WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiological impact utilisation

  1. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  2. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m 2 of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation

  3. Utilisation and outcomes following the introduction of an interventional radiology day unit

    Makris, G.C.; Shaida, N.; Pyneeandee, R.; Shaw, A.; See, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the utilisation of an interventional radiology day unit (RDU), the rates of on-time discharges, the financial performance of the unit, and finally, the patient satisfaction rates. Materials and methods: Data regarding the unit utilisation, discharge times, and complications were retrospectively collected for the first 2 years of operation of the unit (1 April 2013 to 1 January 2015). In addition, monitoring the activity going through the RDU and applying a contribution margin to the freed-up beds measured the financial performance. The data were provided by the finance department of the hospital. Satisfaction survey questionnaires were sent randomly by post to 100 patients who had been previously admitted to the RDU. Results: During the study period, 3019 patients were admitted to the RDU, comprising 1426 during the first year and 1513 during the second. On average, 5.6 patients were discharged from the RDU on every working day during the first year and 7.1 patients during the second (21% increase in the discharge rate). Given the 8-hour working time configuration of the unit, a realistic 80% utilisation rate of the RDU's seven beds could free a total of 1400 inpatient bed days over a full year. The cost of delivering these episodes of care was reduced by approximately 50%. From the financial data, it was estimated that the RDU managed to achieve a total of £393,000 in savings for the Trust for the financial year 2013–2014. The return rate of the patient satisfaction survey was 40%. All patients were satisfied with their overall RDU experience. Conclusion: The RDU has brought significant benefits for patients and the Trust without compromises in safety or quality. - Highlights: • Radiology Day units can improve workflow through improved efficiency. • RDUs can decrease the treatment-related costs mainly by reducing the need for unnecessary overnight hospitalisation. • They appear to be welcome by the patients with excellent feedback so far.

  4. Radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel management options

    Riotte, H.; Lazo, T.; Mundigl, S.

    2000-01-01

    An important technical study on radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel management options, recently completed by the NEA, is intended to facilitate informed international discussions on the nuclear fuel cycle. The study compares the radiological impacts on the public and on nuclear workers resulting from two approaches to handling spent fuel from nuclear power plants: - the reprocessing option, that includes the recycling of spent uranium fuel, the reuse of the separated plutonium in MOX fuel, and the direct disposal of spent MOX fuel; and the once-through option, with no reprocessing of spent fuel, and its direct disposal. Based on the detailed research of a group of 18 internationally recognised experts, under NEA sponsorship, the report concludes that: The radiological impacts of both the reprocessing and the non-reprocessing fuel cycles studied are small, well below any regulatory dose limits for the public and for workers, and insignificantly low as compared with exposures caused by natural radiation. The difference in the radiological impacts of the two fuel cycles studied does not provide a compelling argument in favour of one option or the other. The study also points out that other factors, such as resource utilisation efficiency, energy security, and social and economic considerations would tend to carry more weight than radiological impacts in decision-making processes. (authors)

  5. Nuclear or radiology: which term to use?; Nucleaire ou radiologique: quel terme utiliser?

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document brings information and definition to help the public in the distinction between the two terms: nuclear and radiologic. What means the words nuclear and radiologic in the physics and common languages? In which situation an accidental or malevolent event can be called nuclear or radiologic? By which technic and for which use is concerned the radiology? It concludes by recommendation for the choice of one or the other term. (A.L.B.)

  6. Radiological impact of the Argentine Nuclear Programme

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is made of the radiological impact resulting from the activities carried out so far under the Argentine Nuclear Programme, together with a prediction of the impact which could result from the future activities planned under that Programme. The average individual risks and the radiological detriment due to the various activities are determined in terms of the average individual effective dose equivalents and the collective effective dose equivalent commitments. The assessments cover exposures of occupationally exposed workers and the public. The data obtained indicate that both the risks and the resultant detriment are reasonably comparable with those derived from other similar programmes. Moreover, they clearly indicate that the radiological impact of the Programme is tending to decrease with time so that it can be assumed that the radiological impact per unit of practice will be even lower in future. (author)

  7. Impacts of high utilisation pressure on biodiversity components in ...

    This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the effects of heavy land utilisation, mainly grazing, on plant species richness and diversity, species abundance, vegetation structure and soil characteristics in a communal area in Colophospermum mopane dominated savanna in southern Africa. The treatment was benchmarked ...

  8. Radiological impact of oil/gas industry

    Botezatu, E.; Grecea, C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the radiological impact on the environment and population of the oil/gas industry that is non-nuclear industry but uses and can produce materials, with an enhanced content of naturally occurring radionuclides. The natural radioactivity levels in the oil field environmental media, which could represent a risk for the people living in the areas influenced by this non-nuclear industry, do not indicate an increase in the natural radiation background. From a radiological point of view, the situation does not pose any immediate concern. Some places however need further investigations, with special emphasis on the control of 226 Ra releases to prevent from polluting the environment with this radionuclide. The growing concern amongst the population about the quality of their environment increases the significance of impact assessment of radioactive releases into the environment even if natural radionuclides occur. (N.C.)

  9. Radiological study of bronchial mucoid impaction

    Yu Xiaoyi; Yan Hongzhen; Wang Tongde; Gan Chunlan; Liu Wei; Wang Linhui

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the radiological findings of bronchial mucoid impaction in 28 patients in order to improve diagnostic efficacy. Methods: Standard posteroanterior high voltage radiographs were performed in all 28 cases. Among them CT scans were taken in 14 cases, while 3 patients underwent HRCT examination at the same time. Twenty-two patients had a history of expectoration of mucous plugs; in one case with pulmonary atelectasis, a mucous plug was picked out through bronchoscopy. The other 5 cases experienced a lung operation, and a tumor and bronchial mucoid impaction were discovered. Results: Radiographs showed most mucoid impaction as thick, branching structures resembling branches of tree; others were in the shapes of spherical, small clubs, and cuttle fish. In one patient, pulmonary atelectasis was the only radiographic finding. Similarly on CT, most bronchial mucoid impaction were likened to tree branches; the rest presented as small clubs and bunches of grape. A prominent feature of bronchial mucoid impaction, either on plain radiograph or on CT, was that its axis pointed to the hilum, completely consistent with the branching and distribution of the bronchi, and accompanied by bronchiectasis. Conclusions: It is an optimal approach to exploit plain radiograph combined with CT to find out bronchial mucoid impaction. An awareness of its clinical and radiological features may improve better understanding and recognition of the disease

  10. Global radiological impact of the phosphate fertilizers

    Morales, Rudnei Karam; Alves, Rex Nazare

    1996-01-01

    About ninety percent of the products obtained in the phosphate industry are directly used in agriculture as fertilizers. The uranium, thorium and radium content in phosphate fertilizers pollute the soil, water and air, creating risks due to associated natural radiation. This work shows the concentration of radionuclides present in various products of the national and American phosphate fertilizers industry, and compared them with worldwide mean values. The radiological impact of the products on the environment is evaluated and suggestions are presented in order to minimize the risks due to radioactivity. (author)

  11. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-15

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  12. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-01

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  13. Investigating the impact of poor utilisation of quality management system in a South African foundry

    Mpanza, Z

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available . This research paper focusses on the impact of defects on productivity and monetary losses due to poor utilisation of the quality management system in sand casting. Data was gathered on defects and productivity and the company’s quality control records were used...

  14. Dirty bombs: assesment of radiological impacts

    Trifunovic, D.; Koukouliou, V.

    2009-01-01

    In some countries, regulatory control of radioactive sources, used extensively in medicine and industry, remains weak. Global concerns about the security and safety of radioactive sources escalated following the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States. There are fears that some radioactive sources could be used by terrorists as radiological dispersal devices (RDD's), or so called 'dirty bombs'. The radioactive material dispersed, depending on the amount and intensity, could cause radiation sickness for a limited number of people nearby if, for example, they inhaled large amounts of radioactive dust. But the most severe tangible impacts would likely be the economic costs and social disruption associated with the evacuation and subsequent clean-up of contaminated property. It has been shown that usage of realistic data in a first response decision making as to avoid inappropriate public reaction accompanied by economic and social consequences is necessary.(author)

  15. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    Menard, S.; Schapira, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232 Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228 Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220 Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  16. Radiological impact of radioactive waste management

    Beninson, D.J.; Migliori de Beninson, Ambreta.

    1985-01-01

    The radiological impacts from management of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle have been estimated for several alternative fuel cycle strategies. The impacts are expressed as collective effective dose equivalent commitments. Mill tailings make an important contribution, which depends on the uranium requirements for each reference fuel cycle, being the largest for once-through cycles. Disposal of high level waste or spent fuel is also an important contribution, usually larger for once-through cycle where the entire actinide inventory is disposed off. Although at present conversion and enrichment tailing are not considered wastes, they have assumed to be wastes in the reference cycle. In this case, their relative contribution is significant for fuel cycles using enriched uranium. The totals for waste management and disposal are of the same order of magnitude as the collective dose commitments from occupational and public exposures arising from the operation of the nuclear fuel cycle installations. The incomplete collective dose commitments from waste management and disposal assessed by integrating the collective dose rate over a fixed period of time (usually selected as 500 years), at time when the integral is maximum, are also comparable with the corresponding quantity arising from the operation of the fuel cycle installations. The maximum per caput doses predicted for the far future are small, usually a small fraction of the relevant dose limits. The maximun future doses in the critical groups in the vicinity of the repositories will be very low, of about a few percents of that experienced from the exposure to natural radiation sources. (M.E.L.) [es

  17. Radiological impact assessment in Bagjata uranium deposit: a case study

    Sarangi, A.K.; Bhowmik, S.C.; Jha, V.N.

    2007-01-01

    The uranium ore mining facility, in addition to the desirable product, produces wastes in the form of environmental releases or effluents to air, water and soil. The toxicological and other (non-radiological) effects are generally addressed in EIA/EMP studies as per MOEF guidelines. Since the uranium ore is radioactive, it is desirable to conduct a study on radiological effects considering the impacts of radiological releases to the environment. Before undertaking the commercial mining operations at Bagjata uranium deposit in the Singhbhum east district of Jharkhand, pre-operational radiological base line data were generated and a separate study on radiological impact on various environmental matrices was conducted in line with the International Atomic Energy Agency's laid out guidelines. The paper describes the philosophy of such studies and the findings that helped in formulating a separate environmental management plan. (author)

  18. The impact of reducing financial barriers on utilisation of a primary health care facility in Rwanda

    Dhillon, Ranu S.; Bonds, Matthew H.; Fraden, Max; Ndahiro, Donald; Ruxin, Josh

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of subsidising community-based health insurance (mutuelle) enrolment, removing point-of-service co-payments, and improving service delivery on health facility utilisation rates in Mayange, a sector of rural Rwanda of approximately 25,000 people divided among five ‘imidugudu’ or small villages. While comprehensive service upgrades were introduced in the Mayange Health Centre between April 2006 and February 2007, utilisation rates remained similar to comparison sites. Between February 2007 and April 2007, subsidies for mutuelle enrolment established virtually 100% coverage. Immediately after co-payments were eliminated in February 2007, patient visits levelled at a rate triple the previous value. Regression analyses using data from Mayange and two comparison sites indicate that removing financial barriers resulted in about 0.6 additional annual visits for curative care per capita. Although based on a single local pilot, these findings suggest that in order to achieve improved health outcomes, key short-term objectives include improved service delivery and reduced financial barriers. Based on this pilot, higher utilisation rates may be affected if broader swaths of the population are enrolled in mutuelle and co-payments are eliminated. Health leaders in Rwanda should consider further studies to determine if the impact of eliminating co-payments and increasing subsidies for mutuelle enrolment as seen in Mayange holds at greater levels of scale. Broader studies to better elucidate the impact of enrolment subsidies and co-payment subsidies on utilisation, health outcomes, and costs would also provide policy insights. PMID:21732708

  19. Radiological environmental impacts from transportation of nuclear materials

    Shuai Zhengqing

    1994-01-01

    The author describes radiological impacts from transportation of nuclear materials. RADTRAN 4.0 supplied by IAEA was adopted to evaluate radiological consequence of incident-free transportation as well as the radiological risks from vehicular accidents occurring during transportation. The results of calculation show that the collective effective dose equivalent of incident-free transportation to the public and transportation workers is 7.94 x 10 -4 man·Sv. The calculated data suggest that the environmental impacts under normal and assumed accidental conditions are acceptable

  20. Radiological impacts of uranium recovery in the phosphate industry

    Ryan, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This article characterizes the occupational and public radiological health impacts associated with phosphate mining and milling. These impacts are related to the phosphate industry's uranium production potential and are compared with those associated with conventional uranium mining and milling. The radiological impacts resulting from occupational and nonoccupational exposures are assessed. Occupational exposures in phosphate facilities are compared to background exposures and radiological population dose assessments, which characterize important radionuclides and exposure pathways. The following conclusions were reached: (1) public consequences of phosphate mining will occur whether or not uranium is recovered as a by-product, (2) radiological consequences of phosphate mining may be comparable to those associated with uranium mining and milling per unit uranium production, (3) radiological impacts via surface waterways and crops fertilized with uranium-bearing phosphates are of minor consequence, and (4) major radiological public health problems associated with phosphate mining are related to radon and radon progeny exposures in structures built on reclaimed lands or with phosphate mining residues, although the magnitudes of these impacts are difficult to evaluate with current data

  1. Impacts of HIV/AIDS mortality on food security and natural resource utilisation in rural South Africa

    Mambo, J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIDS mortality, its linkages as a determinant and consequence of food security and its impact on natural resource utilisation by mainly rural populations, has not been well researched, especially their effects on rural livelihoods. Determining...

  2. Radiology

    Bigot, J.M.; Moreau, J.F.; Nahum, H.; Bellet, M.

    1990-01-01

    The 17th International Congress of Radiology was conducted in two separate scientific sessions, one for radiodiagnosis and one for radiation oncology. Topics covered are: Radiobiology -radioprotection; imaging and data processing; contrast media; MRI; nuclear medicine; radiology and disasters; radiology of tropical diseases; cardiovascular radiology; interventional radiology; imaging of trauma; imaging of chest, gastro-intestinal tract, breast and genito-urinary tract; imaging in gynecology;imaging in oncology; bone and joint radiology; head and neck-radiology; neuro-radiology. (H.W.). refs.; fig.; tabs

  3. Assessment of the radiological impact of contaminated discharges

    Sweeck, L; Zeevaert, T

    1996-09-18

    A biosphere model has been used to calculate the release of radionuclides from contaminated soils and their dose impact on critical individuals in the environment. Normal evolution and accidental scenarios are considered. The objective of the model is to provide an indication of the radiological risk rather than to predict its future impact.

  4. Radiological impacts from nuclear facilities on non-human species

    1997-07-01

    This monograph is the Proceedings of a Symposium on Radiological Impacts from Nuclear Facilities on Non-Human Species, held in Ottawa, Canada, December 1 and 2, 1996. The Symposium was held in response to the assessment of radiological impacts from nuclear facilities on non-human biota by Environment Canada and the move by Atomic Energy Control Board to include the radiological impacts in its regulatory regime. The two major goals of the Symposium were to critically evaluate the ecological risk assessment as applied to radionuclides and contribute to the wide consultation sought by the Atomic Energy Control Board on their new environmental initiatives. The series of papers presented at the Symposium discuss issues relevant to the two major objectives of the Symposium

  5. Citation Impact of Collaboration in Radiology Research.

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Parikh, Ujas; Duszak, Richard

    2018-02-01

    Team science involving multidisciplinary and multi-institutional collaboration is increasingly recognized as a means of strengthening the quality of scientific research. The aim of this study was to assess associations between various forms of collaboration and the citation impact of published radiology research. In 2010, 876 original research articles published in Academic Radiology, the American Journal of Roentgenology, JACR, and Radiology were identified with at least one radiology-affiliated author. All articles were manually reviewed to extract features related to all authors' disciplines and institutions. Citations to these articles through September 2016 were extracted from Thomson Reuters Web of Science. Subsequent journal article citation counts were significantly higher (P < .05) for original research articles with at least seven versus six or fewer authors (26.2 ± 30.8 versus 20.3 ± 23.1, respectively), with authors from multiple countries versus from a single country (32.3 ± 39.2 versus 22.0 ± 25.0, respectively), with rather than without a nonuniversity collaborator (28.7 ± 38.6 versus 22.4 ± 24.9, respectively), and with rather than without a nonclinical collaborator (26.5 ± 33.1 versus 21.9 ± 24.4, respectively). On multivariate regression analysis, the strongest independent predictors of the number of citations were authors from multiple countries (β = 9.14, P = .002), a nonuniversity collaborator (β = 4.80, P = .082), and at least seven authors (β = 4.11, P = .038). With respect to subsequent journal article citations, various forms of collaboration are associated with greater scholarly impact of published radiology research. To enhance the relevance of their research, radiology investigators are encouraged to pursue collaboration across traditional disciplinary, institutional, and geographic boundaries. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiology

    Edholm, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    This is a report describing diagnostic techniques used in radiology. It describes the equipment necessary for, and the operation of a radiological department. Also is described the standard methods used in radiodiagnosis. (K.A.E.)

  7. Radiological impact assessment within the IAEA Arctic Assessment Project (IASAP)

    Scott, E.M.; Gurbutt, P.; Harmes, I.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) of IAEA, a working group was created to model the dispersal and transfer of radionuclides released from radioactive waste disposed of in the Kara Sea and bays of Novaya Zemlya and to assess the radiological impact. Existing models...

  8. A probabilistic approach to Radiological Environmental Impact Assessment

    Avila, Rodolfo; Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    2001-01-01

    Since a radiological environmental impact assessment typically relies on limited data and poorly based extrapolation methods, point estimations, as implied by a deterministic approach, do not suffice. To be of practical use for risk management, it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty margins of the estimates as well. In this paper we discuss how to work out a probabilistic approach for dealing with uncertainties in assessments of the radiological risks to non-human biota of a radioactive contamination. Possible strategies for deriving the relevant probability distribution functions from available empirical data and theoretical knowledge are outlined

  9. Methodology for assessing the radiological impact on environment

    Zhang Yongxing

    1988-01-01

    During the 1940s, the early stages of nuclear programmes, the assessment of the radionuclides released to the environment was first initiated for the large nuclear facilities, with emphasis placed on environmental monitoring. The radiological assessment is a quantitative process of estimating the impact on human, resulting from the releases of the radionuclides to the environment. It is a multidisciplinary subject including identification of source terms, environmental transport and dispersion, health effect evaluation and so on. This paper briefly, but comprehensively, describes the methodology for the assessment of the environmental radiological consequence, and discusses the trend of various research fields related to the subject

  10. A report on CERN’s radiological impact

    2007-01-01

    The Swiss and French authorities have just published a report showing that CERN’s radiological impact is negligible. The CERN Safety Commission’s Environment Team inspects the river Allondon. Since its foundation more than 50 years ago, questions about the Laboratory’s hypothetical radiological impact have been asked repeatedly by the public. These questions are partly due to the name CERN which, for historical reasons, contains the word nuclear. On 16 October, the Swiss and French authorities published a report that takes stock of CERN’s true radiological impact, providing a detailed and documented answer for all those who wonder about the risks of radioactivity. In their report, the Swiss Office fédéral de la santé publique (OFSP) and the French Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire (IRSN), the two bodies responsible for monitoring radiological risks in CERN’s Host States, concluded that CERN’s impac...

  11. The utilisation and diagnostic yield of radiological imaging in a specialist functional GI disorder clinic: an 11-year retrospective study

    Breen, Micheal; O'Neill, Siobhan B.; O'Donovan, Joanne P.; McWilliams, Sebastian; Murphy, Kevin P.; Maher, Michael M.; Desmond, Alan N.; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M.

    2014-01-01

    The term functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) describes various aggregations of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms not explained by identifiable organic pathology; accordingly, their diagnosis rests on symptom-based criteria and a process of exclusion. Evidence is lacking on the appropriate use of abdominal imaging studies (AIS) in FGIDs. We investigated the utilisation of AIS (site, modality, diagnostic yield/significance) at a tertiary FGID clinic over an 11-year period. Of 1,621 patients, 507 (31 %; 67.5 % women, mean age 43.9 ± 17.37 years) referred from primary care had 997 AIS (1.7 per patient): ultrasonography (US) 36.1 %, fluoroscopy (FLS) 28.8 %, computed tomography (CT) 19.6 %, plain radiography (PR) 13.5 %, nuclear medicine (NM) 1 %. Of the 997 AIS, 55.6 % (554/997) were normal. Of the AIS with positive findings, 9.9 % (62/625) were deemed 'probably significant' and 14.7 % (92/625) 'significant'. Of the CT and FLS studies, 12.3 % and 13.6 %, respectively, yielded 'significant' abnormalities compared to 2.2 % of the US studies and 2.1 % of the PR studies. CT identified five of seven neoplasms, associated with male sex, increasing age and symptom onset after age 50 years. This study confirmed low use of AIS in tertiary FGID clinics and a high proportion of normal studies. Barium swallow/meal and CT were more likely to identify 'probably significant' or 'significant' findings, including neoplasms. (orig.)

  12. The radiological impact of electronuclear cycle installations

    Lochard, J.; Tort, V.

    1997-01-01

    For the whole cycle during exploitation, the impacts on workers are the most important., in individual and collective term with radiations doses reaching several milli-sieverts for individual doses. For the public exposure during the exploitation phase, the radiations doses coming from releases, are very small with a corresponding risk considered as insignificant (if admitted as hypothesis a linear relation without threshold at low doses). For the exposure in the long term for future generations, the individual impacts stay negligible ( for releases or wastes storage). In term of global impact, the collective doses can be estimated and never exceed some man-sievert by generation. In term of very long term, uncertainties coming from the difficulties to control environment are still to be studied. (N.C.)

  13. The utilisation and diagnostic yield of radiological imaging in a specialist functional GI disorder clinic: an 11-year retrospective study

    Breen, Micheal; O' Neill, Siobhan B.; O' Donovan, Joanne P.; McWilliams, Sebastian [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Murphy, Kevin P.; Maher, Michael M. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); University College Cork, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Desmond, Alan N. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Cork (Ireland); Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Cork (Ireland); University College Cork, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Center, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-12-15

    The term functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) describes various aggregations of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms not explained by identifiable organic pathology; accordingly, their diagnosis rests on symptom-based criteria and a process of exclusion. Evidence is lacking on the appropriate use of abdominal imaging studies (AIS) in FGIDs. We investigated the utilisation of AIS (site, modality, diagnostic yield/significance) at a tertiary FGID clinic over an 11-year period. Of 1,621 patients, 507 (31 %; 67.5 % women, mean age 43.9 ± 17.37 years) referred from primary care had 997 AIS (1.7 per patient): ultrasonography (US) 36.1 %, fluoroscopy (FLS) 28.8 %, computed tomography (CT) 19.6 %, plain radiography (PR) 13.5 %, nuclear medicine (NM) 1 %. Of the 997 AIS, 55.6 % (554/997) were normal. Of the AIS with positive findings, 9.9 % (62/625) were deemed 'probably significant' and 14.7 % (92/625) 'significant'. Of the CT and FLS studies, 12.3 % and 13.6 %, respectively, yielded 'significant' abnormalities compared to 2.2 % of the US studies and 2.1 % of the PR studies. CT identified five of seven neoplasms, associated with male sex, increasing age and symptom onset after age 50 years. This study confirmed low use of AIS in tertiary FGID clinics and a high proportion of normal studies. Barium swallow/meal and CT were more likely to identify 'probably significant' or 'significant' findings, including neoplasms. (orig.)

  14. The impact of frailty on healthcare utilisation in Ireland: evidence from the Irish longitudinal study on ageing.

    Roe, Lorna; Normand, Charles; Wren, Maev-Ann; Browne, John; O'Halloran, Aisling M

    2017-09-05

    To examine the impact of frailty on medical and social care utilisation among the Irish community-dwelling older population to inform strategies of integrated care for older people with complex needs. Participants aged ≥65 years from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) representative of the Irish community-dwelling older population were analysed (n = 3507). The frailty index was used to examine patterns of utilisation across medical and social care services. Multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression models were employed to examine the impact of frailty on service utilisation outcomes after controlling for other factors. The prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 24% (95% CI: 23, 26%) and 45% (95% CI: 43, 47%) respectively. Frailty was a significant predictor of utilisation of most social care and medical care services after controlling for the main correlates of frailty and observed individual effects. Frailty predicts utilisation of many different types of healthcare services rendering it a useful risk stratification tool for targeting strategies of integrated care. The pattern of care is predominantly medical as few of the frail older population use social care prompting questions about sub-groups of the frail older population with unmet care needs.

  15. Radiological impact assessment of arc welding supplies rutile

    Rozas Guinea, S.; Herranz Soler, M.; Perez Marin, C.; Idoeta Hermandorena, R.; Alegria gutierrez, N.; Nunez-Lagos Rogla, R.; Legarda Ibanez, F.

    2013-01-01

    Consumables for welding containing rutile, the coating of the electrode or the filling of tubular thread, are the most widely used and also the most radioactive since the rutile is a mineral containing traces of natural radionuclides, and is therefore considered Normal Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As these electrodes and wire are consumed, small particles, aerosols and gases are emitted to the atmosphere of work, and may be inhaled by the welder. Therefore, and also according to the current regulatory framework and work carried out previously by the author on the radiological impact of the process of manufacture and storage of coated rutile electrodes, the objectives are: 1Calcular the internal dose for inhalation during two types of welding, one with electrodes coated and the other with thread. 2 calculate the external dose due to the deposition of particles in the work environment, slag and the immersion of the soldering iron in the cloud of smoke. 3 to assess the radiological impact. (Author)

  16. Phosphate gypsum wastes in Venice lagoon. Radiological impact

    Belli, M; Blasi, M; Guogang, J.; Rosamilia, S.; Sansone, U.; Biancotto, R.; Bidoli, P.; Sepulcri, D.

    2000-03-01

    The phosphoric minerals utilized in phosphoric acid production, presents high concentrations of radioactive materials: U238, Th 232, K 40. The phosphogypsum is the waste material obtained in the phosphoric acid production in wet process. This type of production method is employed for many years in Venice lagoon (Porto Marghera chemical plants). In this paper are reported evaluations of radiological impact on aquatic environment of lagoon [it

  17. Foods Found in the Wild Around Nuclear Sites: An Evaluation of Radiological Impact

    Green, N.; Wilkins, B.T.; Hammond, D.J.; Davidson, M.F.; Richmond, S.; Brooker, S.

    2001-01-01

    Habit surveys were carried out around four licensed nuclear sites to identify people who collect foodstuffs from the wild (so-called 'free foods'). In total, around 800 collectors were readily identified, most of whom collected more than one free food. The data indicated that estimates of higher than average doses could reasonably be based on the three foodstuffs of most importance. Foods were selected for further study on the basis of either the number of collectors or the amount consumed. The radionuclides of interest were identified using published information on the discharges from each site. The resultant average and higher than average doses were estimated using the site-specific habit data. For all sites, doses from the consumption of free foods were low and of no radiological importance. Assessments based solely on data for cultivated foods would not therefore have underestimated radiological impact significantly. However, given the wide utilisation of free foods found in this study, for rigorous assessments it would be prudent to take account of the consumption of foods from the wild. (author)

  18. Radiology

    Sykora, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this text-book basic knowledge about radiology, biomedical diagnostic methods (radiography, computer tomography), nuclear medicine and safety and radiation protection of personnel on the radiodiagnostic place of work are presented

  19. Impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts on power point presentations (PPT in rural Indian medical institute

    ROSHAN BHAISARE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called “death by power point” referring to boredom and fatigue. To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Methods: Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B. For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before lecture while the other batch was given lectures only. Crossover was done to avoid bias, all the lectures being given by the same presenter. At the end of each lecture, a short questionnaire of 10 Multiple Choice Question (MCQ was provided to the students. Mean scores were calculated for lectures with handouts and without handouts. Results: For a set of lectures, when batch A was provided with handouts, the mean score was 28.2; for batch B to which no handouts were given the mean score was 23.4. Similarly, for batch B when provided with handouts the mean score was 29.1, for batch A which was not provided with handouts the mean score was 24. There was an average increase of 4.2 marks. Actual gain when handouts were provided was 1.2 marks per lecture. It was more for the batch comprising of repeater students as compared to the batch of fresher students. Increase in attendance was also noted. Conclusion: Providing uncompleted handouts before a didactic lecture definitely results in increase in knowledge gain; repeater students benefit more with uncompleted handouts.

  20. Radiation monitoring systems and methodologies for radiological impact assessment

    Chaudhury, Probal

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive sources of various strengths are used in large number of applications in industry, healthcare, agriculture and research. Though all the sources are transported and used under regulatory control, there is always a possibility of some of the sources getting into the hands of committed antisocial non state actors. In addition to this, there is a possible threat of radioactive material being illegally brought into a country. These gives rise to an increase in the global radiological threat and security experts world over are concerned about the possibility of malicious use of radiation in the public domain. Radiation detection systems are installed at various entry and exit ports of some of the countries to detect illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. IAEA has recommended that all States should have a national response plan for nuclear security events to provide for an appropriate and coordinated response. Considering the requirement of radiological emergency preparedness, various radiation monitoring systems and methodologies have been developed. A few aerial radiation monitoring systems developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) for radiological impact assessment are described here

  1. Long term radiological impact of a uranium mine restoration

    Mora, Veronica; Bordonaba Marisa; Sanchez Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, many uranium mines were closed as consequence of low prices of this mineral. It was due to a decrease in the demand for uranium and an increase in the overall supply. The resulting was a further complicated implementation of sites restorations. This report deals with one of the relevant aspects of the radiological protection scope: 'the evaluation of the long term radiological impact in the population due to the uranium mine restoration activities' for the uranium mine sited in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca, Spain). These restoration activities have basically consisted of recovering the original site by filling the old open pits with the material stockpiled in the waste dumps. The main problems associated with this material include radon release and particles emission. The strategy used to solve this problem has been covered these structures with a layer with beds of clay material rock, waste material and a cover tree. The pathways considered for the radiological impact have been: 1) Inhalation; 2) Ingestion of contaminated water, milk, vegetables and meat; 3) External exposure from clouds immersion, grounds concentrations and direct gamma radiation. Three computer codes have been used with the object of evaluating the above-mentioned impact. Two of them are well-known NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) codes: RESRAD 6.30 and MILDOS-AREA. We have also applied DOEFLURA, developed in ENUSA [1, 2, 3]. Four scenarios have been studied: Resident Farmer Scenario, Resident scenario, Livestock pasture scenario and Forest scenario, Estimation of radioactive doses for the member of the public in the different scenarios has been calculated with this programme. A period of 3500 years from now has been studied. (author)

  2. Radiological impact assessment of building materials on ordinary houses dwellers

    Campos, M.P. de.

    1994-01-01

    The radiological impact due to building materials on habitants living in the Santo Andre district of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was assessed through the total effective dose equivalent rate determination, for external and internal irradiation. The effective dose equivalent rate for external irradiation was calculated by the gamma spectrometry determination of natural radionuclides specific activity in the dwelling materials. The effective dose equivalent rate due to 222 Rn inhalation was calculated through the radon indoor activity determination by using solid state nuclear track detectors. (author). 46 refs, 6 figs, 14 tabs

  3. Radiology

    Meyers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on disease processes originating within the alimentary tract, may extend through the extraperitoneal spaces, and abnormalities primarily arising within other extraperitoneal sites may significantly affect the bowel. Symptoms and signs may be obscure, delayed, or nonspecific, and the area is generally not accessible to auscultation, palpation, or percussion. Radiologic evaluation thus plays a critical role

  4. The Climate Impact of Energy Peat Utilisation in Sweden - the Effect of former Land-Use and After-treatment

    Nilsson, Kristina; Nilsson, Mats

    2004-12-01

    The potential climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden was evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. The calculations consider emissions from combustion and from the peatlands before, during and after harvesting. Four main groups of peatlands in use for peat harvesting were identified: 1. pristine peatlands; 2. drained peatlands used for agriculture; 3. drained peatlands used for forestry (low productive); 4. peatlands previously (historically) used for peat harvesting. The radiative forcing of different scenarios using the mentioned peatland types for energy peat production was calculated, using literature and empirical data related to peat harvesting, at these four types of mires. In the calculations the original land-use was set as reference scenario. The radiative forcing caused by using agricultural peatlands for energy peat production was much lower than for the corresponding use of pristine peatlands and old peat harvesting areas. The calculated value for the radiative forcing of current (20-year period of harvesting and combustion) peat utilisation for energy in a 100-year perspective ranges between 80-90% of the corresponding radiative forcing from using coal and 165-180% from using natural gas. The scenarios for different peatland types and the currently used peatlands show that there is a potential to reduce the radiative forcing caused by energy peat production and utilisation in Sweden by selecting peat harvesting area and after-treatment method. It was concluded that both the greenhouse gas balance of the peatland before harvesting and the after-treatment methods strongly impact the radiative forcing from energy peat utilisation. The radiative forcing from continuous utilisation of energy peat was also calculated a few scenarios. The results show a slower development than the shorter harvesting/combustion scenarios. Since new peat continuously is burnt it will take longer time before the benefit of

  5. The Climate Impact of Energy Peat Utilisation in Sweden - the Effect of former Land-Use and After-treatment

    Nilsson, Kristina [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2004-12-01

    The potential climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden was evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. The calculations consider emissions from combustion and from the peatlands before, during and after harvesting. Four main groups of peatlands in use for peat harvesting were identified: 1. pristine peatlands; 2. drained peatlands used for agriculture; 3. drained peatlands used for forestry (low productive); 4. peatlands previously (historically) used for peat harvesting. The radiative forcing of different scenarios using the mentioned peatland types for energy peat production was calculated, using literature and empirical data related to peat harvesting, at these four types of mires. In the calculations the original land-use was set as reference scenario. The radiative forcing caused by using agricultural peatlands for energy peat production was much lower than for the corresponding use of pristine peatlands and old peat harvesting areas. The calculated value for the radiative forcing of current (20-year period of harvesting and combustion) peat utilisation for energy in a 100-year perspective ranges between 80-90% of the corresponding radiative forcing from using coal and 165-180% from using natural gas. The scenarios for different peatland types and the currently used peatlands show that there is a potential to reduce the radiative forcing caused by energy peat production and utilisation in Sweden by selecting peat harvesting area and after-treatment method. It was concluded that both the greenhouse gas balance of the peatland before harvesting and the after-treatment methods strongly impact the radiative forcing from energy peat utilisation. The radiative forcing from continuous utilisation of energy peat was also calculated a few scenarios. The results show a slower development than the shorter harvesting/combustion scenarios. Since new peat continuously is burnt it will take longer time before the benefit of

  6. Radiological impact assessment in Malaysia using RESRAD computer code

    Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Khairuddin Mohamad Kontol; Razali Hamzah

    1999-01-01

    Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) can be conducted in Malaysia by using the RESRAD computer code developed by Argonne National Laboratory, U.S.A. The code can do analysis to derive site specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil. Concepts of the RIA in the context of waste management concern in Malaysia, some regulatory information and assess status of data collection are shown. Appropriate use scenarios and site specific parameters are used as much as possible so as to be realistic so that will reasonably ensure that individual dose limits and or constraints will be achieved. Case study have been conducted to fulfil Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) requirements where for disposal purpose the operator must be required to carry out. a radiological impact assessment to all proposed disposals. This is to demonstrate that no member of public will be exposed to more than 1 mSv/year from all activities. Results obtained from analyses show the RESRAD computer code is able to calculate doses, risks, and guideline values. Sensitivity analysis by the computer code shows that the parameters used as input are justified so as to improve confidence to the public and the AELB the results of the analysis. The computer code can also be used as an initial assessment to conduct screening assessment in order to determine a proper disposal site. (Author)

  7. Discussion on the method of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project

    Qiu Guohua

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics and environmental radiological impact of the highway construction project, the basic procedure of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project is put forward, including analysis and determination of contamination sources, selection of evaluation factors, determination of assessment range and dose limit, environmental investigation, environmental impact prediction and assessment. The working method of each procedure is analyzed. (authors)

  8. The radiological impact of the LEP project on the environment

    Goebel, K.

    1981-01-01

    The siting of the large electron-positron (LEP) accelerator, its experimental areas, and its supporting infrastructure are discussed with respect to the radiological impact on the surrounding areas and on the population in the Pays de Gex and the Canton de Geneve. The final conclusions are based on work done by the former LEP Study Group and by the LEP Radiation Working Group. The calculations and estimates show that the stray ionizing radiation, the radioactivity, and the radiation-induced noxious chemical products released by the LEP installation will have only an insignificant impact on the area, the individual members of the public, and the population as a whole. This result for LEP 'phase 85' can also be extrapolated under reasonable assumptions for LEP 125 - a possible future development phase of the present project. (orig.)

  9. Impacts de l'utilisation des Engrais chimiques sur les cultures ...

    L'analyse des résultats a montrée que Solanum macrocarpum et amarantus hybridus sont les légumes les plus cultivés respectivement 69% et 21% à cause de leurs préférences dans l'alimentation des consommateurs.Les proportions des maraîchers utilisant les engrais chimiques ou non ou encore les deux couplés sont ...

  10. Radiological Impact Assessment in Disposal of Treated Sludge

    Khairuddin Mohamad Kontol; Ismail Sulaiman; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim

    2015-01-01

    Sludge and scales produced during oil and gas production contain enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Sludge and scales are under the jurisdiction of Department of Environment (DOE) and also Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). AELB has issued a guideline regarding the disposal of sludge and scales as in its guideline (LEM/TEK/30 SEM.2, 1996). In this guideline, Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) should be carried out on all proposed disposals and has to demonstrate that no member of public will be exposed to more than 1 mSv/y. This paper presented RIA analysis using RESRAD computer code for the disposal of treated sludge. RESRAD (RESidual RADioactive) developed by Argonne National Laboratory is to estimate radiation doses and risks from residual radioactive materials. The dose received by the member of public is found to be well below the stipulated limit. (author)

  11. Radiological impact of the application of phosphogypsum in agriculture

    Mazzilli, B.P.; Saueia, C.H.R., E-mail: chsaueia@ipen.b, E-mail: mazzilli@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab de Radiometria Ambiental

    2011-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a TENORM waste and one possible of this application is in agriculture. This paper aims to evaluate the dose due to ingestion of natural radionuclides present in phosphogypsum that could be incorporated in the food chain. For this evaluation, a conservative scenario was defined, considering a theoretical long term exposure due to annual applications of phosphogypsum in agriculture. This scenario covers estimation of the increment of radionuclides activity concentration in soil due to phosphogypsum applications; the uptake from soil by edible portions of vegetable and crops and activity concentration of radionuclides in milk and meat as part of the food chain; based on a model, transfer factors and conversion factors provided by IAEA and ICRP. The higher doses were found for the ingestion of vegetables and grain crop, up to 4.2 10-1 mSv per year. It is concluded that the radiological impact of this practice is negligible. (author)

  12. Radiological impact of the application of phosphogypsum in agriculture

    Mazzilli, B.P.; Saueia, C.H.R.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a TENORM waste and one possible of this application is in agriculture. This paper aims to evaluate the dose due to ingestion of natural radionuclides present in phosphogypsum that could be incorporated in the food chain. For this evaluation, a conservative scenario was defined, considering a theoretical long term exposure due to annual applications of phosphogypsum in agriculture. This scenario covers estimation of the increment of radionuclides activity concentration in soil due to phosphogypsum applications; the uptake from soil by edible portions of vegetable and crops and activity concentration of radionuclides in milk and meat as part of the food chain; based on a model, transfer factors and conversion factors provided by IAEA and ICRP. The higher doses were found for the ingestion of vegetables and grain crop, up to 4.2 10-1 mSv per year. It is concluded that the radiological impact of this practice is negligible. (author)

  13. Rational bioenergy utilisation in energy systems and impacts on CO{sub 2} emissions

    Wahlund, Bertil

    2003-04-01

    The increased use of biomass in energy systems is an important strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The purpose of this thesis has been to analyse the opportunities for Sweden to further reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the energy system, by rationally utilising woody biomass energy. The characteristics of current commercially operating biofuel-based CHP plants in Sweden are surveyed and systematically presented. A consistent and transparent comprehensive reference base for system comparisons is given. Furthermore, the fuel effectiveness and contribution to CO{sub 2} reduction is calculated. The governmental subsidies of the CHP plants investment, expressed as cost of specific CO{sub 2} reduction, appears to be low. The competitiveness of biomass-fuelled energy production in relation to fossil-based production with carbon capture is analysed, showing that the biomass-fuelled systems provide a competitive option, in terms of cost of electricity and efficiencies. The remaining Swedish woody biofuel potential of at least 100 PJ/yr is principally available in regions with a biomass surplus. Transportation is therefore required to enable its utilisation in national and international markets. Refining the biofuel feedstock to pellets, or even further refining to motor fuels (DME, methanol or ethanol) or power, could facilitate this transport. Different options for fuel refining are studied and compared. The entire fuel chain, from fuel feedstock to end users, is considered and CO{sub 2} emissions are quantified. Substituting fuel pellets for coal appears to be the most cost effective alternative and shows the largest CO{sub 2} reduction per energy unit biofuel. Motor fuels appear more costly and give about half the CO{sub 2} reduction. Transportation of the upgraded biofuel pellets is highly feasible from CO{sub 2} emissions point of view and does not constitute a hindrance for further utilisation, i.e. the pellets can be transported over long distances efficiently with

  14. Radiological impact of the PARR-1 operation on the environment

    Bakhtyar, S.; Raza, S.S.; Tayyab, M.; Pervez, S.; Salahuddin, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study related to the assessment of the radiological impact on the environment due to the operation of the Pakistan research reactor-1 (PARR-1) at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad. The parameters studied include the radioactivity releases in a gaseous form and also those originating from the liquid and solid wastes produced due to the operation of this research facility. The analysis is based on the environmental monitoring data for the last 10 years (1992-2002) and the conclusions have been drawn for the impact of the PARR-1 operation on the occupational workers as well as the general public living in the vicinity of the reactor site. Further, on the basis of this data, yearly average doses and the cumulative doses for the expected life of PARR-1, due to different radiation sources have been estimated. The analysis indicated that the maximum yearly doses at ground level for the occupational workers as well as for the public are a fraction of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) defined limiting values. It is, therefore, concluded that the impact of the PARR-1 normal operation on the environment is negligible and it can be regarded as ''safe to the public as well as the occupational workers''. (orig.)

  15. Impact of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome on health-related quality of life and resource utilisation: A systematic review.

    Tarricone, Rosanna; Ricca, Giada; Nyanzi-Wakholi, Barbara; Medina-Lara, Antonieta

    2016-03-01

    Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively impacts patients' quality of life (QoL) and increases the burden on healthcare resources. To review published CACS data regarding health-related QOL (HRQoL) and its economic impact on the healthcare system. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, and NHS EED databases. A total of 458 HRQoL and 189 healthcare resources utilisation abstracts were screened, and 42 and 2 full-text articles were included, respectively. The EORTC QLQ-C30 and FAACT instruments were most favoured for assessing HRQOL but none of the current tools cover all domains affected by CACS. Economic estimates for managing CACS are scarce, with studies lacking a breakdown of healthcare resource utilisation items. HRQoL instruments that can better assess and incorporate all the domains affected by CACS are required. Rigorous assessment of costs and benefits of treatment are needed to understand the magnitude of the impact of CACS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Radiology

    Lissner, J.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology is still the foremost of all innovative medical disciplines. This has many advantages but also some handicaps, e.g. the siting problem of medical equipment whose clinical potential is not fully known. This applies in particular to nuclear spin tomography, where the Laender governments and the Scientific Council seen to agree that all universities should have the appropriate equipment as soon as possible in order to intensify interdisciplinary research. Formerly, in the case of computerized tomography, there was less readiness. As a result, the siting of CT equipment is less organically structured. A special handicap of innovative fields is the problem of training and advanced training. The Chamber of Medicine and the Association of Doctors Participating in the Health Insurance Plan have issued regulations aimed at a better standardisation in this field. (orig.) [de

  17. Impact of technology on the utilisation of positron emission tomography in lymphoma: current and future perspectives

    Visvikis, D.; Ell, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The study of new radiolabelled ligands will impose further demands for rapid dynamic data acquisition and accurate tracer quantification. Current and future developments in PET technology range from the use of new detector materials to different detector geometries and data acquisition modes. The search for alternatives to BGO scintillation materials for PET has led to the development of PET instruments utilising new crystals such as LSO and GSO. The use of these new detectors and the increased sensitivity achieved with 3D data acquisitions represent the most significant current developments in the field. With the increasing demands imposed on the clinical utilisation of PET, issues such as study cost and patient throughput will emerge as significant future factors. As a consequence, low-cost units are being offered by the manufacturers through the utilisation of gamma camera-based SPET systems for PET coincidence imaging. Unfortunately, clinical studies in lymphoma and other cancers have already demonstrated the limitations of this technology, with 20% of lesions <15 mm in size escaping detection. On the other hand, the recent development of combined PET/CT devices attempts to address the lack of anatomical information inherent with PET images, taking advantage of further improvement in patient throughput and hence cost-effectiveness. Preliminary studies using this multimodality imaging approach have already demonstrated the potential of the technique. Although the potential exists, certain technical issues with PET/CT require refinement of the methodology. Such issues include organ movement (such as respiratory motion), which strongly influences the image fusion of a rapidly acquired CT scan with the slower acquisition of a PET dataset, and the derivation of CT-based attenuation coefficients in the presence of contrast agents or metallic implants. The application of the technology for radiotherapy planning also poses a number of associated challenges. Finally

  18. The quality and impact of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) in radiology case-based learning

    Kourdioukova, Elena V.; Verstraete, Koenraad L.; Valcke, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to explore (1) clinical years students' perceptions about radiology case-based learning within a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) setting, (2) an analysis of the collaborative learning process, and (3) the learning impact of collaborative work on the radiology cases. Methods: The first part of this study focuses on a more detailed analysis of a survey study about CSCL based case-based learning, set up in the context of a broader radiology curriculum innovation. The second part centers on a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 52 online collaborative learning discussions from 5th year and nearly graduating medical students. The collaborative work was based on 26 radiology cases regarding musculoskeletal radiology. Results: The analysis of perceptions about collaborative learning on radiology cases reflects a rather neutral attitude that also does not differ significantly in students of different grade levels. Less advanced students are more positive about CSCL as compared to last year students. Outcome evaluation shows a significantly higher level of accuracy in identification of radiology key structures and in radiology diagnosis as well as in linking the radiological signs with available clinical information in nearly graduated students. No significant differences between different grade levels were found in accuracy of using medical terminology. Conclusion: Students appreciate computer supported collaborative learning settings when tackling radiology case-based learning. Scripted computer supported collaborative learning groups proved to be useful for both 5th and 7th year students in view of developing components of their radiology diagnostic approaches.

  19. Integrating the Radiology Information System with Computerised Provider Order Entry: The Impact on Repeat Medical Imaging Investigations.

    Vecellio, Elia; Georgiou, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Repeat and redundant procedures in medical imaging are associated with increases in resource utilisation and labour costs. Unnecessary medical imaging in some modalities, such as X-Ray (XR) and Computed Tomography (CT) is an important safety issue because it exposes patients to ionising radiation which can be carcinogenic and is associated with higher rates of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of implementing an integrated Computerised Provider Order Entry (CPOE)/Radiology Information System (RIS)/Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) system on the number of XR and CT imaging procedures (including repeat imaging requests) for inpatients at a large metropolitan hospital. The study found that patients had an average 0.47 fewer XR procedures and 0.07 fewer CT procedures after the implementation of the integrated system. Part of this reduction was driven by a lower rate of repeat procedures: the average inpatient had 0.13 fewer repeat XR procedures within 24-hours of the previous identical XR procedure. A similar decrease was not evident for repeat CT procedures. Reduced utilisation of imaging procedures (especially those within very short intervals from the previous identical procedure, which are more likely to be redundant) has implications for the safety of patients and the cost of medical imaging services.

  20. Application of the ICRP approach for radiological protection of the marine environment in generic impact assessments

    Kliaus, Viktoryia [Republican Scientific-Practical Centre of Hygiene, Laboratory of Radiation Safety, Akademicheskaya str. 8, 220012, Minsk (Belarus); Telleria, Diego M. [IAEA-Assessment and Management of Environmental Releases Unit, Wagramer Strasse 5 - PO Box 100, A-1400, Vienna (Austria); Cabianca, Tiberio [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, PHE, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a way to use the ICRP approach for protection of the environment in generic assessments of the radiological impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. Generic assessments of radiological impact to the environment are needed in certain circumstances, for example, when input data are limited or when the likely radiological consequences are expected to be not significant. Under these circumstances the effort in performing the assessment must be commensurate with the potential radiological consequences. The generic assessment described in this paper is a simple tool which provides reasonable and cautious results and is applicable to multiple exposure scenarios associated with the assessment of the radiological impact of releases to the marine the environment. This generic assessment can be also used to provide preliminary results which, when compared to radiological criteria, may determine the need of further specific assessments. The ICRP based its approach to protect the environment in the definition of a set of reference animals and plants and the use of related radiological criteria, in the form of derived consideration reference levels. The paper discusses selection and exposure conditions of the reference animals and plants, methods to estimate their doses and the use of the radiological criteria, for the purpose of a generic assessment. The IAEA is elaborating applications of these generic impact assessments presented in the paper to be included in international guidance under development. (authors)

  1. Radiological impacts of transporting Three Mile Island core debris

    Cox, N.D.

    1986-01-01

    This document presents an assessment of the radiological impacts of one cask shipment. It focuses on potential effects of the shipment on the public along the route. The document begins with a description of the shipping cask, followed by a description of the survivability tests required to confirm the cask design. Some actual accidents that similar casks have survived wholly intact are described. Next considered is the limit of radiation exposure dose rate that is imposed by regulatory agencies under normal conditions. No shipping of radioactive material is allowed unless the container is at or below the normal limit. A comparison is made between the normal radiation exposure limit and the radiation dose received annually by individuals from natural sources. Then, estimates of the radiation dose received by persons along the rail route in urban, suburban, and rural areas during normal transport are presented. Those times when the train stops for whatever reason (called rest stops) are considered also. Next, potential accident events are considered. Recent accident statistics are presented, and chances for an accident at different train velocities are estimated for any mile of track. The alternative of truck transport is considered briefly

  2. Evaluating variability and uncertainty in radiological impact assessment using SYMBIOSE

    Simon-Cornu, M.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Boyer, P.; Calmon, P.; Garcia-Sanchez, L.; Mourlon, C.; Nicoulaud, V.; Sy, M.; Gonze, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    SYMBIOSE is a modelling platform that accounts for variability and uncertainty in radiological impact assessments, when simulating the environmental fate of radionuclides and assessing doses to human populations. The default database of SYMBIOSE is partly based on parameter values that are summarized within International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) documents. To characterize uncertainty on the transfer parameters, 331 Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) were defined from the summary statistics provided within the IAEA documents (i.e. sample size, minimal and maximum values, arithmetic and geometric means, standard and geometric standard deviations) and are made available as spreadsheet files. The methods used to derive the PDFs without complete data sets, but merely the summary statistics, are presented. Then, a simple case-study illustrates the use of the database in a second-order Monte Carlo calculation, separating parametric uncertainty and inter-individual variability. - Highlights: • Parametric uncertainty in radioecology was derived from IAEA documents. • 331 Probability Distribution Functions were defined for transfer parameters. • Parametric uncertainty and inter-individual variability were propagated

  3. The Impact of Severe Obesity on Healthcare Resource Utilisation in Spain.

    Espallardo, Olga; Busutil, Rafael; Torres, Antonio; Zozaya, Néboa; Villoro, Renata; Hidalgo-Vega, Álvaro

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is not only a health problem but also a source of increased monetary expenditures. The objectives of this study were to analyse the use of healthcare resources in the Spanish adult population with class II obesity and above (BMI ≥35 kg/m 2 ) and to compare it with other BMI groups. We used the Spanish National Health Survey, a longitudinal population-based survey (n = 18,682), to analyse healthcare resource utilisation by BMI groups. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for healthcare use among class II and over obese subjects versus normal BMI. Persons with BMI ≥35 are more likely to attend general practitioner (GP)'s consultations (17%), to visit the emergency department (26%), to consume medications (36%), to be hospitalised (49%), to require nursing consultations (61%) and to require psychology consultations (83%). The proportion of obese people receiving home visits is 2.6 times higher than among normal BMI. After controlling for sex and age groups, people with severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m 2 ) were more prone to requiring home care visits (OR 2.3; CI [1.3; 4.2]), GP visits (OR 2.1; CI [1.5; 3.0]), psychologist visits (OR 1.96; CI [1.3; 2.99]), emergency service visits (OR 1.5; CI [1.2; 1.8]), nurse visits (OR 1.46; CI [1.2; 1.9]) and hospitalisations (OR 1.43; CI [1.1; 1.9]) and after also adjusting for relevant comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases: GP visits (OR 1.85; CI [1.3; 2.7]), psychologist visits (OR 1.8; CI [1.2; 2.7]), specialised care visits (OR 0.92; CI [0.7; 1.2]) and physiotherapist visits (OR 0.7; CI [0.5; 1.0]). Severe obesity significantly increases healthcare resource utilisation in Spain. The results shed light on the real magnitude of the burden of obesity in Spain.

  4. Potential radiological impact of the phosphate industry on wildlife

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Sweeck, Lieve

    2015-01-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We performed a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of environmental contamination resulting from the activities of 5 phosphate fertiliser plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil), a phosphate-mine and a phosphate-export platform in a harbour (both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the availability of information on concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. Assessments were generally performed considering highest environmental concentrations reported in the studies. The ERICA Tool, operating in a Tier 2 assessment mode, was used to predict radiation dose rates and associated risk to the selected reference organisms using the ERICA default parameter setting. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a best estimate risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h −1 . If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is considered unlikely to be at risk and further radiological assessment is not deemed necessary. Except for one of the cases assessed, the best estimate RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. Internal exposure covered for 90–100 % of the total dose. 226 Ra or 210 Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertiliser plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goiás (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted to be potentially most at risk. - Highlights: • The adjusted highlights Environmental radionuclide enrichment from P-industry warrants risk assessment. • 226 Ra and 210 Po are the most dose contributing radionuclides. • The total dose rate is strongly driven by the internal

  5. Reference amounts utilised in front of package nutrition labelling; impact on product healthfulness evaluations.

    Raats, M M; Hieke, S; Jola, C; Hodgkins, C; Kennedy, J; Wills, J

    2015-05-01

    The research question addressed in this paper is how different reference amounts utilised in front of package nutrition labelling influence evaluation of product healthfulness. A total of 13,117 participants from six European countries (Germany, UK, Spain, France, Poland and Sweden) were recruited via online panels. A mixed between/within-subject factorial design was employed with food (biscuits, sandwiches, yogurts), healthfulness and presence of Guideline Daily Amounts as within-subjects factors and reference amount ('per 100 g', 'typical portion', 'half portion') and country as between-subjects factors. Overall, people correctly ranked foods according to their objective healthfulness as defined by risk nutrients alone, and could distinguish between more and less healthful variants of foods. General healthfulness associations with the three product categories do not appear to have had a strong influence on product ratings. This study shows that where the reference amount of 'per 100 g' is very different from the 'typical' portion size, as was the case for biscuits, products with a 'per 100 g' label are rated significantly less healthful than the 'typical' or 'half typical' portions. The results indicate that across the three food categories, consumers do factor the reference amount, that is, the quantity of food for which the nutritional information is being presented, into their judgements of healthfulness. Therefore, appropriate reference amounts are also of importance for the effective presentation of nutritional information.

