusion criteria: (1) referrals due to screened BI-RADS 4 microcalcifications; (2) having DE-CESM prior to stereotactic biopsy; (3) no associated mass found by sonography and physical examination; and (4) pathology-based diagnosis using stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. We analyzed the added value of post-contrast enhancement on DE-CESM. Results A total of 94 biopsed lesions were available for analysis in our 87 women, yielding 27 cancers [19 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 8 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC)], 32 pre-malignant and 35 benign lesions. Of these 94 lesions, 33 showed associated enhancement in DE-CESM while the other 61 did not. All 8 IDC (100%) and 16 of 19 DCIS (84.21%) showed enhancement, but the other 3 DCIS (15.79%) did not. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 88.89%, 86.56%, 72.72%, 95.08% and 87.24%, respectively. The performances of DE-CESM on both amorphous and pleomorphic microcalcifications were satisfactory (AUC 0.8 and 0.92, respectively). The pleomorphous microcalcifications with enhancement showed higher positive predictive value (90.00% vs 46.15%, p = 0.013) and higher cancer probability than the amorphous microcalcifications (46.3% VS 15.1%). The Odds Ratio was 4.85 (95% CI: 1.84–12.82). Conclusion DE-CESM might provide added value in assessing the non-mass screened breast

  13. Variation in Screening Mammography Rates Among Medicare Advantage Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Fleming, Margaret; Duszak, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies have shown higher screening mammography rates for beneficiaries in capitated managed care Medicare Advantage (MA) plans compared with traditional fee-for-service Medicare. The aim of this study was to explore variation in screening mammography rates at the level of MA managed care plans. Using the 2016 MA Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set Public Use File, screening mammography rates were identified for all 385 reporting MA plans. Associations were explored with a range of plan characteristics from this file, as well as from the CMS Part C and Part D Medicare Star Ratings Data File, Medicare Advantage Plan Directory, and Medicare Monthly Enrollment by Plan File. Overall MA plan screening rates were high (mean, 72.6 ± 9.4%) but varied substantially among plans (range, 14.3%-91.8%). Screening rates were higher in nonprofit versus for-profit plans (77.3% versus 71.8%, P plans versus private fee-for-service or regional preferred provider organization plans (71.9%-73.2% versus 65.5%-66.8%, P = .001). Among parent organizations with five or more plans, screening rates were highest for Kaiser Foundation (median, 88.4%) and lowest for Molina Healthcare (median, 65.3%). Screening rates showed small but significant associations with plans' contract lengths, enrolled populations, and counties served. Screening rates showed strong associations (r = 0.796-0.798) with colorectal cancer screening and annual flu vaccine rates and showed moderate associations (r = 0.283-0.365) with ambulatory and preventive care visits, osteoporosis screenings, body mass index assessments, and nonrecommended prostate-specific antigen screenings after age 70. Screening mammography rates vary considerably among MA plans. With increased federal interest in promoting the MA program, enhanced transparency will be necessary to ensure appropriate Medicare beneficiary participation decision making. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc

  14. Radiologic features of granulomatous mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khawari, Hanaa A T; Al-Manfouhi, Huda A; Madda, John P; Kovacs, Agnes; Sheikh, Mehraj; Roberts, Omolara

    2011-01-01

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a recognized, but an uncommon cause of breast mass. Awareness of this condition is important, because it can clinically as well as radiologically mimic breast carcinoma. In this study, we present the imaging features of a series of 10 cases with proved diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis with emphasis on magnetic resonance (MR) findings. All those patients who were histologically proven to have GM of the breast were analyzed. Their files were reviewed and data recorded for demographic, clinical presentation and imaging appearances. The imaging features of the lesions by mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed. Of the 305 patients who were surgically treated, 10 (3%) cases proved to have GM. All the patients were females with age ranging from 27 to 53 years (average 38 years and median age 36 years). Guided core biopsy was performed in all cases for confirmation of diagnosis followed by either excision biopsy (in five cases) or lumpectomy (in five cases). The final histopathologic results were chronic granulomatous inflammation consistent with tuberculosis in four cases and GM with acute inflammation, but unknown etiology in four cases and GM due to duct ectasia in two cases. GM, a rare breast condition, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with a breast mass associated with inflammatory change. Routine breast imaging with US, MG, or MRI, the condition from malignant lesions and biopsy, still remains the only method of definite diagnosis. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan [Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Static $\\bar{Q}Q$ pair free energy and screening masses from correlators of Polyakov loops: continuum extrapolated lattice results at the QCD physical point

    CERN Document Server

    Borsányi, Szabolcs; Katz, Sándor D; Pásztor, Attila; Szabó, Kálmán K; Török, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    We study the correlators of Polyakov loops, and the corresponding gauge invariant free energy of a static quark-antiquark pair in 2+1 flavor QCD at finite temperature. Our simulations were carried out on $N_t$ = 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 lattices using Symanzik improved gauge action and a stout improved staggered action with physical quark masses. The free energies calculated from the Polyakov loop correlators are extrapolated to the continuum limit. For the free energies we use a two step renormalization procedure that only uses data at finite temperature. We also measure correlators with definite Euclidean time reversal and charge conjugation symmetry to extract two different screening masses, one in the magnetic, and one in the electric sector, to distinguish two different correlation lengths in the full Polyakov loop correlator.

  17. Newborn screening for methylmalonic aciduria by tandem mass spectrometry: 7 years' experience from two centers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kang-Hsiang; Liu, Mei-Ying; Kao, Chuan-Hong; Chen, Yann-Jang; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Liu, Tze-Tze; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Hung; Chiang, Chuan-Chi; Ho, Huey-Jane; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Lee, Ni-Chung; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lin, Ju-Li; Hung, Ping-Yao; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2010-06-01

    The clinical course of methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is fulminant in neonates and emergency management is necessary to save lives. It is therefore very important to differentiate affected from unaffected neonates immediately when there are abnormal results regarding MMA in newborn screening. Between January 2002 and December 2008, 598,522 newborns were screened for MMA by 2 neonatal screening centers: the Chinese Foundation of Health and the Taipei Institute of Pathology. A total of 22 newborns were referred to confirmatory medical centers, and 7 were confirmed as having MMA. The initial propionylcarnitine (C3) level, C3/acetylcarnitine (C2) ratio, plasma ammonia, liver function tests, blood pH and bicarbonate were compared between the true-positive and false-positive groups. The C3/C2 ratio and plasma ammonia were markedly higher in the true-positive MMA group (p 0.4 or ammonia levels > 200 mg/dL should be highly suspected of having MMA. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple ligand detection and affinity measurement by ultrafiltration and mass spectrometry analysis applied to fragment mixture screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shanshan; Ren, Yiran; Fu, Xu; Shen, Jie; Chen, Xin; Wang, Quan; Bi, Xin; Liu, Wenjing; Li, Lixin; Liang, Guangxin; Yang, Cheng; Shui, Wenqing

    2015-07-30

    Binding affinity of a small molecule drug candidate to a therapeutically relevant biomolecular target is regarded the first determinant of the candidate's efficacy. Although the ultrafiltration-LC/MS (UF-LC/MS) assay enables efficient ligand discovery for a specific target from a mixed pool of compounds, most previous analysis allowed for relative affinity ranking of different ligands. Moreover, the reliability of affinity measurement for multiple ligands with UF-LC/MS has hardly been strictly evaluated. In this study, we examined the accuracy of K(d) determination through UF-LC/MS by comparison with classical ITC measurement. A single-point K(d) calculation method was found to be suitable for affinity measurement of multiple ligands bound to the same target when binding competition is minimized. A second workflow based on analysis of the unbound fraction of compounds was then developed, which simplified sample preparation as well as warranted reliable ligand discovery. The new workflow implemented in a fragment mixture screen afforded rapid and sensitive detection of low-affinity ligands selectively bound to the RNA polymerase NS5B of hepatitis C virus. More importantly, ligand identification and affinity measurement for mixture-based fragment screens by UF-LC/MS were in good accordance with single ligand evaluation by conventional SPR analysis. This new approach is expected to become a valuable addition to the arsenal of high-throughput screening techniques for fragment-based drug discovery.

  19. Accurate screening for synthetic preservatives in beverage using high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiuqin; Zhang Feng; Sun Yanyan; Yong Wei [Institute of Food Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Jia 3, Gaobeidian North Road, Beijing 100025 (China); Chu Xiaogang [Institute of Food Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Jia 3, Gaobeidian North Road, Beijing 100025 (China)], E-mail: lixq_sypu@yahoo.com; Fang Yanyan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry [Agilent Technologies, Inc., 2850 Centerville Road, Wilmington, Delaware (United States)

    2008-02-11

    In this study, liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOF-MS) is applied to qualitation and quantitation of 18 synthetic preservatives in beverage. The identification by HPLC/TOF-MS is accomplished with the accurate mass (the subsequent generated empirical formula) of the protonated molecules [M + H]+ or the deprotonated molecules [M - H]-, along with the accurate mass of their main fragment ions. In order to obtain sufficient sensitivity for quantitation purposes (using the protonated or deprotonated molecule) and additional qualitative mass spectrum information provided by the fragments ions, segment program of fragmentor voltages is designed in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. Accurate mass measurements are highly useful in the complex sample analyses since they allow us to achieve a high degree of specificity, often needed when other interferents are present in the matrix. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 3 ppm. The 18 compounds behave linearly in the 0.005-5.0 mg.kg{sup -1} concentration range, with correlation coefficient >0.996. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.0 mg.kg{sup -1}-100 mg.kg{sup -1} are 81-106%, with coefficients of variation <7.5%. Limits of detection (LODs) range from 0.0005 to 0.05 mg.kg{sup -1}, which are far below the required maximum residue level (MRL) for these preservatives in foodstuff. The method is suitable for routine quantitative and qualitative analyses of synthetic preservatives in foodstuff.

  20. Accurate screening for synthetic preservatives in beverage using high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu Qin; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Yan Yan; Yong, Wei; Chu, Xiao Gang; Fang, Yan Yan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2008-02-11

    In this study, liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOF-MS) is applied to qualitation and quantitation of 18 synthetic preservatives in beverage. The identification by HPLC/TOF-MS is accomplished with the accurate mass (the subsequent generated empirical formula) of the protonated molecules [M+H]+ or the deprotonated molecules [M-H]-, along with the accurate mass of their main fragment ions. In order to obtain sufficient sensitivity for quantitation purposes (using the protonated or deprotonated molecule) and additional qualitative mass spectrum information provided by the fragments ions, segment program of fragmentor voltages is designed in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. Accurate mass measurements are highly useful in the complex sample analyses since they allow us to achieve a high degree of specificity, often needed when other interferents are present in the matrix. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 3 ppm. The 18 compounds behave linearly in the 0.005-5.0mg.kg(-1) concentration range, with correlation coefficient >0.996. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.0mg.kg(-1)-100mg.kg(-1) are 81-106%, with coefficients of variation preservatives in foodstuff. The method is suitable for routine quantitative and qualitative analyses of synthetic preservatives in foodstuff.

  1. Radiologic findings of abdominal wall endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Wook [Inje Univ. Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis. In seven of 17 patients with surgically proven endometriosis of the abdominal wall, we retrospectively reviewed the findings of radiologic studies such as abdominal US (n=3), CT (n=4), and MRI (n=1). One patient under went more than one type of imaging, apparently. The surgical history of the seven, and their symptoms and preoperative diagnosis were reviewed, and the size, location, margin and nature of the mass, and the contrast enhancement patterns observed at radiologic studies, were assessed. The chief symptoms were palpable abdominal wall mass (n=5) and lower abdominal pain (n=2) around a surgical scar. Previous surgery included cesarean section (n=5), cesarean section with oophorectomy (n=1) and appendectomy (n=1). Masses were located in the subcutaneous fat layer (n=5) or rectus abdominis muscle (n=2), and their maximum diameter was 2.6 cm. Imaging findings, which correlated closely with the pathologic findings, included a well (n=5) or poorly marginated (n=2) solid mass, with a focal cystic area apparent in two cases. Although imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis may not be specific for diagnosis, the presence of a solid abdominal mass in female patients of reproductive age with a history of surgery is a diagnostic pointer.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Normal versus Fetal Growth Restriction in Pregnancy: The Significance of Maternal Body Mass Index, Nutritional Status, Anemia, and Ultrasonography Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmichaya D. Sawant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction or intrauterine growth restriction is one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity in newborns. Fetal growth restriction is a complex multifactorial condition resulting from several fetal and maternal disorders. The objective of this study was twofold: first to examine the correlation between maternal parameters such as body mass index (BMI, nutritional status, anemia, and placental weight and diameter, and their effects on fetal growth and then to evaluate the effect of early screening by ultrasonography (USG on the outcome of growth restricted pregnancies. In this study, 53 cases of fetal growth restriction were compared to 53 normal fetuses delivered in consecutive sequence. Growth restricted fetuses were delivered earlier in gestation, when compared with normal growth fetuses. Maternal anemia and malnutrition have significant association with the fetal growth restriction. Maternal anthropometry, such as low BMI, had effects on placental diameter and weight, which, in turn, adversely affected fetal weight. Thus, early USG screening along with robust screening for maternal BMI, nutritional status, and anemia can assist the obstetric team in providing early diagnosis, prompt intervention, and better outcome in pregnancy with fetal growth restriction.

  3. Liquid chromatography with triple-quadrupole or quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry for screening and confirmation of residues of pharmaceuticals in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolker, Alida A M; Niesing, Willem; Hogendoorn, Elbert A; Versteegh, Johanna F M; Fuchs, Regine; Brinkman, Udo A Th

    2004-02-01

    LC-MS-MS has been performed with triple-quadrupole (QqQ) and quadrupole-time of flight (Q-ToF) instruments and has been used for screening and confirmation of pharmaceuticals in surface, drinking, and ground water. Screening was based on monitoring of one specific MS-MS ion of the target compounds. Confirmation of the identity of the pharmaceuticals was based either on the monitoring of two specific MS-MS ions and calculation of the ratio of their intensities, or on the exact masses of MS-MS product ions obtained for a molecular ion by use of LC-Q-ToF MS. The set of pharmaceuticals included four analgesics (acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and paracetamol), three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol), five blood-lipid regulators and beta-blockers (fenofibrate, bezafibrate, clofibric acid, bisoprolol, and metoprolol), and the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine. Limits of quantification ranged from 5 to 25 ng L(-1). Fifty-six samples were analysed and residues of the pharmaceuticals were detected in almost all surface and groundwater and in some drinking water samples. The identity of the compounds could be confirmed by use of both QqQ- and Q-ToF-based LC-MS-MS. However, the latter technique has the distinct advantage that a large number of pharmaceuticals can be screened and confirmed at low concentrations (1-100 ng L(-1)) in one run.

  4. Broad Screening and Identification of Novel Psychoactive Substances in Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Post-run Library Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Camilla; Vannutelli, Gabriele; Gregori, Adolfo; Ripani, Luigi; Compagnone, Dario; Curini, Roberta; Sergi, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Drug abuse is today a growing global problem. Often the consumers are not aware about the type of substances they are using and the correlated risks. In recent years, new psychoactive substances (NPS) appeared in the illicit market. The presence of NPS, such as synthetic cathinones, cannabinoids and phenethylamines, which are known to be pharmacologically and toxicologically hazardous, has been frequently reported. The aim of this study was the development of a liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method for a broad screening of NPS in plasma. Data acquisition was in MS/MS and full-scan modes and the method was validated for 25 NPS belonging to different chemical classes. Quantitative results have been obtained for these analytes with limits of quantification ranging from 0.03 to 0.4 ng/mL. The method was proven to be suitable for the screening of additional substances; to this aim, a post-run library matching was conducted for every sample with an in-house database containing over 300 NPS and known metabolites. The library may be constantly expanded with new drugs, in order to obtain a broad screening of NPS in biological matrices.

  5. Free energy of static quarks and Debye screening mass in 2+1-flavor lattice QCD with Wilson quark action based on fixed-scale approach

    CERN Document Server

    Maezawa, Y; Aoki, S; Ejiri, S; Hatsuda, T; Kanaya, K; Ohno, H

    2011-01-01

    Free energies between static quarks and Debye screening masses in the quark-gluon plasma are studied on the basis of Polyakov-line correlations in lattice simulations of 2+1 flavors QCD with the renormalization-group improved gluon action and the $O(a)$-improved Wilson quark action. We perform simulations at $m_{\\rm PS}/m_{\\rm V} = 0.63$ (0.74) for light (strange) flavors with lattice sizes of $32^3 \\times N_t$ with $N_t=4$--12. We adopt the fixed-scale approach, where temperature can be varied without changing the spatial volume and renormalization factor. We find that, at short distance, the free energies of static quarks in color-singlet channel converge to the static-quark potential evaluated from the Wilson-loop at zero-temperature, in accordance with the expected insensitivity of short distance physics to the temperature. At long distance, the free energies of static quarks approach to twice the single-quark free energies, implying that the interaction between static quarks is fully screened. The screen...

  6. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  7. Radiological aspects of Gaucher disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Robert; Booth, Tom; Hargunani, Rikin; Wylie, Peter; Holloway, Brian [Royal Free Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Advances in imaging and the development of commercially available enzyme therapy have significantly altered the traditional radiology of Gaucher disease. The cost of treatment and need for monitoring response to therapy have magnified the importance of imaging. There are no recent comprehensive reviews of the radiology of this relatively common lysosomal storage disease. This article describes the modern imaging, techniques and radiological manifestations of Gaucher disease. (orig.)

