WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiological hazards due

  1. Radiological hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.

    1984-01-01

    The work of the (United Kingdom) National Radiological Protection Board is discussed. The following topics are mentioned: relative contributions to genetically significant doses of radiation from various sources; radon gas in non-coal mines and in dwelling houses; effects of radiation accidents; radioactive waste disposal; radiological protection of the patient in medicine; microwaves, infrared radiation and cataracts; guidance notes for use with forthcoming Ionising Radiations Regulations; training courses; personal dosimetry service; work related to European Communities. (U.K.)

  2. Radiological hazards of narghile smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, A.E.M.; Abd El-Aziz, N.S.; Al-Sewaidan, H.A.; Chaouachi, K.

    2008-07-01

    Narghile smoking pastes, known as jurak and moassel, are not standardized manufacture. This study aims at drawing the first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in relation to moassel-narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range of variations in the natural radioactivity. The distribution pattern of these natural radio-nuclides, during smoking, between smoke, ash and water filter is unknown, except for 210Po. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of 210Po was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radio-nuclides is discussed. Further research in this direction is needed. (author)(tk)

  3. Radiological hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the present document is to review and assess the occupational hazards to uranium miners in Canada. Amendments to regulations set the maximum permissible dose to uranium miners at 50 mSv per year. Uranium miners are exposed to radon and thoron progeny, external gamma radiation and long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides in dust. The best estimate for the lifetime risk of inhaled radon progeny is about 3 x 10 -4 lung cancers per WLM for the average miner, with a range of uncertainty from about 1 -6 x 10 -4 per WLM. This central value is nearly twice as high as that recommended by the ICRP in 1981. The probability of serious biological consequences following exposure to external gamma rays is currently under review but is expected to be in the range of 3 - 6 x 10 -2 Sv -1 . Dosimetric calculations indicate that the stochastic risks per WLM of thoron progeny are about one-third of those for radon progeny. The annual limits on intake of inhaled ore dusts recommended by the ICRP are probably too low by at least a factor of two for the type of ore and dust normally encountered in underground uranium mines in Ontario; this is due in part to the fact that the average diameter of these dusts is five times greater than the value used by the ICRP. Radiological exposures of uranium miners in Canada were reviewed. The biological impact of these exposures were compared with those of conventional accidents on the basis of the years of normal life expectancy that are lost or seriously impaired due to occupational hazards. The objectives in considering all occupational risks are to reduce the total risk from all causes and to use funds spent for health protection as effectively as possible

  4. Radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated wastes are discussed in this overview in terms of two components of hazard: radiobiological hazard, and radioecological hazard. Radiobiological hazard refers to human uptake of alpha-emitters by inhalation and ingestion, and the resultant dose to critical organs of the body. Radioecological hazard refers to the processes of release from buried wastes, transport in the environment, and translocation to man through the food chain. Besides detailing the sources and magnitude of hazards, this brief review identifies the uncertainties in their estimation, and implications for the regulatory process

  5. Radiological hazards due to naturally occurring radionuclides in the selected building materials used for the construction of dwellings in four districts of the Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S U; Rafique, M; Jabbar, A; Matiullah

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the finding of a study undertaken to determine the naturally occurring radionuclides present in commonly used building materials for dwellings and workplaces in four districts of the Punjab Province, Pakistan. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. A total of 80 samples of building materials were collected from various manufacturers and suppliers of the studied area. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured in building samples, and results ranged from minimum values of 9 ± 1, 9 ± 2 and 27 ± 8 Bq kg(-1) to maximum values of 106 ± 5, 133 ± 5 and 914 ± 21 Bq kg(-1) with mean values of 42 ± 3, 48 ± 3 and 376 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From the measured activity concentrations, equivalent radium (Ra(eq)), terrestrial absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated and found to range from 52 ± 7 to 274 ± 15 Bq kg(-1), 23 ± 3 to 130 6 nGy h(-1), 0.15 ± 0.02 to 0.80 ± 0.03 mSv, 0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.2 ± 0.02 to 0.98 ± 0.05, respectively. These results were comparable to the results of similar studies undertaken locally and in other countries. The samples considered were safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard.

  6. assessment of radiological hazard indices from surface soil to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samples in Eagle, Atlas and rock cement companies in Port Harcourt was carried out by ... and external hazard indices in order to assess the radiological implication to the people .... Sciences & Environmental Management, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp.

  7. Radiology of adverse reactions to drugs and toxic hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansell, G.

    1989-01-01

    The book reviews the contribution offered by radiological methods to detection of lesions, confirmation of tentative diagnoses, and differentiation of lesions. The radiological methods discussed cover the conventional roentgenology as well as computed tomography, ultrasonography, scintiscanning, and NMR tomography, which are the useful tools for the very important task, to detect and define the manifestations of adverse reactions and toxic hazards, in order to commence treatment in time. (orig.) With 154 figs [de

  8. Limits of the comparison between radiological and chemical hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.; Bounolleau, B.

    2003-01-01

    The primary reason for comparing radiological and chemical hazards is, in the absence of knowledge of similarities between underlying mechanisms, the comparability of the methods used to evaluate their long-term consequences, especially at low doses: carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and effects on reproduction. For radiations, the evaluation is performed above all in terms of risk quantification while for chemicals hazard identification is the main concern. (authors)

  9. Philosophy of radiological protection and radiation hazard protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kawano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection and the human safety in radiation facilities are strictly controlled by law. There are rules on the radiation measurement, too. In the present review, philosophy of the radiological protection and the radiation hazard protection law is outlined with reference to ICRP recommendations. (J.P.N.)

  10. Waste Minimization via Radiological Hazard Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, K.A.; Coffield, T.; Hooker, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km 2 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility in south-western South Carolina, incorporates pollution prevention as a fundamental component of its Environmental Management System. A comprehensive pollution prevention program was implemented as part of an overall business strategy to reduce waste generation and pollution releases, minimize environmental impacts, and to reduce future waste management and pollution control costs. In fiscal years 1995 through 1997, the Site focused on implementing specific waste reduction initiatives identified while benchmarking industry best practices. These efforts resulted in greater than $25 million in documented cost avoidance. While these results have been dramatic to date, the Site is further challenged to maximize resource utilization and deploy new technologies and practices to achieve further waste reductions. The Site has elected to target a site-wide reduction of contaminated work spaces in fiscal year 1998 as the primary source reduction initiative. Over 120,900 m 2 of radiologically contaminated work areas (approximately 600 separate inside areas) exist at SRS. Reduction of these areas reduces future waste generation, minimizes worker exposure, and reduces surveillance and maintenance costs. This is a major focus of the Site's As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) program by reducing sources of worker exposure. The basis for this approach was demonstrated during 1997 as part of a successful Enhanced Work Planning pilot conducted at several specific contamination areas at SRS. An economic-based prioritization process was utilized to develop a model for prioritizing areas to reclaim. In the H-Canyon Separation facility, over 3,900 m 2 of potentially contaminated area was rolled back to a Radiation Buffer Area. The facility estimated nearly 420 m 3 of low level radioactive waste will be avoided each year, and overall cost savings and productivity gains will reach approximately $1

  11. Perspectives on the chemical and radiological hazards of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansbury, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Uranium is unique among the elements because it presents chemical and radiological hazards of comparable magnitude. Although the biological effects of a heavy metal damaging the kidneys are vastly different from the actions of an alpha-emitting nuclide in the lung or bone tissues, there are some perceptual and phenomenological similarities of note to health physicists. In a broad sense, the amount of uranium that could cause chemical kidney damage or pose a radiation hazard could go unnoticed in the work place. Once taken into the body, the chemical action or the radiological insult progresses without any warning signals. Ultrasensitive bioassay techniques could detect the presence of uranium in the body and quantify an intake that is known to have occurred. The adverse health effect of either the chemical or radiological mode of action is catastrophic: kidney failure on one hand, cancer on the other. Two other parallelisms should be noted. The natural loss of nephrons is part of the aging process. Similarly 15 to 20% of the population die of naturally caused cancer. Thus, the effects of uranium exposure mimic natural effects in unexposed populations. There are suspected adverse health effects at low levels of exposure to uranium. Even though there may be good reasons for suspecting low-level effects, both chemical and radiological, there is very little definitive evidence that these effects occur in human populations. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Regulatory aspects of radiological hazards in mines and works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.E.; Guy, M.S.C.; Van Sittert, J.M.O.

    1987-01-01

    The mining and processing of ores containing uranium and thorium can give rise to exposure to ionizing radiation via various pathways to both persons employed in mines and works and to members of the general public living in the vicinity of such facilities. Such exposures to radiation will not give rise to unacceptable levels of risk provided the source of such exposure are identified, quantified and controlled. In order to establish the necessary regulatory framework to ensure such identification, quantification and control, regulations are currently being promulgated under the Mines and Works Act to require that activities involving nuclear hazard material resulting from the mining and processing of materials containing uranium and thorium will be subject to such conditions that will ensure compliance with a system of radiation dose limitation laid down. It is proposed that conditions be established for each mine and works in the form of a Code of Practice specific to the facility, the provisions of which will be commensurate with the potential magnitude of the particular radiological hazards prevailing at that facility. Generic guidelines will be made available to enable suitable Codes of Practice to be drawn up. This paper discusses the various radiological hazards that may have to be considered, the scope and content of the generic guidelines and the dose limitation system with which it will be necessary to comply. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  13. The radiogenic hazards of working in a radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.G.B.

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the risks incurred by the medical personnel working in a radiology department with regard to the new estimates of risk levels for ionizing radiation delivered at low dose rates and low doses (UNSCEAR, 1988; NRPB, 1988; ICRP, 1991). It is emphasised that in deciding if the cancer has been caused by an occupational exposure, the factors to be taken into account are the radiosensitivity of the organ involved, the dose the organ has received and the time of the appearance of the cancer. Figures are provided for the radiation doses and risk of fatality of medical workers. A comparison is made with the risk of death from working in various industries. It appears that for the majority of medical radiation workers the radiogenic hazard is slight but that the hazards can be substantial for the higher dose workers. 13 refs., 2 tabs.; 1 fig

  14. Occupational radiation exposure of the personnel due to interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wucherer, M.; Schmidt, T.; Loose, R.

    2000-01-01

    Applications of interventional radiology continue to be on an upward trend, some countries reporting a 100% increase within 2-4 years, so that the resulting radiation exposure of both patients and personnel is an issue of increasing importance. Whereas those applications in general are of advantage for the patients, they mean just a further health hazard for the medical personnel. It is therefore necessary to exploit all available means to reduce the occupational doses. Modern interventional radiology systems offer a range of measures for this purpose, as e.g. last-image-hold, or pulsed modes. Special attention has to be given to the exposure of hand and head. Particularly the hand is closest to the useful beam, and it should be a mandatory requirement to wear film rings. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments acceptance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Dochat, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    During the summer of 1996, the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and its accompanying three-dimensional (3-D) visualization tool, the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS), were delivered to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL and Mechanical Technology, Inc., performed final acceptance testing of the TMS during the next eight months. The TMS was calibrated and characterized during this period. This paper covers the calibration, characterization, and acceptance testing of the TMS. Development of the TMS and ICERVS was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of characterization and remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a 3-D, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is the mapping of the interior of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts and to obtain baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors as well as data on changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Washington site, the TMS is designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid, variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention

  16. Topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments acceptance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gary A.; Dochat, G. R.

    1997-09-01

    During the summer of 1996, the topographical mapping system (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and its accompanying three-dimensional (3-D) visualization tool, the interactive computer-enhanced remote-viewing system (ICERVS), were delivered to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL and Mechanical Technology, Inc., performed final acceptance testing of the TMS during the next eight months. The TMS was calibrated and characterized during this period. This paper covers the calibration, characterization, and acceptance testing of the TMS. Development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of characterization and remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a 3-D, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is the mapping of the interior of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts and to obtain baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors as well as data on changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Washington site, the TMS is designed to be a self-contained, compact, reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid, variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention.

  17. Results of survey for assessing awareness level regarding radiological hazards of tobacco smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S. N. A.

    2009-01-01

    Human consumption of tobacco is as old as human history. However, injurious health effects due to tobacco smoking may not be evident to the public at large. This article presents results of a questionnaire based on a survey carried out in the metropolitan city of Lahore of Pakistan with an aim to understand the awareness level of the general population about the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking. Some 3600 participants from different educational backgrounds from all segments of the society participated in this survey. Analysis of the data collected concluded that the awareness level of the representative participants regarding the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking was alarmingly poor. These results suggest that a nationwide mass media campaign may be launched by the government authorities in Health and Environment departments to enlighten the general public in this respect to avoid tobacco-smoking-associated health risks. (authors)

  18. Standarized radiological hazard analysis for a broad based operational safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadman, W.W. III; Andrews, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiological hazard Analysis (RHA) Manual provides a methodology and detailed guidance for systematic analysis of radiological hazards over a broad spectrum of program functions, housed in a wide variety of facilities. Radiological programs at LANL include: research and experimentation; routine materials operations; production; non-destructive examination or testing; isotope and machine produced radiations; chemistry; and metallurgy. The RHA permits uniform evaluation of hazard types over a range of several orders of magnitude of hazard severity. The results are used to estimate risk, evaluate types and level or resource allocations, identify deficiencies, and plan corrective actions for safe working environments. 2 refs

  19. Standardized radiological hazard analysis for a broad based operational safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadman, W. III; Andrews, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiological Hazard Analysis (RHA) Manual provides a methodology and detailed guidance for systematic analysis of radiological hazards over a broad spectrum of program functions, housed in a wide variety of facilities. Radiological programs at LANL include: research and experimentation routine materials operations; production; non-destructive examination or testing; isotope and machine produced radiations; chemistry; and metallurgy. The RHA permits uniform evaluation of hazard types over a range of several orders of magnitude of hazard severity. The results are used to estimate risk, evaluate types and level of resource allocations, identify deficiencies, and plan corrective actions for safe working environments. (author)

  20. Assessment of natural radionuclides and its radiological hazards from tiles made in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, E. S.; Maxwell, O.; Adewoyin, O. O.; Ehi-Eromosele, C. O.; Embong, Z.; Saeed, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    Activity concentration of 10 different brands of tiles made in Nigeria were analyzed using High purity Germanium gamma detector and its hazard indices such as absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, external Hazard Index (Hex), internal Hazard Index (Hin), Annual Effective Dose (mSv/y), Gamma activity Index (Iγ) and Alpha Index (Iα) were determined. The result showed that the average activity concentrations of radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) content are within the recommended limit. The average radium equivalent is within the recommended limit of 370 Bq/kg. The result obtained further showed that the mean values for the absorbed dose rate (D), external and internal hazard index, the annual effective dose (AEDR) equivalent, gamma activity index and Alpha Index were: 169.22 nGyh-1, 0.95 and 1.14, 1.59 mSv/y, 1.00 Sv yr-1 and 0.34 respectively. The result established that radiological hazards such as absorbed dose rate, internal hazard, annual effective dose rate, gamma activity index and Alpha Index for some samples are found to be slightly close or above international recommended values. The result for the present study was compared with tiles sample from others countries, it was observed that the concentration of tiles made in Nigeria and other countries are closer, however recommends proper radiation monitoring for some tiles made in Nigeria before usage due to the long term health effect.

  1. HAZARDS OF THERMAL EXPANSION FOR RADIOLOGICAL CONTAINER ENGULFED IN FIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-05-01

    Fire accidents pose a serious threat to nuclear facilities. It is imperative that transport casks or shielded containers designed to transport/contain radiological materials have the ability to withstand a hypothetical fire. A numerical simulation was performed for a shielded container constructed of stainless steel and lead engulfed in a hypothetical fire as outlined by 10 CFR §71.73. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the thermal response of the container during and after the fire. The thermal model shows that after 30 minutes of fire, the stainless steel will maintain its integrity and not melt. However, the lead shielding will melt since its temperature exceeds the melting point. Due to the method of construction of the container under consideration, ample void space must be provided to allow for thermal expansion of the lead upon heating and melting, so as to not overstress the weldment.

  2. Radiological hazard assessment at the Monte Bello Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Martin, L.J.; Wilks, M.J.; Wiliams, G.A.

    1990-12-01

    Field and laboratory measurements are described and data presented which enabled dose assessments for exposure to artificial radionuclides at the Monte Bello Islands, the sites of U.K. atomic weapons tests in 1952 and 1956. The report focuses on quantifying the inhalation hazard as exposure via the ingestion and wound contamination pathways is considered inconsequential. Surface soil concentrations of radionuclides and particle size analyses are presented for various sampling sites. Analyses of the distribution with depth indicated that, in general, the activity is more or less uniformly mixed through the top 40 mm, although in a few cases the top 10 mm contains the bulk of the activity. The 239 Pu/ 241 Am activity ratios were measured for selected samples. The only potential hazards to health from residual radioactive contamination on the Monte Bello Islands are due to the inhalation of actinides (specifically plutonium and americium) and from the external gamma-radiation field. Only one area, in the fallout plume of HURRICANE to the north-west of Main Beach, is a potential inhalation hazard. For an average inhalable dust loading of 0.1 mg/m 3 , three days occupancy of the most contaminated site will result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 1 mSv. The two ground zeros could not be considered inhalation hazards, considering the small areas concerned and the habits of visitors (full-time occupancy, over a period of one year or more, of the most contaminated sites at either of the G1 or G2 ground zeros would be required to reach 1 mSv). 25 refs., 23 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Hazardous radiological waste-dental and environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Dental radiology is concerned with maxillo-facial radiological diagnostic procedure. It is meant for patient welfare and to generate diagnostically useful information, which can be utilized for patient welfare. If injudiciously used, it can become a source of harmful effluents and solid waste, which may pose risk to health and environment. Professionals of dental radiology should be aware about their responsibility to dispose such waste in the rightful manner to fulfil their medical pledge and ethics of doing no harm. (author)

  4. Radiological and hazardous material characterization report for the south portion of the 313 Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of the characterization was to determine the extent of radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials, to allow the preparation of an accurate cost estimate, and to plan for pre-demolition cleanup work to support building isolation. The scope of services for the project included the following tasks: Records Review and Interviews; Site Reconnaissance; Radiological Survey; and Sampling and Analysis

  5. Assessment of radiological and non-radiological hazards in the nuclear fuel cycle - The Indian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamony, S.; Gopinath, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    Design and operational aspects of nuclear fuel cycle facilities have several features that distinguish them from nuclear power plants. These are related to (i) the nature of operations which are chiefly mining, metallurgical and chemical; (ii) the nature and type of radio-active materials handled, their specific activities and inventories; and (iii) the physical and chemical processes involved and the associated containment provisions. Generally the radioactive materials are present in an already highly dispersible or mobile form, in the form of solutions, slurries and powders, often associated with a wide variety of reactive and corrosive chemicals. There are further marked differences between the front-end and back-end of the fuel cycle. Whereas the front-end is characterized by the presence of large quantities of low specific activity naturally occurring radioactive materials, the back-end is characterized by high specific activities and concentrations of fission products and actinides. Radioactive characteristics of waste arisings are also different in different phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. Potential for internal exposure in the occupational environment is another distinguishing feature as compared with the more common designs of nuclear power reactors. Potential for accidents, their phenomenology and the resulting consequences are also markedly different in fuel cycle operations. The non-radiological hazards in fuel cycle operations are also of significance, since the operations are mostly mining, metallurgical and chemical in nature. These aspects are examined and evaluated in this paper, based on the Indian experience. (author). 12 refs, 10 tabs

  6. Radiological impact assessment to the environment due to waste from disposal of porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsi, Tarek; Hegazy, Rehab; Badawy, Wael

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to assess the radiological parameters from gamma rays due to the uncontrolled disposal of porcelain waste to the environment. Qualitative and quantitative identification of radionuclides in the investigated samples was carried out by means of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentrations of the local porcelain samples were measured as 208.28 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 125.73 Bq/kg for 238 U, 84.94 Bq/kg for 232 Th and 1033.61 Bq/kg for 40 K, respectively. The imported samples had an average activity of 240.57 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 135.56 Bq/kg for 238 U, 115.74 Bq/kg for 232 Th and 1312.49 Bq/kg for 40 K, respectively. Radiological parameters and the radium equivalent Ra eq for the investigated samples were calculated. The external and internal hazard indices, representative level index (I γ ), alpha index (I α ), and the exemption level (I x ), were estimated to be higher than the recommended value (unity), while the average activity concentrations for the studied samples were higher than recommended levels. In conclusion, we are concerned that disposal of porcelain in the environment might be a significant hazard.

  7. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A

  8. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A.

  9. The radiological hazard of plutonium isotopes and specific plutonium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindel, G.; Clow, J.; Inkret, W.; Miller, G.

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy defines the hazard categories of its nuclear facilities based upon the potential for accidents to have significant effects on specific populations and the environment. In this report, the authors consider the time dependence of hazard category 2 (significant on-site effects) for facilities with inventories of plutonium isotopes and specific weapons-grade and heat-source mixtures of plutonium isotopes. The authors also define relative hazard as the reciprocal of the hazard category 2 threshold value and determine its time dependence. The time dependence of both hazard category 2 thresholds and relative hazards are determined and plotted for 10,000 years to provide useful information for planning long-term storage or disposal facilities

  10. Coastal Flooding Hazards due to storm surges and subsidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo; Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole B.

    Flooding hazard and risk mapping are major topics in low-lying coastal areas before even considering the adverse effects of sea level rise (SLR) due to climate change. While permanent inundation may be a prevalent issue, more often floods related to extreme events (storm surges) have the largest...... damage potential.Challenges are amplified in some areas due to subsidence from natural and/or anthropogenic causes. Subsidence of even a few mm/y may over time greatly impair the safety against flooding of coastal communities and must be accounted for in order to accomplish the economically most viable...

  11. Radiological hazard from coal-fired power plants in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowina-Konopka, M.

    1991-01-01

    The radiobiological hazard of Polish population due to coal combustion for electric power production was assessed. Activity concentrations of the elementary radionuclides in coal and all kinds of ashes were measured. The ATMO computer program was applied to calculate the annual increase of the activity concentration in the air and of the annual increase of activity falling on the ground. Exposition by inhalation, oral ingestion and external irradiation was taken into account. The assessed value of irradiation was taken into account. The assessed value of individual effective dose equivalent commitments for the critical group is 0.1 mSv, i.e. 4% of the total dose rate from natural radiation. The collective effective dose equivalent commitments received of all sources by an inhabitant of Poland as a consequence of annual coal combustion in Polish CPP is 367 manSv/a (i.e. 47 manSv per GWa), i.e. 0.4% of the dose from natural radiation. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  12. Radiation hazards and protection of patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Y.C.; Haldar, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Biological radiation effects such as somatic certainty effects, somatic stochastic effects and genetic effects are described. Diagnostic radiology, therefore, involves risk to the patient in case of undesirable exposures and in particular to the fetus. Gonad doses in diagnostic radiology which may lead to genetic effects have been found to vary within a wide range. To avoid somatic certainty and to keep genetic effects to a minimum, some suggestions are enumerated. They deal with the choice of technique, proper positioning, use of calibrated equipment and use of techniques like xerography, ultrasonography, thermography etc. (M.G.B.)

  13. Numerical Simulations as Tool to Predict Chemical and Radiological Hazardous Diffusion in Case of Nonconventional Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Ciparisse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations are widely used nowadays to predict the behaviour of fluids in pure research and in industrial applications. This approach makes it possible to get quantitatively meaningful results, often in good agreement with the experimental ones. The aim of this paper is to show how CFD calculations can help to understand the time evolution of two possible CBRNe (Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-explosive events: (1 hazardous dust mobilization due to the interaction between a jet of air and a metallic powder in case of a LOVA (Loss Of Vacuum Accidents that is one of the possible accidents that can occur in experimental nuclear fusion plants; (2 toxic gas release in atmosphere. The scenario analysed in the paper has consequences similar to those expected in case of a release of dangerous substances (chemical or radioactive in enclosed or open environment during nonconventional events (like accidents or man-made or natural disasters.

  14. Determination of Radiological Hazard Associated with the use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... calculated to be 17.41nGyhr-1 with mean annual effective dose rate of 0.022mSvyr-1The values of the radiological indicators were found to be within the limits recommended for safety, indicating that the use of the sediment of the river as building material does ...

  15. Assessing radiologic risk for population due to human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Al.; Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.; Hirica, O.

    2002-01-01

    The most important factor in assessing radiologic risk is ensuring scientific means for evaluation of the radioactive release impact upon humans and organisms. To evaluate quantitatively this impact not only knowledge of radioactivity distribution in these dynamical systems is necessary but also understanding the transfer mechanisms between ecosystem components is needed. Thus a complete radioecologic study appear to be very complex and needs defining the source term, dynamic description of radionuclides behavior in the ecosystem, estimation of radiation doses in the major components of the ecosystem and finally the effects of radiation doses upon different parts of the systems. A diagram of the steps implied in evaluation of the effects due to radioactive effluent release in the environment is presented and discussed. The following steps are described: - identification of radioactive sources, as well as their input rate. Presence of noxious materials such as heavy metals or some organic compounds should be taken into account to assess the synergetic or antagonistic interactions; - determination of space-time distribution of release radionuclides; - estimation of dose rates and radiation exposure of population; - estimation of radiation dose effects upon individuals, population and ecosystems. This fourth step implies: experimental field or laboratory studies to determine the somatic/genetic response to radiation as a function of the exposure dose; following-up and interpretation of the organism response to dose or dose rates in terms of radiation-induce changes in the population life cycles; forecasting the irradiation effects upon population or communities within environment. Finally, this evaluation is completed by the decision making process implying a society acceptance of the forecast and/or observed effects

  16. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in building materials used in Yan'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Caifeng

    2013-03-01

    The concentration of natural radionuclides in commonly used building materials collected from Yan'an, China, was determined using gamma ray spectroscopy with a NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentration of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K in the studied building materials ranges from 9.4-73.1, 11.5-86.9, and 258.9-1,055.1 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the world mean values for soil. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin), indoor air absorbed dose rate, and annual effective dose rate due to natural radionuclides in samples were estimated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwellings made of the studied building materials. The calculated Raeq values of all building materials (75.7-222.1 Bq kg⁻¹) are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg⁻¹. The values of Hex and Hin are less than unity. The mean values of indoor air absorbed dose rates of all building materials (101.0 ± 14.1-177.0 ± 6.8 nGy h⁻¹) are higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy h⁻¹, while the mean values of annual effective dose range from 0.50 ± 0.07-0.87 ± 0.03 mSv y⁻¹, which are lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y⁻¹. It is found that these materials may be used safely as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards to inhabitants.

  17. Applying radiological emergency planning experience to hazardous materials emergency planning within the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltman, A.; Newsom, D.; Lerner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has extensive radiological emergency planning (REP) experience that is directly applicable to hazardous materials emergency planning. Recently, the Feed Materials Production Center near Cincinnati, Ohio, successfully demonstrated such application. The REP experience includes conceptual bases and standards for developing plans that have been tested in hundreds of full-scale exercises. The exercise program itself is also well developed. Systematic consideration of the differences between chemical and radiological hazards shows that relatively minor changes to the REP bases and standards are necessary. Conduct of full-scale, REP-type exercises serves to test the plans, provide training, and engender confidence and credibility

  18. Health hazards due to radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.; Qureshi, I.E.; Tufail, M.

    1993-01-01

    The health hazards liked to radon and its daughters have become a matter of great public concern. When inhaled, a fraction of radon is dissolved into the lung fluid, from where it is transported to other parts of the body. The radiation damage is caused to the lungs due to alpha decay of radon during its transit time within the respiratory tract. Radon daughters are found to be even more dangerous than radon itself. These daughters attach themselves to dust particles present in the air. Some of the aerosols so produced enter the lungs and enter the blood stream. It has now been confirmed that radon and its daughters contribute about 70% of the internal dose received by an individual from natural radiation sources. The danger of indoor radon and its daughters is even higher for energy-saving houses and those having poor ventilation systems. This paper briefly describes the health hazards due to radon and its daughters. Different methods employed for the measurement of concentrations of radon and their daughters are described. The experience gained from the nation-wide surveys carried out in different countries is also given. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  19. Using SAFRAN Software to Assess Radiological Hazards from Dismantling of Tammuz-2 Reactor Core at Al-tuwaitha Nuclear Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed Gatea, Mezher; Ahmed, Anwar A.; jundee kadhum, Saad; Ali, Hasan Mohammed; Hussein Muheisn, Abbas

    2018-05-01

    The Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) software has implemented here for radiological safety analysis; to verify that the dose acceptance criteria and safety goals are met with a high degree of confidence for dismantling of Tammuz-2 reactor core at Al-tuwaitha nuclear site. The activities characterizing, dismantling and packaging were practiced to manage the generated radioactive waste. Dose to the worker was considered an endpoint-scenario while dose to the public has neglected due to that Tammuz-2 facility is located in a restricted zone and 30m berm surrounded Al-tuwaitha site. Safety assessment for dismantling worker endpoint-scenario based on maximum external dose at component position level in the reactor pool and internal dose via airborne activity while, for characterizing and packaging worker endpoints scenarios have been done via external dose only because no evidence for airborne radioactivity hazards outside the reactor pool. The in-situ measurements approved that reactor core components are radiologically activated by Co-60 radioisotope. SAFRAN results showed that the maximum received dose for workers are (1.85, 0.64 and 1.3mSv/y) for activities dismantling, characterizing and packaging of reactor core components respectively. Hence, the radiological hazards remain below the low level hazard and within the acceptable annual dose for workers in radiation field

  20. New U.K. safety legislation and its effects on the control of radiological hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, B.H.J.; Luxon, S.G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper explains the objectives of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 and refers in particular to its effects on the control of hazards at nuclear installations and, more widely, on the control of radiological hazards generally. It deals also with the changes resulting from the setting up of the Health and Safety Commission and its Executive under the new Act, and the effects of these changes on the work of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. (auth.) [fr

  1. Radiological Hazard of Spallation Products in Accelerator-Driven System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Stankovskii, A.; Artisyuk, V.; Korovin, Yu.; Shmelev, A.; Titarenko, Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The central issue underlying this paper is related to elucidating the hazard of radioactive spallation products that might be an important factor affecting the design option of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs). Hazard analysis based on the concept of Annual Limit on Intake identifies alpha-emitting isotopes of rare earths (REs) (dysprosium, gadolinium, and samarium) as the dominant contributors to the overall toxicity of traditional (W, Pb, Pb-Bi) targets. The matter is addressed from several points of view: code validation to simulate their yields, choice of material for the neutron producing targets, and challenging the beam type. The paper quantitatively determines the domain in which the toxicity of REs exceeds that of polonium activation products broadly discussed now in connection with advertising lead-bismuth technology for the needs of ADSs

  2. Assessment of radiological hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials in cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Gul, R.; Ara, T.; Hussain, M.