  6. Science and values in radiological protection: impact on radiological protection decision making

    Salomaa, Sisko; Pinak, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This work summarises the main ideas and achievements of the Science and Values in Radiological Protection Workshop that was held on 15-17 January 2008 in Helsinki, Finland. In the view of developing of new radiological applications and emerging scientific phenomena it has been recognized a need to develop a shared understanding of emerging challenges for radiological protection among scientific and regulatory communities, public and other concerned stake holders. In response to this the Committee of Radiation Protection and Public Health of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland tried to initiate a process of longer-term reflection on scientific and societal issues that might challenge radiological protection in the coming years. Among general issues like radiological policy issues, improvement of understanding between research and policy communities, sharing views on emerging scientific issues, there were addressed several scientific issues, like non-targeted effects, individual sensitivity; and circulatory diseases. The main focus of these discussions was to elaborate potential 'what if' scenarios and propose feasible solutions at various levels. These discussions addressed effects that are not direct and evident consequence of the initial lesions produced at the cellular and DNA level like bystander responses, genomic instability, gene induction, adaptive responses and low dose. Particular interest was paid to an extrapolation of risk estimates to low doses and role of Linear Non-Threshold theory in setting regulatory principles. Individual radio-sensitivity and identification of genes that are suspected of having an influence on it were also discussed in one of the Breakout Sessions. Another Breakout Session addressed circulatory diseases. There is emerging evidence in the A-bomb survivors and in other exposed groups that ionising radiation also causes other diseases than cancer, such as circulatory

  7. Evaluation of long term radiological impact on population close to remediated uranium mill tailings storages

    Kerouanton, David; Delgove, Laure

    2008-01-01

    A methodology is elaborated in order to evaluate the long term radiological impact of remediated uranium mill tailings storage. Different scenarios are chosen and modelled to cover future evolution of the tailings storages. Radiological impact is evaluated for different population such as adults and children living in the immediate vicinity or directly on the storage, road workers or walkers on the storage. Equation and methods are detailed. (author)

  8. An assessment of the radiological impact of uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan

    1986-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a study which investigated the regional radiological impact of uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan. The study was performed by IEC Beak Consultants Ltd. under a contract awarded by Environment Canada in partnership with the Atomic Energy Control Board. This preliminary assessment suggests there is a negligible combined regional radiological impact from simultaneous operation of the three operating mines investigated as part of the present study. The mines are spaced too far apart for any superposition of emissions to be significantly greater than a small fraction of background levels. The most exposed individual not directly associated with any of the mining operations is estimated to receive a total radiation dose equal to about 3% of the dose due to natural background radiations. This increment is equivalent to the increment in natural background that would be received by an individual moving from Vancouver to Wollaston Post, before mining began in the area, as a result of reduced atmospheric shielding from cosmic radiation. Radiological impacts on biota are estimated to have insignficant effects on natural populations in all cases. However, since the study only investigates the effects of operational releases of radionuclides, the results do not imply that uranium mining developments will or will not have significant long-term radiological impact on northern Saskatchewan. Radiological impact assessments described in this report are estimates only. There are some uncertainties in the available data and modelling methodology. The radiological impact of abandoned tailings areas was not included in this study

  9. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry

    Vanmarcke, H.; Paridaens, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The Belgian phosphate industry processes huge amounts of phosphate ore (1.5 to 2 Mton/year) for a wide range of applications, the most important being the production of phosphoric acid, fertilizers and cattle food. Marine phosphate ores show high specific activities of the natural uranium decay series (usually indicated by Ra-226) (e.g. 1200 to 1500 Bq/kg for Moroccan ore). Ores of magmatic origin generally contain less of the uranium and more of the thorium decay series (up to 500 Bq/kg). These radionuclides turn up in by-products, residues or product streams depending on the processing method and the acid used for the acidulation of the phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used, but also hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are applied in Belgium. For Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, we already have a clear idea of the production processes and waste streams. The five Flemish phosphate plants, from 1920 to 2000, handled 54 million ton of phosphate ore containing 65 TBq of radium-226 and 2.7 TBq of thorium- 232. The total surface area of the phosphogypsum and calcium fluoride sludge deposits amounts to almost 300 ha. There is also environmental contamination along two small rivers receiving the waste waters of the hydrochloric production process: the Winterbeek (> 200 ha) and the Grote Laak (12 ha). The data on the impact of the phosphate industry in the Walloon provinces in Belgium is less complete. A large plant produced in 2004 0.8 Mton of phosphogypsum, valorizing about 70 % of the gypsum in building materials (plaster, cement), in fertilizers, and in other products such as paper. The remainder was stored on a local disposal site. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry on the local population will be discussed. At present most contaminated areas are still recognizable as waste deposits and inaccessible to the population. However as gypsum deposits and other contaminated areas quickly blend in with the landscape, it is

  10. Support for biomedical research and its impact on radiology.

    Bragg, D G; Hendee, W R

    1994-12-01

    Research in medical imaging has experienced substantial growth during the past decade. Still, research is a small fraction of the budget of the typical academic radiology program. Few radiology faculty participate in hypothesis-driven research projects. Funding of research will be more difficult to secure in the future, since clinical subsidies will diminish or disappear, support from industry is decreasing, and funds from private foundations and philanthropists are not likely to increase. Support from the NIH will probably remain about level in constant dollars. In response to these constraints, radiology will have to be both more creative and more opportunistic to tap the limited remaining resources of research support. An excellent compilation of some major resources was recently published by Williams and Holden (9). Efforts of the Conjoint Committee will continue to be critical for continuing support of the LDRR, encouraging the allocation of intramural and extramural resources of the NCI to medical imaging, guiding the development of the American Academy of Radiologic Research, providing research training opportunities for physicians and scientists in radiology, and leading the research effort in medical imaging in general (10). Within individual institutions and departments, imaging research must continue to be acknowledged as a priority despite increasing pressures to generate clinical revenue. Enhanced efforts are warranted to nurture the research interests of younger faculty and selected residents and fellows, including pairing them with research mentors and providing them with opportunities to develop skills in areas such as research design, statistical analysis, and evaluative techniques. The long-term well-being of radiology and its important contributions to patient care are dependent on its continued investment in research and development.

  11. The quality and impact of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) in radiology case-based learning.

    Kourdioukova, Elena V; Verstraete, Koenraad L; Valcke, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this research was to explore (1) clinical years students' perceptions about radiology case-based learning within a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) setting, (2) an analysis of the collaborative learning process, and (3) the learning impact of collaborative work on the radiology cases. The first part of this study focuses on a more detailed analysis of a survey study about CSCL based case-based learning, set up in the context of a broader radiology curriculum innovation. The second part centers on a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 52 online collaborative learning discussions from 5th year and nearly graduating medical students. The collaborative work was based on 26 radiology cases regarding musculoskeletal radiology. The analysis of perceptions about collaborative learning on radiology cases reflects a rather neutral attitude that also does not differ significantly in students of different grade levels. Less advanced students are more positive about CSCL as compared to last year students. Outcome evaluation shows a significantly higher level of accuracy in identification of radiology key structures and in radiology diagnosis as well as in linking the radiological signs with available clinical information in nearly graduated students. No significant differences between different grade levels were found in accuracy of using medical terminology. Students appreciate computer supported collaborative learning settings when tackling radiology case-based learning. Scripted computer supported collaborative learning groups proved to be useful for both 5th and 7th year students in view of developing components of their radiology diagnostic approaches. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of the phosphogypsum wastes in agriculture soils : radiological impact

    ELMrabet, R.

    2008-01-01

    The phosphate fertilizer industry produce an important amount of phosphogypsum (PG) as a residue of its activity. Its is well known that such wastes contain significant amounts of natural radionuclides from the U, Th and K series. The raw material for the production (phosphate rock) has uranium activity concentrations of around 1 kBq Kg -1 from which about 15 % passes to the PG. At the Huelva industrial area (SW Spain) the wastes produced per year can reach some 3.10 6 Mg, but in spite of the recent scientific efforts its accumulation still being a problem of great concern for the area. In the other hand, reclamation of sodic soils for agriculture users requires a Ca amendment to diminish Na saturation. Then, PG (with a high proportion of CaSO4 -2H2O) is an effective amendment that has been widely used in the saline-sodic marsh soils from SW Spain. Using PG as an amendment dilutes the radionuclides down to background levels, becoming this practice a possible way to eliminate these wastes with a considerable additional value for the agricultural process. However, it is necessary to study the amount of radioisotopes that can move to water and plants to ensure the radiological safety of the amendment. PG has relatively high concentration of 226 Ra and other radionuclides, with an special concern due to the 22Rn emissions. These wastes could be used to improve the fertility of agriculture soils in a large former marsh area of the Guadalquivir river. Thus, it is interesting to study the levels and behaviour of natural radionuclides within this system to evaluate the radioactive impact if this amendment. An agronomical test is being conducted by one of the authors in an experimental farm in Lebrija (Seville). The soils are treated with 13 and 26 t ha-1 of PG, 30 t ha-1 of manure. Each treatment was repeated twice and continued for two years with beetroot and cotton plant production. We are measuring 226Ra (by alpha counting and gamma spectrometry) and U isotopes (by

  13. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum in the Surrounding Ecosystem

    Al-Attar, L.; Al-Oudat, M.; Budier, Y.; Khalili, H.; Hamwi, A.; Kanakri, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the radiological impact of Syrian PG piles in the compartments of the surrounding ecosystem. Therefore, estimating the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (i.e. 2 26 Ra, 2 38 U, 2 32 Th, 2 10 Po and 2 10 Pb) in the raw materials, product and by-product of the Syrian phosphate fertilizer industry was essential. The obtained data revealed that 2 26 Ra retained in PG with a mean activity of 318 Bq kg-1. Uranium content in PG was low since it remained in the produced phosphoric acid. However, over 80% of 2 32 Th, 2 10 Po and 2 10 Pb partitioned in PG. The presence of PG piles did not increase the concentration of 2 22 Rn nor gamma rays exposure dose in the studied area. The annual effective dose was only 0.082 mSv y-1. The geometric mean of total suspended solids was ca. 85 g m-3. The concentration of the radionuclides in filtration and runoff waters were below the detection limits; and were much lower than the permissible limits set for drinking water by the WHO in ground and Qattina Lake waters. Eastern sites soil samples of PG piles were of the highest activity concentrations, due to the characterised western and north-western wind in the area, but remained within the natural levels reported in Syrian soil. The impact of PG piles on plants varied upon the plant species. Significantly, higher concentrations of the radionuclides were recorded for grass in comparison to broad-leaved plants. Among the species that naturally grown on PG piles, Inula, Ecballium and Polygonium may be radionuclides accumulators. Nevertheless, a determined effort is needed on national level to achieve a common and coherent approach to regulate PG piles or to consider it a resource material rather than waste or residue. The presence of PG piles did not increase the concentration of 2 22 Rn nor gamma rays exposure dose in the studied area. The annual effective dose was only 0.082 mSv y -1 . The geometric mean of total suspended solids was ca

  14. Hypothetical influence of non-indexed Spanish journals on the impact factor of radiological journals

    Miguel-Dasit, Alberto; Aleixandre, Rafael; Valderrama, Juan C.; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Sanfeliu, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the hypothetical changes in the 2001 impact factor of 52 radiological journals included in the Science Citation Index-Journal Citation Reports by also counting cites proceeding from 73 Spanish journals on different medical specialties. Also, to estimate the possible impact factor of the official Spanish radiology journal, Radiologia, not included in this database. Materials and methods: A modified 2001 impact factor of 52 radiological journals and Radiologia was obtained by adding the number of cites in 1999 and 2000 from the medical Spanish journals. Data were obtained by consulting the 2001 edition of the Journal Citation Reports in the 'Web of Science' database. Results: The 16,985 bibliographical references were analysed (232 of them to radiological journals). The journal with the largest increase in its 2001 impact factor (from 1.83 to 1.90) was Radiologic Clinics of North America. European Journal of Radiology was the European journal with the highest increase (from 1.084 to 1.110) in the difference between the 2001 modified and original impact factor. The modified 2001 impact factor of the 34 American journals was statistically higher (P = 0.016) than that of the 18 European journals (1.64 versus 0.93). Differences between the 2001 modified and original impact factor were slightly higher in the American journals (no statistically significant difference). The 2001 impact factor of Radiologia was 0.056. Discussion: Differences between the 2001 original and modified impact factor were small, but larger in the American journals. The 2001 impact factor of Radiologia was modest, although similar to other publications included in the Journal Citation Reports

  15. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Involvement and impact on radiology at a kidney stone center

    Cochran, S.T.; Barbaric, Z.L.; Mindell, H.; Chaussy, C.D.; Fuchs, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Of 1,222 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ECSW) procedures performed on 925 patients (600 males, 325 females), 85% were unilateral and 35% were bilateral treatments. Treated were 446 calyceal, 345 pelvic, 172 uretral, and 108 staghorn calculi. The impact of this new technology to the radiology department was studied. An average of 6.3 KUB studies and 1.2 renal US studies were performed per treatment session. Six percent of patients required post-ESWL excretory urography of CT; 10% required percutaneous nephrostomy. Patients with treated staghorn calculi required the most radiologic procedures (34% performed for partial staghorn calculi, 56% for complete staghorn calculi). By comparison, 3%, 8%, and 11% of radiologic procedures were performed for calyceal, pelvic, and ureteral stones, respectively. The impact of ESWL on the radiology department can be substantial. When staghorn calculi are treated by ESWL, a radiologist skilled in interventional techniques is essential

  16. Research progress of non-human species radiological impact and assessment

    Bai Xiaoping; Zhu Hao; Mao Yawei; Zheng Wei; Du Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the development of radiological protection conception and the improvement of requirement about non-human species protection, much more attention has been paid gradually to biota radiation impact. Research and development of non-human species protection impact and its assessment at home and abroad are introduced, then RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA which are comparatively mature codes in the world are compared and analyzed, at last some suggestions about research and assessment work of non-human species radiological impact in the future in China are provided. (authors)

  17. Environmental Radiological Impact of Nuclear Power. Monitoring and Control Programs

    Ramos, L. M.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment and public exposure to ionizing radiation may result from releases from programmed or accidental operations in regulated activities, or they may be due to preexisting situations such as contamination caused by past accidents, radioactive rain caused by nuclear tests, or increased natural radioactivity resulting from human activities. In many cases, both the emission sources and the environment should be monitored to determine the risk to the population and verify to what extent the limits and conditions established by competent authorities are being observed. Monitoring can be divided into three categories: monitoring of the emission source, of the receiving medium and of members of the public; individual monitoring of the population is extremely rare and would only be considered when estimated doses substantially exceed the annual public dose limit. In practices likely to produce significant radioactive releases, as is the case of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the limits and conditions for monitoring and controlling them and the requirements for environmental radiological monitoring are established in the licensing process. Programs implemented during normal operation of the facilities form the basis for monitoring in the event of accidents. in addition to environmental radiological monitoring associated with facilities, different countries have monitoring programs outside the facilities zones of influence, in order to ascertain the nationwide radiological fund and determine possible increases in this fund. In Spain, the facilities that generate radioactive waste have effluent storage, treatment and removal systems and radiological monitoring programs based on site and discharge characteristics. The environmental radiological monitoring system is composed of the network implemented by the owners in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities zones of influence, and by nationwide monitoring networks managed by the Consejo de

  18. Relativity Screens for Misvalued Medical Services: Impact on Noninvasive Diagnostic Radiology.

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Silva, Ezequiel; Hawkins, C Matthew

    2017-11-01

    In 2006, the AMA/Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) introduced ongoing relativity screens to identify potentially misvalued medical services for payment adjustments. We assess the impact of these screens upon the valuation of noninvasive diagnostic radiology services. Data regarding relativity screens and relative value unit (RVU) changes were obtained from the 2016 AMA Relativity Assessment Status Report. All global codes in the 2016 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule with associated work RVUs were classified as noninvasive diagnostic radiology services versus remaining services. The frequency of having ever undergone a screen was compared between the two groups. Screened radiology codes were further evaluated regarding the RVU impact of subsequent revaluation. Of noninvasive diagnostic radiology codes, 46.0% (201 of 437) were screened versus 22.2% (1,460 of 6,575) of remaining codes (P < .001). Most common screens for which radiology codes were identified as potentially misvalued were (1) high expenditures (27.5%) and (2) high utilization (25.6%). The modality and body region most likely to be identified in a screen were CT (82.1%) and breast (90.9%), respectively. Among screened radiology codes, work RVUs, practice expense RVUs, and nonfacility total RVUs decreased in 20.3%, 65.9%, and 75.3%, respectively. All screened CT, MRI, brain, and spine codes exhibited decreased total RVUs. Policymakers' ongoing search for potentially misvalued medical services has disproportionately impacted noninvasive diagnostic radiology services, risking the introduction of unintended or artificial shifts in physician practice. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon exergy tax (CET): its impact on conventional energy system design and its contribution to advanced systems utilisation

    Massardo, A.F.; Santarelli, M.; Borchiellini, R.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed analytical procedure for a charge on CO 2 emissions is used to determine its impact on the design process of different conventional energy systems. The charge on CO 2 emissions is defined as a Carbon Exergy Tax (CET). The CET utilises the concept of Efficiency Penalty of the energy system coupled with the Index of CO 2 Emissions, which connects the amount of the CO 2 emitted by the plant with the Second Law efficiency of the plant itself. The aim is to reward the efficient use of energy resources, both from a resource and environmental standpoint, and to penalise plants inefficient in this respect. The CET and the conventional Carbon Tax (CT, based on energy policy considerations and imposed on the mass of emitted CO 2 ) are applied to different conventional energy systems (a gas turbine simple cycle; a regenerative cogeneration gas turbine; a three pressure levels combined cycle) in order to determine their impact on the design of the plants. The effects of the CET and CT are investigated for different scenarios (pressure ratio, fuel cost, etc.). The results are presented using useful representations: the cost of electricity vs. efficiency, the cost of electricity vs. specific work, and the cost of electricity vs. plant design parameters (e.g., pressure ratio). Finally, ways that the use of the CET can contribute to the widespread utilization of advanced energy systems, which are more efficient and less polluting, is discussed. In particular, the CET and CT influence is presented and discussed for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine combined cycle

  20. Radiological impact of the future CERN program (LEP)

    Goebel, K.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses the radiation problems which are the radiological influences of LEP which interest the majority of the members of the personnel. The first studies done in this domain are achieved, and the results are published this summer, among others the doses of radiation and of radioactivity and equally the concentration of hoxions gases on the exterior of the enclosure of future installations. The results are the object of discussions and are compared with the norms of radioprotection and with the actual situation in this region. (orig.)

  1. Interaction techniques for radiology workstations: impact on users' productivity

    Moise, Adrian; Atkins, M. Stella

    2004-04-01

    As radiologists progress from reading images presented on film to modern computer systems with images presented on high-resolution displays, many new problems arise. Although the digital medium has many advantages, the radiologist"s job becomes cluttered with many new tasks related to image manipulation. This paper presents our solution for supporting radiologists" interpretation of digital images by automating image presentation during sequential interpretation steps. Our method supports scenario based interpretation, which group data temporally, according to the mental paradigm of the physician. We extended current hanging protocols with support for "stages". A stage reflects the presentation of digital information required to complete a single step within a complex task. We demonstrated the benefits of staging in a user study with 20 lay subjects involved in a visual conjunctive search for targets, similar to a radiology task of identifying anatomical abnormalities. We designed a task and a set of stimuli which allowed us to simulate the interpretation workflow from a typical radiology scenario - reading a chest computed radiography exam when a prior study is also available. The simulation was possible by abstracting the radiologist"s task and the basic workstation navigation functionality. We introduced "Stages," an interaction technique attuned to the radiologist"s interpretation task. Compared to the traditional user interface, Stages generated a 14% reduction in the average interpretation.

  2. Comparative Study on Radiological Impact Due To Direct Exposure to a Radiological Dispersal Device Using A Sealed Radiation Source

    Margeanu, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most serious terrorist threats implies radiological dispersal devices (RDDs), the so-called dirty bombs, that combine a conventional explosive surrounded by an inflammatory material (like thermit) with radioactive material. The paper objective is to evaluate the radiological impact due to direct exposure to a RDD using a sealed radiation source (used for medical and industrial applications) as radioactive material. The simulations were performed for 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir radiation sources. In order to model the contamination potential level and radiation exposure due to radioactive material spreading from RDD, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's HOTSPOT 2.07 computer code was used. The worst case scenario has been considered, calculations being performed for two radioactive material dispersion models, namely General radioactive Plume and General Explosion. Following parameters evolution with distance from the radiation source was investigated: total effective dose equivalent, time-integrated air concentration, ground surface deposition and ground shine dose rates. Comparisons between considered radiation sources and radioactive material dispersion models have been performed. The most drastic effects on population and the environment characterize 60Co sealed radiation source use in RDD.

  3. The impact of shift work on eating patterns and self-care strategies utilised by experienced and inexperienced nurses.

    Gifkins, Jane; Johnston, Amy; Loudoun, Rebecca

    2018-05-08

    For nurses, shift work is a necessity, required to provide 24-h continuous care for patients. Research posits that fatigue amongst shift-working nurses is associated with inadequate and poorly timed sleep and also strongly influenced by the timing, quality and quantity of food consumed. The aim of this investigation was to examine differences and similarities in the food choices and eating patterns of nurses exposed to different lengths of time in shift work, as a means of understanding how nurses can adapt their eating patterns to better manage fatigue and sleep loss. Qualitative methodology was utilised to study and capture in-depth information about nurses' daily working lives. A case study approach allowed for the investigation of nurses with limited and extensive experience of shift work. Increased food craving, caffeine consumption and snacking behaviours during night shifts were described by both groups of nurses, as was the inability to drink enough fluids at work. Meal skipping at work, associated with high workload, was detailed more by experienced nurses. Experienced nurses described shopping and preparing home cooked meals in advance to manage food intake and associated fatigue, contrasting with patterns from inexperienced nurses. Experienced nurses recounted drinking alcohol as a way to rest and recover from shift work, unlike their less inexperienced colleagues. These findings indicate organisational and work place issues such as shift work and rostering influence the food choices and eating patterns of shift-working nurses. Experienced nurses, however, draw on a greater range of strategies around diet and eating patterns to minimise these impacts.

  4. Radiological impact on the surrounding area of Cernavoda NPP operation

    Busnita, M.; Penescu, M.; Neacsu, L.; Ion, M.; Moldoveanu, E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the protective measures provided to Cernavoda NPP for population and environment in case of normal operation and accidental situations. The paper describes the nuclear safety concept with the two aspects, the technical safety and the radiation protection, respectively, which represent the theoretical basis of the NPP design, construction and operation. The assessment of the potential radiological effects of Cernavoda NPP operation on the population and other environmental factors have been done by using the following input data: the natural and social characteristics of the site and the technical characteristics of the plant. The effects of Cernavoda NPP operation are also exposed in health risks which are compared with the daily risks of the population exposed of the natural phenomena or to the activities like transportation, domestics or industrial. (author). 1 tab., 6 refs

  5. Environmental radiological impact of some Portuguese uranium mines

    Galvao, J.P.; Bettencourt, A.O.; Teixeira, M.M.G.R.; Elias, M.D.T.

    1988-01-01

    An environmental radiological surveillance programme has been in progress around the most significant Portuguese uranium mines, from 1976 to 1983. A short description is given of the mines of Urgeirica (including uranium milling), Freixiosa, Pinhal de Souto and Bica. The results of the surveillance programme developed in the vicinity of these facilities are presented and the identified critical pathways are discussed. One of these pathways is the consumption of cabbage, which is an important component in the diet of the Portuguese population. The exposure of the critical groups, due to the intake of 226 Ra through the diet, calculated from the results of this monitoring programme, range from 0.02 to 1.5 mSv.y -1 for the different mines under study. (author)

  6. Radiological impact assessment of the rehabilitated Nabarlek uranium minesite

    Martin, P.; Tims, S.; Ryan, B.; Prendergast, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Nabarlek was a small high-grade uranium deposit located in Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia. Queensland Mines Ltd mined the deposit in 1979 and subsequently milled the ore between 1981 and 1988. Major rehabilitation and decommissioning works were completed at the end of 1995. In 1996 ERISS began a detailed radiological study of the Nabarlek site. Initial work has included an airborne radiometric survey, a ground-based gamma dose rate survey, collection of meteorological data, and measurement of radon emanation rate from the ground, radon concentrations in air, and long-lived radionuclide concentrations in surface soil and groundwater. This talk will give an overview of the study, with an emphasis on the results of the airborne radiometric survey and corresponding ground-based measurements

  7. Comparison of the radiological impacts of thorium and uranium nuclear fuel cycles

    Meyer, H.R.; Witherspoon, J.P.; McBride, J.P.; Frederick, E.J.

    1982-03-01

    This report compares the radiological impacts of a fuel cycle in which only uranium is recycled, as presented in the Final Generic Environmental Statement on the Use of Recycle Plutonium in Mixed Oxide Fuel in Light Water Cooled Reactors (GESMO), with those of the light-water breeder reactor (LWBR) thorium/uranium fuel cycle in the Final Environmental Statement, Light Water Breeder Reactor Program. The significant offsite radiological impacts from routine operation of the fuel cycles result from the mining and milling of thorium and uranium ores, reprocessing spent fuel, and reactor operations. The major difference between the impacts from the two fuel cycles is the larger dose commitments associated with current uranium mining and milling operations as compared to thorium mining and milling. Estimated dose commitments from the reprocessing of either fuel type are small and show only moderate variations for specific doses. No significant differences in environmental radiological impact are anticipated for reactors using either of the fuel cycles. Radiological impacts associated with routine releases from the operation of either the thorium or uranium fuel cycles can be held to acceptably low levels by existing regulations

  8. Assessment of the radiological impact of the transport of radioactive materials

    1986-12-01

    In order to facilitate the assessment of the radiological impact of transport, and to guide the collection of data for future assessments, the IAEA convened a technical committee (The Technical Committee on the Assessment of the Radiological Impact from the Transport of Radioactive Materials; TC-556) in Vienna, Austria on 21-25 October 1985. The Terms of Reference called for this committee ''to collect and assess data on the radiation exposure of workers and the public during the transport of radioactive material, and to develop a summary statement, reflecting current practice and current state of knowledge, on the radiological impact of transport.'' This technical document provides the summary statement developed by TC-556. The statement should be viewed as an interim assessment since it utilized only data then available, or made available, to the committee. This document consists of three Sections: Section I - Background Information to the Summary Statement (prepared by the Secretariat); Section II - The Summary Statement on the Radiological Impact of the Transport of Radioactive Materials (developed by TC-556); and Section III - Recommendations for Future Assessments (a summary of statements and conclusions provided in the TC-556 Chairman's Report)

  9. Investigation of evaluation method for marine radiological impact during an accident

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    In 2012, JNES carried out to investigate the measurement information of radionuclide released to the ocean at Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, the foreign regulation for marine radiological impact, and the evaluation method for release and diffusion to the ocean at the accident inside and outside Japan. (author)

  10. Radiological impact of high activity wastes disposal in a granitic rock

    Oliveira, A.A.; Palacios, E.

    1987-01-01

    This work analyzes, by a simplified model, the radiological impact due to radioactive wastes release when engineering and geologic barriers individually fail. Doses are calculated resulting from the individuals of a hypothetical critical group and the potential collective dosis for each one of the considered situations. (Author) [es

  11. Radiological impact of oil and Gas Activities in selected oil fields in ...

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A study of the radiological impact of oil and gas exploration activities in the production land area of Delta ... the public and non-nuclear industrial environment, while the levels for the fields at Otorogu, Ughelli West, ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Radiological Impacts Assessment during Normal Decommissioning Operation for EU-APR

    Hwang, Do Hyun; Lee, Keun Sung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, ChongHui [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, radiological impacts on human beings during normal execution of the decommissioning operations from the current standard design of EU-APR which has been modified and improved from its original design of APR1400 to comply with EUR, are evaluated. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life cycle of a nuclear installation, covering all activities from shutdown and removal of fissile material to environmental restoration of the site. According to article 5.4 specified in chapter 2.20 of European Utility Requirements (EUR), all relevant radiological impacts on human being should be considered during the environmental assessment of decommissioning, including external exposure from direct radiation of plant and other radiation sources, and internal exposure due to inhalation and ingestion. In this paper, radiological impacts on human beings during normal circumstances of the decommissioning operation were evaluated from the current standard design of EU-APR based on the simple transport model and practical generic methodology for assessing the radiological impact provided by IAEA. The results of dose assessment fulfilled the dose limit for all scenarios.

  13. The Impact Factor of Radiological Journals: Associations with Journal Content and Other Characteristics Over a Recent 12-Year Period.

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Ayoola, Abimbola

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends in the impact factor (IF) of radiological journals over a recent 12-year period, including associations between IF and journal topic. Journal Citation Reports (JCR) was used to identify all biomedical journals and all radiological journals (assigned a JCR category of "Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, & Medical Imaging"), along with journal IF, in 2003 and 2014. Radiological journals were manually classified by topic. Trends in median IF (mIF) were assessed. The number of radiological journals increased from 83 (2003) to 125 (2014) (all biomedical journals: 5907 to 8718, respectively). mIF of radiological journals increased from 1.42 (2003) to 1.75 (2014) (all biomedical journals: 0.93 to 1.46, respectively). The most common topic among new radiological journals was general (nonspecialized) radiology (8). Five new radiological journals in 2014 were in topics (cancer imaging and molecular imaging) having no journals in 2003. mIF of general radiological journals was 1.49. Topics having highest mIF were cardiac imaging (2.94), optics (2.86), molecular imaging (2.77), radiation oncology (2.60), and neuroradiology (2.25). Topics with lowest mIF were ultrasound (1.19) and interventional radiology (1.44). Topics with the largest increase in mIF were cardiac imaging (from 1.17 to 2.94) and neuroradiology (from 1.07 to 2.25). Radiological journals exhibited higher mIF than biomedical journals overall. Among radiological journals, subspecialty journals had highest mIF. While a considerable number of new radiological journals since 2003 were general radiology journals having relatively low IF, there were also new journal topics representing emerging areas of subspecialized radiological research. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiologic Management Of Impacted Coin In The Oesophagus – A ...

    Long standing foreign body impaction with weight loss, consolidated lungs and failure to thrive are documented presentations of FB in the oesophagus5. We present a case of a 20 year old male who inadvertently swallowed a coin which got impacted at the thoracic inlet – one of the conventional areas of constriction.

  15. Radiological impact of the use of calcium hydroxylapatite dermal fillers

    Feeney, J.N.; Fox, J.J.; Akhurst, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To report a case series in which the radiological features of the subcutaneous use of calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHa) dermal fillers are described for the first time. Materials and methods: Five patients with facial hyperattenuating hypermetabolic subcutaneous lesions were identified on 2- [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), who gave a history of facial injections to augment physical appearance. Correlation with additional imaging studies was performed. Results: All cases had subcutaneous high attenuation material on CT (range 280-700 HU), which was FDG avid on PET, with a standardized uptake value (SUV) range of 2.9-13.4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a heterogeneous intermediate signal intensity subcutaneous lesion with enhancement post-gadolinium in one case. Conclusions: CaHa dermal filler is hyperattenuating on CT, hypermetabolic on FDG-PET imaging, of intermediate signal intensity on MRI, and is a potential cause of a false-positive imaging study.

  16. Study on the radiological Impact of Coal Fired Power Plants

    Cancio, D.; Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. A.; Vasco, J.; Guillen, J.

    2008-01-01

    The study is part of the goal set forth in Title VII of the European Basic Safety Standards and the Spanish regulations on radiation protection related to work activities that may involve a significant increase in exposure of workers and the public to natural radiation. Coal contains small quantities of radionuclides in the series of uranium, thorium and potassium which in the industrial process can lead to radiological exposure. This work presents the measurements and evaluations conducted in one of the power plants object of study: The Unidad Termica de Produccion de Litoral in the Almeria Province. The maximum dose assessed for workers are in the order of 0.14 mSv per year and in the order of 0.05 mSv per year for the public in the realistic scenarios considered. These values are well below the 1mSv per year reference levels, recommended in Europe to have some interest from the radiation protection point of view. (Author) 52 refs

  17. Investigation of evaluation method for marine radiological impact during an accident

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    In 2012, JNES investigated the evaluation method, long-term seawater and marine deposition for release and diffusion to the ocean at the accident, and marine impact assessment code, in Japan and overseas. Also, the foreign regulations for marine radiological impact (direct release to ocean from the facilities and fallout on marine, etc.) were investigated. Furthermore, the index (e.g., intervention level) at emergency control in USA and Europe were investigated. (author)

  18. Investigation of evaluation method for marine radiological impact during an accident

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, JNES investigated the evaluation method, long-term seawater and marine deposition for release and diffusion to the ocean at the accident, and marine impact assessment code, in Japan and overseas. Also, the foreign regulations for marine radiological impact (direct release to ocean from the facilities and fallout on marine, etc.) were investigated. Furthermore, the index (e.g., intervention level) at emergency control in USA and Europe were investigated. (author)

  19. The radiological impact of actinides discharged to the Irish Sea

    Hunt, G.J.; Smith, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the radiological effects of releases of actinides to the Irish Sea from Sellafield, the major source. Exposure pathways to man since the commencement of discharges in 1952 are reviewed; the importance of actinides began to increase with increased discharges in the 1970s. With the demise of the porphyra/laverbread pathway due to transport difficulties, the pathway due to fish and shellfish consumption became critical, particularly for actinides through molluscan shellfish. A reassessment on the current basis of effective dose shows that peak exposures to the critical group of about 2 mSv yr -1 were received in the mid-1970s, about 30% of which was due to actinides. Effective doses have since reduced but the relative importance of actinides is greater, due to the interplay of discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and their behaviour in the environment. Additive doses through sea food due to releases of natural radionuclides from the Marchon phosphate plant at Whitehaven are also considered, although the actinide component from this source has been small. Exposures due to actinides from Sellafield via other pathways are shown to be much lower than those involving sea food. Collective doses are also considered; these peaked at about 300 man-Sv to the European population (including the UK) in 1979, with only a few percent due to actinides. As in the case of critical group doses, the relative importance of actinides has increased in recent years within the decreasing total collective dose. For both critical group and collective doses, therefore, the actinide component needs to be kept under review. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Radiological and economic impact of decommissioning charged particle accelerators

    Sonck, M.; Buls, N.; Hermanne, A.; Eggermont, G.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the real radiological and economic consequences of future dismantling of particle accelerators, only insufficient information was available in literature or even at the individual accelerator facilities themselves. DGXI of the European Commission hence launched a project with focus on gathering quantitative and scientifically sound data on the number of accelerators in the EU, on the status of activation of the different facilities, on the awareness of the possible problems at dismantling and on cost evacuations for full scale decommissioning. The project was granted to the VUB with subcontracts to NIRAS/ONDRAF, MAN and CEA-Saclay. With the replies received to an extensive questionnaire, a database was set up with the necessary data for evaluating the decommissioning problems to be expected at the different facilities. From this database three accelerators were chosen as reference cases (VUB medium energy cyclotron, IRMM 200 MeV electron linear accelerator and the 6 GeV proton synchrotron Saturne in Saclay). Extensive sampling of their concrete shieldings (more than 200 drill cores) and metal parts of accelerator and infrastructure, followed by accurate γ-spectrometric analysis and custom designed 3D interpolation, yield data on the 3D distribution of the activity in the different rooms of the installations. In addition to the γ-spectrometric analysis, an analysis of the tritium content of the concrete was performed by measuring the water liberated from heating ground concrete samples. These specific activity distributions allow evaluation of both immediate and deferred decommissioning costs using different scenarios (different clearance levels, different waste management prices, different labor costs and different decommissioning techniques) based on real situations in France, Germany and Great Britain. Several important conclusions and recommendations with respect to decommissioning both existing and future accelerator facilities will be presented

  1. Alternative Metrics ("Altmetrics") for Assessing Article Impact in Popular General Radiology Journals.

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Ayoola, Abimbola; Singh, Kush; Duszak, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Emerging alternative metrics leverage social media and other online platforms to provide immediate measures of biomedical articles' reach among diverse public audiences. We aimed to compare traditional citation and alternative impact metrics for articles in popular general radiology journals. All 892 original investigations published in 2013 issues of Academic Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Journal of the American College of Radiology, and Radiology were included. Each article's content was classified as imaging vs nonimaging. Traditional journal citations to articles were obtained from Web of Science. Each article's Altmetric Attention Score (Altmetric), representing weighted mentions across a variety of online platforms, was obtained from Altmetric.com. Statistical assessment included the McNemar test, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Pearson correlation. Mean and median traditional citation counts were 10.7 ± 15.4 and 5 vs 3.3 ± 13.3 and 0 for Altmetric. Among all articles, 96.4% had ≥1 traditional citation vs 41.8% for Altmetric (P nonimaging content (11.5 ± 16.2 vs 6.9 ± 9.8, P nonimaging content (5.1 ± 11.1 vs 2.8 ± 13.7, P = 0.006). Although overall online attention to radiology journal content was low, alternative metrics exhibited unique trends, particularly for nonclinical articles, and may provide a complementary measure of radiology research impact compared to traditional citation counts. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR

    Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R

    1983-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

  3. The psychological impact of the radiological accident in Goiania

    Carvalho, A.B. de.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes the psychological impact of an accident caused by the violation of a capsule containing Cesium 137 in the city of Goiania, Goias, Brazil, in September of 1987. Its object is to confirm the importance of having mental health teams working, not only with accident victims, but also side by side with the rescue teams in the event of radiation accidents. (author) [pt

  4. Environmental and radiological impact of accidental tritium release

    Guetat, Ph. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Patryl, L. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2008-07-15

    Within the IAEA program EMRAS, an exercise has been performed by 7 countries to evaluate the consequences of an acute atmospheric release of tritium (10 g). This study aimed at giving practical technical information to decision-makers. Three scenarios with different meteorological conditions were modeled. The objective of this paper is to give the main information about transfer and impact, evaluate uncertainties in models/assessments and so help to set countermeasures. From the results of this exercise, reference activity values for countermeasures can be discussed. All pathways and chemical forms (HTO-HT-OBT) are considered. (authors)

  5. Radiological impact assessment on non-human species from the radioactive waste disposal

    Gil Castillo, Reinaldo; Peralta Vital, Jose L.; Leiva Bombuse, Dennys

    2008-01-01

    The paper shows the use of a methodology in order to carry out the radiological impact assessment in non-human species (animals and plants) from a planned radioactive waste disposal facility. The application of modelling tools to simulate the behaviour (release and transport) of the radionuclides through the engineered barriers and the geosphere, and its final access to the soil and a river are described too. To evaluate the compliance with the adopted biota dose limits, were used the calculated maximum radionuclide concentrations for different environmental compartments (water, soil and sediment). Preliminary, the results showed that the Radiological Biota impacts are acceptable according to the adopted criteria (Radionuclides concentrations below the Biota Concentration Guides). The results showed that according theirs impact the more important radionuclides were: 241 Am/ 226 Ra/ 137 Cs/ 60 Co. The Riparian animals were the more exposed Biota organism. The results support the decision making process since could be identified the relevant radiological impact in the environment (plants and animals) near to a disposal facility (real or planned). Also the paper identified methodological tools useful to evaluate the site acceptance, for the early stages of disposal facilities (site selection process, licensing, etc), in absence of real data of radionuclides concentrations in the environment. (author)

  6. Below Regulatory Conern Owners Group: Radiologic impact of accidents and unexpected events from disposal of BRC waste

    Waite, D.A.; Dolan, M.M.; Rish, W.R.; Rossi, A.J.; McCourt, J.E.

    1989-07-01

    This report determines the radiological impact of accidents and unexpected events in the disposal of Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) waste. The accident analysis considers the transportation, incineration, and disposal of BRC waste as municipal solid waste. The potential greatest radiological impact for each type of accident is identified through the use of event trees. These accident events are described in terms of the generic waste property(ies) (e.g., flammability, dispersibility, leachability, and solubility) that cause the greatest radiological impact. 7 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs

  7. The differential radiological impact of plutonium recycle in the light-water reactor fuel cycle: effluent discharges during normal operation

    Bouville, A.; Guetat, P.; Jones, J.A.; Kelly, G.N.; Legrand, J.; White, I.F.

    1980-01-01

    The radiological impact of a light-water reactor fuel cycle utilizing enriched uranium fuel may be altered by the recycle of plutonium. Differences in impact may arise during various operations in the fuel cycle: those which arise from effluents discharged during normal operation of the various installations comprising the fuel cycle are evaluated in this study. The differential radiological impact on the population of the European Communities (EC) of effluents discharged during the recycling of 10 tonnes of fissile plutonium metal is evaluated. The contributions from each stage of the fuel cycle, i.e. fuel fabrication, reactor operation and fuel reprocessing and conversion, are identified. Separate consideration is given to airborne and liquid effluents and account is taken of a wide range of environmental conditions, representative of the EC, in estimating the radiological impact. The recycle of plutonium is estimated to result in a reduction in the radiological impact from effluents of about 30% of that when using enriched uranium fuel

  8. The radiological impact associated with the recycling of actinides and fission products. A global assessment

    Dodd, D.H.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of a literature study performed to identify any significant differences in the public radiological impact associated with existing nuclear fuel cycles and partitioning and transmutation (P and T) based fuel cycles. The study was performed in the framework of ECN Nuclear Energy's RAS (Recyclage van Actiniden en Splijtingsprodukten) research programme. Two reference 'once through' cycles and five 'advanced' fuel cycles were analysed. The five 'advanced' fuel cycles all incorporate technologies for the partitioning and transmutation of the long-lived radionuclides present in high level radioactive waste. Currently, only a limited amount of information on these 'advanced' fuel cycles is available. The assessment of the radiological impact associated with these cycles is therefore by necessity of a general nature. (orig./WL)

  9. Monitoring of the radiological environmental impact of the AREVA site of Tricastin

    Mercat, C.; Brun, F.; Florens, P.; Petit, J.; Garnier, F.; Devin, P.

    2010-01-01

    Set up at the beginning of the site's operations, in 1962, the monitoring of the radiological environmental impact of the AREVA site of Tricastin has evolved over time to meet more specifically the multiple objectives of environmental monitoring: to prove the respect of the commitments required by the authorities, to be able to detect a dysfunction in the observed levels, to enable the assessment of impacts of industrial activities, to ensure the balance between environmental quality and the use made by the local population and to inform the public of the radiological state of the environment. Thousands of data were acquired on the radioactivity of all environmental compartments as well as on the functioning of local ecosystems. Today, the Network of Environmental Monitoring of AREVA Tricastin goes beyond the requirements of routine monitoring to provide innovative solutions for monitoring the radioactivity (especially for uranium) in the environment. (author)

  10. Radiological impact assessment of the domestic on-road transportation of radioactive isotope wastes

    Seo, Myung Hwan; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) began to operate the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in Gyeongju and to transport the radioactive waste containing radioactive isotopes from Daejeon to the disposal facility for the first time at 2015. For this radioactive waste transportation, in this study, radiological impact assessment is carried out for workers and public. The dose rate to workers and public during the transportation is estimated with consideration of the transportation scenarios and is compared with the Korean regulatory limit. The sensitivity analysis is carried out by considering both the variation of release ratios of the radioactive isotopes from the waste and the variation of the distances between the radioactive waste drum and worker during loading and unloading of radioactive waste. As for all the transportation scenarios, radiological impacts for workers and public have met the regulatory limits.

  11. Impact on Quality When Pediatric Urgent Care Centers Are Staffed With Radiology Technologists.

    Kan, J Herman; Orth, Robert C; Yen, Terry A; Schallert, Erica K; Zhang, Wei; Donnelly, Lane F

    2018-02-02

    The proliferation of pediatric urgent care centers has increased the need for diagnostic imaging support, but the impact of employing radiology technologists at these centers is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiographic impact and quality at urgent care centers with and without radiology technologists. A retrospective case-control study was conducted comparing 235 radiographic examinations (study) performed without and 83 examinations (control) performed with a radiology technologist at the authors' pediatric urgent care centers. Studies were evaluated for quality using a five-point, Likert-type scale (1 = poor, 5 = best) regarding field of view, presentation, and orthogonal view orientation. Studies were also evaluated for the incidence of positive results, need for repeat imaging, and discrepancies between initial study and follow-up. Imaging quality comparisons between study and control groups were statistically different for field of view (3.98 versus 4.29, P = .014), presentation (4.39 versus 4.51, P = .045), and orthogonal view orientation (4.45 versus 4.69, P = .033). The incidence of repeat imaging was similar (4.7% versus 2.4%, P = 0.526), as well as the discrepancy rates (3.4 versus 2.4%, P = 1.00). The incidence of abnormal radiographic findings for the study and control groups was similar (40.9% versus 34.9%, P = .363). Radiography is an important triage tool at pediatric urgent care centers. It is imperative to have optimal radiographic imaging for accurate diagnosis, and imaging quality is improved when radiology technologists are available. If not feasible or cost prohibitive, it is important that physicians be given training opportunities to bridge the quality gap when using radiographic equipment and exposing children to radiation. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The radiological impact of the normal rail transport of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom

    Mairs, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Recently the NRPB, under contract to the Health and Safety Executive, and in association with the British Railways Board, has assessed the radiological impact of consignments transported on the British Rail system. The work has shown the radiation exposure of British Rail staff and of the public to be low. This paper identifies the types of radioactive materials transported by rail, outlines the methods used to assess the doses to persons exposed and presents the results of these assessments. (author)

  13. Multidisciplinary team meetings and their impact on workflow in radiology and pathology departments.

    Kane, Bridget

    2007-01-01

    The development of multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) for radiology and pathology is a burgeoning area that increasingly impacts on work processes in both of these departments. The aim of this study was to examine work processes and quantify the time demands on radiologists and pathologists associated with MDTM practices at a large teaching hospital. The observations reported in this paper reflect a general trend affecting hospitals and our conclusions will have relevance for others implementing clinical practice guidelines.

  14. Radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident in EEC countries

    Vavrousek, J.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of an evaluation of the impact of radioactive substances escaped during the Chernobyl accident, on the population in EEC countries. The results have been processed from data provided by all member countries and relate to the most dangerous radionuclides namely 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs. The population was divided into three groups: one-year olds, 10 year olds and adults. Assessed were external whole-body irradiation by the radioactive cloud and material deposited on the body surface, and internal irradiation with regard to the human food chain. The irradiation of the thyroid was assessed separately. As for 131 I, the most endangered group were the infants with the exception of Italy where 10 year olds were the most affected group. Values calculated for the individual countries are given of the effective dose equivalent for the first year, the dose equivalent for the thyroide, the dose commitment in the first year, the collective effective dose equivalent and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid gland. Measures taken to reduce the irradiation of the population (restrictions on distribution and consumption of milk, dairy products and leafy vegetables, feeding cattle with preserved feeds, etc.) reduced the collective dose equivalent by a mere 5% and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid by 26%. (E.S.). 3 tabs

  15. Radiological impact due to natural radionuclides (U and Th-isotopes) in soils from Salamanca, Mexico

    Mandujano G, C. D.; Sosa, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Mantero, J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia T, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Grupo en Fisica Nuclear Aplicada, Av. Reina Mercedes No. 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Costilla, R., E-mail: cmandujano@fisica.ugto.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias de la Vida, Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, Ex-Hacienda El Copal Km 9 Irapuato-Silao, 36500 Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Activity concentrations of U ({sup 238}U, {sup 234}U) and Th ({sup 232}Th, {sup 230}Th) radionuclides in samples of superficial urban soils surrounding an industrial complex in Salamanca, Mexico have been determined. Levels of naturally occurring radionuclides (Norm) in the environment may be affected due to the presence of different industrial activities in this zone, representing a potential radiological risk for the population which should be evaluated. Alpha-particle Spectrometry with Pips detectors has been used for the radiometric characterization. A well established radiochemical procedure was used for the isolation of the radionuclides of interest. Alkali fusion for sample digestion, liquid-liquid extraction with Tbp (tri-butyl-phosphate) for U and Th isolation and electrodeposition in stainless steel dishes for measurement conditioning has been used. The results cover the ranges of 10-42, 12-60, 12-52 and 11-51 Bq·kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 232}Th respectively, being not observed any clear anthropogenic increments in relation with the values normally found in unaffected soils. Although there is disequilibrium between U isotopes and {sup 230}Th in some soil samples, it can be attributed to natural processes. The radiological impact of the industrial activities in the surrounding soils can be then evaluated as very low. Hence, from the Radiological Protection point of view, the soils studied do not represent a radiological risk for the health of the population. (Author)

  16. Selection of nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste

    Thorne, M.C.

    1982-12-01

    The criteria for selecting nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste are given. The reduced chains recommended for use with SYVAC are described. (author)

  17. Radiological assessment of depleted uranium impact locations in Iraq

    Smith, D.; Brown, R.

    2006-01-01

    Although the monitoring that could be carried out during this brief reconnaissance was neither entirely systematic nor completely representative of overall environmental conditions, it is interesting to compare the activity concentrations of D.U. (depleted uranium) found in this work with what would be considered benchmark quantities. This has been done in some of the following sections, but it must be recognised that the data is not of the quality needed for robust generalised statements about D.U. contamination or any possible health consequences. D.U. mainly consists of 238 U, 235 U and 234 U. All of these isotopes have different radioactive decay characteristics and therefore different dose per unit intake factors. However, for dose assessment purposes, it can easily be shown that the assumption that D.U. is composed entirely of 238 U will result in an insignificant error in estimating the likely magnitude of any radiation dose. For example, for the limiting (i.e. highest) dose per unit intake factors given in ICRP 72 [2] for each isotope, this assumption gives rise to differences of about 1% and 10% for inhalation and ingestion respectively. This approximation has been used in the following discussions. 7.2 General observations Four D.U. contaminated tanks and one anti-aircraft gun were located and surveyed during the reconnaissance, together with two areas of contaminated land. There were also visual indications of D.U. impacts on two other tanks and an armored personnel carrier, but time constraints and hazards from unstable structures and unexploded ordnance prevented investigation of these vehicles. The most surprising finding was that there was relatively little loose contamination on or in the tanks. A more detailed interpretation of the results follows. 7.3 Smear samples All smears were subject to α and β counting and the results of the α counting converted to an equivalent removable surface contamination level, expressed in terms of Bq cm -2 , by

  18. Radiological assessment of depleted uranium impact locations in Iraq

    Smith, D.; Brown, R. [Dstl Environmental Sciences Dept., Crescent Road, Alverstoke, Gosport, Hants PO12 2DL (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Although the monitoring that could be carried out during this brief reconnaissance was neither entirely systematic nor completely representative of overall environmental conditions, it is interesting to compare the activity concentrations of D.U. (depleted uranium) found in this work with what would be considered benchmark quantities. This has been done in some of the following sections, but it must be recognised that the data is not of the quality needed for robust generalised statements about D.U. contamination or any possible health consequences. D.U. mainly consists of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 234}U. All of these isotopes have different radioactive decay characteristics and therefore different dose per unit intake factors. However, for dose assessment purposes, it can easily be shown that the assumption that D.U. is composed entirely of {sup 238}U will result in an insignificant error in estimating the likely magnitude of any radiation dose. For example, for the limiting (i.e. highest) dose per unit intake factors given in ICRP 72 [2] for each isotope, this assumption gives rise to differences of about 1% and 10% for inhalation and ingestion respectively. This approximation has been used in the following discussions. 7.2 General observations Four D.U. contaminated tanks and one anti-aircraft gun were located and surveyed during the reconnaissance, together with two areas of contaminated land. There were also visual indications of D.U. impacts on two other tanks and an armored personnel carrier, but time constraints and hazards from unstable structures and unexploded ordnance prevented investigation of these vehicles. The most surprising finding was that there was relatively little loose contamination on or in the tanks. A more detailed interpretation of the results follows. 7.3 Smear samples All smears were subject to {alpha} and {beta} counting and the results of the {alpha} counting converted to an equivalent removable surface contamination level

  19. Monitoring techniques for the impact assessment during nuclear and radiological emergencies: current status and the challenges

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    Preparedness and response capability for Nuclear and Radiological emergencies, existing world over, are mainly based on the requirement of responding to radiation emergency caused by nuclear or radiological accidents. Cosmos satellite accident, plutonium contamination at Polaris, nuclear accidents like Kystium, Windscale, TMI and Chernobyl, radiological accidents at Goiania etc have demonstrated the requirement of improved radiation monitoring techniques. For quick decision making, state of the art monitoring methodology which can support quantitative and qualitative impact assessment is essential. Evaluation of radiological mapping of the area suspected to be contaminated needs ground based as well as aerial based monitoring systems to predict the level of radioactive contamination on ground. This will help in delineating the area and deciding the required countermeasures, based on the quantity and type of radionuclides responsible for it. The response can be successful with the effective use of i) Early Warning System ii) Mobile Monitoring System and iii) Aerial Gamma Spectrometric System. Selection of the monitoring methodology and survey parameters and assessment of situation using available resources etc. are to be optimized depending on the accident scenario. Recently, many countries and agencies like IAEA have expressed the requirement for responding to other types of nuclear/radiological emergencies i.e, man made radiation emergency situations aimed at harming public at large that can also lead to environmental contamination and significant exposure to public. Reports of lost / misplaced / stolen radioactive sources from many countries are alarming as safety and security of these radioactive sources are under challenge. The monitoring methodology has to take into account of the increase in such demands and more periodic monitoring in suspected locations is to be carried out. Detection of orphan sources possible amidst large heap of metallic scraps may pose

  20. Multidisciplinary team meetings and their impact on workflow in radiology and pathology departments

    O'Briain D Sean

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTMs for radiology and pathology is a burgeoning area that increasingly impacts on work processes in both of these departments. The aim of this study was to examine work processes and quantify the time demands on radiologists and pathologists associated with MDTM practices at a large teaching hospital. The observations reported in this paper reflect a general trend affecting hospitals and our conclusions will have relevance for others implementing clinical practice guidelines. Methods For one month, all work related to clinical meetings between pathology and radiology with clinical staff was documented and later analysed. Results The number of meetings to which pathology and radiology contribute at a large university teaching hospital, ranges from two to eight per day, excluding grand rounds, and amounts to approximately 50 meetings per month for each department. For one month, over 300 h were spent by pathologists and radiologists on 81 meetings, where almost 1000 patients were discussed. For each meeting hour, there were, on average, 2.4 pathology hours and 2 radiology hours spent in preparation. Two to three meetings per week are conducted over a teleconferencing link. Average meeting time is 1 h. Preparation time per meeting ranges from 0.3 to 6 h for pathology, and 0.5 to 4 for radiology. The review process in preparation for meetings improves internal quality standards. Materials produced externally (for example imaging can amount to almost 50% of the material to be reviewed on a single patient. The number of meetings per month has increased by 50% over the past two years. Further increase is expected in both the numbers and duration of meetings when scheduling issues are resolved. A changing trend in the management of referred patients with the development of MDTMs and the introduction of teleconferencing was noted. Conclusion Difficulties are being experienced by

  1. The positive impact of radiologic imaging on high-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma management.

    Ruiz, Emily Stamell; Karia, Pritesh S; Morgan, Frederick C; Schmults, Chrysalyne D

    2017-02-01

    There is limited evidence on the utility of radiologic imaging for prognostic staging of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Review utilization of radiologic imaging of high-stage CSCCs to evaluate whether imaging impacted management and outcomes. Tumors classified as Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) tumor (T) stage T2B or T3 over a 13-year period were reviewed to identify whether imaging was performed and whether results affected treatment. Disease-related outcomes (DRO: local recurrence, nodal metastasis, death from disease) were compared between patients by type of imaging used. 108 high-stage CSCCs in 98 patients were included. Imaging (mostly computed tomography, 79%) was utilized in 45 (46%) patients and management was altered in 16 (33%) patients who underwent imaging. Patients that received no imaging were at higher risk of developing nodal metastases (nonimaging, 30%; imaging, 13%; P = .041) and any DRO (nonimaging, 42%; imaging, 20%; P = .028) compared to the imaging group. Imaging was associated with a lower risk for DRO (subhazard ratio, 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.9; P = .046) adjusted for BWH T stage, sex, and location. Single institution retrospective design and changes in technology overtime. Radiologic imaging of high-stage CSCC may influence management and appears to positively impact outcomes. Further prospective studies are needed to establish which patients benefit from imaging. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiological Impacts and Regulation of Rare Earth Elements in Non-Nuclear Energy Production

    Timothy Ault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy industries account for a significant portion of total rare earth usage, both in the US and worldwide. Rare earth minerals are frequently collocated with naturally occurring radioactive material, imparting an occupational radiological dose during recovery. This paper explores the extent to which rare earths are used by various non-nuclear energy industries and estimates the radiological dose which can be attributed to these industries on absolute and normalized scales. It was determined that typical rare earth mining results in an occupational collective dose of approximately 0.0061 person-mSv/t rare earth elements, amounting to a total of 330 person-mSv/year across all non-nuclear energy industries (about 60% of the annual collective dose from one pressurized water reactor operated in the US, although for rare earth mining the impact is spread out over many more workers. About half of the collective dose from non-nuclear energy production results from use of fuel cracking catalysts for oil refining, although given the extent of the oil industry, it is a small dose when normalized to the energy equivalent of the oil that is used annually. Another factor in energy industries’ reliance on rare earths is the complicated state of the regulation of naturally occurring radiological materials; correspondingly, this paper also explores regulatory and management implications.

  3. Controlling the radiological impact in the nuclear fuel cycle: a cost/benefit analysis

    Blanco, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Methods that are used to control the radiological impact of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. This control is exercised through the application of a series of Federal laws and regulations that are used as the basis for licensing nuclear facilities. These licenses contain technical specifications which define the limits for the release of radioactive materials. The control is exercised more directly in a technical sense by the use of radwaste treatment equipment at the nuclear facilities to limit the release of radioactive materials. The first part of this paper contains a summary of the principal Federal laws and regulations that apply to nuclear fuel cycle facilities and a description of how they are applied in licensing procedures. A detailed discussion is presented of the amounts of radioactive materials that may be released from licensed facilities, and the radiological doses that individuals and populations surrounding these facilities would receive from these releases. These doses are then compared with the radiological doses received from natural background radiation to put them in perspective. Cost/benefit engineering surveys which are being made to determine the cost (in dollars) and the effectiveness of radwaste systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model fuel cycle facilities, and to determine the benefits in terms of reduction in dose commitment to individuals and populations in surrounding areas are described

  4. Impacts on health outcomes and on resource utilisation of home-based parenteral chemotherapy administration: a systematic review protocol.