  8. Radiological safety and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kyeong Won; You, Young Soo; Chang, Sea Young; Yoon, Yeo Chang; Yoon, Suk Chul; Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Tae Young; Lee, Bong Jae; Kim, Bong Hwan; Lee, Jong Il; Jeong, Juk Yeon; Lee, Sang Yeol; Jeong, Kyung Ki; Jeong, Rae Ik; Kim, Jong Su; Han, Young Dae; Lee, Hyung Sub; Kim, Chang Kyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the annual results of radiological safety and control program. This program includes working area monitoring (WAM), personnel radiation monitoring (PRM), education for radiation protection (ERP), preparing for KMRR operation and developing QA program on personal dose evaluation. As a result, the objectives of radiation protection have been achieved satisfactorily through the WAM, PRM and ERP. The QA program on personal dose evaluation has been approved by the MOST according to the Ministerial Ordinance (No. 1992-15). KAERI has also been authorized as a specialized processor for personal dose evaluation. 32 tabs., 20 figs. (Author) .new.

  9. Radiological evaluation of chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, T.M.; Hawkins, I.F. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    Eleven new and six recurrent chondroblastomas were studied with multiple radiological imaging methods (plain radiography, conventional tomography, computed tomography, radionuclide bone scanning, and angiography). When the plain radiographic appearance was typical, conventional tomography or computed tomography (CT) was helpful, but other studies were not. Periosteal reaction and angiographic hypervascularity were common and did not indicate cortical breakthrough. For large, aggressive, or atypical lesions, conventional tomography and CT were helpful in delineating anatomic extent, and angiography was of value in demonstrating major vessel displacement. Radionuclide bone scanning was not useful.

  10. Cost-efficient Transition to Digital Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Dhaenens

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: The transition to digital radiology is a very natural and slow process driven by internal and environmental forces, like mobile phone, personal computer, DVD and satellite tech-nology. Radiology as a high technical supporting ser-vice in the hospital is changing by new imaging mo-dalities and the surrounding informatics. Nowadays all CT, ultrasound and MRI equipment is digital and forces radiologists to live with digital images. Even the policy-makers in healthcare see that the success-ful way to organize healthcare and certainly screen-ing programs is along informatics. Patients draw also benefits from digital images, as the quality of care improves. What is the right attitude of a radiologist in this evolution; is this a threat or an opportunity? What steps and decisions have to be made? One has to consider that this evolution to digital is unavoid-able and a way of no return, so it is better to join carefully and to invest in a progressive and clever way. Of course there are several manners to arrive at the digital radiology depending on your needs and the situation where you live. Full digital radiology requires some infrastructures like communication networks (telephone, fiber-optics, and satellite, the availability of digital modalities and detectors, local networks, digital archives, displays. Most of the nec-essary components are available on the market, but are still expensive (like high-resolution displays, digi-tal archives, and solid state detectors. Other invest-ments (like telecommunication are in the hands of the government. Historically most of PACS (Picture Archiving & Communications Systems are grown around a hardcopy network for CT, MRI and Ultra-sound, sharing a high throughput, high quality wet or dry laser printer. Other digital radiology solutions stem from HIS (Hospital Information Systems or CIS (Clinical Information Systems linked by a typical RIS (Radiological Information Systems. There are

  11. Development of a high-throughput screening assay for stearoyl-CoA desaturase using rat liver microsomes, deuterium labeled stearoyl-CoA and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Patricia; McLaughlin, Meg; Stevens, Jessica; Connolly, Brendan; Coli, Rocco; Wang, Leyu; Moore, Jennifer; Kuo, Ming-Shang T; LaMarr, William A; Ozbal, Can C; Bhat, B Ganesh

    2008-10-03

    Several recent reports suggest that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the rate-limiting enzyme in monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, plays an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis and lipid oxidation in metabolically active tissues. As several manifestations of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders are associated with alterations in intracellular lipid partitioning, pharmacological manipulation of SCD1 activity might be of benefit in the treatment of these disease states. In an effort to identify small molecule inhibitors of SCD1, we have developed a mass spectrometry based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay using deuterium labeled stearoyl-CoA substrate and induced rat liver microsomes. The methodology developed allows the use of a nonradioactive substrate which avoids interference by the endogenous SCD1 substrate and/or product that exist in the non-purified enzyme source. Throughput of the assay was up to twenty 384-well assay plates per day. The assay was linear with protein concentration and time, and was saturable for stearoyl-CoA substrate (K(m)=10.5 microM). The assay was highly reproducible with an average Z' value=0.6. Conjugated linoleic acid and sterculic acid, known inhibitors of SCD1, exhibited IC(50) values of 0.88 and 0.12 microM, respectively. High-throughput mass spectrometry screening of over 1.7 million compounds in compressed format demonstrated that the enzyme target is druggable. A total of 2515 hits were identified (0.1% hit rate), and 346 were confirmed active (>40% inhibition of total SCD activity at 20 microM--14% conformation rate). Of the confirmed hits 172 had IC(50) values of <10 microM, including 111 <1 microM and 48 <100 nM. A large number of potent drug-like (MW<450) hits representing six different chemical series were identified. The application of mass spectrometry to high-throughput screening permitted the development of a high-quality screening protocol for an otherwise intractable target, SCD1. Further

  12. Development of a high-throughput screening assay for stearoyl-CoA desaturase using rat liver microsomes, deuterium labeled stearoyl-CoA and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulard, Patricia; McLaughlin, Meg; Stevens, Jessica; Connolly, Brendan; Coli, Rocco; Wang Leyu [Research Technology Center, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Moore, Jennifer; Kuo, Ming-Shang T. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, San Diego, CA (United States); LaMarr, William A.; Ozbal, Can C. [Biotrove, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States); Bhat, B. Ganesh [Pfizer Global Research and Development, San Diego, CA (United States)], E-mail: gbhat@gnf.org

    2008-10-03

    Several recent reports suggest that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the rate-limiting enzyme in monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, plays an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis and lipid oxidation in metabolically active tissues. As several manifestations of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders are associated with alterations in intracellular lipid partitioning, pharmacological manipulation of SCD1 activity might be of benefit in the treatment of these disease states. In an effort to identify small molecule inhibitors of SCD1, we have developed a mass spectrometry based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay using deuterium labeled stearoyl-CoA substrate and induced rat liver microsomes. The methodology developed allows the use of a nonradioactive substrate which avoids interference by the endogenous SCD1 substrate and/or product that exist in the non-purified enzyme source. Throughput of the assay was up to twenty 384-well assay plates per day. The assay was linear with protein concentration and time, and was saturable for stearoyl-CoA substrate (K{sub m} = 10.5 {mu}M). The assay was highly reproducible with an average Z' value = 0.6. Conjugated linoleic acid and sterculic acid, known inhibitors of SCD1, exhibited IC{sub 50} values of 0.88 and 0.12 {mu}M, respectively. High-throughput mass spectrometry screening of over 1.7 million compounds in compressed format demonstrated that the enzyme target is druggable. A total of 2515 hits were identified (0.1% hit rate), and 346 were confirmed active (>40% inhibition of total SCD activity at 20 {mu}M - 14% conformation rate). Of the confirmed hits 172 had IC{sub 50} values of <10 {mu}M, including 111 <1 {mu}M and 48 <100 nM. A large number of potent drug-like (MW < 450) hits representing six different chemical series were identified. The application of mass spectrometry to high-throughput screening permitted the development of a high-quality screening protocol for an otherwise intractable

  13. Simultaneous screening and quantification of 25 opioid drugs in post-mortem blood and urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergov, M; Nokua, P; Vuori, E; Ojanperä, I

    2009-04-15

    A method for simultaneous screening and quantification was developed for the fentanyls alfentanil, fentanyl, p-fluorofentanyl, cis-3-methylfentanyl, trans-3-methylfentanyl, alpha-methylfentanyl, norfentanyl, remifentanil, sufentanil, and the other opioid drugs 6-acetylmorphine, buprenorphine, codeine, dextropropoxyphene, ethylmorphine, heroin, methadone, morphine, naloxone, naltrexone, norbuprenorphine, normethadone, oxycodone, pentazocine, pethidine, and tramadol in post-mortem blood and urine samples by LC-MS/MS. Samples were extracted with butyl acetate at pH 7. The drugs were separated by LC on a Genesis C(18) reversed-phase column, with a gradient consisting of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate at pH 3.2. The mass spectrometric analysis was performed with a quadrupole-linear ion-trap mass spectrometer equipped with a turbo ion spray interface in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Quantification was performed based on five isotope-labelled internal standards. Validation included assessment of linearity, limit of quantification, inaccuracy, precision, and matrix effects. The limits of quantification were adequate for screening and quantification of opioid drugs at low therapeutic or abuse concentration levels, with inaccuracy less than 23% and precision better than 24% both in blood and urine samples. When this method was applied to autopsy cases, its results were in agreement with those of reference methods.

  14. High-performance thin-layer chromatography screening of multi class antibiotics in animal food by bioluminescent bioautography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yisheng; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-08-22

    The world-wide usage and partly abuse of veterinary antibiotics resulted in a pressing need to control residues in animal-derived foods. Large-scale screening for residues of antibiotics is typically performed by microbial agar diffusion tests. This work employing high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combined with bioautography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry introduces a rapid and efficient method for a multi-class screening of antibiotic residues. The viability of the bioluminescent bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri to the studied antibiotics (16 species of 5 groups) was optimized on amino plates, enabling detection sensitivity down to the strictest maximum residue limits. The HPTLC method was developed not to separate the individual antibiotics, but for cleanup of sample extracts. The studied antibiotics either remained at the start zones (tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides) or migrated into the front (amphenicols), while interfering co-extracted matrix compounds were dispersed at hRf 20-80. Only after a few hours, the multi-sample plate image clearly revealed the presence or absence of antibiotic residues. Moreover, molecular information as to the suspected findings was rapidly achieved by HPTLC-mass spectrometry. Showing remarkable sensitivity and matrix-tolerance, the established method was successfully applied to milk and kidney samples.

  15. A customised portable LogMAR chart with adjustable chart illumination for use as a mass screening device in the rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouthaman M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a customised, portable, cost-effective (logarithmic minimal angle resolution LogMAR chart with adjustable illumination for use as a mass vision-screening device in the rural population. Materials and Methods : Visual acuity of 100 individuals was evaluated with a customised chart and compared with the standard Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS chart and Snellen′s Chart. Bland and Altman analytical techniques were used for analysis. Results: Test-retest variability of the customised chart was just a one-line difference (95% CI for agreement, and so were the results with the standard ETDRS charts; a variability of 3-line was noted with Snellen′s chart. Two-line differences were observed when comparison was made with Standard ETDRS chart and 2 to 3-line differences with Snellen′s chart. Conclusion: The customised portable LogMAR chart with adjustable illumination shows less test-retest variability and better agreement with standard ETDRS chart; therefore, it can be used as a mass vision-screening device in rural settings.

  16. Waist-to-height ratio, body mass index and waist circumference for screening paediatric cardio-metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, K; Wong, M; Khalechelvam, P; Tam, W

    2016-12-01

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is superior to body mass index and waist circumference for measuring adult cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, there is no meta-analysis to evaluate its discriminatory power in children and adolescents. A meta-analysis was conducted using multiple databases, including Embase and Medline. Studies were included that utilized receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis and published area under the receiver-operating characteristics curves (AUC) for adiposity indicators with hyperglycaemia, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and other cardio-metabolic outcomes. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. AUC values were extracted and pooled using a random-effects model and were weighted using the inverse variance method. The mean AUC values for each index were greater than 0.6 for most outcomes including hypertension. The values were the highest when screening for metabolic syndrome (AUC > 0.8). WHtR did not have significantly better screening power than other two indexes in most outcomes, except for elevated triglycerides when compared with body mass index and high metabolic risk score when compared with waist circumference. Although not being superior in discriminatory power, WHtR is convenient in terms of measurement and interpretation, which is advantageous in practice and allows for the quick identification of children with cardio-metabolic risk factors at an early age.

  17. Functionalized graphene quantum dots loaded with free radicals combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to screen radical scavenging natural antioxidants from Licorice and Scutellariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Niu, XiuLi; Shi, Gaofeng; Chen, Xuefu; Yao, Ruixing; Chen, Fuwen

    2014-12-01

    A novel screening method was developed for the detection and identification of radical scavenging natural antioxidants based on a free radical reaction combined with liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Functionalized graphene quantum dots were prepared for loading free radicals in the complex screening system. The detection was performed with and without a preliminary exposure of the samples to specific free radicals on the functionalized graphene quantum dots, which can facilitate charge transfer between free radicals and antioxidants. The difference in chromatographic peak areas was used to identify potential antioxidants. This is a novel approach to simultaneously evaluate the antioxidant power of a component versus a free radical, and to identify it in a vegetal matrix. The structures of the antioxidants in the samples were identified using tandem mass spectrometry and comparison with standards. Fourteen compounds were found to possess potential antioxidant activity, and their free radical scavenging capacities were investigated. The order of scavenging capacity of 14 compounds was compared according to their free radical scavenging rate. 4',5,6,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone (radical scavenging rate: 0.05253 mL mg(-1) s(-1) ) showed the strongest capability for scavenging free radicals.

  18. Radiological Calibration and Standards Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL maintains a state-of-the-art Radiological Calibration and Standards Laboratory on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington. Laboratory staff provide expertise...

  19. Peritoneal mesothelioma; Radiologic appearances correlated with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, P.R.; Yuschok, T.J.; Buck, J.L.; Shekitka, K.M.; Kaude, J.V. (Florida Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Radiology Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States). Depts. of Radiologic Pathology and Gastrointestinal Pathology)

    1991-09-01

    Previous imaging reports of peritoneal mesothelioma have described a variety of radiologic appearances, but have not included its pathologic classification. We retrospectively reviewed 10 cases of peritoneal mesothelioma representing the following histologic categories: 7 epithelial, 2 sarcomatoid, and one biphasic. By imaging, epithelial mesotheliomas demonstrated diffuse thickening of the peritoneum and mesentery and/or multiple small nodules. The sarcomatoid-type appeared as a mass and the biphasic-type had radiologic and gross pathologic features of both sarcomatoid and epithelial types. We conclude that peritoneal mesothelioma presents with a wide spectrum of radiographic appearances and should therefore be included in the differential diagnoses of diffuse as well as localized peritoneal processes. (orig.).

  20. A general screening method for doping agents in human urine by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolmonen, Marjo [Forensic Toxicology Division, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland) and Doping Control Laboratory, United Laboratories Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: marjo.kolmonen@helsinki.fi; Leinonen, Antti [Doping Control Laboratory, United Laboratories Ltd., Helsinki (Finland); Pelander, Anna [Forensic Toxicology Division, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland); Ojanperae, Ilkka [Forensic Toxicology Division, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2007-02-28

    A general screening method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) was developed and investigated with 124 different doping agents, including stimulants, {beta}-blockers, narcotics, {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic agonists, agents with anti-estrogenic activity, diuretics and cannabinoids. Mixed mode cation exchange/C8 cartridges were applied to SPE, and chromatography was based on gradient elution on a C18 column. Ionization of the analytes was achieved with electrospray ionization in the positive mode. Identification by LC/TOFMS was based on retention time, accurate mass and isotopic pattern. Validation of the method consisted of analysis of specificity, analytical recovery, limit of detection and repeatability. The minimum required performance limit (MRPL), established by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), was attained to 97 doping agents. The extraction recoveries varied between 33 and 98% and the median was 58%. Mass accuracy was always better than 5 ppm, corresponding to a maximum mass error of 0.7 mDa. The repeatability of the method for spiked urine samples, expressed as median of relative standard deviations (RSD%) at concentrations of MRPL and 10 times MRPL, were 14% and 9%, respectively. The suitability of the LC/TOFMS method for doping control was demonstrated with authentic urine samples.

  1. Suspect screening of large numbers of emerging contaminants in environmental waters using artificial neural networks for chromatographic retention time prediction and high resolution mass spectrometry data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Miller, Thomas H; Barron, Leon P; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Hernández, Felix

    2015-12-15

    The recent development of broad-scope high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) screening methods has resulted in a much improved capability for new compound identification in environmental samples. However, positive identifications at the ng/L concentration level rely on analytical reference standards for chromatographic retention time (tR) and mass spectral comparisons. Chromatographic tR prediction can play a role in increasing confidence in suspect screening efforts for new compounds in the environment, especially when standards are not available, but reliable methods are lacking. The current work focuses on the development of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for tR prediction in gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and applied along with HRMS data to suspect screening of wastewater and environmental surface water samples. Based on a compound tR dataset of >500 compounds, an optimized 4-layer back-propagation multi-layer perceptron model enabled predictions for 85% of all compounds to within 2min of their measured tR for training (n=344) and verification (n=100) datasets. To evaluate the ANN ability for generalization to new data, the model was further tested using 100 randomly selected compounds and revealed 95% prediction accuracy within the 2-minute elution interval. Given the increasing concern on the presence of drug metabolites and other transformation products (TPs) in the aquatic environment, the model was applied along with HRMS data for preliminary identification of pharmaceutically-related compounds in real samples. Examples of compounds where reference standards were subsequently acquired and later confirmed are also presented. To our knowledge, this work presents for the first time, the successful application of an accurate retention time predictor and HRMS data-mining using the largest number of compounds to preliminarily identify new or emerging contaminants in wastewater and surface waters.