    2012-01-01

    A study on the radiological hazard in Portland cement due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials is being carried out. The Portland cement manufactured in the Islamabad/Rawalpindi region of Pakistan, intermediate products (clinker) and the various raw materials which compose the product have been analysed for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using a gamma spectrometry system with a N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. From the measured gamma ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The mean values of the total specific activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 34.2±11.9, 29.1±3.6 and 295.1±66.9 Bq kg -1 , respectively in Portland cement, 28.4±8.7, 11.3±1.7 and 63.1±17.3 Bq kg -1 , respectively in lime stone, 8.2±1.9, 16.2±3.9 and 187.7±53.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively in gypsum, 34.7±13.1, 41.2±6.7 and 187.6±17.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively in clay, 41.1±11.8, 39.3±6.9 and 195.1±29.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively in laterite and 51.1±18.2, 23.2±1.2 and 258.4±15.3 Bq kg -1 , respectively in clinker. The radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ), internal hazard index (H in ), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose rate (E eff ) were also determined. The measured activity concentrations for these radio nuclides and radiological indices were compared with the reported national and international data. All these measured values are comparable with the worldwide data reported in UNSCEAR publications. (authors)

  3. Risks to offshore installations in Europe due to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necci, Amos; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as storms, earthquakes, or lightning are a major threat to industry. In particular, chemical plants, storage facilities, pipelines, and offshore oil and gas facilities are vulnerable to natural events which can cause hazardous materials releases and thereby endanger workers, the population and the environment. These technological accidents are commonly referred to as Natech accidents. Recent events have increased concerns about safety in the offshore oil and gas sector, and the need for improving knowledge on the matter has become evident. With those premises, we analyzed accidents, near misses and accident precursors at offshore facilities in Europe caused by natural events using both a statistical and a qualitative approach. For this purpose, we screened the World Offshore Accident Database (WOAD) to identify all incidents that featured natural events as causes or aggravating factors. A dataset of 1,085 global Natech events was built for the statistical analysis. Among those, a subset composed of 303 European records was selected. The results of the analysis showed that offshore Natech events in Europe are frequent; they resulted, however, in low consequences. The main threat to offshore facilities resulted from bad weather, such as strong winds and heavy seas. Storms can put intense loads on the structural parts of offshore installations, eventually exceeding design resistance specifications. Several incidents triggered by lightning strikes and earthquakes were also recorded. Substantial differences in terms of vulnerability, damage modality and consequences emerged between fixed and floating offshore structures. The main damage mode for floating structures was the failure of station keeping systems due to the rupture of mooring or anchors, mainly caused by adverse meteorological conditions. Most of the incidents at fixed offshore structures in Europe involved falling loads for both metal jacket and concrete base platforms due to storms. In

  4. Radiological hazards assessment at mineral processing plants in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Shamsul Bahrin Ludin; Mohd Yusof Harun; Amran Kamaruddin; Abdul Hamid Latip; Mohd Azwar Hashim

    1994-01-01

    The estimated total dose due to radiation received by workers at the minerals processing plants in Malaysia based on area monitoring data. The dose was evaluated using three main parameters, namely exposures from external radiation, inhalation of airborne radioactive dusts and radon/thoron progenies. The study shows that workers at different location in the plants are potentially exposed to in excess of one tenth (1/10) and three tenth (3/10) of the annual dose limit. (author)

  5. Radiological hazard indices and elemental composition of Brazilian and Swiss ornamental rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajj, T.M. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Silva, P.S.C.; Santos, A., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gandolla, M.P.A. [Universita della Svizzera Italiana (USI), Lugano (Switzerland); Dantas, G.A.S.A.; Delboni Junior, H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the radiological risk index of ornamental rocks sold both in Brazil and Europe and to correlate their radioactive content with their chemical composition. The {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K mean values were 62 ± 65, 122 ± 111, 1126 ± 516 Bq kg{sup -1} for Brazilian and 93 ± 59, 70 ± 67 and 1005 ± 780 Bq kg{sup -1} for Swiss samples, respectively. The radiological index: radium equivalent, external hazard index, absorbed dose rate in air, annual gonadal equivalent dose, annual effective dose equivalent, and excess lifetime cancer risk for Brazilian and Swiss samples were calculated. The main contribution for the radiological indices observed was the radionuclide {sup 232}Th, which is associated with REE, Br, Hf, Na, Rb, Sb and Zr in the rock matrix. (author)

  6. Radiological risks due to intrusion into a deep bedrock repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlinder, S.; Bergstroem, U.; Edlund, O.

    1999-01-01

    The Swedish concept for disposal of high-level waste is a deep (500 m) bedrock repository (SFL) protected by multiple barriers that isolate the waste from the environment for such a long time that the physical decay will cause a substantial reduction of the radioactivity. The aim of concentration and isolation of high-level waste is to reduce the radiation risk. Intrusion in the repository may introduce a small residual risk to individuals. A risk analysis was performed comprising dose assessment and probabilities of occurrence. Intrusions may be considered to take place either due to conscious actions or by actions without any knowledge about the repository. For conscious intrusion it may be assumed that there will be enough knowledge to manage the radiation situation in a professional manner. Several reasons for making inadvertent intrusion are possible. Independently of the purpose, the most probable initial way of coming into contact with the radioactive material is by deep drilling. Examples of causes for drilling could be general scientific purposes or exploitation of geothermal energy. Dose assessments were made for intrusion due to inclined drilling directly into a canister, and drilling near an initially malfunctioning canister from which radionuclides have leaked into the groundwater. For the former case, external pathways were considered due to exposure from a core of the canister with fuel and contaminated bore dust. The most common drilling method is with water flushing for removal of bore dust, which will not cause any substantial transfer of radionuclides to air. For the second case, it was assumed that there was a well in the vicinity. The only pathway considered was therefore consumption of water because it dominates the exposure. The highest dose rates to man were, as expected, obtained by drilling into the canister. Dose rates decrease with time after closure. During the first time the relatively short-lived radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 give

  7. Natural radioactivity level and radiological hazard assessment of commonly used building material in Xining, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigang Chao; Xinwei Lu; Mengmeng Zhang; Long Pang

    2014-01-01

    Natural radioactivity of the commonly used building materials in Xining of China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometer system comprising a NaI(Tl) detector. Radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied samples range from 11.6 to 120.6, 10.2 to 107.1 and 228.0 to 1,036.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the mean value for soil. Radium equivalent activity, indoor air absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwelling made of the building materials. The radiological hazard assessment results show that the studied building materials, except for some aerated concrete block samples, are safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard. (author)

  8. EVALUATING ROBOT TECHNOLOGIES AS TOOLS TO EXPLORE RADIOLOGICAL AND OTHER HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis W. Nielsen; David I. Gertman; David J. Bruemmer; R. Scott Hartley; Miles C. Walton

    2008-01-01

    There is a general consensus that robots could be beneficial in performing tasks within hazardous radiological environments. Most control of robots in hazardous environments involves master-slave or teleoperation relationships between the human and the robot. While teleoperation-based solutions keep humans out of harms way, they also change the training requirements to accomplish a task. In this paper we present a research methodology that allowed scientists at Idaho National Laboratory to identify, develop, and prove a semi-autonomous robot solution for search and characterization tasks within a hazardous environment. Two experiments are summarized that validated the use of semi-autonomy and show that robot autonomy can help mitigate some of the performance differences between operators who have different levels of robot experience, and can improve performance over teleoperated systems

  9. Assessment of Nearshore Hazard due to Tsunami-Induced Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.; Ayca, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Eskijian, M.; Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase tsunami hazard preparedness and mitigation in maritime communities (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. The initial goals of the study are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of existing numerical models for assessing maritime tsunami hazards, (2) find a relationship between current speeds and expected damage levels, (3) evaluate California ports and harbors in terms of tsunami induced hazards by identifying regions that are prone to higher current speeds and damage and to identify regions of relatively lower impact that may be used for evacuation of maritime assets, and (4) determine 'safe depths' for evacuation of vessels from ports and harbors during a tsunami event. We will present details of a new initiative to evaluate the future likelihood of failure for different structural components of a harbor, leading to the identification of high priority areas for mitigation. This presentation will focus on the results from California ports and harbors across the State, and will include feedback we have received from discussions with local harbor masters and port authorities. To help promote accurate and consistent products, the authors are also working through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program to organize a tsunami current model benchmark workshop.

  10. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  11. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva; Stan, Rydell

    2008-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment

  12. Quantification and Radiological Risk Estimation Due to the Presence of Natural Radionuclides in Maiganga Coal, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolo, Matthew Tikpangi; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah Binti

    2016-01-01

    Following the increasing demand of coal for power generation, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides were determined in Nigerian coal using the gamma spectrometric technique with the aim of evaluating the radiological implications of coal utilization and exploitation in the country. Mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 8.18±0.3, 6.97±0.3, and 27.38±0.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. These values were compared with those of similar studies reported in literature. The mean estimated radium equivalent activity was 20.26 Bq kg-1 with corresponding average external hazard index of 0.05. Internal hazard index and representative gamma index recorded mean values of 0.08 and 0.14, respectively. These values were lower than their respective precautionary limits set by UNSCEAR. Average excess lifetime cancer risk was calculated to be 0.04×10−3, which was insignificant compared with 0.05 prescribed by ICRP for low level radiation. Pearson correlation matrix showed significant positive relationship between 226Ra and 232Th, and with other estimated hazard parameters. Cumulative mean occupational dose received by coal workers via the three exposure routes was 7.69 ×10−3 mSv y-1, with inhalation pathway accounting for about 98%. All radiological hazard indices evaluated showed values within limits of safety. There is, therefore, no likelihood of any immediate radiological health hazards to coal workers, final users, and the environment from the exploitation and utilization of Maiganga coal. PMID:27348624

  13. Quantification and Radiological Risk Estimation Due to the Presence of Natural Radionuclides in Maiganga Coal, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolo, Matthew Tikpangi; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah Binti

    2016-01-01

    Following the increasing demand of coal for power generation, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides were determined in Nigerian coal using the gamma spectrometric technique with the aim of evaluating the radiological implications of coal utilization and exploitation in the country. Mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 8.18±0.3, 6.97±0.3, and 27.38±0.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. These values were compared with those of similar studies reported in literature. The mean estimated radium equivalent activity was 20.26 Bq kg-1 with corresponding average external hazard index of 0.05. Internal hazard index and representative gamma index recorded mean values of 0.08 and 0.14, respectively. These values were lower than their respective precautionary limits set by UNSCEAR. Average excess lifetime cancer risk was calculated to be 0.04×10-3, which was insignificant compared with 0.05 prescribed by ICRP for low level radiation. Pearson correlation matrix showed significant positive relationship between 226Ra and 232Th, and with other estimated hazard parameters. Cumulative mean occupational dose received by coal workers via the three exposure routes was 7.69 ×10-3 mSv y-1, with inhalation pathway accounting for about 98%. All radiological hazard indices evaluated showed values within limits of safety. There is, therefore, no likelihood of any immediate radiological health hazards to coal workers, final users, and the environment from the exploitation and utilization of Maiganga coal.

  14. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  15. Radiological hazards of Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza) smoking: activity concentrations and dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: khater_ashraf@yahoo.com; Abd El-Aziz, Nawal S. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Al-Sewaidan, Hamed A. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Chaouachi, Kamal [DIU Tobaccology, University of Paris XI-XII (France)

    2008-12-15

    Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza, 'water-pipe') smoking has become fashionable worldwide. Its tobacco pastes, known as moassel and jurak, are not standardized and generally contain about 30-50% (sometimes more) tobacco, molasses/juice of sugarcane, various spices and dried fruits (particularly in jurak) and, in the case of moassel, glycerol and flavoring essences. Tobacco contains minute amounts of radiotoxic elements such as {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and uranium, which are inhaled via smoking. Only very few data have been published on the concentrations of natural radionuclides in narghile tobacco mixtures. Consequently, the aim of this study was to draw first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in moassel tobacco in relation to narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range in the radioactivity contents where the average (range) activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, in Bq/kg dry weight were 55 (19-93), 11 (3-23), 3 (1.2-8), 14 (3-29), 13 (7-32), 7 (4-10) and 719 (437-1044) Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. The average concentrations of natural radionuclides in moassel tobacco pastes are comparable to their concentration in Greek cigarettes and tobacco leaves, and lower than that of Brazilian tobacco leaves. The distribution pattern of these radionuclides after smoking, between smoke, ash and filter, is unknown, except for {sup 210}Po during cigarette smoking and from one existing study during moassel smoking. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of natural radionuclides was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radionuclides is briefly discussed.

  16. The law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The law regulates uses, sales and disposal of radioisotopes, uses of radiation generating apparatuses, disposal of materials contaminated with radioisotopes, and so on, in accordance with the Atomic Energy Fundamental Act, for public safety. Covered are the following: permission for and notification of the uses and permission for businesses selling and disposing of radioisotopes, and approval of designs concerning radiation hazard prevention mechanisms, obligations of the users and business enterprises selling and disposing of radioisotopes, the licensed engineers of radiation, organs, etc. for confirmation of the mechanisms, punitive provisions, and so on. (Mori, K.)

  17. Natural radioactivity and radiological hazards of building materials in Xianyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Yang Guang; Ren Chunhui

    2012-01-01

    Common building materials collected from Xianyang, China were analyzed for the natural radioactivity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using γ-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied building materials ranges from 13.4 to 69.9, 13.1–99.1 and 124.7–915.1 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide average activity of soil. To assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in all samples to the people, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index, indoor absorbed dose rate and total annual effective dose were estimated. The radium equivalent activities of the studied samples are below the internationally accepted values. The external hazard index and internal hazard index of all analyzed building materials are less than unity. The mean values of indoor absorbed dose rate for all building materials except for lime are higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy h −1 and the total annual effective dose values of building materials are lower than 1 mSv y −1 except for some cyan brick samples. The study shows the measured building materials do not pose significant source of radiation hazard and are safe for use in the construction of dwellings. - Highlights: ► Natural radioactivity in building materials was determined by gamma ray spectrometry. ► The radiological hazard of studied building materials is within the recommended safety limit. ► Most of the studied building materials do not pose significant radiation risk to residents.

  18. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, J.M.; Moreau, J.F.; Nahum, H.; Bellet, M.

    1990-01-01

    The 17th International Congress of Radiology was conducted in two separate scientific sessions, one for radiodiagnosis and one for radiation oncology. Topics covered are: Radiobiology -radioprotection; imaging and data processing; contrast media; MRI; nuclear medicine; radiology and disasters; radiology of tropical diseases; cardiovascular radiology; interventional radiology; imaging of trauma; imaging of chest, gastro-intestinal tract, breast and genito-urinary tract; imaging in gynecology;imaging in oncology; bone and joint radiology; head and neck-radiology; neuro-radiology. (H.W.). refs.; fig.; tabs

  19. Comparative Study on Radiological Impact Due To Direct Exposure to a Radiological Dispersal Device Using A Sealed Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most serious terrorist threats implies radiological dispersal devices (RDDs), the so-called dirty bombs, that combine a conventional explosive surrounded by an inflammatory material (like thermit) with radioactive material. The paper objective is to evaluate the radiological impact due to direct exposure to a RDD using a sealed radiation source (used for medical and industrial applications) as radioactive material. The simulations were performed for 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir radiation sources. In order to model the contamination potential level and radiation exposure due to radioactive material spreading from RDD, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's HOTSPOT 2.07 computer code was used. The worst case scenario has been considered, calculations being performed for two radioactive material dispersion models, namely General radioactive Plume and General Explosion. Following parameters evolution with distance from the radiation source was investigated: total effective dose equivalent, time-integrated air concentration, ground surface deposition and ground shine dose rates. Comparisons between considered radiation sources and radioactive material dispersion models have been performed. The most drastic effects on population and the environment characterize 60Co sealed radiation source use in RDD.

  20. Evaluation of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards caused by different marbles of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasamy, V.; Ponnusamy, V.; Hemalatha, J.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Gajendiran, V.

    2005-01-01

    The samples used in this study are of various coloured varieties of marbles collected from marble dealers. The specific activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K has been determined by gamma ray spectrometry. The materials showed concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K which were found to be dramatically variable depending on mineral content and type of formation. Using FTIR and thin section analyses, quartz, feldspar, calcite and mafic minerals present in the samples have been determined quantitatively. From our experimental data, it can be seen that the geochemical parameters such as SiO 2 or mafic minerals or CaCO 3 may be considered to be an appropriate index to select the marbles of low radiological risk. The average specific activities of 40 K are found to be higher than 232 Th, 238 U. The ratio of Th/U was calculated and correlated. Assessment of radiological hazards was made by calculating radium equivalent activities, external and internal hazard indices which were found to vary from 30.92 to 54.45, 0.08 to 0.14 and 0.10 to 0.17 Bq/kg, respectively. The observed values are lower than the recommended limits. (author)

  1. The radiological hazards of some radionuclides in Mariout and Brullus Lakes, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, M.A.; El Saharty, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Mariout and Brullus were considered two of the highly fish productive lakes in Egypt as well as they widely used to drain huge quantities of industrial wastewater, sewage and agriculture drainage. Thousands of peoples inhabited the areas around the lakes and depend on them completely in their lives. The activities of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in the upper most part of the surface sediments of the two lakes using gamma ray spectrophotometery. Brullus Lake recorded significantly higher 238 U and 232 Th and lower 40 K (17.22±2.49 Bq/kg, 10.0 ±56 Bq/kg and 299.7±17.78 Bq/kg) than Mariout Lake (12.65±1.53 Bq/kg, 7.24±0.76 Bq/kg and 518.75±46.24 Bq/kg respectively). Inversely, the mean average of absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose rate (mSvy -1 ), radium equivalent (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ) and the representative level index (Iγr) were; 32.01 nGy/h, 0.04 mSv/y, 62.95 Bq/kg, 0.17 and 0.50 at Mariout Lake higher than those in Brullus lake (26.42 nGy/h, 0.03 mSv/y, 54.25 Bq/kg, 0.15 and 0.41) respectively. The recorded and calculated values were lower than the acceptable limits published in the different localities around the world. The activity distributions of the radiological hazards show the highest intensities in the western part of Mariout Lake and decreasing gradually eastward and north eastward affecting by the drainage agriculture water from Kabary Drain, Umum Drain, S.W. Basin and Nubaria Canal. At Brullus Lake, the radiological hazard intensities were concentrated in the west and southwest influenced by Zaglul Drain, Rosetta Drain, Brembal canal, Drain 11, Drain 9, Drain 8 and partially by Drain 1 while the lowest intensities were in the north and northeast affecting by the interaction with the Mediterranean Sea. K-40 recorded positive correlations and significant linear regression relationships with radiological hazard parameters at Mariout Like meaning that 40 K is the main gamma emitter in the lake, while the

  2. Potential hazards due to food additives in oral hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer Budanur, Damla; Yas, Murat Cengizhan; Sepet, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  3. POTENTIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FOOD ADDITIVES IN ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla TUNCER-BUDANUR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  4. Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: Mesotherapy hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Caffeine is indicated in the treatment of migraine headaches, as well as neonatal apnea and bradycardia syndrome. In mild poisoning, the most prevalent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor, anxiety and headache. In more severe cases, symptoms consist of heart rythym abnormalities, myocardial infarction and seizures. Due to its common lipolytic effect, caffeine is used in mesotherapy, usually in combination with drugs of similar effect. We presented a patient with acute iatrogenic caffeine poisoning. Case report. A 51-year-old woman, with preexisting hypertension and hypertensive cardiomyopathy was subjected to cosmetic treatment in order to remove fat by intradermal caffeine injections. During the treatment the patient felt sickness, an urge to vomit, and a pronounced deterioration of general condition. Upon examination, the patient exhibited somnolence, hypotension and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, which was sufficient enough evidence for further hospitalization. On admission to the intensive care unit the patient was anxious with increased heart rate, normotensive, with cold, damp skin, and visible traces of injection sites with surrounding hematomas on the anterior abdominal wall. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT on electrocardiographic monitoring was found. The laboratory analysis determined a lowered potassium level of 2.1 mmol/L (normal range 3,5 - 5.2 mmol/L, and a toxicological analysis (liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection proved a toxic concentration of caffeine in plasma - 85.03 mg/L (toxic concentration over 25 mg/L. On application of intensive therapy, antiarrhythmics, and substitution of potassium, as well as both symptomatic and supportive therapy, there was a significant recovery. The patient was discharged without any sequele within four days. Conclusion. A presented rare iatrogenic acute caffeine poisoning occured due to massive absorption of caffeine from the

  5. Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: mesotherapy hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Babić, Gordana; Segrt, Zoran; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Janković, Snezana; Aćimović, Ljubomir

    2012-08-01

    Caffeine is indicated in the treatment of migraine headaches, as well as neonatal apnea and bradycardia syndrome. In mild poisoning, the most prevalent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor, anxiety and headache. In more severe cases, symptoms consist of heart rythym abnormalities, myocardial infarction and seizures. Due to its common lipolytic effect, caffeine is used in mesotherapy, usually in combination with drugs of similar effect. We presented a patient with acute iatrogenic caffeine poisoning. A 51-year-old woman, with preexisting hypertension and hypertensive cardiomyopathy was subjected to cosmetic treatment in order to remove fat by intradermal caffeine injections. During the treatment the patient felt sickness, an urge to vomit, and a pronounced deterioration of general condition. Upon examination, the patient exhibited somnolence, hypotension and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, which was sufficient enough evidence for further hospitalization. On admission to the intensive care unit the patient was anxious with increased heart rate, normotensive, with cold, damp skin, and visible traces of injection sites with surrounding hematomas on the anterior abdominal wall. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) on electrocardiographic monitoring was found. The laboratory analysis determined a lowered potassium level of 2.1 mmol/L (normal range 3,5 - 5.2 mmol/L), and a toxicological analysis (liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection) proved a toxic concentration of caffeine in plasma - 85.03 mg/L (toxic concentration over 25 mg/L). On application of intensive therapy, antiarrhythmics, and substitution of potassium, as well as both symptomatic and supportive therapy, there was a significant recovery. The patient was discharged without any sequele within four days. A presented rare iatrogenic acute caffeine poisoning occured due to massive absorption of caffeine from the subcutaneous adipose tissue into the circulation when injected

  6. Collective dose estimation in Portuguese population due to medical exams of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teles, Pedro; Vaz, Pedro; Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Joana; Pascoal, Ana; Lanca, Isabel; Matela, Nuno; Sousa, Patrick; Carvoeiras, Pedro; Parafita, Rui; Simaozinho, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation due to medical examinations of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, a working group, consisting of 40 institutions, public and private, was created to evaluation the coletive dose in the Portuguese population in 2010. This work was conducted in collaboration with the Dose Datamed European consortium, which aims to assess the exposure of the European population to ionizing radiation due to 20 diagnostic radiology examinations most frequent in Europe (the 'TOP 20') and nuclear medicine examinations. We obtained an average value of collective dose of ≈ 1 mSv/caput, which puts Portugal in the category of countries medium to high exposure to Europe. We hope that this work can be a starting point to bridge the persistent lack of studies in the areas referred to in Portugal, and to enable the characterization periodic exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation in the context of medical applications

  7. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edholm, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    This is a report describing diagnostic techniques used in radiology. It describes the equipment necessary for, and the operation of a radiological department. Also is described the standard methods used in radiodiagnosis. (K.A.E.)

  8. Radiological impact due to natural radionuclides (U and Th-isotopes) in soils from Salamanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandujano G, C. D.; Sosa, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Mantero, J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia T, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Grupo en Fisica Nuclear Aplicada, Av. Reina Mercedes No. 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Costilla, R., E-mail: cmandujano@fisica.ugto.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias de la Vida, Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, Ex-Hacienda El Copal Km 9 Irapuato-Silao, 36500 Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Activity concentrations of U ({sup 238}U, {sup 234}U) and Th ({sup 232}Th, {sup 230}Th) radionuclides in samples of superficial urban soils surrounding an industrial complex in Salamanca, Mexico have been determined. Levels of naturally occurring radionuclides (Norm) in the environment may be affected due to the presence of different industrial activities in this zone, representing a potential radiological risk for the population which should be evaluated. Alpha-particle Spectrometry with Pips detectors has been used for the radiometric characterization. A well established radiochemical procedure was used for the isolation of the radionuclides of interest. Alkali fusion for sample digestion, liquid-liquid extraction with Tbp (tri-butyl-phosphate) for U and Th isolation and electrodeposition in stainless steel dishes for measurement conditioning has been used. The results cover the ranges of 10-42, 12-60, 12-52 and 11-51 Bq·kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 232}Th respectively, being not observed any clear anthropogenic increments in relation with the values normally found in unaffected soils. Although there is disequilibrium between U isotopes and {sup 230}Th in some soil samples, it can be attributed to natural processes. The radiological impact of the industrial activities in the surrounding soils can be then evaluated as very low. Hence, from the Radiological Protection point of view, the soils studied do not represent a radiological risk for the health of the population. (Author)

  9. Endodontic radiology, practice, and knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection among clinical dental students and interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Emien Enabulele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the practice and knowledge of endodontic radiology as well as assess the knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection among clinical dental students and interns. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of clinical dental students and interns at University of Benin and University of Benin Teaching hospital respectively. Data was collected using a questionnaire which covered practice and knowledge of endodontic radiography, knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Result: Seventy participants were included in the study, 40% were final year students and 24.3% house officers. Majority (95.7% agreed that they exposed radiographs as part of endodontic treatment. Only 18.6% knew that the apices of teeth should be 3mm from the border of the X-ray film, while 24.3% knew that 3mm of periapical bone should be visible on X-ray. Less than half (31.4% knew that paralleling technique was the technique of choice for endodontic radiography and this was statistically Significant in relationship to the status of the of the respondents. A few (4.3% of the respondents had knowledge of new horizons in endodontic imaging. Half of the respondents knew that damage by X-rays is mainly due to formation of free radicals. The most frequently reported radiation hazards was reduced salivary flow, while the least reported was rampant caries. Most knew how to protect patients, themselves, and other persons while exposing radiographs. Conclusion: There is need for inclusion of endodontic radiography in the undergraduate curriculum to ensure proper and correct radiographs during endodontic procedure.

  10. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and radiation hazards due to cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Taher, A.; Abdel Halim, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The cement industry is considered as one of the basic industries that plays an important role in the national economy of developing countries. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in Assiut cement and other local cement types from different Egyptian factories has been measured by using γ-ray spectrometry. From the measured γ-ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data for other countries. The average values obtained for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentration in different types of cement are lower than the corresponding global values reported in UNSCEAR publications. The obtained results show that the averages of radiation hazard parameters for Assiut cement factory are lower than the acceptable level of 370 Bq kg -1 for radium equivalent Ra eq , 1 for level index Iγr, the external hazard index Hex ≤1 and 59 (nGy h -1 ) for absorbed dose rate. The manufacturing operation reduces the radiation hazard parameters. Cement does not pose a significant radiological hazard when used for construction of buildings.

  11. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this text-book basic knowledge about radiology, biomedical diagnostic methods (radiography, computer tomography), nuclear medicine and safety and radiation protection of personnel on the radiodiagnostic place of work are presented

  12. Radiological hazards of TENORM in precipitated calcium carbonate generated as waste at nitrophosphate fertilizer plant in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javied, Sabiha, E-mail: sabihajavied@yahoo.com [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Akhtar, Nasim [Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Jhang Road, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Tufail, M. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material) in phosphate rock (PR) is converted to TENORM (technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material) as a result of chemical processing of the PR to make phosphate fertilizers. {yields} Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) is generated as process waste during nitrophosphate fertilizer production, which contains TENORM. {yields} Activity concentration of the radionuclide in the TENORM was measured using gamma spectrometry and radiological hazard was derived from the measured activities. {yields} Radiological pollution in the environment from TENORM in the PCC has been addressed. {yields} Restricted application of the PCC dose not pose a significant radiological hazard. -- Abstract: The NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material) in phosphate rock is transferred as TENORM (technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material) to phosphatic fertilizers and to the waste generated by the chemical processes. The waste generated at the NP (nitrophosphate) fertilizer plant at Multan in Pakistan is PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate). Thirty samples of the PCC were collected from the heaps of the waste near the fertilizer plant. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in the waste samples were measured by using the technique of gamma ray spectrometry consisting of coaxial type HPGe (high purity germanium) detector coupled with a PC (personal computer) based MCA (multichannel analyzer) through a spectroscopy amplifier. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in the waste samples were determined to be 273 {+-} 23 (173-398), 32 {+-} 4 (26-39) and 56 {+-} 5 (46-66) Bq kg{sup -1} respectively. The activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra in the PCC waste was found to be higher than that in naturally occurring calcium carbonate (limestone and marble) and in worldwide soil. Radiological hazard was estimated from indoor and outdoor exposure to gamma rays from

  13. Lessons learned from joint working group report on assessment and management of cancer risks from radiological and chemical hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    Regulation of radiological hazards to humans is greatly simplified by the existence of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The average RBE values or radiation weighting factors recommended by the ICRP are based on non-human data. The ICRP has also indicated that 'the standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk.' This statement appears to be supported by technical publications from other organizations. Two published objections by AECB staff to the scientific technical background of the ICRP statement do not offer any good reason to reject this ICRP statement. A brief summary is given of the joint working group report on the topic indicated in the title. It is noted that regulators of cancer-causing chemicals have in general paid less attention to natural sources than have the regulators of radiological hazards. Most non-human species are exposed to about 1 millisievert (mSv) equivalent dose of radiation per year from natural sources. Caribou and organisms living underground are noted as examples where radiation exposures from natural sources are considerably higher. The natural biota is in general remarkably resistant, both in the laboratory and in field studies, to the effects of high doses of radiation. A recent review by the International Atomic Agency concluded that dose rates below the equivalent of 400 mSv per year are unlikely to after the survival of non-human species. It is recommended that caution and common sense be applied in any future research on radiological protection of non-human species in the environment in Canada. Many of the proposed U.S. regulations to control chemical and radiation in the environment are not cost-effective. It is to be hoped that efforts to protect non-human species from potential radiological hazards in Canada do not slide into a similar kind of irrational quagmire. (author)

  14. Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish consumption from coastal area of Tanzania. ... The result shows that the concentration and THQ of As in all fish samples ranges from 1.173 – 2.325 which is > 1, hence signified that a daily exposure at this level are in risk of cancer during a person lifetime.