    Mittaine-Marzac, Benedicte; De Stampa, Matthieu; Bagaragaza, Emmanuel; Ankri, Joël; Aegerter, Philippe

    2018-05-09

    Despite the demonstrated feasibility and policies to enable more to receive chemotherapy at home, in a few countries, parenteral chemotherapy administration at home remains currently marginal. Of note, findings of different studies on health outcomes and resources utilisation vary, leading to conflicting results. This protocol outlines a systematic review that seeks to synthesise and critically appraise the current state of evidence on the comparison between home setting and hospital setting for parenteral chemotherapy administration within the same high standards of clinical care. This protocol has been prepared following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols approach. Electronic searches will be conducted on bibliographic databases selected from the earliest available data through 15 November 2017 published in French and English languages. Additional potential papers in the selected studies and grey literature will be also included in the review. The review will include all types of studies exploring patients receiving anticancer drugs for injection at home compared with patients receiving the drugs in a hospital setting, and will assess at least one of the following criteria: patients' health outcomes, patients' or caregivers' satisfaction, resource utilisation with cost savings, and incentives and/or barriers of each admission setting according to patients' and relatives' points of view. Two reviewers will independently screen studies and extract relevant data from the included studies. Methodological quality of studies will be assessed using the 'Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies' developed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool, in addition to the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards statement for economic studies. As the review is focused on the analysis of secondary data, it does not require ethics approval. The results of the study will be disseminated through

  5. Association of h-index of Editorial Board Members and Impact Factor among Radiology Journals.

    Asnafi, Solmaz; Gunderson, Tina; McDonald, Robert J; Kallmes, David F

    2017-02-01

    h-Index has been proposed as a useful bibliometric measure for quantifying research productivity. In this current study, we analyzed h-indices of editorial board members of Radiology journals and tested the hypothesis that editorial board members of Radiology journals with higher impact factors (IF) have higher h-indices. Sixty-two Radiology journals with IF >1 were included. Editorial board members were identified using the journals' websites. Editors' affiliations and research fields of interest were used to distinguish investigators with similar names. Bibliometric indices including number of publications, total citations, citations per publication, and h-index for each editorial board member were obtained using the Web of Science database. Chi-square or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to test for differences in bibliographic measures or demographics between groups. Among the editorial boards of 62 journals, the median [interquartile range] board h-index was 26 [18, 31] and had 36 [17, 56] members. The median journal IF was 2.27 [1.74, 3.31]. We identified a total of 2204 distinct editors; they had a median [interquartile range] h-index of 23 [13, 35], 120 [58, 215] total publications, 1938 [682, 4634] total citations, and an average of 15.7 [9.96, 24.8] citations per publication. The boards of journals with IF above the median had significantly higher h-indices (P = .002), total publications (P = .01), and total and average citations (both any [P = .003, .009] and nonself-citations [P = .001, .002]) than journals below the median. Our data indicate that board members of Radiology journals with higher IF have greater h-indices compared to lower IF journals. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. "Flipping" the introductory clerkship in radiology: impact on medical student performance and perceptions.

    Belfi, Lily M; Bartolotta, Roger J; Giambrone, Ashley E; Davi, Caryn; Min, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    Among methods of "blended learning" (ie, combining online modules with in-class instruction), the "flipped classroom" involves student preclass review of material while reserving class time for interactive knowledge application. We integrated blended learning methodology in a "flipped" introductory clerkship in radiology, and assessed the impact of this approach on the student educational experience (performance and perception). In preparation for the "flipped clerkship," radiology faculty and residents created e-learning modules that were uploaded to an open-source website. The clerkship's 101 rising third-year medical students were exposed to different teaching methods during the course, such as blended learning, traditional lecture learning, and independent learning. Students completed precourse and postcourse knowledge assessments and surveys. Student knowledge improved overall as a result of taking the course. Blended learning achieved greater pretest to post-test improvement of high statistical significance (P value, .0060) compared to lecture learning alone. Blended learning also achieved greater pretest to post-test improvement of borderline statistical significance (P value, .0855) in comparison to independent learning alone. The difference in effectiveness of independent learning versus lecture learning was not statistically significant (P value, .2730). Student perceptions of the online modules used in blended learning portions of the course were very positive. They specifically enjoyed the self-paced interactivity and the ability to return to the modules in the future. Blended learning can be successfully applied to the introductory clerkship in radiology. This teaching method offers educators an innovative and efficient approach to medical student education in radiology. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Focused process improvement events: sustainability of impact on process and performance in an academic radiology department.

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Lawson, Kirk; Ally, Rosina; Chen, David; Donno, Frank; Rittberg, Steven; Rodriguez, Joan; Recht, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate sustainability of impact of rapid, focused process improvement (PI) events on process and performance within an academic radiology department. Our department conducted PI during 2011 and 2012 in CT, MRI, ultrasound, breast imaging, and research billing. PI entailed participation by all stakeholders, facilitation by the department chair, collection of baseline data, meetings during several weeks, definition of performance metrics, creation of an improvement plan, and prompt implementation. We explore common themes among PI events regarding initial impact and durability of changes. We also assess performance in each area pre-PI, immediately post-PI, and at the time of the current study. All PI events achieved an immediate improvement in performance metrics, often entailing both examination volumes and on-time performance. IT-based solutions, process standardization, and redefinition of staff responsibilities were often central in these changes, and participants consistently expressed improved internal leadership and problem-solving ability. Major environmental changes commonly occurred after PI, including a natural disaster with equipment loss, a change in location or services offered, and new enterprise-wide electronic medical record system incorporating new billing and radiology informatics systems, requiring flexibility in the PI implementation plan. Only one PI team conducted regular post-PI follow-up meetings. Sustained improvement was frequently, but not universally, observed: in the long-term following initial PI, measures of examination volume showed continued progressive improvements, whereas measures of operational efficiency remained stable or occasionally declined. Focused PI is generally effective in achieving performance improvement, although a changing environment influences the sustainability of impact. Thus, continued process evaluation and ongoing workflow modifications are warranted. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology

  8. An analysis of radiological research publications in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Yun, Eun Joo; Baek, Sora; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Radiologists published only 0.2% of articles in five general medical journals. ► Most original articles from radiologists were funded and were prospective studies. ► Radiology researchers from only 11 countries published at least one original article. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate scientific papers published by radiologists in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010. Methods: A MEDLINE search was performed in five high impact general medical journals (AIM, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and NEJM) for all articles of which a radiologist was the first author between 1996 and 2010. The following information was abstracted from the original articles: radiological subspecialty, imaging technique used, type of research, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study outcome, declared funding, number of authors, collaboration, and country of the first author. Results: Of 216 (0.19%) articles were published by radiologists in five general medical journals between 1996 and 2010, 83 were original articles. Fifteen (18.1%) original articles were concerned with the field of vascular/interventional radiology, 24 (28.9%) used combined imaging techniques, 76 (91.6%) were clinical research, 63 (75.9%) had a sample size of >50, 65 (78.3%) were prospective, 78 (94.0%) performed statistical analysis, 83 (100%) showed positive study outcomes, 57 (68.7%) were funded, 49 (59.0%) had from four to seven authors, and 79 (95.2%) were collaborative studies. Conclusions: A very small number (0.19%) in five high impact general medical journals was published by radiologists between 1996 and 2010

  9. Environmental characterization and radiological impacts of non-nuclear industries on the red sea coast

    Mamoney, M. H. El; Khater, Ashraf E. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Red Sea is a deep semi-enclosed and narrow basin connected to the Indian Ocean by a narrow sill in the south and to the Suez Canal in the north. Oil industries in the Gulf of Suez, phosphate ore mining activities in Safaja- Quseir region and intensified navigation activities are non-nuclear land base pollution sources that could have a serious radiological impacts on the marine environment and the coastal ecosystems of the Red Sea. It is a need and an essential to draw up the radiological base-line data, which is not exist yet and to investigate the radio-ecological impact of non- nuclear industries to protect the coastal environment of the Red Sea. Natural and man- made radionuclides have been measured in shore sediment samples collected from the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. The specific activities of 226 Ra ( 238 U)series, 232 Th series, 40 K, 137 Cs and 210 Pb (Bq/kg dry weight) were measured using gamma ray spectrometry based on hyper pure germanium detectors. The specific activities of 210 Po ( 210 Pb) and uranium isotopes ( 238 U, 235 U and 234 U), (Bq/kg dry weight) were measured using alpha spectrometry based on surface barrier (PIPS) detectors after radiochemical separation. The absorbed radiation dose rates in air (nGy/h) due to natural radionuclides in shore sediment and radium equivalent activity (Bq/kg) were calculated. The specific activity ratios of 228 Ra/ 226 Ra, 210 Pb/ 226 Ra, 226 Ra/ 238 U and 234 U/ 238 U were calculated for evaluation of geo-chemical behaviour of these radionuclides. These results were represented and discussed. The results gave an indication of the possible radiological impacts of oil industries in the northern region and phosphate mining activities in the Safaja-Quseir region

  10. Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides for use in waste management system studies

    Smith, G.M.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal on the deep ocean bed. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. No single option is clearly the best from the radiological point of view. However, in conjunction with waste inventory data the results may be used to provide a preliminary view of the relative radiological merits of the various disposal options. (author)

  11. Radiological impact from airborne routine discharges of Coal-Fired power plant

    Norasalwa Zakaria; Rohyiza Baan; Kathiravale, Sivapalan

    2010-01-01

    Radioactivity exists everywhere in nature. We are exposed to intense and continuous natural radiation coming from the sun, cosmic radiation, telluric radiation and even to the internal radiation of our own body. The fly ash emitted from burning coal for electricity by a power plant carries into the surrounding environment 100 times more radiation than a nuclear power plant producing the same amount of energy. This paper presents the information of studies on the radiological impact from airborne routine discharge of coal-fired power plants. (author)

  12. Radiological impact of diagnostic nuclear medicine technology on the Quebec population (patients and workers) in 1989

    Renaud, L.; Blanchette, J.

    1992-01-01

    Using the results of a six month survey on the doses received by non-monitored hospital workers from diagnostic nuclear medicine patients (DNMP) in three hospitals and published statistics on Quebec's workers and hospitals, an evaluation of the radiological impact of DNMP has been calculated on the Quebec's population. In 1989, diagnostic nuclear medicine gave an average of 6.4 mSv/act or a total of 2,800 sv-man. The diagnostic nuclear medicine technologists' community received 0.4 Sv-man and the non-monitored hospital workers 1.7 Sv-man from the DNMP in the same year. (author)

  13. Modeling the Radiological Impact of Tritium in Sewage Sludge Being Used as Fertilizer

    Venter, A.; Smith, G.

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the radiological impact on humans via the foodchain resulting from the presence of tritium and C-14 in sewage sludge being used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The key endpoint of the assessment was the annual individual dose to an average member of potential critical groups. As part of the assessment, a model was developed to simulate the distribution of tritium between sewage sludge and effluent in the sewage treatment plant, the release of tritium upon sludge decomposition and subsequent uptake by plants and animals. The modeling assumptions, as well as key parameters and parameter values will be discussed in this paper

  14. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done.

  15. An analysis of radiological research publications in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010.

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Yun, Eun Joo; Baek, Sora; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate scientific papers published by radiologists in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010. A MEDLINE search was performed in five high impact general medical journals (AIM, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and NEJM) for all articles of which a radiologist was the first author between 1996 and 2010. The following information was abstracted from the original articles: radiological subspecialty, imaging technique used, type of research, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study outcome, declared funding, number of authors, collaboration, and country of the first author. Of 216 (0.19%) articles were published by radiologists in five general medical journals between 1996 and 2010, 83 were original articles. Fifteen (18.1%) original articles were concerned with the field of vascular/interventional radiology, 24 (28.9%) used combined imaging techniques, 76 (91.6%) were clinical research, 63 (75.9%) had a sample size of >50, 65 (78.3%) were prospective, 78 (94.0%) performed statistical analysis, 83 (100%) showed positive study outcomes, 57 (68.7%) were funded, 49 (59.0%) had from four to seven authors, and 79 (95.2%) were collaborative studies. A very small number (0.19%) in five high impact general medical journals was published by radiologists between 1996 and 2010. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel management options. A comparative study

    2000-01-01

    Given its potential significance for public health and the environment, the impact of radioactive releases during important steps of nuclear energy production must be considered when selecting among different fuel cycles. With this in mind, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has undertaken a comparative study to the radiological impacts of two main fuel cycle options : one with and one without reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The study compares the respective impacts of the two options based on generic models and assumptions as well as actual data. It concludes that the difference between them is not significant. A wealth of recent data assembled and evaluated by an international expert team is provided in annex. (authors)

  17. Age dependent food consumption data provided for the computation of the radiological impact via the ingestion pathway

    Kalckbrenner, R.; Bayer, A.

    1979-08-01

    Averaged age dependent food consumption data are compiled and evaluated to provide input data for the computation of the radiological impact via the ingestion pathway. For special population groups (self-suppliers e.g.) factors are provided, by which the consumption for special foods may be exceeded. The evaluated data are compared with those of the 'USNRC-Regulatory Guide 1.109 (revised 1977)' and those of the 'Recommendation of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (Draft 1977)'. (orig.) [de

  18. Radiological impact of drinks intakes of naturally occurring radionuclides on adults of central zone of Malaysia

    Tawalbeh, A.A.; Samat, S.B.; Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Muhamat Omar

    2012-01-01

    Fifty three samples of different types of imported and locally produced drinks consumed in central zone of Malaysia were analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry system. The measurement was conducted for 12 hours using a Canberra p-type high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer with 30 % relative efficiency resolution of 1.8 keV at 1.33 MeV. The detector was connected to a computer with MCA card (Accuspec B) and Genie-2000 Analysis software of Canberra Industries, USA. The geometric means of daily intakes of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were 0.05, 0.08 and 27.23 respectively. Also the values give annual committed effective doses of 0.8, 6.5 and 61.53 μSv yr -1 for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively for population in central zone of Malaysia. The net radiological impact of these radionuclides is 68.83 μSv yr -1 . This value gives cancer risk factor of 1.72 x 10 -7 . Also the value of net radiological impact gives loss of life expectancy of 0.43 days only. Whereas ICRP cancer risk factor for general public is 2.5 x 10 -3 and total risk involve from the all natural radiation sources based on global average annual radiation dose of 2.4 mSv yr -1 is 6.0 x 10 -3 . The estimated cancer risk shows that probability of increase of cancer risk from daily Malaysian drinks is only a minor fraction of ICRP values. Therefore the drink samples investigated here does not pose any significant health hazard and is considered radiologically safe for human consumption. (author)

  19. Estimation of the radiological impact in the use of phosphate fertilizer in citric plantations

    Zerquera, J.T.; Prendes A, M.; Alonso J, M.T.; Perez S, D.

    1996-01-01

    The use of fertilizers in the agriculture is a potential danger of environmental contamination, because the elements contained in them could suffer an important redistribution in the environment. This is the case of radioactive elements of natural origin, like K-40 and nuclides of U and Th series, present in the ores used in the production of industrial fertilizers. Phosphoric rocks used in fertilizers contain, generally, important concentrations of radioactive elements greater than other rocks of the earth core. In Cuba, preliminary determinations of Ra-226 concentrations in phosphoric rocks reveal results in the order of 2.7 Bq/kg. These values are greater than the mean of the rest of soils of the country. Due to this fact, a study on the radiological impact of this practice was developed. The study was carried out in citric plantations of the province of Pinar del Rio, where phosphate fertilizer is widely used. Samples of different parts of the plant were taken and analyzed by means of gamma spectrometric techniques. The paper presents values for Ra-226 that are in the range 27-40 Bq/kg. These results show that the use of fertilizers does not imply a significant radiological impact. Punctual valves of transfer coefficients of Ra-226 in soil -stem-leave-peel and - juice chains were estimated. (authors). 6 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Study of the Radiological Impact of the Coal Fired Power Plants on the Environment. The As Pontes coal-fired Power Plant

    Cancio, D.; Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the Study carried out to determine the radiological impact of the four main Spanish coal-fired power plants, the Study on the As Pontes Coal-Fired Coal Power Plant was finalized. In the Report containing the study are included every measurement performed, as well as the modelling and evaluations carried out in order to assess the radiological impact. The general conclusion obtained is that under a radiological point of view, the impact of this installation on the public and the environment is very small. Also the radiological impact on the workers of the installation was assessed, obtaining too very small increases over the natural background. (Author) 61 refs.

  1. The radiological environment impact in China's nuclear industry over past 30 years

    Pan Ziqiang; Wang Zhipo; Chen Zhuzhou; Xie Jianlun

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and main results of radiological environmental impacts of nuclear industry in China over the past 30 years. Generally speaking, the environmental impacts of Chinese nuclear industry are very small. The radiation doses to the critical group around the nuclear facilities are less than 5 mSv/a, of which 77.1 percent of the unit years are less than 0.25 mSv/a. The total annaul collective dose to the residents around nuclear facilities within 80 km is less than 1/10,000 of collective dose from natural radiation in the same areas. The collective dose from uranium mines and mills is much higher than that from other nuclear facilities, and is about 91.5% of the collective dose from the entire nuclear fuel cycle

  2. The disposal of high level radioactive waste and the need for assessing the radiological impact

    Johansson, G.; Haegg, C.

    1990-01-01

    Different options for the disposal of high level radioactive waste are being considered in several different countries. When assessing the possible future impact of these disposal concepts, very large uncertainties are associated with the predictions. These uncertainties include scenario representation, conceptual and mathematical modelling, parameter evaluation and finally the interpretation of the results. Some of these uncertainties cannot be eliminated regardless of research efforts, e.g. the evolution of the society and the environment. The paper discusses in general terms to what extent uncertainties in the predictions could be reduced and in the light of this discussion the authors present their point of view regarding the fruitfulness of assessing radiological impact in the far future. (orig.)

  3. Control of radiological impacts in deactivated uranium mine - the portuguese experience

    Pereira, Alcides; Neves, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The exploration of radioactive ores occurred in Portugal during around 100 years, and on that period 4370 tons were produced of uranium concentrate, and an estimated total of 13 millions of tons of residues, of various type and variable dangerous grade. From the year 2000 that the government has been performed studies on environmental characterization at the mining areas and remediation project as well. The precise evaluation of the environmental impacts implies the the knowledge of prior work situation, nonexistent for the case of Portuguese mines. This work proposes a methodology for exceeding that limitation focused on selection of area sited at the same metallogenetic province, and considered representative of background. The radiological impacts are checked by the effective dose calculated for reference groups of the exposed population, at this region and in the principal mining area at Portugal (Urgeirica), at the end of exploration and after the finalization of some remediation works

  4. Impact of Noncommunicable Disease Multimorbidity on Healthcare Utilisation and Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures in Middle-Income Countries: Cross Sectional Analysis.

    John Tayu Lee

    Full Text Available The burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs has grown rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, where populations are ageing, with rising prevalence of multimorbidity (more than two co-existing chronic conditions that will significantly increase pressure on already stretched health systems. We assess the impact of NCD multimorbidity on healthcare utilisation and out-of-pocket expenditures in six middle-income countries: China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa.Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from adult participants (>18 years in the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE 2007-2010. We used multiple logistic regression to determine socio-demographic correlates of multimorbidity. Association between the number of NCDs and healthcare utilisation as well as out-of-pocket spending was assessed using logistic, negative binominal and log-linear models.The prevalence of multimorbidity in the adult population varied from 3.9% in Ghana to 33.6% in Russia. Number of visits to doctors in primary and secondary care rose substantially for persons with increasing numbers of co-existing NCDs. Multimorbidity was associated with more outpatient visits in China (coefficient for number of NCD = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.46, 0.66, a higher likelihood of being hospitalised in India (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.45, 1.75, higher out-of-pocket expenditures for outpatient visits in India and China, and higher expenditures for hospital visits in Russia. Medicines constituted the largest proportion of out-of-pocket expenditures in persons with multimorbidity (88.3% for outpatient, 55.9% for inpatient visit in China in most countries.Multimorbidity is associated with higher levels of healthcare utilisation and greater financial burden for individuals in middle-income countries. Our study supports the WHO call for universal health insurance and health service coverage in LMICs, particularly for vulnerable groups such as the elderly with

  5. The radiological impact of radionuclides dispersed on a regional and global scale: Methods for assessment and their application

    1985-01-01

    The basic features of models, developed to assess the radiological impact of radionuclides that become dispersed on a regional or global scale, have been reviewed. Particular attention has been given to identifying the important processes that need to be modelled in order to make a reliable estimate of the radiological impact, rather than attempting to judge which models are the most appropriate. Judgements on the latter will be sensitive to the particular application; in some cases a very simple approach may be sufficient, whereas in others a more rigorous analysis may be necessary. Two aspects are important in assessing the radiological impact: these are the exposure of critical groups, and the collective dose in the exposed population

  6. Aspects of biogas utilisation

    Luning, L.

    1992-01-01

    Utilisation of biogas has received considerable attention over the last decade, its full potential has not been reached however. The paper discusses various options for utilisation of biogas and the limitations that may occur as far as they are associated with the characteristics of biogas. As a result the prospects for the future are presented. (au)

  7. Description of the operation and radiological impact of a spanish coastal coal-fired power station

    Corbacho, Jose A.; Baeza, Antonio; Robles, Beatriz; Mora, Juan C.; Cancio, David

    2008-01-01

    The 'Litoral' Coal-Fired Power Plant (LCFPP) is situated in the town of Carboneras (Almeria) in southern Spain. Its nominal output power is 1589 M We. The fuel used is imported sub-bituminous coal supplied by collier vessels, and unloaded in a port annexed to the plant. The climate of the area is semi-arid mediterranean, with particularly low rainfall. The plant's radiological impact was studied considering various exposure pathways for the workers and the general public. In particular, inhalation and external exposure contributions to the effective dose due to the different materials involved in the operation (coals, fly ash, and bottom ash) were evaluated. Alpha spectrometry was used to characterize radiologically the airborne particulates collected in aerosol filters at points within the installation, and to determine 210 Po levels in aerosols collected in filters placed around the power station. High resolution gamma spectrometry was used to characterize coal and ash samples from the plant, and soil samples collected outside the installation within a radius of 5 km. A dose rate monitor was used to measure the ambient dose equivalent at different points inside and outside the plant. Samples of the seawater used in the plant and of products for human consumption produced nearby were also collected and characterized radiologically. The effective dose was evaluated following a realistic approach based principally on experimental measurements and in situ observations, complemented with mathematical models when necessary. The resulting estimated effective doses for selected representative groups of workers and general public were all below the reference levels used in this work. (author)

  8. The impact of communication materials on public responses to a radiological dispersal device (RDD) attack.

    Rogers, M Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James

    2013-03-01

    It is a common assumption that, in the event of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) attack, a well-prepared and informed public is more likely to follow official recommendations regarding the appropriate safety measures to take. We present findings from a UK study investigating the ability of crisis communication to influence perceptions of risk and behavioral intentions in the general public in response to CBRN terrorism. We conducted a focus group study involving a scenario presented in mock news broadcasts to explore levels of public knowledge, information needs, and intended behavioral reactions to an attack involving an overt radiological dispersal device (RDD), or dirty bomb. We used the findings from these focus groups to design messages for the public that could be presented in a short leaflet. We then tested the effects of the leaflet on reactions to the same scenario in 8 further focus groups. The impact of the new messages on levels of knowledge, information needs, and intended compliance with official recommendations was assessed. The provision of information increased the perceived credibility of official messages and increased reported levels of intended compliance with advice to return to normal/stop sheltering, attend a facility for assessment and treatment, and return to a previously contaminated area after decontamination of the environment has taken place. Should a real attack with an RDD occur, having pretested messages available to address common concerns and information needs should facilitate the public health response to the attack.

  9. Anticipated radiological impacts from the mining and milling of thorium for the nonproliferative fuels

    Meyer, H.R.; Till, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Recent emphasis on proliferation-resistant fuel cycles utilizing thorium--uranium-233 fuels has necessitated evaluation of the potential radiological impact of mining and milling thorium ore. Therefore, an analysis has been completed of hypothetical mine-mill complexes using population and meteorological data representative of a thorium resource site in the Lemhi Pass area of Idaho/Montana, United States of America. Source terms for the site include thorium-232 decay chain radionuclides suspended as dusts and radon-220 and daughters initially released as gas. Fifty-year dose commitments to maximally exposed individuals of 2.4 mrem to total body, 9.5 mrem to bone, and 35 mrem to lungs are calculated to result from facility operation. Radium-228, thorium-228, thorium-232 and lead-212 (daughter of radon-220) are found to be the principal contributors to dose. General population doses for a 50-mile radius surrounding the facility are estimated to be 0.05 man-rem to total body, 0.1 man-rem to bone, and 0.7 man-rem to lungs. Generally speaking, the results of this study indicate that the radiological aspects of thorium mining and milling should pose no significant problems with regard to implementation of thorium fuel cycles

  10. Reduction of the visual impact of overhead transmission line systems through utilisation of line surge arresters as lightning protection

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    with the Technical University of Denmark, on how to lessen the visual impact of 400 kV overhead line transmission systems. In this paper omission of shield wires combined with installation of a suitable number of line surge arresters is investigated as a possible alternative to transmission lines equipped...... with shielding wires thereby reducing tower height, allowing more compact designs of towers thus minimizing the visual environment impact of the lines. Omission of shield wires in the system and instead utilizing a larger number of surge arresters in the (upper) phases of an overhead line without reduction...... will be investigated by transient simulations on a 400 kV line with either shield wires or line surge arresters. These simulations will also be used to estimate number and location of the line surge arresters in the line to ensure a satisfactory performance of the line when omitting shield wires in the tower top...

  11. The Impact of Healthcare Insurance on the Utilisation of Facility-Based Delivery for Childbirth in the Philippines.

    Hebe N Gouda

    Full Text Available In recent years, the government of the Philippines embarked upon an ambitious Universal Health Care program, underpinned by the rapid scale-up of subsidized insurance coverage for poor and vulnerable populations. With a view of reducing the stubbornly high maternal mortality rates in the country, the program has a strong focus on maternal health services and is supported by a national policy of universal facility-based delivery (FBD. In this study, we examine the impact that recent reforms expanding health insurance coverage have had on FBD.Data from the most recent Philippines 2013 Demographic Health Survey was employed. This study applies quasi-experimental methods using propensity scores along with alternative matching techniques and weighted regression to control for self-selection and investigate the impact of health insurance on the utilization of FBD.Our findings reveal that the likelihood of FBD for women who are insured is between 5 to 10 percent higher than for those without insurance. The impact of health insurance is more pronounced amongst rural and poor women for whom insurance leads to a 9 to 11 per cent higher likelihood of FBD.We conclude that increasing health insurance coverage is likely to be an effective approach to increase women's access to FBD. Our findings suggest that when such coverage is subsidized, as it is the case in the Philippines, women from poor and rural populations are likely to benefit the most.

  12. Impact of Communication Errors in Radiology on Patient Care, Customer Satisfaction, and Work-Flow Efficiency.

    Siewert, Bettina; Brook, Olga R; Hochman, Mary; Eisenberg, Ronald L

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of communication errors on patient care, customer satisfaction, and work-flow efficiency and to identify opportunities for quality improvement. We performed a search of our quality assurance database for communication errors submitted from August 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014. Cases were analyzed regarding the step in the imaging process at which the error occurred (i.e., ordering, scheduling, performance of examination, study interpretation, or result communication). The impact on patient care was graded on a 5-point scale from none (0) to catastrophic (4). The severity of impact between errors in result communication and those that occurred at all other steps was compared. Error evaluation was performed independently by two board-certified radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and kappa statistics. Three hundred eighty of 422 cases were included in the study. One hundred ninety-nine of the 380 communication errors (52.4%) occurred at steps other than result communication, including ordering (13.9%; n = 53), scheduling (4.7%; n = 18), performance of examination (30.0%; n = 114), and study interpretation (3.7%; n = 14). Result communication was the single most common step, accounting for 47.6% (181/380) of errors. There was no statistically significant difference in impact severity between errors that occurred during result communication and those that occurred at other times (p = 0.29). In 37.9% of cases (144/380), there was an impact on patient care, including 21 minor impacts (5.5%; result communication, n = 13; all other steps, n = 8), 34 moderate impacts (8.9%; result communication, n = 12; all other steps, n = 22), and 89 major impacts (23.4%; result communication, n = 45; all other steps, n = 44). In 62.1% (236/380) of cases, no impact was noted, but 52.6% (200/380) of cases had the potential for an impact. Among 380 communication errors in a radiology department, 37

  13. Application study of RESRAD program in radiological impact assessment of very low level waste landfill

    Liu Aihua; Huang Dan; Jia Chuanzhao; Shen Haibo; Huang Kedong

    2014-01-01

    The radiological impact assessment of release utilizing a very low level waste landfill at home was carried out by using RESRAD program. The basic principles, sub-models and calculation method of RESRAD program were outlined. The selection and processing of site-specific parameters were analyzed. Selecting resident farmer scenario, the effective dose of the resident was calculated after the landfill was open, and the critical pathway as well as the critical nuclides was analyzed further. The results show that, for this landfill the maximum effective dose per year is 0.003 mSv, 0.13% of the average global public natural background radiation dose. There is small dose contribution for radioactive nuclides with short life, but large dose contribution for the nuclides with small retardation factor and middle or long-life. For the latter, the main exposure pathway is the underwater route, and enhancing indoor ventilation is an effective way to eliminate radiation dose of radon. (authors)

  14. Radiological impact from the transport of radiopharmaceuticals of the IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Rodrigues, Demerval Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    When a package is shipped, people who work, live or travel in the route used for transportation of radioactive materials are irradiated, as well as those who are inside vehicles that travel in the same or opposite directions. Therefore, the proposed work has as main objective to estimate the radiological impact of the transportation of radiopharmaceuticals of IPEN/CNEN-SP to some predefined destinations. The doses in individuals who are in the public streets and in vehicles that travel close to the means of transportation, along the route traveled by packages, during the transport of radiopharmaceuticals were estimated. The doses were also estimated for drivers, from both the operation of driving the vehicle, and the loading and unloading of packages, because these tasks are performed by the drivers. (author)

  15. The radiological impact of past and present practices of the mineral sands industry in Queensland

    Alexander, E.G.; Stewart, N.D.; Wallace, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that the introduction of uniform Australian national Codes of Practice for radiation protection in the mining and milling of radioactive ores in the early 1980's has led to the mining and health regulatory authorities implementing the provisions of the Codes. Deficiencies involving dust and external gamma radiation levels in the mineral sands industry have led to various administrative and engineering controls being introduced to reduce the levels of radiation doses to employees well below 20 mSv/y limit. There are guidelines for screening the radioactivity of tailings released into the environment and some products for industrial use. Future activities by the regulatory authorities and industry will involve an optimisation of radiation protection, ongoing remedial programs, register of data about contaminated lands and assessments of the environmental, occupational and the public radiological impacts from downstream processing of mineral sands. The latter involves synthetic rutile, zircon flour, rare earth and refractory technologies. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  16. Radiological impact of the management of radioactive waste arising from the Argentine Nuclear Programme

    Migliori de Beninson, A.; Cancio, D.

    1984-01-01

    The Argentine nuclear programme, as it stands at present, provides for the construction of four nuclear power plants in addition to those of Atucha I and Embalse and for the establishment of such fuel cycle facilities as are required to supply all of these plants. This paper evaluates the radiological impact (collective dose commitment) expected from the management of the radioactive wastes arising in the facilities mentioned above throughout the useful life of the reactors. The maximum individual doses to be expected as a result of the planned high-level-waste repository are also estimated. The evaluations presented are partly specific to the sites under consideration, but they also include estimates of the total collective dose commitments resulting from the management of radioactive waste under the Argentine nuclear programme. (author)

  17. Radiological impact during the extraction, processing and use of phosphate minerals in Cuba

    Zerquera, Juan T.; Prendes Alonso, Miguel; Ramos Biltres, Odalys

    2008-01-01

    The use of phosphates for the production of fertilisers is a practice broadly diffused in the world. Their wide use is associated to the contribution of this material to formulation of Nk fertilisers. It is known in turn that phosphates have in their composition appreciable quantities of radioactive elements of natural origin. For this reason the use of phosphates in the composition of fertilizers can cause a radiological impact to both workers and public during all the phases of extraction and processing of phosphates, as well as during the production and application of these fertilizers. Finally the transfer of radionuclides contained in the fertilizers to the products of human consumption (vegetables, milk, meat) can produce an additional radiological impact on population. In Cuba there exist six locations of phosphoric rocks, located in the counties of Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas, Sancti-Spiritus and Holguin. From these deposits there were studied the two ones which are in exploitation: 'La Pimienta' deposit, located in the West part of the country and 'Trinidad de Guedes' deposit, located in the Centre-West of Cuba. Paper shows the results obtained by the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) in the determination of radionuclides concentrations in collected in the sites samples. Based on these results and taking into account both the features of routine works carried out in the sites and the later use of collected mineral as fertilizer, doses to mining workers and to members of the public were estimated. Estimated doses are in the range 0.3 - 2.70 mSv per year for workers and in the range 1.3 - 17 μSv per year. (author)

  18. Radiochemical characterization and environmental radiological impact in tin and lead processing from cassiterite

    Garcia, Marcia Aparecida Antico

    2009-01-01

    The tin and lead industry located in Pirapora do Bom Jesus in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, is responsible for the production of about 7000 ton year-1 of tin and 350 ton year-1 of lead. The raw material used in this facility is cassiterite, which presents in its composition concentrations of natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series up to 660 kBq kg -1 and 450 kBq kg -1 , respectively. The smelting and refining processes may lead to concentrations of these radionuclides, mainly in the precipitated dust and in slag. In the operational process, intermediate refining and final slag are obtained and are stored in piles in open air. It is estimated that the amount of waste stored is about 600000 ton. This work aims to study the environmental radiological impact of the operation of this facility and to establish its Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. In order to accomplish this task the content of radioactivity was determined in the raw material, products, byproducts, residue, deposition pond and exhausting systems. Although in the raw material the radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series are almost in equilibrium, during the processing this equilibrium is disrupted and the radionuclides migrate according to their chemical properties. Concentrations up to 31 kBq kg -1 for 238 U, 69 kBq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 2.5 kBq kg -1 for 210 Pb, 130 kBq kg -1 for 232 Th and 120 kBq kg -1 for 228 Ra were obtained in the slag. The environmental radiological impact was established by measuring the radionuclides in the critical compartments that is the ones that may cause exposure to the public. If the residue pile is considered, the critical pathways are the internal exposition from the dust inhalation and the water ingestion, due to re suspension and dispersion of the pile dust and groundwater contamination, respectively; and external exposure due to immersion in the radioactive cloud and soil contamination. For the emission of gaseous and particulate

  19. Study and radiological impact assessment produced by activities of different non-nuclear industries. Titanium dioxide industries

    Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Manjon, G.; Abril, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    After a careful study and evaluation of radiological impact, the conclusion is that these industries do not need to be subject to control, and it is not necessary any corrective action to reduce the exposition and/or to apply any radiation protection measures.

  20. Radiological impact of airborne effluents of coal-fired and nuclear power plants

    McBride, J.P.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Blanco, R.E.

    1977-06-01

    Radiological impact of naturally occurring radionuclides in airborne effluents of a model coal-fired steam plant is evaluated assuming a release to the atmosphere of 1 percent of the ash in the coal burned and compared with the impact of radioactive materials in the airborne effluents of model light-water reactors. The principal exposure pathway for radioactive materials released from both types of plants is ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. For nuclear plants immersion in the airborne effluents is also a significant factor in the dose commitment. Assuming that the coal burned contains 1 ppM uranium and 2 ppM thorium together with their decay products and using the same impact analysis methods used in evaluating nuclear facilities, the maximum individual dose commitments from the coal plant for the whole body and most organs (except the thyroid) are shown to be greater than those from a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and, with the exception of the bone and kidney doses, less than those from a boiling-water reactor (BWR). With the exception of the bone dose, the maximum individual dose commitments from the coal plant are less than the numerical design guideline limits listed for light-water reactors (LWRs). Population dose commitments from the coal plant are higher than those from either nuclear plant

  1. Estimating the impact of somatic cell count on the value of milk utilising parameters obtained from the published literature.

    Geary, Una; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; O'Brien, Bernadette; Garrick, Dorian J; Shalloo, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    The impact of mastitis on milk value per litre independent of the effect of mastitis on milk volume, was quantified for Ireland using a meta-analysis and a processing sector model. Changes in raw milk composition, cheese processing and composition associated with increased bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were incorporated into the model. Processing costs and market values were representative of current industry values. It was assumed that as BMSCC increased (i) milk fat and milk protein increased and milk lactose decreased, (ii) fat and protein recoveries decreased, (iii) cheese protein decreased and cheese moisture increased. Five BMSCC categories were examined from ⩽100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml. The analysis showed that as BMSCC increased the production quantities reduced. An increase in BMSCC from 100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml saw a reduction in net revenue of 3·2% per annum (€51·3 million) which corresponded to a reduction in the value of raw milk of €0·0096 cents/l.

  2. Impact of biogas digesters on wood utilisation and self-reported back pain for women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms.

    Dohoo, Carolyn; VanLeeuwen, John; Read Guernsey, Judith; Critchley, Kim; Gibson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of life and health benefits of installing biogas digesters on rural Kenyan dairy farms with respect to wood utilisation. Women from 62 farms (31 biogas farms and 31 referent farms) participated in interviews to determine reliance on wood and the impact of biogas digesters on this reliance. Self-reported back pain, time spent collecting wood and money spent on wood were significantly lower (p biogas group, compared to referent farms. Multivariable linear regression showed that wood consumption increased by 2 lbs/day for each additional family member living on a farm. For an average family of three people, the addition of one cow was associated with increased wood consumption by 1.0 lb/day on biogas farms but by 4.4 lbs/day on referent farms (significant interaction variable - likely due to additional hot water for cleaning milk collection equipment). Biogas digesters represent a potentially important technology that can reduce reliance on wood fuel and improve health for Kenyan dairy farmers.

  3. Radiological scenario modeling using the Hotspot code and potential financial impact of treatment of radiation induced cancer to the public

    Silva, Gabriel Fidalgo Queiroz da; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Rebello, Wilson Freitas; Araujo, Olga Maria Oliveira de

    2015-01-01

    The work aims to develop a methodology that is able to estimate the financial impact in a radiological emergency events, considering the radiation induced cancer, particularly leukemia. Considering a RDD - Radiological Dispersive Device, consisting of explosives and cesium-137 as radioactive material, a scenario building on the Rio de Janeiro was modeled. The convergence of a risk modeling platform (HotSpot 3.0), the analysis of excess relative risks for humans (BEIR V-Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation V), considering scenarios composed of contaminated areas, are secondary goals

  4. The impact of radiology expertise upon the localization of subtle pulmonary lesions

    Robinson, John W.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Lewis, Sarah J.

    2016-03-01

    Rationale and objectives: This study investigates the influence of radiology expertise in the correct localization of lesions when radiologists are requested to complete an observer task. Specifically, the ability to detect pulmonary lesions of different subtleties is explored in relation to radiologists' reported specialty. Materials and Methods: Institutional ethics was granted. Ten radiologists (5 thoracic, 5 non-thoracic) interpreted 40 posterior-anterior (PA) chest x-rays (CXRs) consisting of 21 normal and 19 abnormal cases (solitary pulmonary nodule). The abnormal cases contained a solitary nodule with an established subtlety (subtlety 5 = obvious to subtlety 1 = extremely subtle). Radiologists read the test set and identified any pulmonary nodule using a 1-5 confidence scale (1=no pulmonary nodule to 5=highest confidence case contains a pulmonary lesion). The radiologists interpreted the image bank twice and the cases were randomized for each reader between reads. Results: The Kruskal-Wallis test identified that subtlety of nodules significantly influenced the sensitivity of nonthoracic radiologists (P=test demonstrated a significant difference in sensitivity for radiologist specialisation (P=0.013), with thoracic radiologists better compared to non-thoracic radiologists (mean sensitivity 0.479 and 0.389 respectively). The sensitivity of nodule detection decreased when comparing subtlety 4 to 3, 3 to 2 and 2 to 1 for non-thoracic and thoracic radiologists'with the subtlety 3 to subtlety 2 being significant (P=0.014) for non thoracic radiologists while thoracic radiologists' demonstrated a decrease but no transitions between subtlety were significant. The most noticeable, and interesting, effect was with the thoracic radiologists' with the average means of subtlety 2 and 1 being almost the same and closely comparable to level 3. Conclusion: Results from this study indicate that expertise in chest radiology does significantly impact upon the sensitivity of

  5. DOEZOR2: a code to assess the radiological impact of effluent discharges

    Martin Garcia, J.E.; Gomez Rodriguez, C.A.; Gimeno Blesa, M.E.; GARCIA ACOSTA, F.

    2010-01-01

    DOEZOR2 (DOsis al Exterior en ZORita v. 2) comprises a suite of models and data management tools which can be used to perform the radiological impact assessments of routine and continuous discharges from nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities for regulatory purposes. The Code is based on Radiation Protection 72 and the Regulatory Guide 1.109 (USNRC) methodology. The code development was carried out by SOCOIN (Gas Natural Fenosa Group) and is implemented in Jose Cabrera NPP (or Zorita NPP). DOEZOR has been operating during ten years and is about to be updated in order to consider realistic doses methodology. The new software differs from its predecessor in a number of ways, including a new user interface, new radionuclides and several new capacities (realistic dose). The model is developed to estimate radiological consequences of emissions from nuclear power plants. Internal exposure via inhalation and ingestion, external exposure from clouds and radioactivity deposited on the ground are included in the model. DOEZOR2 has been developed in Visual Fortran, using user friendly windows environment and modular architecture (easy to implement for other uses and installations). The main features of the code include: - Annual discharge to the atmospheric or river environment can be modelled. - Dynamic systems dispersion of radionuclides released to the river (two reservoirs). - A comprehensive list of exposure pathways. - A suite of environmental transfer models to estimate the transfer of radionuclides through the environment. - Site specific data (parameters of life habits). - Results in terms of individual doses (three age's groups), using effective dose as defined in Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM and dose coefficients from U.S. Federal Guidance Report 13. - Results in 'MS Word form' for periodic information to authorities. This software could be implemented anywhere, considering the particular characteristic of the site for the plant or facility

  6. Radiological impact to the population of the three major accidents happened in the civil nuclear industry

    Ortiz M, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    The greatest fear of the population before a nuclear accident, is the radiological impact to the health of people, due to the exposure to the liberated radioactive material during the accident, this fear is generally exaggerated or not well managed by the media. The best estimate in the received doses and their possible effects is carried out based on the information obtained during a certain time after the accident event. This work contains a summary of the information in the topic that at the present time has presented institutions as: the World Health Organization (Who), the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the World Nuclear Association, among others. The considered accidents are: first, the Unit-2 of the nuclear power plant of the Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, USA occurred 28 March of 1979, in the Reactor TMI-2, type PWR of 900 M We; the second accident was 26 April of 1986, in the Unit-4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl, in Ukraine, the involved reactor was type BRMK, of 1000 M We moderated by graphite and cooled with light water, the power plant is located to 100 Km to the northwest of Kiev; 25 years later occurred the third accident in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Dai-ichi, in Japan, affecting at four of the six reactors of the power plant. A brief description of the accident is presented in each case, including the magnitude of the provoked liberations of radioactive material, the estimate doses of the population and the affected workers are presented, as well as the possible consequences of these doses on the health. The objective of this diffusion work is to give knowledge to the nuclear and radiological community of the available information on the topic, in order to be located in the appropriate professional context. (author)

  7. The Use of Twitter by Radiology Journals: An Analysis of Twitter Activity and Impact Factor.

    Kelly, Brendan S; Redmond, Ciaran E; Nason, Gregory J; Healy, Gerard M; Horgan, Niall A; Heffernan, Eric J

    2016-11-01

    Medical journals use social media as a means to disseminate new research and interact with readers. The microblogging site Twitter is one such platform. The aim of this study was to analyze the recent use of Twitter by the leading radiology journals. The top 50 journals by Impact Factor were included. Twitter profiles associated with these journals, or their corresponding societies, were identified. Whether each journal used other social media platforms was also recorded. Each Twitter profile was analyzed over a one-year period, with data collected via Twitonomy software. Klout scores of social media influence were calculated. Results were analyzed in SPSS using Student's t test, Fisher contingency tables, and Pearson correlations to identify any association between social media interaction and Impact Factors of journals. Fourteen journals (28%) had dedicated Twitter profiles. Of the 36 journals without dedicated Twitter profiles, 25 (50%) were associated with societies that had profiles, leaving 11 (22%) journals without a presence on Twitter. The mean Impact Factor of all journals was 3.1 ± 1.41 (range, 1.7-6.9). Journals with Twitter profiles had higher Impact Factors than those without (mean, 3.37 vs 2.14; P Twitter profiles and those associated with affiliated societies (P = .47). Since joining Twitter, 7 of the 11 journals (64%) experienced increases in Impact Factor. A greater number of Twitter followers was correlated with higher journal Impact Factor (R 2  = 0.581, P = .029). The investigators assessed the prevalence and activity of the leading radiology journals on Twitter. Radiology journals with Twitter profiles have higher Impact Factors than those without profiles, and the number of followers of a journal's Twitter profile is positively associated with Impact Factor. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiological health review of the final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volumes 1 and 2

    1981-01-01

    Pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Department of Energy has provided in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) a comprehensive review of the potential radiological impact of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, referred to in the FEIS as, the authorized alternative. The EEG has reviewed this document to determine (a) the changes made in comparison with the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS); (b) the adequacy of the DOE's evaluation of the potential radiological impact; (c) the thoroughness of the DOE's response to the comments of the EEG on the DEIS; and (d) other issues which should be addressed by DOE more fully prior to beginning construction of the WIPP. Based on our review of the FEIS, the Department of Energy has incorporated and addressed the majority of the concerns, questions and recommendations that the EEG provided to them in our August 1979 review of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement on WIPP and the FEIS provides a generally satisfactory evaluation of the potential radiological impact. There are, however, a number of areas that have yet to be adequately treated by DOE and should be acted upon and resolved prior to beginning construction of the WIPP. The more important issues are included and are discussed in more detail in our December 8, 1980 and January 15, 1981 comments on the FEIS

  9. Radiological impact of plutonium recycle in the fuel cycle of LWR type reactors: professional exposure during mormal operation

    White, I.F.; Kelly, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological impact of the fuel cycle of light water type reactors using enriched uranium may be changed by plutonium recycle. The impact on human population and on the persons professionally exposed may be different according to the different steps of the fuel cycle. This report analyses the differential radiological impact on the different types of personnel involed in the fuel cycle. Each step of the fuel cycle is separately studied (fuel fabrication, reactor operation, fuel reprocessing), as also the transport of the radioactive materials between the different steps. For the whole fuel cycle, one estimates that, with regard to the fuel cycle using enriched uranium, the plutonium recycle involves a small increase of the professional exposure

  10. Discharges of nuclear waste into the Kola Bay and its impact on human radiological doses

    Matishov, Genady G.; Matishov, Dimitry G.; Namjatov, Alexey A.; Carroll, JoLynn; Dahle, Salve

    2000-01-01

    The civilian nuclear icebreaker facility, RTP ''ATOMFLOT,'' is located in Kola Bay, Northwest Russia, as are several nuclear installations operated by the Russian Northern Fleet. A treatment plant at the Atomflot facility discharges purified nuclear waste into the bay at an annual rate of 500 m 3 . As a result of plant modifications this rate will soon increase to 5000 m 3 /yr. Evidence of minor leakages of 60 Co are reported by in the vicinity of Atomflot as well as near several military installations in Kola and the adjacent Motovsky Bays. 137 Cs levels reported in the present study for seawater and seaweed collected from locations within the bays are at expected levels except in the vicinity of Atomflot, where the 137 Cs level in a seaweed sample was 46±5 Bq/kg w.w. indicating significant uptake of radionuclides to biota. Uptake also may be occurring in higher trophic levels of the food web through environmental exchange and/or biotransformation. We consider the impact of the present and anticipated discharges from Atomflot through a radiological dose assessment for humans consuming fish from Kola Bay. Mixing and transport of nuclear waste is simulated using a simple box model. Maximum doses, assuming consumption of 100 kg/yr of fish, are below 10 -9 Sv/yr; the planned ten-fold increase in the discharge of treated waste will increase the doses to below 10 -8 Sv/yr. Using data on radionuclide levels in sediments and assuming equilibrium partitioning of radionuclides among sediment, seawater and fish, we estimate that the total doses to humans consuming fish from different areas of Kola and Motovsky Bays, including adjacent to military-controlled nuclear installations, are ∼10 -7 Sv/yr. Nuclear activities in Kola and Motovsky Bays thus far have had minimal impact on the environment. Discharges from the treatment plant currently account for less than 0.2% of the total dose predictions. The increase in discharges from the treatment plant is not expected to change

  11. A Vertically Integrated Online Radiology Curriculum Developed as a Cognitive Apprenticeship: Impact on Student Performance and Learning.

    Lim-Dunham, Jennifer E; Ensminger, David C; McNulty, John A; Hoyt, Amy E; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J

    2016-02-01

    The principles of Collins' cognitive apprenticeship model were used to design a radiology curriculum in which medical students practice radiological skills using online case-based modules. The modules are embedded within clinical third-year clerkships, and students are provided with personalized feedback from the instructors. We describe the development of the vertical online radiology curriculum and evaluate its impact on student achievement and learning process using a mixed method approach. The curriculum was developed over a 2-year period. Student participation was voluntary in the first year and mandatory in the second year. For quantitative curriculum evaluation, student metrics for voluntary versus mandatory groups were assessed using independent sample t tests and variable entry method regression analysis. For qualitative analysis, responses from a survey of students about the value of the curriculum were organized into defined themes using consensus coding. Mandatory participation significantly improved (p = .001) the mean radiology examination score (82 %) compared to the voluntary group (73%), suggesting that mandatory participation had a beneficial effect on student performance. Potential preexisting differences in underlying general academic performance were accounted for by including mean basic science grades as the first variable in the regression model. The significant increase in R(2) from .16 to .28 when number of radiology cases completed was added to the original model, and the greater value of the standardized beta for this variable, suggest that the curriculum made a significant contribution to students' radiology examination scores beyond their baseline academic performance. Five dominant themes about curricular characteristics that enhanced student learning and beneficial outcomes emerged from consensus coding. These themes were (1) self-paced design, (2) receiving feedback from faculty, (3) clinical relevance of cases, (4) gaining

  12. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-02-01

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose.

  13. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-02-01

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose

  14. Evaluation of radiological impacts for environmental radioactivity distribution in the Kartini reactor area

    Yazid, M.; Suratman; Sutresna, G.; Aminjoyo, S.

    1996-01-01

    This evaluation covered of gross radioactivity. K-40 radioactivity in the water, soil and grass samples. The measurement of Cs-137 and Sr-90 radioactivity in the water samples have also been done. The aim of this research was determined of radiological impacts in the environment around the Kartini reactor. The water, soil and plant samples were counted of gross beta, Sr-90 activity by beta counter and for K-40, Cs-137 activity by low background gamma spectrometer. For this evaluation can be concluded there are no indication of the radioactivity release from the Kartini reactor operation. Gross beta radioactivity in the water, soil and grass sample are between 0.06-0.61 Bq/l, 0.24-0.79 Bq/g and 3.47-5.70 Bq/g ash. Radioactivity of K-40 in the water, soil and grass sample are between 0.09-0.56 Bq/l, 0.12-0.59 Bq/g and 0.29-0.93 Bq/g ash. The radioactivity of Cs-137 in the water samples are between under limit detectable level to 88.62 mBq/l and Sr-90 are between under limit detectable level to 24.22 mBq/l. (author)

  15. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity and its Radiological Impact in Ortum Region in Kenya

    Wanjala, F.O.; Otwoma, D.; Kitao, T.F.; Hashim, N.O.

    2015-01-01

    The earth contains natural background radiations originating from terrestrial and cosmic sources. This study aims at assessing the levels of background radiation in air, soil and water and its associated radiological impact and also determines the elemental concentration of the rocks and soils around Ortum hills and quarry. 100 points will be measured for radioactivity in the air and 40 soil and 10 water samples will be collected for laboratory analysis using both grid and purposive sampling methods. Radioactivity in the field will be determined using the hand held Red Eye and Radiagem radiation survey meters. The levels of naturally occurring radionuclide Uranium-238 ( 238 U), Thorium-232 ( 232 Th) and Potassium-40 ( 40 K) in the soil and rocks will be determined using High Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector; the Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) will be used for analysis of water samples while the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (EDXRF) will be used to determine the elemental composition in the rocks and soil. The Residual Radioactivity (RESRAD) program will be used to analyze and assess the doses and risks associated with radiation exposure in Ortum region. (author)

  16. Radiological impact of the long-lived Chernobyl fallout isotopes in Greece

    Anagnostakis, M. J.; Petropoulos, N. P.; Hinis, E. P.; Simopoulos, S. E.

    1997-01-01

    During the period May-November 1986, 1242 soil samples of 1 cm thick surface were collected all over Greece. The samples were analyzed giving detailed mapping of the deposits of 1 37 Cs, 1 34 Cs, 1 25 Sb, 1 10 Ag, 9 5 Zr, 1 41 Ce, 1 44 Ce, 1 03 Ru, 1 06 Ru and 5 4 Mn. Mapping of the fission products 1 37 Cs, 1 34 Cs, 1 25 Sb, 1 44 Ce and 1 06 Ru allowed localisation of the three most contaminated areas in the country, near the city of Karditsa, Trikala and Naoussa. The 1 37 Cs deposits in those areas was 65 -150 kBq m - 2. The mean value all over Greece was estimated to 8-9 kBq m - 2. This deposits mapping can be used for investigation of accident radiological impact on Greek population. A computer code was developed to calculate the dose due to external irradiation and ingestion of contaminated food. The dosimetric results are reported for a number of radionuclides and exposure pathways. Committed effective dose due to ingestion over a period of 50 years of he average exposed 20 years old adult who consumed contaminated food during the firs year after the accident is estimated to about 548 μSv, and the respective value due to external irradiation was 67 μ Sv for the first year and 917 μ Sv over a period of 50 years

  17. Politics, economics, and the law: Impact on and responses by radiology

    Hillman, B.J.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Recent changes in government regulation and third-party reimbursement, and the rapid development of alternative health care delivery systems, are having large impact on the practice of radiology. In the first half of this course we examine the origins of these changes and evaluate the current and future strategies of the major instigators. Initiatives intended to reduce health care costs will be discussed in the context of their effect on radiologists' access to patients and equipment. Topics will include the regulation of expensive imaging technology and such alternative physician payment mechanisms as MD-DRGs, RAPs, relative value scales, and capitation. Government and third-party payors' efforts to instill market mechanisms to reduce physician costs will also be discussed. The second part of the program will focus on potential responses of radiologists to the changing milieu. Using a case method approach, the authors discuss the benefits and dangers associated with such possibilities as exclusive contracts and entrapreneurial ventures, and how such considerations as liability, fiscal, responsibility for technology, and antitrust legislation impinge on radiologists' decisions

  18. Coal-fired power stations - the radiological impact of effluent discharges to atmosphere

    Camplin, W.C.