  2. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (1) Body Mass Index Reference for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese School-age Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGYE JI; COOPERATIVE STUDY ON CHILDHOOD OBESITY, WORKING GR

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To establish and propose a national body mass index (BMI) reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Methods 2000 CNSSCH (Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health) data, including 216 620 primary and secondary school students aged 7 to 18 years old, were used as a reference population. Compared with those of the NCHS internatioanl reference, three temporary sets of cut-off BMI were proposed by testing different combinations of P8s, P9o, and P95. When physiological and biochemical measures between and among "obesity","overweight", and "normal weight" groups were taken into consideration, set Ⅱ was selected to be the most appropriate one.The sex-age-specific curves were then plotted and smoothed by using B-spline method. Results Based on the samples from costal developed metropolis, the BMI curves successfully overcame the shortcomings of lower and level-off tendency of the Chinese total population. Temporary set Ⅱ, composed by cut-offs of P85 for overweight and P95 for obesity, was finally selected by its sensitivity and peculiarity. BMI 24 and 28 were used as cut-offs for overweight and obesity for both males and females aged 18 years old. These cut-offs, consistent with Chinese Adult's Reference, was proposed as the Body mass index reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Conclusion The new reference clearly showed its superiorty in both prospectivity and actuality. The proposed reference minimized the gaps of the BMI curve between Chinese adolescents and the international reference. Most importantly was that it was consistent with the Eastern Asia ethnic characteristics of body fatness growth. It was therefore proposed by the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) to use it as an nationwide reference for screening overweight and obesity of school-age children and adolescents in China.

  3. Rapid screening and identification of chemical hazards in surface and drinking water using high resolution mass spectrometry and a case-control filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserzon, Sarit L; Heffernan, Amy L; Thompson, Kristie; Mueller, Jochen F; Gomez Ramos, Maria Jose

    2017-09-01

    Access to clean, safe drinking water poses a serious challenge to regulators, and requires analytical strategies capable of rapid screening and identification of potentially hazardous chemicals, specifically in situations when threats to water quality or security require rapid investigations and potential response. This study describes a fast and efficient chemical hazard screening strategy for characterising trace levels of polar organic contaminants in water matrices, based on liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry with post-acquisition 'case-control' data processing. This method allowed for a rapid response time of less than 24 h for the screening of target, suspect and non-target unknown chemicals via direct injection analysis, and a second, more sensitive analysis option requiring sample pre-concentration. The method was validated by fortifying samples with a range of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (n = 46); with >90% of target compounds positively screened in samples at 1 ng mL(-1), and 46% at 0.1 ng mL(-1) when analysed via direct injection. To simulate a contamination event samples were fortified with compounds not present in the commercial library (designated 'non-target compounds'; fipronil and fenitrothion), tentatively identified at 0.2 and 1 ng mL(-1), respectively; and a compound not included in any known commercial library or public database (designated 'unknown' compounds; 8Cl(-) perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), at 0.8 ng mL(-1). The method was applied to two 'real-case' scenarios: (1) the assessment of drinking water safety during a high-profile event in Brisbane, Australia; and (2) to screen treated, re-circulated drinking water and pre-treated (raw) water. The validated workflow was effective for rapid prioritisation and screening of suspect and non-target potential hazards at trace levels, and could be applied to a wide range of matrices and investigations where comparison of organic contaminants

  4. Library screening by means of mass spectrometry (MS) binding assays-exemplarily demonstrated for a pseudostatic library addressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Miriam; Wanner, Klaus T

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, the application of mass spectrometry (MS) binding assays as a tool for library screening is reported. For library generation, dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) was used. These libraries can be screened by means of MS binding assays when appropriate measures are taken to render the libraries pseudostatic. That way, the efficiency of MS binding assays to determine ligand binding in compound screening with the ease of library generation by DCC is combined. The feasibility of this approach is shown for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT1) as a target, representing the most important subtype of the GABA transporters. For the screening, hydrazone libraries were employed that were generated in the presence of the target by reacting various sets of aldehydes with a hydrazine derivative that is delineated from piperidine-3-carboxylic acid (nipecotic acid), a common fragment of known GAT1 inhibitors. To ensure that the library generated is pseudostatic, a large excess of the nipecotic acid derivative is employed. As the library is generated in a buffer system suitable for binding and the target is already present, the mixtures can be directly analyzed by MS binding assays-the process of library generation and screening thus becoming simple to perform. The binding affinities of the hits identified by deconvolution were confirmed in conventional competitive MS binding assays performed with single compounds obtained by separate synthesis. In this way, two nipecotic acid derivatives exhibiting a biaryl moiety, 1-{2-[2'-(1,1'-biphenyl-2-ylmethylidene)hydrazine]ethyl}piperidine-3-carboxylic acid and 1-(2-{2'-[1-(2-thiophenylphenyl)methylidene]hydrazine}ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylic acid, were found to be potent GAT1 ligands exhibiting pK(i) values of 6.186 ± 0.028 and 6.229 ± 0.039, respectively. This method enables screening of libraries, whether generated by conventional chemistry or DCC, and is applicable to all kinds of targets including

  5. Prospective investigation of body mass index, colorectal adenoma, and colorectal cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Berndt, Sonja I; de González, Amy Berrington; Coleman, Helen G; Schoen, Robert E; Hayes, Richard B; Huang, Wen-Yi

    2013-07-01

    Obesity has consistently been linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer, particularly among men. Whether body mass index (BMI) differentially influences the risk across the stages of colorectal cancer development remains unclear. We evaluated the associations of BMI with colorectal adenoma incidence, adenoma recurrence, and cancer in the context of a large screening trial, in which cases and controls had an equal chance for disease detection. We prospectively evaluated the association between baseline BMI and the risk of incident distal adenoma (1,213 cases), recurrent adenoma (752 cases), and incident colorectal cancer (966 cases) among men and women, ages 55 to 74 years, randomly assigned to receive flexible sigmoidoscopy screening as part of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for adenoma incidence and recurrence, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer incidence, using multivariable-adjusted models. Compared with normal-weight men (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), obese men (≥ 30 kg/m(2)) had significantly higher risk of incident adenoma (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.65) and colorectal cancer (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.89) and a borderline increased risk of recurrent adenoma (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.98 to 2.30). No associations were observed for either adenoma or cancer in women. Data from this large prospective study suggest that obesity is important throughout the natural history of colorectal cancer, at least in men, and colorectal cancer prevention efforts should encourage the achievement and maintenance of a healthy body weight in addition to regular screenings.

  6. Tandem Mass Spectrometry Has a Larger Analytical Range than Fluorescence Assays of Lysosomal Enzymes: Application to Newborn Screening and Diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidoses Types II, IVA, and VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun Babu; Masi, Sophia; Ghomashchi, Farideh; Chennamaneni, Naveen Kumar; Ito, Makoto; Scott, C Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H; Spacil, Zdenek

    2015-11-01

    There is interest in newborn screening and diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases because of the development of treatment options that improve clinical outcome. Assays of lysosomal enzymes with high analytical range (ratio of assay response from the enzymatic reaction divided by the assay response due to nonenzymatic processes) are desirable because they are predicted to lead to a lower rate of false positives in population screening and to more accurate diagnoses. We designed new tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) assays that give the largest analytical ranges reported to date for the use of dried blood spots (DBS) for detection of mucopolysaccharidoses type II (MPS-II), MPS-IVA, and MPS-VI. For comparison, we carried out fluorometric assays of 6 lysosomal enzymes using 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-substrate conjugates. The MS/MS assays for MPS-II, -IVA, and -VI displayed analytical ranges that are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those for the corresponding fluorometric assays. The relatively small analytical ranges of the 4MU assays are due to the intrinsic fluorescence of the 4MU substrates, which cause high background in the assay response. These highly reproducible MS/MS assays for MPS-II, -IVA, and -VI can support multiplex newborn screening of these lysosomal storage diseases. MS/MS assays of lysosomal enzymes outperform 4MU fluorometric assays in terms of analytical range. Ongoing pilot studies will allow us to gauge the impact of the increased analytical range on newborn screening performance. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  7. Development of a fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometric screening method for alkyl-ended oligomeric biguanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, J. J.; Morden, W. E.

    1992-12-01

    The FAB-MS and FAB-MS---MS behaviour of a series of "alkyl-ended" oligomeric biguanides has been studied. MS---MS product ion scans showed that fragmentation of these species occurred by predictable cleavages of the biguanide chains. Results are presented from a number of MS---MS precursor ion and neutral loss scans studied in an attempt to develop a screening method for biguanides in complex mixtures. The most effective of these scans is shown to be the neutral loss of the N-alkylguanidine molecule. Use of this scan is demonstrated for a mixture of oligomeric biguanides.

  8. The Effect of Screening Factors and Thermonuclear Reaction Rates in the Pre-main Sequence Evolution of Low Mass Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    İ. Küçük; Ş. Çalışkan

    2010-09-01

    In understanding the nucleosynthesis of the elements in stars, one of the most important quantities is the reaction rate and it must be evaluated in terms of the stellar temperature , and its determination involves the knowledge of the excitation function () of the specific nuclear reaction leading to the final nucleus. In this paper, the effect of thermonuclear reaction rates to the pre-main sequence evolution of low mass stars having masses 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1 M⊙ are studied by using our modified Stellar Evolutionary Program.

  9. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  10. Sexual Harassment in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M

    2017-08-01

    To gauge the prevalence of sexual harassment (SH) and to understand the issues regarding its disclosure among radiologists. A questionnaire on ethics and SH was sent by e-mail to 1,569 radiologists and radiology trainees in an institutional database maintained for continuing medical education purposes on three separate occasions between September 17 and October 31, 2016. The link to the survey was also posted on social media sites via the authors' divisional and institutional accounts on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Aunt Minnie, as well as on ACR and RSNA web blogs. Overall, 9.75% (39 of 400) respondents stated they had suffered SH, with more female (22 of 90 = 24.4%) than male victims (11 of 249 = 4.4%) (P victims said they would likely report SH (P witnessed SH. By percentage responding, female radiologists are more frequently victims and witnesses of sexual harassment but are less likely to report such cases. Steps need to be taken to eliminate a culture that leads radiologists to tolerate SH without addressing it. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Image quality from direct radiological magnification (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, T; Borcke, E

    1980-03-01

    An assessment of image quality from a direct radiological magnification method with a microfocus was carried out. It was found that direct magnification has advantages for the magnification of thin objects (5 cm. thickness). Because of the marked radiation scarrer in thick objects an improvement in picture quality is not possible. Scatter, despite the Groedel effect, is too large. Optimum results are obtained with a microfocus tube using universal screens. Comparable image quality is not possible with high intensification screens. High definition screens are not suitable for magnification. Dose measurements revealed unexpectedly low levels, particularly for thin objects. The reasons for this were examined and are described.

  12. Cell-Based Screening: Cellular Assays with a Molecular Endpoint Measured by SAMDI Mass Spectrometry (Small 28/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Eric J; Cabezas, Maria D; Mrksich, Milan

    2016-07-01

    On page 3811, M. Mrksich and co-workers culture cells using self-assembled monolayers presenting cell adhesion ligands and enzyme substrates. A lysis buffer disrupts the cell membranes, releasing enzymes that modify the immobilized substrates. These modifications can be measured with SAMDI mass spectrometry, giving a high-throughput, cell-based assay.

  13. Screening of plant toxins in food,feed and botanicals using full-scan high-resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.G.J.; Dam, van R.C.J.; Zomer, P.; Mulder, P.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    A generic method based on LC with full-scan high-resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometry (MS) was systematically investigated for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of plant toxins in a variety of food and feed matrices. For a selection of 150 substances, representing various chemical classe

  14. Screening of plant toxins in food,feed and botanicals using full-scan high-resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.G.J.; Dam, van R.C.J.; Zomer, P.; Mulder, P.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    A generic method based on LC with full-scan high-resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometry (MS) was systematically investigated for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of plant toxins in a variety of food and feed matrices. For a selection of 150 substances, representing various chemical classe

  15. Coupling passive sampling and time of flight mass spectrometry for a better estimation of polar pesticide freshwater contamination: Simultaneous target quantification and screening analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibal, Robin; Lissalde, Sophie; Charriau, Adeline; Poulier, Gaëlle; Mazzella, Nicolas; Guibaud, Gilles

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was first to develop and validate an analytical method for the quantification of 35 polar pesticides and 9 metabolites by ultra-high-performance-liquid chromatography combined with a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer detector (UHPLC-(Q)-TOF). Various analytical conditions were investigated (eluent composition and mass parameters) to optimize analyte responses. Analytical performance (linearity, limit of quantification, and accuracy) was then evaluated and interference in the extract of a passive sampler exposed in freshwater (POCIS: Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler) was studied. The proposed quantification method was validated for 43 compounds with variation of calibration slopes below 10% in environmental matrix. For the unvalidated compound DIA (atrazine-desisopropyl: an atrazine metabolite), interference increased the error of concentration determination (50%). The limits of quantification obtained by combining POCIS and UHPLC-(Q)-TOF for 43 target compounds were between 0.1 (terbuthylazine) and 10.7 ng/L (acetochlor). Secondly, the method was successfully applied during a 14-day POCIS river exposure, and gave concentration values similar to a more commonly used triple quadrupole detector regarding concentration, but allowed for the detection of more compounds. Additionally with the targeted compound quantification, the (Q)-TOF mass spectrometer was also used for screening non-target compounds (other pesticides and pharmaceuticals) in POCIS extracts. Moreover, the acquisition of full scan MS data allowed the identification of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) compounds which gave unresolvable interference to DIA, and thus questions the ability of DIA to be used as performance reference compound (PRC) to determine sampling rates in situ. This study therefore illustrates the potential, and proposes a pathway, of UHPLC-(Q)-TOF combined with POCIS in situ pre-concentration for both quantitative and screening analyses of

  16. Screening and confirmation capabilities of liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the determination of 200 multiclass sport drugs in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Romero, Juan C; García-Reyes, Juan F; Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    In this article, a screening method for the determination of 200 sport drugs in human urine has been developed using liquid-chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS). The chromatographic separation of the targeted doping agents was carried out by fast liquid chromatography using a C18 column (4.6×50 mm) with 1.8 μm particle size. Accurate mass measurements of the selected ion (typically [M+H](+) and [M-H](-)) along with retention time matching was used for the screening and detection of the targeted species. The proposed methodology comprised also a simple sample treatment stage based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with polymeric cartridges. The SPE method displayed satisfactory recoveries rates (between 70 and 120%) for the majority of the compounds at both concentration levels tested (2.5 and 25 μg L(-1)). The overall performance of the method was satisfactory with all 200 compounds fulfilling WADA minimum required performance levels (MRPLs), with limits of quantitation lower than 1 μg L(-1) for 80% of the compounds, and showing an appropriate linearity (r(2)>0.99) in most cases. Additionally, the ability of "in-source" collision induced dissociation (CID) for confirmatory purposes was examined using as criterion the presence of two high-resolution ions with relevant abundances for unambiguous confirmation. This stringent criterion was fulfilled for 75% of the species using in-source CID fragmentation. The use of an improved approach based on CID performed on a dedicated collision cell without precursor ion selection (using a Q-TOF) provided at least two ions in all cases with the exception of 2-aminoheptane. Finally, based on the use of diagnostic fragment ions, a workflow for the comprehensive screening and identification of non-targeted compounds (viz. compounds with no primary standards or retention time information available, such as metabolites) has been also examined using rat urine samples. The proposed screening method

  17. Noninvasive screening for pheochromocytoma in patients with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass. Usefulness of provocative test with metoclopramide and {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Yuji [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    Pheochromocytoma accounts for approximately 25% of incidentally discovered adrenal masses. Certain diagnostic procedures (e.g., adrenal arteriography, needle biopsy of an adrenal mass), anesthesia and abdominal surgery may cause a sudden release of catecholamines from a pheochromocytoma and induce paroxysmal attacks of hypertension. In addition, pheochromocytoma is well known to cause unsuspected operating room deaths. Therefore, we must carefully separate this functioning neoplasm from other types of adrenal masses. In this study, we compared the results of noninvasive tests including assay of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites, a provocative pharmacologic test using metoclopramide (MCP test), and {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MlBG) scintigraphy to screen for pheochromocytoma in 10 consecutive patients with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass (6 pheochromocytomas and 4 non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas). We measured the 24-hour urinary excretion of catecholamines, metanephrines and vanillyl mandelic acid in all 10 patients; 5 were positive, 4 were negative and 1 was false-negative (sensitivity=83%, specificity=100%). The MCP test was performed in 7 patients; 3 were positive, 3 were negative and 1 was false-negative (sensitivity=75%, specificity=100%). MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 7 patients; 4 were positive, 1 was negative and 2 were false-negative (sensitivity=67%, specificity=100%). According to these results, all patients with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass should undergo a determination of the 24-hour urinary excretion of catecholamines and their metabolites, including metanephrines. If this urine assay is negative, other noninvasive tests including the MCP test and MIBG scintigraphy should be considered in selected patients with radiographic characteristics of pheochromocytoma. (author)

  18. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric quantification with metabolite screening as a strategy to enhance the early drug discovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, Philip R; Romanyshyn, Leslie A

    2002-01-01

    Throughput for early discovery drug metabolism studies can be increased with the concomitant acquisition of metabolite screening information and quantitative analysis using ultra-fast gradient chromatographic methods. Typical ultra-fast high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) parameters used during early discovery pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, for example, employ full-linear gradients over 1-2 min at very high flow rates (1.5-2 mL/min) on very short HPLC columns (2 x 20 mm). These conditions increase sample throughput by reducing analytical run time without sacrificing chromatographic integrity and may be used to analyze samples generated from a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies. This approach allows acquisition of more information about a lead candidate while maintaining rapid analytical turn-around time. Some examples of this approach are discussed in further detail.