  15. An accidental death due to electric grinder: Dupatta as a strangulation hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Herald D′Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidents could occur at home in any age group. Accidental ligature strangulation in adults could be prevented. We are reporting a case of a woman who died in her kitchen due to accidental strangulation by her dupatta while working with the electric grinder. This case highlights the need to educate the people about the safety and potential hazards of these machines.

  16. An accidental death due to electric grinder: Dupatta as a strangulation hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Herald D′Souza; Vina R Vaswani; Kishor Kumar Badiadka; Venkat Krishna Shenoy; Boban Babu

    2013-01-01

    Accidents could occur at home in any age group. Accidental ligature strangulation in adults could be prevented. We are reporting a case of a woman who died in her kitchen due to accidental strangulation by her dupatta while working with the electric grinder. This case highlights the need to educate the people about the safety and potential hazards of these machines.

  17. Radiological safety assessment of Thoron inhalation hazards during DDU handling at UMP, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shailesh, M.; Belhe, M.S.; Malti; Narayani, K.; Satpati, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium Extraction Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has been producing nuclear grade uranium metal from Ammonium di-uranate received from IRE to meet the fuel requirement of research reactors of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Uranium Metal Plant (UMP) in Trombay. In UMP, uranium oxide powder (U 3 O 8 and UO 3 ) is first reduced to uranium dioxide in reduction reactor and is converted to uranium tetra fluoride in hydro fluorination reactor. After removing moisture and acid vapour in expulsion area, reduction of uranium tetrafluoride is carried out with magnesium in magnesio-thermic reduction (MTR) reactor, pure uranium metal ingot with magnesium fluoride slag is produced. Finally natural uranium ingot is separated from slag in ingot discharging area. However deeply depleted uranium (DDU) metal was produced from uranium oxide (reprocessed uranium) received from PREFRE, Tarapur, as a special campaign. External radiation hazards are not dominant during the processing of natural uranium in uranium metal Plant. However it was observed that during processing of DDU metal, external and internal hazards are significant because of daughter products of thoron. Inhalation dose due to thoron was found less during charging of UO 3 powder operation than ingot discharge operation because of pneumatic powder transport system used for charging operation. It is estimated that after introduction of new blower system in different powder handling operation areas, the potential effective inhalation dose due to thoron inhalation may get reduced by 60% - 80%

  18. An Assessment of Radiological Hazards from Gold Mine Tailings in the Province of Gauteng in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Radiological hazards associated with exposure to Naturally Occurring Radionuclides Materials from gold mine tailings in the province of Gauteng in South Africa were evaluated. A comparison was made with soil samples from a control area. In this study, gamma spectroscopy was used to measure the activity concentrations of these radionuclides in 56 soil samples from the mine tailings and 10 soil samples from the control area. The average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg−1 for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the mine tailings were found to be 785.3 ± 13.7, 43.9 ± 1.0 and 427.0 ± 13.1, respectively. On the other hand, the average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg−1 for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the control area were found to be 17.0.1 ± 0.4, 22.2 ± 0.5 and 496.8 ± 15.2, respectively. Radiological hazard parameters calculated from these activity concentrations were higher than recommended safe limits. In particular, calculated average values for the external hazard (Hex) and the internal hazard (Hin) from the mine tailings were found to be 2.4 and 4.5. Both these values were higher than unity, posing a significant health risk to the population in the area. PMID:26797624

  19. Revise of the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Sendo, Muneaki

    2004-01-01

    The Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes, etc. was revised in 2004. The regulation about disposal of RI waste was fixed at this revise of the law. Regulation of an application about the disposal of the RI waste was added to former radioactive waste control business. And regulation of confirmation of waste disposal by a regulation body was added. By this law revision, a necessary system for the RI waste disposal is ready. Furthermore, the Basic Safety Standard (BSS) and the following rationalization of related to regulation were introduced into the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes, etc. by this law revision. The regulation for a handling of radionuclides will be changed a lot due to the introduction of the BSS. (author)

  20. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on disease processes originating within the alimentary tract, may extend through the extraperitoneal spaces, and abnormalities primarily arising within other extraperitoneal sites may significantly affect the bowel. Symptoms and signs may be obscure, delayed, or nonspecific, and the area is generally not accessible to auscultation, palpation, or percussion. Radiologic evaluation thus plays a critical role

  1. Assessment of radiological hazards of tin mining and ore processing in Jos, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibeanu, I.

    1999-01-01

    On the Jos Plateau were found uncontrolled tailing heaps generated from Tin Mining Activities. To assess the associated radiological hazards, an abandoned tailing dump ground was investigated with the residents as the critical population. The mean activity concentrations of 4 0K , 226 Ra and 232 Th in the 60 analyzed soil samples were 1251.7±478.4, 3867.5±1282.7 and 8301.9±2862.6 Bqkg -1 , respectively with a mean computed dose rate of 7.2±1.6 μGyh -1 . An annual mean outdoor effective dose of 8.9±0.9mSvy -1 was estimated. Also the activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in the 60 control soil samples were 447.0±68.0, 37.4±7.4 and 115.4±16.7 Bqkg -1 , respectively with a mean dose rate of 0.11±0.01 μGyh -1 . To account for the internal exposure, vegetables and root crops commonly grown and consumed in the area were assayed. Six varieties of vegetables and five varieties of root crops were analyzed. An internal annual mean effective dose of 148.98±8.14μSvy -1 was estimated. The verification of dose limit compliance for members of the public demands that: External Dose/Dose Limit + Intake (ingested)/ALI (ingestion) + Intake (inhaled)/ALI (inhalation) ≤ 1. Based on obtained data above, there is non-compliance with the dose limit, since the first term of the compliance formula is much greater than unity. There is therefore a need for an intervention to prevent radiation over exposure of the members of the public. The calculated cancer mortality risk for external and internal exposure scenarios for 226 Ra and 232 Th were (1.67±0.33) x 10 -6 (0.00017%) and (3.41±0.14) x 10 -6 (0.00034%), respectively. The 226 Ra radionuclide contributed about 96.09% of the risk in the external scenario with only 3.09% from the 232 Th while in the internal, the 226 Ra contributed only 70.38%. The combined external and internal (ingestion) risk is (5.08±0.36) x 10 -6 /year. (author)

  2. ASSET RECOVERY OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS BENEFICIAL REUSE OF RADIOLOGICALLY ENCUMBERED LEAD STOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Meehan, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    Underutilized and surplus lead stocks and leaded components are a common legacy environmental problem across much of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. While seeking to dispose of these items through its Environmental Management Program, DOE operational programs continue to pursue contemporary mission requirements such as managing and/or storing radioactive isotopes that require lead materials for shielding. This paradox was identified in late 1999 when DOE's policies for managing scrap metal were assessed. In January 2000, the Secretary of Energy directed the National Center of Excellence for Materials Recycle (NMR) to develop and implement a comprehensive lead reuse program for all of DOE. Fluor Hanford, contractor for DOE Richland Operations, subsequently contacted NMR to pilot lead reclamation and reuse at the Hanford Site. This relationship resulted in the development of a beneficial reuse pathway for lead reclaimed from spent fuel transport railcars being stored at Hanford. The 1.3 million pounds of lead in the railcars is considered radiologically encumbered due to its prior use. Further, the material was considered a mixed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) low-level radioactive waste that would require expensive storage or macro encapsulation to meet land disposal restrictions prior to burial. Working closely with Flour Hanford and the Office of Air, Water, and Radiation (EH-412), NMR developed a directed reuse pathway for this and other radiologically encumbered lead. When derived supplemental release limits were used, the lead recovered from these railcars became eligible for reuse in shielding products to support DOE and commercial nuclear industry operations. Using this disposition pathway has saved Hanford one third of the cost of disposing of the lead and the cost of acquiring additional lead for nuclear shielding applications. Furthermore, the environmental costs associated with mining and producing new lead for shielding products a

  3. Hazard assessment due to falling stones on a reach of the regional road in the Trenta valley, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Petje

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the new Slovenian methodology for determining hazard areas and the classification of land parcels into hazard classes due to land slides and rock falls, a pilot project was carried out on the regional road between Bovec and Vr{i~ pass in theTrenta valley. For this around 20 km long road in a typical alpine environment, a hazard assessment of falling rocks was carried out, even tough the road also passes through snow avalanches hazard areas. The performed hazard assessment of falling rocks is based onan expert knowledge taking into account the field mapping, and classifies the road into three hazard classes: 9811 m is classified into the low hazard class, 7233 m is classifiedinto the medium hazard class, and 1301 m is classified into high hazard class of falling rocks.

  4. Analysis of radioactive contaminations and radiological hazard in Poland after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnowiecki, K.

    1988-01-01

    It is a report on radiological impact in Poland following the Chernobyl reactor accident prepared in the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The results of measurement and its analysis are presented. Isotopic composition of the contamined air and the concentration of radionuclides are determined. The trajectories of the airborne radioactive material movement from Chernobyl to Poland at the last days of April 1986 are presented. Assessment of the radiological risk of the population is done. 38 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs. (M.F.W.)

  5. Estimation of possible radiological hazards from natural radioactivity in commercially-utilized ornamental and countertops granite tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, Şeref

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The study presents the activity concentrations of radionuclides in granite tile samples. ► The activity concentrations of radionuclides are measured by gamma spectrometer.. ► In this study, possible radiological hazards from usage of these materials are estimated. ► The external exposure index and internal index are calculated. ► The indoor absorbed gamma dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose are evaluated. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to estimate natural radioactivity levels of commercially-utilized ornamental or countertops granite tiles collected from major retailers in Turkey and possible radiological hazards from usage of these materials by calculating external exposure and internal index, indoor absorbed gamma dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined for 42 kinds of different granite tiles using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer. The activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K varied from 9.2 to 192.5 Bq kg −1 (with a mean of 88.4 ± 6.9 Bq kg −1 ), 7.5 to 344.6 Bq kg −1 (with a mean of 95.3 ± 10.0 Bq kg −1 ) and 92.1 to 4155.9 Bq kg −1 (with a mean of 1055.2 ± 103.0 Bq kg −1 ), respectively. The estimated radiological hazard indices were revised in the light of the relevant national and international legislation and guidance. The values of the radiological hazard indices were found to be within relevant all limit values for superficial materials. The indoor absorbed gamma dose rates estimated from the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K and the corresponding annual effective doses varied from 4.74 to 85.27 nGy h −1 and 0.02 to 0.42 mSv, respectively.

  6. Radiologic findings of small bowel rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Hyeon Kweun; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1987-01-01

    Bowel rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma is no longer rare, and is among the most challenging problems that confront the physicians and radiologists. It is frequently difficult to diagnose because the symptoms may be trivial during the early stage and masked by more obvious, but less lethal injuries. It is well known that the roentgen examination of the abdomen is also of little value to exclude bowel rupture because of infrequency of positive findings and free gas. The plain films of 23 cases of jejunal rupture and 8 cases of ileal rupture were evaluated to sort and diagnostic features of small bowel rupture caused by blunt abdominal trauma. 1. Free intraperitoneal gas was noted in 6 cases of jejunal rupture (26%) and 1 case of ileal rupture (13%), and definite radiological evidence of free intraperitoneal fluid was present in 16 cases of patients (52%). 2. The contour change of bowel loops such as tapering or indentation were seen in 11 cases of patients (36%), and local opacity along the mesenteric root axis was demonstrated in 19 cases of patients (61%). 3. Paralytic ileus was localized to LUQ in jejunal rupture and to mid-abdomen in ileal rupture, and gastric and transverse-colon distension with gas was noticeable especially in jejunal rupture

  7. Small bowell obstruction due to disruption and displacement of celestine tube. Radiological findings (two cases)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, E; Brugnettini, M; Soardi, G; Colombo, C

    1986-01-01

    When the Celestin tube is used for treatment of benign oesophageal strictures after several months structural deterioration and fatigue occur. The tube disruption and displacement are serious complications which can be early identified with routine-radiological examinations.

  8. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissner, J.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology is still the foremost of all innovative medical disciplines. This has many advantages but also some handicaps, e.g. the siting problem of medical equipment whose clinical potential is not fully known. This applies in particular to nuclear spin tomography, where the Laender governments and the Scientific Council seen to agree that all universities should have the appropriate equipment as soon as possible in order to intensify interdisciplinary research. Formerly, in the case of computerized tomography, there was less readiness. As a result, the siting of CT equipment is less organically structured. A special handicap of innovative fields is the problem of training and advanced training. The Chamber of Medicine and the Association of Doctors Participating in the Health Insurance Plan have issued regulations aimed at a better standardisation in this field. (orig.) [de

  9. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law for the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes'' and the Enforcement Order for the ''Law concerning the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes''. The Regulation includes the definitions of terms, applications for the permission of the use of radioisotopes, standards on usage, obligation of measurement, persons in charge of radiation, etc. Terms are explained, such as persons engaging in radiation works, persons who enter at any time the control areas, radiation facilities, maximum permissible exposure dose, cumulative dose, maximum permissible cumulative dose, maximum permissible concentration in the air, maximum permissible concentration in water and maximum permissible surface density. The applications for permission in written forms are required for the use, sale and abandonment of radioisotopes. Radioisotopes or the apparatuses for generating radiation shall be used in the using facilities. The measurement of radiation dose rate, particle flux density and contamination due to radioisotopes shall be made with radiation-measuring instruments. At least one person shall be chosen as the chief radiation-handling person in each factory, establishment, selling office or abandoning establishment by a user, a trademan or a person engaged in abandonment of radioisotopes. The forms for the application for permission, etc. are attached. (Okada, K.)

  10. A review of radiological hazards associated with tin by-product mineral processing industry in the SEATRAD centre member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udompornwirat, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological hazards associated with the tin by-product mineral processing industry has recently become an issue of concern in the SEATRAD Centre member countries namely, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The SEATRAD Centre, with the assistance of a United Nations Development Program consultant, carried out an investigation on radioactivity problems at twelve tin by-product mineral processing plants in Malaysia and Thailand. The investigation included a survey of external gamma radiation levels and dust sampling for internal dose estimation as well as characterising the potential sources of radiation exposure in the plants. This paper reviews the nature of the tin by-product mineral processing industry and the general levels of associated radiological hazards. In addition, data provided by the government organisations in the member countries are reviewed. Typical annual effective doses experienced by the industry's workers are estimated on the basis of existing information, and possible measures to reduce exposure are discussed. It is concluded that the estimated median effective dose experienced by the workers is about 18 to 19 mSv per annum. Maximum exposures may exceed 200 mSv per annum. The important exposure pathways are external gamma radiation and internal radiation arising through intake of radioactive dust. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Estimation of health hazards resulting from a radiological terrorist attack in a city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Mikkelsen, Torben; Astrup, Poul

    2008-01-01

    on accidental exposure. The aim of the present study was to illustrate issues that need to be considered in evaluating the radiological consequences of a 'dirty bomb' explosion. This is done through a worked example of simplified calculations of relative dose contributions for a specific 'dirty bomb' scenario...

  12. Information on radiation hazard and on radiological protection in medical school in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, C.

    1993-01-01

    The state of teaching Radiation Protection in Medical School in Italy was considered. An historical approach was utilized, in order to define periods of time characterized by different conditions. Some data are collected by a concise enquiry on the information given during the course of Radiology in the second triennial cycle, and on some other teaching courses including information on radiation effects. The conclusion is that teaching times are exceedingly reduced, and the need of improving the diffusion of knowledge in the field is stressed. An official Act of the OECD and of European Community is expected, with the aim of emphasizing the importance of the information of doctors on Radiation Protection as a problem of public interest. A proposal is advanced of implementing the Teaching of Radiobiology in the second triennial cycle, changing the name of the course in 'Radiobiology and Radiological Protection'. 6 tabs

  13. Developing Navy Capability to Recover Forces in Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazard Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    damage control; LHD flight deck and well deck operations; fleet surgical team; Afloat Training Group; Assault Craft Unit; Naval Surface Warfare Center ...Biological, Radiological and Nuclear School, and U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center , Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a HAZMAT...Policy Center of the RAND National Defense Research Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by OSD, the Joint Staff

  14. Radioactivity levels and radiological hazard indices at the Saudi coastline of the Gulf of Aqaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Trabulsy, H.A.; Khater, A.E.M.; Habbani, F.I.

    2011-01-01

    The coast of the Gulf of Aqaba is subjected to several sources of pollution due to several activities occurring at the coastal area. The activities vary between industrial, tourist and other development aspects at the Jordanian coastline of the Gulf of Aqaba. Phosphate industry has been considered a major source polluting the marine environment. According to official reports, 4-7 million tons of raw phosphate is exported through the Gulf of Aqaba. During transportation and loading, a small proportion of this enters the waters of the Gulf. Phosphate dust has also been considered another source of nutrients loading to the Gulf. 19 sediment samples were collected along the Saudi Gulf coastline, from the Saudi-Jordan border down to the end of the Gulf at Tiran Strait. Measurements of the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in Bq/kg (in dry weight) of the collected samples were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry based on a highly pure germanium coaxial detector (HPGe). The concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th were also determined using ICP-MS technique. The average specific activities for 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs were found to be 11.4±1.5, 22.5±3.7, 641.1±61.3 and 3.5±0.7 Bq/kg, respectively. The results show that the mean activity of 226 Ra and 232 Th is lower than the world average of 25 Bq/kg for both of them, whereas the mean value for 40 K is about double the world average of 370 Bq/kg. The presence of 137 Cs in the analyzed samples is low in most locations. The mean concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th in the study area are 1.2 and 5.4 mg/kg, respectively, and the ratio 238 U/ 232 Th is 0.2, which is lower than the global ratio of 0.3. The ratio of 226 Ra/ 228 Ra was found to decrease southwards in the direction of Tiran Strait, away from the phosphate industry in Jordan. Mean values for radium equivalent, absorbed dose, annual effective dose, external and internal hazard index and representative level index were determined as

  15. Radioactivity levels and radiological hazard indices at the Saudi coastline of the Gulf of Aqaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Trabulsy, H.A.; Khater, A.E.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O.Box2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Habbani, F.I., E-mail: habbanif@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, P.O.Box 321 (Sudan)

    2011-03-15

    The coast of the Gulf of Aqaba is subjected to several sources of pollution due to several activities occurring at the coastal area. The activities vary between industrial, tourist and other development aspects at the Jordanian coastline of the Gulf of Aqaba. Phosphate industry has been considered a major source polluting the marine environment. According to official reports, 4-7 million tons of raw phosphate is exported through the Gulf of Aqaba. During transportation and loading, a small proportion of this enters the waters of the Gulf. Phosphate dust has also been considered another source of nutrients loading to the Gulf. 19 sediment samples were collected along the Saudi Gulf coastline, from the Saudi-Jordan border down to the end of the Gulf at Tiran Strait. Measurements of the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in Bq/kg (in dry weight) of the collected samples were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry based on a highly pure germanium coaxial detector (HPGe). The concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th were also determined using ICP-MS technique. The average specific activities for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs were found to be 11.4{+-}1.5, 22.5{+-}3.7, 641.1{+-}61.3 and 3.5{+-}0.7 Bq/kg, respectively. The results show that the mean activity of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th is lower than the world average of 25 Bq/kg for both of them, whereas the mean value for {sup 40}K is about double the world average of 370 Bq/kg. The presence of {sup 137}Cs in the analyzed samples is low in most locations. The mean concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in the study area are 1.2 and 5.4 mg/kg, respectively, and the ratio {sup 238}U/{sup 232}Th is 0.2, which is lower than the global ratio of 0.3. The ratio of {sup 226}Ra/{sup 228}Ra was found to decrease southwards in the direction of Tiran Strait, away from the phosphate industry in Jordan. Mean values for radium equivalent, absorbed dose

  16. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are wholly revised under the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes and the provisions of the order for enforcing the law. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: employee engaged in radiation work; person regularly entering into the controlled area; the maximum permissible exposure dose; accumulative dose; the maximum permissible accumulative dose; the maximum permissible concentration in the air; the maximum permissible concentration under water; the maximum permissible surface density. The application for permission of the uses shall be made according to the form attached and include as appendix following documents: copy of register of the applicant legal person; plane drawings of the works or the enterprise and their surroundings in reduced scales and with directions, centering on facilities in use, of storage and disposal, etc. The report of the uses shall list name and address of the user, object and method of the uses, and include as annex copy of register of the user legal person and papers explaining the expected date of beginning and the period of the uses, etc. Standards of the uses, refilling, storage, transport and disposal are in detail stipulated. Specified measures shall be taken for measurement, prevention of radiation hazards, finding out of persons injured by radiation and others. (Okada, K.)

  17. Scale orientated analysis of river width changes due to extreme flood hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krapesch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the morphological effects of extreme floods (recurrence interval >100 years and examines which parameters best describe the width changes due to erosion based on 5 affected alpine gravel bed rivers in Austria. The research was based on vertical aerial photos of the rivers before and after extreme floods, hydrodynamic numerical models and cross sectional measurements supported by LiDAR data of the rivers. Average width ratios (width after/before the flood were calculated and correlated with different hydraulic parameters (specific stream power, shear stress, flow area, specific discharge. Depending on the geomorphological boundary conditions of the different rivers, a mean width ratio between 1.12 (Lech River and 3.45 (Trisanna River was determined on the reach scale. The specific stream power (SSP best predicted the mean width ratios of the rivers especially on the reach scale and sub reach scale. On the local scale more parameters have to be considered to define the "minimum morphological spatial demand of rivers", which is a crucial parameter for addressing and managing flood hazards and should be used in hazard zone plans and spatial planning.

  18. The state of enforcement of the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards Due to Radioisotopes, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In recent years, the uses of radioisotopes and radiation generators have advanced remarkably in Japan. The establishments utilizing them are on rapid increase in industries, medicine, research and education. Furthermore, since the types of usage are more diversified, the kinds of radioisotopes and their quantities are also increasing. In this connection, The Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards Due to Radioisotopes, etc. has been in force for about twenty years. Under the current situation in this field, importance of the administration concerning enforcement of The Law is ever rising. In the Science and Technology Agency, in view of the occurrence of accidents in certain enterprises, starting in fiscal 1974, various measures have been taken. As the state of enforcement of The Law, the following matters are presented; the establishments using, selling and disposing of radioisotopes, etc. up to fiscal 1977 (in tables); and variety of governmental measures taken by the Agency. (Mori, K.)

  19. Assessment of the natural radioactivity and its radiological hazards in prospective ore deposit sites in Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifeoluwa, O.P.; Obed, R.O. I.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the natural radioactivity was conducted in three Southwestern states, Ekiti, Kogi and Kwara in Nigeria spanning over approximately a 9,000 km 2 on earmarked prospective ore deposits sites where thirty six (36) top soil samples were collected then taken to the laboratory for analysis so as to determine and deduce its radiological hazards and health implication prior to exploitation/exploration. The samples collected at 36 locations, mainly undisturbed and virgin lands could determine the annual effective dose (mSv.y -1 ) and the average absorbed dose (nGy/h) for a person living in the rural community along the axis and this was found to be approximately 0.114 mSvy -1 and 93.60±14.4 nGyh -1 respectively. Other health indices are drawn up in the tables found below.

  20. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed

  1. South Tank Farm underground storage tank inspection using the topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van

    1997-07-01

    During the winter of 1997 the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) were used to perform wall inspections on underground storage tanks (USTs) W5 and W6 of the South Tank Farm (STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The TMS was designed for deployment in the USTs at the Hanford Site. Because of its modular design, the TMS was also deployable in the USTs at ORNL. The USTs at ORNL were built in the 1940s and have been used to store radioactive waste during the past 50 years. The tanks are constructed with an inner layer of Gunite trademark that has been spalling, leaving sections of the inner wall exposed. Attempts to quantify the depths of the spalling with video inspection have proven unsuccessful. The TMS surface-mapping campaign in the STF was initiated to determine the depths of cracks, crevices, and/or holes in the tank walls and to identify possible structural instabilities in the tanks. The development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by DOE for the purpose of characterization and remediation of USTs at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is mapping the interiors of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts, to obtain both baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors and changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Site, the TMS has been designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention

  2. Complex analysis of hazards to the man and natural environment due to electricity production in nuclear and coal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents a complex analysis of hazards connected with electrical energy production in nuclear power plants and coal power plants, starting with fuel mining, through power plant construction, operation, possible accidents and decommissioning to long term global effects. The comparison is based on contemporary, proven technologies of coal fired power plants and nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. The hazards to environment and man due to nuclear power are shown to be much smaller than those due to coal power cycle. The health benefits due to electrical power availability are shown to be much larger than the health losses due to its production. (author). 71 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  3. Assessment and management of cancer risks from radiological and chemical hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A Joint Working Group was established in April 1995 by the President of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and the Assistant Deputy Minister of the Health Protection Branch of Health Canada to examine the similarities, disparities and inconsistencies between the levels of risk considered acceptable for regulating ionizing radiation and those considered acceptable for regulating chemical and microbiological hazards. During the process of collecting, analysing and interpreting information, the Joint Working Group realized that its terms of reference as written presented a major difficulty because of the lack of consensus on acceptable levels of risk. Consequently it decided that the most reasonable way to proceed was to compare the risk assessment and management processes used to protect the public from radiation, chemicals and microbiological hazards. This report concentrates on the assessment and management of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals (which both cause cancer by damaging the DNA in cells) and pays less attention to non-genotoxic effects and microbiological hazards. The report also examines public more than occupational exposures and exposures from man-made rather than naturally occurring agents. (author)

  4. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple

  5. Natural radioactivity (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and assessment of radiological hazards in the Kestanbol granitoid, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbaz, Buket; Cam, N Füsun; Yaprak, Günseli; Candan, Osman

    2010-09-01

    The surveys of natural gamma-emitting radionuclides in rocks and soils from the Ezine plutonic area were conducted during 2007. Direct dose measurement using a survey meter was carried out simultaneously. The present study, which is part of the survey, analysed the activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in granitoid samples from all over the region by HPGe gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra ranged from 94 to 637 Bq kg(-1), those of (232)Th ranged from 120 to 601 Bq kg(-1)and those of (40)K ranged from 1074 to 1527 Bq kg(-1) in the analysed rock samples from different parts of the pluton. To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity in the samples, the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate, the radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)) and the external (H(ex)) hazard index were calculated according to the UNSCEAR 2000 report. The thorium-to-uranium concentration ratios were also estimated.

  6. Radiological emergencies due to unaccounted sources or failures of the control system in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainhaeusler, F.; Wieland, P.

    1998-01-01

    The widespread use of radiological sources in developing countries represents a potentially significant risk. Two examples of accident scenarios of different severities - one in El Salvador, the other in Taiwan - are reviewed in the light of their causes, effects on man and the environment, and economic consequences. Recent operational and regulatory advances on improved emergency management are discussed. The international dimension of these issues is significant, as over 160 industrial irradiation facilities comparable to the installation in El Salvador are currently in operation worldwide and close to 40 cases are known of radioactive sources accidentally smelted with recycled metal, as is likely to have happened in Taiwan. (author)

  7. The order for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The radioactive isotopes stipulated in Item 2, Article 2 of the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radisotopes (hereinafter referred to as the Law) are the isotopes emitting radiation, their compounds, and those containing these isotopes or compounds. The radiation-generating apparatuses in Item 3, Article 2 of the Law are cyclotron, synchrotron, synchrocyclotron, linear accelerator, betatron, Van de Graaff accelerator, Cockcroft Walton accelerator, the apparatuses generating radiation by accelerating charged particles, which are designated by the Director of the Science and Technology Agency as necessary for preventing radiation injuries. Those who want to use, sell or dispose of radioactive isotopes should file applications for approval or notices with required documents. The approval should be obtained for each factory or place of business. The amount of completely sealed radioactive isotopes specified by the cabinet order stipulated in Item 1, Article 3-2 of the Law is 100 m curie per factory or place of business. Those who are going to change the approved items of the use, sale or disposal of radioactive isotopes should file applications. The amount of radioactive isotopes specified by the cabinet order stipulated in Item 5, Article 10 of the Law is 10 curies. Controlled areas, facilities for using, refilling, and storing isotopes, refilling and disposing wastes should meet the stipulated standards. (Rikitake, Y.)

  8. Radiological emergencies due to postulated events of melted radioactive material mixed in steel reaching public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, T.R.; Anoj Kumar; Patra, R.P.; Vikas; Patil, S.S.; Chatterjee, M.K.; Sharma, Ranjit; Murali, S.

    2014-01-01

    National level response mechanism is developed at emergency response centres of DAE (DAE-ERCs) at 22 different locations spread all over the country and National Disaster Response Forces with National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). ERCs are equipped with radiation monitors, radionuclide identifinders, Personnel Radiation Dosimeters (PRD) with monitoring capabilities of the order of tens of nGy/h (μR/hr) above the radiation background at any suspected locations. Even if small amounts of radioactive material is smuggled and brought in some other form into public domain, ERCs are capable to detect, identify and segregate the radioactive material from any inactive scrap. DAE-ERCs have demonstrated their capability in source search, detection, identification and recovery during the radiological emergency at Mayapuri, New Delhi

  9. Radiological emergencies due to postulated events of melted radioactive material mixed in steel reaching public domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, T. R.; Kumar, Anoj; Patra, R. P.; Vikas,; Patil, S. S.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Sharma, Ranjit; Murali, S., E-mail: tejram@barc.gov.in [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    National level response mechanism is developed at emergency response centres of DAE (DAE-ERCs) at 22 different locations spread all over the country and National Disaster Response Forces with National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). ERCs are equipped with radiation monitors, radionuclide identifinders, Personnel Radiation Dosimeters (PRD) with monitoring capabilities of the order of tens of nGy/h (μR/hr) above the radiation background at any suspected locations. Even if small amounts of radioactive material is smuggled and brought in some other form into public domain, ERCs are capable to detect, identify and segregate the radioactive material from any inactive scrap. DAE-ERCs have demonstrated their capability in source search, detection, identification and recovery during the radiological emergency at Mayapuri, New Delhi.