    1980-06-01

    An assessment is made of the radiological impact of atmosphere discharges from a hypothetical 2000 MWe power station sited in Great Britain. The exposure pathways considered are external irradiation from the plume and from activity deposited on the ground, inhalation of material in the plume and material resuspended from land surfaces, and ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. The reduction in radiation exposure due to naturally-occurring 14 C by releases of stable carbon from the power station is also considered. The ingestion pathway is found to result in the highest individual doses, whereas the inhalation pathway makes the dominant contribution to collective dose. The most important radionuclides are 210 Pb, 210 Po and the thorium isotopes 232 Th, 230 Th and 228 Th. For 30 years operation of the power-station, the collective effective dose equivalent commitment truncated to 500 years is estimated to be 340 man Sv. The maximum annual committed effective dose equivalent to an individual is evaluated as 230 μSv, though it is considered improbable that this level of dose would be found in practice. (author)

  19. Environmental radiological impact of a Brazilian deactivated Uranium Mine along the period 1999-2009

    Pereira, W.S.; Kelecom, A.; Silva, A.X.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the environmental radiological impact (ERI) from the release of wastewaters used by the Mining Industrial Complex at Poços de Caldas (CIPC), today called Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) in Caldas, MG, Brazil, during the period 1999-2009. The effluent waters were analyzed once a week at point 014 (associated with the mine and waste pile 8). Critical radionuclides are 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th and 228 Ra. The 238 U and 232 Th were analyzed by spectrophotometry. The 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 228 Ra, in turn, were analyzed by radiochemical separation methods and subsequent radiometry. The dose estimates were based on the model proposed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for a hypothetical critical group associated with the point of effluents release into the river Ribeirao das Antas (point 014). The maximum dose rate allowed by CNEN for release is equal to 0.3 mSv·y -1 for individuals of the critical group. Our calculations were performed using the average concentration along the ten years period study. The estimated dose value for the individual of the critical group was 0.12 mSv·y -1 . It may be concluded that the reference levels established by CNEN were not reached. This indicates that the treatment of effluents generated by the CIPC/UTM was conducted efficiently, ensuring the safety of the population living in the surroundings of the Ore Processing Unit (UTM) at Caldas. (author)

  20. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Narcea

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. a.; Corbacho, J. a.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Narcea coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  1. Radiological impact of the application of phosphogypsum in civil construction: an overview of Brazilian studies

    Campos, Marcia P.; Nisti, Marcelo B.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (lPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. In Brazil, four main industries (Ultrafertil, Copebras, Fosfertil and Bunge Fertilizantes) are responsible for the production of 1.2 x 10{sup 6} tons per year of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Phosphogypsum is the byproduct of the phosphoric acid industry, obtained by reacting phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. This waste is stockpiled in the surrounding environment of the facilities at a rate of 5.5 x 10{sup 6} tons per year. The level of radioactivity present in the phosphogypsum, among other impurities, prevents its reuse for a variety of purposes. All the countries that produce phosphate fertilizer by acid wet processing of phosphate rock are facing the same problem of finding solutions for the safe application of phosphogypsum, in order to minimize the impact caused by its disposal. This paper aims to present a review of the research carried out at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, focusing in the radiological implications of using Brazilian phosphogypsum as building material: bricks and plaster. The results and conclusions achieved can contribute to the development or national standards and guidelines concerning the safe use and management or phosphogypsum as a building material. (author)

  2. Experienced in Conducting Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) in Oil and Gas Industry

    Khairuddin Mohamad Kontol; Ismail Sulaiman; Azmi Hassan; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim

    2011-01-01

    Oil and gas industry is a major contributor to the nation economy. Oil sludge and scales produced during production contain enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM).All the oil sludge and scales are temporarily stored at the crude oil terminal premise. Sludge and scales are under the jurisdiction of Department of Environment (DOE) and Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB).AELB has issued a guideline regarding the disposal of sludge and scales as in (LEM/TEK/30, 1996). In this guideline, Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) should be carried out on all proposed disposals and demonstrate that no member of public will be exposed to more than 1 mSv/y. Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has the expertise and capability to conduct the RIA. Nuclear Malaysia has been conducting RIA for local and international oil and gas companies operated in Malaysia. Recently, AELB has issued code of practice on radiation protection for oil and gas industry (LEM/TEK/58, 2009). In this code of practice, RIA shall be conducted to assess the dose received by a critical group of public as a result of the disposal of oil sludge and scale higher than 3 Bq/g Total Activity Concentration (TAC). For exemption by AELB, the RIA calculated dose shall not exceed 0.3 mSv/y. (author)

  3. Investigation of whether various types of radioactive waste are equivalent in terms of the radiological impact associated with their disposal

    Fearn, H.S.; Smith, G.M.; Davis, J.P.; Hill, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility that various types of waste are equivalent in terms of the risks associated with their disposal in so far as they are viewed by different sections of society. If such a framework can be established it could be used as an aid to decisions as to whether central disposal facilities, to accept waste from several countries, should be constructed. Details are presented of assumed radionuclide inventories for a representative range of radioactive wastes, calculations and results of the radiological impacts of their disposal, and illustrative methods for weighting the various components of impact which when summed provide an overall measure of impact. Five sets of weighting factors have been devised which are intended to represent the views of a) the radiological protection community, b) those with a pro-nuclear industry view, c) those who oppose nuclear power on safety grounds, d) the inhabitants of the country receiving wastes for disposal, and e) the inhabitants of the country dispatching wastes. On the basis of the calculated weighted radiological impacts it is demonstrated how conclusions can be drawn about general views on the disposal of each waste, about likely attitudes to the export of wastes from one country for disposal in another, and attitudes to exchanging wastes between countries. The study is preliminary and of limited scope. However, the results show that the general methodology is practicable and could be applied in a wider ranging investigation

  4. Environmental Health Impacts of Nuclear Fuel Cycle With Emphasis to Monitoring and Radiological Safety Control System

    Gad Allah, A.A.; El- Shanshory, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    facilities, as well as their health impacts instruments and monitors systems for radiological control have been reviewed and evaluated

  5. Chemical Utilisation of CO

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Chemical Utilisation of CO2: A Challenge for the Sustainable World. Dinesh Jagadeesan Bhaskar Joshi Prashant Parameswaran. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 165-176 ...

  6. Impact of Simulation-Based Training on Radiology Trainee Education in Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsies.

    Roark, Ashley A; Ebuoma, Lilian O; Ortiz-Perez, Tamara; Sepulveda, Karla A; Severs, Frederick J; Wang, Tao; Benveniste, Ana Paula; Sedgwick, Emily L

    2017-12-05

    The aim of this study is to determine the impact of a simulation-based ultrasound-guided (USG) breast biopsy training session on radiology trainee procedural knowledge, comfort levels, and overall procedural confidence and anxiety. Twenty-one diagnostic radiology residents from a single academic institution were recruited to participate in an USG breast biopsy training session. The residents filled out a questionnaire before and after the training session. Ten multiple-choice questions tested general knowledge in diagnostic breast ultrasound and USG breast biopsy concepts. Subjective comfort levels with ultrasound machine and biopsy device functionality, patient positioning, proper biopsy technique, image documentation, needle safety and overall procedural confidence and anxiety levels were reported on a 5-point Likert scale before and after training. Participants demonstrated significant improvement in number of correctly answered general knowledge questions after training (P simulation-based USG breast biopsy training session may improve radiology trainee procedural knowledge, comfort levels, and overall procedural confidence. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A regulatory perspective on the radiological impact of NORM industries: the case of the Spanish phosphate industry

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Matarranz, J.L.M.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive and chemical risks coexist in NORM industries although they are usually addressed separately by regulations. The European Union (EU) has developed extensive legislation concerning both matters, which has been diversely reflected in national policies. We consider the case of the Spanish phosphate industry and analyse to which extent regulatory mandates have reduced the historical and ongoing radiological impact on the environment of phosphate facilities. Although no specific radiological constraints on effluent monitoring and release or on waste disposal have yet been imposed on NORM industries in Spain, other environmental regulations have achieved a substantial reduction on the phosphate industry impact. Nevertheless, a more efficient control could be established by eliminating the current conceptual and practical separation of chemical and radioactive risks in NORM industries. We highlight research needs to accomplish so and propose shorter-term measures that require active cooperation among the regulatory bodies involved. - Research highlights: → The radiological impact of the Spanish phosphate industry has substantially decreased as a side result of environmental regulations on chemical pollution.→ A more efficient control of NORM industries could be established by eliminating the current conceptual and practical separation of chemical and radioactive risks.→ Further research is needed on how interactions between radiation and chemicals might affect regulatory limits and on a systematic way to input stakeholder preferences in MCDA.→ On shorter-term, administrative measures that require active cooperation among the regulatory bodies involved can be taken.

  8. Socio-economic and other non-radiological impacts of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this report is to introduce, in a generic sense, the elements that could comprise a socio-economic and non-radiological environmental impact assessment. The various social, economic and environmental impacts that could be associated with surface and near surface disposal are discussed through factors that could apply at the local, regional or national level. Impact management is also discussed. The report also introduces concepts to help Member States develop their own approaches to undertaking impact assessment and management. The report is intended to complement IAEA documents on the technology and safety aspects of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste. The scope of this report includes a discussion of a range of social, economic and nonradiological environmental impacts relevant to surface and near surface disposal and illustrations of some impact management measures

  9. Does gender impact upon application rejection rate among Canadian radiology residency applicants?

    Baerlocher, Mark O; Walker, Michelle

    2005-10-01

    To determine if and how gender ratios have changed within Canadian radiology, and to determine if gender discrimination occurs at the level of the radiology resident selection committee. The Canadian Medical Association, Canadian Association of Radiologists, Canadian Institute for Health Information, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, and Canadian Residency Matching Service provided gender-specific data. We compared the proportion of female applicants who ranked a radiology program as their top choice and were rejected from any radiology program with the corresponding proportion for male applicants. The numbers of women and men being awarded an MD from a Canadian university equalized nearly a decade ago. Women continue to be numerically underrepresented among practicing radiologists; however, the proportion of women continues to increase so that there is 1 female radiologist in practice to every 3 male radiologists in practice in 2005. More male medical students ranked a radiology residency training program as their top choice in the residency match; however, of those who did, they were as likely as women to be rejected from a radiology residency training program. Grouping all female and male graduating medical students participating in the residency match and ranking a radiology residency as their top choice between 1993 and 2004, the odds of men being rejected were 1.4 times (95% CI 0.99-1.9, p = 0.07) greater than for women. There continues to be more men than women radiologists in practice; however, the female-to-male ratio continues to increase. Our data suggest that discrimination against female applicants at the level of radiology residency selection does not occur.

  10. Radiological impact assessment for a severe accident scenario for a CANDU 6 type NPP

    Penescu, Maria; Mehedinteanu, Stefan; Cruceanu, Amalia; Ispas, Georgeta

    2004-01-01

    There are two main categories of consequences of accidental activity releases, which involve radiological considerations. First, there is the health detriment in the exposed population and its descendants; secondly, there is the economic and social impact from the restrictions generated by the control of that population exposure. A variety of health effects may be predicted to occur in an exposed population, depending on the magnitude and distribution of the exposure. Early effects include both death and varying degrees of health impairment, but these are likely to occur only following extremely large activity releases. The major late effects are cancer, both fatal and nonfatal, in the exposed population and heredity effects in their descendants. A variety of radiological endpoints can be calculated to provide a measure of the overall impact. Those, which are considered to be most useful in context of, risk analysis and in the analyses of siting, emergency planning and design criteria can be summarized as: - the incidence of particular health effects in the exposed population and its descendants; - the number of people who may be affected by the application of the countermeasures; - the areas of land beyond particular levels, especially those in which restrictions may be needed with respect of their use or on foodstuffs derived from them; - the economic cost of introducing countermeasures, particularly restrictions on the use of contaminated land and property. A number of countermeasures could be introduced to reduce doses following an accidental release. Such measures are the evacuation and relocation of population and the banning of contaminated food consumption. Sheltering before evacuation is also considered. The criteria for taking the decision to evacuate are based on the total dose and dose for each organ resulted from the exposure to the plume and inhalation, while the criterion for relocation is based simply on the external dose from deposited activity

  11. Environmental radiological impact of a Brazilian deactivated Uranium Mine along the period 1999-2009

    Pereira, W.S., E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (FCN/GMR/INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Fabrica de Combustivel Nuclear. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Silva, A.X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Corrdenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to assess the environmental radiological impact (ERI) from the release of wastewaters used by the Mining Industrial Complex at Poços de Caldas (CIPC), today called Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) in Caldas, MG, Brazil, during the period 1999-2009. The effluent waters were analyzed once a week at point 014 (associated with the mine and waste pile 8). Critical radionuclides are {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th were analyzed by spectrophotometry. The {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 228}Ra, in turn, were analyzed by radiochemical separation methods and subsequent radiometry. The dose estimates were based on the model proposed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for a hypothetical critical group associated with the point of effluents release into the river Ribeirao das Antas (point 014). The maximum dose rate allowed by CNEN for release is equal to 0.3 mSv·y{sup -1}for individuals of the critical group. Our calculations were performed using the average concentration along the ten years period study. The estimated dose value for the individual of the critical group was 0.12 mSv·y{sup -1}. It may be concluded that the reference levels established by CNEN were not reached. This indicates that the treatment of effluents generated by the CIPC/UTM was conducted efficiently, ensuring the safety of the population living in the surroundings of the Ore Processing Unit (UTM) at Caldas. (author)

  12. Radiological impacts analysis with use of new endpoint as complementary safety indicators

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.; Fleitas Estevez, G.G.; Olivera Acosta, J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows the new safety indicators on risk assessment (safety assessment) to radioactive waste environmental management implementation (concentrations and fluxes of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)). The endpoint obtained, allow the best analysis of the radiological impact associated to radioactive waste isolation system. The common safety indicators for safety assessment purpose, dose and risk, are very time dependent, increasing the uncertainties in the results for long term assessment. The complementary and new proposed endpoints are more stable and they are not affected by changes in the critical group, pathways, etc. The NORM values on facility site were obtained as result of national surveys, the natural concentrations of U, Ra, Th, K has been associated with the variation of the lithologies in 3 geographical areas of the Country (Occidental, Central and Oriental). The results obtained are related with the safety assessment topics and allowed to apply the new complementary safety indicators, by comparisons between the natural concentrations and fluxes on site and its calculated values for the conceptual repository design. In order to normalize the concentration results, the analysis was realized adopting the criteria of the Repository Equivalent Rock Volume (RERV). The preliminary comparison showed that the calculated concentrations and fluxes in the Cuban conceptual radioactive waste repository are not higher than the natural values in the host rock. According to the application of new safety indicators, the reference disposal facility does not increase the natural activity concentration and fluxes in the environment. In order to implement these new safety indicator it has been used the current 226 Ra inventory of the Repository and the 226 Ra as natural concentration on the site. (authors)

  13. An assessment of the radiological impact of sea-dumping at the North East Atlantic dump site

    Delow, C.E.; Mobbs, S.F.; Hill, M.D.

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the models and methodology developed for the assessment of the radiological impact of disposal of low and intermediate level waste on the seabed. The development of the waste package model and the combined model of radionuclide dispersion and interactions with sediments in the world's ocean is outlined. This integrated set of models was used for the radiological assessment of sea dumping at the North-East Atlantic site, which formed part of the recent NEA review of the continued suitability of this site. The predicted radiation doses to man are presented, together with the results of the analysis of the sensitivity of the annual individual doses to critical groups to variations in model parameters. (author)

  14. Radiological impact of natural radioactivity in Egyptian phosphate rocks, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    El-Bahi, S.M.; Sroor, A.; Mohamed, Gehan Y.; El-Gendy, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in phosphate rocks and its products were measured using a high- purity germanium detector (HPGe). The obtained activity results show remarkable wide variation in the radioactive contents for the different phosphate samples. The average activity concentration of "2"3"5U, "2"3"8U, "2"2"6Ra, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K was found as (45, 1031, 786, 85 and 765 Bq/kg) for phosphate rocks, (28, 1234, 457, 123 and 819 Bq/kg) for phosphate fertilizers, (47, 663, 550, 79 and 870 Bq/kg) for phosphogypsum and (25, 543, 409, 54 and 897 Bq/kg) for single super phosphate respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological parameters (activity concentration index, absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor and indoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and total excess lifetime cancer risk) were estimated to assess the radiological hazards. The total excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) has been calculated and found to be high in all samples, which related to high radioactivity, representing radiological risk for the health of the population. - Highlights: • Level of radioactivity of phosphate rocks and by-products samples. • The radiological health hazard parameters. • Radiological risk to the health of the population. • The excess lifetime cancer risk factor.

  15. Monitoring of the radiological environmental impact of the AREVA site of Tricastin; Suivi de l'impact radiologique environnemental des activites du site AREVA du Tricastin

    Mercat, C.; Brun, F.; Florens, P.; Petit, J. [AREVA NC Pierrelatte, Direction surete environnement du site du Tricastin, 26 (France); Garnier, F. [EURODIF Production, Direction qualite securite surete environnement, 26 (France); Devin, P. [AREVA NC Pierrelatte, Direction surete, sante, securite, environnement, 26 (France)

    2010-06-15

    Set up at the beginning of the site's operations, in 1962, the monitoring of the radiological environmental impact of the AREVA site of Tricastin has evolved over time to meet more specifically the multiple objectives of environmental monitoring: to prove the respect of the commitments required by the authorities, to be able to detect a dysfunction in the observed levels, to enable the assessment of impacts of industrial activities, to ensure the balance between environmental quality and the use made by the local population and to inform the public of the radiological state of the environment. Thousands of data were acquired on the radioactivity of all environmental compartments as well as on the functioning of local ecosystems. Today, the Network of Environmental Monitoring of AREVA Tricastin goes beyond the requirements of routine monitoring to provide innovative solutions for monitoring the radioactivity (especially for uranium) in the environment. (author)

  16. Assessing radiological impacts (exposures and doses) associated with the mining and milling of radioactive ores

    Williams, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The basic units and concepts applicable to radiological assessment are presented. Data relevant to the assessment of radiological exposures from the mining and milling phases of uranium and thorium ores are discussed. As a guide to the assessment of environmental exposures to members of the public, concepts such as the critical group are defined. Environmental transport and exposure pathways are presented in general terms, together with a discussion of the use of mathematical models. The dose assessment procedures defined in the 1987 Code of Practice are described. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Potential radiological impacts of recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid. Final report to the Environmental Protection Agency

    Davis, W. Jr.; Haywood, F.F.; Danek, J.L.; Moore, R.E.; Wagner, E.B.; Rupp, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made to determine the radiological impacts associated with recovery of uranium from wet-process (WP) phosphoric acid in central Florida. Removal of U and other radionuclides from phosphoric acid prevents their distribution on farm lands and urban gardens and grasses via fertilizers; this results in a positive impact (decreased dose commitment) on the associated populations. This study considers the potential negative impacts of current and project recovery processes in a site-specific manner using detailed state-of-the-art methodologies. Positive impacts are treated in a generic sense using U.S. average values for important variables such as average and maximum fertilizer application rates and quantities of radionuclides in fertilizer. Three model plants to recover U from WP phosphoric acid were selected and source terms for release of radionuclides are developed for all three and for two treatment methods for airborne particulates. Costs for radwaste treatment were developed. Field measurements were conducted at the only commercial uranium recovery plant in operation. Radiological doses to the population surrounding release points during plant operation were estimated

  18. Evaluation of radiological impacts of tenorm in the Tunisian petroleum industry

    Hrichi, Hajer; Baccouche, Souad; Belgaied, Jamel-Eddine

    2013-01-01

    The health impacts associated with uncontrolled release of TENORM in products and wastes released in the petroleum industry are of great concern. In this study, evaluation of TENORM in the Tunisian petroleum products and wastes is presented. Fourteen products samples, twelve waste samples and three samples from the surrounding environment were collected from the Tunisian Refinery STIR site and from two onshore production oilfields. The activity concentrations of 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K for all samples were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of 224 Ra were calculated only for scale samples. The radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, absorbed doses rates in air and annual effective dose were also estimated. It was noticed that maximum value of Ra eq activity was found to be 398 Bq/kg in scale (w8) collected from an onshore production oilfield which exceeds the maximum Ra eq value of 370 Bq/kg recommended for safe use. All hazard indices indicated that scale samples (w6, w7, w8 and w11) could be a significant waste problem especially sample (w8). In this study, the radium isotopic data were used to provide an estimate of scale samples ages by the use of the 224 Ra/ 228 Ra activity ratio dating method. Ages of collected scales were found to be in the range 0.91–2.4 years. In this work, radioactivity (NORM contamination) in samples collected from the refinery STIR are showed to be insignificant if compared to those from onshore oilfield production sites. - Highlights: ► We followed 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K concentrations in Tunisian petroleum products and wastes. ► Radium isotopic data were used to estimate the age of scales deposited in the petroleum production equipments. ► Samples collected from refinery installation did not represent radiological risk. ► Scale samples collected from oil fields installation exceeded UNSCEAR rules.

  19. Radionuclide activities and radiological impact from the intake of milk, wheat flour, tea and coffee

    Nik Nadia Hazwani Nek Kamal; Amran Abdul Majid

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The annual intake of four naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K from powdered milk, wheat flour, tea and coffee for Malaysian population were estimated using gamma spectrometry system. The radionuclides annual intake of 226 Ra ranged from 6 to 35.7 Bq, 232 Th ranged from 7.6 to 57.7 Bq, 238 U ranged from 6.3 to 63.7 Bq and 40 K ranged from 771.8 to 1707.5 Bq for adults. The means of these intakes were 28.8 Bq for 226 Ra, 38.5 Bq for 232 Th, 28.1 Bq for 238 U and 2921.1 Bq for the 40 K. The annual intake of radionuclide for infants were found to be 66.2 Bq for 226 Ra, 71.6 Bq for 232 Th, 23 Bq for 238 U and 7774.8 Bq for 40 K. the annual internal dose for infants from the intake of powdered milk were 63.5 μSv for 226 Ra, 32.2 μSv for 232 Th, 2.8 μSv for 238 U and 326.5 μSv for 40 K. The measured values also gives annual internal dose of 13.7 μSv 226 Ra, 19 μSv for 232 Th, 4 μSv for 238 U and 24.2 μSv for 40 K for adult population. The net radiological impact of these radionuclides is 425 μSv for infants and 60.9 μSv for adults. This value gives cancer risk factor of 1.8 x 10 -3 for infants and 1.7 x 10 -4 for adults. The probability of cancer risk increment is estimated as 0.18 % for infants (18 person in 10000) and 0.017 % for adults (1.7 person in 10000). Whereas ICRP cancer risk factor for general public is 2.5 x 10 -3 nd the total risk involved from all natural radiation sources based on global average radiation dose of 2.4 mSv is of 6 x 10 -3 . The estimated cancer risk shows that probability of increase of cancer risk from intake of milk, wheat flour, tea and coffee is only a minor fraction of ICRP values. Therefore, the diet does not pose any significant health hazard and is considered safe for human consumption. (author)

  20. Radiological impact associated to the use of phosphogypsum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado region

    Oliveira, Kerley A.P.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Taddei, Maria H.T.; Mello, Jaime W.V.; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid. The Brazilian production of this material is around 12 million of tons per year which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches accomplished in several countries worldwide have demonstrated the potential use of PG in agriculture not only as a source for calcium and sulfur, but also as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of aluminum. In Brazil, these studies are mainly focused on the application of phosphogypsum to the Cerrado region, the main agriculture region of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted in a partnership with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Soil Department of Vicosa Federal University in order to investigate the radiological impact of using phosphogypsum in crops cultivated in Cerrado soils. For this purpose a set of greenhouse experiments have been conducted in two types of soil (one clayey and other sandy loam textured) to determine the transfer factor of natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb) from soil to crops (lettuce, corn and soybean) and drainage waters. This paper aims to report preliminary results of the study, including the chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of the soil samples, and radioactivity concentration in both the applied PG and soil samples. The measurement of 232 Th concentration has been carried out by neutron activation analysis, 238 U by delayed neutron counting technique, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb by the method of radiochemical separation. The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra (240 Bq.kg -1 ) and 228 Ra (224 Bq.kg -1 ) in PG were below the maximum level recommended by CNEN

  1. Radiology today

    Donner, M.W.; Heuck, F.H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The book encompasses the proceedings of a postgraduate course held in Salzburg in June 1980. 230 radiologists from 17 countries discussed here the important and practical advances of diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and ultrasound as they contribute to gastrointestinal, urologic, skeletal, cardiovascular, pediatric, and neuroradiology. The book contains 55 single contributions of different authors to the following main themes: Cardiovascular, Radiology, pulmonary radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, urinary tract radiology, skeletal radiology, mammography, lymphography, ultrasound, ENT radiology, and neuroradiology. (orig./MG)

  2. The impact of European research ethics legislation on UK radiology research activity: a bibliometric analysis

    Johnson, C.A.; Toms, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether there is evidence of a reduction in radiology research activity in the UK following the implementation of the European research ethics legislation, which came in to force in 2001 and has been widely criticised as an impediment to research. Materials and methods: A bibliometric analysis was performed by searching PubMed for all first-author publications from UK departments of 'radiology' or 'medical imaging' between 1995 and 2007. Results were subcategorized into those papers published in the highest cited general radiology journals and by publication type: original research, reviews, and case reports. Results: From 1995 to 2007 the total number of publications rose by 6.5% from 137 to 146 with the increase occurring in non-general radiology journals. Original articles fell from 18 in 1995 to 12 in 2003, but then rose to 24 by 2007 (33% rise). This dip was paralleled by a fall and then recovery in case report publications. The most dramatic change has been in the number of review articles, which has increased more than eightfold from seven in 1995 to 65 in 2007 to become the most common form of publication. Conclusion: The overall number of original scientific articles, published by first-author UK radiologists, has increased slightly over the last 12 years despite a temporary fall associated with the introduction of new research ethics legislation.

  3. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Toller, Susanna; Kärrman, Erik; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Magnusson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as wel...

  4. Qualitative evaluation of environmental radiological impact in a phosphate associated uranium conventional mine: Santa Quiteria Project, CE, Brazil

    Reis, Rocio G. dos; Santo, Aline Sa E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate qualitatively the main potential sources of mineral and installation terms of Santa Quiteria, CE, Brazil, evaluating their possible impacts on the environment. The key terms sources in the production of phosphoric acid are usually: the dig of the mines, tailings dams and phospho plaster stack. Thus, this work intends to inform the academic community about this issue, as well as the population in general and also, acting proactively in order to warn about the possible environmental impacts, so that actions to compensate, minimize or avoid these radiological impacts on the environment, can be included in the planning of the industrial mineral project of Santa Quiteria (author)

  5. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 8. Cost and radiological impact associated with near-surface disposal of reactor waste (Spanish concept)

    Alamo Berna, S.; Sanchez Delgado, N.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the determination of the cost and the radiological impact associated with a near-surface disposal site (Spanish concept) for low and medium-level radioactive waste generated during operation of a 20 GWe nuclear park composed of LWRs for 30 years. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  6. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 7. Cost and radiological impact associated with near-surface disposal of reactor waste (French concept)

    Malherbe, J.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the determination of the cost and the radiological impact associated with a near-surface disposal site (French concept) for low and medium-level radioactive waste generated during operation of a 20 GWe nuclear park composed of LWRs for 30 years. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  7. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Lantz, P.M.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    Uranium-mill tailings at an inactive site near Shiprock, New Mexico, contain an estimated 950 curies (Ci) of /sup 226/Ra together with its radioactive daughters. A radiological survey was conducted at this site in February 1976. Decontamination work and tailings stabilization performed at the site since that time have greatly changed conditions there and little effort was applied to quantification of potential health effects in comparison to the earlier consideration of the site at Salt Lake City. The present report delineates the radiological conditions that existed at the time of the survey including information on the surface and below-surface distribution of /sup 226/Ra. The data presented support the conclusion that diffusion of radon and inhalation of radon daughters is the principal mode of exposure of offsite population groups.

  8. Impact of ICRP 117 recommendations in the operational protection of vascular radiology unit

    Gomez, Pablo Luis; Fernandez, Manuel; Verde, Jose Maria; Perez, Maria Esperanza; Gomez, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    This paper lists and discusses the results obtained in the teams of the different specialties: traumatology, gastroenterology, hemodynamics, vascular radiology and neurosurgery at different care centres with various care portfolios and notable differences of technical resources. The results show a noticeable difference between the equipment used in gastroenterology, vascular radiology and hemodynamic reference services with other services and disciplines. Taking into account the recent 117 of ICRP publication it has been initiated a procedure for the estimation of dose of foot and ankle of the vascular radiologists and in crystalline. This paper shows the results obtained as well as the correlations between the mentioned area dose and values of dose of lapel, wrist, ankles and crystalline of the professionals

  9. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Lantz, P.M.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    Uranium-mill tailings at an inactive site near Shiprock, New Mexico, contain an estimated 950 curies (Ci) of 226 Ra together with its radioactive daughters. A radiological survey was conducted at this site in February 1976. Decontamination work and tailings stabilization performed at the site since that time have greatly changed conditions there and little effort was applied to quantification of potential health effects in comparison to the earlier consideration of the site at Salt Lake City. The present report delineates the radiological conditions that existed at the time of the survey including information on the surface and below-surface distribution of 226 Ra. The data presented support the conclusion that diffusion of radon and inhalation of radon daughters is the principal mode of exposure of offsite population groups

  10. Comparison of potential radiological impacts of 233U and 239Pu fuel cycles

    Meyer, H.R.; Little, C.A.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Till, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles utilizing 233 U are currently the subject of considerable interest in the United States. This paper focuses on the identification of significant differences between the off-site radiological hazards posed by 232 Th/ 233 U (Th/U) and 238 U/ 239 Pu (U/Pu) fuel cycles, and represents a portion of our involvement in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), to be used in support of the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). The major contributors to radiological dose are likely to be uranium mining and milling (58.5% of total fuel cycle dose), reprocessing (33.9%), and light-water reactor power generation (7.3%). The remainder of the cycle, including enrichment processes, fuel fabrication, transportation, and waste management, contributes only 0.3% to total estimated fuel cycle dose

  11. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed. Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu

  12. Methodology used by the spanish nuclear regulatory body in the radiological impact assessment

    Diaz de la Cruz, F.

    1979-01-01

    The radiological risk assessment derived from the operation of a nuclear power plant is done in Spain with methods taken basically from the U.S.N.R.C. regulatory guides. This report presents the way followed by the Spanish Regulatory Body in order to arrive to an official decision on the acceptability of a nuclear plant in the different steps of the licensing. (author)

  13. Medical radiation exposure and its impact on occupational practices in Korean radiologic technologists

    Ko, Seul Ki; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    The use of radiology examinations in medicine has been growing worldwide. Annually an estimated 3.1 billion radiologic exams are performed. According to this expansion of medical radiation exposure, it has been hard to pay no attention to the effects of medical radiation exposures in the exposure from different types of radiation source. This study, therefore, was aimed to assess the association of medical and occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiologic technologists and evaluate necessity for its consideration in occupational studies. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure.

  14. CUEX methodology for assessing radiological impacts in the context of ICRP Recommendations

    Rohwer, P.S.; Kaye, S.V.; Struxness, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Cumulative Exposure Index (CUEX) methodology was developed to estimate and assess, in the context of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Recommendations, the total radiation dose to man due to environmental releases of radioactivity from nuclear applications. Each CUEX, a time-integrated radionuclide concentration (e.g.μCi.h.cm -3 ), reflects the selected annual dose limit for the reference organ and the estimated total dose to that organ via all exposure modes for a specific exposure situation. To assess the radiological significance of an environmental release of radioactivity, calculated or measured radionuclide concentrations in a suitable environmental sampling medium are compared with CUEXs determined for that medium under comparable conditions. The models and computer codes used in the CUEX methodology to predict environmental transport and to estimate radiation dose have been thoroughly tested. These models and codes are identified and described briefly. Calculation of a CUEX is shown step by step. An application of the methodology to a hypothetical atmospheric release involving four radionuclides illustrates use of the CUEX computer code to assess the radiological significance of a release, and to determine the relative importance (i.e. percentage of the estimated total dose contributed) of each radionuclide and each mode of exposure. The data requirements of the system are shown to be extensive, but not excessive in view of the assessments and analyses provided by the CUEX code. (author)

  15. Medical radiation exposure and its impact on occupational practices in Korean radiologic technologists

    Ko, Seul Ki; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The use of radiology examinations in medicine has been growing worldwide. Annually an estimated 3.1 billion radiologic exams are performed. According to this expansion of medical radiation exposure, it has been hard to pay no attention to the effects of medical radiation exposures in the exposure from different types of radiation source. This study, therefore, was aimed to assess the association of medical and occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiologic technologists and evaluate necessity for its consideration in occupational studies. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure.

  16. Potential radiological impact assessment related to the visit of nuclear submarines to the port of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Pereira, Jose Francisco; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is signatory of international protocols for receiving the visit of nuclear ships and submarines. Such naval units, during their stays in Brazilian ports, inform that there is no release of radioactive material to the environment. However, there is always the possibility of an accident, leading to environmental release of radioactive material. This work had the objective of assessing the potential radiological environmental impact due to the eventual occurrence of an accident during the permanence of ships and submarines of nuclear propulsion in the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in Guanabara Bay. The accident scenarios considered include releases to the marine environment and to the atmosphere. Previous results indicated that, in normal operation conditions, no significant radiological impact is foreseen due to the visits of nuclear submarines to the city, even if small routine radionuclide releases occur. The analysis of the accidental releases, however, indicates that the anchorage points should be located at a minimum distance of 2,5 km of inhabited areas in the contour the Bay. (author)

  17. Radioactive characterization of the main materials involved in the titanium dioxide production process and their environmental radiological impact.

    Mantero, J; Gazquez, M J; Bolivar, J P; Garcia-Tenorio, R; Vaca, F

    2013-06-01

    A study about the distribution of several radionuclides from the uranium and the thorium series radionuclides along the production process of a typical NORM industry devoted to the production of titanium dioxide has been performed. With this end the activity concentrations in raw materials, final product, co-products, and wastes of the production process have been determined by both gamma-ray and alpha-particle spectrometry. The main raw material used in the studied process (ilmenite) presents activity concentrations of around 300 Bq kg(-1) for Th-series radionuclides and 100 Bq kg(-1) for the U-series ones. These radionuclides in the industrial process are distributed in the different steps of the production process according mostly to the chemical behaviour of each radioelement, following different routes. As an example, most of the radium remains associated with the un-dissolved material waste, with activity concentrations around 3 kBq kg(-1) of (228)Ra and around 1 kBq kg(-1) of (226)Ra, while the final commercial products (TiO2 pigments and co-products) contain negligible amounts of radioactivity. The obtained results have allowed assessing the possible public radiological impact associated with the use of the products and co-products obtained in this type of industry, as well as the environmental radiological impact associated with the solid residues and liquid generated discharges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact Evaluation of a System-Wide Chronic Disease Management Program on Health Service Utilisation: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

    Billot, Laurent; Corcoran, Kate; McDonald, Alina; Powell-Davies, Gawaine; Feyer, Anne-Marie

    2016-06-01

    The New South Wales Health (NSW Health) Chronic Disease Management Program (CDMP) delivers interventions to adults at risk of hospitalisation for five target chronic conditions that respond well to ambulatory care: diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, and coronary artery disease. The intervention consists of two main components: (1) care coordination across sectors (acute, ambulatory, and community care from both public and private sectors) and clinical specialties, facilitated by program care coordinators, and (2) health coaching including management of lifestyle risk factors and medications and self-management. These components were broadly prescribed by the head office of NSW Health, which funded the program, and were implemented by regional health services (local health districts) in ways that best suited their own history, environment, workforce, and patient need. We used a propensity-matched cohort study to evaluate health service utilisation after enrolment in the CDMP. The evaluation cohort included 41,303 CDMP participants enrolled between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 who experienced at least one hospital admission or emergency department (ED) presentation for a target condition in the 12 mo preceding enrolment. Potential controls were selected from patients not enrolled in the CDMP but experiencing at least one hospital admission or ED presentation over the same period. Each CDMP patient in the evaluation cohort was matched to one control using 1:1 propensity score matching. The primary outcome was avoidable hospitalisations. Secondary outcomes included avoidable readmissions, avoidable bed days, unplanned hospitalisations, unplanned readmissions, unplanned bed days, ED presentations, and all-cause death. The primary analysis consisted of 30,057 CDMP participants and 30,057 matched controls with a median follow-up of 15 mo. Of those, 25,638 (85.3%) and 25,597 (85.2%) were alive by the end of

  19. Generic environmental impact statement in support of rulemaking on radiological criteria for license termination of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. Final report, appendices A and B

    1997-07-01

    The action being considered in this Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (GEIS) is an amendment to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission''s (NRC) regulations in 10 CFR Part 20 to include radiological criteria for decommissioning of lands and structures at nuclear facilities. Under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), all Federal agencies must consider the effect of their actions on the environment. To fulfill NRC''s responsibilities under NEPA, the Commission is preparing this GEIS which analyzes alternative courses of action and the costs and impacts associated with those alternatives. In preparing the final GEIS, the following approach was taken: (1) a listing was developed of regulatory alternatives for establishing radiological criteria for decommissioning; (2) for each alternative, a detailed analysis and comparison of incremental impacts, both radiological and nonradiological, to workers, members of the public, and the environment, and costs were performed; and (3) based on the analysis of impacts and costs, conclusions on radiological criteria for decommissioning were provided. Contained in the GEIS are results and conclusions related to achieving, as an objective of decommissioning ALARA, reduction to preexisting background, the radiological criterion for unrestricted use, decommissioning ALARA analysis for soils and structures containing contamination, restricted use and alternative analysis for special site-specific situations and groundwater cleanup. In its analyses, the final GEIS includes consideration of comments made on the draft GEIS during the public comment period

  20. Generic environmental impact statement in support of rulemaking on radiological criteria for license termination of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. Final report, main report

    1997-07-01

    The action being considered in this Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (GEIS) is an amendment to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations in 10 CFR Part 20 to include radiological criteria for decommissioning of lands and structures at nuclear facilities. Under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), all Federal agencies must consider the effect of their actions on the environment. To fulfill NRC's responsibilities under NEPA, the Commission is preparing this GEIS which analyzes alternative courses of action and the costs and impacts associated with those alternatives. In preparing the final GEIS, the following approach was taken: (1) a listing was developed of regulatory alternatives for establishing radiological criteria for decommissioning; (2) for each alternative, a detailed analysis and comparison of incremental impacts, both radiological and nonradiological, to workers, members of the public, and the environment, and costs, were performed; and (3) based on the analysis of impacts and costs, conclusions on radiological criteria for decommissioning were provided. Contained in the GEIS are results and conclusions related to achieving, as an objective of decommissioning ALARA, reduction to preexisting background, the radiological criterion for unrestricted use, decommissioning ALARA analysis for soils and structures containing contamination, restricted use and alternative analysis for special site specific situations, and groundwater cleanup. In its analyses, the final GEIS includes consideration of comments made on the draft GEIS during the public comment period

  1. The impact of education on occupational radiation exposure reduction in a diagnostic radiology department

    Vetter, R.J.; Gray, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Patient load, number of radiographic exams, complexity of some exams, and associated potential occupational radiation exposure of medical personnel have increased significantly in the past decade. Efforts to reduce exposure through employee education and awareness have resulted in significant reduction in occupational exposure for most diagnostic radiographic areas at Mayo Clinic. This paper reviews trends in occupational radiation exposure from diagnostic x- rays at Mayo Clinic over the past ten years. Changes in employee radiation dose equivalents are correlated with patient workload, complexity of exams, increased interventional radiology and cardiology, and efforts to reduce employee radiation exposure

  2. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Jacobs, D.G.; Perdue, P.T.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-04-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Grand Junction, Colorado, made in May and June 1976, are presented along with descriptions of techniques and equipment used to obtain the data and an assessment of increased risk of health effects attributable to radiation and radionuclides from the tailings. An estimate of potential health effects of exposure to gamma rays around a former mill building and to radon daughters produced by radon dispersed from the tailings has been made for occupants of the site

  3. Radiological clerkships as a critical curriculum component in radiology education

    Kourdioukova, Elena V.; Verstraete, Koenraad L.; Valcke, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to explore the perceived value of clinical clerkships in the radiology curriculum as well as the impact of radiology clerkship on students' beliefs about the profession of radiology as a whole and as a career. Methods: This study is a sequel to a previous survey in which student perceptions about radiology curriculum components were investigated. The present study focuses on a further analysis of a subsection in this study, based on 14 statements about radiology clerkship and two statements about radiology as a career. Results: Perceived usefulness of the aspects of radiology clerkship as 'radiology examination', 'skills development' and 'diagnosis focus' were awarded the highest scores. The predict value of the subscale 'radiology examination' on the level of performance was very high (adjusted R 2 = 0.19, p < .001). Conclusion: Students expressed highly favorable evaluation of clerkship as a learning environment to learn to order and to interpret imaging studies as well as an unique possibility to attend various radiological examinations and to access to specific radiology software systems, as well as to get a better view on radiology and to improve image interpretation skills. This positive attitude towards clerkship is closely tied to students' beliefs about the profession of radiology as a whole. These aspects of dedicated radiology clerkship are crucial for effective and high-quality education as well as for the choice of radiology as a career.

  4. Augmenting the impact of technology adoption with financial incentive to improve radiology report signature times.

    Andriole, Katherine P; Prevedello, Luciano M; Dufault, Allen; Pezeshk, Parham; Bransfield, Robert; Hanson, Richard; Doubilet, Peter M; Seltzer, Steven E; Khorasani, Ramin

    2010-03-01

    Radiology report signature time (ST) can be a substantial component of total report turnaround time. Poor turnaround time resulting from lengthy ST can adversely affect patient care. The combination of technology adoption with financial incentive was evaluated to determine if ST improvement can be augmented and sustained. This prospective study was performed at a 751-bed, urban, tertiary care adult teaching hospital. Test-site imaging volume approximated 48,000 examinations per month. The radiology department has 100 trainees and 124 attending radiologists serving multiple institutions. Over a study period of 4 years and 4 months, three interventions focused on radiologist signature performance were implemented: 1) a notification paging application that alerted radiologists when reports were ready for signature, 2) a picture archiving and communications systems (PACS)-integrated speech recognition report generation system, and 3) a departmental financial incentive to reward radiologists semiannually for ST performance. Signature time was compared before and after the interventions. Wilcoxon and linear regression statistical analyses were used to assess the significance of trends. Technology adoption (paging plus speech recognition) reduced median ST from >5 to 24 to 15 to 18 hours (P financial incentive further improved 80th-percentile ST to 4 to 8 hours (P Technology interventions coupled with financial incentive can result in synergistic and sustainable improvement in radiologist report-signing behavior. The addition of a financial incentive leads to better performance than that achievable through technology alone.

  5. Radiological impact assessment to the environment due to waste from disposal of porcelain.

    Morsi, Tarek; Hegazy, Rehab; Badawy, Wael

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to assess the radiological parameters from gamma rays due to the uncontrolled disposal of porcelain waste to the environment. Qualitative and quantitative identification of radionuclides in the investigated samples was carried out by means of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentrations of the local porcelain samples were measured as 208.28 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 125.73 Bq/kg for 238 U, 84.94 Bq/kg for 232 Th and 1033.61 Bq/kg for 40 K, respectively. The imported samples had an average activity of 240.57 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 135.56 Bq/kg for 238 U, 115.74 Bq/kg for 232 Th and 1312.49 Bq/kg for 40 K, respectively. Radiological parameters and the radium equivalent Ra eq for the investigated samples were calculated. The external and internal hazard indices, representative level index (I γ ), alpha index (I α ), and the exemption level (I x ), were estimated to be higher than the recommended value (unity), while the average activity concentrations for the studied samples were higher than recommended levels. In conclusion, we are concerned that disposal of porcelain in the environment might be a significant hazard.

  6. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1979-12-01

    Results of a radiological survey that was conducted at the inactive uranium-mill site at Monument Valley, Arizona, in March 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented. Consideration of these data and of previously published information on radiological conditions at the site lead to the conclusion that potential health effects from exposure to radionuclides in the mill tailings are relatively small. The occupants of three residences within 0.8 km (0.5 mile) of the tailings constitute the principal population at risk, but direct gamma-exposure rate measurements near the two residences closest to the tailings and calculations of radon dispersion indicate that the tailings do not raise either pathway of radiation exposure significantly above the background level. Data are not available to evaluate fully other possible exposure pathways, but the available information indicates that it is unlikely that doses through these pathways will add significantly to the total population dose. The low estimates of potential health effects from exposure to direct radiation and to exposure to radionuclides in the Monument Valley tailings piles are ascribed to the low 226 Ra inventory, to almost complete absence of small particles that are readily moved by wind and water, and to a small population in the vicinity of the tailings

  7. Scenarios of radiological impacts in the long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste disposal at the Vector Site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Rybalka, N.; Mykolaichuk, O. [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Alekseeva, Z.; Kondratiev, S.; Nikolaev, E. [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine, at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, it is planned to dispose of large amounts of radioactive wastes, including those of Chernobyl origin, containing transuranium elements. The paper analyzes the main possible scenarios of radiological impacts of the Vector site for a long-term period after expiration of its active administrative control taking into account location of the Vector site in the exclusion zone. In the paper, assessment of total activities that can be disposed of on site is demonstrated, based on non-exceeding of admissible radiological impacts. (orig.)

  8. Environmental impacts of radiological consequences during the anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events in nuclear power reactors

    El-Kafas, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), is one of the (worst case) accidents could happen if the system that provides a highly reliable means of shutting down the reactor (scram system )fails to work during a reactor event (anticipated transient).It has two general characteristics: (1) Initiation by a transient anticipated to occur one or more times in the life of reactor and ,(2) Assumed to proceed without scram.The types of events considered are those used for designing the plant .The evaluation of the radiological consequences during the assessment of the nuclear events,especially ATWS in nuclear power reactors, is very essential for environmental studies and public safety. In this paper, the root cases for nuclear events and dose calculation are presented. Scenario of accident sequences together with radiological impacts is illustrated for loss of coolant accident (LOCA) for a typical pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. Recommendations for mitigating or preventing the release of radiation and high radioactive materials to environment are presented.

  9. The clinical impact of the radiology report in wheezing and nonwheezing febrile children: a survey of clinicians

    Spottswood, Stephanie E.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Hilmes, Melissa A.; Kan, J.H.; Liaw, Kevin; Moore, Paul E.; Patterson, Barron; Chen, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    The chest radiograph is commonly used in the diagnosis and management of patients presenting with respiratory illness. The language used to describe the findings is important to ensure appropriate communication with the referring clinician and thereby optimize patient management. In this study we attempted to determine how clinicians interpret specific terms commonly used in a chest radiograph report, and to assess how these terms impact the management of children with respiratory symptoms. An online survey was distributed to 562 pediatric practitioners asking their interpretation of the terms ''peripheral airway disease (PAD),'' ''focal airspace consolidation,'' and ''focal infiltrate'' in a febrile child with or without wheezing. There were 112 respondents. Most practitioners defined the term ''PAD'' as viral pneumonia (61.5%) or asthma (56.9%), ''consolidation'' as atelectasis (83%) followed by pneumonia (69.6%), and ''infiltrate'' as pneumonia (100%), followed by atelectasis (22.3%). Practitioners were more likely to treat a nonwheezing child with antibiotics if the report stated ''focal airspace consolidation'' (80%) or ''focal infiltrate'' (100%; P=0.001). Some radiologic descriptors may lead to diverse and sometimes unintended diagnostic conclusions. Our findings support continued effort to structure and standardize the radiology report and our descriptive terminology. (orig.)

  10. The Influence of atmospheric conditions to probabilistic calculation of impact of radiology accident on PWR 1000 MWe

    Pande Made Udiyani; Sri Kuntjoro

    2015-01-01

    The calculation of the radiological impact of the fission products releases due to potential accidents that may occur in the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) is required in a probabilistic. The atmospheric conditions greatly contribute to the dispersion of radionuclides in the environment, so that in this study will be analyzed the influence of atmospheric conditions on probabilistic calculation of the reactor accidents consequences. The objective of this study is to conduct an analysis of the influence of atmospheric conditions based on meteorological input data models on the radiological consequences of PWR 1000 MWe accidents. Simulations using PC-Cosyma code with probabilistic calculations mode, the meteorological data input executed cyclic and stratified, the meteorological input data are executed in the cyclic and stratified, and simulated in Muria Peninsula and Serang Coastal. Meteorological data were taken every hour for the duration of the year. The result showed that the cumulative frequency for the same input models for Serang coastal is higher than the Muria Peninsula. For the same site, cumulative frequency on cyclic input models is higher than stratified models. The cyclic models provide flexibility in determining the level of accuracy of calculations and do not require reference data compared to stratified models. The use of cyclic and stratified models involving large amounts of data and calculation repetition will improve the accuracy of statistical calculation values. (author)

  11. The clinical impact of the radiology report in wheezing and nonwheezing febrile children: a survey of clinicians

    Spottswood, Stephanie E.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Hilmes, Melissa A.; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Liaw, Kevin [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Moore, Paul E. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Pediatric Pulmonary, Allergy and Immunology, Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Patterson, Barron [Vanderbilt University, Department of Pediatrics, Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Chen, Heidi [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The chest radiograph is commonly used in the diagnosis and management of patients presenting with respiratory illness. The language used to describe the findings is important to ensure appropriate communication with the referring clinician and thereby optimize patient management. In this study we attempted to determine how clinicians interpret specific terms commonly used in a chest radiograph report, and to assess how these terms impact the management of children with respiratory symptoms. An online survey was distributed to 562 pediatric practitioners asking their interpretation of the terms ''peripheral airway disease (PAD),'' ''focal airspace consolidation,'' and ''focal infiltrate'' in a febrile child with or without wheezing. There were 112 respondents. Most practitioners defined the term ''PAD'' as viral pneumonia (61.5%) or asthma (56.9%), ''consolidation'' as atelectasis (83%) followed by pneumonia (69.6%), and ''infiltrate'' as pneumonia (100%), followed by atelectasis (22.3%). Practitioners were more likely to treat a nonwheezing child with antibiotics if the report stated ''focal airspace consolidation'' (80%) or ''focal infiltrate'' (100%; P=0.001). Some radiologic descriptors may lead to diverse and sometimes unintended diagnostic conclusions. Our findings support continued effort to structure and standardize the radiology report and our descriptive terminology. (orig.)

  12. Sampling on radiological protection training in diagnostic radiology

    Gaona, E.

    2001-01-01

    Radiological security aspects were evaluated in radiology departments from Mexico City. The study was carried out in two stages, the first one evaluated 40 departments just before the implementation of the new Official Mexican Standards related to Radiological Security and Quality Control in Radiology; in the second stage 33 departments were evaluated 2 years after those standards were implanted, showing a favorable impact of the training programs for the type of answers obtained [es

  13. Assessment of the radiological impact of disposal of low and intermediate level wastes on the seabed

    Mobbs, S.F.; Delow, C.E.; Hill, M.D.

    1984-03-01

    This report describes progress in the development of models for use in a radiological assessment of the disposal of low and intermediate level waste on the ocean floor. In particular the report describes the waste package model, the ocean dispersion model and the sedimentation model. Five types of waste package have been identified and models have been developed for them. A flow pattern for the Atlantic Ocean has been derived from the existing distribution of temperature and salinity in the Atlantic Ocean. However a number of discrepancies between the calculated and predicted pattern were found; the model has been extended to include all the world's oceans to correct this. The sedimentation model describes two types of scavenging particles in the water column, a well mixed benthic boundary layer and the top two metres of the bed sediments. Good agreement with the GESAMP ocean model results has been found. (author)

  14. Radiological impact evaluation on the aquatic ecosystems surrounding IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Jacomino, Vanusa F.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Bellintani, Sandra A.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    1996-01-01

    In order to control the discharge of radioactive materials into the aquatic system surrounding IPEN-CNEN/SP, an monitoring program has been carried out on a routine basis. All the liquid effluent generated by the IPEN facilities are released into the Pinheiros river at two different discharge points located 2 km apart. In the present paper the source term measured during the period 1985 to 1984 is presented, as well as the effective equivalent dose received by public individuals for each critical pathway. These results showed that the total activity released into the Pinheiros river is just a small fraction of the receiving capacity of the environment. The estimated annual doses during the period of study were always below 1/10 of the primary limit for the public individual as established by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, which is 1 mSv/year. (author)

  15. NIF: Impacts of chemical accidents and comparison of chemical/radiological accident approaches

    Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Rhodes, M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The goals of the NIF are to (1) achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory for the first time by using inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technology based on an advanced-design neodymium glass solid-state laser, and (2) conduct high-energy-density experiments in support of national security and civilian applications. The primary focus of this paper is worker-public health and safety issues associated with postulated chemical accidents during the operation of NIF. The key findings from the accident analysis will be presented. Although NIF chemical accidents will be emphasized, the important differences between chemical and radiological accident analysis approaches and the metrics for reporting results will be highlighted. These differences are common EIS facility and transportation accident assessments

  16. Radiological and environmental impact of amang, a TENORM industry in Malaysia

    Ismail Bahari

    1997-01-01

    The processing of amang, a by-product of tin mining industry has been going on in Malaysia for a very long time. The process of extracting valuable minerals from amang has resulted in the production of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Material (TENORM). Radiological studies conducted on amang workers have shown that they have a higher risk of being exposed to ionising radiation. Chromosomal aberration studies have shown that there is a significant increase of dicentrics among amang workers compared to the control. Processed and unprocessed amang also showed cytotoxic and cytogenetic properties on plants. Waters of ponds from neighbouring amang plants have been shown to be very acidic and together with other changes in the water quality of the pond have contributed to some cytotoxic and mutagenic changes in plant

  17. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents. Critical infrastructure and economic impact considerations

    Franco, David Oliver [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Yang, Lynn I. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hammer, Ann E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  18. Assessment of the radiological impact of intermediate level waste disposed on the seabed

    Mobbs, S.F.; Hill, M.D.

    1982-12-01

    This report outlines the methodology to be used in radiological assessments of disposal of waste on the ocean bed and describes the set of integrated models needed for such assessments. During the period covered by the contract considerable progress was made towards developing a new, compartment-type, model for dispersion of radionuclides in the deep ocean. The basic structure of this model was defined, and the mathematical techniques to be used in calculating the water flow rates between compartments were identified. Calculations of these flow rates are about to begin. When further progress has been made on the deep ocean model, more effort will be devoted to the other two models which are seen to be of high priority. These are the waste package model and the sedimentation model. It is anticipated that a first set of integrated models will be available for use in 1983, and will be refined thereafter. (author)

  19. Teaching and Working With Millennial Trainees: Impact on Radiological Education and Work Performance.

    Lourenco, Ana P; Cronan, John J

    2017-01-01

    Many feel that the generational differences encountered with Millennial trainees are novel; the reality is that prior generations have always bemoaned generational differences. This is not a new problem; some of the same things may even have been said about us during our own training! There are a variety of myths and misconceptions about the Millennial generation (also known as Generation Y). In this article we review some of the differences frequently encountered as we educate and work alongside our Millennial colleagues, dispelling some of the myths and misconceptions. With increased understanding of this talented group of individuals, we hope to be more effective teachers and have more successful professional relationships. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of regulatory control on monitoring of pregnant hospital staff in diagnostic radiology

    Faulkner, K.; Rawlings, D.J.; Marshall, N.W.

    1997-01-01

    In 1990, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommended the introduction of a supplementary dose limit for pregnant staff so that the foetus was adequately protected. This dose limit was framed in terms of an abdomen surface dose of 2 mSv for the duration of the pregnancy, once it had been declared. The philosophical basis underlying this supplementary dose limit was the desire to treat the foetus as a member of the public in respect of the occupational exposure of the mother. In the Basic Safety Standards, the International Atomic Energy Agency endorsed the need to limit the foetal dose, but in this document the dose limit refers to the foetus. The introduction of dose limits for foetal exposure to radiation has significant implications for hospitals as many workers are women of child bearing age. The practical implications of this dose limit will be discussed as well as suggested monitoring arrangements. (author)

  1. Transport of radioactive material in Romania -the assessment of the radiological consequences and the environmental impacts

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    The transport of radioactive materials (RAM) is a very important problem considering the potential risks and radiological consequences in carrying-out this activity. Romania as a Member State of the International Atomic Energy Agency has implemented national regulations for a safe transport of RAM in accordance with the Agency's recommendations as well as other international specialized organizations. Based on the IAEA's Safety Standard-TS-R-1 (ST-1), Romanian National Nuclear Regulatory Body - CNCAN adopted and implemented, by Act no. 357/December 21, 2005, the safety regulations for the transport of radioactive materials in Romania under the title: 'Regulations for the Transport of Radioactive Materials'. The paper will present the main sources of radioactive materials in Romania their transportation routes with a particular interest paid to the radioactive wastes (low level radioactive materials), isotopes and radioactive sources, uranium ore. Starting from the fact that the safety in the transport of radioactive materials is dependent on appropriate packaging for the contents being shipped, rather than operational and/or administrative actions required for the package, the paper presents, briefly the main packages used for transport and storage of such RAM in Romania. There are presented hypothetical scenarios for specific problems related to the identification and evaluation of the risks and potential radiological consequences associated with the transport of radioactive materials in Romania, for all these three situations: routine transport (without incidents), normal transport (with minor incidents) and during possible accidents. As a conclusion, it is ascertained that the evaluated annual collective dose for the population due to RAM transport is less than that received by natural radiation sources. At the same time it is concluded that Romanian made packages are safe and prevent loss of their radioactive contents into the environment. (author)

  2. Radiological effects

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant has been shown the radiation dose to the public from plant operation to be quite small. Calculations from the reported release rates yield 0.2 mrem whole body dose and 0.6 mrem skin dose for the calendar quarter of maximum release. Radioactivity discharges to the Chesapeake Bay have resulted in detectable concentrations of /sup 110m/Ag, 58 Co, and 60 Co in sediments and shellfish. The area yielding samples with detectable concentrations of plant effluents extends for roughly six miles up and down the western shore, with maximum values found at the plant discharge area. The radiation dose to an individual eating 29 doz oysters and 15 doz crabs (5 kg of each) taken from the plant discharge area would be about 4/1000 mrem whole body dose and 0.2 mrem gastrointestinal tract dose (about 0.007% and 0.5% of the applicable guidelines, respectively.) Comparison of these power plant-induced doses with the fluctuations in natural radiation dose already experienced by the public indicates that the power plant effects are insignificant. The natural variations are tens of times greater than the maximum doses resulting from Calvert Cliffs Power Plant. Although operations to date provide an insufficient basis to predict radiological impact of the Calvert Cliffs Plant over its operational lifetime, available data indicate that the plant should continue to operate with insignificant radiological impact, well within all applicable guidelines

  3. Preliminary assessment of the radiological impact for individual waste management areas at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Status report

    Sears, M.B.