  19. Common Data Elements in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel L; Kahn, Charles E

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic radiologists generally produce unstructured information in the form of images and narrative text reports. Although designed for human consumption, radiologic reports contain a wealth of information that could be valuable for clinical care, research, and quality improvement if that information could be extracted by automated systems. Unfortunately, the lack of structure in radiologic reports limits the ability of information systems to share information easily with other systems. A common data element (CDE)-a unit of information used in a shared, predefined fashion-can improve the ability to exchange information seamlessly among information systems. In this article, a model and a repository of radiologic CDEs is described, and three important applications are highlighted. CDEs can help advance radiologic practice, research, and performance improvement, and thus, it is crucial that CDEs be adopted widely in radiologic information systems. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  20. Radiological Work Planning and Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtz, J E

    2000-01-01

    Each facility is tasked with maintaining personnel radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). A continued effort is required to meet this goal by developing and implementing improvements to technical work documents (TWDs) and work performance. A review of selected TWDs from most facilities shows there is a need to incorporate more radiological control requirements into the TWD. The Radioactive Work Permit (RWP) provides a mechanism to place some of the requirements but does not provide all the information needed by the worker as he/she is accomplishing the steps of the TWD. Requiring the engineers, planners and procedure writers to put the radiological control requirements in the work steps would be very easy if all personnel had a strong background in radiological work planning and radiological controls. Unfortunately, many of these personnel do not have the background necessary to include these requirements without assistance by the Radiological Control organization at each facility. In add...

  1. Radiological changes of adult sprue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neutard, E.; Kluge, F.

    1981-08-01

    Radiological findings of 10 adult patients with sprue were compared with histology. Patients suffering from subtotal villous atrophy were showing distinct radiological changes. The most important finding of sprue is the dilatation of the small intestine. Further typical changes are segmentations and fragmentations as well as mucous hypertrophy and the sign of moulage. In a 57-year-old female patient who was suffering from sprue for 35 years, a carcinoma of the small bowl was found and was resected during laparatomy. Sprue is a premalignant disease; therefore radiological investigations are of special importance. Therapy by a diet without gluten can reduce the radiological changes to normal very bad changes rarely can be reduced totally. Radiological changes are not significant, but the diagnosis can be made in most cases by investigation with barium.

  2. Nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: Novel sample preparation methods and nanoparticle screening for plant metabolite imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagnik, Gargey B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-02-19

    The main goal of the presented research is development of nanoparticle based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). This dissertation includes the application of previously developed data acquisition methods, development of novel sample preparation methods, application and comparison of novel nanoparticle matrices, and comparison of two nanoparticle matrix application methods for MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS imaging.

  3. [Rapid screening and confirmation of non-target pigment in Chinese softshell turtle by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyan; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Fan; Zheng, Chongying; Zhang, Haiqi; He, Zhongyang; He, Xin

    2015-12-01

    A method of non-target pigment screening in Chinese softshell turtle has been established by using liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS). After being purified by a simple acetonitrile extraction work, the non-target pigment in 20 Chinese softshell turtle samples was detected by liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (LC-DAD). The S7 sample, which has a strong spectral response, was chosen to extract the mass spectrometry information of the non-target pigment on different gradient elution conditions. In order to get the characteristic molecular mass ion (564.397 73 Da and 564.395 61 Da) of the non-target pigment, qualitative spectral full scan with negative sample was used. The molecular formula generation data and the literature information prompted speculation that the non-target pigment was canthaxanthin with the formula of C40H52O2. By comparing the canthaxanthin standard material MS/MS information, the result was confirmed accurate. A strategy of LC-Q-TOF MS method for the qualitative analysis of unknown compounds is discussed, and the results indicated that the described method can be effectively applied to qualitative analysis for non-target pigment in Chinese softshell turtle.

  4. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  5. Radiology today. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuck, F.H.W.; Donner, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The book discusses the following contents: Advances in Cardiovascular Imaging: Digital Arteriography: Ongoing Developments. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cardiovascular System. Comparison of Vascular CT and MRI. Characterization of Vascular Lesions by Ultrasound - Progress in Vascular Interventions: Laser Angioplasty: A Review. Fibrinolytic Therapy Combined with Clot Extraction. Drugs Useful in Angioplasty. Developments in Cardiovascular Imaging: Blood Flow Measurements with Digital Arteriography. Selection of Imaging Techniques for Venous Thromboembolic Disease. Clinical Usefulness of High-Verus Low-Osmolality Contrast Agents. Developments in Angiographic and Interventional Instrumentation. Progress in Cardiovascular Interventions. Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Types, Placement, and Efficiency. Transluminal Vascular Stenting and Grafting. Venography and Sclerotherapy of Varioceles in Children and Adolescents. A New Catheter System - Important Hip Problems: Radiologic and Pathologic Correlation and Hip Disease. Comparison of Imaging Modalities in Femoral Head Necrosis. Osteoartrosis and Arthritis (Synovitis) of the Hip. Hip Anthrography.

  6. Radiologic findings in neurofibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dai Young; Jeon, Seok Chol; Lee, Kwan Se; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Choo, Dong Woon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    Neurofibromatosis is an uncommon but certainly not a rare hereditary disorder, probably of neuralcrest origin, involving not only neuroectoderm and mesoderm but also endoderm and characterized by cafe au lait spots and cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors, with secondary mesodermal defects responsible for protean osseous abnormalities and various manifestations in other systems. This paper is a study of confirmed 143 cases of neurofibromatosis collected for past 8 years. In this analysis, special attention was given to the selected 37 cases which showed abnormal findings on radiological examinations. Overall male to female ratio was 1 : 1.3. The most frequent kind of abnormalities was vertebral kyphoscoliosis in 12 cases. Among the more pathognomonic but uncommon abnormalities to neurofibromatosis, we experienced each 2 cases of lambdoid defect, pseudoarthrosis and renovascular hypertension, and 1 cases of sphenoid bone absence.

  7. "Patient care in radiology"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro Brask, Kirsten; Birkelund, Regner

    2014-01-01

    and semistructured interviews and analyzed according to the guidelines for meaning condensation by Giorgi. The imaging staff found that care is expressed in an administrative, an instrumental, and a compassionate sense. The imaging staff perceived care in a way that clearly differs from the traditional perception...... of care understood as the close relations between people. In their self-understanding, the staff found that care not only comprised the relational aspect but also that it was already delivered during the preparatory phases before the actual meeting with the patient and up until the image...... was electronically forwarded. And, care expressed in between was perceived as care in the traditional sense and termed as “patient care in radiology.”...

  8. Optimal Radiologic Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeel Shokrollahi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The radiological report is the medical document that qualifies the radiologist as a clinician and as a specialist, because through it radiologists expresse their professionalism."nThere is nothing more debatable than the report and how it should be written. It is conditioned by many variables that derive from the wide variety of sensitivities and personal or local cultures. In addition, there has never been a specific school in which these rules are taught."nIn the assessment of each written material, two things are explained:"n1. Methodology of the writing process itself as an act"n2. Characters of the written material "nIn assessing the method of writing a radiological report, two dimensions are discussed: "n1. Hardware: including data gathering, their processing and preparing them to be seen, the me-thod of reporting, conditions of workspace, instru-ments and all the physical parts of the work."n2. Software: how someone watches the images, me-thodology of thought and logical reasoning, and ultimately, how pictures are transferred to understandable, meaningful and useful written material."nIn assessing the characters of the written material itself, we should note:"n1. The configuration includes the structure of the words and grammar, style of writing, order of things to come after each other. This is the carrier of the content. "n2. The content is the main reason of the writing which contains the whole meaning and all parts of what one wants his or her audience to get from the note.

  9. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Jose E-mail: vilar_jlu@gva.es; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-08-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings.

  10. Radiological anatomy - evaluation of integrative education in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, S; Schmiedl, A; Meyer, S; Giesemann, A; Pabst, R; Weidemann, J; Wacker, F K; Kirchhoff, T

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation and analysis of the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" established since 2007 at the Medical School Hannover (MHH) in comparison with conventional education. Anatomy and radiology are usually taught separately with a considerable time lag. Interdisciplinary teaching of these associated subjects seems logical for several reasons. Therefore, the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" was established in the second year of medical education, combining these two closely related subjects. This interdisciplinary course was retrospectively evaluated by consideration of a student questionnaire and staff observations. The advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching in medical education are discussed. The course ratings were excellent (median 1; mean 1.3 on a scale of 1 to 6). This is significantly (p radiology increased during the course (88 %). According to the students' suggestions the course was enhanced by a visitation in the Department of Radiology and the additional topic central nervous system. Integrative teaching of anatomy and radiology was well received by the students. Both, anatomical and radiological comprehension and the motivation to learn were improved. However, it should be considered, that the amount of work and time required by the teaching staff is considerably increased compared to traditional teaching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. A High Resolution/Accurate Mass (HRAM) Data-Dependent MS3 Neutral Loss Screening, Classification, and Relative Quantitation Methodology for Carbonyl Compounds in Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dator, Romel; Carrà, Andrea; Maertens, Laura; Guidolin, Valeria; Villalta, Peter W.; Balbo, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    Reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are generated endogenously as a result of various physiological and pathological processes. These compounds can react with biological molecules inducing deleterious processes believed to be at the basis of their toxic effects. Several of these compounds are implicated in neurotoxic processes, aging disorders, and cancer. Therefore, a method characterizing exposures to these chemicals will provide insights into how they may influence overall health and contribute to disease pathogenesis. Here, we have developed a high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) screening strategy allowing simultaneous identification and relative quantitation of DNPH-derivatized carbonyls in human biological fluids. The screening strategy involves the diagnostic neutral loss of hydroxyl radical triggering MS3 fragmentation, which is only observed in positive ionization mode of DNPH-derivatized carbonyls. Unique fragmentation pathways were used to develop a classification scheme for characterizing known and unanticipated/unknown carbonyl compounds present in saliva. Furthermore, a relative quantitation strategy was implemented to assess variations in the levels of carbonyl compounds before and after exposure using deuterated d 3 -DNPH. This relative quantitation method was tested on human samples before and after exposure to specific amounts of alcohol. The nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) in positive mode afforded excellent sensitivity with detection limits on-column in the high-attomole levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a method using HRAM neutral loss screening of carbonyl compounds. In addition, the method allows simultaneous characterization and relative quantitation of DNPH-derivatized compounds using nano-ESI in positive mode.

  12. A High Resolution/Accurate Mass (HRAM) Data-Dependent MS3 Neutral Loss Screening, Classification, and Relative Quantitation Methodology for Carbonyl Compounds in Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dator, Romel; Carrà, Andrea; Maertens, Laura; Guidolin, Valeria; Villalta, Peter W.; Balbo, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    Reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are generated endogenously as a result of various physiological and pathological processes. These compounds can react with biological molecules inducing deleterious processes believed to be at the basis of their toxic effects. Several of these compounds are implicated in neurotoxic processes, aging disorders, and cancer. Therefore, a method characterizing exposures to these chemicals will provide insights into how they may influence overall health and contribute to disease pathogenesis. Here, we have developed a high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) screening strategy allowing simultaneous identification and relative quantitation of DNPH-derivatized carbonyls in human biological fluids. The screening strategy involves the diagnostic neutral loss of hydroxyl radical triggering MS3 fragmentation, which is only observed in positive ionization mode of DNPH-derivatized carbonyls. Unique fragmentation pathways were used to develop a classification scheme for characterizing known and unanticipated/unknown carbonyl compounds present in saliva. Furthermore, a relative quantitation strategy was implemented to assess variations in the levels of carbonyl compounds before and after exposure using deuterated d 3 -DNPH. This relative quantitation method was tested on human samples before and after exposure to specific amounts of alcohol. The nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) in positive mode afforded excellent sensitivity with detection limits on-column in the high-attomole levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a method using HRAM neutral loss screening of carbonyl compounds. In addition, the method allows simultaneous characterization and relative quantitation of DNPH-derivatized compounds using nano-ESI in positive mode.

  13. Use of stable isotope labeled probes to facilitate liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based high-throughput screening of time-dependent CYP inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Malini; Tang, Weimin; Caldwell, Gary W; Yan, Zhengyin

    2010-08-15

    Inhibition curve shift is a commonly used approach for screening of time-dependent CYP inhibitors which requires parallel paired incubations to obtain two inhibition curves for comparison. For the control incubation, a test compound is co-incubated with a probe substrate in human liver microsomes (HLM) fortified with NADPH; for the time-dependent incubation (TDI), the test compound is pre-incubated with NADPH-fortified HLM followed by a secondary incubation with a probe substrate. For both incubations, enzyme activity is measured respectively by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis of the CYP-specific metabolite, and a TDI inhibitor can be readily identified by inhibition curve shifting as a result of CYP inactivation by the test compound during the pre-incubation. In the present study, we describe an alternative approach to facilitate TDI screening in which stable isotope labeled CYP-specific probes are used for the TDI, and non-labeled substrates are included in the control incubation. Because CYP-specific metabolites produced in the TDI are stable isotope labeled, two sets of incubation samples can be combined and then simultaneously analyzed by LC/MS/MS in the same batch run to reduce the run time. This new method has been extensively validated using both a number of known competitive and TDI inhibitors specific to five most common CYPs such as 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4. The assay is performed in a 96-well format and can be fully automated. Compared to the traditional method, this approach in combination with sample pooling and a short LC/MS/MS gradient significantly enhances the throughput of TDI screening and thus can be easily implemented in drug discovery to evaluate a large number of compounds without adding additional resource.

  14. Mass spectrometry data from proteomics-based screening of immunoreactive proteins of fully virulent Brucella strains using sera from naturally infected animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Wareth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, we provide the dataset associated with our research article on comprehensive screening of Brucella immunoreactive proteins using sera of naturally infected hosts published in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Wareth et al., 2015 [1]. Whole-cell protein extracts were prepared from Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis, separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and subsequently western blotting was carried out using sera from bovines (cows and buffaloes and small ruminants (goats and sheep. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org via the PRIDE partner repository [2] with the dataset identifiers PXD001270 and DOI:10.6019/PXD001270.

  15. Mass spectrometry data from proteomics-based screening of immunoreactive proteins of fully virulent Brucella strains using sera from naturally infected animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Weise, Christoph; Neubauer, Heinrich; Roesler, Uwe; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide the dataset associated with our research article on comprehensive screening of Brucella immunoreactive proteins using sera of naturally infected hosts published in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Wareth et al., 2015 [1]. Whole-cell protein extracts were prepared from Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis, separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and subsequently western blotting was carried out using sera from bovines (cows and buffaloes) and small ruminants (goats and sheep). The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository [2] with the dataset identifiers PXD001270 and DOI:10.6019/PXD001270. PMID:26322324

  16. Acanthocephalan fish parasites (Rhadinorhynchidae Lühe, 1912) as potential biomarkers: Molecular-chemical screening by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinertz, S.; Eckhardt, K.-U.; Theisen, S.; Palm, H. W.; Leinweber, P.

    2016-07-01

    The present study represents the first molecular-chemical screening by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry applied on fish parasites. A total of 71 fishes from Balinese fish markets, 36 Auxis rochei (Risso, 1810) and 35 A. thazard (Lacepède, 1800), were studied for their acanthocephalan parasites. This is the first record of Rhadinorhynchus zhukovi in Balinese waters, Indonesia, and we describe for the first time A. rochei and A. thazard as R. zhukovi hosts. Using this method, small scale variations within the chemical compounds of acanthocephalans could be detected. Using this methodology it will be possible to generate additional, pollutant specific information from aquatic habitats in future with the potential of a new bioindicator application for parasite/host origin and/or environmental pollution.

  17. Rapid screening of phytosterols in orange juice by solid-phase microextraction on polyacrylate fibre derivatisation and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Sébastien; Gülaçar, Fazil O

    2012-05-01

    The potential of solid-phase microextraction on polyacrylate coated fibre, with sequential or simultaneous trimethylsilyl derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis, was evaluated for a rapid determination of the distribution of the phytosterols in aqueous food matrixes. Influences of different parameters (bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoro-acetamide and sterol exposure time, sterol concentration and experimental protocol) on the recovery of sterols were investigated to determine optimum conditions which were tested for sterol extraction and analysis from orange juice. Best selectivity, sterol recovery and derivatisation yields were obtained by extraction and simultaneous derivatisation through immersion of the SPME-PA fibre in the orange juice (10min, 65°C) after headspace absorption of BSTFA (30min, 65°C) on the fibre. Nevertheless the method developed cannot be used for quantitative analysis. But the possibility to effect rapid screen of phytosterol containing in complex media have been shown.

  18. Simple liquid-chromatographic measurement of vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid in urine on filter paper for mass screening of neuroblastoma in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, J; Kawai, T; Sato, Y; Takasugi, N; Nishi, M; Takeda, T

    1987-11-01

    We describe a simple and rapid method for measuring catecholamine metabolites in urine collected on filter paper. By this method, "high-performance" liquid chromatography, urinary vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid can be measured within 15 min after being eluted from filter paper treated with tartrate buffer. One hundred urine samples can be pretreated within 2 h and 100-120 samples analyzed at 18-min intervals overnight in two chromatographic systems. Moreover, urinary creatinine also can be measured rapidly because of the use of microtiter plates. We applied this method in a mass screening program for early detection of neuroblastoma in infants. Between April 1986 and March 1987, two patients with neuroblastoma were detected. In all, neuroblastoma has been detected in 17 of 88,887 infants so examined since April 1981.