  10. Discrepancy in clinical versus radiological parameters describing deformity due to brace treatment for moderate idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shape of the torso in patients with idiopathic scoliosis is considered to reflect the shape of the vertebral column, however the direct correlation between parameters describing clinical deformity and those characterizing radiological curvature was reported to be weak. It is not clear if the management proposed for scoliosis (physiotherapy, brace, surgery affects equally the shape of the axial skeleton and the surface of the body. The aim of the study was to compare clinical deformity of (1 idiopathic scoliosis girls being under brace treatment for radiological curves of 25 to 40 degrees and (2 non treated scoliotic girls matched for age and Cobb angle. Methods Cross-sectional study of 24 girls wearing the brace versus 26 girls without brace treatment, matched for age and Cobb angle. Hypothesis: Patients wearing the brace for more than 6 months, when comparing to patients without brace, may present different external morphology of the trunk, in spite of having similar Cobb angle. Material. Inclusion criteria: girls, idiopathic scoliosis, growing age (10–16 years, Cobb angle minimum 25°, maximum 40°. The braced group consisted of girls wearing a TLSO brace (Cheneau for more than 6 months with minimum of 16 hours per day. The non-braced group consisted of girls first seen for their spinal deformity, previously not treated. The groups presented similar curve pattern. Methods. Scoliometer exam: angle of trunk rotation at three levels of the spine: upper thoracic, main thoracic, lumbar or thoracolumbar. The maximal angle was noted at each level and the sum of three levels was calculated. Posterior trunk symmetry index (POTSI and Hump Sum were measured using surface topography. Results Cobb angle was 34.9° ± 4.8° in braced and 32.7° ± 4.9° in un-braced patients (difference not significant. The age was 14.1 ± 1.6 years in braced patients and 13.1 ± 1.9 years in un-braced group (p = 0.046. The value of angle of trunk

  11. On the problem of radiation damage due to diagnostic radiology of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerstein, W.

    1979-01-01

    The factors of risk for radiation-induced cancer given by UNSCEAR and ICRP are discussed. Under the uncertain assumption of the validity of these factors for diagnostic radiology the number of lung and breast cancers as well as of leukemias induced by mass chest radiography was estimated. It was found that for 30 chest X-rays per capita in the course of life there would be 180 lung cancers, 5 breast cancers and 27 leukemias in the GDR each year. These figures have been compared with the number of cases of lung tuberculosis and lung cancer detected annually ley mass chest radiography. However, no correlation could be found between diagnostic irradiations and detected cases of cancer. (author)

  12. Natural hazards that may trigger a radiological release from a plutonium processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvidge, J. E.

    1977-04-28

    Calculations show the probability of a tornado striking a plutonium area at Rocky Flats is 2.2 x 10/sup -4/ per year. The source term (expected value of plutonium release) should such an event occur is calculated at 3.3 x 10/sup -7/ grams. The source term for high-velocity, downslope winds is higher--2.2 x 10/sup -3/ grams. The probability of a meteorite that weighs one or more pounds (453 grams) striking a plutonium area is estimated at 8.88 x 10/sup -7/ per year. Because of this small probability and the remote chance that a plutonium release would occur even if a meteorite hit occurred, the hazard from meteorite impact is considered negligible. Conservative assumptions result in all calculated frequencies being almost certainly too high. Empirical observations have indicated lower frequencies than those calculated.

  13. Natural hazards that may trigger a radiological release from a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvidge, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations show the probability of a tornado striking a plutonium area at Rocky Flats is 2.2 x 10 -4 per year. The source term (expected value of plutonium release) should such an event occur is calculated at 3.3 x 10 -7 grams. The source term for high-velocity, downslope winds is higher--2.2 x 10 -3 grams. The probability of a meteorite that weighs one or more pounds (453 grams) striking a plutonium area is estimated at 8.88 x 10 -7 per year. Because of this small probability and the remote chance that a plutonium release would occur even if a meteorite hit occurred, the hazard from meteorite impact is considered negligible. Conservative assumptions result in all calculated frequencies being almost certainly too high. Empirical observations have indicated lower frequencies than those calculated

  14. Long-term radiological liabilities and institutional control for radiation hazardous objects in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, A.; Lebedev, O.; Popov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts aimed at securing safe human life environment are taking more and more significant place in the RF public policy sphere, practical steps are being made for the purpose of environmental remediation, including scheduled life cycle completion of a number of nuclear- and radiation-hazardous engineering objects. Currently nuclear subs decommissioning and dismantling is being carried out, as well as decommissioning of research reactors in various cities of the country. A number of industrial sites have already been cleaned up, in some places restoration works are on, remediation of the reactor sites and former naval technical service bases is being planned. Whereas nuclear reactors for various purposes, spent nuclear fuel and radwaste storage facilities, have safe and reliable physical protection, trained personnel and arm guard, so that the risk of the objects' eventual effects on the natural environment and the population in adjacent areas is well predicted at any stage of their life cycle, be it regular operation, shutdown, dismantling or site remediation, such components of the radiation legacy as radioactively contaminated sites and radionuclide ionizing radiation sources, though so different by nature, but equally bearing radiation threat, cause well explainable public anxiety. Their specific character lies not only in the fact that they are often not guarded in a proper way, but also in the great extent to which they are spread geographically. In order to prevent non-sanctioned access to such kind of objects and eventual exposure of the population, an institutional control system (ICS) should be set up for the radiation risk sources. The ICS has very much in common for various types of the radiation hazardous objects, and it should include such constituents as regulatory and normative documentation, environmental (radiation inclusive) monitoring arrangement, radioactive materials and radioactive wastes control and accounting, ensuring of civil security

  15. Fuzzy-logic assessment of failure hazard in pipelines due to mining activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Malinowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research is aimed at a critical analysis of a method presently used for evaluating failure hazard in linear objects in mining areas. A fuzzy model of failure hazard of a linear object was created on the basis of the experience gathered so far. The rules of Mamdani fuzzy model have been used in the analyses. Finally the scaled model was integrated with a Geographic Information System (GIS, which was used to evaluate failure hazard in a water pipeline in a mining area.

  16. Global risks due to illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The global widespread applications of of the peaceful uses of atomic energy resulted in the production and accumulation of huge amounts of dangerous nuclear wastes and nuclear materials, the greater part of which is left either unattended or insufficiently protected. In the mean time, many terrorist groups appeared in the international arena aiming at fighting against all forms of pressure, discrimination or injustice in the international relations among developed and developing countries particularly in politically unstable regions of the world. Unfortunately, these terrorist groups were inclined to adopt the use of nuclear or radiological rather crude weapons to improve their methods and efforts in imposing situations of maximum horror possible to subjected communities. In the present work a brief study of the dimensions of nuclear terrorism, its forms and means directed to its support , has been carried out. The efforts to combat against nuclear proliferation in Central Asia as a region in which most of the violations of the non proliferation efforts occurred has been treated. In contrast, the prevailing conditions and efforts in the Americas region are discussed being a region in which combined efforts of the united states with other American countries were rather successful in combating nuclear proliferation. Some recommendations have been given concerning the necessary measures to face the global risk of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials all over the world. (author)

  17. Shielding Studies for Reducing the associated Radiological Risks Due To Irradiated Low Enriched Uranium Foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present work estimates the radiation dose rates corresponding to irradiated Low Enriched Uranium (20 wt % 235 U) foil as part of shielding studies for radiological risks reduction after irradiation inside TRIGA 14 MW Research Reactor in an investigation on 99 Mo production possibility. Post-Irradiation Examination Laboratory's cell shielding calculations have been performed; radiation source was obtained by using ORIGEN-S code with specific cross-sections libraries. Different post-irradiation cooling times have been considered, gamma dose rates being estimated by using MAVRIC module from Scale 6 programs package, for following exposure situations (relative to Pie cell): i) front side, ii) lateral side and iii) back side. Three different calculations were performed: a) without any protection shield between operator and cell, except for the cell stainless steel wall; b) with a Lead protection shield between operator and cell and c) with a depleted Uranium shield, located inside the cell in between the radiation source and cell window. Radiation dose rates to cell external wall surface and for other eight fixed distances from cell wall were estimated. To obtain a consistent set of solutions, the study was done for various Uranium foil weights and different Lead and depleted Uranium shields thicknesses. Calculations were focused to assure that the dose rate to an operator positioned at 60 cm working distance from the cell will not exceed 0.02 mSv/h, maximum allowed dose rate for professionally exposed personnel according to Romanian regulations.

  18. Women cotton pickers perceptions about health hazards due to pesticide use in irrigated punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.; Mehmood, I.; Bashir, A.; Hassan, S.

    2015-01-01

    In Pakistan, cotton crop has special importance from the perspective of largest employment generation both for males and females in the production and value chains. Cotton picking is primarily a female specific activity in all cropping zones of Pakistan. Women cotton pickers mostly belong to poor rural society involved in this labour force to feed their families. Cotton pickers in Pakistan face some serious health related problems due to heavy use of pesticides on cotton crop. The present study was designed to investigate the problem faced by women cotton pickers and their role in household decision making. Overall 150 women cotton pickers were interviewed from Bahawalnagar, Sahiwal and Vehari districts of cotton-wheat zone of the Punjab. Summary statistics of women cotton pickers' showed mean average age was 33 years and had 2.4 ears of formal schooling and 10 years of cotton picking experience. The main reasons for cotton picking reported were to reduce family financial burden (30%) followed by better access to food and resource (23%) and better education of children (21%). Majority of the respondents (97.33%) reported that the mode of payments of cotton picking was in cash and the most of the respondents (83.70%) reported that they got wages in time. Only few respondents (8.70%) were aware of health hazards due to pesticides and only 10% women wear protective clothes during cotton picking. Majority of the respondents (76%) wash their clothes after cotton picking whereas almost all the respondents wash their hand after cotton picking. The women cotton pickers faced health problem, tiredness (54.5%), mental disturbance (9.90%) and fatigue (8.00%). More than 58% women reported their involvement in household decision making regarding food and groceries while 30.6% women involved in decision about education of children. It is suggested that the female cotton pickers should be educated about the importance (in terms of disease treatment and long-run health costs

  19. Bladder outlet obstruction due to a small midline prostatic cyst - diagnostic imaging and interventional radiological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueppe, T.; Kopka, L.; Friedrich, M.; Kuehn, M.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a rare case of a bladder outlet obstruction due to a midline prostatic cyst. In the following clinical apperance, diagnostic imaging and therapy by CT-guided punction are reported. Differential diagnosis and therapy are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Establishing sitewide risk perspectives due to cumulative impacts from AB, EP, and NEPA hazard analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, S.J.

    1998-06-01

    With the end of the Cold War in 1992, the mission for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) was changed from production of nuclear weapon components to special nuclear materials (SNM) and waste management, accelerated cleanup, reuse and closure of the Site. This change in mission presents new hazards and risk management challenges. With today's shrinking DOE budget, a balance needs to be achieved between controlling those hazards related to SNM and waste management and interim storage, and those hazards related to accelerated closure of the Site involving deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning (DD and D) of surplus nuclear facilities. This paper discusses how risk assessments of normal operations and potential accidents have provided insights on the risks of current operations and planned closure activities

  1. Program for the radiological protection of the embryos-fetuses due to the medical exposure of him mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez B, G.M.; Martinez G, A.; Cardenas H, J.; Gonzalez R, N.; Valdes R, M.; Zaldivar H, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the last years the organizations in charge of the regulation in matter of radiological protection, its have adopted measures to minimize the risks derived of the medical exposures, paying special attention to those that involve women in age of procreation, gestating and in period of lactation, because the embryo - fetus and the newborn babies ones are very vulnerable to the risks of the ionizing radiations, which can end up producing them multiple effects of variable severity. In Cuba, a Maternal-children program that includes the genetic advice to the pregnant woman from the medical point of view exists but didn't so the evaluation of the radiological risk; which is only carried out by the Medical Surveillance Service of the Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations Center (CPHR), without that mediates an official link among both parts and whose existence is only known by a reduced group of professionals of the health and of specialists in Radiological Protection. On the other hand is not established a strategy at national level for the differentiated information and systematic in these topics that it contributes to the control of the exposures of the embryo fetus and the breast-fed baby. Keeping in mind the above-mentioned the specialists of the CPHR have elaborated a proposal of national program for the radiological protection of the embryo- fetus due to the medical exposure of its progenitor. In the same one it is settles down the interrelation between work groups and multidisciplinary institutions to achieve the detection, communication and consultant ship of the cases of exposure to the fetus or breast-fed baby that happen in the country and at the same time include the training so much of the professionals of the health like of the public in general. Presently work the program and the elements that conform it among those that are, the on-line system developed for the automation of the medical dosimetric evaluation, the technician-methodological documents

  2. Radiological safety and environmental implications in beach mineral industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, P.M.B.; Haridasan, P.P.; Maniyan, C.G.; Khan, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of monazite (primary ore of Thorium) along with ilmenite and other minerals in the beach sand deposits of coastal regions of South India has made some of these coastal areas prominent among Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) in the world. The beach mineral industries are situated in populated areas in these NHBRAs. The radiation background prevailing in these areas due to the presence of the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) Thorium with traces of Uranium and their decay products had been found to result in estimated percaput annual external exposures ranging from 3 to 25 mSv to the population at NHBRA depending on the monazite content of the soil in the area. The internal exposures estimated are of the order of 1 to 2 mSv per year. The mining of minerals and refilling of the mined out areas with mineral free sand and rehabilitation of the area is found to reduce the external radiation fields by a factor of 3. The notional environmental external radiation exposures to the population occupying this modified NHBRA also reduce correspondingly. (author)

  3. Radiological hazards of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oraby, M. N. A.

    2011-01-01

    A study of Polonium-210 and Lead -210 contents of tobacco has a great importance because of the increase in the incidence of lung cancer observed among smokers. The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Naturally occurring primordial radionuclides of the uranium-radium series have long been associated with tobacco plants. The properties and distribution of trichomes on tobacco leaf surfaces suggest that they are effective collectors of small particles. It was reported that for an individual smoking two packages of cigarettes a day, the radiation dose to bronchial epithelium from 210 Po inhaled in cigarette smoking probably is at least seven times that from background sources. The effective dose of persons who smoke one or more packs per day of low quality brands is much higher than that resulting from intake with food and water. This indicates that smoke absorbed through the respiratory system is the main source and the principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake. Cigarette smoking can be the reason for the higher incidence of cancer of all organs of the respiratory system. (author)

  4. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in building materials used in the Tiruvannamalai District, Tamilnadu, India, using a statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Raghu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One-hundred-fifty-one samples of six types of building materials were collected from different locations of the Tiruvannamalai District, Tamilnadu, and were analyzed using a gamma ray spectroscopy system. From the results, the highest values observed in the specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 116.1 (soil 106.67 (sand and 527.533 (tiles in Bq kg−1, while the lowest values observed in the specific activities of the same radionuclides were 35.73, 37.75 and 159.83 for cement in Bq kg−1, respectively. The potential radiological hazards were assessed by calculating the radium equivalent activity (Raeq, the indoor absorbed gamma dose rate (DR, the annual effective dose rate (HR, the activity utilization index (I, the alpha index (Iα, the gamma index (Iγ, and the external hazard (Hex and internal hazard (Hin indices. The estimated mean value of the absorbed dose rate of 148.35 nGy h−1 is slightly higher than the world average value of 84 nGy h−1, and the annual effective dose in the studied samples is 0.1824 mSv y−1, which is lower than the recommended limit. Multivariate statistical methods are applied to determine the existing relationship between radionuclides and radiological health hazard parameters and to identify the maximum contribution of radionuclide in radioactivity. The values of the hazard indices were below the recommended levels; therefore, it is concluded that the buildings constructed from such materials are safe for the inhabitants. The findings from this research will be useful to assess the radiation hazards of building materials in humans.

  5. State of enforcement of the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radio-isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In view of the recent advance of radiation utilization in many fields, the situation as of the end of fiscal 1976 under the law is described. The statistics on the number of enterprises concerning radioisotope usage, sales and waste-treatment are first given. Then, the measures taken by the Science and Technology Agency to improve radiation hazard prevention are explained, and cooperation with other governmental offices, efforts by the enterprises, steps taken for the enterprises of nondestructive testing, hospitals, universities, etc., and restudy on the law are described. (Mori, K.)

  6. A perspective multidisciplinary geological approach for mitigation of effects due to the asbestos hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaroli, Gianluca; Rossetti, Federico; Belardi, Girolamo; Billi, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Asbestos-bearing rock sequences constitute a remarkable natural hazard that poses important threat to human health and may be at the origin of diseases such as asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). Presently, asbestos is classified as Category 1 carcinogen by world health authorities. Although regulatory agencies in many countries prohibit or restrict the use of asbestos, and discipline the environmental asbestos exposure, the impact of asbestos on human life still constitutes a major problem. Naturally occurring asbestos includes serpentine and amphibole minerals characterised by fibrous morphology and it is a constituent of mineralogical associations typical of mafic and ultramafic rocks within the ophiolitic sequences. Release of fibres can occur both through natural processes (erosion) and through human activities requiring fragmentation of ophiolite rocks (quarrying, tunnelling, railways construction, etc.). As a consequence, vulnerability is increasing in sites where workers and living people are involved by dispersion of fibres during mining and milling of ophiolitic rocks. By analysing in the field different exposures of ophiolitic sequences from the Italian peninsula and after an extensive review of the existing literature, we remark the importance of the geological context (origin, tectonic and deformation history) of ophiolites as a first-order parameter in evaluating the asbestos hazard. Integrated structural, textural, mineralogical and petrological studies significantly improve our understanding of the mechanisms governing the nucleation/growth of fibrous minerals in deformation structures (both ductile and brittle) within the ophiolitic rocks. A primary role is recognised in the structural processes favouring the fibrous mineralization, with correlation existing between the fibrous parameters (such as mineralogical composition, texture, mechanics characteristics) and the particles released in the air (such as shape, size, and amount liberated

  7. Natural radionuclide content and radiological hazard associated with usage of quartzite sand samples from Ovacik-Silifke-Mersin open pit as building material in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Aykamis, A S; Kiliç, A M

    2009-09-01

    Activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in quartzite sand samples collected from the Ovacik-Silifke-Mersin open pit located in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey were determined by using a gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The mean activity concentrations of the (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in quartzite sand samples were found as 81.7 +/- 22.9 Bq kg(-1), 6.3 +/- 2.8 Bq kg(-1), 77.5 +/- 24.3 Bq kg(-1)and 140.0 +/- 124.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The gamma index (I(gamma)), the internal exposure index (I(alpha)), the indoor absorbed dose rate (D(in)) and the corresponding annual effective dose (H(in)) were evaluated for the public exposure to radiological hazard arising due to the use of quartzite sand samples as building material. The values of I(gamma), I(alpha), D(in) and H(in) ranged from 0.20 to 0.75, with a mean of 0.34 +/- 0.11, 0.23 to 0.77 with a mean of 0.39 +/- 0.12, 58.27 to 201.51 nGy h(-1) with a mean of 93.33 +/- 27.63 nGy h(-1) and 0.29 to 0.99 mSv with a mean of 0.46 +/- 0.14 mSv, respectively.

  8. Y2K, embedded chips, casualty hazards and due diligence in healthcare risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, J R

    1998-01-01

    Y2K raises challenges for healthcare risk managers that go beyond information technology issues. This article explains that (1) too little public attention is being paid to equipment which may well have Y2K faults and (2) few standards have been articulated for dealing with problems. Healthcare risk managers therefore must return to basic due diligence principles and develop their own standards and protocols. The article explains how to do due diligence and outlines suggested steps for dealing with the non-information technology side of compliance due diligence.

  9. Assessing the indirect effects due to natural hazards on a mesoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, C.; Schwarze, R.

    2009-04-01

    Measuring indirect economic costs and other effects from natural hazards, especially floods in alpine and other mountainous regions, are a necessary part of a comprehensive economic assessment. Their omission seriously affects the relative economic benefits of structural or non structural measures of flood defence. Surpassing controversial, IO-model-based economic estimates, analysing indirect economic effects lead to the key question of identifying and evaluating the drivers of indirect economic effects and resilience to system effects in the regional economy, i.e. at the meso-level. This investigation takes place for the catastrophic floods in summer 2005 in the provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg, Austria, which caused an estimated € 670 Mio direct loss on private and public assets and severe interruptions in lifeline services. The paper starts out with differentiating the concept of indirect economic costs from direct costs, examing different temporal (short vs. long-term) and spatial (macro-, meso- vs. microeconomic) system boundaries. It surveys common theories of economic resilience and vulnerability at the regional economy level. Indirect effects at the regional economy level can be defined as interferences of the economic exchange of goods and services triggered by breakdowns of transport lines and critical production inputs. The extent and persistence of indirect effects of natural hazards is not only by parameters of the extreme event, such as duration and amplitude of the flood, but much more by resilience parameters of the regional economy such as size of enterprises, the network structure (linkages) of the regional economy, availability of insurance and relief funds, and the stock of inventory. These effects can only be dissected by means of expert judgement and event studies. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted among business practioneers, members of chamber of commerce, civil protection agencies to identify and scale the drivers of

  10. Population exposure to hazardous air quality due to the 2015 fires in Equatorial Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, P; Castruccio, S; Archer-Nicholls, S; Lebron, G B; Kuwata, M; Thota, A; Sumin, S; Butt, E; Wiedinmyer, C; Spracklen, D V

    2016-11-16

    Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades. We performed high-resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry based on a new fire emission product. The model captures the spatio-temporal variability of extreme pollution episodes relative to space- and ground-based observations and allows for identification of pollution sources and transport over Equatorial Asia. We calculate that high particulate matter concentrations from fires during Fall 2015 were responsible for persistent exposure of 69 million people to unhealthy air quality conditions. Short-term exposure to this pollution may have caused 11,880 (6,153-17,270) excess mortalities. Results from this research provide decision-relevant information to policy makers regarding the impact of land use changes and human driven deforestation on fire frequency and population exposure to degraded air quality.

  11. Population exposure to hazardous air quality due to the 2015 fires in Equatorial Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, P.; Castruccio, S.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lebron, G. B.; Kuwata, M.; Thota, A.; Sumin, S.; Butt, E.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades. We performed high-resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry based on a new fire emission product. The model captures the spatio-temporal variability of extreme pollution episodes relative to space- and ground-based observations and allows for identification of pollution sources and transport over Equatorial Asia. We calculate that high particulate matter concentrations from fires during Fall 2015 were responsible for persistent exposure of 69 million people to unhealthy air quality conditions. Short-term exposure to this pollution may have caused 11,880 (6,153-17,270) excess mortalities. Results from this research provide decision-relevant information to policy makers regarding the impact of land use changes and human driven deforestation on fire frequency and population exposure to degraded air quality.

  12. Assessment of radiological impact due to a hypothetical core disruptive accident for PFBR using an advanced atmospheric dispersion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.V.; Venkatesan, R.; Natarajan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Radiological impact due to air borne effluent dispersion from a hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) scenario for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam coastal site is estimated using an advanced system consisting of a 3-d meso-scale atmospheric model and a random walk particle dispersion model. A simulation of dispersion for CDA carried out for a typical summer day on 24th May 2003 predicted development of land-sea breeze circulation and Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) at Kalpakkam site, which have been confirmed by observations. Analysis of dose distribution corresponding to predicted atmospheric conditions shows maximum dose from stack releases beyond the site boundary at about 4 km during TIBL fumigation and stable conditions respectively. A multi mode spatial concentration distribution has been noticed with diurnal meandering of wind under land sea breeze circulation. Over a meso-scale range of 25 km, turning of plume under sea breeze and maximum concentration along plume centerline at distances of 3 to 10 km have been noticed. The study has enabled to simulate the more complex meteorological situation that is actually present at the site. (author)

  13. Narrative Report on the Hazard to Civilization Due to Fireballs and Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    great Bronze Age destructions known to us through archaeological research. Such catastrophes due supposedly to random celestial bombardments were...collapses of civilizations (eg the Myceneans, the Minoans, the Hittites, the Sixth Egyptian Dynasty, the Classical Maya , the Chinese "Warring States", the

  14. Assessment of health hazard due to natural radioactivity in Kluang District, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Saleh, Muneer; Termizi Ramli, Ahmad; Alajerami, Yasser; Damoom, Mohammed; Sadiq Aliyu, Abubakar

    2014-01-01

    The radiation survey of the ambient environment was conducted using two gamma detectors, and the measurement results were used in the computation of the mean external radiation dose rate, mean-weighted dose rate and annual effective dose, which are 144 nGy h(-1), 0.891 mSv y(-1) and 178 μSv, respectively. A high-purity germanium detector was used to determine the activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in soil samples. The results of the gamma spectrometry of the soil samples show radioactivity concentration ranges from 19±1 to 405±13 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 137±5 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, from 21±2 to 268±9 Bq kg(-1)with a mean value of 78±3 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra and from 23±9 to 1268±58 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 207±13 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and external hazard index (Hex) were 290 Bq kg(-1) and 0.784, respectively, which were safe for the population. The mean lifetime dose and lifetime cancer risk for each person living in the area with average lifetime (70 y) were 12.46 mSv and 7.25×10(-4) Sv year, respectively. The results were compared with values given in United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation 2000.

  15. Evaluation of the radiologic potential due to the nuclear submarine visits to the Rio de Janeiro port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Brazil is signatory of international protocols related to the visit of nuclear-powered vessels, aircraft carriers and submarines to Brazilian ports. The submarines, during their stay in Brazilian ports, inform that there is no release of radioactive material to the environment. However, the possibility of occurrence of accidents with environmental releases from PWR reactors is real. Between 1993 and 2003, 13 nuclear submarines visited Brazilian ports. This work aimed to evaluate the potential impact due to the visits of nuclear-powered ships and submarines to the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in relation to releases of radioactive materials to the environment, considering both routine releases and accidental situations. The models selected to perform the assessments took into account the scenarios to be simulated. Simple, but conservative methodologies were used for the evaluation of routine releases. For accidental releases, the dynamics of the materials dispersion into the environment were considered. The present study was mainly focalized on the initial phase of an accident. The doses for the crew of the Brazilian navy ships, for IRD teams performing environmental monitoring, and for the population around the Guanabara Bay, close to the points of anchorage, were assessed. The results indicated that, in normal operational conditions, no significant radiological impact due to the visit of nuclear submarines to the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro is expected, even considering the occurrence of small routine radionuclide releases. The analysis of accidental releases, however, indicated that the submarines should be located at a minimum distance of 2,5 km from inhabited areas in the coast of the Guanabara Bay. The need for environmental control and training of the teams involved in the attendance of the submarines, during the period of their visit, was also considered. The need for revising the procedures for the preoperational surveys to be performed at the

  16. Probabilistic and possibilistic approach for assessment of radiological risk due to organically bound and tissue free water tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahiya, Sudhir; Hegde, A.G.; Joshi, M.L.; Verma, P.C.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    This study illustrates use of two approaches namely probabilistic using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and possibilistic using fuzzy α-cut (FAC) to estimate the radiological cancer risk to the population from ingestion of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tissue free water tritium (TFWT) from fish consumption from the Rana Pratap Sagar Lake (RPSL), Kota. Using FAC technique, radiological cancer risk rate (year -1 ) at A αl.0 level were 1.15E-08 and 1.50E-09 for OBT and TFWT respectively from fish ingestion pathway. The radiological cancer risk rate (year -1 ) using MCS approach at 50th percentile (median) level is 1.14E-08 and 1.49E-09 for OBT and HTO respectively from ingestion of fresh water fish. (author)

  17. Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, Christian D

    2011-01-01

    Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

  18. Radionuclide content in laundry detergents commercially available on the Serbian market and assessment of radiological environmental hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukanac Ivana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laundry detergents are chemicals widely used in everyday life, and in numerous industry branches. In order to perceive the radiological aspect of environmental pollution by wastewater, the analysis of laundry detergents available on the Serbian market was undertaken. Laundry detergent samples were measured by means of gamma spectrometry and the results are presented in this paper. Analysis of the obtained activity concentrations showed that laundry detergents in Serbia mostly fulfill the international recommendation and requirements regarding the phosphate content. Besides that, the content of the detected radionuclides in laundry detergent samples indicates the minor radiological risk to the environment via wastewaters. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 171018

  19. Radiological optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.

    1998-01-01

    Radiological optimization is one of the basic principles in each radiation-protection system and it is a basic requirement in the safety standards for radiation protection in the European Communities. The objectives of the research, performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, are: (1) to implement the ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for optimization techniques in decision-aiding; (3) to optimize radiological assessment models by validation and intercomparison; (4) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (5) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (6) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (7) to investigate existing software programmes in the domain of multi criteria analysis. The main achievements for 1997 are given

  20. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-01-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a "1"9"2Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  1. Radiation protection in the diagnostic radiology. General viewpoint including CT; Strahlenschutz in der diagnostischen Radiologie. Allgemeine Sichtweise einschliesslich CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroepil, Patric [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2017-07-01

    Radiation protection in radiology has received public attention due to reports in the media on radiation hazards due to CT. The contribution covers the issues radiation protection in radiology, including the documentation of dose information, the responsibility of radiologists for their patients, new developments with respect to dose intensive CT and the changes due to the new radiation protection law.

  2. Evaluation of excess lifetime cancer risk and radiological hazard in produced water from some flow stations in Delta State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avwiri, G. O.; Esi, E. O.

    2014-01-01

    The radiological effects and excess lifetime cancer risk of produced water collected from seven oil and gas flow stations (fields onshore) of Delta State, Nigeria were estimated using standard analytical. Twenty- one produced water samples from seven flow stations waste pit were collected within the oil fields using standard methods. The radionuclide concentrations in the produced water samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy method. The average values obtained for representative gamma index, annual effective dose equivalent (outdoor), annual effective dose equivalent (indoor) are 0.104mSv/y, 0.0229mSv/y and 0.03276mSv/y respectively when compared with standard of 1.0mSv/y are all below unity. Excess lifetime cancer risk obtained values ranged from 0.0196mSv/y - 0.0434mSv/y with a mean value of 0.0288mSv/y. When compared with the world average standard (0.29 x 10 -3 ), it was observed that the obtained values are higher than the world allowable average. The absorbed dose rate ranged from 4.570mSv/y to 10.088mSv/y with average value of 6.68mSvy-1 was found to be higher than the UNSCEAR 2000 acceptable standard of 1.5mSvy -1 . The results obtained in this study provides a baseline map of radiological effect and excess lifetime cancer risk levels in the Niger Delta environment and will be used as reference information to assess any changes in this studied area. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection, since produced water are widely been discharged in the environment during oil and gas productions.