    1987-09-01

    This study estimates the radiological impact (i.e., the potential doses) for individual waste management areas at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ranks the areas for remedial action based on the off-site doses that result from these discharges to White Oak Creek. Dose estimates are given for the drinking water pathway based on known discharges from White Oak Dam. Estimates are also made of doses for eating fish caught in the Clinch River near the confluence with White Oak Creek. The results of a search for data concerning the discharges of 90 Sr, 3 H, 137 Cs, and 60 Co from individual waste management areas are presented. A qualitative assessment is presented, and areas are ranked for remedial investigation based on the available information. 29 refs., 8 figs., 45 tabs

  4. Methodology for and uses of a radiological source term assessment for potential impacts to stormwater and groundwater

    Teare, A.; Hansen, K.; DeWilde, J.; Yu, L.; Killey, D.

    2001-01-01

    A Radiological Source Term Assessment (RSTA) was conducted by Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). Tritium had been identified in the groundwater at several locations under the station, and OPG initiated the RSTA as part of its ongoing efforts to improve operations and to identify potential sources of radionuclide impact to groundwater and stormwater at the station. The RSTA provides a systematic approach to collecting information and assessing environmental risk for radioactive contaminants based on a ranking system developed for the purpose. This paper provides an overview of the RSTA focusing on the investigative approach and how it was applied. This approach can find application at other generating stations. (author)

  5. The impact of the 'Better Care Better Value' prescribing policy on the utilisation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers for treating hypertension in the UK primary care setting: longitudinal quasi-experimental design.

    Baker, Amanj; Chen, Li-Chia; Elliott, Rachel A; Godman, Brian

    2015-09-10

    In April/2009, the UK National Health Service initiated four Better Care Better Value (BCBV) prescribing indicators, one of which encouraged the prescribing of cheaper angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) instead of expensive angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), with 80 % ACEIs/20 % ARBs as a proposed, and achievable target. The policy was intended to save costs without affecting patient outcomes. However, little is known about the actual impact of the BCBV indicator on ACEIs/ARBs utilisation and cost-savings. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of BCBV policy on ACEIs/ARBs utilisation and cost-savings, including exploration of regional variations of the policy's impact. This cross-sectional study used data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Segmented time-series analysis was applied to monthly ACEIs prescription proportion, adjusted number of ACEIs/ARBs prescriptions and costs. Overall, the proportion of ACEIs prescription decreased during the study period from 71.2% in April/2006 to 70.7% in March/2012, with a small but a statistically significant pre-policy reduction in its monthly trend of 0.02% (p < 0.001). Instantly after its initiation, the policy was associated with a sudden reduction in the proportion of ACEIs prescription; however, it resulted in a statistically significant increase in the post-policy monthly trend of ACEIs prescription proportion of 0.013% (p < 0.001), resulting in an overall post-policy slope of -0.007%. Despite this post-policy induced increment, the policy failed to achieve the 80% target, which resulted in missing a potential cost-saving opportunity. The pre-policy trend of the adjusted number of ACEIs/ARBs prescriptions was increasing; however, their trends declined after the policy implementation. The policy affected neither total ACEIs/ARBs cost nor individual ACEIs or ARBs costs. ACEIs/ARBs utilisation was not affected by the BCBV policy. The small increase in post-policy ACEIs

  6. Sewage sludge: arisings, environmental impact, utilisation, disposal. Private wastewater disposal companies present memorandum; Klaerschlamm: Aufkommen, Belastung, Verwertung und Entsorgung. Private Abwasserentsorger legen Memorandum vor

    Anon.

    1999-05-01

    The more wastewater is cleaned to a high level of purity, the more sewage sludge arises. Problems of quantity and quality are closely intertwined with technical developments and changes in the legal framework. This applies as much to wastewater purification as it does to the utilisation or disposal of sewage sludge. Early this year the Association of Private Wastewater Disposal Companies (Verband der privaten Abwasserentsorger e.V., VpA) presented a memorandum on sewage sludge management which is intended to lead to greater transparency in this market segment of environmental protection. [Deutsch] Je mehr Abwasser auf hohem Niveau gereinigt wird, umso groesser ist die Menge des anfallenden Klaerschlamms. Mengen- und Qualitaetsprobleme sind eingebunden in sich wandelnde Techniken und veraenderte gesetzliche Grundlagen - in der Abwasserreinigung wie in der Verwertung oder Beseitigung der Klaerschlaemme. Der Verband der privaten Abwasserentsorger e.V. (VpA) hat Anfang des Jahres ein Memorandum zur Klaerschlammwirtschaft herausgegeben, das fuer groessere Transparenz in diesem Marktsegment des Umweltschutzes sorgen soll. (orig.)

  7. The impact on health outcomes and healthcare utilisation of switching to generic medicines consequent to reference pricing: the case of lamotrigine in New Zealand.

    Lessing, Charon; Ashton, Toni; Davis, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Many countries have implemented generic reference pricing and substitution as methods of containing pharmaceutical expenditure. However, resistance to switching between medicines is apparent, especially in the case of anti-epileptic medicines. This study sought to exploit a nation-wide policy intervention on generic reference pricing in New Zealand to evaluate the health outcomes of patients switching from originator to generic lamotrigine, an anti-epileptic medicine. A retrospective study using the national health collections and prescription records was conducted comparing patients who switched from originator brand to generic lamotrigine with patients who remained on the originator brand. Primary outcome measures included switch behaviour, changes in utilisation of healthcare services at emergency departments, hospitalisations and use of specialist services, and mortality. Approximately one-quarter of all patients using the originator brand of lamotrigine switched to generic lamotrigine, half of whom made the switch within 60 days of the policy implementation. Multiple switches (three or more) between generic and brand products were evident for around 10% of switchers. Switch-back rates of 3% were apparent within 30 days post-switch. No difference in heath outcome measures was associated with switching from originator lamotrigine to a generic equivalent and hence no increased costs could be found for switchers. Switching from brand to generic lamotrigine is largely devoid of adverse health outcomes; however, creating an incentive to ensure a greater proportion of patients switch to generic lamotrigine is required to achieve maximal financial savings from a policy of generic reference pricing.

  8. A preliminary assessment of the radiological impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the population of the European Community

    Morrey, M.; Brown, J.; Williams, J.A.; Crick, M.J.; Simmonds, J.R.; Hill, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident the Commission of the European Communities asked the National Radiological Protection Board to carry out a preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of the accident on the population of the European Community (EC). The aim of the study was to review information on the environmental contamination measured in member states of the EC; to make a preliminary assessment of individual and population doses for each country; to make an estimate of the resulting health impact and to indicate the effects of the various countermeasures taken by member states in terms of the reductions in both individual and population exposure which they produced. All of the main pathways by which people have been and will be exposed to radiation as a result of the accident were included in the assessment. The impact estimate is based on environmental measurements made during the month after the accident, and on calculations made using mathematical models of radionuclide transfer through the environment. The calculated effective doses to average individuals in EC countries from exposure over the next 50 years range from 0.3 μSv (in Portugal) to between about 300 and 500 μSv (in the FRG, Italy and Greece). The total collective effective dose to the population of EC countries, integrated over all time, is estimated to be about 80 000 man Sv. This may be compared to the collective effective dose from natural background radiation of about 500 000 man Sv every year. In some countries, the restrictions placed on consumption of some foods are estimated to have been effective in reducing doses to the most exposed individuals; the reduction being up to about a factor of 2. The results presented in this paper should therefore be regarded as preliminary

  9. Nuclear and energies nr 57. Japan, another glance. The environmental and radiological impact. The international impact. The illusion of renewable energies in Japan

    Lenail, B.

    2011-07-01

    The contributions of this publication first address the Japanese local context (organization, mentality, cultural background, thinking and action modes), and secondly the environmental and radiological impact of the Fukushima accident, notably in comparison with Chernobyl (contamination is much more localized, sometimes higher; a larger concerned population but quicker and more efficient protection measures; more severe consequences due to population displacement). The third article discusses the international impact of the accident: known or foreseen consequences on nuclear programs, discussion on safety strengthening and on governance, evolution of public opinion, possible consequences on climate negotiations. The last article proposes an overview of the current situation of Japan which must mobilize all the available energy resources to face the difficulties in electricity supply

  10. Control of radiological impacts in deactivated uranium mine - the portuguese experience; Controlo dos impactes radiologicos em minas de uranio desactivadas - a experiencia portuguesa

    Pereira, Alcides; Neves, Luis, E-mail: apereira@dct.uc.p, E-mail: luis.neves@dct.uc.p [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Ciencias da Terra. Instituto do Mar

    2011-10-26

    The exploration of radioactive ores occurred in Portugal during around 100 years, and on that period 4370 tons were produced of uranium concentrate, and an estimated total of 13 millions of tons of residues, of various type and variable dangerous grade. From the year 2000 that the government has been performed studies on environmental characterization at the mining areas and remediation project as well. The precise evaluation of the environmental impacts implies the the knowledge of prior work situation, nonexistent for the case of Portuguese mines. This work proposes a methodology for exceeding that limitation focused on selection of area sited at the same metallogenetic province, and considered representative of background. The radiological impacts are checked by the effective dose calculated for reference groups of the exposed population, at this region and in the principal mining area at Portugal (Urgeirica), at the end of exploration and after the finalization of some remediation works

  11. Generic environmental impact statement in support of rulemaking on radiological criteria for decommissioning of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. Appendices; Draft report for comment -- Volume 2

    1994-08-01

    The action being considered in this draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement (GEIS) is an amendment to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations in 10 CFR Part 20 to include radiological criteria for decommissioning of lands and structures at nuclear facilities. Under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), all Federal agencies must consider the effect of their actions on the environment. To fulfill NRC's responsibilities under NEPA, the Commission is preparing this GEIS which analyzes alternative courses of action and the costs and impacts associated with those alternatives. In preparing the GEIS, the following approach was taken: (1) a listing was developed of regulatory alternatives for establishing radiological criteria for decommissioning; (2) for each alternative, a detailed analysis and comparison of incremental impacts, both radiological and nonradiological, to workers, members of the public, and the environment, and costs, were performed; and (3) based on the analysis of impacts and costs, preliminary recommendations were provided. Contained in the GEIS are recommendations related to the definition of decommissioning, the scope of rulemaking, the radiological criteria, restrictions on use, citizen participation, use of the GEIS in site-specific cases, and minimization of contamination

  12. Generic environmental impact statement in support of rulemaking on radiological criteria for decommissioning of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. Main report; Draft report for comment: Volume 1

    1994-08-01

    The action being considered in this draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement (GEIS) is an amendment to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations in 10 CFR Part 20 to include radiological criteria for decommissioning of lands and structures at nuclear facilities. Under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), all Federal agencies must consider the effect of their actions on the environment. To fulfill NRC's responsibilities under NEPA, the Commission is preparing this GEIS which analyzes alternative courses of action and the costs and impacts associated with those alternatives. In preparing the GEIS, the following approach was taken: (1) a listing was developed of regulatory alternatives for establishing radiological criteria for decommissioning; (2) for each alternative, a detailed analysis and comparison of incremental impacts, both radiological and nonradiological, to workers, members of the public, and the environment, and costs, were performed; and (3) based on the analysis of impacts and costs, preliminary recommendations were provided. Contained in the GEIS are recommendations related to the definition of decommissioning, the scope of rulemaking, the radiological criteria, restrictions on use, citizen participation, use of the GEIS in site-specific cases, and minimization of contamination

  13. Comparison of the waste management aspects of spent fuel disposal and reprocessing: post-disposal radiological impact

    Mobbs, S.F.; Harvey, M.P.; Martin, J.S.; Mayall, A.; Jones, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    A joint project involving contractors from France, Germany and the UK was set up by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the implications of two waste management options: the direct disposal of spent fuel and reprocessing of that fuel. This report describes the calculation of the radiological impact on the public of the management and disposal of the wastes associated with these two options. Six waste streams were considered: discharge of liquid reprocessing effluents, discharge of gaseous reprocessing effluents, disposal of low-level solid wastes arising from reprocessing, disposal of intermediate-level solid wastes arising from reprocessing, disposal of vitrified high-level reprocessing wastes, and direct disposal of spent fuel. The results of the calculations are in the form of maximum annual doses and risks to individual members of the public, and collective doses to four population groups, integrated over six time periods. These results were designed for input into a computer model developed by another contractor, Yard Ltd, which combines costs and impacts in a multi-attribute hierarchy to give an overall measure of the impact of a given option

  14. Impact of Multislice CT Angiography on Planning of Radiological Catheter Placement for Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    Sone, Miyuki; Kato, Kenichi; Hirose, Atsuo; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko; Tomabechi, Makiko; Ehara, Shigeru; Hanari, Takao

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess prospectively the role of multislice CT angiography (MSCTA) on planning of radiological catheter placement for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC). Forty-six patients with malignant liver tumors planned for HAIC were included. In each patient, both MSCTA and intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed, except one patient who did not undergo DSA. Comparison of MSCTA and DSA images was performed for the remaining 45 patients. Detectability of anatomical variants of the hepatic artery, course of the celiac trunk, visualization scores of arterial branches and interobserver agreement, presence of arterial stenosis, and technical outcome were evaluated. Anatomical variations of the hepatic artery were detected in 19 of 45 patients (42%) on both modalities. The course of the celiac trunk was different in 12 patients. The visualization scores of celiac arterial branches on MSCTA/DSA were 3.0 ± 0/2.9 ± 0.2 in the celiac trunk, 3.0 ± 0/2.9 ± 0.3 in the common hepatic artery, 2.9 ± 0.2/2.9 ± 0.3 in the proper hepatic artery, 2.9 ± 0.3/2.9 ± 0.4 in the right hepatic artery, 2.8 ± 0.4/2.9 ± 0.4 in the left hepatic artery, 2.9 ± 0.2/2.9 ± 0.3 in the gastroduodenal artery, 2.1 ± 0.8/2.2 ± 0.9 in the right gastric artery, and 2.7 ± 0.8/2.6 ± 0.8 in the left gastric artery. No statistically significant differences exist between the two modalities. Interobserver agreement for MSCTA was equivalent to that for DSA. Two patients showed stenosis of the celiac trunk on both modalities. Based on these imaging findings, technical success was accomplished in all patients. In conclusion, MSCTA is accurate in assessing arterial anatomy and abnormalities. MSCTA can provide adequate information for planning of radiological catheter placement for HAIC

  15. Information on the NEA/OECD publication ''Chernobyl: Ten years of radiological and health impact''

    Prochazkova, D.

    1996-01-01

    A synopsis of the title document is presented. The topics treated encompass a description of the accident, radionuclide dispersion and fallout, responses of national governments, radiation dose estimates, health impacts, impacts on agriculture and the environment, potential residual hazards, and lessons learned from the accident. (P.A.)

  16. Production and consumption of foods in Spain, for its applications in radiological impact evaluations

    Robles, B.; Suanez, A.; Vazquez, C.

    1994-01-01

    This work is focussed on characterization, organization and analysis for the most relevant regional parameters used in dose assessment models when a food pathway contamination occurs. It was carried in the framework of a contract with a several European Institutions (CEA-IPSN, NRPB) for the development of a general methodology for the evaluation of the radiological consequences caused by accidentally radioactive releases into the environment. Spain, a member of the mediterranean country group, has a remarkably diverse climate which determines crop production agricultural practices, and consequently the animal and human diets. This project intention in to study in depth these particular characteristics and their consequences so that the estimated dose received by an individual reflects a variety of factors, therefore, the production and consumption of the five autonomous Mediterranean regions have been compared individually and globally with the national production and consumption averages. These data have been used in committed dose evaluation exercise applied to the ingestion of contaminated food throughout the first year after an accidental release of Caesium-137. This exercise was realized within the TARRAS (Transfer of Accidentally Released of Radionuclides in Agricultural Systems) project, financed by CE, ENRESA and CSN. (Author) 6 ref

  17. Environmental behavior of technetium in soil and vegetation: implications for radiological impact assessment

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1982-04-01

    Significant radiological exposures have been estimated for hypothetical atmospheric releases of Tc-99 from gaseous diffusion facilities when vegetation-to-soil concentration ratios representative of laboratory experiments are substituted for generic default values assumed in current regulatory models. To test the relevancy of these laboratory ratios, field investigations were conducted to obtain measurements of the vegetation-to-soil concentration ratio for Tc-99 in samples collected near operating gaseous diffusion facilities and to observe the dynamic behavior of technetium in soil and vegetation following a single application of a sprayed solution of /sup 95m/TcO 4 - Comparison of observed field concentration ratios and calculated steady-state concentration ratios with ratios obtained from previous laboratory experiments indicates that concentration ratios obtained from field data are one to two orders of magnitude less than those obtained from the laboratory. Furthermore, a substantial accumulation of technetium in soil and vegetation may not occur over long periods of time, since concentrations of technetium in both environmental media were observed to decrease with time subsequent to initial application of /sup 95m/TcO 4 -

  18. The radiological impact of Sellafield on coastal communities around the Irish Sea: a summary report

    Barr, H.M.; Howorth, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    The inhabitants of coastal regions bordering the Irish Sea are exposed to radionuclides, of Sellafield origin, through a variety of pathways. An assessment of the magnitude of the resulting radiation doses and the regional differences is presented in this report. The assessment has considered exposures arising from the seafood, beach and sea-spray transfer pathways. The spatial differences in the doses received through each pathway and the future evolution of the doses are determined by the predicted difference in the behaviour of individual radionuclides in the Irish Sea. Differences in the degree to which radionuclides adsorb onto sediments give rise to characteristic patterns in which 137 Cs is more uniformly distributed than the actinides and in which 137 Cs responds to the decreasing discharge rate from Sellafield more readily than the actinides. In the future, the contributions of 137 Cs to the radiological dose are predicted to decline, in response to discharge rates, much more rapidly than the contribution of the actinides which are subject to the influence of remobilisation processes. (author)

  19. Information support for analysing the radiological impact of areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Shershakov, V.M.; Baranov, A.Yu.; Borodin, R.V.; Golubenkov, A.V.; Godko, A.M.; Kosykh, V.S.; Korenev, A.I.; Meleshkin, M.A. [SPA `Typhoon`, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    The organisation and management of data banks generated using data from monitoring the radiological situation after the Chernobyl accident is of key importance to health care and rehabilitation in the contaminated areas. Measures following the accident were based on large scale studies involving analysis and prediction of radioactive contamination. These studies included measurements of radioactivity in air, soil and water, modelling and prediction of radionuclides transport and transformation. This required the development of a computer system RECASS (RadioEcological Analysis Support System) which is currently being developed in SPA ``Typhoon``. The main tasks of RECASS are to integrate data on existing characteristics of the environment, and data on air, soil, water and biota-contamination with numerical models that account for radionuclide behaviour in all environmental media, and with radiation dose formations that are based on geographic information system (GIS) principles. The data bank of the system includes the following data bases: a data base with measurement of radioactive contamination levels in environmental media (soil, air, water); a meteorological data base; and a data base with administrative and demographic data. A set of models for radionuclide transfer in various environments incorporated in the chain permits short or long-term predictions to be made. The results of implementing RECASS to reconstruct the time and space picture of contamination in the first days after the Chernobyl accident are presented. (Author).

  20. Informatics support for analysing the radiological impact of areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Shershakov, V.M.; Baranov, A.Yu.; Borodin, R.V.; Golubenkov, A.V.; Godko, A.M.; Kosykh, V.S.; Korenev, A.I.; Meleshkin, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The organisation and management of data banks generated using data from monitoring the radiological situation after the Chernobyl accident is of key importance to health care and rehabilitation in the contaminated areas. Measures following the accident were based on large scale studies involving analysis and prediction of radioactive contamination. These studies included measurements of radioactivity in air, soil and water, modelling and prediction of radionuclides transport and transformation. This required the development of a computer system RECASS (RadioEcological Analysis Support System) which is currently being developed in SPA ''Typhoon''. The main tasks of RECASS are to integrate data on existing characteristics of the environment, and data on air, soil, water and biota-contamination with numerical models that account for radionuclide behaviour in all environmental media and with radiation dose formations that are based on geographic information system (GIS) principles. The data bank of the system includes the following databases: a data base with measurement of radioactive contamination levels in environmental media (soil, air, water); a meteorological data base; and a data base with administrative and demographic data. A set of models for radionuclide transfer in various environments incorporated in the chain permits short or long-term predictions to be made. The results of implementing RECASS to reconstruct the time and space picture of contamination in the first days after the Chernobyl accident are presented. (Author)

  1. Information support for analysing the radiological impact of areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Shershakov, V.M.; Baranov, A.Yu.; Borodin, R.V.; Golubenkov, A.V.; Godko, A.M.; Kosykh, V.S.; Korenev, A.I.; Meleshkin, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The organisation and management of data banks generated using data from monitoring the radiological situation after the Chernobyl accident is of key importance to health care and rehabilitation in the contaminated areas. Measures following the accident were based on large scale studies involving analysis and prediction of radioactive contamination. These studies included measurements of radioactivity in air, soil and water, modelling and prediction of radionuclides transport and transformation. This required the development of a computer system RECASS (RadioEcological Analysis Support System) which is currently being developed in SPA ''Typhoon''. The main tasks of RECASS are to integrate data on existing characteristics of the environment, and data on air, soil, water and biota-contamination with numerical models that account for radionuclide behaviour in all environmental media, and with radiation dose formations that are based on geographic information system (GIS) principles. The data bank of the system includes the following data bases: a data base with measurement of radioactive contamination levels in environmental media (soil, air, water); a meteorological data base; and a data base with administrative and demographic data. A set of models for radionuclide transfer in various environments incorporated in the chain permits short or long-term predictions to be made. The results of implementing RECASS to reconstruct the time and space picture of contamination in the first days after the Chernobyl accident are presented. (Author)

  2. Radon induced radiological impact of coal, fly ash and cement samples

    Kant, K.; Chauhan, R.P.; Sharma, G.S.; Chakravarti, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Coal and its by-product fly ash are technologically important materials being used for power generation and in the manufacture of bricks, sheets, cement, land-filling, etc., respectively. Increased interest in measuring radon concentration in coal, fly ash and cement is due to its health hazards and environmental pollution. As the presence of radon in the environment (indoor and outdoor), soil, ground water, oil and gas deposits contributes the largest fraction of the natural radiation dose to populations, tracking its concentration is thus of paramount importance for radiological protection. Samples of coal and fly ash were collected from different thermal power stations in northern India and cement samples from National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabgarh (Haryana), India and were analysed for radon concentration. For the measurement, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. Based upon the available data, the annual effective dose and the lifetime fatality risk factors have been calculated. The radon concentration from coal samples varied from 433 ± 28 Bqm -3 to 2086 ± 28 Bqm -3 . The radon concentration from fly ash samples varied from 748 ± 28 Bqm -3 to 1417 ± 111 Bqm -3 and from 158 Bqm -3 to 1810 Bqm -3 in cement samples, with an average of 624 ± 169 Bqm -3 . (author)

  3. Alkali-activated concrete with Serbian fly ash and its radiological impact.

    Nuccetelli, Cristina; Trevisi, Rosabianca; Ignjatović, Ivan; Dragaš, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    The present paper reports the results of a study on different types of fly ash from Serbian coal burning power plants and their potential use as a binder in alkali-activated concrete (AAC) depending on their radiological and mechanical properties. Five AAC mixtures with different types of coal burning fly ash and one type of blast furnace slag were designed. Measurements of the activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th were done both on concrete constituents (fly ash, blast furnace slag and aggregate) and on the five solid AAC samples. Experimental results were compared by using the activity concentration assessment tool for building materials - the activity concentration index I, as introduced by the EU Basic Safety Standards (CE, 2014). All five designed alkali-activated concretes comply with EU BSS screening requirements for indoor building materials. Finally, index I values were compared with the results of the application of a more accurate index - I(ρd), which accounts for thickness and density of building materials (Nuccetelli et al., 2015a). Considering the actual density and thickness of each concrete sample index - I(ρd) values are lower than index I values. As an appendix, a synthesis of main results concerning mechanical and chemical properties is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 5. Assessment of the radiological impact to the public resulting from discharges of radioactive effluents

    Centner, B.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the assessment of the radiological impact to the public resulting from discharges of radioactive effluents (liquid and gaseous) in connection with the implementation of the Belgian scenario for the management of PWR waste. Both individual and collective doses have been estimated for a critical group of the population living around the nuclear power plants concerned. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management wastes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  5. Evaluation of the radiological impact in the aquatic system in the surrounding of IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Jacomino, V.M.F.; Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Venturini, L.

    1989-12-01

    In order to control the discharges of radioactive material in the aquatic system (Jaguare stream and Pinheiros river) in the vicinity of IPEN-CNEN/SP an effluent monitoring program was established on a routine basis. This control is carried out by measuring the activity of the radionuclides present in the liquid effluents (source term) using gamma spectrometry and/or spectrophotometry. The results obtained are then compared with the discharge limits adopted by CNEN when a decision is made upon the discharge of the effluent under consideration. In 1988 the total activity discharged by the nuclear installations available was 1997, 9x10 6 Bq in a total volume of 2421,4 m 3 . The next step was to evaluate the effective equivalent dose in the general public by using the results of the source term and the information available concerning the environment. It was assumed that the only critical pathway is the external gamma irradiation of the people that work in the nearby of the discharge points in Pinheiros river. The effective equivalent dose obtained was 39,4η Sv and the most relevant radionuclides that should be considered 60 Co, 137 Cs, 131 I and 226 Ra. This result is less than 1/10 of the maximum admissible dose limit adopted by the Radiological Protection Standards which is 10 -3 Sv/year. In order to measure the level of radioactivity in the environment, samples of ground water, water and sediments of Pinheiros river were collected and analyzed by using gamma spectrometry and fluorimetry. The radionuclides found were 226 Ra, 22228 Ra, U Nat, 40 K and 7 Be with activities corresponding to the background levels. The analysis of these results and the evaluation of the equivalent dose show that the radiological impact in the aquatic systems considered is insignificant. (author) [pt

  6. An Integrated Approach to Evaluating the Environmental Impact Following a Radiological Dispersal Event

    Smith, David A

    2006-01-01

    .... A terrorist act which could negatively impact both the ecology and human health is an ideal motivation for integration of the two approaches since the assessment must be done quickly and funds...

  7. Impaction of lower third molars and their association with age: radiological perspectives.

    Ryalat, Soukaina; AlRyalat, Saif Aldeen; Kassob, Zaid; Hassona, Yazan; Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H; Sawair, Faleh

    2018-04-04

    Third molars are the most commonly impacted teeth, and their extraction is the most commonly performed procedure in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of the present study is to describe the pattern of mandibular third molar impaction and to define the most appropriate age for prophylactic extraction of mandibular third molar teeth. A total of 1198 orthopantomographs (OPGs) with 1810 impacted lower third molars were reviewed by two authors. The pattern of eruption in relation to patient's age was examined using standard radiographic points and angles. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows release 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). In patients older than 20 years, vertical pattern of impaction was the most common (21.4%); while in young patients; horizontal impaction was more common (21.3%). Furthermore, there was a constant pattern of increase in Pell-Gregory ramus class 1 with increasing age, as the prevalence of class 1 was 0% at age 18 years compared to 54.9% at the age of 26 years. Frequency of vertical impaction of lower third molars was seen more at an older age (> 20 years) in this study, with an increase in the retromolar space. Late extraction of mandibular third molar teeth (i.e. after the age of 20) is therefore recommended when prophylactic extraction is considered.

  8. Radiological controls integrated into design

    Kindred, G.W. [Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co., Perry, OH (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Radiological controls are required by law in the design of commercial nuclear power reactor facilities. These controls can be relatively minor or significant, relative to cost. To ensure that radiological controls are designed into a project, the health physicist (radiological engineer) must be involved from the beginning. This is especially true regarding keeping costs down. For every radiological engineer at a nuclear power plant there must be fifty engineers of other disciplines. The radiological engineer cannot be an expert on every discipline of engineering. However, he must be knowledgeable to the degree of how a design will impact the facility from a radiological perspective. This paper will address how to effectively perform radiological analyses with the goal of radiological controls integrated into the design package.

  9. The radiological impact of naturally-occurring radionuclides in foods from the wild

    Green, N.; Hammond, D.J.; Davidson, M.F.; Wilkins, B.T.; Williams, B.

    2002-01-01

    Habit surveys have been conducted to identify people who make use of foodstuffs collected from the wild (free foods) in two areas of the UK: in the area around Chipping Norton in Oxfordshire, where levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides in soil were expected to be typical of the UK, and in the vicinity of Okehampton in Devon, where levels were known to be elevated. Individuals who make regular use of these foodstuffs were specifically identified, so that an estimate of typical and higher than average consumption rates could be derived. The naturally-occurring radionuclides of interest were 210 Po, 210 Pb, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 230 Th, 232 Th and 226 Ra. Samples of important foodstuffs were collected and the radionuclides of interest determined. The consumption rates were combined with the measured activity concentrations and published dose coefficients to estimate doses to average and higher than average consumers. These doses were compared with estimated doses reported in the Food Standards Agency's ongoing monitoring programme and with average doses to the population of the UK reviewed by NRPB. In total, 400 people were identified and between them they collected 54 different types of free food. Blackberries were by far the most common species collected, although various types of mushroom and nuts were also popular. On average, each collector from around Chipping Norton collected 2.1 different foods, and each from around Okehampton collected 2.2. On the basis of the habit survey, therefore, it would be reasonable to expect that any site, nuclear or otherwise, chosen for habit surveys, whether for radiological purposes or for any other contaminant, could have substantial numbers of people collecting free foods. In addition, the pattern of foods collected was very similar to previous studies, indicating similarities across England and Wales. (author)

  10. Randomized clinical trial on the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema: impact on radiological practice

    Goei, Reginald; Kessels, Alphons H.; Nix, Maarten; Knipschild, Paul G.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the willingness of radiologists to change their practice when the results of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) on the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema are presented. Materials and Methods: During the years 1994 and 1995 two postal questionnaires were sent to 481 practicing radiologists who were all members of the Netherlands Society of Radiology. In the first questionnaire the respondents were asked to give the characteristics of their practices in performing daily barium enema. The data from this questionnaire was used as a reference. The second questionnaire was sent to the respondents together with an abstract on the randomized clinical trial supporting the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema. We also indicated a preference for Buscopan over Glucagon as the antispasmodic drug. The willingness to change prescription habits was measured by comparing the data of the two questionnaires. Results: Of 481 practicing radiologists, 312 responded to the first questionnaire and gave information of their prescription habits (response rate 64%). These 312 responders were sent an abstract of the RCT and were asked to fill out a second questionnaire to determine their willingness to change their practice. Two hundred and sixty-seven radiologists responded (response rate 86%). A significant number of 119 (51%) were willing to increase the use of antispasmodic drugs. A significant number of 128 (55%) chose to increase the use of Buscopan, while a significant number of 81 (32%) were willing to decrease the use of Glucagon. Conclusion: Direct exposure to the results of an RCT recommending the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema, especially Buscopan, is likely to increase its use by practicing radiologists

  11. Development of an integrated system for evaluation of environmental radiologic impact during emergency situations

    Conti, Luiz Fernando de Carvalho

    2002-03-01

    An integrated system for performing environmental dose assessment after nuclear or radiological emergencies has been developed, as a tool for decision making process. The system includes databases such as those describing radionuclide decay, dose conversion factors for several environmental geometries and radionuclides with emitted radiation and energies. It includes several models for predicting environmental behaviour at the short,medium and long terms, for both rural and urban environments and is flexible enough for simulating the exposure of members of the public due to small accidents involving individual sources up to large scale nuclear accidents with complex source terms to the environment. The model has been built in a way that can perform assessment of actual exposures or make forecasts for future exposure based on dynamic simulation of the fate of radionuclides in environmental and potential exposure pathways to members of the public, taking into account he kind of contaminated environment and the age groups of exposed persons. Input data may come from a predicted source term or information on environmental concentration based on dispersion models or on environmental measurements, including on line monitoring systems, environmental surveys, direct measurements by in situ gamma spectrometry or analysis of environmental samples. Outputs of the model are dose estimates to members of the public as a function of the exposure pathway, time after the contamination and age group, for different groups of members of the public and kind of use of the environment. Time dependent kerma rates in air and concentrations in environmental compartments such as soil and foodstuff are also available, including the simulation of the effect of protective measures, to support the decision making process. (author)

  12. Radiological English

    Ribes, R. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Cordoba (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Ros, P.R. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Radiology

    2007-07-01

    The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)

  13. Radiological English

    Ribes, R.; Ros, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)

  14. Potential clinical impact of advanced imaging and computer-aided diagnosis in chest radiology: importance of radiologist's role and successful observer study.

    Li, Feng

    2015-07-01

    This review paper is based on our research experience in the past 30 years. The importance of radiologists' role is discussed in the development or evaluation of new medical images and of computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes in chest radiology. The four main topics include (1) introducing what diseases can be included in a research database for different imaging techniques or CAD systems and what imaging database can be built by radiologists, (2) understanding how radiologists' subjective judgment can be combined with technical objective features to improve CAD performance, (3) sharing our experience in the design of successful observer performance studies, and (4) finally, discussing whether the new images and CAD systems can improve radiologists' diagnostic ability in chest radiology. In conclusion, advanced imaging techniques and detection/classification of CAD systems have a potential clinical impact on improvement of radiologists' diagnostic ability, for both the detection and the differential diagnosis of various lung diseases, in chest radiology.

  15. The effect of utilising age and sex dependent factors for calculating detriment from medical irradiation

    Mettler, F.A.; Davis, M.; Moseley, R.D.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proposals have been made for a quantity that can be used to estimate possible detriment from medical radiology better than the ICRP's collective effective dose equivalent. One such approach utilises age and sex dependent 'weighting' factors. The magnitude of the effect obtained by utilising such factors when applied to an actual population has not been previously assessed. When age and sex dependent weighting factors are applied to diagnostic medical radiology for all hospital examinations conducted in the United States in 1980, estimates of detriment are reduced by one-third. (author)

  16. The radiological impact of naturally-occurring radionuclides in foods from the wild

    Green, N.; Hammond, D.J.; Davidson, M.F.; Wilkins, B.T.; Williams, B.

    2002-01-01

    Habit surveys have been conducted to identify people who make use of foodstuffs collected from the wild (free foods) in two areas of the UK: in the area around Chipping Norton in Oxfordshire, where levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides in soil were expected to be typical of the UK, and in the vicinity of Okehampton in Devon, where levels were known to be elevated. Individuals who make regular use of these foodstuffs were specifically identified, so that an estimate of typical and higher than average consumption rates could be derived. The naturally-occurring radionuclides of interest were 210 Po, 210 Pb, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 230 Th, 232 Th and 226 Ra. Samples of important foodstuffs were collected and the radionuclides of interest determined. The consumption rates were combined with the measured activity concentrations and published dose coefficients to estimate doses to average and higher than average consumers. These doses were compared with estimated doses reported in the Food Standards Agency's ongoing monitoring programme and with average doses to the population of the UK reviewed by NRPB. In total, 400 people were identified and between them they collected 54 different types of free food. Blackberries were by far the most common species collected, although various types of mushroom and nuts were also popular. On average, each collector from around Chipping Norton collected 2.1 different foods, and each from around Okehampton collected 2.2. On the basis of the habit survey, therefore, it would be reasonable to expect that any site, nuclear or otherwise, chosen for habit surveys, whether for radiological purposes or for any other contaminant, could have substantial numbers of people collecting free foods. In addition, the pattern of foods collected was very similar to previous studies, indicating similarities across England and Wales. Doses from the consumption of free foods were estimated. The annual doses estimated to have been received by a typical

  17. Radiology fundamentals

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  18. RSVP radiology

    Kirks, D.R.; Chaffee, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops a relative scale of value for pediatric radiology (RSVPR). Neither the HCFA/ACA Relative Value Scale nor the Workload Measurement System developed by Health and Welfare Canada specifically addressed pediatric radiologic examinations. Technical and professional charges for examinations at Children's Hospital Medical Center were reviewed and compared with time and cost analysis. A scale was developed with chest radiography (PA and lateral views) assigned a value of 1. After review by pediatric radiologic technologists, radiologic administrators, pediatric radiologists, and chairs of departments of children's hospitals, this proposed scale was modified to reflect more accurately relative value components of pediatric radiologic and imaging examinations

  19. Generic performance assessment for a deep repository for low and intermediate level waste in the UK - a case study in assessing radiological impacts on the natural environment

    Jones, S.R.; Patton, D.; Copplestone D.; Norris, S.; O'Sullivan, P.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of radionuclides in soil and surface water, taken from a generic performance assessment of a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, assumed to be located in the UK, have been used as the basis for a case study in assessing radiological impacts on the natural environment. Simplified descriptions of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types likely to be impacted have been developed. A scoping assessment has identified 226 Ra, 210 Po, 234 U, 230 Th and 238 U as having the highest potential for impact, with doses from internally incorporated alpha emitters as being potentially of particular importance. These nuclides, together with 36 Cl and 129 I (which have proved to be of importance in radiological risk assessments for humans) were included in a more detailed dose assessment. A basic methodology for dose assessment of ecosystems is described, and has been applied for the defined impacted ecosystems. Paucity of published data on concentration factors prevented a more detailed assessment for terrestrial ecosystems. For the aquatic ecosystem, a more detailed assessment was possible and highest calculated absorbed dose rates (weighted for the likely higher biological effectiveness of alpha radiation were about 6.5 μGy h -1 . We conclude that harm to the impacted ecosystems is unlikely and make the observation that the lack of concentration factor or transfer factor data for a sufficiently wide range of species, ecosystems and nuclides appears to be the principal obstacle to establishing a comprehensive framework for the application of radiological protection to ecosystems

  20. An assessment of the radiological impact of coastal erosion of the UK Low-Level Waste Repository - 59137

    Sumerling, Trevor; Shevelan, John; Cummings, Richard; Fish, Paul; Towler, George; Penfold, James

    2012-01-01

    The UK Low Level Waste Repository Ltd submitted an Environmental Safety Case for the disposal of low-level waste to our regulator, the Environment Agency, on the 1 May 2011. This includes assessments of the long-term radiological safety of past and future disposals. A particular feature of the Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) is that, because of its proximity to the coast, the site is vulnerable to coastal erosion. Our present understanding is that the site will be eroded on a timescale of a few hundred to a few thousand years, with consequent disruption of the repository, and dispersal of the wastes. We have undertaken a programme of scientific research and monitoring to characterise the evolution and function of the current coastal system that provides a basis for forecasting its future evolution. This has included modelling of contemporary hydrodynamics, geo-morphological mapping, repeat LiDAR and aerial photographic surveys to detect patterns and rates of change, coastal inspections and reconstructions of post-glacial (i.e. last 15, 000 years) sea levels and sediment budgets. Estimates of future sea-level rise have been derived from international sources and consideration given to the impact of such on the local coastline. Two alternative models of coastal recession have then been applied, one empirical and one physical-process based, taking account of the composition of Quaternary-age sediments between the coast and the site and uncertainties in future local sea level change. Comparison of the ranges of calculated times to site contact with sea-level rise indicate that the repository is most likely to be disrupted by undercutting of the engineered vaults and of the trenches. A novel and flexible radiological assessment model has been developed to analyse the impacts of the erosion of the repository and subsequent dispersal of wastes. The model represents the spatial layout of the site and distribution of radionuclides within the repository and is able to take

  1. German mires - Utilisation and protection

    Roderfeld, H.

    1996-01-01

    Mires in Germany are mainly used for agriculture. Peat mining is important regionally, but forest utilisation less so. Twenty years ago in the former West Germany, the first steps from peatland utilisation to peatland protection were taken. Bog protection programmes were developed first. Nowadays research directed to fen protection has begun, prompted by the decreasing importance of agriculture in Central Europe and an increasing environmental awareness. The situation regarding mire protection in Germany is presented for each Federal State individually. A rough estimate suggests 45 000 ha of protected bogs and 25 000 ha of protected fens. These areas include natural and semi-natural mires as well as rewetted mires. (30 refs.)

  2. Radiology illustrated. Pediatric radiology

    Kim, In-One (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-11-01

    Depicts characteristic imaging findings of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. Will serve as an ideal diagnostic reference in daily practice. Offers an excellent teaching aid, with numerous high-quality illustrations. This case-based atlas presents images depicting the findings typically observed when imaging a variety of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. The cases are organized according to anatomic region, covering disorders of the brain, spinal cord, head and neck, chest, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, genitourinary system, and musculoskeletal system. Cases are presented in a form resembling teaching files, and the images are accompanied by concise informative text. The goal is to provide a diagnostic reference suitable for use in daily routine by both practicing radiologists and radiology residents or fellows. The atlas will also serve as a teaching aide and a study resource, and will offer pediatricians and surgeons guidance on the clinical applications of pediatric imaging.

  3. Implementation of a competency check-off in diagnostic fluoroscopy for radiology trainees: impact on reducing radiation for three common fluoroscopic exams in children

    Shah, Sweta [University of Missouri-Kansas City SOM, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Desouches, Stephane L. [University of Missouri-Kansas City SOM, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); St. Luke' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Lowe, Lisa H.; Kasraie, Nima; Reading, Brenton [University of Missouri-Kansas City SOM, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2014-07-24

    Fluoroscopy is an important tool for diagnosis in the pediatric population, but it carries the risk of radiation exposure. Because radiology resident education and experience in the use of fluoroscopy equipment in children vary, we implemented an intervention to standardize fluoroscopy training. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of implementing a fluoroscopy competency check-off for radiology resident trainees aimed at decreasing radiation exposure in three common pediatric fluoroscopic studies. A fluoroscopy competency check-off form was developed for radiology resident trainees performing pediatric procedures. Techniques used to limit radiation exposure for common pediatric radiologic studies were reviewed as part of the check-off process. Pediatric radiologists supervised each trainee until they demonstrated competence to independently perform three specified procedures. Radiation dose was recorded for the three procedures, upper GI (UGI), voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and oropharyngeal (OPM) exams, over 6 months preceding and 6 months following implementation of the competency check-off. The mean cumulative dose for each procedure was compared before and after implementation of competency check-off using a Kruskal-Wallis test. During the 12-month study period doses from 909 fluoroscopic procedures were recorded. In the 6 months preceding competency check-off implementation, procedures were performed by 24 radiology resident trainees including 171 UGI, 176 VCUG and 171 OPM exams. In the 6 months following competency check-off, 23 trainees performed 114 UGI, 145 VCUG and 132 OPM exams. After competency check-off implementation, a statistically significant reduction in average radiation dose was found for all three studies (P < 0.001). Median cumulative doses (mGy) were decreased by 33%, 36% and 13% for UGIs, VCUGs and OPMs, respectively. Implementation of a competency check-off for radiology resident trainees can reduce average radiation

  4. Implementation of a competency check-off in diagnostic fluoroscopy for radiology trainees: impact on reducing radiation for three common fluoroscopic exams in children

    Shah, Sweta; Desouches, Stephane L.; Lowe, Lisa H.; Kasraie, Nima; Reading, Brenton

    2015-01-01

    Fluoroscopy is an important tool for diagnosis in the pediatric population, but it carries the risk of radiation exposure. Because radiology resident education and experience in the use of fluoroscopy equipment in children vary, we implemented an intervention to standardize fluoroscopy training. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of implementing a fluoroscopy competency check-off for radiology resident trainees aimed at decreasing radiation exposure in three common pediatric fluoroscopic studies. A fluoroscopy competency check-off form was developed for radiology resident trainees performing pediatric procedures. Techniques used to limit radiation exposure for common pediatric radiologic studies were reviewed as part of the check-off process. Pediatric radiologists supervised each trainee until they demonstrated competence to independently perform three specified procedures. Radiation dose was recorded for the three procedures, upper GI (UGI), voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and oropharyngeal (OPM) exams, over 6 months preceding and 6 months following implementation of the competency check-off. The mean cumulative dose for each procedure was compared before and after implementation of competency check-off using a Kruskal-Wallis test. During the 12-month study period doses from 909 fluoroscopic procedures were recorded. In the 6 months preceding competency check-off implementation, procedures were performed by 24 radiology resident trainees including 171 UGI, 176 VCUG and 171 OPM exams. In the 6 months following competency check-off, 23 trainees performed 114 UGI, 145 VCUG and 132 OPM exams. After competency check-off implementation, a statistically significant reduction in average radiation dose was found for all three studies (P < 0.001). Median cumulative doses (mGy) were decreased by 33%, 36% and 13% for UGIs, VCUGs and OPMs, respectively. Implementation of a competency check-off for radiology resident trainees can reduce average radiation

  5. Analysis of the impact of digital tomosynthesis on the radiological investigation of patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography

    Quaia, Emilio; Baratella, Elisa; Cernic, Stefano; Lorusso, Arianna; Casagrande, Federica; Cioffi, Vincenzo; Cova, Maria Assunta [University of Trieste (Italy), Department of Radiology, Cattinara Hospital, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    To assess the impact of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) on the radiological investigation of patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography (CXR). Three hundred thirty-nine patients (200 male; age, 71.19 {+-} 11.9 years) with suspected pulmonary lesion(s) on CXR underwent DTS. Two readers prospectively analysed CXR and DTS images, and recorded their diagnostic confidence: 1 or 2 = definite or probable benign lesion or pseudolesion deserving no further diagnostic workup; 3 = indeterminate; 4 or 5 = probable or definite pulmonary lesion deserving further diagnostic workup by computed tomography (CT). Imaging follow-up by CT (n = 76 patients), CXR (n = 256) or histology (n = 7) was the reference standard. DTS resolved doubtful CXR findings in 256/339 (76 %) patients, while 83/339 (24 %) patients proceeded to CT. The mean interpretation time for DTS (mean {+-} SD, 220 {+-} 40 s) was higher (P < 0.05; Wilcoxon test) than for CXR (110 {+-} 30 s), but lower than CT (600 {+-} 150 s). Mean effective dose was 0.06 mSv (range 0.03-0.1 mSv) for CXR, 0.107 mSv (range 0.094-0.12 mSv) for DTS, and 3 mSv (range 2-4 mSv) for CT. DTS avoided the need for CT in about three-quarters of patients with a slight increase in the interpretation time and effective dose compared to CXR. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of radiological impact due to a hypothetical core disruptive accident for PFBR using an advanced atmospheric dispersion system

    Srinivas, C.V.; Venkatesan, R.; Natarajan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Radiological impact due to air borne effluent dispersion from a hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) scenario for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam coastal site is estimated using an advanced system consisting of a 3-d meso-scale atmospheric model and a random walk particle dispersion model. A simulation of dispersion for CDA carried out for a typical summer day on 24th May 2003 predicted development of land-sea breeze circulation and Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) at Kalpakkam site, which have been confirmed by observations. Analysis of dose distribution corresponding to predicted atmospheric conditions shows maximum dose from stack releases beyond the site boundary at about 4 km during TIBL fumigation and stable conditions respectively. A multi mode spatial concentration distribution has been noticed with diurnal meandering of wind under land sea breeze circulation. Over a meso-scale range of 25 km, turning of plume under sea breeze and maximum concentration along plume centerline at distances of 3 to 10 km have been noticed. The study has enabled to simulate the more complex meteorological situation that is actually present at the site. (author)

  7. Some aspects of radiological impact in phosphate fertilizer industry. A case study of Itataia, Ceara State, Brazil

    Saad, Samir.

    1995-10-01

    The present study presents severalk aspects related to the phosphate industry from the origin of the raw materials to the final products. Emphasis is given in the approach of problems associated with the radiological impact and inherent risks when non monitorated products are used. Considerations are made on geological, geochemical and radiometrical characteristics of the main world deposits of phosphatic rocks. The critical patways of U-238 and Th-232 radionuclides are analysed from its origin to the final products. World-wide statistical data on several industrial phosphate branches are presented, and suggestions are made to draw attention to governmental organizations on the need for establishing specific technological development programs for the extraction of radionuclides from phosphate industrial products. The Itataia's project of industrial mining and milling, located in the state of Ceara, is focused here in great detail considering that is represents one of the biggest world concentrations of uranium associated with phosphatic rocks. Results from field studies performed in Itataia's mine are presented and analytical results from laboratory studies in samples from Itataia's (CE) and Barreiro's (MG) phosphatic rocks and Guaramicim's (PE) phospholite are also discussed. Finally, the study proposes a series of necessary actions to implement a national environmental monitoring plan i order to minimize the risks due to the radioactivity arising from phosphatic rocks and from derived fertilizers industry. (author). 37 refs., 31 figs., 37 tabs

  8. Predictive factors of lower calyceal stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL): the impact of radiological anatomy.

    Lin, Chih-Chieh; Hsu, Yen-Shen; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2008-10-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether or not there is a significant relationship between the radiologic anatomy of the lower calyx, as seen on preoperative intravenous urography (IVU), and the outcome of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for lower renal calyceal stones. Between June 1998 and April 2007, 112 patients with a solitary lower renal calyceal stone measuring 20 mm or less in size were enrolled in this retrospective study. Pretreatment IVU was reviewed for measuring the anatomical predictors, such as lower pole infundibular length, infundibular width (IW) and infundibulopelvic angle, while the stone location and size were determined on plain abdominal X-ray. All patients were treated with ESWL using a Siemens Lithostar Plus lithotriptor and were followed-up for the outcome of stone clearance 3 months after ESWL with plain abdominal X-ray films and ultrasonography. Three months after ESWL, only 49 (43.7%) patients were stone-free. Under multivariate analysis with logistic regression, smaller stone size (10 mm or less, p = 0.005) and greater IW (4 mm or more, p = 0.029) were significant favourable predictors for better stone clearance. In addition to the influence of stone size, lower pole anatomy, especially IW, has a significant impact on stone clearance for lower calyceal stone after ESWL.

  9. Scenarios for 14C release to the atmosphere by the world nuclear industry and estimated radiological impacts

    Till, J.E.; Killough, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the radiation dose to the world population and the associated potential health effects from three scenarios of 14 C releases by the nuclear industry between 1975 and 2020. Measures of health impact are derived from source terms through the use of a multicompartment model of the global carbon cycle, dose-rate factors based on 14 C specific activity in various organs of man, and health-effect incidence factors recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The scenarios for worldwide 14 C releases considered are (1) a pessimistic scenario in which all the 14 C projected to be produced in fuel cycles is released, (2) an optimistic scenario that assumes a decontamination factor of 100 for fuel reprocessing, and (3) an intermediate scenario that simulates a phased improvement in effluent treatment technology at reprocessing plants. The estimates of cumulative potential health effects are based on integrations over infinite time. Comparisons with estimated effects from naturally formed 14 C are shown

  10. Radiological impact of the French nuclear program over the year 1990

    Maccia, C.; Fagnani, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a practical assessment of environmental and health impact associated with the normal operation of the different facilities within the French uranium fuel cycle. (Only the PWR's are taken into account.) Fundamentally three objectives are considered in this impact assessment: the environment, the general public and the workers. The French nuclear program projected for 1990 consists in 50 reactors (PWR), distributed on about 24 sites, and is able to satisfy a demand of 304,5 TWh. Concerning each step of the uranium fuel cycle (mine, mill, conversion, enrichment, fuel abrication, reactor, reprocessing and transportation) the following health and physical indicators are used: 1) Liquid and gaseous activities annually released from normal operation of the facility. 2) Individual whole body dose-equivalent at the site boundary. 3) Collective dose equivalent for the general public 20-50 km from the site. 4) Individual and collective occupational radiation exposures. 5) Health effects estimated over the year 1990 by application of the last ICRP's coefficients (Publication No.26). Finally an application of the environmental commitment dose concept is included for the long half-life radionuclides released. (H.K.)

  11. An assessment of the radiological impact of human intrusion at the UK Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) - 59356

    Hicks, Tim; Baldwin, Tamara; Cummings, Richard; Sumerling, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    The UK Low Level Waste Repository Ltd submitted an Environmental Safety Case for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) to the Environment Agency on the 1 May 2011. The Environmental Safety Case (ESC) presents a complete case for the environmental safety of the Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) both during operations and in the long term (Cummings et al, in these proceedings). This includes an assessment of the long-term radiological safety of the facility, including an assessment of the potential consequences of human intrusion at the site. The human intrusion assessment is based on a cautiously realistic approach in defining intrusion cases and parameter values. A range of possible human intrusion events was considered based on present-day technologies and credible future uses of the site. This process resulted in the identification of geotechnical investigations, a housing development and a smallholding as requiring quantitative assessment. A particular feature of the site is that, because of its proximity to the coast and in view of expected global sea-level rise, it is vulnerable to coastal erosion. During such erosion, wastes and engineered barrier materials will be exposed, and could become targets for investigation or recovery. Therefore, human intrusion events have been included that are associated with such activities. A radiological assessment model has been developed to analyse the impacts of potential human intrusion at the site. A key feature of the model is the representation of the spatial layout of the disposal site, including the engineered cap design and the large-scale spatial heterogeneity of radionuclide concentrations within the repository. The model has been used to calculate the radiation dose to intruders and to others following intrusion at different times and at different locations across the site, for the each of the selected intrusion events, considering all relevant exposure modes. Potential doses due to radon and its daughters in

  12. Evaluating the impact of method bias in health behaviour research: a meta-analytic examination of studies utilising the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour.

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Sharma, Rajeev

    2017-12-01

    The methods employed to measure behaviour in research testing the theories of reasoned action/planned behaviour (TRA/TPB) within the context of health behaviours have the potential to significantly bias findings. One bias yet to be examined in that literature is that due to common method variance (CMV). CMV introduces a variance in scores attributable to the method used to measure a construct, rather than the construct it represents. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of method bias on the associations of health behaviours with TRA/TPB variables. Data were sourced from four meta-analyses (177 studies). The method used to measure behaviour for each effect size was coded for susceptibility to bias. The moderating impact of method type was assessed using meta-regression. Method type significantly moderated the associations of intentions, attitudes and social norms with behaviour, but not that between perceived behavioural control and behaviour. The magnitude of the moderating effect of method type appeared consistent between cross-sectional and prospective studies, but varied across behaviours. The current findings strongly suggest that method bias significantly inflates associations in TRA/TPB research, and poses a potentially serious validity threat to the cumulative findings reported in that field.

  13. Radiological impact assessment of coal and nuclear base power plants in India

    Ramachandran, T.V.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental problems concerned with the use of coal as a fuel in thermal power plants (TPS) is due to the production of fly ash. Coal contains tracers of primordial radionuclide and its burning is one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure from natural radionuclides. When it is burnt in TPSs, the fly ash, emitted through the stack is enriched in radionuclide and so combustion of coal on a large scale for thermal power generation assumes importance. Many of these TPSs are located in thickly populated areas. Radioactivity content of the coal from the coalfields of eastern parts of the country is found to be higher than that of other coalfields. In India coal combustion accounts nearly 73% of the total installed capacity for power generation. A sample study was carried out by this center on coal and fly ash samples collected from more than 35 TPS spread all over the country with a total installed capacity of 10000 MW(e), for their-radioactivity content. Radiation doses to the population residing within 90 km radius of each TPS have been computed. Besides another set of 15 TPSs were studied for thermal pollution emission and trace element concentration. Operation of these TPSs has resulted in effective dose commitments from doses to bones, lungs and thyroid of 200 man-Sv.y -1 and from doses to the whole body, of 70 man-Sv.y -1 . Dose commitments to the population living within 90 km radius of the TPSs and NPPs in India have been computed and have been compared. Attempt is made to assess the inhalation dose from the radioactivity released from a typical 500 MW(e) TPS and its impact related to chemical pollutants. Impact in terms of Environmental Quality Index (EQI) due to conventional pollutions have been computed and compared with those due to the nuclear power plants (NPPs). Paper gives the summary of the study. (author)

  14. Challenges in radiological impact assessment studies at new sites for nuclear facilities and its safety review and assessment for siting consent

    Mukherjee Roy, Susmita; Roshan, A.D.; Bishnoi, L.R.

    2018-01-01

    One of the basic requirement of site evaluation for a Nuclear Facility (NF) is radiological impact assessment (RIA). This involves evaluation of transportation of radioactive materials discharged from a nuclear facility under normal operational or accidental conditions, through different compartments of environment viz. air, land and water, and finally assessment of its consequences. Amongst others, site characteristics and the site related parameters play major role in evaluation of impact of postulated releases from NPPs. Doses to public from both external and internal exposures are computed to assess potential consequences of a radiological release and acceptability of the site-plant pair is established based on the outcome of this assessment. A comprehensive study of the site characteristics including meteorology, hydrology, hydro-geology and demography of the region along with details of land and water use, bioaccumulation, transfer to and from the environmental matrices is required for accomplishing satisfactory RIA

  15. Radiological impact assessment of arc welding supplies rutile; Evaluacion del impacto radiologico de la soldadura por arco con consumibles de rutilo

    Rozas Guinea, S.; Herranz Soler, M.; Perez Marin, C.; Idoeta Hermandorena, R.; Alegria gutierrez, N.; Nunez-Lagos Rogla, R.; Legarda Ibanez, F.

    2013-07-01

    Consumables for welding containing rutile, the coating of the electrode or the filling of tubular thread, are the most widely used and also the most radioactive since the rutile is a mineral containing traces of natural radionuclides, and is therefore considered Normal Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As these electrodes and wire are consumed, small particles, aerosols and gases are emitted to the atmosphere of work, and may be inhaled by the welder. Therefore, and also according to the current regulatory framework and work carried out previously by the author on the radiological impact of the process of manufacture and storage of coated rutile electrodes, the objectives are: 1Calcular the internal dose for inhalation during two types of welding, one with electrodes coated and the other with thread. 2 calculate the external dose due to the deposition of particles in the work environment, slag and the immersion of the soldering iron in the cloud of smoke. 3 to assess the radiological impact. (Author)

  16. Imaging and radiology

    Interventional radiology; Diagnostic radiology; X-ray imaging ... DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY Diagnostic radiology helps health care professionals see structures inside your body. Doctors that specialize in the interpretation ...