  19. Establishment of cut off values for vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid in 24-hr urine accumulation during mass screening for neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, M; Miyake, H; Takeda, T; Takasugi, N; Sato, Y; Hanai, J

    1987-09-01

    The establishment of cut off values in vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in 24-hr urine specimens for the purpose of separating true positive cases from normal infants has been discussed. The specimens were collected at the time when thorough examinations under a mass screening programme for neuroblastoma were taking place, and data from 17 infants with neuroblastoma (patients) and 50 healthy infants (controls) have been employed. The function square root VMA2 + HVA2 = 34 (micrograms/mg of creatinine) separated the two groups with no overlapping cases. This function represents the distance from the origin of the VMA-HVA co-ordinates, and is thought to be one of the most reasonable discriminant methods when considering the distribution pattern of the data for normal cases and patients.

  20. [Comparison of the performances of gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in rapid screening and confirmation of 208 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinyue; Pang, Guofang; Jin, Linghe; Kang, Jian; Hu, Xueyan; Chang, Qiaoying; Wang, Minglin; Fan, Chunlin

    2015-04-01

    The performances of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF/MS) for the determination of 208 pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable samples, including apple, orange, tomato and cucumber, were compared comprehensively. Based on the differences of the two instruments, their respective characteristics and scopes of application in the detection of the pesticide residues were presented, which provided the reference for the analysis of pesticide residues. The performance parameters of the two instruments, such as overall recoveries, precisions, limits of detection, linear ranges, identification points and matrix effects, were evaluated according to a designed experiment. At three spiked levels (5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 µg/kg), the average recoveries for the majority of pesticides (93.0%) ranged from 70% to 120% in the four matrices with relative standard deviations below 20%. The limits of detection for most of the pesticides by GC-MS/MS and GC-Q-TOF/MS were less than 5.0 µg/kg. Compared with GC-QTOF/MS, GC-MS/MS showed relatively lower limits of detection and wider linear ranges, and its performance was more satisfactory in accurate quantitative analysis due to its superior sensitivity. On the other hand, GC-QTOF/MS provided accurate mass measurement, which was proved to be an efficient analytical tool on the rapid screening and confirmation of a large number of pesticides and non-target compounds.

  1. Bilateral hypoglossal schwannoma: a radiologic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektaş, Devrim; Caylan, Refik

    2004-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented with a complaint of a sore throat. Examination showed a left-sided atrophy of the tongue. Upon protrusion, the tongue deviated to the left, suggestive of a unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy. Computed tomography revealed enlarged hypoglossal canals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated bilateral hypoglossal canal masses, with enhancement following gadolinium administration. Magnetic resonance angiography and MRI with fat suppression revealed nonvascular masses in both hypoglossal canals. Radiological diagnosis of bilateral hypoglossal nerve schwannoma was made and the patient was scheduled for MRI monitoring with six-month intervals. The size of the masses and the clinical manifestations remained unchanged during a two-year follow-up period.

  2. Radiological features of progressive tumoral calcinosis in chronic renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodnett, P

    2012-02-03

    We present the case of a young adult patient with chronic renal failure who developed painful subcutaneous nodules after failed renal transplant and recommencing dialysis. These nodules were juxta-articular in location and initially located over both shoulders. Radiological evaluation suggested tumoral calcinosis. The patient was placed on a strict dialysis and dietary regimen but was suboptimally compliant with same. The patient developed progressive disease with an increase in size and number of juxta-articular calcified soft-tissue masses. However, 6 months following a second renal transplant clinical and radiological follow up demonstrated marked resolution both in symptomatology and radiographic findings. We present the plain radiographic, CT and MRI findings which demonstrate the typical radiological features of tumoral calcinosis. We correlate these findings with clinical course and histological findings following surgical excision of one of these masses.

  3. EGFR/cell membrane chromatography-online-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for screening EGFR antagonists from Radix Angelicae Pubescentis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The intracellular kinase domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) in some tumor cells are significant targets for drug discovery.We have developed a new EGFR cell membrane chromatography(EGFR/CMC)-online-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry(HPLC/MS) method for screening anti-EGFR antagonists from medicinal herbs such as Radix Angelicae Pubescentis.In this study,the HEK293 EGFR cells with high expression of EGFR were used to prepare cell membrane stationary phase(CMSP) in the EGFR/CMC model.The retention fractions on the EGFR/CMC model were directly analyzed by combining a 10 port columns switcher with a HPLC/MS system online.As a result,osthole from Radix Angelicae Pubescentis was found to be the active component acting on EGFR like dasatinib as the control drug.There was a good relationship between their inhibiting effects on EGFR secretion and HEK293 EGFR cell growth in vitro.This new EGFR/CMC-online-HPLC/MS method can be applied for screening anti-EGFR antagonists from TCMs,for instance,Radix Angelicae Pubescentis.It will be a useful method for drug discovery with natural medicinal herbs as a leading compound resource.

  4. Gastric cancer screening in 16 villages of Zhuanghe region: a mass screeningreport from a high risk area of stomach cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan; Wei Gong; Rong Tian Xu; Xuan Jie Wang; Hua Gao

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the comprehensive prevention and treatment of gastric cancer among high-risk population inthe high risk areas.METHODS A gastrocarcinoma mass screening was performed in 16 villages of Zhuanghe region. About50 000 population were involved and 3033 cases aged above 35 suffering from gastric diseases, and/or hadfamily history of gastric cancer were screened. Clinical epidemiological investigation, double-contrast X-ray,serum pepsinogen monitor, gastroscopic biopsies and histopathologic examinations were adopted in thescreening.RESULTS The ratio of the examined patients with gastric disorder reached up to 82% and 32 patients withgastric cancer were detected (1.06%) and 18 cases were early gastric cancer (56.25%). Patients with gastriccancer were treated successively. Aside from gastric cancer, several gastric lesions were also detected, whichlaid a good foundation for further interventional treatment. It was also found in the examination that93.97% of the local residents were addicted to salted pork and more than 60% of the residents had Hpinfection.CONCLUSION Gastric diseases, Hp infection of gastric mucosa and eating salted pork are very common inZhuanghe region. These are very dangerous factors causing gastric cancer. It is feasible to quit eating saltedpork and eradicate Hp infection and cure precancerous diseases.

  5. High throughput screening various abused drugs and metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-heated electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Shen, Chien-Chun; Yang, Tzung-Jie; Chang, Yan-Zin; Lee, Maw-Rong

    2009-02-15

    An integrated method of liquid chromatography-heated electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry was evaluated for high throughput screening of various abused drugs in urine. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 reverse phase column using a linear gradient of 10mM ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid-methanol as mobile phase and the total separation time was 7 min. A simple and rapid sample preparation method used was by passing urine samples through a 0.22 microm PVDF syringe filter. The detection limits of the studied abused drugs in urine were from 0.6 ng mL(-1) (ketamine) to 9.0 ng mL(-1) (norcodeine). According to the results, the linear range was from 1 to 1200 ng mL(-1) with relative standard deviation (R.S.D.s) value below 14.8% (intra-day) and 24.6% (inter-day). The feasibility of applying the proposed method to determine various abused drugs in real samples was examined by analyzing urine samples from drug-abused suspects. The abused drugs including ketamines and amphetamines were detected in suspected urine samples. The results demonstrate the suitability of LC-HESI-MS/MS for high throughput screening of the various abused drugs in urine.

  6. Confirmation of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA and MDMA in urine samples using disk solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after immunoassay screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zengping; Zhang, Shaoyu

    2003-07-25

    A method using mixed phase disk solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for confirmation of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in urine samples after immunoassay screening. Disk SPE provided hydrophobic (C(18)) and strong cation-exchange (SCX) interactions. The analytes were retained on SCX functional groups in the disk and eluted with ammoniated ethyl acetate after washed with methanol. Confirmation and quantitation was exercised by selected ion monitoring using nikethamide as chromatographic standard. Recoveries of the amphetamines were between 73.0 and 104.6% with RSDs in range of 2.1-6.4% (n=3). The limits of detection were 2 ng/ml for AMP, MET and MDMA, and 4 ng/ml for MDA. Five real urine samples were tested with the method after immunoassay screening, and the results were comparable to those of traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The method was solvent-saved, simple, rapid and reliable, and the extract was cleaner than that of LLE.

  7. High-throughput screening of pesticide and veterinary drug residues in baby food by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Ling, Yun; Huang, Junrong; Chang, James

    2014-06-20

    A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 333 pesticide and veterinary drug residues in baby food. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a generic extraction method. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The method was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANCO/12571/2013. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 79.8-110.7%, with coefficient of variation 0.99. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.01-5.35μgkg(-1). The limits of quantification for the analytes are in the range 0.01-9.27μgkg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of pesticide and veterinary drugs in ninety-three commercial baby food samples, and tilmicosin, fenbendazole, tylosin tartrate and thiabendazole were detected in some samples tested in this study. The present study is very useful for fast screening of different food contaminants.

  8. Hollow fiber based affinity selection combined with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy for rapid screening lipase inhibitors from lotus leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi; Zhang, Yufeng; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yiyu

    2013-06-27

    A novel kind of immobilized enzyme affinity selection strategy based on hollow fibers has been developed for screening inhibitors from extracts of medicinal plants. Lipases from porcine pancreas were adsorbed onto the surface of polypropylene hollow fibers to form a stable matrix for ligand fishing, which was called hollow fibers based affinity selection (HF-AS). A variety of factors related to binding capability, including enzyme concentration, incubation time, temperature, buffer pH and ion strength, were optimized using a known lipase inhibitor hesperidin. The proposed approach was applied in screening potential lipase bound ligands from extracts of lotus leaf, followed by rapid characterization of active compounds using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three flavonoids including quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-galactopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucuronide were identified as lipase inhibitors by the proposed HF-AS approach. Our findings suggested that the hollow fiber-based affinity selection could be a rapid and convenient approach for drug discovery from natural products resources.

  9. A high-throughput inhibition screening of major human cytochrome P450 enzymes using an in vitro cocktail and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chong-Zhen; Ren, Xian; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Yao; Yin, Ji-Ye; Yu, Jing; Qu, Jian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2014-02-01

    A sensitive and high-throughput inhibition screening liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of five probe metabolites (7-hydroxycoumarin, CYP2A6; 4-hydroxytolbutamide, CYP2C9; 4'-hydroxymephenytoin, CYP2C19; α-hydroxymetoprolol, CYP2D6; and 1-hydroxymidazolam, CYP3A4) for in vitro cytochrome P450 activity determination in human liver microsome and recombinant. All the metabolites and the internal standard, tramadol, were separated on a Waters 2695 series liquid chromatograph with a Phenomenex Luna C18 column (150 × 2.0 mm, 5 µm). Quality control samples and a positive control CYP inhibitor were included in the method. The IC50 values determined for typical CYP inhibitors were reproducible and in agreement with the literature. The method was selective and showed good accuracy (99.13-103.37%), and inter-day (RSD high-quality and -throughput cocktail provides suitable information in drug discovery and screening for new drug entities.

  10. Screening of the presence organophosphates and organochlorines pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Dillani; Aryana, Nurhani; Aristiawan, Yosi; Styarini, Dyah

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides is commonly used to improve the quality of agricultural product, especially in vegetables and fruits. Due to pesticide residues in the product become a concern to consumer health, monitoring and analysis of pesticide residues in agriculture product need to be established. The certified reference material (CRM) is often benefited to obtain accurate results in analysis. It is required as the quality control to improve quality assurance of the testing results. Unfortunately in Indonesia, the development of matrix CRM for the analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits is still limited. This study is aimed to determine the type of commodity and target analyte to be employed in the development of CRM for pesticides in vegetables and fruits. As the preliminary study, the screening of 11 commodities of fresh vegetables and fruits has been conducted to review the information about the presence of organophosphates (OPs) and organochlorines (OCs) in the sample. In this analysis, QuEChERS technique was used in the extraction process and the qualitative analysis was evaluated by using GC-MS. The results showed that strawberry and celery contain residues of pesticide chlorpyrifos. Further analysis of the commodity celery from seven different places has been conducted, resulting that from 3 of all 7 samples (43%) were positive containing chlorpyrifos. Therefore, the development of CRM for chlorpyrifos in celery will be our next research project.

  11. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid levels in randomly-sampled urine for the mass screening of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, M; Miyake, H; Takeda, T; Takasugi, N; Hanai, J; Kawai, T

    1990-09-01

    Employing 421 urine samples taken randomly from normal infants and 294 samples from infants with neuroblastoma, we investigated the application of values of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and square root of VMA2 + HVA2 to discriminate between patients and normal infants. The establishment of an HVA cut-off level is virtually impossible because of its low sensitivity. In contrast, VMA sensitivity is high, and that of square root of VMA2 + HVA2 is very similar to that of VMA although it includes HVA. Although VMA appears to be able to discriminate well, discrimination employing VMA alone would be dangerous because cases with normal VMA and abnormal HVA would be missed, especially in the first screening for which a mechanical discrimination is performed. Overlooking such cases can be avoided by the adoption of the function square root of VMA2 + HVA2. The present study suggests that the combined use of variables can be more effective than using them separately.

  12. Comparison between drug screening by immunoassay and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry in post-mortem urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2015-05-01

    Immunoassay is currently the most common approach for urine drug screening. However, the continuous emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and their low urinary concentrations have challenged the scope and sensitivity of immunoassays. Consequently, specialized toxicology laboratories rely more and more on mass spectrometry (MS) based techniques. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS) is an especially attractive technique for comprehensive drug screening. The objective was to compare the performances of immunoassay and UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS in terms of scope, flexibility, sensitivity, and reliability of substance identification. A total of 279 post-mortem urine samples were analyzed using a method representative of each technique. The immunoassay method was an Emit II Plus enzyme immunoassay for the following drug groups: amphetamines, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, cannabis, and opiates. The UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS method was a recently published method covering hundreds of drugs: conventional drugs of abuse, abused prescription drugs, and NPS of various classes. UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS produced a lower number of false positive (FP) results for the drug groups covered by immunoassay. Many of the false negative (FN, n = 40) and FP (n = 22) immunoassay results were obviously due to the higher cut-off concentrations and interfering matrix, respectively. Moreover, the wider scope of UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS allowed detection of NPS and prescription drugs. UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS gave FP results related to a few particular substances. The future option of adjusting all compound-specific reporting parameters individually would allow the method's sensitivity and specificity to be fully exploited.

  13. Spectrum analysis of common inherited metabolic diseases in Chinese patients screened and diagnosed by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lianshu; Han, Feng; Ye, Jun; Qiu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Huiwen; Gao, Xiaolan; Wang, Yu; Ji, Wenjun; Gu, Xuefan

    2015-03-01

    Information concerning inherited metabolic diseases in China is scarce. We investigated the prevalence and age distributions of amino acid, organic acid, and fatty acid oxidation disorders in Chinese patients. Blood levels of amino acids and acylcarnitines (tandem mass spectrometry) were measured in 18,303 patients with suspected inherited metabolic diseases. Diagnosis was based on clinical features, blood levels of amino acids or acylcarnitines, urinary organic acid levels (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), and (in some) gene mutation tests. Inherited metabolic diseases were confirmed in 1,135 patients (739 males, 396 females). Median age was 12 months (1 day to 59 years). There were 28 diseases: 12 amino acid disorders (580 patients, 51.1%), with hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) being the most common; nine organic acidemias (408 patients, 35.9%), with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) as the most common; and seven fatty acid oxidation defects (147 patients, 13.0%), with multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) being the most common. Onset was mainly at 1-6 months for citrin deficiency, 0-6 months for MMA, and in newborns for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD). HPA was common in patients aged 1-3 years, and MADD was common in patients >18 years. In China, HPA, citrin deficiency, MMA, and MADD are the most common inherited disorders, particularly in newborns/infants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Screening for anabolic steroids and related compounds in illegal cocktails by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry with accurate mass measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Vissers, J.P.C.; Fuchs, R.E.M.; Velde, van J.W.; Lommen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Findings of illegal hormone preparations such as syringes, bottles, cocktails, and so on, are an important information source for the nature of the current abuse of anabolic steroids and related compounds as growth-promoting agents in cattle. A new screening method for steroids in cocktails is prese

  15. Risk management in radiology departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Horea; Mankad, Kshitij; Lynch, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging and interventional radiology sustained prompt changes in the last few years, mainly as a result of technology breakthroughs, rise in workload, deficit in workforce and globalization. Risk is considered to be the chance or possibility of incurring loss or of a negative event happening that may cause injury to patients or medical practitioners. There are various causes of risks leading to harm and injury in radiology departments, and it is one of the objectives of this paper to scrutinize some of the causes. This will drive to consideration of some of the approaches that are used in managing risks in radiology. This paper aims at investigating risk management in radiology, and this will be achieved through a thorough assessment of the risk control measures that are used in the radiology department. It has been observed that the major focus of risk management in such medical setting is to reduce and eliminate harm and injury to patients through integration of various medical precautions. The field of Radiology is rapidly evolving due to technology advances and the globalization of healthcare. This ongoing development will have a great impact on the level of quality of care and service delivery. Thus, risk management in radiology is essential in protecting the patients, radiologists, and the medical organization in terms of capital and widening of the reputation of the medical organization with the patients. PMID:26120383

  16. Risk management in radiology departments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Horea; Craciun; Kshitij; Mankad; Jeremy; Lynch

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging and interventional radiology sustained prompt changes in the last few years, mainly as aresult of technology breakthroughs, rise in workload, deficit in workforce and globalization. Risk is considered to be the chance or possibility of incurring loss or of a negative event happening that may cause injury to patients or medical practitioners. There are various causes of risks leading to harm and injury in radiology departments, and it is one of the objectives of this paper to scrutinize some of the causes. This will drive to consideration of some of the approaches that are used in managing risks in radiology. This paper aims at investigating risk management in radiology, and this will be achieved through a thorough assessment of the risk control measures that are used in the radiology department. It has been observed that the major focus of risk management in such medical setting is to reduce and eliminate harm and injury to patients through integration of various medical precautions. The field of Radiology is rapidly evolving due to technology advances and the globalization of healthcare. This ongoing development will have a great impact on the level of quality of care and service delivery. Thus, risk management in radiology is essential in protecting the patients, radiologists, and the medical organization in terms of capital and widening of the reputation of the medical organization with the patients.