  3. Contribution to the radiological study of the eosinophilic granuloma of the mandible (Unifocal granuloma due to Langherans' cell histiocytosis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigi, Gino; Pastremoli, Alessandro; Pisi, Paolo; Pastremoli, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The radiological diagnosis of osteolytic lesions of the mandible still constitutes a challenge in some pathological conditions in which the clinical data and the case history are relatively uniform and the radiological picture is lacking in any characteristics. Materials and methods: We reviewed the conventional radiograms of six cases of Langherans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the mandible examined over the last ten years. The X-ray examinations were performed in the lateral-oblique projection to allow a view of the horizontal portion of the mandible almost completely free of overlapping images of other bone structures. Results: We identified a series of radiological patterns for these reticulo-endotheliopathies capable of causing granuloma formed by polinuclear eosinophils, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and large mononuclear macrophages with granulopexic and phagocytic activity that proliferate in the bone tissue and can be identified as the Langherans' cells of skin, mucosa, periodontal cavities and bone marrow. The granulomatous tissue penetrates the affected organ elements and, in its spread, it compresses, atrophies, and destroyed the damaged tissue, replacing it. The alterations produced by Langherans' cell histiocytic granuloma are most common in the skeletal system affecting, in order of frequency, the skull, the long bones of the limbs, the foot, the ribs and the spine. The oral mucosa is rarely involved. Conclusions: The radiological investigation of unifocal Langherans' cell histiocytic granuloma of the mandible is essential in the study of perimandibular swelling, although diagnosis is based on biopsy alone. In addition to digital or conventional radiography, other useful examinations are bone scintigraphy, Colour Doppler US, MR and CT, which enables a correct localisation necessary for planning the biopsy and treatment [it

  4. Multi-factor evaluation indicator method for the risk assessment of atmospheric and oceanic hazard group due to the attack of tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Du, Mei

    2018-06-01

    China's southeast coastal areas frequently suffer from storm surge due to the attack of tropical cyclones (TCs) every year. Hazards induced by TCs are complex, such as strong wind, huge waves, storm surge, heavy rain, floods, and so on. The atmospheric and oceanic hazards cause serious disasters and substantial economic losses. This paper, from the perspective of hazard group, sets up a multi-factor evaluation method for the risk assessment of TC hazards using historical extreme data of concerned atmospheric and oceanic elements. Based on the natural hazard dynamic process, the multi-factor indicator system is composed of nine natural hazard factors representing intensity and frequency, respectively. Contributing to the indicator system, in order of importance, are maximum wind speed by TCs, attack frequency of TCs, maximum surge height, maximum wave height, frequency of gusts ≥ Scale 8, rainstorm intensity, maximum tidal range, rainstorm frequency, then sea-level rising rate. The first four factors are the most important, whose weights exceed 10% in the indicator system. With normalization processing, all the single-hazard factors are superposed by multiplying their weights to generate a superposed TC hazard. The multi-factor evaluation indicator method was applied to the risk assessment of typhoon-induced atmospheric and oceanic hazard group in typhoon-prone southeast coastal cities of China.

  5. Three consecutive years of road closures due to natural hazards in the Weisstannen valley, Canton of St-Gallen, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The Weisstannen small alpine valley located in the Canton of St-Gallen, Switzerland, has been affected by four different natural hazards these three last years. Its unique access road has been cut off height times during this period: by an earth slide in January 2014, by three debris flows in August 2015, by one debris flow in September 2016, by two floods in June and July 2016 and by a rockfall in May 2016. Although the valley is sparsely populated, 240 people have been affected by the height road closures due to these events. In addition to road damages, several buildings, of which a restaurant (with EUR 190'000 damages) and an animal shelter, have been damaged. In Switzerland, some roads of 15 communes have been affected by natural hazards at least three times in five years (2012-2016). Then the Weisstannen valley is not an exception at the communal level. However, it is the only valley whose unique access was cut off three consecutive years. With these repeated events, the population of the valley does not understand how possible it is to end up in such a situation in a country accustomed to natural hazards. In the media and social media, people do not hide their irritation regarding to this situation: "Have the authorities failed to take into account natural dangers despite of the 4.7 million Euro allocated for a flood protection project? Who is responsible of those repeated damages? Why the situation did not improve after the events of the first year and then the second year? ". In the present work, we try to shed the light on this peculiar case analysing the causes of road closures, studying meteorological, topographical, hydrological and geological data for each events. The effectiveness of the new protective measures built between the events are assessed, as the future planned protectives measures. Road closures consequences on the population and the economy are also estimated. Finally, we estimate the probability of having new road closures in the

  6. Radiation hazards due to activated corrosion and neutron sputtering products in fusion reactor coolant and tritium breeding fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.C.; Vogelsang, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation of radioactive corrosion and neutron sputtering products on the surfaces of components in fusion reactor coolant and tritium breeding systems can cause significant personnel access problems. Remote maintenance techniques or special treatment may be required to limit the amount of radiation exposure to plant operational and maintenance personnel. A computer code, RAPTOR, has been developed to estimate the transport of this activated material throughout a fusion heat transfer and/or tritium breeding material loop. A method is devised which treats the components of the loop individually and determines the source rates, deposition and erosion rates, decay rates, and purification rates of these radioactive materials. RAPTOR has been applied to the MARS and Starfire conceptual reactor designs to determine the degree of the possible radiation hazard due to these products. Due to the very high corrosion release rate by HT-9 when exposed to LiPb in the MARS reactor design, the radiation fields surrounding the primary system will preclude direct contact maintenance even after shutdown. Even the removal of the radioactive LiPb from the system will not decrease the radiation fields to reasonable levels. The Starfire primary system will exhibit radiation fields similar to those found in present pressurized water reactors. (orig.)

  7. Radiological diagnosis in constipation and anal incontinence due to changes in the pelvic floor and sphincter apparatus of the anus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistolfi, F.; Grillo Ruggeri, F.; Siragusa, A.

    1987-01-01

    Rectal constipation, anal incontinence and constipation combined with incontinence, are often caused by organic or simply functional changes in the pelvic floor and sphincterial apparatus. Therefore morphological as well as manometric and electromyographic studies of these anatomical parts are required. This is possible by combining two techniques: Intestinal Transit Time (ITT) and Defecatory Proctogram with Balloon (DPB). Personal experience of 38 patients with constipation with or without incontinence is reported. The results lead to the following conclusion: 1) ITT is a simple and non-invasive radiological technique that provides us with objective evidence of an impairment, i.e. constipation, whose symptoms are often only subjective; especially is allows us to identify rectal constipation, that can be caused by impairment of the anal sphincteral apparatus. 2) Using an uroprophylactic with a collar that adapts to the size of the anal duct, DPB always permits visualization of the duct with good representation of the recto-anal angle, whose changes may be the expression of organic or only functional impairments of the anal sphincterial apparatus. Increasing use of the two radiological techniques is therefore recommended in the diagnosis of alterations of the pelvic floor or anal sphincter

  8. Terrestrial gamma dose rate, radioactivity and radiological hazards in the rocks of an elevated radiation background in Juban District, Ad Dali' Governorate, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurabu, Wedad Ali; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Heryansyah, Arien; Alnhary, Anees; Fadhl, Shadi

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate natural radiation and radioactivity in the rock and to assess the corresponding health risk in a region of elevated background radiation in Juban District, Ad Dali' Governorate, Yemen. The mean external gamma dose rate was 374 nGy h(-1) which is approximately six times the world average. The measured results were used to compute annual effective dose equivalent, collective effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk, which are 2.298 mSv, 61.95 man Sv y(-1) and 8.043  ×  10(-3), respectively. Rocks samples from different geological formations were analyzed for quantitative determination of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The specific activity of the rocks samples ranges from 7  ±  1 Bq Kg(-1) to 12 513  ±  329 Bq Kg(-1) for (232)Th, from 6  ±  1 Bq kg(-1) to 3089  ±  74 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra and 702  ±  69 Bq kg(-1) to 2954  ±  285 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. (232)Th is the main contributor to gamma dose rate from the rock samples. Indicators of radiological health impact, radium equivalent activity and external hazard index are 3738 Bq kg(-1) and 10.10, respectively. The mean external hazard index was ten times unity in the studied locations in Juban District, which is higher than the recommended value.

  9. Prospective radiological study concerning a series of patients suffering from conductive or mixed hearing loss due to superior semicircular canal dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian; Chahine, Pierre; Veyret, Charles; Richard, Céline; Prades, Jean Michel; Pouget, Jean François

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study is to appreciate the incidence of patients with isolated conductive hearing loss with normal drum due to superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD). It is a prospective radiological study. Two hundred and seventy-two patients with a normal drum suffering from isolated unilateral or bilateral conductive or mixed hearing loss were included in a prospective radiological study. A high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) was performed in all the patients. Those who were found to have a unilateral or bilateral SCD underwent further etiological, clinical, audiologic evaluation. Ten patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss were found to have a unilateral or bilateral SCD. The disease was bilateral in five cases, and most often associated with a dehiscence of the tegmen tympani on both sides, supporting the theory of the congenital nature of the disease. There was no clear correlation between symptoms and the size of the SCD. Because patients were not suffering from incapacitating vestibular symptoms, they were not operated for surgical occlusion of the SCD, and were referred to a hearing aid specialist to improve hearing. Conductive or mixed hearing loss due to SCD is relatively frequent, justifying in our opinion that a systematic HRCT be carried out before surgery of any patient with conductive hearing loss.

  10. Frequency distribution of specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in surface beach sand samples collected in Bangsaen beach in Chonburi province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changkit, N.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Youngchauy, U.; Polthum, S.; Kessaratikoon, P.

    2017-09-01

    The specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) in 50 surface beach sand samples collected from Bangsaen beach in Chonburi province in the easthern region of Thailand, were measured and evaluated. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system in the special laboratory at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization). The IAEA-SOIL-375 reference material was used to analyze the concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in all samples. It was found that the specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were ranged from 510.85 - 771.35, 8.17 - 17.06 and 4.25 - 15.68 Bq/kg. Furthermore, frequency distribution of the specific activities were studied, analyzed and found to be the asymmetrical distribution by using a statistical computer program. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the investigated area were also calculated by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The results were also compared with the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) annual report data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurement and evaluations.

  11. Radiological Characterization of cuban coffee and estimation of the doses received by the population due to coffee consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, I.M.; Rodriguez Castro, G.; Perez Sanchez, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the radioactivity levels in the coffee produced and consumed in our country and to estimate the doses received by the Cuban people due to its consumption. As a results of this study the most relevant radionuclide was K 40 , due to the concentration levels found only considering it when estimating the annual committed dose that is received thought this via. The K 40 concentration value present in the infusion represented a dose for the consumer of 15.6 u Sv/year

  12. WSPEEDI (worldwide version of SPEEDI): A computer code system for the prediction of radiological impacts on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Moriuchi, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishikawa, Hirohiko

    1995-09-01

    A computer code system has been developed for near real-time dose assessment during radiological emergencies. The system WSPEEDI, the worldwide version of SPEEDI (System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) aims at predicting the radiological impact on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries. WSPEEDI consists of a mass-consistent wind model WSYNOP for large-scale wind fields and a particle random walk model GEARN for atmospheric dispersion and dry and wet deposition of radioactivity. The models are integrated into a computer code system together with a system control software, worldwide geographic database, meteorological data processor and graphic software. The performance of the models has been evaluated using the Chernobyl case with reliable source terms, well-established meteorological data and a comprehensive monitoring database. Furthermore, the response of the system has been examined by near real-time simulations of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX), carried out over about 2,000 km area in Europe. (author).

  13. WSPEEDI (worldwide version of SPEEDI): A computer code system for the prediction of radiological impacts on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Moriuchi, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Hirohiko.

    1995-09-01

    A computer code system has been developed for near real-time dose assessment during radiological emergencies. The system WSPEEDI, the worldwide version of SPEEDI (System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) aims at predicting the radiological impact on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries. WSPEEDI consists of a mass-consistent wind model WSYNOP for large-scale wind fields and a particle random walk model GEARN for atmospheric dispersion and dry and wet deposition of radioactivity. The models are integrated into a computer code system together with a system control software, worldwide geographic database, meteorological data processor and graphic software. The performance of the models has been evaluated using the Chernobyl case with reliable source terms, well-established meteorological data and a comprehensive monitoring database. Furthermore, the response of the system has been examined by near real-time simulations of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX), carried out over about 2,000 km area in Europe. (author)

  14. Impact assessment of coastal hazards due to future changes of tropical cyclones in the North Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhito Mori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclones generate severe hazards in the middle latitudes. A brief review and applications of dynamical and statistical downscaling of tropical cyclone (TC are described targeting extreme storm surge and storm wave hazard assessment. First, a review of the current understanding of the changes in the characteristics of TCs in the past and in the future is shown. Then, a review and ongoing research about impact assessment of tropical cyclones both dynamical downscaling and statistical model are described for Typhoon Vera in 1959 and Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Finally, several examples of impact assessment of storm surge and extreme wave changes are presented. Changes in both TC intensity and track are linked to future changes in extreme storm surge and wave climate in middle latitude.

  15. Comparison of the regulatory models assessing off-site radiological dose due to the routine releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Kim, E. H.; Han, M. H.; Choi, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    Methodologies of NEWTRIT model, NRC model and AIRDOS-EPA model, which are off-site dose assessment models for regulatory compliance from routine releases of tritium into the environment, were investigated. Using the domestic data, if available, the predictive results of the models were compared. Among them, recently developed NEWTRIT model considers only doses from organically bounded tritium (OBT) due to environmental releases of tritiated water (HTO). A total dose from all exposure pathways predicted from AIRDOS-EPA model was 1.03 and 2.46 times higher than that from NEWTRIT model and NRC model, respectively. From above result, readers should not have an understanding that a predictive dose from NRC model may be underestimated compared with a realistic dose. It is because of that both mathematical models and corresponding parameter values for regulatory compliance are based on the conservative assumptions. For a dose by food consumption predicted from NEWTRIT model, the contribution of OBT was nearly equivalent to that of HTO due to relatively high consumption of grains in Korean. Although a total dose predicted from NEWTRIT model is similar to that from AIRDOS-EPA model, NEWTRIT model may be have a meaning in the understanding of phenomena for the behavior of HTO released into the environment

  16. Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

    2010-01-01

    Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

  17. Radiation hygiene survey on human and cattle in Fukushima prefecture no health hazards due to low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hygiene survey has been conducted about Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power station disaster caused by tsunami in the East Japan earthquake area on March 11 th 2011. Our surveys reveal that a public annual dose is 10 mSv following low-dose and health hazards shall not be concluded by the methods of in situ dose evaluation. This study has been focused on internal dosimetries of iodine-131 in thyroid and of cesium-134, 137 in whole body. Especially we continuously have been studing radiation hygiene on cattle livestock in Namie town within 20 km zone around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, and found no problem for the recovery. (author)

  18. Assessment of radiological risk parameters associated with some selected rivers around oil mineral producing sites in Abia State, Nigeria due to gross alpha and beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enyinna, Paschal Ikenna; Uzochukwu, Francis C.

    2016-01-01

    The study of gross alpha and beta radiation in environmental components and water bodies in particular is very crucial to the environmental, radiation and medical Physicist as this helps to promote good water quality and environmental hygiene. This research work understudied the radiological risk parameters due to gross alpha and beta radiations associated with three selected rivers around crude oil production sites in Abia State, Nigeria. Gross alpha and beta activities were computed for the three rivers based on analytical measurements carried out using a well-calibrated IN-20 model gas-flow proportional counter. Radiological risk parameters were computed from the activity concentrations which included; annual effective dose equivalent of radiation from ingested water (AEDE), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR). The mean of the total AEDE due to the sum of alpha and beta radiations for the three rivers are 0.868 ± 0.221 mSv/y, 1.008 ± 0.156 mSv/y, and 0.917 ± 0.214 mSv/y; and are above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limit of 0.1 mSv/y. The mean of the total AGDE are 4.048 ± 1.063 mSv/y, 4.756 ± 0.739 mSv/y, and 4.295 ± 1.026 mSv/y; and are above the world average limit of 0.3 mSv/y. The mean of the total ELCR are (3.038 ± 0.774) X 10"-"3, (3.529 ± 0.547) X 10"-"3, and (3.210 ± 0.748) X 10"-"3; and are above the world average limit of 0.29 X 10"-"3. Most values of ELCR computed in this work are >6.0 X 10"-"4 estimated to be the risk of fatal and weighted nonfatal health conditions over a lifetime (70 years) derived from the radiation dose of 0.1 mSv/y (WHO permissible limit for drinking water). Drinking water from these surveyed sources could impact negatively on the end users. (author)

  19. The calculated radiological impact on the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center due to radioactive emissions to the atmosphere in the years 1975 and 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.; Nagel, D.; Papadopoulos, D.

    1976-08-01

    The radiological impact by radioactive offgas and exhaust air on the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KNRC) is calculated every year and compared with the permissible equivalent doses. This report includes both the forecasted maximum doses from maximum releases scheduled for the year 1976 and the actual doses of 1975 based on the measured releases in 1975. According to the various irradiation mechanisms of the nuclides emitted, the following doses are indicated, each calculated for an adult person: whole body dose by γ-irradiation and tritium inhalation, skin dose by external β-irradiation, lung dose by aerosol inhalation, bone dose by plutonium inhalation, and effective integral dose. The maximum infant thyroid dose due to iodine ingestion via the pasture-cow-milk-pathway is also calculated. The respective maximum doses indicate that the dose limits of 30 mrem/a whole body dose (adult) and 90 mrem/a thyroid dose (Infant) which are to be observed by the KNRC since the year 1975 are not exceeded at any point, provided the emissions remain below the scheduled maximum level. The doses in 1975 were markedly below the dose limits mentioned above. This is even true when partial body and organ doses are integrated in an 'effective dose'. (orig.) [de

  20. Radiology today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, M.W.; Heuck, F.H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The book encompasses the proceedings of a postgraduate course held in Salzburg in June 1980. 230 radiologists from 17 countries discussed here the important and practical advances of diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and ultrasound as they contribute to gastrointestinal, urologic, skeletal, cardiovascular, pediatric, and neuroradiology. The book contains 55 single contributions of different authors to the following main themes: Cardiovascular, Radiology, pulmonary radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, urinary tract radiology, skeletal radiology, mammography, lymphography, ultrasound, ENT radiology, and neuroradiology. (orig./MG)

  1. Nursering assistance to the radiological accident patients in Goias-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graciotti, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    A report of a personal experience, during two months of nursering care to the radiological accident victims, due to the disruption of a caesium-137 source, is presented. The biological radiation effects, the radiation hazards due to the doses received and the Kind of exposure, are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Radiological Worker II Training, Course 20301 (Live), Course 12909 (Test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-13

    Radiological worker training is the basic building block for any additional radiological training you may receive. Upon completing radiological worker training, you will have the basic knowledge needed to work safely, using proper radiological practices, in areas where radiological hazards exist. You will also have a better understanding of the hazards and responsibilities associated with radiological work to help prevent the carelessness that can occur when working continually with or around radioactive material. This course does not qualify you for any specific radiological work. You may be required to take additional training at individual facilities to address facility- and job-specific hazards and procedures.

  3. An Internet-Based Radiology Course in Medical School: Comparison of Academic Performance of Students on Campus Versus Those With Absenteeism Due to Residency Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Andrew George; Deas, Deborah; Lyons, Paul Eric

    2018-05-18

    Imaging and its optimal use are imperative to the practice of medicine, yet many students don't receive a formal education in radiology. Concurrently, students look for ways to take time away from medical school for residency interviewing. Web-based instruction provides an opportunity to combine these imperatives using online modalities. A largely Web-based course in radiology during the 4th year of medical school was evaluated both for its acceptance to students who needed to be away from campus for interviews, and its effectiveness on a nationally administered standardized test. All students were placed into a structured program utilizing online videos, online modules, online textbook assignments, and live interactive online lectures. Over half of the course could be completed away from campus. The Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology test exam bank was used as a final exam to evaluate medical knowledge. Positive student feedback included the freedom to travel for interviews, hands-on ultrasound training, interactive teaching sessions, and quality Web-based learning modules. Negative feedback included taking quizzes in-person, a perceived outdated online textbook, and physically shadowing hospital technicians. Most students elected to take the course during the interview months of October through January. The Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology final exam results (70.5%) were not significantly different than the national cohort (70%) who took the course in-person. Test scores from students taking the course during interview travel months were not significantly different from students who took the course before (P=.30) or after (P=.34) the interview season. Students desire to learn radiology and often choose to do so when they need to be away from campus during the fall of their 4th year of study to accomplish their residency interviews. Web-based education in radiology allows students' interview traveling and radiology course

  4. Medical Ethics in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Soon Ho

    2010-01-01

    According to the recent developments in radiological techniques, the role of radiology in the clinical management of patients is ever increasing and in turn, so is the importance of radiology in patient management. Thus far, there have been few open discussions about medical ethics related to radiology in Korea. Hence, concern about medical ethics as an essential field of radiology should be part of an improved resident training program and patient management. The categories of medical ethics related with radiology are ethics in the radiological management of patient, the relationship of radiologists with other medical professionals or companies, the hazard level of radiation for patients and radiologists, quality assurance of image products and modalities, research ethics, and other ethics issues related to teleradiology and fusion imaging. In order to achieve the goal of respectful progress in radiology as well as minimizing any adverse reaction from other medical professions or society, we should establish a strong basis of medical ethics through the continuous concern and self education

  5. Investigation of the present management status of calibration source based on the law concerning prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Kunihiro; Kawaharada, Yasuhiro; Igarashi, Hitoshi; Murase, Ken-ya; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2007-01-01

    An amendment concerning the enforcement of the law on the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, etc., and the medical service law enforcement regulations were promulgated on June 1, 2005. This amendment concerned international basic safety standards and the sealing of radiation sources. Sealed radiation sources ≤3.7 MBq, which had been excluded from regulation, were newly included as an object of regulation. Investigation of the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system instituted in hospitals indicated that almost all institutions adhere to the new amendment, and the calibration source, the checking source, etc., corresponding to this amendment were maintained appropriately. Any institutions planning to return sealed radioisotopes should refer to this report. (author)

  6. Risk assessment on hazards for decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo

    2010-01-01

    A decommissioning plan should be followed by a qualitative and quantitative safety assessment of it. The safety assessment of a decommissioning plan is applied to identify the potential (radiological and non-radiological) hazards and risks. Radiological and non-radiological hazards arise during decommissioning activities. The non-radiological or industrial hazards to which workers are subjected during a decommissioning and dismantling process may be greater than those experienced during an operational lifetime of a facility. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities and as well as during accidents. The risk assessment method was developed by using risk matrix and fuzzy inference logic, on the basis of the radiological and non-radiological hazards for a decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility. Fuzzy inference of radiological and non-radiological hazards performs a mapping from radiological and non-radiological hazards to risk matrix. Defuzzification of radiological and non-radiological hazards is the conversion of risk matrix and priorities to the maximum criterion method and the mean criterion method. In the end, a composite risk assessment methodology, to rank the risk level on radiological and non-radiological hazards of the decommissioning tasks and to prioritize on the risk level of the decommissioning tasks, by simultaneously combining radiological and non-radiological hazards, was developed.

  7. Radiological evaluation of dysphagia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Chen, Y.M.

    1986-11-21

    Dysphagia is a common complaint in patients presenting for radiological or endoscopic examination of the esophagus and is usually due to functional or structural abnormalities of the esophageal body or esophagogastric region. The authors review the radiological evaluation of the esophagus and esophagogastric region in patients with esophageal dysphagia and discuss the roentgenographic techniques used, radiological efficacy for common structural disorders, and evaluation of esophageal motor function. Comparison is made with endoscopy in assessing dysphagia, with the conclusion that the radiological examination be used initially in patients with this complaint.

  8. Radiological evaluation of dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Chen, Y.M.

    1986-01-01

    Dysphagia is a common complaint in patients presenting for radiological or endoscopic examination of the esophagus and is usually due to functional or structural abnormalities of the esophageal body or esophagogastric region. The authors review the radiological evaluation of the esophagus and esophagogastric region in patients with esophageal dysphagia and discuss the roentgenographic techniques used, radiological efficacy for common structural disorders, and evaluation of esophageal motor function. Comparison is made with endoscopy in assessing dysphagia, with the conclusion that the radiological examination be used initially in patients with this complaint

  9. [Instruction in dental radiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, W.J.M. van der; Kreulen, C.M.; Berkhout, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic use of oral radiology is an essential part of daily dental practice. Due to the potentially harmful nature of ionising radiation, the clinical use of oral radiology in the Netherlands is framed by clinical practice guidelines and regulatory requirements. Undergraduate students receive

  10. Radiological malpractice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.

    1987-01-01

    As medico-legal statistics show, compared with other branches of medicine, cases of liability of the radiologist or his assistants are relatively rare. The duty to exercise due care as set out in Paragraph 6 of the Austrian penal code or Paragraph 276 of the German civil code, respectively, provide a basic rule of law also for radiology. Due to the risk inherent in the investigation method, incidents in angiography cannot be totally excluded. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that all steps be taken with regard to staff, equipment and drugs to be able to deal with any complications and incidents that may arise. The courts of law require the employer to produce strongest exonerating evidence to prove that the duty to exercise due care in the selection and supervision of the assistants has been duly fulfilled. For the practical execution of radiological investigations of the digestive tract, also the RTA is responsible; her liability when performing an irrigoscopy is particularly great, as perforation of the intestine is often lethal. The introduction of the rectal tube into the vagina by mistake, with resultant injury or death of the patient, will regularly lead to conviction under penal law. (orig.) [de

  11. Handling of overexposed persons in radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this standard procedure of the criteria in case of radiological emergencies is to describe the standard procedures used to define an radiological accident in terms of the doses received, and to describe the medical procedures for diagnoses and treatment of health hazards caused by external and internal irradiation in radiological emergencies

  12. Radiological assessment and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.; Sohier, A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological assessment and optimization are (1) to implement ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for radiological optimization in decision-aiding; (3) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (4) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (5) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (6) to investigate computer codes in the area of multi criteria analysis; (7) to organise courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in these areas for 1997 are summarised

  13. Investigation of the radiological impact due to the dredging of sediments in the Minimes harbour of La Rochelle. Workers and population exposure to reinforced natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As the city of La Rochelle is implementing a project of expansion of the Minimes yachting harbour which comprises the dredging of sediments (which may have been polluted by a rare earth production plant), this document reports the assessment of the radiological impact of this dredging activity on workers and on the population. A campaign of sediment coring has been performed in order to validate the reference coring station selection, to measure sand radiological activity and to measure the activity of the sediments to be dredged. The computed maximum efficient doses for the workers and for the population appear to be low, and very much less to the 1 mSv/year threshold

  14. Radiological field survey problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deming, E.J.; Boerner, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Situations often arise during radiological field surveys which require the health physicist to improvise and/or make spot decisions. At times these situations can be humorous, but they can also present hazards more serious than normal radiological considerations. This presentation will depict various problematic situations encountered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities Radiological Site Assessment Program in the course of performing field environmental surveys. Detailing these potential hazards can alert other field survey groups to problems they may encounter

  15. Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossi, M.C.; Casini, S.; Marsili, L.

    2007-01-01

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females

  16. 42 CFR 482.26 - Condition of participation: Radiologic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... radiologic services, particularly ionizing radiology procedures, must be free from hazards for patients and... qualified full-time, part-time, or consulting radiologist must supervise the ionizing radiology services and... osteopathy who is qualified by education and experience in radiology. (2) Only personnel designated as...

  17. Radiological English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribes, R. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Cordoba (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Ros, P.R. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Radiology

    2007-07-01

    The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)

  18. Radiological English

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribes, R.; Ros, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)

  19. Potential hazard due to induced radioactivity secondary to radiotherapy: the report of task group 136 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Nath, Ravinder; Bateman, Fred B; Farr, Jonathan; Glisson, Cal; Islam, Mohammad K; LaFrance, Terry; Moore, Mary E; George Xu, X; Yudelev, Mark

    2014-11-01

    External-beam radiation therapy mostly uses high-energy photons (x-rays) produced by medical accelerators, but many facilities now use proton beams, and a few use fast-neutron beams. High-energy photons offer several advantages over lower-energy photons in terms of better dose distributions for deep-seated tumors, lower skin dose, less sensitivity to tissue heterogeneities, etc. However, for beams operating at or above 10 MV, some of the materials in the accelerator room and the radiotherapy patient become radioactive due primarily to photonuclear reactions and neutron capture, exposing therapy staff and patients to unwanted radiation dose. Some recent advances in radiotherapy technology require treatments using a higher number of monitor units and monitor-unit rates for the same delivered dose, and compared to the conventional treatment techniques and fractionation schemes, the activation dose to personnel can be substantially higher. Radiotherapy treatments with proton and neutron beams all result in activated materials in the treatment room. In this report, the authors review critically the published literature on radiation exposures from induced radioactivity in radiotherapy. They conclude that the additional exposure to the patient due to induced radioactivity is negligible compared to the overall radiation exposure as a part of the treatment. The additional exposure to the staff due to induced activity from photon beams is small at an estimated level of about 1 to 2 mSv y. This is well below the allowed occupational exposure limits. Therefore, the potential hazard to staff from induced radioactivity in the use of high-energy x-rays is considered to be low, and no specific actions are considered necessary or mandatory. However, in the spirit of the "As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)" program, some reasonable steps are recommended that can be taken to reduce this small exposure to an even lower level. The dose reduction strategies suggested should be

  20. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  1. RSVP radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirks, D.R.; Chaffee, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops a relative scale of value for pediatric radiology (RSVPR). Neither the HCFA/ACA Relative Value Scale nor the Workload Measurement System developed by Health and Welfare Canada specifically addressed pediatric radiologic examinations. Technical and professional charges for examinations at Children's Hospital Medical Center were reviewed and compared with time and cost analysis. A scale was developed with chest radiography (PA and lateral views) assigned a value of 1. After review by pediatric radiologic technologists, radiologic administrators, pediatric radiologists, and chairs of departments of children's hospitals, this proposed scale was modified to reflect more accurately relative value components of pediatric radiologic and imaging examinations

  2. Radiological Protection Act 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of a Radiological Protection Board to undertake research and advise on protection from radiation hazards. Its functions include provision of advice to Government departments with responsibilities in relation to protection of sectors of the community or the community as a whole against the hazards of ionizing radiation. The Act, which lays down that the Board shall replace certain departments concerned with radiation protection, repeals several Sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and the Science and Technology Act 1965. (NEA) [fr

  3. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  4. Radiology illustrated. Pediatric radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-One (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-11-01

    Depicts characteristic imaging findings of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. Will serve as an ideal diagnostic reference in daily practice. Offers an excellent teaching aid, with numerous high-quality illustrations. This case-based atlas presents images depicting the findings typically observed when imaging a variety of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. The cases are organized according to anatomic region, covering disorders of the brain, spinal cord, head and neck, chest, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, genitourinary system, and musculoskeletal system. Cases are presented in a form resembling teaching files, and the images are accompanied by concise informative text. The goal is to provide a diagnostic reference suitable for use in daily routine by both practicing radiologists and radiology residents or fellows. The atlas will also serve as a teaching aide and a study resource, and will offer pediatricians and surgeons guidance on the clinical applications of pediatric imaging.