  17. Chronicle of pediatric radiology

    Benz-Bohm, Gabriele; Richter, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    The chronicle of pediatric radiology covers the following issues: Development of pediatric radiology in Germany (BRD, DDR, pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in the Netherlands (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in Austria (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in Switzerland (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations).

  18. A comparison of the radiological impact of energy production by fission and fusion reactions

    Rancillac, F.; Despres, A.

    1990-04-01

    The impacts of respectively a light water reactor and a planned fusion reactor, for which tritium-deuterium fusion reactions will act as energy source have been compared. The comparison is made on the basis of a generated capacity of 1 GWe.year, using the following criteria: fuel inventories, radioactive releases, collective effective dose equivalent commitments to the public and the volume of wastes. The accidental risk is not introduced. Fusion reactor parameters are still subject to uncertainties, which prevent accurate quantification of radionuclide releases (tritium apart) from the nuclear plant. Only orders of magnitude extrapolated from values for the NET tokamak are given. Despite these uncertainties, it would seem more interesting, from the dosimetric point of view, to use fusion reactors to produce electricity, although problems of radioactive releases, handling and long-term storage of radioactive waste would remain. Fusion reactors also generate generate high-level wastes with long-term exposure rates that are lower than those of light water reactors [fr

  19. Computerized methodology for evaluating the long-range radiological impact of shallow-land burial

    Fields, D.E.; Little, C.A.; Emerson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized methodology has been implemented to calculate the risk to local and intermediate-range (up to 80 km distant) populations resulting from water- and air-borne transport of radionuclides present in low-level wastes buried in shallow trenches such as those used at Oak Ridge. Our computer code, PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations), was developed under United States Environmental Protection Agency funding to evaluate possible health effects resulting from shallow burial operations. Sources of contamination include radionuclide releases from the trenches and from areas contaminated with operational spillage. The model is intended to predict radionuclide transport and the ensuing exposure and health impact to at-risk populations for a 1000-year period following cessation of burial ground operations. Several classes of submodels are used in PRESTO to represent scheduled event, unit system response, and risk evaluation processes. Examples of scheduled events are trench cap failure, stabilization of insoluble surface contaminant, the onset of farming or reclamation practices, and human intrusion. Unit system response submodels simulate processes such as infiltration of rainwater into the trench and erosion of soil overburden from the trench cover. System response submodels generate parameters used repeatedly in the 1000-year simulation loop

  20. Price and utilisation differences for statins between four countries.

    Thai, Loc Phuoc; Vitry, Agnes Isabelle; Moss, John Robert

    2018-02-01

    Australia, England, France and New Zealand use different policies to regulate their medicines market, which can impact on utilisation and price. To compare the prices and utilisation of statins in Australia, England, France and New Zealand from 2011 to 2013. Utilisation of statins in the four countries was compared using Defined Daily Doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per year. Pairwise Laspeyres and Paasche index comparisons were conducted comparing the price and utilisation of statins. The results showed that the price of statins in New Zealand was the cheapest. The price of statins in Australia was most expensive in 2011 and 2012 but France was more expensive in 2013. There were large differences between the Laspeyres index and Paasche index when comparing the price and utilisation of England with Australia and France. The policies that regulate the New Zealand and England medicines markets were more effective in reducing the price of expensive statins. The relative utilisation of cheaper statins was greatest in England and had a large effect on the differences between the two index results. The pricing policies in Australia have been only partly effective in reducing the price of statins compared to other countries.

  1. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum discharged into the Venice lagoon: 222Rn

    Cantaluppi, C.; Ceccotto, F.; Cianchi, A.; Fasson, A.; Degetto, S.

    2012-04-01

    For about 20 years, between the 60 's and the 80 's of the last century, in the Passo a Campalto area (Lagoon of Venice - Italy) about 400,000 m3 of phosphogypsum (PG) were deposited at the border of the lagoon and next to urban areas without any environmental control. These materials are a by-product formed during the wet processing of phosphate rocks by sulphuric acid and have a significant environmental impact due to their abundance and their chemical-physical and radiochemical characteristics. The PG contains both chemical elements, which are considered dangerous for the ecosystems and natural radionuclides whose concentrations are much higher if compared to those typical for the Earth's crust. These discarded materials caused for many years the dispersion of radionuclides in the environment due to the tidal erosion, the re-suspension of radioactive inhalable dusts, the uncontrolled radon exhalation and the bioaccumulation of some radionuclides in the lagoon environment. After a decision of the appointed authorities, the Venice Water Authority (Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport), planned a permanent safety control of the site resulting in the complete isolation of the entire volume of contaminated materials from the environmental system. The entire project was specific for the particular features of the site and it required the improvement of analytical, sampling and measurement techniques in order to verify the effectiveness of the safety action. The radon assessment, in particular the check of the effectiveness of the inhibition of radon exhalation, is part of a more complex study, covering many other aspects of the management of a permanent disposal; they will be the object of further notes. The ultimate results of this study prove the efficacy of the intervention: radon concentrations in air and exhalation values from the restored area, measured during surveys, have been proved to be well in agreement with those of non contaminated soils.

  2. Impact of focal spot size on radiologic image quality: A visual grading analysis

    Gorham, Sinead [Diagnostic Imaging, Biological Imaging Research, UCD School of Medicine and Medical Science, Health Science, Belfield, UCD, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Brennan, Patrick C., E-mail: patrick.brennan@ucd.i [Diagnostic Imaging, Biological Imaging Research, UCD School of Medicine and Medical Science, Health Science, Belfield, UCD, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-11-15

    Fine and broad focal spot sizes are available on general X-ray tubes. Excessive use of fine focus can impact on tube life and whilst it is established that fine focal spot size reduces geometric unsharpness, the extent of this benefit on clinical image quality is unclear. The current cadaver-based work compares images produced with effective focal sizes of 0.8 mm and 1.8 mm. Four projection types were included, lateral ankle, antero-posterior (AP) knee, AP thoracic spine and horizontal beam lateral (HBL) lumbar spine, and a visual grading analysis was used to assess visibility of anatomical criteria. Five clinicians scored each image using a 1-4 scoring scale, a reference image was employed for standardization and a Mann-Whitney U statistical test compared results derived from each focus. Radiation doses were monitored using a dose area product (DAP) meter. Statistical analyses demonstrated no significant differences between images produced at each focus, although a relationship between body part thickness and number of criteria with a higher (non-significant) score for the fine focus compared with the broad focal spot size was demonstrated. Choice of focus had no radiation dose implications. Fine foci X-ray sources are used predominantly for extremity imaging to enhance visualization of fine detail such as trabecular patterns, yet there is no evidence to support this practice. The argument for regular employment of fine foci, particularly for the type of acquisition and display devices used in this study, needs to be revisited.

  3. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum discharged into the Venice lagoon: 222Rn

    Fasson A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For about 20 years, between the 60 ’s and the 80 ’s of the last century, in the Passo a Campalto area (Lagoon of Venice - Italy about 400,000 m3 of phosphogypsum (PG were deposited at the border of the lagoon and next to urban areas without any environmental control. These materials are a by-product formed during the wet processing of phosphate rocks by sulphuric acid and have a significant environmental impact due to their abundance and their chemical-physical and radiochemical characteristics. The PG contains both chemical elements, which are considered dangerous for the ecosystems and natural radionuclides whose concentrations are much higher if compared to those typical for the Earth’s crust. These discarded materials caused for many years the dispersion of radionuclides in the environment due to the tidal erosion, the re-suspension of radioactive inhalable dusts, the uncontrolled radon exhalation and the bioaccumulation of some radionuclides in the lagoon environment. After a decision of the appointed authorities, the Venice Water Authority (Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport, planned a permanent safety control of the site resulting in the complete isolation of the entire volume of contaminated materials from the environmental system. The entire project was specific for the particular features of the site and it required the improvement of analytical, sampling and measurement techniques in order to verify the effectiveness of the safety action. The radon assessment, in particular the check of the effectiveness of the inhibition of radon exhalation, is part of a more complex study, covering many other aspects of the management of a permanent disposal; they will be the object of further notes. The ultimate results of this study prove the efficacy of the intervention: radon concentrations in air and exhalation values from the restored area, measured during surveys, have been proved to be well in agreement with those of non

  4. Assessment of nuclear power scenarios allowing for matrix behavior in radiological impact modeling of disposal scenarios

    Tronche, E.; Boussier, H.

    2000-01-01

    Under the provisions of the 1991 French radioactive waste management law, various fuel cycle scenarios will be assessed and compared in terms of feasibility, flexibility, cost, and ultimate waste radio-toxic inventory. The latter criterion may be further broken down into 'potential radio-toxic inventory' (the radio-toxic inventory of all the radionuclides produced) and 'residual radio-toxic inventory' (the radionuclide fraction reaching the biosphere after migration from the repository). The innovative scientific contribution of this study is to consider a third type of radio-toxic inventory: the potential radio-toxic inventory after conditioning, i.e. taking into account the containment capacity of the radionuclide conditioning matrices. The matrix fraction subjected to alteration over time determines the potential for radionuclide release, hence the notion of the potential radio-toxic inventory after conditioning. An initial comparison of possible scenarios is proposed by considering orders of magnitude for the radionuclide containment capacity of the disposal matrices and for their mobilization potential. All the scenarios investigated are normalized to the same annual electric power production so that a legitimate comparison can be established for the ultimate wasteform produced per year of operation. This approach reveals significant differences among the scenarios considered that do not appear when only the raw potential radio-toxic inventory is taken into account. The matrix containment performance has a decisive effect on the final impact of a given scenario or type of scenario. Pu recycling scenarios thus reduce the potential radio-toxicity by roughly a factor of 50 compared with an open cycle; the gain rises to a factor of about 300 for scenarios in which Pu and the minor actinides are recycled. Interestingly, the results obtained by the use of a dedicated containment matrix for the minor actinides in a scenario limited to Pu recycling were comparable to

  5. Radiological impact assessment of the shut-down Salaspils nuclear reactor

    Riekstina, D.; Berzins, J.; Veveris, O.; Alksnis, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to gain an overview about the background level of radioactivity and gamma radiation in the 3x3 km area around the Salaspils (Latvia) nuclear reactor after its shutting down. The ultimate design of the project is to assess the impact environmental background level during its 37 years long working time. For this purpose we have carried out: 1) the determination of radioactivity in soils; 2) the determination of radioactivity in groundwater; 3) the measurement of gamma-ray background in the checkpoints. The net density for the collection of soil samples (5 cm thick layer was gathered) and the gamma background measuring was 500x500 m and the total number of checkpoints was 113. The gamma-spectrometric analysis of the groundwater taken from 34 places: in the reactor territory (4-10 m depth) and from the wells of surrounding farms (8-12 m depth) was performed. The soil samples were dried at the temperature 105 0 C until the constant weight, and sifted. The high-resolution gamma spectrometry was used for measurement within the energy range of 50-2000 keV; the time of measuring - 20 hours. The uncertainty of measurements is within a range of 3-10%, but the minimal detectable activity - from 0.3 up to 1 Bq/kg. Cs-137 and natural radionuclides Th-232, U-238, K-40 were detected in soils. The concentration of Cs-137 varies in the range 0.3-227 Bq/kg or 20-1940 Bq/m 2 . It was established that the concentration of Cs-137 in neighbouring checkpoints can differ significantly. It could be explained by the type of soil and the collection place (coniferous or leafy forest, grassland, plough land etc.). The differences of the U-238, Th-232, and K-40 content in samples taken from various places are due to the type of soil and the fertilizers used. The concentration of these radionuclides is significantly lower in the turf. In all water samples the concentration of Cs-137 was lower than the minimal detectable activity. The determined radionuclide

  6. Dental radiology

    Bhaskar, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents the radiological manifestations of the maxillodental region in a suitable manner for fast detection and correct diagnosing of diseases of the teeth, soft tissue, and jaws. Classification therefore is made according to the radiological manifestations of the diseases and not according to etiology. (orig./MG) [de

  7. The Introduction of an Undergraduate Interventional Radiology (IR) Curriculum: Impact on Medical Student Knowledge and Interest in IR

    Shaikh, M.; Shaygi, B.; Asadi, H.; Thanaratnam, P.; Pennycooke, K.; Mirza, M.; Lee, M.

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionInterventional radiology (IR) plays a vital role in modern medicine, with increasing demand for services, but with a shortage of experienced interventionalists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recently introduced IR curriculum on perception, knowledge, and interest of medical students regarding various aspects of IR.MethodsIn 2014, an anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 309 4th year medical students in a single institution within an EU country, both before and after delivery of a 10-h IR teaching curriculum.ResultsSeventy-six percent (236/309) of the respondents participated in the pre-IR module survey, while 50 % (157/309) responded to the post-IR module survey. While 62 % (147/236) of the respondents reported poor or no knowledge of IR compared to other medical disciplines in the pre-IR module survey, this decreased to 17 % (27/157) in the post-IR module survey. The correct responses regarding knowledge of selected IR procedures improved from 70 to 94 % for venous access, 78 to 99 % for uterine fibroid embolization, 75 to 97 % for GI bleeding embolization, 60 to 92 % for trauma embolization, 71 to 92 % for tumor ablation, and 81 to 94 % for angioplasty and stenting in peripheral arterial disease. With regard to knowledge of IR clinical roles, responses improved from 42 to 59 % for outpatient clinic review of patients and having inpatient beds, 63–76 % for direct patient consultation, and 43–60 % for having regular ward rounds. The number of students who would consider a career in IR increased from 60 to 73 %.ConclusionDelivering an undergraduate IR curriculum increased the knowledge and understanding of various aspects of IR and also the general enthusiasm for pursuing this specialty as a future career choice.

  8. The Introduction of an Undergraduate Interventional Radiology (IR) Curriculum: Impact on Medical Student Knowledge and Interest in IR

    Shaikh, M. [Bradford Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Bradford Teaching Hospital Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Shaygi, B. [Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Asadi, H., E-mail: asadi.hamed@gmail.com; Thanaratnam, P.; Pennycooke, K.; Mirza, M.; Lee, M., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    IntroductionInterventional radiology (IR) plays a vital role in modern medicine, with increasing demand for services, but with a shortage of experienced interventionalists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recently introduced IR curriculum on perception, knowledge, and interest of medical students regarding various aspects of IR.MethodsIn 2014, an anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 309 4th year medical students in a single institution within an EU country, both before and after delivery of a 10-h IR teaching curriculum.ResultsSeventy-six percent (236/309) of the respondents participated in the pre-IR module survey, while 50 % (157/309) responded to the post-IR module survey. While 62 % (147/236) of the respondents reported poor or no knowledge of IR compared to other medical disciplines in the pre-IR module survey, this decreased to 17 % (27/157) in the post-IR module survey. The correct responses regarding knowledge of selected IR procedures improved from 70 to 94 % for venous access, 78 to 99 % for uterine fibroid embolization, 75 to 97 % for GI bleeding embolization, 60 to 92 % for trauma embolization, 71 to 92 % for tumor ablation, and 81 to 94 % for angioplasty and stenting in peripheral arterial disease. With regard to knowledge of IR clinical roles, responses improved from 42 to 59 % for outpatient clinic review of patients and having inpatient beds, 63–76 % for direct patient consultation, and 43–60 % for having regular ward rounds. The number of students who would consider a career in IR increased from 60 to 73 %.ConclusionDelivering an undergraduate IR curriculum increased the knowledge and understanding of various aspects of IR and also the general enthusiasm for pursuing this specialty as a future career choice.

  9. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  10. Scenarios of 14C releases from the World Nuclear Power Industry from 1975 to 2020 and the estimated radiological impact

    Killough, G.G.; Till, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    This article presents an assessment of the radiation dose to the world population and the associated potential health effects from three scenarios of 14 C releases by the nuclear industry between 1975 and 2020. Measures of health impact are derived from source terms through the use of a multicompartment model of the global carbon cycle, dose-rate factors based on 14 C specific activity in various organs of man, and health-effect incidence factors recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The three scenarios for worldwide 14 C releases considered are (1) a pessimistic scenario in which all the 14 C projected to be produced in fuel cycles is released (2) an optimistic scenario that assumes a decontamination factor of 100 for fuel reprocessing, and (3) an intermediate scenario that simulates a phased improvement in the effluent treatment technology at reprocessing plants. The estimates of cumulative potential health effects based on integration over infinite time (effectively 46,000 years or about 8 half-lives of 14 C) are as follows: 110,000 cancers and 75,000 genetic effects from the pessimistic scenario; 21,000 cancers and 14,000 genetic effects from the optimistic scenario; 22,000 cancers and 15,000 genetic effects from the intermediate scenario; 100,000 cancers and 68,000 genetic effects from the 14 C formed in nature between 1975 and 2020; and 380,000 cancers and 250,000 genetic effects from the 14 C formed by the detonation of nuclear explosives from 1945 to 1974. Comparable effects from the naturally formed 14 C in steady state in the environment, also integrated over 46,000 years, are approximately 66 million cancers and 43 million genetic effects. These estimates are based on a world population that is assumed to remain stationary at 12.2 billion after 2075

  11. Evaluation of the atmospheric stability and it influence in the radiological environmental impact of the treatment plant and radioactive waste storage (PTDR)

    Ramos V, E.O.; Cornejo D, N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that the meteorological variables as the atmospheric stability, influence in the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive pollutants, for that as regards radiological safety, it constitutes a demand the evaluation of their impact in the process before mentioned. The present work exposes the results of the study of the radiological impact of our PTDR that it allowed to know the influence of this meteorological parameter in the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive pollutants in its location. To such effects they were processed by means of the methodology of Pasquill - Gifford, data of time zone observations of this meteorological variable obtained in the proximities of the installation, being modeled the worst conditions in atmospheric liberation of their radionuclides inventory, valuing stops the 2 critical considered population groups the doses received by inhalation of polluted air and ingestion of water and polluted products, as well as, for external irradiation from the radioactive cloud and the floor. The obtained annual effective doses due to the modeling situation reach until a mSv, except for the Ra-226 that are lightly superior, implying a risk radiological acceptable chord to the international standard. To the above-mentioned a reduced probability of occurrence of events initiators of the evaluated accidental sequence is added. (Author)

  12. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  13. Citation trend and suggestions for improvement of impact factor of Journal of Korean Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Hwang, Seong Su; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jeong, So Na

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the recent citation trend and to find a way to improve impact factor (IF) of the Journal of Korean Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JKSTRO) by analysis of Korean Medical Citation index (KoMCI) citation data of JKSTRO and comparison with that of mean citation data of all journals enlisted on KoMCI (KoMCI journals) during 2000-2005. All citation data of entire journals enlisted on KoMCI and JKSTRO from 2000 to 2005 were obtained from KoMCI. The trend of total and annual number of published articles and reference citations, total citations and self-citations per paper, IF and impact factor excluding self-citations (ZIF) were described and compared on both KoMCI journals an JKSTRO. Annual number of published articles was decreased for 6 years on both KoMCI journals and JKSTRO (32% and 38% reduction rate). The number of Korean journal references per article is 1.6 papers of JKSTRO comparing to 2.0 papers on KoMCI journals. The percentage of Korean references/total references increased from 5.0% in 2000 to 7.7% in 2005 on JKSTRO and from 8.5% in 2000 to 10.1% on KoMCI journals. The number of total citations received/paper on JKSTRO (average 1.333) is smaller than that of KoMCI journals (average 1.694), there was an increased rate of 67% in 2005 comparing to 2000. The percentage of self-citations/total citations (average 72%) on JKSTRO is slightly higher than that of KoMCI journals (average 61%)/ IF of JKSTRO was gradually improved and 0.144, 0.125, 0.088, 0.107, 0.187 and 0.203 in 2000-2005 respectively. However, ZIF of JKSTRO is steadily decreased from 0.038 in 2000 to 0.013 in 2005 except 0.044 in 2004. IF of JKSTRO was slightly improved but had some innate problem of smaller number of citations received . To make JKSTRO as a highly cited journal, the awareness of academic status of JKSTRO and active participation of every member of JKSTRO including encouraging self-citations of papers published recent 2 years and submission of English written papers, and

  14. Investigation of the radiological impact due to the dredging of sediments in the Minimes harbour of La Rochelle. Workers and population exposure to reinforced natural radioactivity

    2010-01-01

    As the city of La Rochelle is implementing a project of expansion of the Minimes yachting harbour which comprises the dredging of sediments (which may have been polluted by a rare earth production plant), this document reports the assessment of the radiological impact of this dredging activity on workers and on the population. A campaign of sediment coring has been performed in order to validate the reference coring station selection, to measure sand radiological activity and to measure the activity of the sediments to be dredged. The computed maximum efficient doses for the workers and for the population appear to be low, and very much less to the 1 mSv/year threshold

  15. Handbook of radiologic procedures

    Hedgcock, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is organized around radiologic procedures with each discussed from the points of view of: indications, contraindications, materials, method of procedures and complications. Covered in this book are: emergency radiology chest radiology, bone radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, GU radiology, pediatric radiology, computerized tomography, neuroradiology, visceral and peripheral angiography, cardiovascular radiology, nuclear medicine, lymphangiography, and mammography

  16. The Perceived long-term impact of the radiological curriculum innovation in the medical doctors training at Ghent University

    Kourdioukova, Elena V.; Valcke, Martin; Verstraete, Koenraad L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: How do students experience and perceive the innovative undergraduate radiology curriculum at Ghent University, and what explains differences in student perception? Methods: A survey was presented to the 2008 cohort of students enrolled in the undergraduate medical curriculum at Ghent University. The survey focused on their experiences and perceptions in relation to the innovative undergraduate radiology teaching. Results and conclusion: The present research results point at a favorable perception of the innovative radiology curriculum components. The study points - both during pre-clinical and clinical years - at the appreciation for curriculum components that combine traditional curriculum components (ex-cathedra lessons with syllabus) with distance learning components such as E-learning and E-testing. In clinical years - as expected - students switch to the application of knowledge and skills and therefore heavily appreciate practice linked curriculum components.

  17. The Perceived long-term impact of the radiological curriculum innovation in the medical doctors training at Ghent University

    Kourdioukova, Elena V., E-mail: elena.kourdioukova@ugent.be [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital (UZG), MR/-1K12, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Valcke, Martin [Department of Educational Studies, Ghent University, H. Dunantlaan 2, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Verstraete, Koenraad L. [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital (UZG), MR/-1K12, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    Objectives: How do students experience and perceive the innovative undergraduate radiology curriculum at Ghent University, and what explains differences in student perception? Methods: A survey was presented to the 2008 cohort of students enrolled in the undergraduate medical curriculum at Ghent University. The survey focused on their experiences and perceptions in relation to the innovative undergraduate radiology teaching. Results and conclusion: The present research results point at a favorable perception of the innovative radiology curriculum components. The study points - both during pre-clinical and clinical years - at the appreciation for curriculum components that combine traditional curriculum components (ex-cathedra lessons with syllabus) with distance learning components such as E-learning and E-testing. In clinical years - as expected - students switch to the application of knowledge and skills and therefore heavily appreciate practice linked curriculum components.

  18. Globalisation and Labour Utilisation in Nigeria: Evidence from the ...

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-12-05

    Dec 5, 2007 ... the firms in the industry is determined solely by the dictates of ... L'étude examine l'impact de la mondialisation sur l'utilisation de la .... globalisation has been the most influential in government policy .... social, and has economic implications for both the individual worker ..... with the payment of low wages.

  19. Utilisation of geothermal energy by the municipal works in Neubrandenburg

    Jahnke, H.

    1994-01-01

    A long distance energy supply plant has been operated on the basis of geothermal energy in Neubrandenburg since September 1988. At present it is still the largest heat generation plant for the utilisation of low thermal pore storage in Germany. The setup and the function of the plant are explained. After the municipal works of Neubrandenburg took over the plant, it was redesigned in order to give a better guarantee for the supply, to improve the economic efficiency and to minimise the environmental impact. At present long distance energy can be provided at a price of 99,00 DM/Mwh for 2000 utilisation hours per year. (BWI) [de

  20. Radiological optimization

    Zeevaert, T.

    1998-01-01

    Radiological optimization is one of the basic principles in each radiation-protection system and it is a basic requirement in the safety standards for radiation protection in the European Communities. The objectives of the research, performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, are: (1) to implement the ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for optimization techniques in decision-aiding; (3) to optimize radiological assessment models by validation and intercomparison; (4) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (5) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (6) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (7) to investigate existing software programmes in the domain of multi criteria analysis. The main achievements for 1997 are given

  1. MEMO radiology

    Wagner-Manslau, C.

    1989-01-01

    This radiology volume is a concise handbook of imaging techniques, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy, albeit that the main emphasis is on classic radiology. It offers, for instance, a survey of radiological findings for the most frequent pathological conditions, many overviews of differential diagnosis, a glossary of the technical bases of radiology and so forth. The contents are divided into the following chapters: Physical and biological bases; skeleton; thorax with the subdivisions lungs, heart, mediastinum, and pleura; gastrointestinal tract with the subsections esophagus, small and large intestine; liver; biliary tract; pancreas; retroperitoneal space; kidney; suprarenal glands; bladder; blood vessels, lymph nodes, spleen; mammary glands; female genitals; prostate and scrotum, epididymis and seminal vesicle. (orig./MG) With 23 figs [de

  2. Impact of a PACS/RIS-integrated speech recognition system on radiology reporting time and report availability

    Trumm, C.G.; Glaser, C.; Paasche, V.; Kuettner, B.; Francke, M.; Nissen-Meyer, S.; Reiser, M.; Crispin, A.; Popp, P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of the impact of a PACS/RIS-integrated speech recognition system (SRS) on the time expenditure for radiology reporting and on hospital-wide report availability (RA) in a university institution. Material and Methods: In a prospective pilot study, the following parameters were assessed for 669 radiographic examinations (CR): 1. time requirement per report dictation (TED: dictation time (s)/number of images [examination] x number of words [report]) with either a combination of PACS/tape-based dictation (TD: analog dictation device/minicassette/transcription) or PACS/RIS/speech recognition system (RR: remote recognition/transcription and OR: online recognition/self-correction by radiologist), respectively, and 2. the Report Turnaround Time (RTT) as the time interval from the entry of the first image into the PACS to the available RIS/HIS report. Two equal time periods were chosen retrospectively from the RIS database: 11/2002-2/2003 (only TD) and 11/2003-2/2004 (only RR or OR with speech recognition system [SRS]). The midterm (≥24 h, 24 h intervals) and short-term (< 24 h, 1 h intervals), RA after examination completion were calculated for all modalities and for Cr, CT, MR and XA/DS separately. The relative increase in the mid-term RA (RIMRA: related to total number of examinations in each time period) and increase in the short-term RA (ISRA: ratio of available reports during the 1st to 24th hour) were calculated. Results: Prospectively, there was a significant difference between TD/RR/OR (n=151/257/261) regarding mean TED (0.44/0.54/0.62 s [per word and image]) and mean RTT (10.47/6.65/1.27 h), respectively. Retrospectively, 37 898/39 680 reports were computed from the RIS database for the time periods of 11/2002-2/2003 and 11/2003-2/2004. For CR/CT there was a shift of the short-term RA to the first 6 hours after examination completion (mean cumulative RA 20% higher) with a more than three-fold increase in the total number of available

  3. Radiological hazards

    Hamilton, M.

    1984-01-01

    The work of the (United Kingdom) National Radiological Protection Board is discussed. The following topics are mentioned: relative contributions to genetically significant doses of radiation from various sources; radon gas in non-coal mines and in dwelling houses; effects of radiation accidents; radioactive waste disposal; radiological protection of the patient in medicine; microwaves, infrared radiation and cataracts; guidance notes for use with forthcoming Ionising Radiations Regulations; training courses; personal dosimetry service; work related to European Communities. (U.K.)

  4. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  5. Evaluating the impact of a Canadian national anatomy and radiology contouring boot camp for radiation oncology residents.

    Jaswal, Jasbir; D'Souza, Leah; Johnson, Marjorie; Tay, KengYeow; Fung, Kevin; Nichols, Anthony; Landis, Mark; Leung, Eric; Kassam, Zahra; Willmore, Katherine; D'Souza, David; Sexton, Tracy; Palma, David A

    2015-03-15

    Radiation therapy treatment planning has advanced over the past 2 decades, with increased emphasis on 3-dimensional imaging for target and organ-at-risk (OAR) delineation. Recent studies suggest a need for improved resident instruction in this area. We developed and evaluated an intensive national educational course ("boot camp") designed to provide dedicated instruction in site-specific anatomy, radiology, and contouring using a multidisciplinary (MDT) approach. The anatomy and radiology contouring (ARC) boot camp was modeled after prior single-institution pilot studies and a needs-assessment survey. The boot camp incorporated joint lectures from radiation oncologists, anatomists, radiologists, and surgeons, with hands-on contouring instruction and small group interactive seminars using cadaveric prosections and correlative axial radiographs. Outcomes were evaluated using pretesting and posttesting, including anatomy/radiology multiple-choice questions (MCQ), timed contouring sessions (evaluated relative to a gold standard using Dice similarity metrics), and qualitative questions on satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. Analyses of pretest versus posttest scores were performed using nonparametric paired testing. Twenty-nine radiation oncology residents from 10 Canadian universities participated. As part of their current training, 29%, 75%, and 21% receive anatomy, radiology, and contouring instruction, respectively. On posttest scores, the MCQ knowledge scores improved significantly (pretest mean 60% vs posttest mean 80%, Pradiology in addition to enhancing their confidence and accuracy in contouring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interactive Radiological Anatomy eLearning Solution for First Year Medical Students: Development, Integration, and Impact on Learning

    Webb, Alexandra Louise; Choi, Sunhea

    2014-01-01

    A technology enhanced learning and teaching (TELT) solution, radiological anatomy (RA) eLearning, composed of a range of identification-based and guided learning activities related to normal and pathological X-ray images, was devised for the Year 1 nervous and locomotor course at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton. Its…

  7. The development of biosphere codes for use in assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Kane, P.; Thorne, M.C.

    1982-12-01

    A statement of radiological protection criteria and measures of dose, forms the preface to a review of extant biosphere codes. Consideration is given to the implementation of the codes FOODII and NEPTUN for use with SYVAC. The selection of nuclides for consideration in SYVAC is discussed. Detailed specifications are provided for biosphere model developments desirable in the longer term. (author)

  8. Transposition of the 97/43 EURATOM directive. Mission on procedures and standard levels of medical examinations using ionizing radiations. The radiological procedures: quality criteria and doses optimization; Transposition de la directive 97/43 Euratom. Mission sur les procedures et les niveaux de reference des examens medicaux utilisant les rayonnements ionisants. Les procedures radiologiques: criteres de qualite et optimisation des doses

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report concerns the optimization of radiological practices, to avoid delivering unuseful doses while ensuring an image quality necessary to the obtaining of the desired diagnosis information. (N.C.)

  9. Assessment of radiological impact in mineral industrial plants caused by deposition of wastes with U{sup 238} and/or Th{sup 232} associated

    Ladeira, Paula C.; Alves, Rex Nazare, E-mail: rexnazare@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J., E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIREJ/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Rejeitos Radioativos

    2011-07-01

    The industrial-mining facilities constantly produce, in Brazil and in abroad, wastes from its production, many times containing uranium and/or thorium associated. Due to the large quantities generated, these wastes are usually deposited at the site of the facility, close to the place where they were produced. Since the chains of radioactive U{sup 238} and Th{sup 232} with alpha-emitting radionuclides have long half-life, waste deposits associated with these elements may cause radiological impact on the man and on the environment, even in the long term. Mathematical models are often used to represent the biosphere and the transport of radionuclides near to the surface. Thus, it was decided, through the software {sup M}athematica{sup ,} to present a methodology based on the solution of Bateman equations for the calculation of radiological impact on individuals from the public exposed to contamination. The radiological impact appraisal was carried out considering a scenario of intrusion into landfills containing U{sup 238} and / or Th{sup 232} in post-operational phase of an industrial-mining installation. The critical group examined was represented by farmers who used water from an artesian well for daily consumption and which feed themselves on vegetables locally grown in clay soil. As a result, there was the exposure in pathways evaluated, a minor contribution of dose for ingestion of contaminated water. The conclusion of this work, show us that calculated doses were within the accepted international limits for the intrusion scenario. Parameters associated with mathematical models defining the choice of project to build a landfill for the purpose of deposition, whereas rates of doses can be estimated in each of the scenarios proposed. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Radiological Impacts on the Operating Kartini Reactor and Natural Radioactivity of the Site Plan of Nuclear Power Plant Area

    Yazid, M; Sutresna, G; Sulistyono, A; Ngasifudin

    1996-01-01

    This radiological impacts evaluation covered of radioactivity in water, soil, grass, air samples and ambient gamma radiation that have been carried out in the Kartini reactor area and in the site plan of nuclear power plan are at Ujung Lemah Abang, Jepara, Central Java. The aim of this research was to determine that radiological impacts in the environment around the Kartini reactor compared to natural radioactivity for site plan of nuclear power plan area. The radioactivity in the water, soil and grass samples ware measured by low background beta counting system and were identified by low background gamma spectrometer. The radioactivity in the air samples was measured by beta portable counting system and the ambient gamma radiation was measured by portable high pressurized ionization chamber model RSS-112 Reuther-Stokes. The reactor data measurement was compared to the site plan of nuclear power plant area data for evaluation of radiological impacts on the operating reactor. From the evaluation and comparison can be concluded there are no indication of the radionuclide release from the reactor operation. The average radiactivity in the water, soil grass and air sample from the reactor area were between 0.17 - 0.61 Bq/1; 0,47 - 0,74 Bq/g; 4.43 - 4.60 Bq/g.ash and 49.53 - 70.90 x 10 Bq/cc. The average radioactivity of those sample from the nuclear power plant area were between 0.06-0.90 Bq/I; 0.02-0.86 Bq/g; 1.68-8.07 Bq/g.ash and 65.0-152.3 x 10 Bq/cc. The ambient gamma radiation were between 6.9-36.7 urad/h for the reactor area and 6.8-19.2 urad/h for the nuclear power plant area

  11. Assessment of radiological impact in mineral industrial plants caused by deposition of wastes with U238 and/or Th232 associated

    Ladeira, Paula C.; Alves, Rex Nazare; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J.

    2011-01-01

    The industrial-mining facilities constantly produce, in Brazil and in abroad, wastes from its production, many times containing uranium and/or thorium associated. Due to the large quantities generated, these wastes are usually deposited at the site of the facility, close to the place where they were produced. Since the chains of radioactive U 238 and Th 232 with alpha-emitting radionuclides have long half-life, waste deposits associated with these elements may cause radiological impact on the man and on the environment, even in the long term. Mathematical models are often used to represent the biosphere and the transport of radionuclides near to the surface. Thus, it was decided, through the software M athematica , to present a methodology based on the solution of Bateman equations for the calculation of radiological impact on individuals from the public exposed to contamination. The radiological impact appraisal was carried out considering a scenario of intrusion into landfills containing U 238 and / or Th 232 in post-operational phase of an industrial-mining installation. The critical group examined was represented by farmers who used water from an artesian well for daily consumption and which feed themselves on vegetables locally grown in clay soil. As a result, there was the exposure in pathways evaluated, a minor contribution of dose for ingestion of contaminated water. The conclusion of this work, show us that calculated doses were within the accepted international limits for the intrusion scenario. Parameters associated with mathematical models defining the choice of project to build a landfill for the purpose of deposition, whereas rates of doses can be estimated in each of the scenarios proposed. (author)

  12. Radiological protection

    Azorin N, J.; Azorin V, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    This work is directed to all those people related with the exercise of the radiological protection and has the purpose of providing them a base of knowledge in this discipline so that they can make decisions documented on technical and scientist factors for the protection of the personnel occupationally exposed, the people in general and the environment during the work with ionizing radiations. Before de lack of a text on this matter, this work seeks to cover the specific necessities of our country, providing a solid presentation of the radiological protection, included the bases of the radiations physics, the detection and radiation dosimetry, the radiobiology, the normative and operational procedures associates, the radioactive wastes, the emergencies and the transport of the radioactive material through the medical and industrial applications of the radiations, making emphasis in the relative particular aspects to the radiological protection in Mexico. The book have 16 chapters and with the purpose of supplementing the given information, are included at the end four appendixes: 1) the radioactive waste management in Mexico, 2-3) the Mexican official standards related with the radiological protection, 4) a terms glossary used in radiological protection. We hope this book will be of utility for those people that work in the investigation and the applications of the ionizing radiations. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of the environmental radiological impact of Brazilian phosphogypsum and leachability of Ra-226 and Pb-210

    Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos

    2002-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product produced by the phosphoric acid industry, it is formed by precipitation during wet sulphuric acid processing of phosphate rock. Although phosphogypsum is mainly calcium sulphate dihydrate, it contains elevated levels of impurities, which originate from the source phosphate rock used in the phosphoric acid production. Among these impurities, radionuclides from 238 U and 232 Th decay series, particularly 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb and Th isotopes are of most concern due to their radiotoxicity. Elemental characterization of stockpiled phosphogypsum from the two main producers of phosphoric acid, Copebras Ltda and Ultrafertil S.A. named A and C respectively, located in Cubatao, was performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Phosphogypsum samples are enriched in rare earths elements, specifically Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb and the elements Ba and Th. Radiological characterization of stockpiled phosphogypsum was performed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Activity concentrations (2,3 +- 0,5) x 10 2 Bq kg -1 for 228 Ra, (8,5 +- 2,4) x 10 2 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra and (8,4 +- 2,4) x 10 2 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb were observed for industry A phosphogypsum. For industry C phosphogypsum, activity concentrations obtained were (1,6 +- 0,6) x 10 2 Bq kg - ''1 for 226 Ra, (3,6 +- 1,2) x 10 2 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra and (3,4 +- 1,2) x 10 2 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb. The radiochemical and elemental characterization of the phosphogypsum from industry A and C show that the stacks are quite homogeneous and mainly dependent upon the origin of the phosphatic rock used as raw material. The environmental radiological impact assessment of stockpiled phosphogypsum from industry C was evaluated by taking into account internal and external doses. The critical pathways considered were contamination of groundwater, emanation of radon and direct external exposure due to the radionuclides present in the phosphogypsum. The activity concentrations obtained in the monitor wells

  14. Radiological impact on the UK population of industries which use or produce materials containing enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. Part II: the steel production industry

    Crockett, G.M.; Smith, K.R.; Oatway, W.B.; Mobbs, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the UK population of the steel production industry within the UK. The radiological impact of the primary industry, the waste streams produced and the use of by-product slag have been considered. Individual doses from atmospheric releases from ail currently operating integrated steel plants in the UK are less than 10 μSv y -1 for all age groups. The per caput dose rate in the UK population from 500 years of continuous steel production at the current levels is estimated to be 0.1 μSv y -1 . Estimated maximum doses to workers at the steel production plant, landfill workers, and workers manufacturing and using building materials containing slag were generally less than 20 μSv y -1 . The estimated radon concentrations in buildings constructed from concrete containing slag depend upon the radon emanation fraction assumed for the material. Experimental data in this area is sparse, and thus a range was considered. The estimated radon concentrations in buildings constructed from concrete containing slag ranged between 7.0 and 10.8 Bq m -3 , compared with 9.9 Bq m -3 when slag-free concrete is assumed. The estimated dose from radon exposure ranges between 363 μSv y -1 and 559 μSv y -1 , compared with 510 μSv y -1 when slag-free concrete is used. The estimated external dose to an individual in a house constructed using concrete containing slag is 790 μSv y -1 compared with 758 μSv y -1 for slag-free concrete. The overall effect of the use of the slag in building materials therefore ranges between a reduction in dose of 115 μSv y -1 and an increase of 81 μSv y -1 . Other scenarios involving exposure of members of the public to slag resulted in doses of less than 5 μSv y -1 . The estimated peak individual risk from landfill disposal of steel industry waste is less than approximately 1 10 -8 y -1 . Currently, radiological controls on the operation of steel production sites are confined to the

  15. Non-radiological air quality modeling for the high-level waste tank closure environmental impact statement

    Hunter, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Dispersion modeling of potential non-radiological air emissions associated with the proposed closure of high-level waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site has been completed, as requested (TtNUS, 1999). Estimated maximum ground-level concentrations of applicable regulated air pollutants at the site boundary and at the distance to the co-located onsite worker (640 meters) are summarized. In all cases, the calculated concentrations were much less than regulatory standards

  16. The role and impact of reference doses on diagnostic radiology, how to use them at the national level?

    Nikodemova, D.; Horvathova, M.; Karkus, R.

    2003-01-01

    Results of patient dose audits reported in this paper for several types of examinations and various technical units have shown the importance of applications of reference dose levels in radiological practice. On the basis of national surveys slightly lower or higher standard dose reference levels (DRL) values could be justified. Continuing revision of DRL values and their extension to other types of radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations is needed

  17. Evaluation guide for the radiological impact study of a basic nuclear installation (BNI) as a support for the authorization application of releases

    Chartier, Mr.; Despres, A.; Supervil, S.; Conte, D.; Hubert, P.; Oudiz, A.; Champion, D.

    2002-10-01

    At the time of a licence application of effluent releases and water pumping of basic nuclear facilities (BNF), the operator of the installation must in particular provide a radiological impact study of the radioactive effluent releases coming from the installation on the environment and on public health. An impact study of the radioactive releases represents technical and conditional specifications. It was for this reason that the French Safety Authority (ASN then DSIN) and the Directorate-General of Health Services (DGS) requested IRSN (then IPSN), in April 1999, to develop a guide facilitating the review of such a study, as well for the services implied in the examination of the licence applications, as for all the concerned parties in this field. The objective of the guide is to take into account the regulatory context which underlies the development of the impact studies (decree no. 95-540 of May 4, 1995, modified by the decree no. 2002-460 of April 4, 2002, and the Euratom guideline 96/29 of May 13, 1996, known as 'the basic standard guideline', accompanied by its transposition texts in French law). In this precise context, the guide proposes to assess the radiological impact study of a BNF from three different angles: - the description and the quantification of the produced effluents, by taking account of the triggering processes, of the different processing measures and of the procedures to optimise the reduction of the produced effluents; - the estimate of the dosimetric impact of the planned releases on the population, taking into account the environmental characteristics of the installation; - the definition of the conditions to monitor the releases and the environment. This guide provides a general condition logical framework adaptable to any particular situation met

  18. Radionuclide radiology

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  19. Emergency radiology

    Keats, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs [de

  20. Postoperative radiology

    Burhenne, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the importance of postoperative radiology. Most surgical procedures on the alimentary tract are successful, but postoperative complications remain a common occurrence. The radiologist must be familiar with a large variety of possible surgical complications, because it is this specialty that is most commonly called on to render a definitive diagnosis. The decision for reoperation, for instance, is usually based on results from radiologic imaging techniques. These now include ultrasonography, CT scanning, needle biopsy, and interventional techniques in addition to contrast studies and nuclear medicine investigation

  1. Evaluating the Impact of a Canadian National Anatomy and Radiology Contouring Boot Camp for Radiation Oncology Residents

    Jaswal, Jasbir; D'Souza, Leah; Johnson, Marjorie; Tay, KengYeow; Fung, Kevin; Nichols, Anthony; Landis, Mark; Leung, Eric; Kassam, Zahra; Willmore, Katherine; D'Souza, David; Sexton, Tracy; Palma, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiation therapy treatment planning has advanced over the past 2 decades, with increased emphasis on 3-dimensional imaging for target and organ-at-risk (OAR) delineation. Recent studies suggest a need for improved resident instruction in this area. We developed and evaluated an intensive national educational course (“boot camp”) designed to provide dedicated instruction in site-specific anatomy, radiology, and contouring using a multidisciplinary (MDT) approach. Methods: The anatomy and radiology contouring (ARC) boot camp was modeled after prior single-institution pilot studies and a needs-assessment survey. The boot camp incorporated joint lectures from radiation oncologists, anatomists, radiologists, and surgeons, with hands-on contouring instruction and small group interactive seminars using cadaveric prosections and correlative axial radiographs. Outcomes were evaluated using pretesting and posttesting, including anatomy/radiology multiple-choice questions (MCQ), timed contouring sessions (evaluated relative to a gold standard using Dice similarity metrics), and qualitative questions on satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. Analyses of pretest versus posttest scores were performed using nonparametric paired testing. Results: Twenty-nine radiation oncology residents from 10 Canadian universities participated. As part of their current training, 29%, 75%, and 21% receive anatomy, radiology, and contouring instruction, respectively. On posttest scores, the MCQ knowledge scores improved significantly (pretest mean 60% vs posttest mean 80%, P<.001). Across all contoured structures, there was a 0.20 median improvement in students' average Dice score (P<.001). For individual structures, significant Dice improvements occurred in 10 structures. Residents self-reported an improved ability to contour OARs and interpret radiographs in all anatomic sites, 92% of students found the MDT format effective for their learning, and 93% found the boot camp

  2. Evaluating the Impact of a Canadian National Anatomy and Radiology Contouring Boot Camp for Radiation Oncology Residents

    Jaswal, Jasbir [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); D' Souza, Leah; Johnson, Marjorie [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Tay, KengYeow [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences, London, Ontario (Canada); Fung, Kevin; Nichols, Anthony [Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario (Canada); Landis, Mark [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences, London, Ontario (Canada); Leung, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Kassam, Zahra [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St. Joseph' s Health Care London, London, Ontario (Canada); Willmore, Katherine [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); D' Souza, David; Sexton, Tracy [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Palma, David A., E-mail: david.palma@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Background: Radiation therapy treatment planning has advanced over the past 2 decades, with increased emphasis on 3-dimensional imaging for target and organ-at-risk (OAR) delineation. Recent studies suggest a need for improved resident instruction in this area. We developed and evaluated an intensive national educational course (“boot camp”) designed to provide dedicated instruction in site-specific anatomy, radiology, and contouring using a multidisciplinary (MDT) approach. Methods: The anatomy and radiology contouring (ARC) boot camp was modeled after prior single-institution pilot studies and a needs-assessment survey. The boot camp incorporated joint lectures from radiation oncologists, anatomists, radiologists, and surgeons, with hands-on contouring instruction and small group interactive seminars using cadaveric prosections and correlative axial radiographs. Outcomes were evaluated using pretesting and posttesting, including anatomy/radiology multiple-choice questions (MCQ), timed contouring sessions (evaluated relative to a gold standard using Dice similarity metrics), and qualitative questions on satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. Analyses of pretest versus posttest scores were performed using nonparametric paired testing. Results: Twenty-nine radiation oncology residents from 10 Canadian universities participated. As part of their current training, 29%, 75%, and 21% receive anatomy, radiology, and contouring instruction, respectively. On posttest scores, the MCQ knowledge scores improved significantly (pretest mean 60% vs posttest mean 80%, P<.001). Across all contoured structures, there was a 0.20 median improvement in students' average Dice score (P<.001). For individual structures, significant Dice improvements occurred in 10 structures. Residents self-reported an improved ability to contour OARs and interpret radiographs in all anatomic sites, 92% of students found the MDT format effective for their learning, and 93% found the boot camp

  3. Medical student knowledge regarding radiology before and after a radiological anatomy module: implications for vertical integration and self-directed learning.

    Murphy, Kevin P; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; O'Connor, Owen J; Cryan, John F; Maher, Michael M

    2014-10-01

    To examine the impact that anatomy-focused radiology teaching has on non-examined knowledge regarding radiation safety and radiology as a specialty. First-year undergraduate medical students completed surveys prior to and after undertaking the first-year anatomy programme that incorporates radiological anatomy. Students were asked opinions on preferred learning methodology and tested on understanding of radiology as a specialty and radiation safety. Pre-module and post-module response rates were 93 % (157/168) and 85 % (136/160), respectively. Pre-module and post-module, self-directed learning (SDL) ranked eighth (of 11) for preferred gross-anatomy teaching formats. Correct responses regarding radiologist/radiographer roles varied from 28-94 % on 16 questions with 4/16 significantly improving post-module. Identification of modalities that utilise radiation significantly improved for five of eight modalities post-module but knowledge regarding relative amount of modality-specific radiation use was variable pre-module and post-module. SDL is not favoured as an anatomy teaching method. Exposure of students to a radiological anatomy module delivered by senior clinical radiologists improved basic knowledge regarding ionising radiation use, but there was no improvement in knowledge regarding radiation exposure relative per modality. A possible explanation is that students recall knowledge imparted in didactic lectures but do little reading around the subject when the content is not examined. • Self-directed learning is not favoured as a gross anatomy teaching format amongst medical students. • An imaging anatomy-focused module improved basic knowledge regarding ionising radiation use. • Detailed knowledge of modality-specific radiation exposure remained suboptimal post-module. • Knowledge of roles within a clinical radiology department showed little change post-module.

  4. Radiological protection in interventional radiology

    Padovani, R.

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) reduces the need for many traditional interventions, particularly surgery, so reducing the discomfort and risk for patients compared with traditional systems. IR procedures are frequently performed by non-radiologist physicians, often without the proper radiological equipment and sufficient knowledge of radiation protection. Levels of doses to patients and staff in IR vary enormously. A poor correlation exists between patient and staff dose, and large variations of dose are reported for the same procedure. The occurrence of deterministic effects in patients is another peculiar aspect of IR owing to the potentially high skin doses of some procedures. The paper reviews the use of IR and the radiological protection of patients and staff, and examines the need for new standards for IR equipment and the training of personnel. (author)

  5. History and Organizations for Radiological Protection.

    Kang, Keon Wook

    2016-02-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), an independent international organization established in 1925, develops, maintains, and elaborates radiological protection standards, legislation, and guidelines. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) provides scientific evidence. World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilise the ICRP recommendations to implement radiation protection in practice. Finally, radiation protection agencies in each country adopt the policies, and adapt them to each situation. In Korea, Nuclear Safety and Security Commission is the governmental body for nuclear safety regulation and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is a public organization for technical support and R&D in nuclear safety and radiation protection.

  6. Pediatric radiology

    Benz-Bohm, G.

    1997-01-01

    Pediatric radiology is an important subsection of diagnostic radiology involving specific difficulties, but unfortunately is quite too often neglected as a subject of further education and training. The book therefore is not intended for specialists in the field, but for radiologists wishing to plunge deeper into the matter of pediatric radiology and to acquire a sound, basic knowledge and information about well-proven modalities, the resulting diagnostic images, and interpretation of results. The book is a compact guide and a helpful source of reference and information required for every-day work, or in special cases. With patients who are babies or children, the challenges are different. The book offers all the information needed, including important experience from pediatric hospital units that may be helpful in diagnostic evaluation, information about specific dissimilarities in anatomy and physiology which affect the imaging results, hints for radiology planning and performance, as well as information about the various techniques and their indication and achievements. The book presents a wide spectrum of informative and annotated images. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Radiologic considerations

    Judge, L.O.

    1987-01-01

    An increasing variety of imaging modalities as well as refinements of interventional techniques have led to a resurgence of radiologic interest and participation in urolithiasis management. Judicious selection of the diagnostic examination, close monitoring during the procedure, consultation with urologic colleagues, and a careful regard for radiation safety guidelines define the role of the radiologist in renal stone disease

  8. Radiological impacts of the usability of Dolerite and Kaolin as raw materials for construction works in Abia State, Nigeria

    Enyinna, P.I.; Avwiri, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    This research study is aimed at carrying out radiometric analyses of the natural radioactivity resulting from the presence of radionuclides in dolerite and kaolin which are raw materials widely used in construction works. The activity concentrations of the identified natural radionuclides of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K in 40 samples of these solid minerals collected from 4 mining sites were determined by gamma ray spectroscopic technique using a well calibrated [NaI(Tl)] detector. The mean values of the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K for the dolerite samples were found to be 10.989Bq/kg, 6.956Bq/kg, 723.253Bq/kg and 10.735Bq/kg, 6.175Bq/kg, 714.895Bq/kg respectively (for the 2 dolerite mining sites); and for the kaolin samples, 8.507Bq/kg, 7.33Bq/kg, 87.511Bq/kg and 8.416Bq/kg, 7.354Bq/kg, 86.727Bq/kg respectively (for the 2 kaolin mining sites). The radium equivalent activity, the absorbed dose rate, the equivalent dose rate, the external and internal hazard indices, the annual outdoor and indoor effective dose rates were computed and compared with international radiological standards to ascertain if these minerals pose any radiological hazard. The results obtained were found to conform within the limits of acceptable international radiological standards and may not pose any immediate threat to the public and users of these two solid minerals for construction works.

  9. An education and training programme for radiological institutes: impact on the reduction of the CT radiation dose

    Schindera, Sebastian T.; Allmen, Gabriel von; Vock, Peter; Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Treier, Reto; Trueb, Philipp R.; Nauer, Claude

    2011-01-01

    To establish an education and training programme for the reduction of CT radiation doses and to assess this programme's efficacy. Ten radiological institutes were counselled. The optimisation programme included a small group workshop and a lecture on radiation dose reduction strategies. The radiation dose used for five CT protocols (paranasal sinuses, brain, chest, pulmonary angiography and abdomen) was assessed using the dose-length product (DLP) before and after the optimisation programme. The mean DLP values were compared with national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). The average reduction of the DLP after optimisation was 37% for the sinuses (180 vs. 113 mGycm, P < 0.001), 9% for the brain (982 vs. 896 mGycm, P < 0.05), 24% for the chest (425 vs. 322 mGycm, P < 0.05) and 42% for the pulmonary arteries (352 vs. 203 mGycm, P < 0.001). No significant change in DLP was found for abdominal CT. The post-optimisation DLP values of the sinuses, brain, chest, pulmonary arteries and abdomen were 68%, 10%, 20%, 55% and 15% below the DRL, respectively. The education and training programme for radiological institutes is effective in achieving a substantial reduction in CT radiation dose. (orig.)

  10. A study of inventiveness among Society of Interventional Radiology members and the impact of their social networks.

    Murphy, Kieran J; Elias, Gavin; Jaffer, Hussein; Mandani, Rashesh

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the nature of inventiveness among members of the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) and learn what influenced the inventors and assisted their creativity. The membership directory of the SIR was cross-referenced with filings at the United States Patent and Trademark Organization (USPTO) and the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). The inventors were queried with an online survey to illuminate their institutions of training and practice as well as enabling or inhibiting factors to their inventiveness. Responses were analyzed through the construction of social network maps and thematic and graphical analysis. It was found that 457 members of the SIR held 2,492 patents or patent filings. After 1986, there was a marked and sustained increase in patent filings. The online survey was completed by 73 inventors holding 470 patents and patent filings. The social network maps show the key role of large academic interventional radiology departments and individual inventors in the formation of interconnectivity among inventors and the creation of the intellectual property (IP). Key inhibitors of the inventive process include lack of mentorship, of industry contacts, and of legal advice. Key enablers include mentorship, motivation, and industry contacts. Creativity and inventiveness in SIR members stem from institutions that are hubs of innovation and networks of key innovators; inventors are facilitated by personal motivation, mentorship, and strong industry contacts. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Decommissioning and dismantling: evaluation of possible radiological impacts from exceeding clearance levels at nuclear facilities. Final report

    Kirchhoff, J.; Stasch, W.P.; Thierfeldt, S.; Kugeler, E.

    2001-01-01

    On June 14, 2000 the German power utilities have reached an agreement with the German government (energy consent). According to that all nuclear power plants in Germany shall be shut down approximately until the year 2020 and shall be decommissioned afterwards. Almost 95% of the mass of a nuclear power plant can be re-used or recycled as normal material and waste after the necessary handling (decontamination) and clearance measurements. For the release of the entire mass of a NPP several hundreds of thousand radioactivity measurements (so called free release measurements) are necessary. With this huge number of measurements mistakes cannot be excluded. The study includes several radiological scenarios which could result from mistakes during the release/clearance procedure. The radiation doses calculated during the simulation show that some faulty releases can give rise to doses above the trivial dose level of some 10 μSv. An effective dose up to 400 μSv for individuals has been determined. However, with a high certainty it can be excluded that the individual effective dose will reach the range of 1000 μSv even with a hypothetical consideration of a concatenation of several conditions. Because of the low probability of appearance and their minimal radiological effects mistakes during the release procedure pose no hazards. (orig.) [de

  12. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Bezovska, M.