  17. Preliminary Study of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry-based Screening of Patients with the NSCLC Serum-Specific Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan AN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The improved survival of patients with lung cancer depends on early diagnosis of lung cancer. However, the traditional diagnostic techniques have several limitations. Mass spectrometry (MS has been applied as a core technology for cancer diagnosis in preliminary proteomic studies. The aim of this study is to explore the differences in the serum peptide levels of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and healthy individuals using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF-MS. A NSCLC serum classification model was then established. Methods One hundred and thirty three cases of patients with NSCLC serum specimens and 132 cases of healthy human serum specimens were randomly divided into two groups in accordance with the ratio of three to one without age and gender differences. The training group was used to establish the classification model, this group included serum samples from 100 NSCLC cases and 100 healthy individuals. The test group for validating the proposed model was composed of the remaining serum samples from 33 NSCLC cases and 32 healthy individuals. Peptides were extracted from the samples using magnetic beads- immobilized metal affinity capture - copper, and their mass spectra were obtained using an automated MALDI-TOF-MS system. The MS data from the training group was analyzed using the ClinproToolTM software to identify the individual peptide fragments and establish the classification model. The sensitivity and specificity of the model were verified by blind testing with the test group. Results Among the 131 different peptide peaks, ranging from m/z 1,000 Da to 10,000 Da, 14 peaks were significantly different in the NSCLC samples of the training group, as compared with the controls (P<0.000,001; AUC≥0.9; these included 2 higher peaks and 12 lower peaks. The classification model was established, and the test group was verified for only 3 peptide peaks (7,478.59, 2

  18. Interventional radiology for paediatric trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, Manrita K. [Everett Clinic, AIC, Seattle Radiologists, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Children' s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Hogan, Mark J. [The Ohio State University, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Shaw, Dennis W.W. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Children' s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Burdick, Thomas [University of Washington School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Paediatric interventional radiology plays a cornerstone role in the management of paediatric trauma. In the acute setting, interventional radiology techniques allow minimally invasive control of haemorrhage or re-establishment of blood flow. Percutaneous stenting and drainage can allow disruptions in urinary or biliary systems to heal without the need for further surgery. Interventional radiology techniques also have a significant role in treating delayed complications of trauma, including embolization of arterial pseudoaneurysms and pulmonary embolism prophylaxis in individuals immobilized due to the trauma or its operative treatment. (orig.)

  19. Radiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacherl, M.

    1985-09-23

    An introductory summary of the imaging-diagnosis will be given. The necessity of acquiring a catalogue of application to particular imaging methods is emphasized. Discussion of step by step diagnosis regarding rheumatologic questions is given on example of the hand. Technically insufficient radiographs and bad habits during diagnostic analysis are pointed out. Radiologic problems in differentiating arthritis/osteoarthrosis will be mentioned. The discussion of these points is followed by outlining the radiology of rheumatoid arthritis and the complexity of this disease. Introduction of a new stage classification. Finally twelve basic radiologic types of rheumatoid arthritis will be presented.

  20. Trace-Level Screening of Chemicals Related to Clandestine Desomorphine Production with Ambient Sampling, Portable Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth E. Hall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desomorphine is a semisynthetic opioid that is responsible for the psychoactive effects of a dangerous homemade injectable mixture that goes by street name “Krokodil.” Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI and paper spray ionization (PSI are implemented on a portable mass spectrometer for the direct analysis of desomorphine and precursor reagent codeine from multiple substrates of potential relevance to clandestine drug laboratory synthesis and paraphernalia seizure. Minimal sample preparation required for analysis and portability of the instrument suggest the potential for rapid, on-site analysis of evidence, a highly desired benefit for forensic science and law enforcement practitioners. Both DESI-MS and PSI-MS can generate spectra consistent with preceding data obtained using traditional ionization methods, while demonstrating detection limits in the low- to sub-ng levels.

  1. Liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry for pesticide residue analysis in fruit and vegetables: screening and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramos, M M; Ferrer, C; Malato, O; Agüera, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2013-04-26

    This work reviews the current state-of-the-art of liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) techniques applied to the analysis of pesticides in fruit-based and vegetable-based matrices. Nowadays, simultaneous trace analysis of hundreds of pesticides from different classes is required, preferably in just one run. The most commonly used QqQ-MS technology presents certain limitations in its application in a cost and effective way when analyzing a large number of pesticides. Thus, this review includes HRMS technology as a reliable complementary alternative allowing the analysis of a wide range of pesticides in food. Its capabilities and limitations in identifying, confirming and quantifying pesticides are discussed. HRMS instruments can adequately address such issues; however, the main drawbacks are as a result of insufficient prior optimization of the operational parameters during non-target analysis in full-scan mode and due to software shortcomings.

  2. Mass screening of prostate cancer in a Chinese population:the relationship between pathological features of prostate cancer and serum prostate specific antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Wen Gao; Masaaki Kuwahara; Xue-Jian Zhao; Yu-Lin Li; Shan Wu; Yi-Shu Wang; Hai-Feng Zhang; Yu-Zhuo Pan; Ling Zhang; Hiroo Tateno; Ikuro Sato

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the pathological features of the prostate biopsy through mass screening for prostate cancer in a Chinese cohort and their association with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Methods: A total of 12 027 Chinese men in Changchun were screened for prostate cancer by means of the serum total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) test (oy Elisa assay). Transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic six-sextant biopsies were performed on those whose serum tPSA value was >4.0 ng/mL and those who had obstructive symptoms (despite their tPSA value) and were subject to subsequent pathological analysis with the aid of the statistic software SPSS 10.0 (SPSS. Inc., Chicago. USA). Results: Of the 12 027 cases, 158 (including 137 patients whose serum tPSA values were >4.0 ng/mL and 21 patients [serum tPSA <4.0 ng/mL] who had obstructive symptoms) undertook prostate biopsy. Of the 158 biopsies, 41 cases of prostatic carcinoma were found (25.9 %, 41/158). The moderately differentiated carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma accounted for 61% and 34%, respectively. A significant linear positive correlation between the serum tPSA and the Gleason scores in the 41 cases of prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.312, P < 0.01) was established. A significant linear positive correlation between the serum tPSA value of the 41 prostatic carcinoma and the positive counts of carcinoma in sextant biopsies was established (r = 0.406, P < 0.01), indicating a significant linear relationship between serum tPSA and the size of tumor.Conclusion: This study was the first to conduct mass screening for prostate cancer by testing for serum tPSA values and the first to investigate the pathological features of prostate cancer in a cohort of Chinese men. Our results reveal that the moderately differentiated carcinoma is the most common type of prostate cancer. This study also has shown that the serum tPSA value in prostate cancer is associated with the Gleason score and the size of tumor.

  3. A new strategy to screen molecular imaging probe uptake in cell culture without radiolabeling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen; Winant, Richard C; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2005-05-01

    Numerous new molecular targets for diseases are rapidly being identified and validated in the postgenomic era, urging scientists to explore novel techniques for accelerating molecular probe development. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was investigated as a potential tool for high-throughput screening and characterization of molecular imaging probes. Specifically, MALDI-TOF-MS was used to screen a small library of phosphonium cations for their ability to accumulate in cells. C6 cells incubated with phosphonium cations at room temperature were collected and lysed for experiments. Calibration curves for the internal standard, methyltriphenyl phosphonium, and for tetraphenylphosphonium bromide (TPP) and other phosphonium cations were first established. The time course of TPP uptake by C6 cells was then quantified using both MALDI-TOF-MS and liquid scintillation counting with (3)H-TPP. In addition, MALDI-TOF-MS was used to screen a library of 8 phosphonium cations and subsequently rank their ability to penetrate membranes and accumulate in cells. Finally, the accumulation of 4-fluorophenyltriphenyl phosphonium (FTPP) in the membrane potential-modulated cells was also measured by MALDI-TOF-MS. MALDI-TOF-MS spectra clearly revealed that TPP was easily identified from cell lysates even as early as 10 min after incubation and that levels as low as 0.11 fmol of TPP per cell could be detected, suggesting the high sensitivity of this technique. The time course of TPP influx determined by both MALDI-TOF-MS and radioactivity counting showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 for all time points). These data validated MALDI-TOF-MS as an alternative approach for accurately measuring uptake of phosphonium cations by cells. TPP and FTPP demonstrated greater accumulation in cells than did the other cations evaluated in this study. Furthermore, uptake profiles suggested that FTPP preserves the

  4. The role of pre-invasive disease in overdiagnosis: A microsimulation study comparing mass screening for breast cancer and cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. van Luijt (Paula); K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten); S.K. Naber (Steffie); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Although early detection of cancer through screening can prevent cancer deaths, a drawback of screening is overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis has been much debated in breast cancer screening, but less so in cervical cancer screening. We examined the impact of overdiagnosis by

  5. Advanced ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric methods for simultaneous screening and quantification of triterpenoids in Poria cocos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Zhou, Yan; Tan, Hong Sheng; Ding, Li Sheng; Xu, Hong Xi

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, precise and accurate method was developed to screen and quantify triterpenoids based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS). An exact neutral loss scan of 62.0004 Da (CH2O3) was used to selectively detect triterpenoids in Poria cocos, followed by a survey scan for exact masses of precursor and fragment ions of these triterpenoids. The developed method was applied to quantify seven major triterpenoids in 40 P. cocos samples of different origins within 18 min, and a total of 31 triterpenoids were unequivocally or tentatively identified. Principal component analysis of these samples showed a clear separation of three groups, and ten triterpenoids play key roles in differentiating these samples were obtained from the OPLS-DA variable influence on projection (VIP) plot and then unequivocally or tentatively identified. The developed method can be applied for rapid bitterness evaluation, quality control and authenticity establishment of P. cocos.

  6. Development of a metabolomic approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry to screen for clenbuterol abuse in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Frédérique; Pinel, Gaud; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Monteau, Fabrice; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Beta-agonist compounds can be misused in food-producing animals for growth promoting purposes. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of "cocktails" composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. To circumvent those problems, new analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent a new emerging strategy for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of beta-agonists (either "cocktails" or unknown compounds). As a first demonstration of feasibility, an untargeted metabolomic approach based on liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry measurements was developed and made it possible to highlight metabolic modifications in urine consecutively to a clenbuterol administration. By the means of chemometrics, those metabolic differences were used to build predictive models able to suspect clenbuterol administration in calves. This new approach may be considered of valuable interest to overcome current limitations in the control of growth promoters' abuse, with promising perspectives in terms of screening.

  7. A metabolomic strategy to screen the prototype components and metabolites of Qingkailing injection in rat urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingxing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Haiyu; Qin, Lingling; Zhang, Zhixin; Bai, Xu; Gao, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Xenobiotic metabolome identification of Chinese herbal formula in biological systems is a very challenging task. Qingkailing injection is a typical Chinese herbal injection, which is wildly used clinically in China. However, the holistic metabolic fate of the ingredient from Qingkailing injection remains unclear. In this work, a metabolomic strategy for comprehensively elucidating Qingkailing injection derived prototype components and metabolites in rat urine conducted by hybrid linear ion trap high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid linear ion trap high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed to obtain the urine profiling between the control group and Qingkailing injection treated group. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis was applied to distinguish the exogenous and the endogenous. In the S-plot, 37 xenobiotics derived from Qingkailing injection were found in urine, including 18 prototype compounds and 19 metabolites. The characterization of the prototype components and metabolites in rat's urine provided essential data for further pharmacological studies of Qingkailing injection. Our results indicated that the metabolomic approach was an effective tool to discover, screen, and analyze the multiple prototype components and their metabolites from complicated traditional Chinese preparations in vivo.

  8. Use of time-of-flight mass spectrometry for large screening of organic pollutants in surface waters and soils from a rice production area in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, F; Portolés, T; Ibáñez, M; Bustos-López, M C; Díaz, R; Botero-Coy, A M; Fuentes, C L; Peñuela, G

    2012-11-15

    The irrigate district of Usosaldaña, an important agricultural area in Colombia mainly devoted to rice crop production, is subjected to an intensive use of pesticides. Monitoring these compounds is necessary to know the impact of phytosanitary products in the different environmental compartments. In this work, surface water and soil samples from different sites of this area have been analyzed by applying an analytical methodology for large screening based on the use of time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS) hyphenated to liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC). Several pesticides were detected and unequivocally identified, such as the herbicides atrazine, diuron or clomazone. Some of their main metabolites and/or transformation products (TPs) like deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and 3,4-dichloroaniline were also identified in the samples. Among fungicides, carbendazim, azoxystrobin, propiconazole and epoxiconazole were the most frequently detected. Insecticides such as thiacloprid, or p,p'-DDT metabolites (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE) were also found. Thanks to the accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition in TOF MS it was feasible to widen the number of compounds to be investigated to other families of contaminants. This allowed the detection of emerging contaminants, such as the antioxidant 3,5-di-tertbutyl-4-hydroxy-toluene (BHT), its metabolite 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (BHT-CHO), or the solar filter benzophenone, among others.

  9. Clinical radiology of the spine and spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banna, M.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a source of information about aspects of radiology of the spine and spinal column. It presents coverage of both normal and abnormal conditions. Contents: Spinal fractures and dislocations. Degenerative diseases of the spine. Gross anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges. Intraspinal mass lesions. Spinal dysraphism. Congenital anomalies. Tumors of the vertebral column, and more.

  10. Cardiac radiology: centenary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Albert; Higgins, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    During the past century, cardiac imaging technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of acquired and congenital heart disease. Many important contributions to the field of cardiac imaging were initially reported in Radiology. The field developed from the early stages of cardiac imaging, including the use of coronary x-ray angiography and roentgen kymography, to nowadays the widely used echocardiographic, nuclear medicine, cardiac computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) applications. It is surprising how many of these techniques were not recognized for their potential during their early inception. Some techniques were described in the literature but required many years to enter the clinical arena and presently continue to expand in terms of clinical application. The application of various CT and MR contrast agents for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is a case in point, as the utility of contrast agents continues to expand the noninvasive characterization of myocardium. The history of cardiac imaging has included a continuous process of advances in our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, along with advances in imaging technology that continue to the present day.

  11. [Controlling in outpatient radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, T

    2015-12-01

    Radiology is among the medical disciplines which require the highest investment costs in the healthcare system. The need to design efficient workflows to ensure maximum utilization of the equipment has long been known. In order to be able to establish a sound financial plan prior to a project or equipment purchase, the costs of an examination have to be broken down by modality and compared with the reimbursement rates. Obviously, the same holds true for operative decisions when scarce human resources have to be allocated. It is the task of controlling to review the economic viability of the different modalities and ideally, the results are incorporated into the management decision-making processes. The main section of this article looks at the recognition and allocation of direct and indirect costs in a medical center (Medizinisches Versorgungszentrum - MVZ) in the German North Rhine region. The profit contribution of each examination is determined by deducting the costs from the income generated by the treatment of patients with either private or statutory health insurance.

  12. General unknown screening in hair by liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker, Sebastian; Herre, Sieglinde; Pragst, Fritz

    2012-05-10

    The retrospective investigation of the exposure to toxic substances by general unknown screening of hair is still a difficult task because of the large number of possible poisons, the low sample amount and the difficult sample matrix. In this study the use of liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was tested as a promising technique for this purpose. In the optimized procedure, 20mg hair were decontaminated with water and acetone and two times extracted by 18h incubation with 0.5ml of a mixture of methanol/acetonitrile/H(2)O/ammonium formate at 37°C. A mixture of deuterated standards from different drug groups was added for quantification and method control. The united extracts were evaporated to a residue of 0.5ml and 5μl were injected without clean-up for LC-QTOF-MS measurement (instrument Agilent 6530) with positive electrospray ionization and in data dependent acquisition mode. For peak identification the accurate mass data base and spectral library of the authors was used which contains accurate mass CID spectra of more than 2500 and theoretically calculated accurate mass data of more than 7500 toxicologically relevant substances. Validation at the example of 24 illegal drugs, their metabolites and benzodiazepines resulted in limits of detection of 0.003-0.015ng/mg, and limits of quantification of 0.006-0.021ng/mg with good accuracy and intra- and interday reproducibility. The matrix effect by ion suppression/enhancement was 72-107% for basic drugs and 42-75% for benzodiazepines. Yields of the hair extraction above 90% were determined for 59 drugs or metabolites. The method was applied to hair samples from 30 drug fatalities and from 60 death cases with known therapeutic drug intake at life time. Altogether 212 substances were identified with a frequency per drug of 1-40 (mean 4.2) and per case of 2-33 (mean 10.2), between them 35 illegal drug related substances and 154 therapeutic drugs. Comparison with the

  13. Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) in the 1950s to make DOE resources and expertise available to organizations...