  5. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 6. Doses due to radioactive materials present in the environment or released from the atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    International Advisory Committee, Task Group A

    1998-08-01

    In the previous volumes of this Report the concentrations of residual radioactivity in the environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls have been described, and assessment made of the releases to the environment in the future. The further step in radiological assessment is the derivation of radiation doses that arise to actually or potentially exposed populations, from these concentrations and releases. These doses are estimated in this report. The existence of a hypothetical population resident on Mururoa is postulated as the group which would be most exposed. Doses to this group are estimated together with doses to maximally exposed residents on nearby South Pacific islands, and further afield. An assessment of the potential environmental impact of the residual contaminant radionuclides from the nuclear weapons testing at Mururoa and Fangataufa requires estimates of the incremental dose rates to a variety of marine organisms inhabiting a number of different ecological niches. These estimated dose rates provide the only secure basis for an assessment of the potential radiation effects in the organisms. The approach adopted for this assessment is that employed in a number of recent studies and adapts the dosimetry models for the particular organisms of interest in the atoll environment Refs, figs, tabs. In six volumes

  6. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 6. Doses due to radioactive materials present in the environment or released from the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    In the previous volumes of this Report the concentrations of residual radioactivity in the environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls have been described, and assessment made of the releases to the environment in the future. The further step in radiological assessment is the derivation of radiation doses that arise to actually or potentially exposed populations, from these concentrations and releases. These doses are estimated in this report. The existence of a hypothetical population resident on Mururoa is postulated as the group which would be most exposed. Doses to this group are estimated together with doses to maximally exposed residents on nearby South Pacific islands, and further afield. An assessment of the potential environmental impact of the residual contaminant radionuclides from the nuclear weapons testing at Mururoa and Fangataufa requires estimates of the incremental dose rates to a variety of marine organisms inhabiting a number of different ecological niches. These estimated dose rates provide the only secure basis for an assessment of the potential radiation effects in the organisms. The approach adopted for this assessment is that employed in a number of recent studies and adapts the dosimetry models for the particular organisms of interest in the atoll environment

  7. Collective dose estimation in Portuguese population due to medical exams of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine; Estimativa da dose coletiva na populacao portuguesa devido a exames medicos de radiologia de diagnostico e de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Pedro; Vaz, Pedro [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico; Sousa, M. Carmen de [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Coimbra (Portugal); Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Joana [Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saude de Coimbra (Portugal); Pascoal, Ana [Kings College Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Kings Health Partners; Cardoso, Gabriela; Santos, Ana isabel [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada (Portugal); Lanca, Isabel [Administracao Regional de Saude, Coimbra (Portugal); Matela, Nuno [Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal). Fac. de Ciencias. Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica; Janeiro, Luis [Escola superior de Saude da Cruz Vermelha Portuguesa, Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Patrick [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal); Carvoeiras, Pedro; Parafita, Rui [Medical Consult, SA, Lisboa (Portugal); Simaozinho, Paula [Administracao Regional de Saude, Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation due to medical examinations of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, a working group, consisting of 40 institutions, public and private, was created to evaluation the coletive dose in the Portuguese population in 2010. This work was conducted in collaboration with the Dose Datamed European consortium, which aims to assess the exposure of the European population to ionizing radiation due to 20 diagnostic radiology examinations most frequent in Europe (the 'TOP 20') and nuclear medicine examinations. We obtained an average value of collective dose of Almost-Equal-To 1 mSv/caput, which puts Portugal in the category of countries medium to high exposure to Europe. We hope that this work can be a starting point to bridge the persistent lack of studies in the areas referred to in Portugal, and to enable the characterization periodic exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation in the context of medical applications.

  8. Imaging and radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventional radiology; Diagnostic radiology; X-ray imaging ... DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY Diagnostic radiology helps health care professionals see structures inside your body. Doctors that specialize in the interpretation ...

  9. Chronicle of pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz-Bohm, Gabriele; Richter, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    The chronicle of pediatric radiology covers the following issues: Development of pediatric radiology in Germany (BRD, DDR, pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in the Netherlands (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in Austria (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations); development of pediatric radiology in Switzerland (chronology and pediatric radiological accommodations).

  10. World Health Organization Estimates of the Relative Contributions of Food to the Burden of Disease Due to Selected Foodborne Hazards : A Structured Expert Elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hald, Tine; Aspinall, Willy; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Gibb, Herman J; Torgerson, Paul R; Kirk, Martyn D; Angulo, Fred J; Lake, Robin J; Speybroeck, Niko; Hoffmann, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization (WHO) to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs). This estimation is complicated because most of the hazards causing FBD are not transmitted solely by

  11. Ergonomics in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, N. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nimitgoyal@doctors.org.uk; Jain, N.; Rachapalli, V. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    The use of computers is increasing in every field of medicine, especially radiology. Filmless radiology departments, speech recognition software, electronic request forms and teleradiology are some of the recent developments that have substantially increased the amount of time a radiologist spends in front of a computer monitor. Computers are also needed for searching literature on the internet, communicating via e-mails, and preparing for lectures and presentations. It is well known that regular computer users can suffer musculoskeletal injuries due to repetitive stress. The role of ergonomics in radiology is to ensure that working conditions are optimized in order to avoid injury and fatigue. Adequate workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction. We review the current literature pertaining to the role of ergonomics in modern-day radiology especially with the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstations.

  12. Ergonomics in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, N.; Jain, N.; Rachapalli, V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of computers is increasing in every field of medicine, especially radiology. Filmless radiology departments, speech recognition software, electronic request forms and teleradiology are some of the recent developments that have substantially increased the amount of time a radiologist spends in front of a computer monitor. Computers are also needed for searching literature on the internet, communicating via e-mails, and preparing for lectures and presentations. It is well known that regular computer users can suffer musculoskeletal injuries due to repetitive stress. The role of ergonomics in radiology is to ensure that working conditions are optimized in order to avoid injury and fatigue. Adequate workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction. We review the current literature pertaining to the role of ergonomics in modern-day radiology especially with the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstations

  13. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  14. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  15. Dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents the radiological manifestations of the maxillodental region in a suitable manner for fast detection and correct diagnosing of diseases of the teeth, soft tissue, and jaws. Classification therefore is made according to the radiological manifestations of the diseases and not according to etiology. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Recommended radiological controls for tritium operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, G.

    1992-01-01

    This informal report presents recommendations for an adequate radiological protection program for tritium operations. Topics include hazards analysis, facility design, personnel protection equipment, training, operational procedures, radiation monitoring, to include surface and airborne tritium contamination, and program management

  17. Program for the radiological protection of the embryos-fetuses due to the medical exposure of him mother; Programa para la proteccion radiologica del embrio-feto debido a la exposicion medica de su progenitora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, G M; Martinez G, A; Cardenas H, J; Gonzalez R, N; Valdes R, M; Zaldivar H, W [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa C.P. 11300, La Habana (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    In the last years the organizations in charge of the regulation in matter of radiological protection, its have adopted measures to minimize the risks derived of the medical exposures, paying special attention to those that involve women in age of procreation, gestating and in period of lactation, because the embryo - fetus and the newborn babies ones are very vulnerable to the risks of the ionizing radiations, which can end up producing them multiple effects of variable severity. In Cuba, a Maternal-children program that includes the genetic advice to the pregnant woman from the medical point of view exists but didn't so the evaluation of the radiological risk; which is only carried out by the Medical Surveillance Service of the Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations Center (CPHR), without that mediates an official link among both parts and whose existence is only known by a reduced group of professionals of the health and of specialists in Radiological Protection. On the other hand is not established a strategy at national level for the differentiated information and systematic in these topics that it contributes to the control of the exposures of the embryo fetus and the breast-fed baby. Keeping in mind the above-mentioned the specialists of the CPHR have elaborated a proposal of national program for the radiological protection of the embryo- fetus due to the medical exposure of its progenitor. In the same one it is settles down the interrelation between work groups and multidisciplinary institutions to achieve the detection, communication and consultant ship of the cases of exposure to the fetus or breast-fed baby that happen in the country and at the same time include the training so much of the professionals of the health like of the public in general. Presently work the program and the elements that conform it among those that are, the on-line system developed for the automation of the medical dosimetric evaluation, the technician-methodological documents

  18. Program for the radiological protection of the embryos-fetuses due to the medical exposure of him mother; Programa para la proteccion radiologica del embrio-feto debido a la exposicion medica de su progenitora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, G.M.; Martinez G, A.; Cardenas H, J.; Gonzalez R, N.; Valdes R, M.; Zaldivar H, W. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa C.P. 11300, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: gladys@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    In the last years the organizations in charge of the regulation in matter of radiological protection, its have adopted measures to minimize the risks derived of the medical exposures, paying special attention to those that involve women in age of procreation, gestating and in period of lactation, because the embryo - fetus and the newborn babies ones are very vulnerable to the risks of the ionizing radiations, which can end up producing them multiple effects of variable severity. In Cuba, a Maternal-children program that includes the genetic advice to the pregnant woman from the medical point of view exists but didn't so the evaluation of the radiological risk; which is only carried out by the Medical Surveillance Service of the Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations Center (CPHR), without that mediates an official link among both parts and whose existence is only known by a reduced group of professionals of the health and of specialists in Radiological Protection. On the other hand is not established a strategy at national level for the differentiated information and systematic in these topics that it contributes to the control of the exposures of the embryo fetus and the breast-fed baby. Keeping in mind the above-mentioned the specialists of the CPHR have elaborated a proposal of national program for the radiological protection of the embryo- fetus due to the medical exposure of its progenitor. In the same one it is settles down the interrelation between work groups and multidisciplinary institutions to achieve the detection, communication and consultant ship of the cases of exposure to the fetus or breast-fed baby that happen in the country and at the same time include the training so much of the professionals of the health like of the public in general. Presently work the program and the elements that conform it among those that are, the on-line system developed for the automation of the medical dosimetric evaluation, the technician

  19. Radiation protection during radiological examinations of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, D.; Gillet, R.; Wambersie, A.

    The dose delivered to children during radiological examinations were assessed and their variations compared with an experimental model. It is shown how to make good radiological examinations limiting the dose delivered to children and reducing the hazard to the medical staff [fr

  20. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, T.; Nunokawa, J.; Fujii, H.; Takashima, R.; Hashimoto, M.; Fukuhara, T.; Yajima, T.; Matsuzawa, H.; Kurosawa, K.; Yanagawa, Y.; Someya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication. (authors)

  1. Handbook of radiologic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedgcock, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is organized around radiologic procedures with each discussed from the points of view of: indications, contraindications, materials, method of procedures and complications. Covered in this book are: emergency radiology chest radiology, bone radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, GU radiology, pediatric radiology, computerized tomography, neuroradiology, visceral and peripheral angiography, cardiovascular radiology, nuclear medicine, lymphangiography, and mammography

  2. Health hazards of uranium dust from radioactive battlefields of the Balkan conflicts, Eastern Afghanistan and Iraq after the Gulf wars. Lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durakovic, A.; Klimaschewski, F.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify key health hazards of uranium dust from the radioactive battlefields (Balkan, Middle East and Eastern Afghanistan conflicts) to draw lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices (RDD). Gulf War I (GW I) in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of depleted uranium (DU) deposited in the environment and 3 to 6 million grams of DU aerosol dust particles released into the atmosphere, by the most conservative estimates. Its possible legacy (Gulf War disease) continues after the military conflicts (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF, in Afghanistan and Gulf War II in Iraq). The symptoms of the multiorgan incapacitating progressive disease have been as numerous as their names, including incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletal and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affects changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lympadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. The disease is still a matter of controversy regarding etiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome commonly named Gulf War disease. It was underestimated and subsequently evolved in its clinical description through recognition of progressive symptomatology. Methods: UMRC's studies of the human contamination with uranium isotopes were conducted with the exposed subjects of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas in Afghanistan after OEF as well as Samawah, Baghdad and Basrah in Iraq after GW II. The urine samples of the subjects were analysed by the plasma mass spectrometry. The analytical methodology involved pre-concentration of the uranium using co-precipitation and/or evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, purification of uranium with ion exchange chromatography, and mass spectrometry with a double focusing Thermo-Elemental Plasma54 multi-collector ICP-MS equipped with a

  3. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  4. MEMO radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner-Manslau, C.

    1989-01-01

    This radiology volume is a concise handbook of imaging techniques, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy, albeit that the main emphasis is on classic radiology. It offers, for instance, a survey of radiological findings for the most frequent pathological conditions, many overviews of differential diagnosis, a glossary of the technical bases of radiology and so forth. The contents are divided into the following chapters: Physical and biological bases; skeleton; thorax with the subdivisions lungs, heart, mediastinum, and pleura; gastrointestinal tract with the subsections esophagus, small and large intestine; liver; biliary tract; pancreas; retroperitoneal space; kidney; suprarenal glands; bladder; blood vessels, lymph nodes, spleen; mammary glands; female genitals; prostate and scrotum, epididymis and seminal vesicle. (orig./MG) With 23 figs [de

  5. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  6. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified

  7. PERTANGGUNGJAWABAN NEGARA TERHADAP KERUGIAN DAN KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN AKIBAT KEGIATAN EKSPOR IMPOR LIMBAH 83 (The State Responsibilities toward Environmental Damages due to Hazardous Wastes Export-Import Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianus Bilo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menginvestigasi dan menganalisis fenomena legal dan praktek hukum yang mengatur pergerakan lintas batas B3 dan limbah 83. Penelitian ini mengkombinasikan pendekatan legal dan normatif. Informasi diinterpretasi dengan menggunakan metode Juridical-analytical dan evaluative-explanatory. Penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa fihak-fihak yang terlibat dalam pengeluaran limbah B3 adalah bertanggung jawab baik secara individual maupun kolektif untuk memberikan kompensasi kerusakan lingkungan yang diderita oleh fihak ketiga. Prinsip ini didasarkan pada hukum publik internasional yang menyatakan bahwa setiap tindakan pelanggaran hukum oleh suatu negara adalah menyangkut pertanggung jawaban international dari negara tersebut.    ABSTRACT This research aims to investigate and analyze legal phenomena and the practices of law that regulate transboundry movement of hazardous wastes and their disposal. The research combines the normative and empirical legal approach. Information is interpreted by using juridical analytical and evaluative explanatory method. The research concludes that the parties involved in the transmission of hazardous wastes are either individually or collectively responsible for compensating detriments and environmental damaged sufferes by the third parties. This principle is based on the public international law, which insists that every internationally wrongful act of a State entails the international responsibility of that State.

  8. Management of Radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentijo, J. C.; Gil, E.; San Nicolas, J.; Lazuen, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Spain has a system of planning and response to emergency situations that is structured and coordinated by the General Directorship of civil Defense of the Ministry of the Interior and in which all levels of the Public Administration. state, autonomous and municipal-and owners of potentially hazardous activities participate. Activities involving a nuclear or radiological risk have specific emergency plans whose general principles are based on the general emergency system and whose technical bases are consistent with international practices and recommendations. The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear actively participates in the design, implementation and activation of these plans, and for this purpose has an organization superimposed on its ordinary working organization that is activated in the event of an accident, as well as an Emergency Room specifically designed to deal with nuclear and radiological emergencies. (Author)

  9. Preventing tuberculosis in healthcare workers of the radiology department: a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lh; Kamarulzaman, A

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a well recognised occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs). Concerns on the safety of healthcare settings in Malaysia was raised following a report of 25 HCWs working in 11 general hospitals in Malaysia who were infected with TB in 2004 being publicised in the media recently. As the disease burden in general is high in Malaysia, due attention should be given to this disease in our healthcare facilities including the radiology department, an often neglected area in TB infection control programmes. This article focuses on the key control measures that can be implemented in radiology departments in a developing country with limited resources.

  10. THE TEAM OF NURSING AND RADIOLOGICAL HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Possamai Menezes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever as características do perfil pessoal e profissional da equipe de enfermagem do setor radiológico. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa de campo com abordagem quantitativa, realizada em um Hospital Público do Rio Grande do Sul, com dez trabalhadores da equipe de enfermagem. A coleta dos dados foi por um questionário e os dados foram organizados e tabulados em gráficos e tabelas, fundamentados conforme a literatura pertinente à temática. Resultados: Os sujeitos eram do sexo feminino, 50% com faixa etária entre 40 a 49 anos, 60% casadas, 60% auxiliares de enfermagem na instituição a mais de três anos e permanecem no setor radiológico mais de três horas/dia, 50% fazem uso dos EPIs e 80% conhecem os riscos à saúde, principalmente, esterilidade e câncer. Conclusão: A Educação Permanente pode ser uma ferramenta a ser utilizada pela equipe de enfermagem para evitar práticas não seguras frente às radiações ionizantes.

  11. Radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.; Azorin V, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    This work is directed to all those people related with the exercise of the radiological protection and has the purpose of providing them a base of knowledge in this discipline so that they can make decisions documented on technical and scientist factors for the protection of the personnel occupationally exposed, the people in general and the environment during the work with ionizing radiations. Before de lack of a text on this matter, this work seeks to cover the specific necessities of our country, providing a solid presentation of the radiological protection, included the bases of the radiations physics, the detection and radiation dosimetry, the radiobiology, the normative and operational procedures associates, the radioactive wastes, the emergencies and the transport of the radioactive material through the medical and industrial applications of the radiations, making emphasis in the relative particular aspects to the radiological protection in Mexico. The book have 16 chapters and with the purpose of supplementing the given information, are included at the end four appendixes: 1) the radioactive waste management in Mexico, 2-3) the Mexican official standards related with the radiological protection, 4) a terms glossary used in radiological protection. We hope this book will be of utility for those people that work in the investigation and the applications of the ionizing radiations. (Author)

  12. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  13. Emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs [de

  14. Postoperative radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhenne, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the importance of postoperative radiology. Most surgical procedures on the alimentary tract are successful, but postoperative complications remain a common occurrence. The radiologist must be familiar with a large variety of possible surgical complications, because it is this specialty that is most commonly called on to render a definitive diagnosis. The decision for reoperation, for instance, is usually based on results from radiologic imaging techniques. These now include ultrasonography, CT scanning, needle biopsy, and interventional techniques in addition to contrast studies and nuclear medicine investigation

  15. World Health Organization Estimates of the Relative Contributions of Food to the Burden of Disease Due to Selected Foodborne Hazards: A Structured Expert Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Tine; Aspinall, Willy; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie H; Gibb, Herman J; Torgerson, Paul R; Kirk, Martyn D; Angulo, Fred J; Lake, Robin J; Speybroeck, Niko; Hoffmann, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization (WHO) to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs). This estimation is complicated because most of the hazards causing FBD are not transmitted solely by food; most have several potential exposure routes consisting of transmission from animals, by humans, and via environmental routes including water. This paper describes an expert elicitation study conducted by the FERG Source Attribution Task Force to estimate the relative contribution of food to the global burden of diseases commonly transmitted through the consumption of food. We applied structured expert judgment using Cooke's Classical Model to obtain estimates for 14 subregions for the relative contributions of different transmission pathways for eleven diarrheal diseases, seven other infectious diseases and one chemical (lead). Experts were identified through international networks followed by social network sampling. Final selection of experts was based on their experience including international working experience. Enrolled experts were scored on their ability to judge uncertainty accurately and informatively using a series of subject-matter specific 'seed' questions whose answers are unknown to the experts at the time they are interviewed. Trained facilitators elicited the 5th, and 50th and 95th percentile responses to seed questions through telephone interviews. Cooke's Classical Model uses responses to the seed questions to weigh and aggregate expert responses. After this interview, the experts were asked to provide 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile estimates for the 'target' questions regarding disease transmission routes. A total of 72 experts were enrolled in the study. Ten panels were global, meaning that the experts should provide estimates for all 14 subregions, whereas the nine panels were subregional, with experts providing estimates for one or more subregions

  16. World Health Organization Estimates of the Relative Contributions of Food to the Burden of Disease Due to Selected Foodborne Hazards: A Structured Expert Elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Hald

    Full Text Available The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization (WHO to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs. This estimation is complicated because most of the hazards causing FBD are not transmitted solely by food; most have several potential exposure routes consisting of transmission from animals, by humans, and via environmental routes including water. This paper describes an expert elicitation study conducted by the FERG Source Attribution Task Force to estimate the relative contribution of food to the global burden of diseases commonly transmitted through the consumption of food.We applied structured expert judgment using Cooke's Classical Model to obtain estimates for 14 subregions for the relative contributions of different transmission pathways for eleven diarrheal diseases, seven other infectious diseases and one chemical (lead. Experts were identified through international networks followed by social network sampling. Final selection of experts was based on their experience including international working experience. Enrolled experts were scored on their ability to judge uncertainty accurately and informatively using a series of subject-matter specific 'seed' questions whose answers are unknown to the experts at the time they are interviewed. Trained facilitators elicited the 5th, and 50th and 95th percentile responses to seed questions through telephone interviews. Cooke's Classical Model uses responses to the seed questions to weigh and aggregate expert responses. After this interview, the experts were asked to provide 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile estimates for the 'target' questions regarding disease transmission routes. A total of 72 experts were enrolled in the study. Ten panels were global, meaning that the experts should provide estimates for all 14 subregions, whereas the nine panels were subregional, with experts providing estimates for one or more

  17. Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ksjeongl@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo [Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-ro, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

  18. Radiological protection in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padovani, R.

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) reduces the need for many traditional interventions, particularly surgery, so reducing the discomfort and risk for patients compared with traditional systems. IR procedures are frequently performed by non-radiologist physicians, often without the proper radiological equipment and sufficient knowledge of radiation protection. Levels of doses to patients and staff in IR vary enormously. A poor correlation exists between patient and staff dose, and large variations of dose are reported for the same procedure. The occurrence of deterministic effects in patients is another peculiar aspect of IR owing to the potentially high skin doses of some procedures. The paper reviews the use of IR and the radiological protection of patients and staff, and examines the need for new standards for IR equipment and the training of personnel. (author)

  19. Pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz-Bohm, G.

    1997-01-01

    Pediatric radiology is an important subsection of diagnostic radiology involving specific difficulties, but unfortunately is quite too often neglected as a subject of further education and training. The book therefore is not intended for specialists in the field, but for radiologists wishing to plunge deeper into the matter of pediatric radiology and to acquire a sound, basic knowledge and information about well-proven modalities, the resulting diagnostic images, and interpretation of results. The book is a compact guide and a helpful source of reference and information required for every-day work, or in special cases. With patients who are babies or children, the challenges are different. The book offers all the information needed, including important experience from pediatric hospital units that may be helpful in diagnostic evaluation, information about specific dissimilarities in anatomy and physiology which affect the imaging results, hints for radiology planning and performance, as well as information about the various techniques and their indication and achievements. The book presents a wide spectrum of informative and annotated images. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Radiologic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, L.O.

    1987-01-01

    An increasing variety of imaging modalities as well as refinements of interventional techniques have led to a resurgence of radiologic interest and participation in urolithiasis management. Judicious selection of the diagnostic examination, close monitoring during the procedure, consultation with urologic colleagues, and a careful regard for radiation safety guidelines define the role of the radiologist in renal stone disease

  1. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities and towns are faced with various types of threat from the extraordinary events involving chemical and radiological materials as exemplified by major chemical accidents, radiological incidents, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, terrorist attacks, etc. On the other hand, many sensitive or vulnerable assets exist within cities, such as: settlements, infrastructures, hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, and others. Besides emergency planning, the land use planning also represents an important tool for prevention or reduction of damages on people and other assets due to unwanted events. This paper considers development of method for inclusion vulnerability assessment in land use planning with objective to assess and limit the consequences in cities of likely accidents involving hazardous materials. We made preliminary assessment of criticality and vulnerability of the assets within Belgrade city area in respect to chemical sites and transportation roads that can be exposed to chemical accidents, or terrorist attacks.

  2. Review of Atomic Energy Laws Related to Radiological Accidents and Methods of Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gun Hyun; Kim, Sang Won; Yoo, Jeong; Ahn, Hyoung Jun; Park, Young Sik; Kim, Hong Suk; Kwon, Jeong Wan; Jang, Ki Won; Kim, Sok Chul

    2009-01-01

    Atomic energy-related laws in Korea have a two pronged management system for radiological accidents. To be specific, the Atomic Energy Act is applicable to all radiological accidents, i.e. accidents pertaining to nuclear facilities and radioactive materials while the Act for Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency ('APPRE') applies to accidents related to nuclear materials and large-scale nuclear facilities. The Atomic Energy Act contains three provisions directly related with radiological accidents (Articles 89, 98 and 102). Article 89 provides for the obligations of nuclear licensees or consigned transporters to institute safety measures and file a report to the head of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ('MEST') in the event of any radiological accident during transport or packing of radioactive materials, etc. Article 98 stipulates obligations of nuclear licensees to implement safety procedures and submit a report to the Minister of Education, Science and Technology concerning radiation hazards arising in the event a radiological accident occurs in connection with nuclear projects, as well as the Minister's requests to implement necessary measures. Article 102 explicitly provides for obligations to file a report to the Minister in the event of theft, loss, fire or other accidents involving radioactive materials, etc. in the possession of nuclear licensees. The APPRE classifies radiological accidents according to location and scale of the accidents. Based on location, accidents are divided into accidents inside or outside nuclear facilities. Accidents inside nuclear facilities refer to accidents that occur at nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycling facilities, radioactive waste storage, treatment and disposal facilities, facilities using nuclear materials and facilities related to radioisotopes of not lower than 18.5PBq (Subparagraph 2, Article 2 of the APPRE) while accidents outside nuclear facilities mean accidents that take place on

  3. Attention for pediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ming; Cheng Yongde

    2005-01-01

    ; devices closure of atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and patent ducts; and radiofrequency ablation of arrhythmias and others. Pediatric radiologists usually only take the responsibility for diagnosis of angiocardiography and do not take part in cardiac interventional procedures in most children's hospitals of China. The problem of underdevelopment of pediatric interventional radiology in China possesses a lot of reasons, even historical. Most of pediatric patients are confined in children's hospital with shortage of advanced equipment and enough pediatric interventional patients due to the old price system, the old medical insurance system and old financial support system, outcoming with the economic condition of most children's hospital be more inferior than the adult general hospital. (authors)

  4. Response to nuclear and radiological terrorism - the viewpoint from the security forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A threat of a malevolent act may be deemed to exist when information has been received that terrorists, criminals or other persons intend to: manufacture, use, transport, dispose radioactive materials in order to hide the nature of material; perpetrate a deliberate act to irradiate a person or persons; perpetrate a deliberate act to contaminate food or water supplies with radioactive materials; create and deploy a radiation dispersal device; perpetrate a deliberate act to contaminate a site or the environment with radioactive materials; or mount a sabotage attack upon a nuclear facility aimed at causing an uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. Security forces will be involved in all aspects of the response: at the scene, to lead, to control the crime scene and preserve evidence; at the hospitals, to identify and manage witnesses who may assist in the ensuing investigation, and to protect emergency medical personnel if perpetrators are part of the casualties; and at the regional and national coordination level, to manage the overall criminal investigation; to take under physical protection the seized materials. Law enforcement response: key considerations to all police (security and investigating) personnel at the scene of a terrorist act will include the following: do not approach the scene without proper radiological support; be aware of the possible presence of other radiological hazards; the radiological team will seek the removal of safety hazards. Work with that team to minimize hazards while not compromising the investigation. Minimize traffic through the scene: this will help reduce the spread of radioactive contamination, if present; people present at the scene need to be held for questioning. However, they will also have fears due to the presence of radiation. Work with the radiological team to minimize radiological hazards and fears while not compromising the investigation procedure. (author)

  5. Chest radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a reference in plain chest film diagnosis provides a thorough background in the differential diagnosis of 22 of the most common radiologic patterns of chest disease. Each chapter is introduced with problem cases and a set of questions, followed by a tabular listing of the appropriate differential considerations. The book emphasizes plain films, CT and some MR scans are integrated to demonstrate how these modalities enhance the work of a case

  6. Conventional radiology and genetic dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Vila, V.; Fernandez, A.; Rivera, F.; Martinez, M.; Gomez, A.; Luis, J.