    2002-01-01

    The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal contain humic acids but lignite from Novaky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated from of humic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of coals humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water. Oxidised coal with high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture as fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and can help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabilize toxic metal residues already present in soil. (author)

  13. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Bežovská Mária

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  14. Using the model release ARTM associated with resources for simulation geoprocessing radiological environmental impact of atmospheric emissions from a research reactor

    Alves, Simone Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of the dispersion of radionuclides emissions into the atmosphere arising from a nuclear reactor, in normal operation, is an important step in the process of the nuclear and environmental assessment study. These processes require an assessment study of the radiological environmental impact. However, to estimate this impact a simulation of the transport mechanisms and deposition of pollutants released into the atmosphere is required. The present study aimed at the application of the dispersion model ARTM (Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model), together with the powerful tools of the GIS (Geographic Information System) for the environmental impact assessment of a radiological nuclear reactor under typically routine and conditions. Therefore some important information from the national project for a research reactor known as Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) was considered. The information of the atmospheric emissions of the reactor, needed for the simulation of this project, was based on data of the Open Pool Australian Light Water (OPAL).Other important data that had to be collected and analyzed were the source term, the topography, the meteorology and the environmental data. The radionuclides analyzed as pollutants were 41 Ar; 140 Ba; 51 Cr; 137 Cs; 131 I; 133 I; 85m Kr; 87 Kr; 88 Kr; 140 La; 133 Xe; 135 Xe; 3 H; 90 Sr. The model was run for two chronological scenarios according to their meteorological data for the years 2009 and 2010, respectively. The adoption of GIS techniques was relevant in planning, data preprocessing and in the post-processing of results as well. After pre-processing, the input data were processed by the ARTM dispersion model. Maps, charts, and tables were then produced and evaluated. According to the simulated and evaluated scenarios it could be concluded that exposure pathways that mostly contributed to the dose for individual public were 41 Ar, for immersion in the plume, and 133 I, for inhalation. Nevertheless, even

  15. WSPEEDI (worldwide version of SPEEDI): A computer code system for the prediction of radiological impacts on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries

    Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Moriuchi, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishikawa, Hirohiko

    1995-09-01

    A computer code system has been developed for near real-time dose assessment during radiological emergencies. The system WSPEEDI, the worldwide version of SPEEDI (System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) aims at predicting the radiological impact on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries. WSPEEDI consists of a mass-consistent wind model WSYNOP for large-scale wind fields and a particle random walk model GEARN for atmospheric dispersion and dry and wet deposition of radioactivity. The models are integrated into a computer code system together with a system control software, worldwide geographic database, meteorological data processor and graphic software. The performance of the models has been evaluated using the Chernobyl case with reliable source terms, well-established meteorological data and a comprehensive monitoring database. Furthermore, the response of the system has been examined by near real-time simulations of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX), carried out over about 2,000 km area in Europe. (author).

  16. WSPEEDI (worldwide version of SPEEDI): A computer code system for the prediction of radiological impacts on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries

    Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Moriuchi, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Hirohiko.

    1995-09-01

    A computer code system has been developed for near real-time dose assessment during radiological emergencies. The system WSPEEDI, the worldwide version of SPEEDI (System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) aims at predicting the radiological impact on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries. WSPEEDI consists of a mass-consistent wind model WSYNOP for large-scale wind fields and a particle random walk model GEARN for atmospheric dispersion and dry and wet deposition of radioactivity. The models are integrated into a computer code system together with a system control software, worldwide geographic database, meteorological data processor and graphic software. The performance of the models has been evaluated using the Chernobyl case with reliable source terms, well-established meteorological data and a comprehensive monitoring database. Furthermore, the response of the system has been examined by near real-time simulations of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX), carried out over about 2,000 km area in Europe. (author)

  17. Clinical and radiological characteristics of central pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a comparison with central squamous cell carcinoma and small cell lung cancer and the impact on treatment response

    Wang Z

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhe Wang,1,2 Minghuan Li,2 Yong Huang,3 Li Ma,3 Hui Zhu,2 Li Kong,2 Jinming Yu2 1School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China; 3Department of Radiology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China Purpose: The proportion of central pulmonary adenocarcinoma (ADC in central-type lung cancer has been gradually increasing due to the overall increasing incidence of pulmonary ADC. But the clinical and radiological characteristics of central ADCs remain unclear. In this study, we compared the clinical and radiological characteristics of central ADCs with those of small cell lung cancers (SCLCs and squamous cell carcinomas (SQCCs and investigated the impact of these characteristics on patients’ treatment response. Patients and methods: The medical records of 302 consecutive patients with central lung cancer from July 2014 to September 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. There were 99 patients with ADC, 95 with SQCC and 108 with SCLC. Computed tomography images were interpreted by two radiologists. Treatment response was determined by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors 1.1. Results: Univariate analyses found that younger age, female sex, no history of smoking, higher levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, contralateral hilum lymphadenopathy, contralateral lung metastasis, pleural nodules and pleural metastasis to the interlobular fissure were significantly correlated with central ADC. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with central SQCC, female sex, younger age, no history of smoking, higher levels of CEA and contralateral hilum lymphadenopathy were the significantly independent indicators of central pulmonary ADC. Furthermore, compared with central SCLC, younger age, higher levels of CEA and cytokeratin 19 fragment (Cyfra21-1, lower

  18. Chest radiology

    Reed, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a reference in plain chest film diagnosis provides a thorough background in the differential diagnosis of 22 of the most common radiologic patterns of chest disease. Each chapter is introduced with problem cases and a set of questions, followed by a tabular listing of the appropriate differential considerations. The book emphasizes plain films, CT and some MR scans are integrated to demonstrate how these modalities enhance the work of a case

  19. The radiological consequences of degraded core accidents for the Sizewell PWR The impact of adopting revised frequencies of occurrence

    Kelly, G N

    1983-01-01

    The radiological consequences of degraded core accidents postulated for the Sizewell PWR were assessed in an earlier study and the results published in NRPB-R137. Further analyses have since been made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) of degraded core accidents which have led to a revision of their predicted frequencies of occurrence. The implications of these revised frequencies, in terms of the risk to the public from degraded core accidents, are evaluated in this report. Increases, by factors typically within the range of about 1.5 to 7, are predicted in the consequences, compared with those estimated in the earlier study. However, the predicted risk from degraded core accidents, despite these increases, remains exceedingly small.

  20. Demonstration of mobile radiation monitoring methodology for quick assessment of radiological impact of Mumbai City Using road, rail and sea routes

    Chatterjee, M.K.; Divkar, J.K.; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    The study of background radiation levels by suitable mobile monitoring methodology through different routes (road, rail and sea) with the help of state of the art monitoring systems has been initiated with an objective to demonstrate the effectiveness of monitoring methodologies for quick radiological impact assessment during any radiological emergency and to detect the presence of orphan source(s), if any. The other objective was to establish a reliable base line data on the background radiation levels. The study was carried out in Mumbai city through different available routes. Mumbai is a densely populated city and everyday millions of commuters are crossing across the city using rail and road routes. In case of any unwarned radiological emergency in public domain, a large section of people of the city may get concerned of radioactive contamination/ high radiation exposure. In such scenario, environmental radiation monitoring and quick assessment of contamination in public domain will be a challenging task for the civil authorities. The monitoring techniques used for quick radiological impact assessment and the established base line dose rate data of Mumbai city will be very useful for planning counter measures, if required. During mobile monitoring programme of this highly populated city, the monitoring routes, selection and placement of different monitoring instruments/system within the mobile platform, data acquisition time of the respective monitoring equipments, speed of mobile monitoring station etc were optimized. State-of-the-art systems like Portable Mobile Gamma Spectrometry System (PMGSS), Compact Radiation Monitoring System integrated with GPS, Gammatracers, Portable low/high range survey meters and hand held spectrometers were used. The average of the dose rates recorded during monitoring through road routes and railway routes of Mumbai city were 60±10 nGy.h -1 and 65±15 nGy.h -1 respectively, which are attributable to terrestrial and cosmic

  1. Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Tajikistan

    Lespukh, E.; Stegnar, P.; Yunusov, M.; Tilloboev, H.; Zyazev, G.; Kayukov, P.; Hosseini, A.; Strømman, G.; Salbu, B.

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) was carried out at former uranium (U) mining and processing sites in Taboshar and at Digmai in Tajikistan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments. 222 Rn/ 220 Rn measurements were carried out with field instruments for instantaneous measurements and then discriminative 222 Rn/ 220 Rn solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were used for longer representative measurements. The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected U legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, 222 Rn and 220 Rn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low to relatively low radiological risk. The radiation doses deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor 222 Rn and 220 Rn with their short-lived progenies did not exceed national or international standards. At none of the sites investigated did the average individual annual effective doses exceed 10 mSv, the recommended threshold value for the general public. A radiation hazard could be associated with exceptional situations, such as elevated exposures to ionizing radiation at the Digmai tailings site and/or in industrial facilities, where gamma and 222 Rn/ 220 Rn dose rates could reach values of several 10 mSv/a. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent a hazard to the health of the resident public, with the exception of some specific situations. These issues should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of the resident public to ionizing radiation

  2. Interactive radiological anatomy eLearning solution for first year medical students: Development, integration, and impact on learning.

    Webb, Alexandra Louise; Choi, Sunhea

    2014-01-01

    A technology enhanced learning and teaching (TELT) solution, radiological anatomy (RA) eLearning, composed of a range of identification-based and guided learning activities related to normal and pathological X-ray images, was devised for the Year 1 nervous and locomotor course at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton. Its effectiveness was evaluated using a questionnaire, pre- and post-tests, focus groups, summative assessment, and tracking data. Since introduced in 2009, a total of 781 students have used RA eLearning, and among them 167 Year 1 students in 2011, of whom 116 participated in the evaluation study. Students enjoyed learning (77%) with RA eLearning, found it was easy to use (81%) and actively engaged them in their learning (75%), all of which were associated to the usability, learning design of the TELT solution and its integration in the curriculum; 80% of students reported RA eLearning helped their revision of anatomy and 69% stated that it facilitated their application of anatomy in a clinical context, both of which were associated with the benefits offered by the learning and activities design. At the end of course summative assessment, student knowledge of RA eLearning relevant topics (mean 80%; SD ±16) was significantly better as compared to topics not relevant to RA eLearning (mean 63%; SD ±15) (mean difference 18%; 95% CI 15% to 20%; P < 0.001). A well designed and integrated TELT solution can be an efficient method for facilitating the application, integration, and contextualization of anatomy and radiology to create a blended learning environment. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Contributed papers

    2001-01-01

    An International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization was held in Malaga, Spain, from 26 to 30 March 2001. The Government of Spain hosted this Conference through the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, the Junta de Andalucia, the Universidad de Malaga and the Grupo de Investigacion en Proteccion Radiologica de la Universidad de Malaga (PRUMA). The Conference was organized in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the following professional societies: International Organization of Medical Physicists (IOMP), International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), International Society of Radiation Oncology (ISRO), International Society of Radiology (ISR), International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) and World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB). This publication contains contributed papers submitted to the Conference Programme Committee. The papers are in one of the two working languages of this Conference, English and Spanish. The topics covered by the Conference are as follows: Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (radiography), Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (fluoroscopy), Radiological protection issues in specific uses of diagnostic radiology, such as mammography and computed tomography (with special consideration of the impact of digital techniques), Radiological protection in interventional radiology, including fluoroscopy not carried out by radiologists, Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine, Developing and

  4. Radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Contributed papers

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization was held in Malaga, Spain, from 26 to 30 March 2001. The Government of Spain hosted this Conference through the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, the Junta de Andalucia, the Universidad de Malaga and the Grupo de Investigacion en Proteccion Radiologica de la Universidad de Malaga (PRUMA). The Conference was organized in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the following professional societies: International Organization of Medical Physicists (IOMP), International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), International Society of Radiation Oncology (ISRO), International Society of Radiology (ISR), International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) and World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB). This publication contains contributed papers submitted to the Conference Programme Committee. The papers are in one of the two working languages of this Conference, English and Spanish. The topics covered by the Conference are as follows: Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (radiography), Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (fluoroscopy), Radiological protection issues in specific uses of diagnostic radiology, such as mammography and computed tomography (with special consideration of the impact of digital techniques), Radiological protection in interventional radiology, including fluoroscopy not carried out by radiologists, Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine, Developing and

  5. Radiology education: a glimpse into the future

    Scarsbrook, A.F. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: andyscarsbrook1@aol.com; Graham, R.N.J. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Perriss, R.W. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    The digital revolution in radiology continues to advance rapidly. There are a number of interesting developments within radiology informatics which may have a significant impact on education and training of radiologists in the near future. These include extended functionality of handheld computers, web-based skill and knowledge assessment, standardization of radiological procedural training using simulated or virtual patients, worldwide videoconferencing via high-quality health networks such as Internet2 and global collaboration of radiological educational resources via comprehensive, multi-national databases such as the medical imaging resource centre initiative of the Radiological Society of North America. This article will explore the role of e-learning in radiology, highlight a number of useful web-based applications in this area, and explain how the current and future technological advances might best be incorporated into radiological training.

  6. Radiology education: a glimpse into the future

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The digital revolution in radiology continues to advance rapidly. There are a number of interesting developments within radiology informatics which may have a significant impact on education and training of radiologists in the near future. These include extended functionality of handheld computers, web-based skill and knowledge assessment, standardization of radiological procedural training using simulated or virtual patients, worldwide videoconferencing via high-quality health networks such as Internet2 and global collaboration of radiological educational resources via comprehensive, multi-national databases such as the medical imaging resource centre initiative of the Radiological Society of North America. This article will explore the role of e-learning in radiology, highlight a number of useful web-based applications in this area, and explain how the current and future technological advances might best be incorporated into radiological training

  7. Diagnostic radiology 1987

    Margulis, A.R.; Gooding, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This is the latest version of the continuing education course on diagnostic radiology given yearly by the Department of Radiology at the University of California, San Francisco. The lectures are grouped into sections on gastrointestinal radiology, mammography, uroradiology, magnetic resonance, hepatobiliary radiology, pediatric radiology, ultrasound, interventional radiology, chest radiology, nuclear medicine, cardiovascular radiology, and skeletal radiology. Each section contains four to eight topics. Each of these consists of text that represents highlights in narrative form, selected illustrations, and a short bibliography. The presentation gives a general idea of what points were made in the lecture

  8. the complementary roles of radiology and nuclear medicine

    blood-brain barrier and liver masses has been replaced by ultrasound, computerised ... Radiology has experienced exponential growth with regard to helical multi-slice CT ... allows mapping of cerebral cortical function by utilising blood oxygen ..... A patient who required open reduction and internal fixation of a fractured left.

  9. Docritfab: A program to assess the radiological impact in accidental emissions of a nuclear fuel factory in real time; Docritfab: Un programa para evaluar en tiempo real el impacto radiologico en emisiones accidentales de una fabrica de combustible nuclear

    Sanchez, J. G.; Ortiz, D.; Lopez, J.

    2014-07-01

    Docrit is a program developed for the manufacture of fuels of oxides of uranium Juzbado allowing an estimate in real time of the radiological impact in the case of accidental emissions from gaseous effluents (emissions of aerosols of UO{sub 2} and criticality accidents).

  10. Cardiothoracic radiology

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    A wealth of cardiothoracic websites exist on the internet. What follows is a list of the higher quality resources currently available which should save you time searching them out for yourself. Many of the sites listed cater for undergraduates and trainee or non-specialist radiologists, nevertheless these may also be of interest to specialists in thoracic radiology, particularly for use in teaching. Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (April 2005)

  11. Pediatric radiology

    Silverman, F.N.

    1982-01-01

    A literature review with 186 references of diagnostic pediatric radiology, a speciality restricted to an age group rather than to an organ system or technique of examination, is presented. In the present chapter topics follow the basic organ system divisions with discussions of special techniques within these divisions. The diagnosis of congenital malformations, infectious diseases and neoplasms are a few of the topics discussed for the head and neck region, the vertebrae, the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, the urinary tract, and the skeleton

  12. Effective utilisation of generation Y Quantity Surveyors

    together and tested by means of open interview discussions with senior QS professionals. ... employers could better utilise generation Y employees. 2. Literature review .... Literature was reviewed by using search engines (Emerald, Business.

  13. Artificial intelligence in radiology.

    Hosny, Ahmed; Parmar, Chintan; Quackenbush, John; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Aerts, Hugo J W L

    2018-05-17

    Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, particularly deep learning, have demonstrated remarkable progress in image-recognition tasks. Methods ranging from convolutional neural networks to variational autoencoders have found myriad applications in the medical image analysis field, propelling it forward at a rapid pace. Historically, in radiology practice, trained physicians visually assessed medical images for the detection, characterization and monitoring of diseases. AI methods excel at automatically recognizing complex patterns in imaging data and providing quantitative, rather than qualitative, assessments of radiographic characteristics. In this Opinion article, we establish a general understanding of AI methods, particularly those pertaining to image-based tasks. We explore how these methods could impact multiple facets of radiology, with a general focus on applications in oncology, and demonstrate ways in which these methods are advancing the field. Finally, we discuss the challenges facing clinical implementation and provide our perspective on how the domain could be advanced.

  14. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

     In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerat...

  15. Enhancing Cloud Resource Utilisation using Statistical Analysis

    Sijin He; Li Guo; Yike Guo

    2014-01-01

    Resource provisioning based on virtual machine (VM) has been widely accepted and adopted in cloud computing environments. A key problem resulting from using static scheduling approaches for allocating VMs on different physical machines (PMs) is that resources tend to be not fully utilised. Although some existing cloud reconfiguration algorithms have been developed to address the problem, they normally result in high migration costs and low resource utilisation due to ignoring the multi-dimens...

  16. The economics of interventional radiology

    Price, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    At a time when policy makers and regulators are scheming to reduce the costs and utilization of medical services, interventional radiology is poised for growth. Part of this potential for growth is based on wider acceptance of the procedures performed by interventional radiologists. A second factor in the growth potential is the relative value in cost of these procedures compared with alternative therapies. The author presents a discussion of the differences in the relative value of these procedures when performed by physicians of different specialties. This paper reviews the status of the economic climate in the health care delivery system and the role and potential growth of interventional radiology. This includes a review of current data on the utilization of interventional radiology procedures in the Medicare program. This overview includes a discussion of the initiatives of the federal government which directly impact interventional radiology

  17. Study of plutonium and americium contamination in agricultural area, radiological impact caused by consumption of vegetables of this area

    Espinosa, Assuncion; Aragon, Antonio; Cruz, Berta de la; Gutierrez, Jose

    2001-01-01

    The transuranide concentration has been studied for 30 years in vegetable production, crops in wide extensions and in private-owned farms, all of them situated within the Pu-contaminated area of Palomares due to an air accident in 1966. Based on these studies, a preliminary estimation of the radiological risk caused by the consumption of these products by the inhabitants was possible. The results show that most of the fruits present a surface contamination, which disappears or is significantly reduced when they are washed. The contamination present in edible parts of the vegetables, as well as the contamination of other products included in the diet, has facilitated the estimation of the effective dose for ingestion and the committed effective dose for 50 years for the inhabitants. The main conclusions are: those plants, whose cultivation period is less than a year, present a low level of contamination; the green parts of the plants have a higher contamination than the fruits; the Pu soil to plant transfer factor is very low. In general, those plants that have remained in the contaminated land for several years present a high contamination level; the ingestion of products from Palomares does not represent an important risk for the population, even in the case that the products were totally consumed by a critical group.( author)

  18. Impact of the application of criteria of internal monitoring in radiological protection programmes in nuclear medicine services

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Juliao, L.Q.C.; Lourenco, M.C.; Melo, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The manipulation of open sources in Nuclear Medicine services involves risks of external exposure and internal contamination. The radiological protection plan of facilities licensed by CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - must include the evaluation of such risks and propose a programme of individual monitoring to control exposure and ensure the maintenance of conditions of radiation safety. The IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency - recommendations presented in the Safety Guide RS-G-1.2 suggest that an internal worker monitoring program be implemented where there is a possibility of internal contamination lead to effective dose committed annual values equal to or greater than 1 mSv. This paper presents the application of such criteria to the radionuclides most frequently used in the field of Nuclear Medicine, taking into account the normal conditions of handling and the ranges of activity authorized by CNEN. It is concluded that iodine 131 manipulation for therapeutic purposes is the practice that presented the greatest risk of internal exposure of workers, requiring the adoption of a programme of internal monitoring of Nuclear Medicine services

  19. Transportation radiological risk assessment for the programmatic environmental impact statement: An overview of methodologies, assumptions, and input parameters

    Monette, F.; Biwer, B.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future configuration of radioactive waste management at its network of facilities. Because the transportation of radioactive waste is an integral component of the management alternatives being considered, the estimated human health risks associated with both routine and accident transportation conditions must be assessed to allow a complete appraisal of the alternatives. This paper provides an overview of the technical approach being used to assess the radiological risks from the transportation of radioactive wastes. The approach presented employs the RADTRAN 4 computer code to estimate the collective population risk during routine and accident transportation conditions. Supplemental analyses are conducted using the RISKIND computer code to address areas of specific concern to individuals or population subgroups. RISKIND is used for estimating routine doses to maximally exposed individuals and for assessing the consequences of the most severe credible transportation accidents. The transportation risk assessment is designed to ensure -- through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions -- that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful. This is accomplished by uniformly applying common input parameters and assumptions to each waste type for all alternatives. The approach presented can be applied to all radioactive waste types and provides a consistent and comprehensive evaluation of transportation-related risk

  20. Comparison of toxicological and radiological aspects of K basins sludge

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The composition of various K Basins sludge is evaluated for its toxicological and radiological impacts downwind from accidents. It is shown that the radiological risk evaluation guidelines are always more limiting than the toxicological risk evaluation guidelines

  1. Pediatric radiology

    Kirkpatrick, J.A. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography has made possible the excellent and basic work having to do with the characteristics of the trachea, its caliber, shape, and length in children. Another group of articles has to do with interventional pediatric radiology. This year there were a number of articles of which only a sample is included, dealing with therapeutic procedures involving drainage of abscesses, angioplasty, nephrostomy, therapeutic embolization, and the removal of esophageal foreign bodies. Obviously, there is no reason to think that techniques developed for the adult may not be applicable to the infant or child; also, there is no reason to believe that processes peculiar to the child should not be amenable to intervention, for instance, use of embolization of hepatic hemangioma and transluminal balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary valvular stenosis. Among the reports and reviews, the author would add that sonography remains a basic imaging technique in pediatric radiology and each year its application broadens. For example, there is an excellent article having to do with sonography of the neonatal and infant hip and evaluation of the inferior vena cava and the gallbladder. Nuclear medicine continues to play a significant role in diagnosis, which is featured in two articles concerned with problems of the hip

  2. Radiological malpractice

    Bauer, G.

    1987-01-01

    As medico-legal statistics show, compared with other branches of medicine, cases of liability of the radiologist or his assistants are relatively rare. The duty to exercise due care as set out in Paragraph 6 of the Austrian penal code or Paragraph 276 of the German civil code, respectively, provide a basic rule of law also for radiology. Due to the risk inherent in the investigation method, incidents in angiography cannot be totally excluded. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that all steps be taken with regard to staff, equipment and drugs to be able to deal with any complications and incidents that may arise. The courts of law require the employer to produce strongest exonerating evidence to prove that the duty to exercise due care in the selection and supervision of the assistants has been duly fulfilled. For the practical execution of radiological investigations of the digestive tract, also the RTA is responsible; her liability when performing an irrigoscopy is particularly great, as perforation of the intestine is often lethal. The introduction of the rectal tube into the vagina by mistake, with resultant injury or death of the patient, will regularly lead to conviction under penal law. (orig.) [de

  3. Radiological scenario modeling using the Hotspot code and potential financial impact of treatment of radiation induced cancer to the public; Modelagem de cenario radiologico utilizando o codigo Hotspot e potenciais impactos financeiros para tratamento de cancer radioinduzido ao publico

    Silva, Gabriel Fidalgo Queiroz da; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Rebello, Wilson Freitas; Araujo, Olga Maria Oliveira de, E-mail: profgabriel.fisica@gmail.com, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: olgafisica2013@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The work aims to develop a methodology that is able to estimate the financial impact in a radiological emergency events, considering the radiation induced cancer, particularly leukemia. Considering a RDD - Radiological Dispersive Device, consisting of explosives and cesium-137 as radioactive material, a scenario building on the Rio de Janeiro was modeled. The convergence of a risk modeling platform (HotSpot 3.0), the analysis of excess relative risks for humans (BEIR V-Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation V), considering scenarios composed of contaminated areas, are secondary goals.

  4. Estimation of the environmental or radiological impact in the event of accidental release of radionuclides in a DCLL fusion reactor; Estimacion del impacto radiologico ambiental en caso de liberacion accidental de radionucleidos en un reactor de fusion DCLL

    Palermo, I.; Gomez Ros, J. M.; Sanz, J.; Mota, F.

    2013-07-01

    Tritium production and activation in the LiPb products can pose a radiological risk in the event of accidental release in a fusion reactor. Within the research programme Consolider TECNO{sub F}US (CSD2008-079) fusion technology has developed a design for a reactor with regenerative wrap with dual refrigeration (DCLL). The purpose of this communication is to present estimates of the radiological impact derived from an accidental release of radionuclides from the circuit of LiPb provinients. (Author)

  5. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  6. Radiological health review of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0026-D) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, US Department of Energy. Report EEG-3

    Neill, R.H.; Channell, J.K.; Wofsy, C.; Greenfield, M.A.

    1979-08-01

    This review of radiological health considerations contains a number of concerns, questions and recommendations that should be addressed by the Department of Energy in the final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Using the assumptions contained in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS), the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) calculated a number of radiation doses and the results were found to be in general agreement with those presented in the DEIS. The doses resulting from the operational and long-range releases from WIPP to the general population are no more than a fraction of existing radiation doses to the public. However, there are a number of technical considerations in the assessment of radiation exposure that were not adequately evaluated in the DEIS. They are discussed in this review. A number of additional dosage estimates have been identified that need to be calculated by both DOE and EEG. As the DEIS did not contain estimates of the amounts of radioactivity to be permanently located in the repository, it was necessary to calculate these amounts. Health effects, transportation, waste acceptance criteria, site evaluation, site selection criteria, operational exposure, the experimental waste program, long term radiation releases, retrievability, and decommissioning are the categories of the DEIS which were evaluated

  7. The Argonne Radiological Impact Program (ARIP). Part II. MONITOR: A Program and Data Base for Retrieval and Utilization of Pollutant Monitoring Data

    Eckerman, Keith F.; Stowe, Ralph F.; Frigerio, Norman A.

    1977-02-01

    The Argonne Radiological Impact Program (ARIP) is an ongoing project of the Laboratory's Division of Environmental Impact Studies that aims at developing methodologies for assessing the carcinogenic hazards associated with nuclear power development. The project's first report (ANL/ES-26, Part I), published in September.l973, discussed models of radiation carcinogenesis and the contribution of U .. S. background radiation levels to hazardous dose rates. The current report (Part II) treats the storage and access of available data on radiation and radioactivity levels in the u. S. A compute-r code. (the MONITOR program) is prf!sented, which can serve as a ready-access data. bank for all monitoring data acquired over the past two decades. The MONITOR program currently stores data on monitoring locations, types of monitoring efforts, and types of monitoring data. reported in Radiation Data and Reports by the various state and federal ne-tworks; expansion of this data base to include nuclear power facilities in operation or on order is ongoing ·. The MONITOR code retrieves information within a search radius, or rectangl.e ,. circumscribed by parameters of latitude and longitude, and l:.ists or maps the data_as: requested. The code, with examples, is given in full in the report ..

  8. Digital radiology

    Dallas, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiology is vital to the life-saving efforts of surgeons and other physicians, but precious time can be lost generating the images and transferring them to and from the operating room. Furthermore, hospitals are straining under the task of storing and managing the deluge of diagnostic films produced every year. A 300-bed hospital generates about 1 gigabyte (8 x 10 9 bits) of picture information every day and is legally bound to hold it for three to seven years--30 years in the case of silicosis or black lung disease, illnesses that may have relevance to future lawsuits. Consequently, hospital warehouses are filling with x-ray film and written reports that are important for analysis of patient histories, for comparison between patients, and for analyzing the progress of disease. Yet only a fraction of the information's potential is being used because access is so complicated. What is more, films are easily lost, erasing valuable medical histories

  9. Deep Learning in Radiology.

    McBee, Morgan P; Awan, Omer A; Colucci, Andrew T; Ghobadi, Comeron W; Kadom, Nadja; Kansagra, Akash P; Tridandapani, Srini; Auffermann, William F

    2018-03-29

    As radiology is inherently a data-driven specialty, it is especially conducive to utilizing data processing techniques. One such technique, deep learning (DL), has become a remarkably powerful tool for image processing in recent years. In this work, the Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Task Force on Deep Learning provides an overview of DL for the radiologist. This article aims to present an overview of DL in a manner that is understandable to radiologists; to examine past, present, and future applications; as well as to evaluate how radiologists may benefit from this remarkable new tool. We describe several areas within radiology in which DL techniques are having the most significant impact: lesion or disease detection, classification, quantification, and segmentation. The legal and ethical hurdles to implementation are also discussed. By taking advantage of this powerful tool, radiologists can become increasingly more accurate in their interpretations with fewer errors and spend more time to focus on patient care. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental aspects of the geothermal energy utilisation in Poland

    Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Drabik, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Geothermal energy is considered as a strategic and sustainable source of renewable energy that can be effectively managed in several economic sectors. In Poland, despite the abundant potential of such resources, its share in the energy mix of renewable energy sources remains insubstantial. The utilisation of geothermal resources in Poland is related to the hydrogeothermal resources, however, numerous researches related to petrogeothermal energy resources are being performed. The utilisation of each type of energy, including geothermal, has an impact on the natural environment. In case of the effective development of geothermal energy resources, many environmental benefits are pointed out. The primary one is the extraction of clean, green energy that is characterised by the zero-emission rate of pollutants into the atmosphere, what considering the current environmental pollution in many Polish cities remains the extremely important issue. On the other hand, the utilisation of geothermal energy might influence the natural environment negatively. Beginning from the phase of drilling, which strongly interferes with the local landscape or acoustic climate, to the stage of energy exploitation. It should be noted that the efficient and sustainable use of geothermal energy resources is closely linked with the current law regulations at national and European level.

  11. Pattern of Smartphones Utilisation among Engineering Undergraduates

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The smartphones ownership among the undergraduates in Malaysia was recorded as high. However, little was known about its utilization patterns, thus, the focus of this research was to determine the utilisation patterns of smartphones based on the National Education Technology Standard for Students (NETS.S among engineering undergraduates in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research and the population comprised undergraduates from four Malaysian Technical Universities. A total of 400 questionnaires were analyzed. Based on the results, the undergraduates’ utilisation level of smartphones for communication and collaboration tool was at a high level. Meanwhile, utilisation for operations and concepts tool and research and information fluency tool were at moderate level. Finally, smartphones utilisation as digital citizenship tool and critical thinking, problem solving and creativity tool were both at a low level. Hence, more training and workshops should be given to the students in order to encourage them to fully utilise smartphones in enhancing the higher order thinking skills.

  12. Investigation of the radiological impact of naturally occurring radionuclides from the usage of phosphate and organic fertilizers on farmlands in the New Juaben Municipality of Ghana

    Gyenfie, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    The radiological impact of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) from the usage of phosphate and organic fertilizers in the New Juaben Municipality of Ghana was investigated. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in seven (7) widely used phosphate and organic fertilizers using gamma spectroscopy. The activity concentrations were found to be 32.10±2.60 Bq/kg, 12.20±1.60 Bq/kg and 3005.50±68.80 Bq/kg respectively. The radioactivity level index (Iγ ) which gives an estimate of the level of risk associated with natural radionuclides in specific material was found to be higher than the recommended limit of one (1) in some of the fertilizer samples collected from storage. The storage also recorded a relatively high dose rates (ranging from 96-624 μSv/a) compared to the surrounding background (ranging from 109-241 μSv/a) suggesting that the storage of large quantities of these fertilizers can lead to a possible increase in the dose rates. The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in cultivated (fertilized) soils were found to be 12.50±3.30 Bq/kg, 10.60 ± 2.80 Bq/kg and 206.0 ± 30.2 Bq/kg respectively. These values were relatively higher than those found in their respective virgin (unfertilized) soils ( 226 Ra- 9.0±1.7 Bq/kg; 232 Th - 8.10±1.70 Bq/kg; and 40 K-139.0±13.3 Bq/kg). This might be considered as an indication that the use of fertilizers to increase soil fertility enhances the level of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in agricultural soils. The averages of other risk indices such as radium equivalent, the absorbed dose rate in air at 1m above the ground, the mean outdoor annual effective dose and the external hazard index estimated for the cultivated soils were found to be higher than their corresponding virgin soils but generally lower than the world averages. Therefore, the radiological impact associated with NORMs in the cultivated lands as a result of the application of fertilizers is expected to

  13. Radiologic protection in dental radiology

    Pacheco Jimenez, R.E.; Bermudez Jimenez, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    With this work and employing the radioprotection criterion, the authors pretend to minimize the risks associated to this practice; without losing the quality of the radiologic image. Odontology should perform the following criterions: 1. Justification: all operation of practice that implies exposition to radiations, should be reweighed, through an analysis of risks versus benefits, with the purpose to assure, that the total detriment will be small, compared to resultant benefit of this activity. 2. Optimization: all of the exposures should be maintained as low as reasonable possible, considering the social and economic factors. 3. Dose limit: any dose limit system should be considered as a top condition, nota as an admissible level. (S. Grainger)

  14. Assessing the initial adaptability and impact of a mobile dictation and reporting system in the radiology department of an academic hospital

    Gali, Raja L.; Dave, Jaydev K.

    2017-03-01

    Mobile Radiologist 360, rolled out as part of the voice dictation system upgrade from Nuance Powerscribe 5.0 to PS360 allows an attending radiologist to edit and sign-off a report assigned by a trainee or that has been started by the radiologist on a workstation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adoptability and impact of this application. Report turnaround time data was extracted from the RIS (GE-Centricity RIS-IC) for 60 days before- (period-1) and 60 days after- (period-2) the application implementation and then, for 60 days after end of period-2 (period-3). Adoptability of the application was evaluated using two metrics; first, the number of attending radiologists who signed-off reports using the application in periods 2 and 3, and second, the proportion of reports signed-off by the top five users of the mobile application using the application. Impact of the application was evaluated by comparing the time from initial dictation to final sign-off (time_PF) for the top five users of the mobile application to the time_PF by other five radiologists who did not use the application. 41% radiologists used the mobile application at least once during the study period; the proportion of cases signed-off using the mobile application ranged from 1% to 20%. ANOVA revealed no statistically significant effect of the mobile application system on time_PF (p=0.842). In conclusion, there was low initial adoptability and no impact of the mobile dictation and reporting system in reducing the time from initial dictation to final sign-off on a radiology report.

  15. Microencapsulation of phosphogypsum into a sulfur polymer matrix: Physico-chemical and radiological characterization

    Lopez, Felix A.; Gazquez, Manuel; Alguacil, Francisco Jose; Bolivar, Juan Pedro; Garcia-Diaz, Irene; Lopez-Coto, Israel

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Microencapsulation of phosphogypsum residues into a sulfur polymer matrix. → Inertization of a waste material. → Radiological characterization of the as built new material (phosphogypsum plus sulfur polymer matrix). - Abstract: The aim of this work is to prepare a new type of phosphogypsum-sulfur polymer cements (PG-SPC) to be utilised in the manufacture of building materials. Physico-chemical and radiological characterization was performed in phosphogypsum and phosphogypsum-sulfur polymer concretes and modeling of exhalation rates has been also carried out. An optimized mixture of the materials was obtained, the solidified material with optimal mixture (sulfur/phosphogypsum = 1:0.9, phosphogypsum dosage = 10-40 wt.%) results in highest strength (54-62 MPa) and low total porosity (2.8-6.8%). The activity concentration index (I) in the PG-SPC is lower than the reference value in the most international regulations and; therefore, these cements can be used without radiological restrictions in the manufacture of building materials. Under normal conditions of ventilation, the contribution to the expected radon indoor concentration in a standard room is below the international recommendations, so the building materials studied in this work can be applied to houses built up under normal ventilation conditions. Additionally, and taking into account that the PG is enriched in several natural radionuclides as 226 Ra, the leaching experiments have demonstrated that environmental impact of the using of SPCs cements with PG is negligible.

  16. Microencapsulation of phosphogypsum into a sulfur polymer matrix: Physico-chemical and radiological characterization

    Lopez, Felix A., E-mail: flopez@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gazquez, Manuel [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Alguacil, Francisco Jose [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bolivar, Juan Pedro [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Garcia-Diaz, Irene [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Coto, Israel [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Microencapsulation of phosphogypsum residues into a sulfur polymer matrix. {yields} Inertization of a waste material. {yields} Radiological characterization of the as built new material (phosphogypsum plus sulfur polymer matrix). - Abstract: The aim of this work is to prepare a new type of phosphogypsum-sulfur polymer cements (PG-SPC) to be utilised in the manufacture of building materials. Physico-chemical and radiological characterization was performed in phosphogypsum and phosphogypsum-sulfur polymer concretes and modeling of exhalation rates has been also carried out. An optimized mixture of the materials was obtained, the solidified material with optimal mixture (sulfur/phosphogypsum = 1:0.9, phosphogypsum dosage = 10-40 wt.%) results in highest strength (54-62 MPa) and low total porosity (2.8-6.8%). The activity concentration index (I) in the PG-SPC is lower than the reference value in the most international regulations and; therefore, these cements can be used without radiological restrictions in the manufacture of building materials. Under normal conditions of ventilation, the contribution to the expected radon indoor concentration in a standard room is below the international recommendations, so the building materials studied in this work can be applied to houses built up under normal ventilation conditions. Additionally, and taking into account that the PG is enriched in several natural radionuclides as {sup 226}Ra, the leaching experiments have demonstrated that environmental impact of the using of SPCs cements with PG is negligible.

  17. A practical description and student perspective of the integration of radiology into lower limb musculoskeletal anatomy.

    Davy, S; O'Keeffe, G W; Mahony, N; Phelan, N; Barry, D S

    2017-05-01

    Anatomy educators are increasing their utilisation of radiology in anatomy education in line with growing requirements for undergraduate radiology competency and clinical need. We aimed to evaluate student perceptions of radiology and to outline the technical and academic considerations underlying the integration of radiology into musculoskeletal practical anatomy sessions. The formal integration of radiology into anatomy practical sessions took place over a 5-week period during the lower limb musculoskeletal component of the anatomy course taught to first-year medical students. During practical sessions, students were required to rotate between aligned audio-visual radiology presentations, osteology/anatomical models, and prosection/dissection learning stations. After completing the course, students were invited to complete a survey to establish their opinions on radiology as a mode of learning and their satisfaction with radiological integration in anatomical practical sessions. Most students were not familiar with radiology prior to attending our university. All our students agreed or strongly agreed that learning to read radiographs in anatomy is important and most agreed that radiology is a valid assessment tool. Sixty percent stated that radiology facilitated their understanding of anatomy. The majority believed that radiology was best suited to clinically relevant anatomy and X-rays were their preferred learning tool. The practical approach to integrating radiology into undergraduate musculoskeletal anatomy described here did not place strain on existing academic resources. Most students agreed that radiology should be increased in anatomy education and that learning to understand radiographs in anatomy was important for clinical practice.

  18. Current radiology. Volume 5

    Wilson, G.H.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. They are: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional Vascular Radiology, Genitourinary Radiology, Skeletal Radiology, Digital Subtraction Angiography, Neuroradiology, Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Degenerative Diseases of the Lumbar Spine, The Lung, Otolaringology and Opthalmology, and Pediatric Radiology: Cranial, Facial, Cervical, Vertebral, and Appendicular

  19. Radiological Control Manual

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  20. Radiological Control Manual

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records

  1. Consumer Involvement and Knowledge Influence on Wine Choice Cue Utilisation

    Bruwer, Johan; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lesschaeve, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    of consumer involvement. Design/methodology/approach The case of wine as an exemplary product category is considered, given the importance and variability of choice cues that have been found to affect product choice. Analysis is conducted on survey data from a sample of wine consumers in Ontario, Canada...... an image of desirability, etc., but not nearly as much on the functionality aspects thereof; for example alternative smaller packaging sizes to the standard 750 ml wine bottle. Originality/value The study uses a multi-dimensional approach to measure the impact of enduring involvement on utilisation...

  2. Need to monitoring the particulate components and gaseous components of the I-131 in air, on Radiological monitoring networks. impact of the accident of Fukushima Dai-chi in Spain; Necesidad de monitorizar las componentes particulada y gaseosa del {sup 1}31I en aire, en redes de vigilancia radiologica. Impacto en Espana del accidente de Fukushima DAI-ICHI

    Baeza Espasa, A.; Caballero Andrada, M.; Corbacho Merino, J. A.; Ontalba Salamanca, M. A.; Rodriguez Perulero, A.; Valencia Corrales, D.; Vasco Vargas, J.

    2013-07-01

    Following a nuclear accident with significant overseas evacuations, it should be accurately determined concentration radio iodines into the atmosphere, given its important contribution to the radiological impact produced. Automatic networks radiation monitoring aim to provide as quickly as possible, reliable information on these radiological changes, to take necessary countermeasures. (Author)

  3. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of La Robla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de La Robla

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Trueba, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. A.; Guillen, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238{sup U}, 235{sup U}, 232{sup T}h and also the 40{sup K}, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the non-combustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the La Robla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  4. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of La Robla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de La Robla

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the La Robla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  5. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Velilla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Velilla

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. c.; Trueba, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. a.; Guillen, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238U, 235U, 232Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the non-combustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Velilla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  6. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Lada; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Lada

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238{sup U}, 235{sup U}, 232{sup T}h and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Lada coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  7. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Abono; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Abono

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the {sup 4}0K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Abono coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  8. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Anllares; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Anllares

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Anllares coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  9. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Meirama; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Meirama

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Meirama coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  10. The calculated radiological impact on the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center due to radioactive emissions to the atmosphere in the years 1975 and 1976

    Huebschmann, W.; Nagel, D.; Papadopoulos, D.

    1976-08-01

    The radiological impact by radioactive offgas and exhaust air on the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KNRC) is calculated every year and compared with the permissible equivalent doses. This report includes both the forecasted maximum doses from maximum releases scheduled for the year 1976 and the actual doses of 1975 based on the measured releases in 1975. According to the various irradiation mechanisms of the nuclides emitted, the following doses are indicated, each calculated for an adult person: whole body dose by γ-irradiation and tritium inhalation, skin dose by external β-irradiation, lung dose by aerosol inhalation, bone dose by plutonium inhalation, and effective integral dose. The maximum infant thyroid dose due to iodine ingestion via the pasture-cow-milk-pathway is also calculated. The respective maximum doses indicate that the dose limits of 30 mrem/a whole body dose (adult) and 90 mrem/a thyroid dose (Infant) which are to be observed by the KNRC since the year 1975 are not exceeded at any point, provided the emissions remain below the scheduled maximum level. The doses in 1975 were markedly below the dose limits mentioned above. This is even true when partial body and organ doses are integrated in an 'effective dose'. (orig.) [de

  11. Energy Efficiency in Logistics: An Interactive Approach to Capacity Utilisation

    Jessica Wehner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics operations are energy-consuming and impact the environment negatively. Improving energy efficiency in logistics is crucial for environmental sustainability and can be achieved by increasing the utilisation of capacity. This paper takes an interactive approach to capacity utilisation, to contribute to sustainable freight transport and logistics, by identifying its causes and mitigations. From literature, a conceptual framework was developed to highlight different system levels in the logistics system, in which the energy efficiency improvement potential can be found and that are summarised in the categories activities, actors, and areas. Through semi-structured interviews with representatives of nine companies, empirical data was collected to validate the framework of the causes of the unutilised capacity and proposed mitigations. The results suggest that activities, such as inflexibilities and limited information sharing as well as actors’ over-delivery of logistics services, incorrect price setting, and sales campaigns can cause unutilised capacity, and that problem areas include i.a. poor integration of reversed logistics and the last mile. The paper contributes by categorising causes of unutilised capacity and linking them to mitigations in a framework, providing a critical view towards fill rates, highlighting the need for a standardised approach to measure environmental impact that enables comparison between companies and underlining that costs are not an appropriate indicator for measuring environmental impact.

  12. Is quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in high impact radiology journals associated with citation rates?

    van der Pol, Christian B; McInnes, Matthew D F; Petrcich, William; Tunis, Adam S; Hanna, Ramez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether study quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) published in high impact factor (IF) radiology journals is associated with citation rates. All SR and MA published in English between Jan 2007-Dec 2011, in radiology journals with an IF >2.75, were identified on Ovid MEDLINE. The Assessing the Methodologic Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist for study quality, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist for study completeness, was applied to each SR & MA. Each SR & MA was then searched in Google Scholar to yield a citation rate. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between AMSTAR and PRISMA results with citation rate. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for the effect of journal IF and journal 5-year IF on correlation with citation rate. Values were reported as medians with interquartile range (IQR) provided. 129 studies from 11 journals were included (50 SR and 79 MA). Median AMSTAR result was 8.0/11 (IQR: 5-9) and median PRISMA result was 23.0/27 (IQR: 21-25). The median citation rate for SR & MA was 0.73 citations/month post-publication (IQR: 0.40-1.17). There was a positive correlation between both AMSTAR and PRISMA results and SR & MA citation rate; ρ=0.323 (P=0.0002) and ρ=0.327 (P=0.0002) respectively. Positive correlation persisted for AMSTAR and PRISMA results after journal IF was partialed out; ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) and ρ=0.256 (P=0.004), and after journal 5-year IF was partialed out; ρ=0.235 (P=0.008) and ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) respectively. There is a positive correlation between the quality and the completeness of a reported SR or MA with citation rate which persists when adjusted for journal IF and journal 5-year IF.

  13. Radiological impact of a municipal solid waste landfill on soil and groundwater using 2-D resistivity tomography and gamma ray spectroscopy

    Ehirim, C.N.; Itota, G.O.

    2011-01-01

    The radiological impacts of a municipal solid waste landfill on soil and groundwater in Port Harcourt municipality was investigated by integrating 2-D resistivity imaging and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The objective of the study is to determine the lateral and vertical limits of leachate contamination, and to estimate the radioactivity concentrations in soil and groundwater. Results show that the soil and ground water have been contaminated by landfill emissions and radioactive materials throughout the landfill area. The distribution of the contamination is uneven and spotty, both horizontally and vertically, and has penetrated to depths exceeding 31m into the ground water aquifer. The primary contaminants found in the site were leachate, landfill gases, and 40 K, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra radionuclides. The mean absorbed dose rates of 31.98nGy/hr, 10.51nGy/hr and 6.98nGy/hr, and mean dose rate equivalents of 0.28mSv/yr, 0.09mSv/yr and 0.06mSv/yr were obtained for the soil, leachate and water samples, respectively. The mean absorbed and equivalent dose rates in the soil and water samples are greater than their controls, suggesting that the landfill area is contaminated. These results are comparable to those reported for other waste sites in the area and lower than the maximum permitted limits for the general public of 1mSv/yr and 0.1mSv/yr for soil and water, respectively. These therefore, have no immediate radiological health burden on the inhabitants who depend on the soil and groundwater for their crops and potable water supply, except for the effects of disease causing micro-organism and non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the leachate. However, with continuous consumption of crop products and intake of groundwater, increase in the activity concentration and dose rates of these radionuclides may occur over time, with adverse effects on humans.

  14. Life cycle assessment of peat utilisation in Finland

    Maelkki, H.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental issues related to the production of peat and its use in energy generation have been the subject of public debate and research over the past few years in Finland. Peat is both an indigenous and a locally utilised fuel. Finland has no fossil fuel resources, and the transportation distances of imported fuels into Finland are normally long. In Finland the large peat resources can be utilised locally and peat-burning power plants are situated near the peatlands. Peat production and energy conversion methods are being continuously developed to make use of the environmentally and technically best available technology. In Finland peat formation exceeds peat utilisation and an increase in peat utilisation is therefore sustainable. The life cycle assessment concept gives an opportunity to evaluate and improve the environmental quality of peat utilisation options. The study focuses on an inventory analysis, but some of the most common methods of impact assessment with valuation are also included. The study also includes a comparison of fossil fuels and a discussion part. All the calculated results are based on net emissions. The background emissions of natural peatland are subtracted from the emissions of the utilisation phases. Milled peat and sod peat are reported in this study. Horticultural peat is studied simultaneously, but it will be reported later. The Sod Wave, Haku and Tehoturve methods are studied for the production of peat. The power plants of the study are Kempele heating plant and Rauhalahti cogeneration plant. The functional unit is 1 MWh produced total energy. The temporal boundaries vary from 112 to 128 years, depending on the peat production methods used. The restoration time is 100 years in all options. The emissions of greenhouse gases are based on the reports of The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change. The water emissions are based on control monitoring reports from 1994 and 1995. The water emissions of the restoration phase are

  15. Ongoing environmental monitoring and assessment of the long-term impacts of the February 2014 radiological release from the waste isolation pilot plant.

    Thakur, Punam; Runyon, Tim

    2018-04-09

    Three years ago, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) experienced its first minor accident involving a radiological release. Late in the evening on February 14, 2014, a waste container in the repository underwent a chemical reaction that caused the container to overheat and breach, releasing its contents into the underground. Following a lengthy recovery process, the facility recently resumed waste disposal operations. The accident released significant levels of radioactivity into the disposal room and adjacent exhaust drifts, and although no one was present in the underground at the time of the release, a total of 22 workers tested positive for very low level of radiation, presumably from some of the radioactive material that was released above ground through a small leak in the HEPA filtration system. The dominant radionuclides released were 241 Am and 239 + 240 Pu in a ratio that matched the content of the drum from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that was eventually identified as the breached container. From the air particulate monitoring and plume modeling, it was concluded that the dose, at the nearest location accessible to the general public, from this radiation release event would have been less than 0.01 mSv (< 1 mrem/year). This level is well below the 0.1 mSv/year (10 mrem/year) regulatory limit for DOE facilities established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).While no long-term impacts to public health or the environment are expected as a result of the WIPP radiation release, the limited ventilation and residual contamination levels in the underground are still a concern and pose a major challenge for the full recovery of WIPP. This article provides an up-to-date overview of environmental monitoring results through the WIPP recovery and an estimate of the long-term impacts of the accident on the natural and human environment.

  16. Radiological emergencies the first response

    2011-11-01

    This national training course about radiological emergencies first answer include: Targets and preparation for emergency response in case of a nuclear or radiological accident. Operations center, action guide for fire fighting, medical coverage, forensic test, first aid, basic instrumentation for radiation, safety equipment, monitoring radiation, gamma rays, personnel exposed protection , radiation exposure rate, injury and illness for radiation, cancer risk, contamination, decontamination and treatment, markers, personnel dosimetry, training, medical and equipment transportation, shielded and tools. Psychological, physical (health and illness), economical (agriculture and industry) and environment impacts. Terrorist attacks, security belts. Support and international agreements (IAEA)

  17. Energetic utilisation of biomass in Hungary

    Barotfi, I.

    1994-01-01

    Energetic utilisation of biomass has been known since prehistoric times and was only pushed into the background by the technological developments of the last century. The energy crisis and, more recently, environmental problems have now brought it back to the fore, and efforts are being made worldwide to find modern technical applications for biomass and contribute to its advance. (orig.) [de

  18. Missed Opportunities: Emergency Contraception Utilisation by ...

    Although contraceptives, including emergency contraceptives, are widely available free at public health facilities in South Africa, rates of teenage and unintended pregnancy are high. This paper analyses awareness and utilisation of emergency contraception amongst 193 young women (aged 15-24 years) attending public ...

  19. Radiation Protection Research: Radiological Assessment

    Zeevaert, T.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological impact assessment are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations. Main achievements in these areas for 2000 are summarised

  20. The radiological impacts of uranium mill tailings - A review with special emphasis on the tailings at Ranstad in Sweden

    Snihs, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The environmental impact of uranium mill talings can be expressed in collective dose commitment and corresponding detriment per MWe.y energy produced by the uranium which corresponds to the amount of waste interest, The methods of dose commitment calculations are discussed and it is suggested for the purpose of estimation of the detriment to limit the commitment to 10,000 years. The external radiation from the tailings is easily reduced by covering but in case of a future settlement on the tailings the collective dose commitment will be some hundreds to thousands of manrad/MWe.y depending on the quality of the uranium ore. The dispersion of dust from uncovered tailings is mainly a local problem and the collective dose commitment for critical tissues in the lung will be less than a manrad/MWe.y. In the long run the cover may be lost and the resultant collective dose commitment for the critical tissues in the lung will be a few tens of manrad/MWe.y depending on the quality of the tailings. The effects of global dispersion of the material in the tailings are also discussed

  1. The radiological impacts of uranium mill tailings - a review with special emphasis on the tailings at Ranstad in Sweden

    Snihs, J.O.; Agnedal, P.O.

    1978-07-01

    The environmental impact of uranium mill tailings can be expressed in collective dose commitment and corresponding detriment per MWsub(e).Y energy produced by the uranium which corresponds to the amount of waste of interest. The methods of dose commitment calculations are discussed and it is suggested for the purpose of estimation of the detriment to limit the commitment to 10,000 years. The external radiation from the tailings is easily reduced by covering but in case of a future settlement on the tailings the collective dose commitment will be some hundreds to thousands of manrad/MWsub(e).Y depending on the quality of the uranium ore. The dispersion of dust from uncovered tailings is mainly a local problem and the collective dose commitment for critical tissues in the lung will be less than a manrad/MWsub(e).Y. In the long run the cover may be lost and the resultant collective dose commitment for the critical tissues in the lung will be a few tens of manrad/MWsub(e).Y depending on the quality of the tailings. The effects of global dispersion of the material in the tailings are also discussed

  2. Machine Learning in Radiology: Applications Beyond Image Interpretation.

    Lakhani, Paras; Prater, Adam B; Hutson, R Kent; Andriole, Kathy P; Dreyer, Keith J; Morey, Jose; Prevedello, Luciano M; Clark, Toshi J; Geis, J Raymond; Itri, Jason N; Hawkins, C Matthew

    2018-02-01

    Much attention has been given to machine learning and its perceived impact in radiology, particularly in light of recent success with image classification in international competitions. However, machine learning is likely to impact radiology outside of image interpretation long before a fully functional "machine radiologist" is implemented in practice. Here, we describe an overview of machine learning, its application to radiology and other domains, and many cases of use that do not involve image interpretation. We hope that better understanding of these potential applications will help radiology practices prepare for the future and realize performance improvement and efficiency gains. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs

  4. Radiological consequences of radioactive effluents

    Clarke, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the differential radiological impact of the nuclear fuel cycle with and without plutonium recycle is being undertaken jointly by the National Radiological Protection Board and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). A summary is given of the development of the methodology detailed in their first report to the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (NRPB/CEA, A methodology for evaluating the radiological consequences of radioactive effluents released in normal operations. Luxembourg, CEC Doc. V/3011/75 EN (1979)). The Collective Effective Dose Equivalent Commitment was used in an attempt to assess the total health detriment. The application of the methodology within particular member states of the European Community has been discussed at seminars. Sensitivity analysis can identify the more important parameters for improving the accuracy of the assessment. (UK)

  5. Simplified slide production in radiology departments

    Groves, J.R.; Goethlin, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A slide-producing system is described, the goal of which is to copy radiographs, typewritten and printed text onto 35 mm film for teaching purposes, records or publication. Automation permits the equipment to be used by persons not familiar with photography. By following simple procedures, high-quality results can be obtained. Advantages of the system are low cost, small space requirements and utilisation of existing facilities such as X-ray dark rooms and processors. Any radiological department requiring quick, low-cost visual materials should consider the convenience of the system described. (orig.)

  6. Educational treasures in Radiology: The Radiology Olympics - striving for gold in Radiology education

    Talanow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Radiology Olympics (www.RadiologyOlympics.com) - a collaboration with the international Radiology community for Radiology education, Radiolopolis (www.Radiolopolis.com). The Radiology Olympics honour the movers and shakers in Radiology education and offer an easy to use platform for educating medical professionals based on Radiology cases.

  7. Application of fisheries management techniques to assessing impacts: task I report. [Assessment of chemical, radiological, and thermal impacts of nuclear power plants on fish populations

    McKenzie, D.H.; Baker, K.S.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Metzger, R.M.; Skalski, J.R.

    1979-03-01

    Task I efforts examined the available fisheries management techniques and assessed their potential application in a confirmatory monitoring program. The objective of such monitoring programs is to confirm that the prediction of an insignificant impact (usually made in the FES) was correct. Fisheries resource managers have developed several tools for assessing the fish population response to stress (exploitation) and they were thought potentially useful for detecting nuclear power plant impacts. Techniques in three categories were examined; catch removal, population dynamics, and nondestructive censuses, and the report contains their description, examples of application, advantages, and disadvantages. The techniques applied at nuclear power plant sites were examined in detail to provide information on implementation and variability of specific approaches. The most suitable techniques to incorporate into a monitoring program confirming no impact appear to be those based on Catch Per Unity Effort (CPUE) and hydroacoustic data. In some specific cases, age and growth studies and indirect census techniques may be beneficial. Recommendations for task II efforts to incorporate these techniques into monitoring program designs are presented. These include development of guidelines for; (1) designing and implementing a data collection program; (2) interpreting these data and assessing the occurrence of impact, and (3) establishment of the monitoring program's ability to detect changes in the affected populations.