  14. National Radiological Fixed Lab Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Radiological Fixed Laboratory Data Asset includes data produced in support of various clients such as other EPA offices, EPA Regional programs, DOE,...

  15. Development of Mobile Radiological Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Mobile radiological monitor is used to detect gamma rays and neutron for personal and vehicle. It can be installed on a microbus as a mobile monitoring system. One large plastic scintillation detector is

  16. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) -- formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL) -- of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis, and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. Experiments performed from May 1991--April 1992 are described.

  17. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) - formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. This report provides a listing and brief description of experiments performed at RARAF during the May 1, 1992 through April 30, 1993.

  18. Peer review in cardiothoracic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-09-01

    A variety of peer review methods can be used as part of quality assurance and quality improvement in cardiothoracic radiology. Traditionally, peer review in radiology is a retrospective process relying primarily on review of previously interpreted studies at the time of follow-up or additional imaging. However, peer review can be enhanced with other methods such as double reads, focused practice review, practice audit, and correlation with operative and pathologic findings. Furthermore, feedback from referring physicians can be extremely useful in improving the quality of a radiology practice. This article discusses peer review in radiology with a focus on cardiothoracic imaging. Types of peer review, advantages and shortcomings, and future challenges are addressed.

  19. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry screening for phytochemical 4-desmethylsterols accumulated during development of Tunisian peanut kernels (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Aicha O; Trabelsi, Hajer; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Kâabi, Belhassen; Pellerin, Isabelle; Boukhchina, Sadok; Kallel, Habib; Pepe, Claude

    2010-08-11

    4-Desmethylsterols, the main component of the phytosterol fraction, have been analyzed during the development of Tunisian peanut kernels ( Arachis hypogaea L.), Trabelsia (AraT) and Chounfakhi (AraC), which are monocultivar species, and Arbi (AraA), which is a wild species, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Immature wild peanut (AraA) showed the highest contents of beta-sitosterol (554.8 mg/100 g of oil), campesterol (228.6 mg/100 g of oil), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (39.0 mg/100 g of oil) followed by peanut cultivar AraC with beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and Delta(5)-avenasterol averages of 267.7, 92.1, and 28.6 mg/100 g of oil, respectively, and similarly for AraT 309.1, 108.4, and 27.4 mg/100 g of oil, respectively, were found. These results suggest that, in immature stages, phytosterol contents can be important regulator factors for the functional quality of peanut oil for the agro-industry chain from plant to nutraceuticals.

  20. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS. Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%. Conclusions: From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  1. Screening for new psychoactive substances in hair by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Odoardi, Sara; Fisichella, Marco; Anzillotti, Luca; Gottardo, Rossella; Tagliaro, Franco

    2014-11-06

    In the latest years, many new psychoactive substances (NPS) from several drug classes have appeared in the illicit drug market. Their rapid, sensitive and specific identification in biological fluids is hence of great concern for clinical and forensic toxicologists. Here is described a multi-analyte method for the determination of NPS, pertaining to different chemical classes (synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, ketamine, piperazines and amphetamine-type substances-ATS) in human hair using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in electrospray ionization mode. We focused on a sample preparation able to extract the different classes of NPS. About 30mg of hair was decontaminated and incubated overnight under sonication in different conditions depending on the type of analytes to be extracted: (a) with 300μL of HCOOH 0.1% for cathinones, piperazines and ATS; (b) with 300μL of MeOH for synthetic cannabinoids. Ten microliter of the extracts were then injected in UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS in MRM mode. The LODs varied from 2pg/mg to 20pg/mg. The method was linear in the range from the LOQ to 500pg/mg and showed acceptable precision (%RSD<15) and accuracy (%E<15) for all the analytes. The method was finally applied on 50 samples from real forensic cases (driving license re-granting, postmortem toxicological analyses, workplace drug testing). In three samples we detected synthetic cannabinoids, in four samples cathinones or ephedrines, in two samples ketamine.

  2. 21 CFR 892.1980 - Radiologic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiologic table. 892.1980 Section 892.1980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1980 Radiologic table. (a) Identification. A radiologic...

  3. Financial accounting for radiology executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidmann, Abraham; Mehta, Tushar

    2005-03-01

    The authors review the role of financial accounting information from the perspective of a radiology executive. They begin by introducing the role of pro forma statements. They discuss the fundamental concepts of accounting, including the matching principle and accrual accounting. The authors then explore the use of financial accounting information in making investment decisions in diagnostic medical imaging. The paper focuses on critically evaluating the benefits and limitations of financial accounting for decision making in a radiology practice.

  4. Radiological training for tritium facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This program management guide describes a recommended implementation standard for core training as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The standard is to assist those individuals, both within DOE and Managing and Operating contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the core training recommended by the RCM. This training may also be given to radiological workers using tritium to assist in meeting their job specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  5. FDH radiological design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millsap, W.J.

    1998-09-29

    These guidelines discuss in more detail the radiological design review process used by the Project Hanford Management Contractors as described in HNF-PRO-1622, Radiological Design Review Process. They are intended to supplement the procedure by providing background information on the design review process and providing a ready source of information to design reviewers. The guidelines are not intended to contain all the information in the procedure, but at points, in order to maintain continuity, they contain some of the same information.

  6. The use of in vitro technologies and high-resolution/accurate-mass LC-MS to screen for metabolites of 'designer' steroids in the equine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Adam; Scarth, James; Teale, Phil; Pearce, Clive; Hillyer, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Detection of androgenic-anabolic steroid abuse in equine sports requires knowledge of the drug's metabolism in order to target appropriate metabolites, especially where urine is the matrix of choice. Studying 'designer' steroid metabolism is problematic since it is difficult to obtain ethical approval for in vivo metabolism studies due to a lack of toxicological data. In this study, the equine in vitro metabolism of eight steroids available for purchase on the Internet is reported; including androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione, 4-chloro,17α-methyl-androsta-1,4-diene-3,17β-diol, estra-4,9-diene-3,17-dione, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione, 20-hydroxyecdysone, 11-keto-androstenedione, 17α-methyldrostanolone, and tetrahydrogestrinone. In order to allow for retrospective analysis of sample testing data, the use of a high-resolution (HR) accurate-mass Thermo LTQ-Orbitrap liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) instrument was employed for metabolite identification of underivatized sample extracts. The full scan LC-HRMS Orbitrap data were complimented by LC-HRMS/MS and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) experiments in order to provide fragmentation information and to ascertain whether GC-MS was capable of detecting any metabolite not detected by LC-HRMS. With the exception of 20-hydroxyecdysone, all compounds were found to be metabolized by equine liver S9 and/or microsomes. With the exception of 17α-methyldrostanolone, which produced metabolites that could only be detected by GC-MS, the metabolites of all other compounds could be identified using LC-HRMS, thus allowing retrospective analysis of previously acquired full-scan data resulting from routine equine drug testing screens. In summary, while in vitro techniques do not serve as a replacement for more definitive in vivo studies in all situations, their use does offer an alternative in situations where it would not be ethical to administer untested drugs to animals.

  7. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  8. Radiological Control Manual. Revision 0, January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  9. Prospects for improved detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Craig R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hart, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slezak, Thomas R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Acquisition and use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons continue to be a major focus of concern form the security apparatus of nation states because of their potential for mass casualties when used by a determined adversary.

  10. Radiologic analysis of amebiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Y.; Lee, Y. H.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    The amebiasis is a common diseases in Korea as well as worldwide especially frequent in tropical area such as India, Africa and South America. The diagnosis of amebiasis remain difficult and complex, despite of many diagnostic method, for example, direct stool test for ameba, many immunologic studies and biopsy. Authors analyzed radiologically the patient who have had confirmed as a amebiasis from June, 1976 to September, 1979 at Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The results as follows: 1. The amebic liver abscess was a most common from of the amebiasis in Korea, which were 40 cases among 56 cases. Plain abdomen showed huge hepatomegaly, compression and displacement in hepatic flexure of colon, and reflex gas distension in almost cases. Chest P-A showed nonspecific right lower lung findings from secondary to right upper abdominal pathology, such as elevated right diaphragm (61.3%), pleural effusion (60.0%), right lower lung consolidation (37.5%) and abscess cavities (5.0%). Liver scan showed large space occupying lesion, most commonly situated in right lobe of liver (68.6%). 2. Among total 15 cases of the amebic colitis, positive findings on barium enema were 80%. Barium enama showed spas and irritability (89.2%), narrowing of lumen and lack of distensibility (71.4%) and deformity of cecum (20.0%). Involved site was cecum, ascending colon, rectosigmoid, transeverse and descending colon in order of frequency. Unusual involvement of terminal ileum was 2 cases. 3. Combined cases of amebic liver abscess and colitis were 4 cases (27.7%)

  11. DOE standard: Radiological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  12. Various radiological appearances of angiomyolipomas in the same kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obuz, F.; Karabay, N.; Secil, M.; Igvci, E.; Kovanlikaya, A. [Department of Radiology, Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Yoeruekoglu, K. [Department of Pathology, Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)

    2000-06-01

    A 21-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis presented with abdominal distension and flank pain. Imaging studies, including CT and MR imaging, revealed bilateral renal mass lesions, containing fat and suggesting the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. However the imaging characteristics of one of these lesions differed from the others with no radiologically detectable fat tissue in this solid lesion suggesting renal cell carcinoma. Histopathological examination of this lesion in the left kidney revealed an angiomyolipoma with minimal fat tissue. The radiological diagnosis of angiomyolipomas with minimal fat tissue remains difficult and the differential diagnosis is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Screening for anabolic steroids in sports: analytical strategy based on the detection of phase I and phase II intact urinary metabolites by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells, Georgina; Pozo, Oscar J; Esquivel, Argitxu; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Joglar, Jesús; Segura, Jordi; Ventura, Rosa

    2015-04-10

    In order to improve the detection capabilities of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in sports, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method for the simultaneous detection of AAS phase I and phase II intact urinary metabolites (glucuronides and sulfates) was developed. A total of 36 metabolites (7 unconjugated; 19 glucuronides and 10 sulfates) corresponding to 15 of the most reported AAS were included. Analytes were extracted from urine using C18 cartridges. LC and MS conditions were studied in-depth to determine the most sensitive and selective conditions for each analyte. A selected reaction monitoring method was set up. The optimization of the experimental parameters for 13 metabolites not available as standards was performed using excretion study urines. Extraction recoveries were above 77% for all 23 validated analytes. Intra-day precision was lower than 21%, and LODs were in the range 0.25-4ng/mL for 18 of the 23 analytes. Matrix effect was evaluated using post column infusion and ranged from 92 to 147%. The method was successfully applied to excretion study urines of different exogenous AAS. The suitability of the strategy was demonstrated with methyltestosterone and stanozolol excretion study urines by achieving detection times of 22 and 21 days, respectively. The method is compliant with the World Antidoping Agency requirements for most of the studied compounds. It represents a cost-effective approach that improves the detection capabilities of AAS by increasing the sensitivity for some metabolites and by including recently described phase II long-term metabolites not detectable using the current screening strategy.

  14. [Fast screening of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods by high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Gong, Xu; Tan, Li

    2015-03-01

    A fast screening method was established for the simultaneous determination of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods by high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-IT MS). The method was based on the sonication assisted extraction of the improving sleep health food samples using methanol. The extract was then filtrated with 0.45 µm filter membrane and the filtrate was separated on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column with isocratic elution at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. A binary mobile phase was 0.05% (v/v) formic acid (solvent A)-methanol/acetonitrile (15:25, v/v, solvent B). The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode or negative ion mode was used to scan MS1-MS3 spectra for the 24 sedative hypnotics. The MS2 and MS3 spectra were used for qualitative analysis of samples. The calibration graphs were linear in their concentration ranges with the correlation coefficients (r2) more than 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) were 4.0-446.6 µg/L. The recoveries for all the drugs in the improving sleep health foods were 88.6%-110.3% with the relative standard deviations no more than 9.8% at three spiked levels. Twenty-seven batches of the improving sleep health foods were tested. Melatonin was found in eighteen batches. The method is fast, specific, sensitive, easy and suitable for fast screening of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods.

  15. Fast and sensitive supercritical fluid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry multi-class screening method for the determination of doping agents in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Lucie; Desfontaine, Vincent; Ponzetto, Federico; Nicoli, Raul; Saugy, Martial; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-04-07

    This study shows the possibility offered by modern ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry in doping control analysis. A high throughput screening method was developed for 100 substances belonging to the challenging classes of anabolic agents, hormones and metabolic modulators, synthetic cannabinoids and glucocorticoids, which should be detected at low concentrations in urine. To selectively extract these doping agents from urine, a supported liquid extraction procedure was implemented in a 48-well plate format. At the tested concentration levels ranging from 0.5 to 5 ng/mL, the recoveries were better than 70% for 48-68% of the compounds and higher than 50% for 83-87% of the tested substances. Due to the numerous interferences related to isomers of steroids and ions produced by the loss of water in the electrospray source, the choice of SFC separation conditions was very challenging. After careful optimization, a Diol stationary phase was employed. The total analysis time for the screening assay was only 8 min, and interferences as well as susceptibility to matrix effect (ME) were minimized. With the developed method, about 70% of the compounds had relative ME within the range ±20%, at a concentration of 1 and 5 ng/mL. Finally, limits of detection achieved with the above-described strategy including 5-fold preconcentration were below 0.1 ng/mL for the majority of the tested compounds. Therefore, LODs were systematically better than the minimum required performance levels established by the World anti-doping agency, except for very few metabolites.

  16. Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Zhuo; Li; Pei-Hong; Wu

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal(GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimallyor not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Malignant neoplasms most often appear as irregular infiltrative lesions on barium examination. Tumor extension to adjacent GI segments may be indistinct on barium images. Cross-sectional images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide more accurate details of the adjacent organ invasion, omental or peritoneal spread.

  17. Environmental screening of acidic compounds based on capillary zone electrophoresis/laser-induced fluorescence detection with identification by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, W C; Grange, A H; Kelliher, V; Patterson, D B; Montcalm, A; Glassman, J; Farley, J W

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the application of capillary zone electrophoresis/laser-induced fluorescence detection (CZE/LIF) to the discovery of acidic compounds in environmental matrixes or the screening of extracts for acidic components. Published studies indicate that coal-derived materials contain a significant fraction of acidic compounds relative to materials derived from petroleum and shales. Such compounds may be useful as marker compounds for site assessment and source apportionment issues, and their identification may be important in toxicological and other health issues. We used deep-UV light from the frequency-doubled Ar ion laser at 244 and 257 nm to study extracts of samples. The CZE/LIF technique possesses good sensitivity and therefore overcomes one of the limitations of CZE with UV detection. The present work depends on high pressure/temperature solvent extraction of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PNA)-contaminated soil, followed by separation using CZE. The anionic analytes were separated by using borate or phosphate buffer (pH 9.2-12.3) after a chemical class separation. Samples were also characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using full scans at low resolution, and elemental compositions were determined unequivocally by GC/high-resolution MS (GC/HRMS) using mass peak profiling (MPP). The similarity of low-resolution electron ionization mass spectra for a standard, 1-hydroxypyrene, and for a series of compounds in a contaminated-soil extract suggested that several types of phenolic and hydroxy-PNAs were present, including hydroxylated derivatives of fluorenes, fluoranthenes, and pyrenes. GC/HRMS using MPP confirmed the elemental compositions of the hydroxyfluorenes and hydroxypyrenes (and presumably hydroxyfluoranthenes) as [C13H10O] and [C16H10O], respectively. A new version of the MPP software was written for the Finnigan-MAT 900S-Trap and was similar to that developed previously for the VG 250SE. Inclusion of a calibration

  18. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation.