    1992-01-01

    A research project was established in 1984 to evaluate the expected genetic abnormalities due to radiation received by the population attending the Outpatient Radiological Service due to medical radiological practices. The study was conducted in 1985 (12 weeks chosen by random). The equivalent gonadal dose was the chosen parameter, representing the social cost of the radiology. Samples of 2945 men and 2929 women were considered in the study. The number of genetic abnormalities, in relation to the mean age of reproduction (a generation every 30 years), was 2.13 cases per million in the first generation and 15.97 cases per million at equilibrium. The authors interpretation is that both the method and the expected genetic detriment are suitable procedures for the characterisation of the Radiological Service as a radiation source. (author)

  7. IAEA Perspectives on Radiological Characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, Patrick; Ljubenov, Vladan

    2012-01-01

    Requirements for characterization of radiological and other hazards in nuclear facilities are reflected in the IAEA Safety Standards. WS-R-5, Safety Requirements for Decommissioning of Facilities using Radioactive Material, includes a requirement that 'During the preparation of the final decommissioning plan, the extent and type of radioactive material (irradiated and contaminated structures and components) at the facility shall be determined by means of a detailed characterization survey and on the basis of records collected during the operational period'. The subsidiary Safety Guide WS-G-2.1, Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors, further elaborates that 'A survey of radiological and non-radiological hazards provides an important input for the safety assessment and for implementing a safe approach during the work'. Although the characterisation requirements addressed in the Safety Standards relate primarily to the detailed survey activities undertaken following the shutdown of the facility, it is evident that radiological characterization is of relevance to all major phases of the lifetime of a nuclear facility, including: - the siting phase - baseline surveys are undertaken to determine background radiation levels; - the construction phase - construction materials are retained to support future calculations of radioactivity distributions; - the operational phase - surveys are done regularly, with additional surveys being required following incidents involving plant contamination; - the transition phase - detailed radiological surveys are required to support the development of the final decommissioning plan; and - the closure phase - a final survey of the site and any remaining structures will be needed to support an application for release of the site from regulatory control. In the case of facilities that are already shut down, the main purpose of radiological characterisation is to provide a reliable database of information on the

  8. Comparison of potential radiological consequences from a spent-fuel repository and natural uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick, O.J.; Cloninger, M.O.

    1980-09-01

    A general criterion has been suggested for deep geological repositories containing spent fuel - the repositories should impose no greater radiological risk than due to naturally occurring uranium deposits. The following analysis investigates the rationale of that suggestion and determines whether current expectations of spent-fuel repository performance are consistent with such a criterion. In this study, reference spent-fuel repositories were compared to natural uranium-ore deposits. Comparisons were based on intrinsic characteristics, such as radionuclide inventory, depth, proximity to aquifers, and regional distribution, and actual and potential radiological consequences that are now occurring from some ore deposits and that may eventually occur from repositories and other ore deposits. The comparison results show that the repositories are quite comparable to the natural ore deposits and, in some cases, present less radiological hazard than their natural counterparts. On the basis of the first comparison, placing spent fuel in a deep geologic repository apparently reduces the hazard from natural radioactive materials occurring in the earth's crust by locating the waste in impermeable strata without access to oxidizing conditions. On the basis of the second comparison, a repository constructed within reasonable constraints presents no greater hazard than a large ore deposit. It is recommended that if the naturally radioactive environment is to be used as a basis for a criterion regarding repositories, then this criterion should be carefully constructed. The criterion should be based on the radiological quality of the waters in the immediate region of a specific repository, and it should be in terms of an acceptable potential increase in the radiological content of those waters due to the existence of the repository

  9. Neutrino radiation hazards: A paper tiger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.; Grossman, N.L.; Marshall, E.T.

    1996-09-01

    Neutrinos are present in the natural environment due to terrestrial, solar, and cosmic sources and are also produced at accelerators both incidentally and intentionally as part of physics research programs. Progress in fundamental physics research has led to the creation of beams of neutrinos of ever-increasing intensity and/or energy. The large size and cost associated with these beams attracts, and indeed requires, public interest, support, and some understanding of the 'exotic' particles produced, including the neutrinos. Furthermore, the very word neutrino ('little neutral one', as coined by Enrico Fermi) can lead to public concern due to confusion with 'neutron', a word widely associated with radiological hazards. Adding to such possible concerns is a recent assertion, widely publicized, that neutrinos from astronomical events may have led to the extinction of some biological species. Presented here are methods for conservatively estimating the dose equivalent due to neutrinos as well as an assessment of the possible role of neutrinos in biological extinction processes. It is found that neutrinos produced by the sun and modern particle accelerators produce inconsequential dose equivalent rates. Examining recent calculations concerning neutrinos incident upon the earth due to stellar collapse, it is concluded that it is highly unlikely that these neutrinos caused the mass extinctions of species found in the paleontological record. Neutrino radiation hazards are, then, truly a 'paper tiger'. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Medical rescue for nuclear or radiologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaohua; Nie Suifeng

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear or radiologic emergencies are defined as incidents that are caused by radioactive substance or by other sources of radiation and can pose a serious hazard to public health. In case of nuclear or radiologic emergencies, radioactive rays will damage the human body and bring about psychological and mental stress, resulting in a series of social psychological effects. The key to medical rescue for nuclear or radiologic emergencies is to take effective measures which can minimize the body harm resulting from nuclear or radiologic emergencies and maintain social stability. This article reviews the personnel protection, on-the-spot salvage, treatments of various harm, and prevention of public psychological effect following nuclear or radiologic emergencies. (authors)

  11. Diagnostic radiology 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulis, A.R.; Gooding, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This is the latest version of the continuing education course on diagnostic radiology given yearly by the Department of Radiology at the University of California, San Francisco. The lectures are grouped into sections on gastrointestinal radiology, mammography, uroradiology, magnetic resonance, hepatobiliary radiology, pediatric radiology, ultrasound, interventional radiology, chest radiology, nuclear medicine, cardiovascular radiology, and skeletal radiology. Each section contains four to eight topics. Each of these consists of text that represents highlights in narrative form, selected illustrations, and a short bibliography. The presentation gives a general idea of what points were made in the lecture

  12. Cardiothoracic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    A wealth of cardiothoracic websites exist on the internet. What follows is a list of the higher quality resources currently available which should save you time searching them out for yourself. Many of the sites listed cater for undergraduates and trainee or non-specialist radiologists, nevertheless these may also be of interest to specialists in thoracic radiology, particularly for use in teaching. Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (April 2005)

  13. Pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, F.N.

    1982-01-01

    A literature review with 186 references of diagnostic pediatric radiology, a speciality restricted to an age group rather than to an organ system or technique of examination, is presented. In the present chapter topics follow the basic organ system divisions with discussions of special techniques within these divisions. The diagnosis of congenital malformations, infectious diseases and neoplasms are a few of the topics discussed for the head and neck region, the vertebrae, the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, the urinary tract, and the skeleton

  14. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  15. Evaluation of the radiologic potential due to the nuclear submarine visits to the Rio de Janeiro port; Avaliacao do impacto radiologico potencial relativo a visita de submarinos nucleares ao Porto do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose Francisco

    2004-07-01

    Brazil is signatory of international protocols related to the visit of nuclear-powered vessels, aircraft carriers and submarines to Brazilian ports. The submarines, during their stay in Brazilian ports, inform that there is no release of radioactive material to the environment. However, the possibility of occurrence of accidents with environmental releases from PWR reactors is real. Between 1993 and 2003, 13 nuclear submarines visited Brazilian ports. This work aimed to evaluate the potential impact due to the visits of nuclear-powered ships and submarines to the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in relation to releases of radioactive materials to the environment, considering both routine releases and accidental situations. The models selected to perform the assessments took into account the scenarios to be simulated. Simple, but conservative methodologies were used for the evaluation of routine releases. For accidental releases, the dynamics of the materials dispersion into the environment were considered. The present study was mainly focalized on the initial phase of an accident. The doses for the crew of the Brazilian navy ships, for IRD teams performing environmental monitoring, and for the population around the Guanabara Bay, close to the points of anchorage, were assessed. The results indicated that, in normal operational conditions, no significant radiological impact due to the visit of nuclear submarines to the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro is expected, even considering the occurrence of small routine radionuclide releases. The analysis of accidental releases, however, indicated that the submarines should be located at a minimum distance of 2,5 km from inhabited areas in the coast of the Guanabara Bay. The need for environmental control and training of the teams involved in the attendance of the submarines, during the period of their visit, was also considered. The need for revising the procedures for the preoperational surveys to be performed at the

  16. Radiological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant has been shown the radiation dose to the public from plant operation to be quite small. Calculations from the reported release rates yield 0.2 mrem whole body dose and 0.6 mrem skin dose for the calendar quarter of maximum release. Radioactivity discharges to the Chesapeake Bay have resulted in detectable concentrations of /sup 110m/Ag, 58 Co, and 60 Co in sediments and shellfish. The area yielding samples with detectable concentrations of plant effluents extends for roughly six miles up and down the western shore, with maximum values found at the plant discharge area. The radiation dose to an individual eating 29 doz oysters and 15 doz crabs (5 kg of each) taken from the plant discharge area would be about 4/1000 mrem whole body dose and 0.2 mrem gastrointestinal tract dose (about 0.007% and 0.5% of the applicable guidelines, respectively.) Comparison of these power plant-induced doses with the fluctuations in natural radiation dose already experienced by the public indicates that the power plant effects are insignificant. The natural variations are tens of times greater than the maximum doses resulting from Calvert Cliffs Power Plant. Although operations to date provide an insufficient basis to predict radiological impact of the Calvert Cliffs Plant over its operational lifetime, available data indicate that the plant should continue to operate with insignificant radiological impact, well within all applicable guidelines

  17. Pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.A. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography has made possible the excellent and basic work having to do with the characteristics of the trachea, its caliber, shape, and length in children. Another group of articles has to do with interventional pediatric radiology. This year there were a number of articles of which only a sample is included, dealing with therapeutic procedures involving drainage of abscesses, angioplasty, nephrostomy, therapeutic embolization, and the removal of esophageal foreign bodies. Obviously, there is no reason to think that techniques developed for the adult may not be applicable to the infant or child; also, there is no reason to believe that processes peculiar to the child should not be amenable to intervention, for instance, use of embolization of hepatic hemangioma and transluminal balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary valvular stenosis. Among the reports and reviews, the author would add that sonography remains a basic imaging technique in pediatric radiology and each year its application broadens. For example, there is an excellent article having to do with sonography of the neonatal and infant hip and evaluation of the inferior vena cava and the gallbladder. Nuclear medicine continues to play a significant role in diagnosis, which is featured in two articles concerned with problems of the hip

  18. Water radiological surveillance (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo San Martin de, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the characteristics of the Environmental Surveillance Radiological Networks (ESRN) currently operating in CEDEX. In the first part, the Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been presented. This second one describes Spanish Costal Waters ESRN and the High Sensitivity Networks in Continental and Marine Waters. It also presents the Radiological Surveillance of Drinking Waters that CEDEX carries out in waters of public consumption management by the Canal de Isabel II (CYII) and by the Mancomunity of Canals Taibilla (M.C.T.). The legislation applicable in each case is reviewed as well. Due to its extension the article has been divided into two parts. As Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been reviewed in the first part, the others ESRN are discussed in this second one. (Author) 10 refs

  19. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency

  20. Radiological protection in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, B

    1974-01-01

    Information that would allow an assessment of the standard of radiological protection in dentistry in the United Kingdom is sparse. The National Radiological Protection Board (previously the Radiological Protection Service) has provided a monitoring and advisory service to dentists for many years but very limited use has been made of this service. In a recent survey, 114 dentists were visited in representative practices in South East England and it was established that only 6.5% of dentists in general practice do not use radiography as an adjunct to their practice (Smith, 1969). In the 88 x-ray sets which were examined, 24% had less than the recommended thickness of aluminium filtration, while 25% had a fixed field size which was larger than necessary for dental radiography; in addition, 27% of the timers were found to have an error of greater than 20% in repetition of the pre-set exposure time. The exposure rate at the cone tip of a dental x-ray unit is generally in the range 1 to 4 R/s. A fault in the timer unit coupled with a failure on the part of the dentist to notice that x-rays are being generated (normally indicated by a red warning light) would rapidly lead to excessive exposure of the patient. Furthermore, a dentist continually holding films in the mouth of his patient would certainly incur a dose well in excess of the permissible hand dose, assuming anaverage work load for the x-ray equipment. Three case histories are given to illustrate the type of hazard that might arise from faulty equipment or bad operating technique.

  1. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  2. Accelerator driven systems from the radiological safety point of view

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    application of the probabilistic safety analysis technique by assessing the probability and ... Technological and theoretical developments necessary for more precise .... Monte Carlo-based) to enable quick estimation of radiological hazards.

  3. Digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallas, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiology is vital to the life-saving efforts of surgeons and other physicians, but precious time can be lost generating the images and transferring them to and from the operating room. Furthermore, hospitals are straining under the task of storing and managing the deluge of diagnostic films produced every year. A 300-bed hospital generates about 1 gigabyte (8 x 10 9 bits) of picture information every day and is legally bound to hold it for three to seven years--30 years in the case of silicosis or black lung disease, illnesses that may have relevance to future lawsuits. Consequently, hospital warehouses are filling with x-ray film and written reports that are important for analysis of patient histories, for comparison between patients, and for analyzing the progress of disease. Yet only a fraction of the information's potential is being used because access is so complicated. What is more, films are easily lost, erasing valuable medical histories

  4. Radiological assessment of dam water and sediments for natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiological assessment of dam water and sediments for natural radioactivity and its overall health detriments. ... No artificial gamma emitting radionuclide was detected in the samples. The projected ... However, the chances of radiological hazard to the health of human from radioactivity in the soil were generally low.

  5. Industrial hazard and safety handbook

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ralph W

    1979-01-01

    Industrial Hazard and Safety Handbook (Revised Impression) describes and exposes the main hazards found in industry, with emphasis on how these hazards arise, are ignored, are identified, are eliminated, or are controlled. These hazard conditions can be due to human stresses (for example, insomnia), unsatisfactory working environments, as well as secret industrial processes. The book reviews the cost of accidents, human factors, inspections, insurance, legal aspects, planning for major emergencies, organization, and safety measures. The text discusses regulations, codes of practice, site layou

  6. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva e avaliacao de dose de individuos do publico devido a acidente radiologico em radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-07-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a {sup 192}Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  7. Role of radiology in occupational medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehmas, T.

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the contribution of radiology to occupational medicine as well as work-related problems in radiology dept.s. Research issues are emphasized. Radiology has been used especially when diagnosing occupational respiratory and locomotive system problems and solvent-induced encephalo- and hepatopathy. The aim of research in these areas is usually to characterize occupational diseases and to identify physico-chemical hazards in the work place by comparing between groups of workers and non-exposed controls. Radiological imaging allows an objective characterization of the disease, and it may clarify the pathogenesis of the process and provide a useful epidemiological tool. Advanced statistical methods are often needed to adjust analyses for confounding variables. As the diagnostic requirements are increasing, more sensitive and sophisticated radiological methods, such as high-resolution computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, may be required for the early recognition of occupational health risks. This necessitates good cooperation between occupational health units and well-equipped imaging dept.s. Considering occupational problems in radiology departments, the increasing use of digital radiology requires ergonomic measures to control and prevent locomotive problems caused by work with computers. Radiation protection measures are still worth concern, especially in interventional radiology

  8. Radiological assistance program: Region I. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolino, S.V.; Kuehner, A.V.; Hull, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) is to make DOE resources available and provide emergency assistance to state and local agencies in order to control radiological hazards, protect the public health and safety, and minimize the loss of property. This plan is an integral part of a nationwide program of radiological assistance established by the US DOE, and is implemented on a regional basis. The Brookhaven Area Office (BHO) Radiological Assistance Program is applicable to DOE Region I, which consists of the New England States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and the District of Columbia. The BHO RAP-1 has been developed to: (a) ensure the availability of an effective radiological assistance capability to ensure the protection of persons and property; (b) provide guidelines to RAP-1 Team personnel for the evaluation of radiological incidents and implementation of corrective actions; (c) maintain liaison with other DOE installations, Federal, State and local organizations which may become involved in radiological assistance operations in Region I; and (d) encourage development of a local capability to cope with radiological incidents

  9. Radiological consequence evaluation of DBAs with alternative source term method for a Chinese PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.X.; Cao, X.W.; Tong, L.L.; Huang, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Radiological consequence evaluation of DBAs with alternative source term method for a Chinese 900 MWe PWR has been investigated. ► Six typical DBA sequences are analyzed. ► The doses of control room, EAB and outer boundary of LPZ are acceptable. ► The differences between AST method and TID-14844 method are investigated. - Abstract: Since a large amount of fission products may releases into the environment, during the accident progression in nuclear power plants (NPPs), which is a potential hazard to public risk, the radiological consequence should be evaluated for alleviating the hazard. In most Chinese NPPs the method of TID-14844, in which the whole body and thyroid dose criteria is employed as dose criteria, is currently adopted to evaluate the radiological consequences for design-basis accidents (DBAs), but, due to the total effective dose equivalent is employed as dose criteria in alternative radiological source terms (AST) method, it is necessary to evaluate the radiological consequences for DBAs with AST method and to discuss the difference between two methods. By using an integral safety analysis code, an analytical model of the 900 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) is built and the radiological consequences in DBAs at control room (CR), exclusion area boundary (EAB), low population zone (LPZ) are analyzed, which includes LOCA and non-LOCA DBAs, such as fuel handling accident (FHA), rod ejection accident (REA), main steam line break (MSLB), steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), locked rotor accident (LRA) by using the guidance of the RG 1.183. The results show that the doses in CR, EAB and LPZ are acceptable compared with dose criteria in RG 1.183 and the differences between AST method and TID-14844 method are also discussed.

  10. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G. (ed.) [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  11. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  12. Radiological manifestations of melioidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, K.S.; Chong, V.H.

    2010-01-01

    Melioidosis is a serious infection that is associated with high mortality. It is due to a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei which is an environmental saprophyte found in wet soils. Melioidosis is endemic to northern Australia and the Southeast Asia. However, there is now increasing number of reports of imported cases to regions where this infection has not been previously encountered. Almost any organ can be affected. Like many other conditions, radiological imaging is an integral part of the diagnostic workup of melioidosis. Awareness of the various radiological manifestations can help direct appropriate investigations to achieve early diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate treatment. Generally, there are no known characteristic features on imaging that can specifically differentiate melioidosis from other infections. However, the 'honeycomb' appearance has been described to be characteristic for large melioidosis liver abscesses. Simultaneous involvement of various organs is also characteristics. To date, there are few data available on the radiological manifestations of melioidosis. The present pictorial essay describes melioidosis affecting the various organs.

  13. Radiologic protection in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Jimenez, R.E.; Bermudez Jimenez, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    With this work and employing the radioprotection criterion, the authors pretend to minimize the risks associated to this practice; without losing the quality of the radiologic image. Odontology should perform the following criterions: 1. Justification: all operation of practice that implies exposition to radiations, should be reweighed, through an analysis of risks versus benefits, with the purpose to assure, that the total detriment will be small, compared to resultant benefit of this activity. 2. Optimization: all of the exposures should be maintained as low as reasonable possible, considering the social and economic factors. 3. Dose limit: any dose limit system should be considered as a top condition, nota as an admissible level. (S. Grainger)

  14. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral radiology curricula give an overview of the field and its interrelationships with other fields and outline the primary educational objectives, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards to be considered in…

  15. A comprehensive Radiological Investigation for the Industrial Helwan City Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafaa, F.; El-Tahawy, M.S.; El-Mongy, S.A.; Sayed, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The non nuclear process industries supply a considerable contribution to the radiological pollution of the environment. A comprehensive radiological studies for determining radiation levels and radionuclides distribution in the environment of Helwan city (the major industrial region in Cairo) are carried out. The radioactivity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, K-40 and the man made Cs-137 in samples of soil plants, ores and products collected from and around some of Helwan factories were analyzed using high resolution gamma spectrometers. A bad correlation between the observed 137 Cs and 40 K was found. The collected water and factories waste water samples were also analyzed by laser fluorimetry. The absorbed dose rates due to the natural radioactivity in the soil one meter above the ground and the radium equivalent activities are calculated and presented. The representative external hazard index values for the soil samples to be used as construction materials are also estimated and given. The results obtained are considered as reference values to be used in the case of emergency action and as baseline data for drawing a radiological map of the city

  16. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

  17. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  18. [Diagnostic imaging and radiation hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudon, Michel; Guillaume, Luc

    2015-01-01

    For the last 20 years, the exposure of the population to medical radiation has been increased by 600%, mainly due to the extension of new imaging modalities such as CT or interventional radiology. The risk for radio-induced hazards is especially marked for children, because of the high sensivity of tissues to radiation especially during the first decade of the life. Two main ways allow to better control and reduce the mean effective dose per patient in diagnostic imaging: the introduction of recent technical improvement (i.e. low dose CT scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms, low dose technique for pediatric spine), and the substitution to non-radiating techniques such as ultrasound and MRI. The French National institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety periodically publishes dose reference levels for conventional films and CT examinations, for both adults and pediatric patients. A close relationship between clinicians and radiologists remains essential for a better appreciation of the risk/benefit ratio of each individual examination using X-Rays.

  19. Current radiology. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.H.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. They are: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional Vascular Radiology, Genitourinary Radiology, Skeletal Radiology, Digital Subtraction Angiography, Neuroradiology, Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Degenerative Diseases of the Lumbar Spine, The Lung, Otolaringology and Opthalmology, and Pediatric Radiology: Cranial, Facial, Cervical, Vertebral, and Appendicular

  20. Radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1979-01-01

    On a scientific basis and with the aid of realistic examples, the author gives a popular introduction to an understanding and judgment of the public discussion over radiation hazards: Uses and hazards of X-ray examinations, biological radiation effects, civilisation risks in comparison, origins and explanation of radiation protection regulations. (orig.) [de

  1. Radiological Control Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  2. Radiological Control Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records

  3. Hazard analysis in uranium hexafluoride production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Maristhela Passoni de Araujo

    1999-01-01

    The present work provides a method for preliminary hazard analysis of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The proposed method identify both chemical and radiological hazards, as well as the consequences associated with accident scenarios. To illustrate the application of the method, a uranium hexafluoride production facility was selected. The main hazards are identified and the potential consequences are quantified. It was found that, although the facility handles radioactive material, the main hazards as associated with releases of toxic chemical substances such as hydrogen fluoride, anhydrous ammonia and nitric acid. It was shown that a contention bung can effectively reduce the consequences of atmospheric release of toxic materials. (author)

  4. Radiological response of ceramic and polymeric devices for breast brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista Nogueira, Luciana; Passos Ribeiro de Campos, Tarcisio

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the radiological visibility of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom was investigated for future applications in brachytherapy. The main goal was to determine the radiological viability of ceramic and polymeric devices in vitro by performing simple radiological diagnostic methods such as conventional X-ray analysis and mammography due to its easy access to the population. The radiological response of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom was determined using conventional X-ray, mammography and CT analysis. - Highlights: ► Radiological visibility of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom. ► The barium incorporation in the seed improves the radiological contrast. ► Radiological monitoring shows the position, orientation and degradation of devices. ► Simple radiological methods such as X-ray and mammography were used for radiological monitoring.

  5. ICPP radiological and toxicological sabotage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiak, V.R.; Mortensen, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    In June of 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued Notice 5630.3A, open-quotes Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,close quotes which states that all significant radiological and toxicological hazards at Department facilities must be examined for potential sabotage. This analysis has been completed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP radiological and toxicological hazards include spent government and commercial fuels, Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), high-level liquid wastes, high-level solid wastes, and process and decontamination chemicals. The analysis effort included identification and assessment of quantities of hazardous materials present at the facility; identification and ranking of hazardous material targets; development of worst case scenarios detailing possible sabotage actions and hazard releases; performance of vulnerability assessments using table top and computer methodologies on credible threat targets; evaluation of potential risks to the public, workers, and the environment; evaluation of sabotage risk reduction options; and selection of cost effective prevention and mitigation options

  6. Post-deployment usability evaluation of a radiology workstation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, Wiard; Cnossen, Fokie; Dierckx, Rudi; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van Ooijen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usability of a radiology workstation after deployment in a hospital. Significance In radiology, it is difficult to perform valid pre-deployment usability evaluations due to the heterogeneity of the user group, the complexity of the radiological workflow, and the complexity

  7. Management of a radiological emergency. Organization and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiau, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    After a recall of potential radiological emergency situations and their associated risks, this article describes the organization in France of the crisis management and its operation at the national and international scale: 1 - Nuclear or radiological emergency situations and their associated risks: inventory of ionising radiation sources, accidental situations, hazards; 2 - crisis organization in situation of radiological or nuclear emergency: organization at the local scale, organization at the national scale; 3 - management of emergency situations: accident at a facility, action circle, radiological emergency situations outside nuclear facilities, international management of crisis, situations that do not require the implementation of an emergency plan. (J.S.)

  8. RCT: Module 2.11, Radiological Work Coverage, Course 8777

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Radiological work is usually approved and controlled by radiation protection personnel by using administrative and procedural controls, such as radiological work permits (RWPs). In addition, some jobs will require working in, or will have the potential for creating, very high radiation, contamination, or airborne radioactivity areas. Radiological control technicians (RCTs) providing job coverage have an integral role in controlling radiological hazards. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for RCT qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and will provide in-the-field skills.

  9. Decision Strategy: Radiological Evaluations: Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohier, A

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on off-site emergency management are (1) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological impact to the population and the environment during a nuclear emergency; (2) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation in normal and accidental conditions; (3) to organise training courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in 1999 are reported on.

  10. Decision Strategy: Radiological Evaluations: Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohier, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on off-site emergency management are (1) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological impact to the population and the environment during a nuclear emergency; (2) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation in normal and accidental conditions; (3) to organise training courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in 1999 are reported on

  11. Hazardous metals in yellow items used in RCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    Yellow items used in Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) that could contain hazardous metals were identified. X-ray fluorescence analyses indicated that thirty of the fifty-two items do contain hazardous metals. It is important to minimize the hazardous metals put into the wastes. The authors recommend that the specifications for all yellow items stocked in Stores be changed to specify that they contain no hazardous metals

  12. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must be ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  13. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  14. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  15. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  16. Educational treasures in Radiology: The Radiology Olympics - striving for gold in Radiology education

    OpenAIRE

    Talanow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Radiology Olympics (www.RadiologyOlympics.com) - a collaboration with the international Radiology community for Radiology education, Radiolopolis (www.Radiolopolis.com). The Radiology Olympics honour the movers and shakers in Radiology education and offer an easy to use platform for educating medical professionals based on Radiology cases.

  17. Radiology in silico-tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, H.

    1981-01-01

    In spite of a decreasing number of new cases of silico-tuberculosis even today there still remains a serious complication of silicosis. The job of radiology is to recognise the disease, evaluate the course of the disease during therapy and classify the disease for compensation purposes. Due to the pathogenetic and pathomorphologic similarities of silicosis and tuberculosis, it is often difficult and sometimes even impossible to recognise the presence of tuberculosis in cases of silicoses or to identify and isolate the TB component in silico-tuberculosis. Careful consideration of all radiological and clinical parameters improves the accuracy of diagnosis. Since the radiographic examination provides the only method of evaluating the morphologic state of the disease, radiology will keep its central position in the diagnosis of silico-tuberculosis. (orig.) [de

  18. Radiological problems in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Kazakhstan historical development and available mineral resources have pre-determined a scale of radiological problems in the state. Kazakhstan keeps leading positions in the world in explored uranium resources and hydrocarbon raw. More than five hundred nuclear explosions were performed in various regions of Kazakhstan. There is necessity to carry out remediation actions at the former test sites of Kazakhstan, especially at the Semipalatinsk test-site (STS). But because of the high cost of such actions it should be expedient to carry out them only in case of emergency and inclusion of the former test sites lands to the national economic activity, as in general, under conditions of competent policy of inhabitants, STS doesn't represent a hazard. At the same time, we ought not to lose an invaluable scientific material of test-sites. It is necessary to keep some areas of Semipalatinsk test-site as a rarities, reflected the important stages of the human evolution. Test-sites should be considered as world laboratory for studies of artificial radionuclides behaviour in natural medium. Illustrations of radiation-hazardous objects, of used technologies and procedures, under the Kazakhstan Republic instance, show that main power industries lead to the common increase of radioactivity materials in human environment. Mankind certainly will become aware of fact that industrial activities, under the current level of science and technologies development, will lead to the common increase of radioactivity materials in human environment. Solving of radioecological problems is possible only when people review their approach to a radioactivity, as a whole. Not only specialists involved in this field, but also all local population have to know rules of radiation safety and how reasonable manage with radioactive materials

  19. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-01-01

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  20. Protection of the public in situations of prolonged radiation exposure. The application of the Commission's system of radiological protection to controllable radiation exposure due to natural sources and long-lived radioactive residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides guidance on the application of the ICRP system of radiological protection to prolonged exposure situations affecting members of the public. It addresses the general application of the Commission's system to the control of prolonged exposures resulting from practices and to the undertaking of interventions in prolonged exposure situations. Additionally, it provides recommendations on generic reference levels for such interventions. The report also considers some specific situations and discusses a number of issues that have been of concern, namely: natural radiation sources that may give rise to high doses; the restoration and rehabilitation of sites where human activities involving radioactive substances have been carried out; the return to 'normality' following an accident that has released radioactive substances to the environment; and the global marketing of commodities for public consumption that contain radioactive substances. Annexes provide some examples of prolonged exposure situations and discuss the radiological protection quantities, radiation-induced health effects and aspects of the Commission's system of radiological protection relevant to prolonged exposure. Quantitative recommendations for prolonged exposures are provided in the report. They must be interpreted with extreme caution; Chapters 4 and 5 stress the upper bound nature of the following values: Generic reference levels for intervention, in terms of existing total annual doses, are given as < approximately 100 mSv, above which intervention is almost always justifiable (situations for which the annual dose threshold for deterministic effects in relevant organs is exceeded will almost always require intervention), and < approximately 10 mSv, below which intervention is not likely to be justifiable (and above which it may be necessary). Intervention exemption levels for commodities, especially building materials, are expressed as an additional annual dose of approximately 1

  1. Radiological protection in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, Celia Marina

    1978-01-01

    The radiosanitary hazards that workers of an uranium ore can suffer were studied. The more used control methods for the the evaluation of doses received by the workers was studied too. It was developed a technique using the scintillation chamber method for the detection of radon. Emanation and diffusion methods were used for extraction of radon from water. A program of radiological protection based on ICRP recommendation was analysed for uranium mines. This program includes: ventilation needs calculation methods, a study of radiological protection optimization based on 'cost-benefit' analysis, a monitoring plan and a study about radioactive waste management. (author)

  2. Radiology of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, F.; Leander, P.; Ekberg, O.

    2001-01-01

    The spleen is generally not considered a challenge to the radiologist. Most often it poses a problem by anomalies or an irregular but normal contrast enhancement; however, a variety of inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic diseases may involve the spleen. CT and ultrasonography are screening modalities for the spleen. For problem solving, MR imaging can be helpful, especially due to its free choice of the imaging plane and because of the high resolution in contrast MR imaging. Splenic angiography as a diagnostic tool has generally been replaced by CT, ultrasound, or MR and is now used as an interventional method, e.g., in non-surgical management of patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia or in patients with splenic trauma. This article reviews the radiology of the spleen, including anatomy, embryology, splenomegaly, splenic injury, infarction, cysts, tumors, abscesses, sarcoidosis, and AIDS. Knowledge about the use of different imaging modalities and underlying gross and microscopic pathologic features leads to a better understanding of the radiologic findings. (orig.)