  8. Radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident through ingestion in Europe. Ingestion doses determined by whole-body counting of radiocesium

    Inaba, Jiro

    2012-01-01

    Reports mainly concerning the internal exposure caused by Chernobyl Accident (CA, 1986) are discussed for reference to deal with the radiation impact on public of Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant Accident. Data of the internal exposure measured by the whole body counter are particularly noted. In adults, 1 kBq of Cs-137/body/year is equivalent to the internal exposure dose of 0.03 mSV/y. The CA released Cs-137 of total 8.5 PBq, which was then partially ingested through food to result in the internal exposure to European. For instance, in the old Soviet, the exposure was reported to amount to about 100 kBq/body (1987) of residents living in the highly contaminated area (Bryansk and others). In southern Germany like Bavaria State, the amount >1 kBq/body was recorded in 1987. In Cumbria, UK, residents had about 700 Bq of Cs-137 in June, 1986, which decreased to 450 Bq a month later. In Sami people living in Lapland area of northern Scandinavia, several tens kBq/body were found as they took the meat of reindeer of which diet was the contaminated lichen. The amount of internal Cs-137 peaked in 1987 and lowered thereafter with half lives of 1-2 years, which was thought to be partly due to various protection means conducted. The internal half life tended to elongate in people who had ingested the food harvested from such sites as difficult to get rid of the contamination like forest. Overall, the internal amount/dose of Cs-137 due to CA were at a similar level to those to the nuclear experiments in open air done in 1960s. The author, based on his experience, thinks that it can be one of relevant ways to observe the time course of the internal dose change of certain typical residents in Fukushima by measuring with the whole body counter, followed by announcement and explanation of data to the public. (T.T.)

  9. Virtual radiology rounds: adding value in the digital era

    Fefferman, Nancy R.; Strubel, Naomi A.; Prithiani, Chandan; Chakravarti, Sujata; Caprio, Martha; Recht, Michael P. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To preserve radiology rounds in the changing health care environment, we have introduced virtual radiology rounds, an initiative enabling clinicians to remotely review imaging studies with the radiologist. We describe our initial experience with virtual radiology rounds and referring provider impressions. Virtual radiology rounds, a web-based conference, use remote sharing of radiology workstations. Participants discuss imaging studies by speakerphone. Virtual radiology rounds were piloted with the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and the Congenital Cardiovascular Care Unit (CCVCU). Providers completed a survey assessing the perceived impact and overall value of virtual radiology rounds on patient care using a 10-point scale. Pediatric radiologists participating in virtual radiology rounds completed a survey assessing technical, educational and clinical aspects of this methodology. Sixteen providers responded to the survey; 9 NICU and 7 CCVCU staff (physicians, nurse practitioners and fellows). Virtual radiology rounds occurred 4-5 sessions/week with an average of 6.4 studies. Clinicians rated confidence in their own image interpretation with a 7.4 average rating for NICU and 7.5 average rating for CCVCU. Clinicians unanimously rated virtual radiology rounds as adding value. NICU staff preferred virtual radiology rounds to traditional rounds and CCVCU staff supported their new participation in virtual radiology rounds. Four of the five pediatric radiologists participating in virtual radiology rounds responded to the survey reporting virtual radiology rounds to be easy to facilitate (average rating: 9.3), to moderately impact interpretation of imaging studies (average rating: 6), and to provide substantial educational value for radiologists (average rating: 8.3). All pediatric radiologists felt strongly that virtual radiology rounds enable increased integration of the radiologist into the clinical care team (average rating: 8.8). Virtual radiology rounds are a

  10. Virtual radiology rounds: adding value in the digital era

    Fefferman, Nancy R.; Strubel, Naomi A.; Prithiani, Chandan; Chakravarti, Sujata; Caprio, Martha; Recht, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    To preserve radiology rounds in the changing health care environment, we have introduced virtual radiology rounds, an initiative enabling clinicians to remotely review imaging studies with the radiologist. We describe our initial experience with virtual radiology rounds and referring provider impressions. Virtual radiology rounds, a web-based conference, use remote sharing of radiology workstations. Participants discuss imaging studies by speakerphone. Virtual radiology rounds were piloted with the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and the Congenital Cardiovascular Care Unit (CCVCU). Providers completed a survey assessing the perceived impact and overall value of virtual radiology rounds on patient care using a 10-point scale. Pediatric radiologists participating in virtual radiology rounds completed a survey assessing technical, educational and clinical aspects of this methodology. Sixteen providers responded to the survey; 9 NICU and 7 CCVCU staff (physicians, nurse practitioners and fellows). Virtual radiology rounds occurred 4-5 sessions/week with an average of 6.4 studies. Clinicians rated confidence in their own image interpretation with a 7.4 average rating for NICU and 7.5 average rating for CCVCU. Clinicians unanimously rated virtual radiology rounds as adding value. NICU staff preferred virtual radiology rounds to traditional rounds and CCVCU staff supported their new participation in virtual radiology rounds. Four of the five pediatric radiologists participating in virtual radiology rounds responded to the survey reporting virtual radiology rounds to be easy to facilitate (average rating: 9.3), to moderately impact interpretation of imaging studies (average rating: 6), and to provide substantial educational value for radiologists (average rating: 8.3). All pediatric radiologists felt strongly that virtual radiology rounds enable increased integration of the radiologist into the clinical care team (average rating: 8.8). Virtual radiology rounds are a

  11. Radiology applications of financial accounting.

    Leibenhaut, Mark H

    2005-03-01

    A basic knowledge of financial accounting can help radiologists analyze business opportunities and examine the potential impacts of new technology or predict the adverse consequences of new competitors entering their service area. The income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement are the three basic financial statements that document the current financial position of the radiology practice and allow managers to monitor the ongoing financial operations of the enterprise. Pro forma, or hypothetical, financial statements can be generated to predict the financial impact of specific business decisions or investments on the profitability of the practice. Sensitivity analysis, or what-if scenarios, can be performed to determine the potential impact of changing key revenue, investment, operating cost or financial assumptions. By viewing radiology as both a profession and a business, radiologists can optimize their use of scarce economic resources and maximize the return on their financial investments.

  12. Phosphategypsum wastes in Venice lagoon. Radiological impact; Le discariche di fosfogessi nella laguna di Venezia. Valutazioni preliminari dell'impatto radiologico

    Belli, M; Blasi, M; Guogang, J.; Rosamilia, S.; Sansone, U. [Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy); Biancotto, R.; Bidoli, P.; Sepulcri, D. [Agenzia Regionale di Prevenzione e Protezione del Veneto, Venice (Italy). Dipt. provinciale di Venezia; Cavolo, F. [Smilax, Mira, VE (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The phosphoric minerals utilized in phosphoric acid production, presents high concentrations of radioactive materials: U238, Th 232, K 40. The phosphogypsum is the waste material obtained in the phosphoric acid production in wet process. This type of production method is employed for many years in Venice lagoon (Porto Marghera chemical plants). In this paper are reported evaluations of radiological impact on aquatic environment of lagoon. [Italian] Con il termine di fosfogessi si intende comunemente il materiale di risulta che si ottiene nella produzione di acido fosforico attraverso la via umida (attacco acido). Questa tipologia di produzione che ha operato per diversi decenni a Porto Marghera, e' finalizzata allo scopo di ottenere acido fosforico principalmente per l'industria dei fertilizzanti e quindi come prodotto intermedio per la chimica e per le preparazioni alimentari. Il fosforo, elemento principale della reazione, era ricavato da rocce fosfatiche di origine sedimentaria marina provenienti per lo piu' dall'Africa settentrionale. Il sistema produttivo utilizzato negli impianti di Porto Marghera era basato su una reazione principale, che partendo dal minerale attraverso un attacco acido, produceva acido fosforico: Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} (Minerale Fosforico) + 3H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (Acido Solforico) + 3H{sub 2}O (Acqua) {yields} 2H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (Acido fosforico) + 3CaSO{sub 4}H{sub 2}O (Solfato di calcio (gesso)). In particolare il minerale era preventivamente macinato e vagliato, quindi si procedeva alla sua miscelazione con l'acido fosforico ed alla successiva reazione del composto ottenuto.

  13. Does integrating nonurgent, clinically significant radiology alerts within the electronic health record impact closed-loop communication and follow-up?

    O'Connor, Stacy D; Dalal, Anuj K; Sahni, V Anik; Lacson, Ronilda; Khorasani, Ramin

    2016-03-01

    To assess whether integrating critical result management software--Alert Notification of Critical Results (ANCR)--with an electronic health record (EHR)-based results management application impacts closed-loop communication and follow-up of nonurgent, clinically significant radiology results by primary care providers (PCPs). This institutional review board-approved study was conducted at a large academic medical center. Postintervention, PCPs could acknowledge nonurgent, clinically significant ANCR-generated alerts ("alerts") within ANCR or the EHR. Primary outcome was the proportion of alerts acknowledged via EHR over a 24-month postintervention. Chart abstractions for a random sample of alerts 12 months preintervention and 24 months postintervention were reviewed, and the follow-up rate of actionable alerts (eg, performing follow-up imaging, administering antibiotics) was estimated. Pre- and postintervention rates were compared using the Fisher exact test. Postintervention follow-up rate was compared for EHR-acknowledged alerts vs ANCR. Five thousand nine hundred and thirty-one alerts were acknowledged by 171 PCPs, with 100% acknowledgement (consistent with expected ANCR functionality). PCPs acknowledged 16% (688 of 4428) of postintervention alerts in the EHR, with the remaining in ANCR. Follow-up was documented for 85 of 90 (94%; 95% CI, 88%-98%) preintervention and 79 of 84 (94%; 95% CI, 87%-97%) postintervention alerts (P > .99). Postintervention, 11 of 14 (79%; 95% CI, 52%-92%) alerts were acknowledged via EHR and 68 of 70 (97%; 95% CI, 90%-99%) in ANCR had follow-up (P = .03). Integrating ANCR and EHR provides an additional workflow for acknowledging nonurgent, clinically significant results without significant change in rates of closed-loop communication or follow-up of alerts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Utilisation des "algues-fourrage" en aquaculture

    Chretiennot-dinet, Marie-josèphe; Robert, Rene; His, Edouard

    1986-01-01

    Les travaux concernant l'utilisation d'algues unicellulaires pour la nutrtion de larves et de juvéniles de bivalves d'intérêt commercial sont analysés. Sur une cinquantaine d'espèces d'algues testées, un dizaine seulement sont produites en grande quantité dans des écloseries commerciales sous le non "d'algues fourrage". Les principales espèces employées sont décrites et leurs caractéristiques majeures illustrées. Les critères permettant de retenir une espèce pour son utilisation en aquacultur...

  15. Eye lens dose estimation during interventional radiology and its impact on the existing radiation protection and safety program: in the context with new International Commission on Radiological Protection guidelines

    Chaudhari, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Interventional radiology procedures are used for diagnosing certain medical conditions. The radiologists and medical professionals are exposed to ionizing radiation from X-rays of the equipments and also from scattered radiation during these procedures. The radiation exposure to the eye is more important to be assessed while performing such procedures. ICRP has revised the annual dose limit to the lens of the eye from 150 mSv to 20 mSv. In view of this revision, a study was carried out to evaluate the dose to the lens of the eye during interventional radiology. The paper gives the details of calibration of TLDs using a head phantom, predict annual equivalent dose and also highlight the dependence of dose on the position of TLD on the head. It is observed the predicted annual equivalent doses to the lens of eye are in the range of 25 mGy to 37 mGy. The selection of dosimeter placement may also result in an uncertainty of -14% to 20%. (author)

  16. Pattern of Smartphones Utilisation among Engineering Undergraduates

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-01-01

    The smartphones ownership among the undergraduates in Malaysia was recorded as high. However, little was known about its utilization patterns, thus, the focus of this research was to determine the utilisation patterns of smartphones based on the National Education Technology Standard for Students (NETS.S) among engineering undergraduates in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research and the population comprised undergraduates from four Malaysian Technical Universities. A total ...

  17. Modelling of the radiological impact of radioactive waste dumping in the Arctic Seas. Report of the Modelling and Assessment Working Group of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP)

    2003-01-01

    The work is summarized carried out by the Modelling and Assessment Working Group in 1994-1996. The Modelling and Assessment Working Group was established within the framework of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) launched by the IAEA in 1993 with the objectives of modelling the environmental dispersal and transport of nuclides to be potentially released from the dumped objects and of assessing the associated radiological impact on man and biota. Models were developed to model the dispersal of the pollutants and for the assessment of the radiological consequences of the releases from the dumped wastes in the Arctic. The results of the model intercomparison exercise were used as a basis on which to evaluate the estimate of concentration fields when detailed source term scenarios were used and also to assess the uncertainties in ensuing dose calculations. The descriptions and modelling work was divided into three main phases: description of the area, collection of relevant and necessary information; extension to and development of predictive models including an extensive model inter-comparison and finally prediction of radiological impact, used in the evaluation of the need and options for remediation

  18. Radiological Dispersion Devices: are we prepared?

    Sohier, Alain [Decision Strategy Research Department (Radiation Protection Division), Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)]. E-mail: asohier@sckcen.be; Hardeman, Frank [Decision Strategy Research Department (Radiation Protection Division), Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    Already before the events of September 11th 2001 concern was raised about the spread of orphan sources and their potential use in Radiological Dispersion Devices by terrorist groups. Although most of the simulated scenarios foresee a rather limited direct health impact on the population, the affected region would suffer from the indirect consequences such as social disruption, cleanup requirements and economic costs. The nature of such a radiological attack would anyway be different compared to conventional radiological accidents, basically because it can happen anywhere at any time. Part of the response resides in a general preparedness scheme incorporating attacks with Radiological Dispersion Devices. Training of different potential intervention teams is essential. The response would consist of a prioritised list of actions adapted to the circumstances. As the psychosocial dimension of the crisis could be worse than the purely radiological one, an adapted communication strategy with the public aspect would be a key issue.

  19. Radiological Dispersion Devices: are we prepared?

    Sohier, Alain; Hardeman, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Already before the events of September 11th 2001 concern was raised about the spread of orphan sources and their potential use in Radiological Dispersion Devices by terrorist groups. Although most of the simulated scenarios foresee a rather limited direct health impact on the population, the affected region would suffer from the indirect consequences such as social disruption, cleanup requirements and economic costs. The nature of such a radiological attack would anyway be different compared to conventional radiological accidents, basically because it can happen anywhere at any time. Part of the response resides in a general preparedness scheme incorporating attacks with Radiological Dispersion Devices. Training of different potential intervention teams is essential. The response would consist of a prioritised list of actions adapted to the circumstances. As the psychosocial dimension of the crisis could be worse than the purely radiological one, an adapted communication strategy with the public aspect would be a key issue

  20. Radiology trainer. Musculoskeletal system

    Staebler, A.; Erlt-Wagner, B.

    2006-01-01

    This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)

  1. Radiological diagnostics in hyperparathyroidism

    Moedder, U.; Kuhn, F.P.; Gruetzner, G.

    1991-01-01

    The most important radiologically detectable effects of the primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism of the skeletal system and the periarticular soft tissue structures are presented. In the following sensitivity and specificity of radiological imaging - sonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, arteriography and selective venous sampling - in the preoperative diagnostic of the parathyroid adenomas are discussed. Therefore, radiological imaging can be omitted before primary surgery. It was only in secondary surgery that radiological process proved useful and a guide during surgical intervention. (orig.) [de

  2. Radiology systems architecture.

    Deibel, S R; Greenes, R A

    1996-05-01

    This article focuses on the software requirements for enterprise integration in radiology. The needs of a future radiology systems architecture are examined, both at a concrete functional level and at an abstract system-properties level. A component-based approach to software development is described and is validated in the context of each of the abstract system requirements for future radiology computing environments.

  3. Inflation and capacity utilisation in Nigeria's manufacturing sector ...

    This study analysed the relationship between inflation and capacity utilisation empirically leaning on the model employed by Baylor (2001). It utilised time series secondary data using least square multiple regression technique. The quarterly data utilised were tested for stationarity using ADF test. The multiple regression ...

  4. A Business Analytics Software Tool for Monitoring and Predicting Radiology Throughput Performance.

    Jones, Stephen; Cournane, Seán; Sheehy, Niall; Hederman, Lucy

    2016-12-01

    Business analytics (BA) is increasingly being utilised by radiology departments to analyse and present data. It encompasses statistical analysis, forecasting and predictive modelling and is used as an umbrella term for decision support and business intelligence systems. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether utilising BA technologies could contribute towards improved decision support and resource management within radiology departments. A set of information technology requirements were identified with key stakeholders, and a prototype BA software tool was designed, developed and implemented. A qualitative evaluation of the tool was carried out through a series of semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. Feedback was collated, and emergent themes were identified. The results indicated that BA software applications can provide visibility of radiology performance data across all time horizons. The study demonstrated that the tool could potentially assist with improving operational efficiencies and management of radiology resources.

  5. Nuclear and energies nr 57. Japan, another glance. The environmental and radiological impact. The international impact. The illusion of renewable energies in Japan; Nucleaire et energies no. 57. Le Japon, un autre regard. L'impact environnemental et radiologique. L'impact international. L'illusion des energies renouvelables au Japon

    Lenail, B.

    2011-07-15

    The contributions of this publication first address the Japanese local context (organization, mentality, cultural background, thinking and action modes), and secondly the environmental and radiological impact of the Fukushima accident, notably in comparison with Chernobyl (contamination is much more localized, sometimes higher; a larger concerned population but quicker and more efficient protection measures; more severe consequences due to population displacement). The third article discusses the international impact of the accident: known or foreseen consequences on nuclear programs, discussion on safety strengthening and on governance, evolution of public opinion, possible consequences on climate negotiations. The last article proposes an overview of the current situation of Japan which must mobilize all the available energy resources to face the difficulties in electricity supply

  6. Radiological impact assessment around Kudankulam

    Vijayakumar, B.; Thomas, G.; Jayasudha, P.; Selvi, B.S.; Preetha, B.; Ravi, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Two light water reactors, VVER in Russian, have been constructed at Kudankulam near the south eastern tip of India. The reactors belong to the family of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which is the predominant type in operation, the world over. A systematic pre operational study has been conducted around the Kudankulam site for about 10 years and the external dose due to natural sources of radiation exposure have been established. The first unit of Kudankulam became critical in the year July 2013. Following plant operation, the gaseous and liquid effluent releases from the plant have been characterized and dose to members of the public due to plant operation has been computed for two full years 2014 and 2015. The public dose due to plant operation has been estimated to be less than 0.003 % of applicable ICRP/AERB dose limit. The background external radiation exposure during the period of plant operation has remained essentially the same as observed during plant pre operational phase. (author)

  7. A hospital-wide picture archiving and communication system (PACS): the views of users and providers of the radiology service at Hammersmith Hospital

    Watkins, Jessamy

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain users' views of the new picture archiving and communication system (PACS) from clinical and radiological staff at Hammersmith Hospital, UK. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain the views of staff, following an interview schedule which covered aspects of: (1) their use of PACS, (2) facilities available, (3) the perceived quality of images, (4) reporting, (5) image availability, (6) image accessibility, (7) training, and (8) ease of use of PACS. Results: Interviews were carried out with 34 key users and providers of the radiological service at Hammersmith Hospital. Overall, staff were very satisfied with PACS particularly in terms of image availability. All staff said that they preferred PACS to the previous, conventional radiology service. Conclusions: The key implications of issues raised by staff were: the impact of 'down-time' and the importance of an efficient back-up system, the requirement for sufficient short-term storage to prevent images being off-line during clinical situations, the usefulness of the folder system for management of the images, the need to access images for teaching purposes, the advantage of having a default display protocol to facilitate radiological reporting, and the requirement for flexible, yet effective, training to ensure that the system is utilised to its full potential by users

  8. Science Teachers' Utilisation of Innovative Strategies for Teaching Senior School Science in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Oyelekan, Oloyede Solomon; Igbokwe, Emoyoke Faith; Olorundare, Adekunle Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Efforts have been made to improve science teaching in secondary schools in Nigeria, yet, students continue to perform poorly in science subjects. Many innovative teaching strategies have been developed by educators and found to impact significantly on students' academic performance when utilised. Hence, this study was aimed at examining science…

  9. Research and development in radiological protection

    Butragueno, J. L.; Villota, C.; Gutierrez, C.; Rodriguez, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of Radiological Protection is to guarantee that neither people, be they workers or members of the public, or the environment are exposed to radiological risks considered by society to be unacceptable. Among the various resources available to meet this objective is Research and Development (R and D), which is carried out in three areas: I. Radiological protection of persons: (a) knowledge of the biological effects of radiations, in order to determine the relationship that exists between radiation exposure dose and its effects on health; (b) the development of new personal dosimetry techniques in order to adapt to new situations, instrumental techniques and information management technologies allowing for better assessment of exposure dose; and (c) development of the principle of radiological protection optimisation (ALARA), which has been set up internationally as the fundamental principle on which radiological protection interventions are based. II. Assessment of environmental radiological impact, the objective of which is to assess the nature and magnitude of situations of exposure to ionising radiations as a result of the controlled or uncontrolled release of radioactive material to the environment, and III.Reduction of the radiological impact of radioactive wastes, the objective of which is to develop radioactive material and waste management techniques suitable for each situation, in order to reduce the risks associated with their definitive management or their release to the environment. Briefly described below are the strategic lines of R and D of the CSN, the Electricity Industry, Ciemat and Enresa in the aforementioned areas. (Author)

  10. MARC - the NRPB methodology for assessing radiological consequences of accidental releases of activity

    Clarke, R.H.; Kelly, G.N.

    1981-12-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has developed a methodology for the assessment of the public health related consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. The methodology consists of a suite of computer programs which predict the transfer of activity from the point of release to the atmosphere through to the population. The suite of programs is entitled MARC; Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences. This report describes the overall framework and philosophy utilised within MARC. (author)

  11. Radiology and fine art.

    Marinković, Slobodan; Stošić-Opinćal, Tatjana; Tomić, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    The radiologic aesthetics of some body parts and internal organs have inspired certain artists to create specific works of art. Our aim was to describe the link between radiology and fine art. We explored 13,625 artworks in the literature produced by 2049 artists and found several thousand photographs in an online image search. The examination revealed 271 radiologic artworks (1.99%) created by 59 artists (2.88%) who mainly applied radiography, sonography, CT, and MRI. Some authors produced radiologic artistic photographs, and others used radiologic images to create artful compositions, specific sculptures, or digital works. Many radiologic artworks have symbolic, metaphoric, or conceptual connotations. Radiology is clearly becoming an original and important field of modern art.

  12. Characteristics and utilisation of high-temperature (HTHP) filter dusts from pfb gasification of biomass

    Ranta, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to survey characteristics, utilisation and possible environmental impacts of solid wastes, i.e., in case of biomass, mainly high-temperature filter ash (HTHP) from pressurised fluidised-bed gasification (PFBG). The aim is to utilise solid wastes (slag, filter dust, additives) from biomass gasification instead of dumping. One alternative is recycling to the soil as liming material or fertiliser. It is expected that the ash recycled to forest soils changes the environment less than non-recycled ash. (orig.) 3 refs.

  13. Characteristics and utilisation of high-temperature (HTHP) filter dusts from pfb gasification of biomass

    Ranta, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the study was to survey characteristics, utilisation and possible environmental impacts of solid wastes, i.e., in case of biomass, mainly high-temperature filter ash (HTHP) from pressurised fluidised-bed gasification (PFBG). The aim is to utilise solid wastes (slag, filter dust, additives) from biomass gasification instead of dumping. One alternative is recycling to the soil as liming material or fertiliser. It is expected that the ash recycled to forest soils changes the environment less than non-recycled ash. (orig.) 3 refs.

  14. Making the link between radiological assessment, nuclear safety assessment and environmental impact assessment, as applied to unloading of the Lepse spent fuel storage vessel

    Smith, Graham M.; Sneve, Malgorzata K.; Markarov, Valentine G.

    2000-01-01

    Planning and optimisation of radioactive waste management operations is a complicated task involving scientific, technical and social issues. There are many factors which have to be balanced, involving trade-offs such as those between safety now and long term safety; between protection of human health and protection of the environment as a whole; between protection of workers and protection of the public; and between mitigation of risks of major accidents and mitigation of routine low-level but certain to occur risks. Managing the spent fuel currently stored on the Lepse vessel in Murmansk offers as big a challenge as any other in this context. The Russian Federation state regulatory process imposes strict requirements on operators to demonstrate adequate safety, environmental and human health protection. Practically, however, there is little experience in Russia or elsewhere on how to combine all the issues referred to above within an overall assessment that leads to informed decision making. The paper will describe the components of assessment work being considered within the context of the regulatory planning of Lepse unloading operations. The scope will focus on radiation protection issues but also include non-radioactive pollution risks and other safety issues have to be taken into account if a truly optimal allocation and application of resources is to be made. Consideration will be given to radiation worker dose and other health risk assessments for routine operations, safety assessments of special operations such as spent fuel handling; and the radiological and other environmental and human health impacts of planned releases of effluents to the biosphere. The need to identify and collate particular relevant information will discussed and the links between the different components of the overall assessment will be identified with a view to improving the overall effectiveness of the assessment process. The problem of combining all the information coherently

  15. Substrate utilisation by plant-cell cultures

    Fowler, M W

    1982-01-01

    Plant cell cultures have been grown on a wide range of carbon sources in addition to the traditional ones of sucrose and glucose. Biomass yields and growth rates vary greatly between the different carbon sources and there is a variation in response between different cell cultures to individual carbon sources. Some attempts have been made to grow cell cultures on 'waste' and related carbon sources, such as lactose, maltose, starch, molasses and milk whey. Only maltose was found to support growth to anything near the levels observed with glucose and sucrose. In the case of molasses carbon source cell growth was either non-existent or only just measurable. All the data point to glucose as being the most suitable carbon source, principally on the grounds of biomass yield and growth rate. It should be noted, however, that other carbon sources do appear to have a major (positive) influence on natural product synthesis. Uptake into the cell is an important aspect of carbohydrate utilisation. There is strong evidence that from disaccharides upwards, major degradation to smaller units occurs before uptake. In some cases the necessary enzymes appear to be excreted into the culture broth, in others they may be located within the cell wall; invertase that hydrolyses sucrose is a good example. Once the products of carbohydrate degradation and mobilisation enter the cell they may suffer one of two fates, oxidation or utilisation for biosynthesis. The precise split between these two varies depending on such factors as cell growth rate, cell size, nutrient broth composition and carbohydrate status of the cells. In general rapidly growing cells have a high rate of oxidation, whereas cells growing more slowly tend to be more directed towards biosynthesis. Carbohydrate utilisation is a key area of study, underpinning as it does both biomass yield and natural product synthesis. (Refs. 13).

  16. Occupational radiological protection in diagnostic radiology

    Mota, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: occupational expossure (the ALARA principle, dose-equivalent limit, ICRP justification); radiological protection planning (general aspects, barrier estimation) and determination of the occupational expossures (individual monitoring). (M.A.) [pt

  17. Determinants of utilisation differences for cancer medicines in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden.

    Ferrario, Alessandra

    2017-12-01

    Little comparative evidence is available on utilisation of cancer medicines in different countries and its determinants. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical model to test the correlation between utilisation and possible determinants in selected European countries. A sample of 31 medicines for cancer treatment that obtained EU-wide marketing authorisation between 2000 and 2012 was selected. Annual data on medicines' utilisation covering the in- and out-patient public sectors were obtained from national authorities between 2008 and 2013. Possible determinants of utilisation were extracted from HTA reports and complemented by contacts with key informants. A longitudinal mixed effect model was fitted to test possible determinants of medicines utilisation in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden. In the all-country model, the number of indications reimbursed positively correlated with increased consumption of medicines [one indication 2.6, 95% CI (1.8-3.6); two indications 2.4, 95% CI (1.4-4.3); three indications 4.9, 95% CI (2.2-10.9); all P marketing authorisation [1.2, 95% CI (1.02-1.4); p marketing authorisation. Prices had a negative effect on consumption in Belgium and Sweden. The positive impact of financial MEAs in Scotland suggests that the latter may remove the regressive effect of list prices on consumption.

  18. Patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: X-ray examinations remain an essential and widely used diagnostic tool in medicine and hence the most significant source of exposure to man-made radiation for populations. Patterns of practice in diagnostic radiology continue to evolve, with overall growth in the numbers of procedures worldwide and, particularly in developed countries, increasing importance for complex procedures such as computed tomography (CT) and interventional techniques. In order to maximise the benefits from x-rays relative to the associated radiation risks, there is a need to ensure the prior justification of all examinations and the optimisation of patient protection such that doses are as low as reasonably practicable to meet specific clinical requirements. Accordingly, patient dosimetry is a fundamental requirement in diagnostic radiology. Detailed measurements for the assessment of risks or comparison of different types of procedure require the estimation of organ and effective doses. Such comprehensive dosimetry necessarily involves the simulation of clinical practice using anthropomorphic phantoms, with either measurements in a physical phantom or calculations utilising a mathematical phantom. Simpler measurements for the routine monitoring of dose in x-ray departments can be based on practical quantities such as entrance surface dose, dose-area product and, for CT, weighted CT dose index and dose-length product. Widescale surveys reveal significant variations between departments in the typical doses for a given type of procedure and potential scope for dose reductions. In order to promote improvements in practice, the results of periodic dose surveys in departments should be compared with appropriate standards, such as diagnostic reference levels for adult and paediatric patients, that are set nationally or locally for the purposes of promoting critical review of the equipment and techniques in use. Patient dosimetry should form an essential element of routine quality

  19. Utilising UDT to push the bandwidth envelope

    Garrett, B.; Davies, B.

    eScience applications, in particular High Energy Physics, often involve large amounts of data and/or computing and often require secure resource sharing across organizational boundaries, and are thus not easily handled by today's networking infrastructures. By utilising the switched lightpath connections provided by the UKLight network it has been possible to research the use of alternate protocols for data transport. While the HEP projects make use of a number of middleware solutions for data storage and transport, they all rely on GridFTP for WAN transport. The GridFTP protocol runs over TCP as the layer 3 protocol by default, however with the latest released of the Globus toolkit it is possible to utilise alternate protocols at the layer 3 level. One of the alternatives is a reliable version of UDP called UDT. This report presents the results of the tests measuring the performance of single-threaded file transfers using GridFTP running over both TCP and the UDT protocol.

  20. Energy analysis of various grassland utilisation systems

    Jozef Ržonca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 and 2004 was carried out the energy analysis of the different types of permanent grassland utilization on the Hrubý Jeseník locality. There were estimated values of the particular entrances of additional energy. Energy entrances moved according to the pratotechnologies from 2.17 GJ. ha–1 to 22.70 GJ.ha–1. The biggest share on energy entrances had fertilizers. It was 84.93% by the nitrogen fertilisation. The most energy benefit of brutto and nettoenergy was marked by the low intensive utilisation (33.40 GJ.ha–1 NEL and 32.40 GJ.ha–1 NEV on average. The highest value of energy efficiency (13.23% was marked by the low intensive utilization of permanent grassland. By using of higher doses of industrial fertilizers has energy efficiency decreased. From view of energy benefit and intensiveness on energy entrances it appears the most available utilisation of permanent grassland with three cuts per year (first cut on May 31st at the latest, every next after 60 days or two cuts per year (first cut on July 15th, next cuts after 90 days.

  1. Qualitative evaluation of environmental radiological impact in a phosphate associated uranium conventional mine: Santa Quiteria Project, CE, Brazil; Avaliacao qualitativa do impacto radiologico ambiental em uma mineracao convencional de fosfato com uranio associado: o Projeto Santa Quiteria

    Reis, Rocio G. dos; Santo, Aline Sa E., E-mail: rocio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: alinesah@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate qualitatively the main potential sources of mineral and installation terms of Santa Quiteria, CE, Brazil, evaluating their possible impacts on the environment. The key terms sources in the production of phosphoric acid are usually: the dig of the mines, tailings dams and phospho plaster stack. Thus, this work intends to inform the academic community about this issue, as well as the population in general and also, acting proactively in order to warn about the possible environmental impacts, so that actions to compensate, minimize or avoid these radiological impacts on the environment, can be included in the planning of the industrial mineral project of Santa Quiteria (author)

  2. Utilisation des données d’insémination artificielle afin d’identifier l’impact d’un évènement abortif dans les élevages de bovins laitiers

    Bronner , A.; Morignat, E.; Madouasse, Aurélien; Gasqui, Patrick; Gay, E.; Calavas, D.

    2015-01-01

    Le présent article a pour objectif de discuter de la faisabilité et de l’intérêt que représenterait le suivi d’un indicateur indirect de survenue des avortements élaboré à partir des données d’insémination artificielle, le taux d’avortements précoces, afin d’identifier l’impact d’un évènement abortif, de manière rétrospective ou prospective. Deux études sont présentées pour illustrer le propos, ayant eu pour objet d’estimer, par l’analyse des variations du taux d’avortements précoces, l’impac...

  3. Poul Erik Andersen's radiological work on Osteochondrodysplasias and interventional radiology

    Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    Hospital. His significant experience and extensive scientific work has led to many posts in the Danish Society of Interventional Radiology, the European Society of Radiology and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe, where he is a fellow and has passed the European Board...... of Interventional Radiology - The European qualification in Interventional Radiology....

  4. User questionnaire to evaluate the radiological workspace

    van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Koesoema, Allya P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years, an increase in digitalization of radiology departments can be seen, which has a large impact on the work of the radiologists. This impact is not only demonstrated by the increased use of digital images but also by changing demands on the whole reading environment. In this

  5. Socioeconomic trends in radiology

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. (orig.)

  6. Conversion and utilisation of biomass from Swedish agriculture; Foeraedling och avsaettning av jordbruksbaserade biobraenslen

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    Biomass feedstock from agriculture can be refined and converted into several different energy carriers and utilised for different energy services, such as production of heat, electricity or transportation fuel. The feedstock may be residues and by-products, such as straw and manure, or energy crops cultivated under different conditions depending on variations in regional and local conditions. Similar variations exist in the regional and local conditions for the refining and utilisation of the bioenergy and its by-products. The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the technical and physical conditions of different agriculture-based bioenergy systems using the existing infrastructure and potential new systems expected to be developed in the future. To which extent this technical/physical potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. Furthermore, potential possibilities to utilise existing infrastructure within the forest industry are not included. The report starts with an analysis and description of the energy efficiency of different bioenergy systems, from the production of the biomass to the final use of the refined energy carrier, expressed as the amount of heat, electricity or transportation fuel produced per hectare and year. The possibilities to co-produce different energy carries in bio-refineries are also analysed. The next part of the report includes an analysis of the variation in the regional conditions for the conversion and utilisation of the different energy carriers, based on existing infrastructure, for instance, district heating systems, individual heating systems, combined heat and power production, utilisation of by-products as feed in animal production, utilisation of digestion residues as fertilisers, the supply of forest fuels, etc. The report also includes a discussion of the environmental impact of an increased

  7. Radiological protection and environmental management

    Perez Fonseca, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the beginning of its industrial activity twenty five years ago, the Juzbado Factory of Enusa Group has always upheld a strong commitment with Radiological Protection and environmental respect and protection. Consequently, the evolution of dose shows a downward trend over the years. Although production has been increased gradually, the average doses to workers have stayed below 1 mSv. In order to identify and prevent the potential environmental impacts of its industrial activity and minimize its impact on the surroundings, the facility develops and environmental management system according to UNE-EN-ISO 14001 since 1999. (Author)

  8. Radiological Emergency Response Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical emergency radiological response event and incident of national significance data and surveillance, monitoring,...

  9. Radiological evaluation of dysphagia

    Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Chen, Y.M.

    1986-11-21

    Dysphagia is a common complaint in patients presenting for radiological or endoscopic examination of the esophagus and is usually due to functional or structural abnormalities of the esophageal body or esophagogastric region. The authors review the radiological evaluation of the esophagus and esophagogastric region in patients with esophageal dysphagia and discuss the roentgenographic techniques used, radiological efficacy for common structural disorders, and evaluation of esophageal motor function. Comparison is made with endoscopy in assessing dysphagia, with the conclusion that the radiological examination be used initially in patients with this complaint.

  10. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  11. Radiological evaluation of dysphagia

    Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Chen, Y.M.

    1986-01-01

    Dysphagia is a common complaint in patients presenting for radiological or endoscopic examination of the esophagus and is usually due to functional or structural abnormalities of the esophageal body or esophagogastric region. The authors review the radiological evaluation of the esophagus and esophagogastric region in patients with esophageal dysphagia and discuss the roentgenographic techniques used, radiological efficacy for common structural disorders, and evaluation of esophageal motor function. Comparison is made with endoscopy in assessing dysphagia, with the conclusion that the radiological examination be used initially in patients with this complaint

  12. Machine learning and radiology.

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The impact of quality assurance in medical radiology in raising the quality of life and the role of medical physicist in this process

    Stieve, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal on establishing quality assurance programmes in diagnostic radiology at the European level is to provide explanations on regulations, which had been developed by International Organizations on the level of the existing knowledge on the use of ionizing radiation for medical diagnosis. Since it is well known that diagnostic radiological users often produce poor quality images and are applying to patients unnecessary high radiation exposure the criteria for performance characteristics related to good imaging quality and patient exposure had been established. The correct application of the principles of quality assurance and quality control in relation to patient exposure needs to be standardised on a general European level, since radiographs should be generally comparable. The implementation of quality assurance programmes and quality control methods could lead to more accurate diagnosis and better informed decisions regarding treatment. The role and responsibility of medical physicists in the process of image production, radiation exposure and quality assurance in diagnostic radiology is now implemented in this Directive. The tasks of the medical physicist in this process had been identified and explained. (author)

  14. Environmental impact assessment of NPP decommissioning

    Hinca, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the following potential impacts of decommissioning of NPP are discussed: - Impacts on population; Impacts on natural environment; Land impacts; Impacts on urban complex and land utilisation; Possible impacts on area as a result of failure.

  15. 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in the Venice lagoon ecosystem (Italy) and the potential radiological impact to the local public and environment

    Guogang Jia; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Rosamilia, S.; Blasi, M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possible radiological impact to the local public and environment from a phosphogypsum stockpile, 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in river water, lagoon water, suspended matter, superficial sediment, algae and bivalves samples collected in Venice lagoon area have been investigated. The results show that the mean 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in river water are 1.42 ± 0.36 mBq x l -1 and 1.46 ± 0.39 mBq x l -1 with a mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of 0.98 ± 0.17 and about 60% of them are associated with the particulate; 210 Po and 210 Pb contribution from the phosphogypsum stockpile to the river water is negligible. Higher 210 Po (2.61-5.67 mBq x l -1 ) and 210 Pb (1.31-3.62 mBq x l -1 ) concentrations in the lagoon waters have been observed if compared with the literature values. About 60% of 210 Po and 210 Pb are found in the soluble form with a mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of 1.79 ± 1.47. 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in 28 out 37 sediment samples ranged from 26 to 45 Bq x kg -1 (dry weight), only 9 sediments with 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations greater than 45 Bq x kg -1 are found and most of them are located 1-4 km near the phosphogypsum stockpile. The elevated 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in the sediments may be due to the contamination from the phosphogypsum stockpile. The mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio (0.986 ± 0.049) in the sediments shows that 210 Po and 210 Pb exist in nearly secular equilibrium. 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in algae vary with different species. The mean 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in Gracilaria compress and Ulva laetevirens which show a similar behavior, are 3.18 ± 1.23 Bq x kg -1 and 2.42 ± 1.26 Bq x kg -1 (fresh weight), respectively, with a mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of 1.45 ± 0.34. The mean concentration factors with respect to the filtered water are 1096 ± 424 for 210 Po and 1299 ± 680 for 210 Pb. The mean 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in the soft part of Mytilus edulis are 23.2 ± 9.7 Bq

  16. Design of neutron detectors utilising luminescent glass

    Spowart, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Impetus for the development of new neutron detector designs has derived from the worldwide commissioning of neutron spallation sources. The design concepts, and principal methods of utilisation of these major installations, have been recently reviewed. Their principal feature of interest is their broadband neutron emission allowing neutron investigations of all types of structure in materials from biological molecules to steels. Conventional neutron detectors are gas-filled devices, based on BF/sub 3/ or /sup 3/He gas. Their major advantage is their intrinsically low background count. Their principal disadvantage is their slow response time (10-100 μs), high cost and relative lack of flexibility in design to cope with large areas or complex geometry detection. They are, however, long established and the research facilities around the world have a heavy investment in the interpretative hardware for gas detectors

  17. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  18. Optimum utilisation of the uranium resource

    Ion, S. E.; Wilson, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear industry faces many challenges, notably to maximise safety, secure an adequate energy supply, manage wastes satisfactorily and achieve political acceptability. One way forward is to optimise together the various interdependent stages of the fuel cycle - the now familiar 'holistic approach'. Many of the issues will demand large R and D expenditure, most effectively met through international collaboration. Sustainable development requires optimum utilisation of energy potential, to which the most accessible key is recycling uranium and the plutonium bred from it. Realising anything like this full potential requires fast-neutron reactors, and therefore BNFL continues to sustain the UK involvement in their international development. Meanwhile, current R and D programmes must aim to make the nuclear option more competitive against fossil resources, while maintaining and developing the necessary skills for more advanced technologies The paper outlines the strategies being pursued and highlights BNFL 's programmes. (author)

  19. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use......Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...... after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...

  20. The utilisation of fine sprays for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological or Nuclear (CBRN Decontamination

    G Nasr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The risk of exposure to hazardous materials, in many industrialenvironments and in everyday life due to the possibility of terrorist attacks,is widely recognised. It is therefore pertinent to have robustdecontamination equipment to limit the effects of hazardous materials andin turn protect human life and assets. This can be done by the applicationof neutralisation (coverage and rinsing techniques to the hazardousmaterials. The overall aim of this paper is to describe an investigationutilising fine sprays for coverage/deposition on the human body, inconjunction with standard safety showers for rinsing of a victim duringdecontamination of CBRN materials. As a novel feature miniature highpressure spill-return atomiser are used. It was found that fine spraysdecrease the consumption of decontamination liquid that is normally usedin practice which has many advantages in practice.

  1. Sewage sludge utilisation and disposal alternatives and their comparison; Puhdistamolietteiden hyoedyntaemis- ja loppusijoitusvaihtoehdot sekae niiden vertailu

    Paatero, P.

    2001-07-01

    Sludge production will presumably not decrease in future. At present agricultural use of sludge is unstable and landfilling will most probably be restricted in the following years. The objective of this thesis is to gather information on options for sludge treatment and utilisation and to compare these options in order to find the best possible solution for future alternatives of sludge utilisation. Finnish and international literature as well as Finnish and EU legislation have been reviewed. Furthermore the mentoring group of this thesis as well as other experts in Finland have been used as a source of information. Sludge contains not only plant nutrients and organic matter but also varying quantities of a number of more or less hazardous substances. The quality and quantity of sewage sludge are described and possible health and environmental risks caused by sewage sludge are pointed out. The legislation linked to sludge utilisation and its demands are also presented. The sludge processing methods reviewed are: thickening, lime stabilisation, aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, composting and mechanical and thermal drying. In addition, the positive and negative sides of the stabilisation processes are looked at in greater detail. Agricultural use, landscaping, forestry, landfill, incineration, sludge derived products and newer processing technologies are reviewed as sludge utilisation options. Their environmental impacts, positive and negative sides and practical feasibility are evaluated. Various treatment utilisation combinations are also compared. Furthermore a rough cost assessment is presented. The optimal utilisation alternative has to be chosen case by case. The best use of plant nutrients and valuable organic matter is obtained in agricultural use or in landscaping. In the present situation it is difficult to enhance the portion of agricultural use, and landscaping is restricted by a low demand on the market. Incineration is an expensive option and can

  2. Biofuels and climate neutrality - system analysis of production and utilisation

    Holmgren, Kristina; Eriksson, Erik; Olsson, Olle; Olsson, Mats; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate to what extent biofuels can be said to be climate neutral. An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the production and utilisation chains of a number of solid biofuels were made based on data available in the literature. The data has been used for making radiative forcing calculations. The study also includes a comparison between imported and domestic solid biofuels. We conclude that none of the investigated biofuel chains are 'climate neutral', since all of them result in net emissions of greenhouse gases. However, all of the chains result in lower emissions than corresponding emissions from the use of fossil fuels. The emission estimates for the fuel chains varies depending on fuels and on how system boundaries have been set in the different studies. The following factors can contribute significantly to the total emissions of greenhouse gases of the production and utilisation chain of a biofuel: impact of production system on soil carbon storage, land use methods (especially use of drained peatlands), the use of fertilisers (both direct and indirect), combustion technology, refining of the fuel (i.e. pelletisation) and storage (especially of comminuted fuels). Other sources that also contribute to the emissions during a production and utilisation chain are; harvesting machines, transportation and waste handling. The climate impacts of the greenhouse gas emissions from one of the biofuels, i.e. forest residues, were compared to the impacts of fossil fuels by the concept of radiative forcing. In the radiative forcing calculations the CO 2 emissions from combustion of biofuels and the CO 2 emissions that would have occurred if the residues had been left in the forest to decompose were included, and their different dynamics taken into consideration. The decomposition results in CO 2 emissions during a long time period and in an amount equalling those that are emitted during combustion. Only a minor part is due to

  3. Utilisation of the buffy coat technique and an antibody-detection ELISA as tools for assessing the impact of trypanosomosis on health and productivity of N'Dama cattle

    Faye, J.A.; Mattioli, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    significantly lower mean PCV values and daily weight gain in comparison with animals negative for antibodies and/or parasites. A significant positive correlation was observed between Ab-ELISA PP values and PCV in the 160 animals positive for trypanosomal antibodies. Moreover, in these cattle, daily weight gain was positively correlated with PCV value. In experimentally infected cattle, a more severe effect of trypanosome infection was noticed in T. congolense infected N'Dama in comparison with animals infected with T. vivax, as assessed by lower PCV values and daily weight gain in the former. In conclusion, the sensitivity and specificity of the T. vivax antibody detection assay appears to be satisfactory. Conversely, performance of the T. congolense Ab-ELISA needs to be improved. Trypanosoma vivax infection had limited impact on health and productivity of N'Dama cattle in both field and experimental studies. Therefore, it is recommended that selection for trypanotolerance should be based on the ability of N'Dama cattle to control the effects of T. congolense rather than T. vivax infections. (author)

  4. [Instruction in dental radiology

    Sanden, W.J.M. van der; Kreulen, C.M.; Berkhout, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic use of oral radiology is an essential part of daily dental practice. Due to the potentially harmful nature of ionising radiation, the clinical use of oral radiology in the Netherlands is framed by clinical practice guidelines and regulatory requirements. Undergraduate students receive

  5. Medical Ethics in Radiology

    Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Soon Ho

    2010-01-01

    According to the recent developments in radiological techniques, the role of radiology in the clinical management of patients is ever increasing and in turn, so is the importance of radiology in patient management. Thus far, there have been few open discussions about medical ethics related to radiology in Korea. Hence, concern about medical ethics as an essential field of radiology should be part of an improved resident training program and patient management. The categories of medical ethics related with radiology are ethics in the radiological management of patient, the relationship of radiologists with other medical professionals or companies, the hazard level of radiation for patients and radiologists, quality assurance of image products and modalities, research ethics, and other ethics issues related to teleradiology and fusion imaging. In order to achieve the goal of respectful progress in radiology as well as minimizing any adverse reaction from other medical professions or society, we should establish a strong basis of medical ethics through the continuous concern and self education

  6. Physics of Radiology

    Johns, Harold Elford

    1983-01-01

    Authority, comprehensivity and a consummate manner of presentation have been hallmarks of The Physics of Radiology since it first saw publication some three decades past. This Fourth Edition adheres to that tradition but again updates the context. It thoroughly integrates ideas recently advanced and practices lately effected. Students and professionals alike will continue to view it, in essence, as the bible of radiological physics.

  7. Gout. Radiological aspects

    Restrepo Suarez, Jose Felix; Pena Cortes, Mario; Rondon Herrera, Federico; Iglesias Gamarra, Antonio; Calvo Paramo, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we reviewed the clinical and radiological aspects of gout, showing the most frequent radiological findings that can guide to the correct diagnosis of the disease. The cases that we presented here have been analyzed for many years in our rheumatology service, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Bogota

  8. Evaluation guideline for the study of the radiological impact of based nuclear installations (INB) presented in support of releases authorization demands; Guide d'examen pour l'etude de l'impact radiologique d'une installation nucleaire de base (INB) fournie a l'appui des demandes d'autorisation de rejets

    Chartier, M; Despres, A; Supervil, S; Conte, D; Hubert, P; Oudiz, A; Champion, D

    2002-10-01

    In the case of a license demand for the effluents release and water taking for a nuclear installation, the operating must realize a study of the nuclear effluents radiological impact on the environment and the public health. In this context, the study presents technical and methodological specifications which led the Direction of the Nuclear Installations Safety (DSIN) and the General Direction of the Health (DGS) to ask the IPSN the elaboration of a guideline to help these studies evaluation. The guideline presents the regulatory context, the description of the installations, the treatment and the control processes, the rules of management, the description of the environment, the estimation of the radiological impacts and the environment control system definition. (A.L.B.)

  9. Evaluation guideline for the study of the radiological impact of based nuclear installations (INB) presented in support of releases authorization demands; Guide d'examen pour l'etude de l'impact radiologique d'une installation nucleaire de base (INB) fournie a l'appui des demandes d'autorisation de rejets

    Chartier, M.; Despres, A.; Supervil, S.; Conte, D.; Hubert, P.; Oudiz, A.; Champion, D

    2002-10-01

    In the case of a license demand for the effluents release and water taking for a nuclear installation, the operating must realize a study of the nuclear effluents radiological impact on the environment and the public health. In this context, the study presents technical and methodological specifications which led the Direction of the Nuclear Installations Safety (DSIN) and the General Direction of the Health (DGS) to ask the IPSN the elaboration of a guideline to help these studies evaluation. The guideline presents the regulatory context, the description of the installations, the treatment and the control processes, the rules of management, the description of the environment, the estimation of the radiological impacts and the environment control system definition. (A.L.B.)

  10. Strategic Expansion Models in Academic Radiology.

    Natesan, Rajni; Yang, Wei T; Tannir, Habib; Parikh, Jay

    2016-03-01

    In response to economic pressures, academic institutions in the United States and their radiology practices, are expanding into the community to build a larger network, thereby driving growth and achieving economies of scale. These economies of scale are being achieved variously via brick-and-mortar construction, community practice acquisition, and partnership-based network expansion. We describe and compare these three expansion models within a 4-part framework of: (1) upfront investment; (2) profitability impact; (3) brand impact; and (4) risk of execution. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. System factors influencing utilisation of Research4Life databases by ...

    This is a comprehensive investigation of the influence of system factors on utilisation of Research4Life databases. It is part of a doctoral dissertation. Research4Life databases are new innovative technologies being investigated in a new context – utilisation by NARIs scientists for research. The study adopted the descriptive ...

  12. Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo ...

    Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria. AAG Jimoh. Abstract. This prospective study was carried out to evaluate the utilisation of antenatal care at the Provincial Specialist Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria, paying close attention to the confounding factors affecting ...

  13. Globalisation and Labour Utilisation in Nigeria: Evidence from the ...

    This study examines the influence of globalisation on labour utilisation in Nigeria using the construction industry as a case study. It reveals that the era of globalisation has given rise to profound changes in the way labour is utilised, specifically in terms of employment patterns as well as the related issues of earnings, job ...

  14. Radiological risk comparison guidelines

    Hallinan, E.J.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Brown, L.F.; Yoder, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of DOE safety analyses is estimating potential accident risk. The estimates are used to: determine if additional controls are needed, identify Safety Class Items, and demonstrate adequate risk reduction. Thus, guidelines are needed to measure comparative risks. The Westinghouse M ampersand O Nuclear Facility Safety Committee and the Safety Envelope Working Group have developed radiological risk guidelines for comparing the risks from individual accident analyses. These guidelines were prepared under contract with the US Department of Energy. These guidelines are based on historical DOE guidelines and current requirements, and satisfy DOE and technical community proposals. for goals that demonstrate acceptable risk. The guidelines consist of a frequency versus consequence curve for credible accidents. Offsite and onsite guidelines are presented. The offsite risk acceptance guidelines are presented in Figure 1. The guidelines are nearly isorisk for anticipated events where impacts are chronic, and provide additional reduction for unlikely events where impacts may be acute and risk uncertainties may be significant. The guidelines are applied to individual release accident scenarios where a discrete frequency and consequence has been estimated. The guideline curves are not to be used for total risk assessments. Common cause events are taken into consideration only for an individual facility. Frequencies outside the guideline range are considered to be local site option (analyst judgement) as far as assessments of risk acceptance are concerned. If the curve is exceeded, then options include either a more detailed analysis or imposing additional preventive or mitigative features. Another presentation discusses implementation in detail. Additional work is needed to provide risk comparison guidelines for releases from multiple facilities and for toxic releases

  15. The radiological impact of 50 years of uranium mining in France. The necessity of a site satisfying restructuring by Cogema-Areva

    2005-01-01

    In a first text, the author briefly describes the radioprotection risks related to uranium mining, gives an overview of the characteristics of extraction residues in uranium extraction factories. Then, after having presented the case of the Limousin region in France, he outlines the high level of contamination of the environment of the mining sites, recalls the extraction process and discusses the careless use of the extracted radioactive rocks and materials. He outlines the insufficient management and processing of liquid effluents, the risk associated with the dispersal of contaminated scrap metals and of radioactive ores. He also discusses air contamination due to dusts and radioactive gases. He comments the issue of long term storage of uranium mining residues. He outlines the responsibility of the Administration and comments the trial against Cogema which took place in 2005. He outlines how restructuring of all the concerned sites is a challenging issue for our future. A second text in English describes radiological hazards from uranium mining (uranium by-products, radiological situation before and during extraction, long term contamination after mines closure, problems posed by tailing disposal)

  16. Active electronic personal dosemeter in interventional radiology

    Prlic, I.; Suric Mihic, M.; Vucic, Z.

    2008-01-01

    A recently developed active electronic personal dosemeter (AEPD) was utilised in order to measure the levels and the structure of occupational exposure to scattered X-ray radiation of medical staff who performed percutaneous revascularisation therapy that involves interventional radiology (IR) on the pelvis and upper leg arteries. The AEPDs, placed on the operators' and assistants' chests, that is, above the protective apron, continuously measured and recorded the received doses and, as a novelty, dose rates as a function of time, thus yielding a unique record of occupational doses and dose rates pattern at the working place. This paper presents and discusses one typical daily pattern in which seven percutaneous interventions were performed. (authors)

  17. ICRP PUBLICATION 121: Radiological Protection in Paediatric Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    Khong, P-L.; Ringertz, H.; Donoghue, V.; Frush, D.; Rehani, M.; Appelgate, K.; Sanchez, R.

    2013-01-01

    , use of protective shielding, optimisation of exposure factors, use of pulsed fluoroscopy, limiting fluoroscopy time, etc. Major paediatric interventional procedures should be performed by experienced paediatric interventional operators, and a second, specific level of training in radiological protection is desirable (in some countries, this is mandatory). For computed tomography, dose reduction should be optimised by the adjustment of scan parameters (such as mA, kVp, and pitch) according to patient weight or age, region scanned, and study indication (e.g. images with greater noise should be accepted if they are of sufficient diagnostic quality). Other strategies include restricting multiphase examination protocols, avoiding overlapping of scan regions, and only scanning the area in question. Up-to-date dose reduction technology such as tube current modulation, organ-based dose modulation, auto kV technology, and iterative reconstruction should be utilised when appropriate. It is anticipated that this publication will assist institutions in encouraging the standardisation of procedures, and that it may help increase awareness and ultimately improve practices for the benefit of patients.

  18. Referral expectations of radiology

    Smith, W.L.; Altmaier, E.; Berberoglu, L.; Morris, K.

    1989-01-01

    The expectation of the referring physician are key to developing a successful practice in radiology. Structured interviews with 17 clinicians in both community care and academic practice documented that accuracy of the radiologic report was the single most important factor in clinician satisfaction. Data intercorrelation showed that accuracy of report correlated with frequency of referral (r = .49). Overall satisfaction of the referring physician with radiology correlated with accuracy (r = .69), patient satisfaction (r = .36), and efficiency in archiving (r = .42). These data may be weighted by departmental managers to allocate resources for improving referring physician satisfaction

  19. Marketing a Radiology Practice.

    Levin, David C; Rao, Vijay M; Flanders, Adam E; Sundaram, Baskaran; Colarossi, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    In addition to being a profession, the practice of radiology is a business, and marketing is an important part of that business. There are many facets to marketing a radiology practice. The authors present a number of ideas on how to go about doing this. Some marketing methods can be directed to both patients and referring physicians. Others should be directed just to patients, while still others should be directed just to referring physicians. Aside from marketing, many of them provide value to both target audiences. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Guidelines for radiological interventions

    Kauffmann, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    The German Radiological Society, in cooperation with other German professional bodies, set up draft Guidelines for Radiological Interventions and submitted them to the professional community for discussion. The Guidelines are meant to assess the potential of radiological interventions as treatment alternatives to surgery or aggressive therapy such as chemotherapy. In fact, technical practicability on its own is insufficient to warrant intervention. The Guidelines are systematically compiled notions and recommendations whose aim it is to provide support to physicians and patients in choosing suitable medical care provisions (prevention, diagnosis, therapy, aftertreatment) in specific circumstances. A complete Czech translation of the Guidelines is given. (P.A.)