  19. Potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the screening of urinary exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raro, M.; Portolés, T.; Pitarch, E.; Sancho, J.V.; Hernández, F. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Garrostas, L. [Bioanalysis Research Group, IMIM, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, J.; Ventura, R.; Segura, J. [Bioanalysis Research Group, IMIM, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Experimental and Health Sciencies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Pozo, O.J., E-mail: opozo@imim.es [Bioanalysis Research Group, IMIM, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-02-04

    The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has been evaluated for the screening of 16 exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) in urine. The sample treatment is based on the strategy currently applied in doping control laboratories i.e. enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) and derivatization to form the trimethylsilyl ether-trimethylsilyl enol ether (TMS) derivatives. These TMS derivatives are then analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument (GC-QqQ MS/MS) under selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The APCI promotes soft ionization with very little fragmentation resulting, in most cases, in abundant [M + H]{sup +} or [M + H-2TMSOH]{sup +} ions, which can be chosen as precursor ions for the SRM transitions, improving in this way the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Specificity of the transitions is also of great relevance, as the presence of endogenous compounds can affect the measurements when using the most abundant ions. The method has been qualitatively validated by spiking six different urine samples at two concentration levels each. Precision was generally satisfactory with RSD values below 25 and 15% at the low and high concentration level, respectively. Most the limits of detection (LOD) were below 0.5 ng mL{sup −1}. Validation results were compared with the commonly used method based on the electron ionization (EI) source. EI analysis was found to be slightly more repeatable whereas lower LODs were found for APCI. In addition, the applicability of the developed method has been tested in samples collected after the administration of 4-chloromethandienone. The highest sensitivity of the APCI method for this compound, allowed to increase the period in which its administration can be detected. - Highlights: • APCI source has been evaluated for the screening of 16 exogenous AAS in urine. • Suitable

  20. Mortality from colorectal cancer in Andalusia: findings in favor of mass screening Mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal en Andalucía: aportaciones al cribado poblacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruiz-Ramos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC in Andalusia from 1975 to 2001 in order to facilitate decision-making on mass screening. Design: a population-based descriptive study. Considering mortality data from CRC and the resident population of Andalusia during the studied period, the main indicators of mortality by age and sex groups were calculated, and trends were estimated. Results: there have been annual increases in mortality of 1.99% in men and 0.15% in women during the study period. In men, this is mainly due to increased mortality in those older than 65 years, and in women in those in the 35- to 64-year-old age group. In the younger age groups of both sexes, there has been a decline in mortality. The trend of mortality from colon cancer was positive in both men and women, but from rectal cancer was negative in women and slightly positive in men. Conclusions: increased mortality from CRC in Andalusia may justify mass screening measures to potentially change mortality evolution, as has occurred in other countries.Objetivo: describir la mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal (CCR en Andalucía desde 1975 a 2001 para ayudar a la toma de decisiones sobre el cribado poblacional. Diseño: estudio descriptivo de base poblacional. Con los datos de mortalidad por CCR y la población de residentes en Andalucía durante el periodo estudiado, se han calculado los principales indicadores de mortalidad por grupos de edad y sexos y se han estimado las tendencias. Resultados: se ha producido un aumento de 1,99% anual de la mortalidad en los hombres y un 0,15% en las mujeres en el periodo de estudio. En los hombres debido principalmente al incremento de la mortalidad en los mayores de 65 años y en las mujeres en el grupo de edad de 35 a 64 años fue el que más creció, en los grupos de edad jóvenes se ha producido un descenso de la mortalidad en ambos sexos. Las tendencias de la mortalidad por cáncer de colon fueron positivas en hombres

  1. Assessment of two complementary liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics strategies for the screening of anabolic steroid treatment in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Weigel, Stefan; Lommen, Arjen [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Chereau, Sylvain; Rambaud, Lauriane [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Essers, Martien [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Antignac, Jean-Philippe [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Nielen, Michel W.F. [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen (Netherlands); Le Bizec, Bruno [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France)

    2011-08-26

    Anabolic steroids are banned in food producing livestock in Europe. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of 'cocktails' composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. New analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent new emerging strategies for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of steroids. The purpose of the present study was to set up, assess and compare two complementary mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategies as new tools to screen for steroid abuse in cattle and demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. The protocols were developed in two European laboratories in charge of residues analysis in the field of food safety. Apart from sample preparation, the global process was different in both laboratories from LC-HRMS fingerprinting to multivariate data analysis through data processing and involved both LC-Orbitrap-XCMS and UPLC-ToF-MS-MetAlign strategies. The reproducibility of both sample preparation and MS measurements were assessed in order to guarantee that any differences in the acquired fingerprints were not caused by analytical variability but reflect metabolome modifications upon steroids administration. The protocols were then applied to urine samples collected on a large group of animals consisting of 12 control calves and 12 calves administrated with a mixture of 17{beta}-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17{beta}-nandrolone laureate esters according to a protocol reflecting likely illegal practices. The modifications in urine profiles as indicators of steroid administration have been evaluated in this context and proved the suitability of the approach for

  2. Use of electron ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spetrometry for screening and identification of organic pollutants in waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portoles, T.; Mol, J.G.J.; Sancho, J.V.; Hernandez, F.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach has been developed for multiclass screening of organic contaminants in water based on the use of gas chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (GC–(APCI)QTOF MS). The soft ionization promo

  3. Forensic radiology in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigandan, T; Sumathy, C; Elumalai, M; Sathasivasubramanian, S; Kannan, A

    2015-04-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  4. Radiological impacts of phosphogypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Kanakri, Salwa; Budeir, Youssef; Khalily, Hussam; Al Hamwi, Ahmad

    2011-09-01

    This study was carried out to assess the radiological impact of Syrian phosphogypsum (PG) piles in the compartments of the surrounding ecosystem. Estimating the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (i.e. (226)Ra, (238)U, (232)Th, (210)Po and (210)Pb) in the raw materials, product and by-product of the Syrian phosphate fertilizer industry was essential. The data revealed that the concentrations of the radionuclides were enhanced in the treated phosphate ore. In PG, (226)Ra content had a mean activity of 318 Bq kg(-1). The uranium content in PG was low, ca. 33 Bq kg(-1), because uranium remained in the phosphoric acid produced. Over 80% of (232)Th, (210)Po and (210)Pb present partitioned in PG. The presence of PG piles did not increase significantly the concentration of (222)Rn or gamma rays exposure dose in the area studied. The annual effective dose was only 0.082 mSv y(-1). The geometric mean of total suspended air particulates (TSP) ca. 85 μg m(-3). The activity concentration of the radionuclides in filtrates and runoff waters were below the detection limits (ca. 0.15 mBq L(-1) for (238)U, 0.1 mBq L(-1) for (232)Th and 0.18 mBq L(-1) for both of (210)Po and (210)Pb); the concentration of the radionuclides in ground water samples and Qattina Lake were less than the permissible limits set for drinking water by the World Health Organisation, WHO, (10, 1 and 0.1 Bq L(-1) for (238)U, (232)Th and both of (210)Po and (210)Pb, respectively). Eastern sites soil samples of PG piles recorded the highest activity concentrations, i.e. 26, 33, 28, 61 and 40 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (238)U, (232)Th, (210)Po and (210)Pb, respectively, due to the prevailing western and north-western wind in the area, but remained within the natural levels reported in Syrian soil (13-32 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 24.9-62.2 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U and 10-32 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th). The impact of PG piles on plants varied upon the plant species. Higher concentrations of the radionuclides were

  5. Mass screening on abdominal aortic aneurysm in men aged 60 to 65 years in The Netherlands. Impact on life expectancy and cost-effectiveness using a Markov model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boll, A.P.M.; Severens, J.L.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Vliet, J.A. van der

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To predict the costs and effects on life expectancy of an AAA screening programme. METHODS: A Markov model was designed to compare the effects of a single screening for a cohort of men 60-65 years with the current no screening strategy. The following health states were distinguished: no

  6. Fast screening of perfluorooctane sulfonate in water using vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Aikaterini; Román, Iván P; Canals, Antonio; Tyrovola, Konstantina; Psillakis, Elefteria

    2011-04-08

    Fast screening of trace amounts of the perfluorooctane sulfonate anion (PFOS) in water samples was performed following a simple, fast and efficient sample preparation procedure based on vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. VALLME initially uses vortex agitation, a mild emulsification procedure to disperse microvolumes of octanol, a low density extractant solvent, in the aqueous sample. Microextraction under equilibrium conditions is thus achieved within few minutes. Subsequently, centrifugation separates the two phases and restores the initial microdrop shape of the octanol acceptor phase, which can be collected and used for liquid chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis. Several experimental parameters were controlled and the optimum conditions found were: 50 μL of octanol as the extractant phase; 20 mL aqueous donor samples (pH=2); a 2 min vortex extraction time with the vortex agitator set at a 2500 rpm rotational speed; no ionic strength adjustment. Centrifugation for 2 min at 3500 rpm yielded separation of the two phases throughout this study. Enhanced extraction efficiencies were observed at low pH which was likely due to enhanced electrostatic interaction between the negatively PFOS molecules and the positively charged octanol/water interface. The effect of pH was reduced in the presence of sodium chloride, likely due to electrical double layer compression. The linear response range for PFOS was from 5 to 500 ng L(-1) (coefficient of determination, r(2), 0.997) and the relative standard deviation for aqueous solutions containing 10 and 500 ng L(-1) PFOS were 7.4% and 6.5%, respectively. The limit of detection was 1.6 ng L(-1) with an enrichment factor of approximately 250. Analysis of spiked tap, river and well water samples revealed that matrix did not affect extraction.

  7. Potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the screening of urinary exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raro, M; Portolés, T; Pitarch, E; Sancho, J V; Hernández, F; Garrostas, L; Marcos, J; Ventura, R; Segura, J; Pozo, O J

    2016-02-04

    The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has been evaluated for the screening of 16 exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) in urine. The sample treatment is based on the strategy currently applied in doping control laboratories i.e. enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and derivatization to form the trimethylsilyl ether-trimethylsilyl enol ether (TMS) derivatives. These TMS derivatives are then analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument (GC-QqQ MS/MS) under selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The APCI promotes soft ionization with very little fragmentation resulting, in most cases, in abundant [M + H](+) or [M + H-2TMSOH](+) ions, which can be chosen as precursor ions for the SRM transitions, improving in this way the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Specificity of the transitions is also of great relevance, as the presence of endogenous compounds can affect the measurements when using the most abundant ions. The method has been qualitatively validated by spiking six different urine samples at two concentration levels each. Precision was generally satisfactory with RSD values below 25 and 15% at the low and high concentration level, respectively. Most the limits of detection (LOD) were below 0.5 ng mL(-1). Validation results were compared with the commonly used method based on the electron ionization (EI) source. EI analysis was found to be slightly more repeatable whereas lower LODs were found for APCI. In addition, the applicability of the developed method has been tested in samples collected after the administration of 4-chloromethandienone. The highest sensitivity of the APCI method for this compound, allowed to increase the period in which its administration can be detected.

  8. Radiological features of azygous vein aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Moore, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Mediastinal masses are most commonly associated with malignancy. Azygous vein aneurysm is a very rare differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass. We report here three cases of azygous vein aneurysm including children and adult patients. In the pediatric patient it was further complicated by thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism. We describe the radiological features on CXR, MRI, CT, PET-CT, US and angiogram and their differential diagnosis. Imaging findings of continuity with azygous vein, layering of contrast medium on enhanced CT and dynamic MRA showing filling of the mass at the same time as the azygous vein without prior enhancement will be strongly suggestive of azygous vein aneurysm with transtracheal ultrasound being the definitive test in these patients. It is important to keep a vascular origin mass in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses. Also, in young healthy patients with pulmonary embolism, a vascular etiology such as azygous vein aneurysm should be carefully evaluated. This article will help the clinicians to learn about the imaging features of azygous vein aneurysm on different imaging modalities.

  9. Radiological findings in NAO syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Otaibi, Leftan; Hugosson, Claes O. [Department of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Mayouf, Sulalman M.; Majeed, Mahmoud; Al-Eid, Wea' am; Bahabri, Sultan [Department of Paediatrics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2002-07-01

    Background: Diseases exhibiting osteolysis in children are rare hereditary conditions. Several types have been recognised with different clinical manifestations. One type includes subcutaneous nodules, arthropathy and osteolysis and has been termed NAO syndrome. Previous radiological reports have described the affected bones, usually the carpal and tarsal regions, but a detailed analysis of the radiological findings of both the axial as well as the appendicular skeleton has not been reported. Objectives: To describe the radiological findings in a large group of children with an autosomal recessive disease characterized by nodules, familial arthropathy and osteolysis. Materials and methods: The study comprises 14 patients from 9 families and all patients had the triad of nodulosis, arthropathy and osteolysis (NAO). Results: The most common radiological manifestations were osteopenia, undertubulation of long bones, arthritic changes, sclerotic sutures of the calvaria, osteolysis and muscle contractures. Other common findings were squared vertebrae, broad medial clavicles and brachycephaly. Progress of disease was documented in more than half of the patients. Conclusions: Our study is the first report of the detailed radiological findings of NAO syndrome. In NAO syndrome, both the axial and appendicular skeleton are involved (orig.)

  10. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Manigandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  11. Cardio-metabolic risk screening among adolescents: understanding the utility of body mass index, waist circumference and waist to height ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K W; Marcus, M D; El ghormli, L; Ogden, C L; Foster, G D

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have assessed how well body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or waist to height ratio (WtHR) perform in identifying cardio-metabolic risk among youth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of BMI and WC percentiles and WtHR to distinguish adolescents with and without cardio-metabolic risk. A cross-sectional analysis of data from 6097 adolescents aged 10-13 years who participated in the HEALTHY study was conducted. Receiver operating characteristic curves determined the discriminatory ability of BMI and WC percentiles and WtHR. The discriminatory ability of BMI percentile was good (area under the curve [AUC] ≥ 0.80) for elevated insulin and clustering of ≥3 risk factors, with optimal cut-points of 96 and 95, respectively. BMI percentile performed poor to fair (AUC = 0.57-0.75) in identifying youth with the majority of individual risk factors examined (elevated glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, blood pressure, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein). WC percentile and WtHR performed similarly to BMI percentile. The current definition of obesity among US children performs well at identifying adolescents with elevated insulin and a clustering of ≥3 cardio-metabolic risk factors. Evidence does not support WC percentile or WtHR as superior screening tools compared with BMI percentile for identifying cardio-metabolic risk. © 2014 World Obesity.

  12. Coronary artery calcification detected by a mobile helical CT unit in a mass screening. The frequency and relationship to coronary risk factors and coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itani, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Hanamura, Kazuhisa; Asakura, Kazuhiro; Sone, Shusuke; Sunami, Yuko; Shimura, Akimitsu; Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2001-06-01

    A strong relationship is known to exist between coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) detected by CT. In this study, we investigated the frequency of CAC and the relationship between coronary risk factors, CAD and CAC in a mass screening using a mobile helical CT unit. The total number of participants was 10008 people undergoing a medical examination for lung cancer and tuberculosis using a mobile helical CT unit. We measured the CT density of the coronary artery to detect CAC. The CT density threshold for determining CAC was above +110HU. The frequency of CAC was 16.0% in the overall patient population and significantly higher in males than in females (20.6% vs 10.7%). Frequency increased with age in both genders. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significantly related to CAC. Smoking showed a correlation with CAC only in males. A significant relationship was observed between CAD and CAC in males. In particular, the relationship between them was strongest in males under 60 years of age. Furthermore, the odds ratio of CAC in predicting CAD increased with increasing risk factors in both genders. (author)

  13. [To the problem of evaluation of public health: screening for gastroduodenal pathology on the example of atrophic gastritis in mass medical examination of the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, S V; Modestova, A V; Ermakov, N V

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of health status of the population - the most important issue in preventive medicine. The objective of this work - to determine the possibility of nonendoscopic screening for gastroduodenal pathology, by the example of atrophic gastritis, in mass medical examinations of working residents in Moscow. Minimally invasive diagnostic test system GastroPanel ("Biohit", Finland) has been used. It allows with the ELISA method to determine both serum indicators of the function of the stomach -pepsinogen 1, gastrin 17 and the presence of H. pylori infection. 758 persons have been examined. The performed study confirms the possibility with the use of a set of mentioned indicators to identify individuals suspected for the presence of gastroduodenal disorders, especially atrophic gastritis, recognized as a precancerous condition. The use in preventive medicine complex diagnostic system, firstly, will make assessment of the health of the population more correct, increase the effectiveness of preventive measures and quality of life, and secondly, will contribute to the diagnosis of diseases of the stomach and duodenum in the early stages.

  14. Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for rapid qualitative screening of toxic glycols in glycerin-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Randy L

    2013-06-01

    In 2007, the United States Food and Drug Administration released guidance recommending testing of glycerin used in regulated consumer products, such as cough syrup preparations, toothpaste, and other pharmaceutical and food products, for the toxic compounds ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. Regulatory laboratories routinely test glycerin, and products containing glycerin or related compounds for these toxic glycols, using an official gas chromatographic method, to ensure the safety of these products. The current work describes a companion technique to compliment this GC-FID method utilizing Orbitrap mass spectrometry with direct analysis in real time ionization to rapidly screen these samples qualitatively, with results in as little as five seconds, with no sample preparation required. This allows the more time and resource intensive method to be reserved for those rare cases when these compounds are detected, potentially greatly improving laboratory efficiency. The technique was evaluated for qualitative sensitivity and repeatability, and compared against the GC-FID method. The method appears to perform well against these metrics.

  15. CODEX-compliant eleven organophosphorus pesticides screening in multiple commodities using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Zi-Ye; Wang, Yu-Ting; Tsoi, Yeuk-Ki; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2013-01-15

    A headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (HS-SPME-GC-MS, hereafter abbreviated as "SPME") method was developed for dedicated organophosphorus (OP) pesticides assessment in multiple vegetable and fruit commodities. Specific extraction variables were optimised to achieve harmonised extraction performance of eleven OPs in a great span of seven characteristic commodities cataloged in Codex Alimentarius Commission. Comprehensive validation study confirmed analytical robustness of the SPME treatment in turnip, green cabbage, French beans, eggplant, apple, nectarine and grapes. Based on range-specific evaluation, extraction of individual OPs was characterised by sub-ppb level sensitivity and a wide 0.01-2.5 mg L(-1) dynamic range. Effective sample clean-up afforded precise quantification (0.5-10.9% R.S.D.) within a 70-120% recovery range at the MRL levels specified for individual commodities. Compared to conventional methods currently used, the SPME treatment developed here is quick, accurate, and relatively environmental friendly; it represents an attractive, practical way to deliver international standards in OP screening routines.

  16. Screening and confirmation of 62 drugs of abuse and metabolites in urine by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, I-Lin; Weng, Te-I; Tseng, Yufeng J; Tan, Happy Kuy-Lok; Sun, Hsiao-Ju; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography--quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) method for the