  3. Radiology trainer. Musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Erlt-Wagner, B.

    2006-01-01

    This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)

  4. Radiological diagnostics in hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, U.; Kuhn, F.P.; Gruetzner, G.

    1991-01-01

    The most important radiologically detectable effects of the primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism of the skeletal system and the periarticular soft tissue structures are presented. In the following sensitivity and specificity of radiological imaging - sonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, arteriography and selective venous sampling - in the preoperative diagnostic of the parathyroid adenomas are discussed. Therefore, radiological imaging can be omitted before primary surgery. It was only in secondary surgery that radiological process proved useful and a guide during surgical intervention. (orig.) [de

  5. Building 894 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banda, Z.; Williams, M.

    1996-07-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 894. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 9 chemicals were kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 130 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 130 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

  6. Building 6630 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Banda, Z.

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 6630. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which one chemical was kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the chemical release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 76 meters. The highest emergency classification is an Alert. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 100 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

  7. Contribution to the radiological study of the eosinophilic granuloma of the mandible (Unifocal granuloma due to Langherans' cell histiocytosis); Contributo allo studio radiologico del granuloma eosinofilo della mandibola (granuloma unifocale da istiocitosi delle cellule di Lagherhans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigi, Gino; Pastremoli, Alessandro; Pisi, Paolo; Pastremoli, Alfredo [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipartimento di scienze odontomastologiche; Bianchi, Giuseppe [Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: The radiological diagnosis of osteolytic lesions of the mandible still constitutes a challenge in some pathological conditions in which the clinical data and the case history are relatively uniform and the radiological picture is lacking in any characteristics. Materials and methods: We reviewed the conventional radiograms of six cases of Langherans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the mandible examined over the last ten years. The X-ray examinations were performed in the lateral-oblique projection to allow a view of the horizontal portion of the mandible almost completely free of overlapping images of other bone structures. Results: We identified a series of radiological patterns for these reticulo-endotheliopathies capable of causing granuloma formed by polinuclear eosinophils, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and large mononuclear macrophages with granulopexic and phagocytic activity that proliferate in the bone tissue and can be identified as the Langherans' cells of skin, mucosa, periodontal cavities and bone marrow. The granulomatous tissue penetrates the affected organ elements and, in its spread, it compresses, atrophies, and destroyed the damaged tissue, replacing it. The alterations produced by Langherans' cell histiocytic granuloma are most common in the skeletal system affecting, in order of frequency, the skull, the long bones of the limbs, the foot, the ribs and the spine. The oral mucosa is rarely involved. Conclusions: The radiological investigation of unifocal Langherans' cell histiocytic granuloma of the mandible is essential in the study of perimandibular swelling, although diagnosis is based on biopsy alone. In addition to digital or conventional radiography, other useful examinations are bone scintigraphy, Colour Doppler US, MR and CT, which enables a correct localisation necessary for planning the biopsy and treatment. [Italian] Scopo: La diagnosi radiologica delle lesioni osteolitiche della mandibola costituisce un problema

  8. Radiology systems architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, S R; Greenes, R A

    1996-05-01

    This article focuses on the software requirements for enterprise integration in radiology. The needs of a future radiology systems architecture are examined, both at a concrete functional level and at an abstract system-properties level. A component-based approach to software development is described and is validated in the context of each of the abstract system requirements for future radiology computing environments.

  9. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  10. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  11. Risks from dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Tamara Goularte

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate the risks and consequences of exposure to dental X-ray. The methodology used was the survey of bibliographic literature on this matter. First, we tried to understand the operation and characteristics of dental X-rays. Afterwards, we tried to know about the risks that this procedure offers to workers and patients. And concluded with the consequences of such exposure. The results showed that dental x-rays only offer risks in prolonged exposure, can affect the worker or patient to pathologies such as cancer or a life-time decreased due to the stochastic effect. Therefore, radiological protection standards must be respected and practised. (author)

  12. Radiologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerber, C.W.; Glenn, W.V. Jr.; Rothman, S.L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Radiographic evaluation of the low back and the conditions producing monoradiculopathy has improved to a point almost beyond belief, largely due to the development of CT scanning with high resolution multiplanar reconstruction. Still, as elegant as CT images are, we cannot image the psyche, and complex psychological problems plus the need for secondary gain will often overshadow all anatomic abnormalities. Scanning does give the clinician confidence in excluding pathologic alterations in previously silent areas. It is rare today for the clinician (that is, one who is comfortable interpreting these newer scans) to miss free fragments in the lateral recess, to miss far lateral disks, or to fail to take into account foraminal stenosis. Combinations of diseases that can lead to the failed chymopapain syndrome are now easily seen with scanning. The authors particularly caution the interested physician to evaluate carefully the areas of the lateral recesses for bony, ligamentous, and other soft tissue changes, and to be cognizant of the condition of the facet joints and the degree of end-plate osteophyte formation. Though the moment of truth is still realized in a private examining room with physician and patient face to face, the physician now has an incredibly powerful tool at his or her disposal. That tool, the CT scanner and the multiplanar images it produces, plus the help of interested spine radiologists, will allow the physician to create an accurate three-dimensional image of the entire nerve pathway. Better patient selection, and thus ore successful treatments, is the inevitable result

  13. Radiology and fine art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Slobodan; Stošić-Opinćal, Tatjana; Tomić, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    The radiologic aesthetics of some body parts and internal organs have inspired certain artists to create specific works of art. Our aim was to describe the link between radiology and fine art. We explored 13,625 artworks in the literature produced by 2049 artists and found several thousand photographs in an online image search. The examination revealed 271 radiologic artworks (1.99%) created by 59 artists (2.88%) who mainly applied radiography, sonography, CT, and MRI. Some authors produced radiologic artistic photographs, and others used radiologic images to create artful compositions, specific sculptures, or digital works. Many radiologic artworks have symbolic, metaphoric, or conceptual connotations. Radiology is clearly becoming an original and important field of modern art.

  14. Clinical and radiological findings in chlorfenapyr poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemuri Rama Tharaknath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of suicidal ingestion of chlorfenapyr, presenting with neurological complications after a latent period of more than a week, and rapidly progressing to death within days of symptoms. Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous pesticide according to World Health Organization toxicity classification, and kills target organism by depriving it of energy through interference with oxidative phosphorylation at mitochondrial level. A pro-pesticide, chlorfenapyr takes time to convert to its active form and either this active form or a toxic metabolite causes delayed neurological symptoms. It causes significant neurotoxicity in rat models. This case report provides for the first time from India (second worldwide, clinical and "radiological evidence" (magnetic resonance imaging showing demyelinating/oedematous changes of "chlorfenapyr neurotoxicity in humans." It also highlights the "latent period" between ingestion and onset of fatal manifestations. Earlier, similar case reports of human deaths with delayed onset neurological symptoms, due to chlorfenapyr poisoning have been reported, from Japan, Columbia, and Korea.

  15. Aspects of radiological protection in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.G.; Oliveira Filho, D.S.; Rabello, P.N.P.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the short term, long term and genetic effects of radiation, the work with radioactive materials requires special protection measures. The objective of radiological protection is to assure the occupational health of the workers by maintaining the dose levels as low as reasonably achievable. The radiological protection measures implanted in the NUCLEBRAS fuel element factory are described. The philosophy and practical measures taken are explained, and a comparison between radiation protection and industrial safety norms is made. The result of this work shows that the radiological safety of the element factory is assured. (author) [pt

  16. Occupational radiological protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: occupational expossure (the ALARA principle, dose-equivalent limit, ICRP justification); radiological protection planning (general aspects, barrier estimation) and determination of the occupational expossures (individual monitoring). (M.A.) [pt

  17. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility's construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment

  18. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  19. Portrayal of radiology in a major medical television series: How does it influence the perception of radiology among patients and radiology professionals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, T.; Merkle, E.M.; Boll, D.T.; Leyendecker, J.R.; Gupta, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    To assess how the portrayal of Radiology on medical TV shows is perceived by patients and radiology professionals. In this IRB-approved study with patient consent waived, surveys were conducted among adult patients scheduled for radiological examinations and radiology professionals. The questionnaire investigated medical TV watching habits including interest in medical TV shows, appearance of radiological examination/staff, radiology's role in diagnosis-making, and rating of the shows' accuracy in portraying radiology relative to reality. One hundred and twenty-six patients and 240 professionals (133 technologists, 107 radiologists) participated. 63.5 % patients and 63.2 % technologists rated interest in medical TV shows ≥5 (scale 1-10) versus 38.3 % of radiologists. All groups noted regular (every 2nd/3rd show) to >1/show appearance of radiological examinations in 58.5-88.2 % compared to 21.0-46.2 % for radiological staff appearance. Radiology played a role in diagnosis-making regularly to >1/show in 45.3-52.6 %. There is a positive correlation for interest in medical TV and the perception that radiology is accurately portrayed for patients (r = 0.49; P = 0.001) and technologists (r = 0.38; P = 0.001) but not for radiologists (r = 0.01). The majority of patients perceive the portrayed content as accurate. Radiologists should be aware of this cultivation effect to understand their patients' behaviour which may create false expectations towards radiological examinations and potential safety hazards. (orig.)

  20. Microdialysis technique and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Xiao; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2007-01-01

    Basic research in interventional radiology, including transcatheter artery perfusion especially, is progressing slowly due to lack of proper method. Microdialysis technique, a kind of accurate sampling technique in vivo, may help to solve the problem. Just as its name implies, microdialysis means tiny dialysis with advantages of authenticity, exactness and less error. Furthermore it has been applied widely and should be received with great attention and popularity. (authors)

  1. Radiological demonstration of Dracunculus medinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koischwitz, D.; Distelmaier, W.

    1984-03-01

    Atypical linear or convoluted calcification in the subcutaneous tissues of patients from tropical areas in Africa and Asia may be caused by D. medinensis. The radiological appearances and differential diagnosis are described. Dead, calcified worms may occur in the soft tissues of the thorax, abdomen, pelvis or extremities and may cause complications due to a foreign body reaction, particularly when related to major joints. 5 figs.

  2. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  3. Contrast media properties in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laerum, F.; Enge, I.

    1989-01-01

    Potential hazards of the use of contrast media (CM) in interventional radiology are analyzed by looking into each procedure regarding interactions of CM with pharmaceutical additives, with technical equipment possibly affecting CM stability, and special local or systemic demands related to the procedure. Also the impact of these factors upon the physiological mechanisms are taken into account. (H.W.). 32 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  5. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment

  6. Review of Atomic Energy Laws Related to Radiological Accidents and Methods of Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Gun Hyun; Kim, Sang Won; Yoo, Jeong; Ahn, Hyoung Jun; Park, Young Sik; Kim, Hong Suk; Kwon, Jeong Wan; Jang, Ki Won; Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Atomic energy-related laws in Korea have a two pronged management system for radiological accidents. To be specific, the Atomic Energy Act is applicable to all radiological accidents, i.e. accidents pertaining to nuclear facilities and radioactive materials while the Act for Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency ('APPRE') applies to accidents related to nuclear materials and large-scale nuclear facilities. The Atomic Energy Act contains three provisions directly related with radiological accidents (Articles 89, 98 and 102). Article 89 provides for the obligations of nuclear licensees or consigned transporters to institute safety measures and file a report to the head of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ('MEST') in the event of any radiological accident during transport or packing of radioactive materials, etc. Article 98 stipulates obligations of nuclear licensees to implement safety procedures and submit a report to the Minister of Education, Science and Technology concerning radiation hazards arising in the event a radiological accident occurs in connection with nuclear projects, as well as the Minister's requests to implement necessary measures. Article 102 explicitly provides for obligations to file a report to the Minister in the event of theft, loss, fire or other accidents involving radioactive materials, etc. in the possession of nuclear licensees. The APPRE classifies radiological accidents according to location and scale of the accidents. Based on location, accidents are divided into accidents inside or outside nuclear facilities. Accidents inside nuclear facilities refer to accidents that occur at nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycling facilities, radioactive waste storage, treatment and disposal facilities, facilities using nuclear materials and facilities related to radioisotopes of not lower than 18.5PBq (Subparagraph 2, Article 2 of the APPRE) while accidents outside nuclear facilities mean accidents

  7. Poul Erik Andersen's radiological work on Osteochondrodysplasias and interventional radiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    Hospital. His significant experience and extensive scientific work has led to many posts in the Danish Society of Interventional Radiology, the European Society of Radiology and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe, where he is a fellow and has passed the European Board...... of Interventional Radiology - The European qualification in Interventional Radiology....

  8. DOE standard: Radiological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  9. DOE standard: Radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ''Occupational Radiation Protection''. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835

  10. Hazardous waste management in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstrom, G.

    1989-01-01

    Hazardous waste management in research laboratories benefits from a fundamentally different approach to the hazardous waste determination from industry's. This paper introduces new, statue-based criteria for identifying hazardous wastes (such as radiological mixed wastes and waste oils) and links them to a forward-looking compliance of laboratories, the overall system integrates hazardous waste management activities with other environmental and hazard communication initiatives. It is generalizable to other waste generators, including industry. Although only the waste identification and classification aspects of the system are outlined in detail here, four other components are defined or supported, namely: routine and contingency practices; waste treatment/disposal option definition and selection; waste minimization, recycling, reuse, and substitution opportunities; and key interfaces with other systems, including pollution prevention

  11. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, Jose; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings

  12. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Jose E-mail: vilar_jlu@gva.es; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-08-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings.

  13. Socioeconomic trends in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. (orig.)

  14. Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

    1994-09-19

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high.

  15. Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high

  16. Radiologic findings of struma ovarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Young [Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    Struma ovarii is ovarian tumor composed solely or predominantly of thyroid tissue or tumor in which hyperthyroidism results from ovarian thyroid tissue, and usually occurs in tandem with cystic teratoma. Ovarian cystic teratoma is radiologically easily diagnosed due to calcification or fat, for example, but the preoperative diagnosis of struma ovarii is often difficult due to rare characteristic features of thyroid tissue. Our purpose was to determine whether there were specific findings of struma ovarii which distinguished it from other ovarian tumors, and this involved analysis of its radiologic findings. Using ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, preoperative radiologic findings of pathologically-proven struma ovarii in eleven patients were retrospectively evaluated for site, margin, nature (cystic, solid, mixed), contrast enhancement, septa, mural nodule, calcification, fat, and metastasis. These findings were compared with pathologic findings. All eleven tumors were unilateral, ten had smooth tumor margins, seven were mixed cystic and solid tumors (more than 70% of solid components in one tumor), and nine had regular septa. Three of four cystic masses (one unilocular, one bilocular and two multilocular cysts) had mural nodules. Calcifications were found in two tumors, and fat in one. Malignant change or metastasis was not found in any tumor. In one patient with hyperthyroidism due to struma ovarii, symptoms and signs of this subsided after removal of the tumor on salpingo-oophorectomy. Most cases of struma ovarii occurred unilaterally within ovarian teratomas in premenopausal women, and were mixed cystic and solid masses with smooth margins that are commonly enhanced on contrast enhanced scans. In one patient, hyperthyroidism was caused by struma ovarii. There were, however, no specific radiologic findings that were sufficiently typical to suggest the correct preoperative diagnosis of struma ovarii.

  17. Radiologic findings of struma ovarii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Shin, Hyun Ja; Kim, Seung Hyup; Byun, Jae Young

    1997-01-01

    Struma ovarii is ovarian tumor composed solely or predominantly of thyroid tissue or tumor in which hyperthyroidism results from ovarian thyroid tissue, and usually occurs in tandem with cystic teratoma. Ovarian cystic teratoma is radiologically easily diagnosed due to calcification or fat, for example, but the preoperative diagnosis of struma ovarii is often difficult due to rare characteristic features of thyroid tissue. Our purpose was to determine whether there were specific findings of struma ovarii which distinguished it from other ovarian tumors, and this involved analysis of its radiologic findings. Using ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, preoperative radiologic findings of pathologically-proven struma ovarii in eleven patients were retrospectively evaluated for site, margin, nature (cystic, solid, mixed), contrast enhancement, septa, mural nodule, calcification, fat, and metastasis. These findings were compared with pathologic findings. All eleven tumors were unilateral, ten had smooth tumor margins, seven were mixed cystic and solid tumors (more than 70% of solid components in one tumor), and nine had regular septa. Three of four cystic masses (one unilocular, one bilocular and two multilocular cysts) had mural nodules. Calcifications were found in two tumors, and fat in one. Malignant change or metastasis was not found in any tumor. In one patient with hyperthyroidism due to struma ovarii, symptoms and signs of this subsided after removal of the tumor on salpingo-oophorectomy. Most cases of struma ovarii occurred unilaterally within ovarian teratomas in premenopausal women, and were mixed cystic and solid masses with smooth margins that are commonly enhanced on contrast enhanced scans. In one patient, hyperthyroidism was caused by struma ovarii. There were, however, no specific radiologic findings that were sufficiently typical to suggest the correct preoperative diagnosis of struma ovarii

  18. Radiological Emergency Response Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical emergency radiological response event and incident of national significance data and surveillance, monitoring,...

  19. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  20. Machine learning and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The radiological accident in Yanango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The use of nuclear technologies has fostered new, more effective and efficient medical procedures and has substantially improved diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. However, in order that the benefits of the use of ionizing radiation outweigh the potential hazards posed by this medium, it is important that radiation protection and safety standards be established to govern every aspect of the application of ionizing radiation. Adherence to these standards needs to be maintained through effective regulatory control, safe operational procedures and a safety culture that is shared by all. Occasionally, established safety procedures are violated and serious radiological consequences ensue. The radiological accident described in this report, which took place in Lilo, Georgia, was a result of such an infraction. Sealed radiation sources had been abandoned by a previous owner at a site without following established regulatory safety procedures, for example by transferring the sources to the new owner or treating them as spent material and conditioning them as waste. As a consequence, 11 individuals at the site were exposed for a long period of time to high doses of radiation which resulted inter alia in severe radiation induced skin injuries. Although at the time of the accident Georgia was not an IAEA Member State and was not a signatory of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, the IAEA still provided assistance to the Government of Georgia in assessing the radiological situation, while the World Health Organization (WHO) assisted in alleviating the medical consequences of the accident. The two organizations co-operated closely from the beginning, following the request for assistance by the Georgian Government. The IAEA conducted the radiological assessment and was responsible for preparing the report. The WHO and its collaborating centres within the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network

  2. Comparison of the radiological and chemical toxicity of lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.; Mott, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report estimates the worst-case radiological dose to an individual from ingested lead containing picocurie levels of radionuclides and then compares the calculated radiological health effects to the chemical toxic effects from that same lead. This comparison provides an estimate of the consequences of inadvertently recycling, in the commercial market, lead containing nominally undetectable concentrations of radionuclides. Quantitative expressions for the radiological and chemical toxicities of lead are based on concentrations of lead in the blood stream. The result shows that the chemical toxicity of lead is a greater health hazard, by orders of magnitude, than any probable companion radiation dose.

  3. Comparison of the radiological and chemical toxicity of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.; Mott, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report estimates the worst-case radiological dose to an individual from ingested lead containing picocurie levels of radionuclides and then compares the calculated radiological health effects to the chemical toxic effects from that same lead. This comparison provides an estimate of the consequences of inadvertently recycling, in the commercial market, lead containing nominally undetectable concentrations of radionuclides. Quantitative expressions for the radiological and chemical toxicities of lead are based on concentrations of lead in the blood stream. The result shows that the chemical toxicity of lead is a greater health hazard, by orders of magnitude, than any probable companion radiation dose

  4. Patient exposure evaluation in Romanian radiological departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girjoaba, O.; Cucu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A nation-wide evaluation of ionizing radiation exposure of the Romanian population due to the radiological examinations is performed in accordance with European Directive 97/43 EURATOM implemented in national regulations. Method: The study is applied to the collected data from radiological departments from Romanian hospitals during 2010. The radiological examinations were grouped in three categories: conventional diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology and computed tomography. The annual collective dose was determined from the reported data about the mean effective doses and the frequency for each type of radiological examination, in conformity with the national regulations. Regarding the frequency aspects, the results include the age and gender distributions. Major results: More then 6 million radiological examinations were performed in 2010, Romania having a population about of 20.3 million inhabitants. The collective effective dose for 2010 resulted from the study is 152 mSv per 1000 inhabitants. Conclusions: Medical practitioners must select the best medical imaging investigation for each clinical case taking into account the importance of keeping the patient dose as low as possible. Medical physicists should be strongly involved in the establishing of the dosimetry procedures. (author)

  5. The DOE policy for protection against radiological and toxicological sabotage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassell, C. Jr.; Callahan, S.; Myers, D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to a Department of Energy Office of Security Evaluations study on radiological and toxicological sabotage, the Under Secretary of Energy has directed that all departmental elements initiate analyses to determine the extent of radiological and toxicological sabotage threats within the department. To accomplish this, a plan was adopted whereby radioactive and other hazardous materials at DOE sites would be assessed by an interdisciplinary team as to quantities, ranked according to their hazards, subjected to a vulnerability assessment, and appropriate upgrades selected and monitored. This paper is a discussion of those efforts

  6. Radiological aspects in a monazite based rare earth production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harikumar, M.; Sujata, R.; Chinnaesakki, S.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.; Nair, N.N.G.

    2011-01-01

    One of the largest reserves of monazite in the world is present in the Indian subcontinent. Monazite ore has around 8-9% thorium oxide and nearly 60% Rare earth oxides. Selective acid extraction is used to separate the composite rare earths. The main radiological hazard arises from the presence of thorium and its daughter products. Monitoring of the radiation field and air activity in the rare earths plant is done routinely to reduce the radiation exposure to plant personnel. The separation of uranium and rare earths from Thorium concentrate separated from Monazite is being done as a part of the THRUST (Thorium Retrieval, Recovery of Uranium and Re-storage of Thorium) project from 2004 at Indian Rare Earths Limited, Udyogamandal. The radiological aspect for this extraction of uranium and rare earths was studied. The general radiation field in the rare earth production plant was 0.3-5.0 μGyh -1 and the average short lived air activity was 46 ± 7 mWL. The long lived air activity arising from 232 Th is very insignificant radiologically. The occupational radiation exposure for the rare earths separation plant is only 6 % of the total dose and the estimated average individual dose is 1.6 mSv per year. Studies were also done to estimate the residual radioactivity in the separated rare earth compounds using gamma spectrometry and the results showed significant presence of 227 Ac arising due to the protactinium fraction in the thorium concentrate. This activity is not detectable in a freshly separated rare earth compound but can buildup with time. (author)

  7. Tsunami hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  8. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  9. Radiology and injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The material available was grouped according to body regions and sport types. The first part contains data on radiography of the injured parts of the body and is intended to be a guide in the radiographic part of the diagnosis and treatment of the injured person. It also contains data on diagnostic pitfalls and recommendations for a comprehensive clarification of X-ray findings after an injury. The second part describes the sport types and hazards. Where possible, the injuries were documented by case studies and literature on the types of injury. The third part contains a collection of X-ray pictures with examples of various injuries. The presentation corresponds to the one of an up-to-date major text book on skeleton radiology. The pictures are presented as a series of problems for the reader to test his/her own diagnostic capabilities before he/she will read the solution to each example. With 411 figs [de

  10. Radiological impact of the Argentine Nuclear Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is made of the radiological impact resulting from the activities carried out so far under the Argentine Nuclear Programme, together with a prediction of the impact which could result from the future activities planned under that Programme. The average individual risks and the radiological detriment due to the various activities are determined in terms of the average individual effective dose equivalents and the collective effective dose equivalent commitments. The assessments cover exposures of occupationally exposed workers and the public. The data obtained indicate that both the risks and the resultant detriment are reasonably comparable with those derived from other similar programmes. Moreover, they clearly indicate that the radiological impact of the Programme is tending to decrease with time so that it can be assumed that the radiological impact per unit of practice will be even lower in future. (author)

  11. Physics of Radiology

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Harold Elford

    1983-01-01

    Authority, comprehensivity and a consummate manner of presentation have been hallmarks of The Physics of Radiology since it first saw publication some three decades past. This Fourth Edition adheres to that tradition but again updates the context. It thoroughly integrates ideas recently advanced and practices lately effected. Students and professionals alike will continue to view it, in essence, as the bible of radiological physics.

  12. Gout. Radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo Suarez, Jose Felix; Pena Cortes, Mario; Rondon Herrera, Federico; Iglesias Gamarra, Antonio; Calvo Paramo, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we reviewed the clinical and radiological aspects of gout, showing the most frequent radiological findings that can guide to the correct diagnosis of the disease. The cases that we presented here have been analyzed for many years in our rheumatology service, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Bogota

  13. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  14. Human hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.; Vignes, S.; Wolber, G.

    1976-01-01

    Among health hazards from ionizing radiations, a distinction is made of observed, likely and theoretical risks. Theoretical risks, derived from extrapolation of observations on sublethal exposures to low doses may frighten. However, they have nothing in common with reality as shown for instance, by the study of carcinogenesis risks at Nagasaki. By extrapolation to low doses, theoretical mutation risks are derived by geneticians from the observation of some characters especially deleterious in the progeny of parents exposed to sublethal doses. One cannot agree when by calculation they express a population exposure by a shift of its genetic balance with an increase of the proportion of disabled individuals. As a matter of fact, experimental exposure of successive generations of laboratory animals shows no accumulation of deleterious genes, sublethal doses excepted. Large nuclear plants should not be overwhelmed by horrible charges on sanitary grounds, whereas small sources have but too often shown they may originate mortal risks [fr

  15. Radiological protection report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    on the basis of international recommendations. ENSI uses inspections and comparative measurements to ensure that the necessary calibrated radiological protection measurement equipment is available and that it is used for its intended purpose in order to determine correct values. For this purpose, it operates a test centre accredited to ISO 17025. The network operated by ENSI for automatically monitoring the dose rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants measures dose rates in the vicinity of nuclear power stations all year round and 24 hours a day. The 10-minute, hourly and daily mean rates measured can be viewed on ENSI's web site in real time. This monitoring network serves to secure evidence for the authorities and in dealings with the public. No local increases in dose rates that could be attributed to discharges from nuclear power plants were detected in the reporting year. Sporadic, locally high measurements are due to fluctuations in natural background radiation, e.g. after rainfall. The programme JRODOS (Java-based Realtime Online DecisiOn Support system) has been used since the beginning of 2016 to model atmospheric spread and calculate the dose, should an event occur. JRODOS allows the direct use of 3D weather forecast data from the COSMO-1 model routinely used by MeteoSwiss with a grid size of 1 km. The COSMO-1 model supplies forecasts stretching up to 24 hours into the future with high spatial and temporal resolution. In order to reflect the small scale structure of the Swiss countryside and that of southern Germany, JRODOS uses the very high resolution elevation model from the Swiss Federal Office of Topography. This means that together with the aerial radiometric equipment, there are invaluable, precise instruments available at all times for making current assessments (diagnoses) as well as forecasts of the radiological situation. In the reporting year, all thresholds contained in the Federal Ordinance on radiation protection were met. There

  16. Radiological protection system in the era of nuclear renaissance expectation for development of radiological protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyomatsu, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The current radiological protection system, which was established mainly by the ICRP and UNSCEAR, has contributed to the prevention of potential radiological health hazards, and has been a fundamental concept during the development of nuclear energy. Through a detailed discussion regarding the new ICRP recommendations, the world nuclear industry has reached a consensus that the current radiological protection system keeps its integrity in principle although it involves some remaining issues, such as the disposal of radioactive waste. In order to maximize the advantages of nuclear energy while keeping the integrity of radiological protection system, it is essential to address the characteristics of radiation, which is specific to nuclear energy, so that nuclear energy can coexist with other energy sources. The three basic principles of radiological protection (i.e., justification, optimization and dose limits), which were completed in the 1990 recommendations of ICRP, should be retained as the basic concepts for the future radiological protection system in order to maintain the continuity and consistency of the radiological protection system. The radiological protection system can be furthermore developed only by combining the above three principles with best practices extracted from utilities' field experience. The significant reduction of radiation exposures received by members of the public and radiation workers in the field has resulted from the efforts by the world utilities to achieve the optimization. In order to correctly apply the theory to the work practices, it is essential to see how the theory is practically used in the field. Such a process should be also emphasized in the revision work of the IAEA Basic Safety Standards (BSS), which is currently under progress. Integrating the theory in the work practices is the key to the true development of nuclear renaissance, which could lead to the establishment of the nuclear safety regime. (author)

  17. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed. - Highlights: • The hazards associated to the use of radioactive sources must be taken into account. • Security issues are of paramount importance in the use of radioactive sources. • Radiation sources can be used to perpetrate terrorist acts (RDDs, INDs, REDs). • DSRS and orphan sources trigger radiological protection, safety and security concerns. • Regulatory control, from cradle to grave, of radioactive sources is mandatory.

  18. Release protocol to address DOE moratorium on shipments of waste generated in radiologically controlled areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, L.A.; Boothe, G.F.

    1992-10-01

    On May 17, 1991 the US DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a moratorium on the shipment of hazardous waste from radiologically contaminated or potentially contaminated areas on DOE sites to offsite facilities not licensed for radiological material. This document describes a release protocol generated by Westinghouse Hanford submitted for US DOE approval. Topics considered include designating Radiological Materials Management Areas (RMMAs), classification of wastes, handling of mixed wastes, detection limits

  19. Fetal dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.

    2002-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology examinations are frequently performed in all countries because of the benefit that the patient derives from the resultant diagnosis. Given that so many examinations are performed it is inevitable that there will be occasions when the planned exposure of a woman who is known to be pregnant is contemplated. In these circumstances, there must be rigorous justification of the examination and the procedure itself must be optimised as well. Radiation risks from fetal irradiation are well established. These risks fall into three categories: 1) a cancer induction risk (mainly leukaemia); 2) hereditary effects (as the fetus is a potential parent); 3) a risk of serious mental retardation (if the fetus is exposed in the critical 8-15 weeks period when the forebrain is being developed). Risk factors for these effects have been reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Special rules apply to the radiology of women who are or who may be pregnant. These rules have been developed to avoid he unintended irradiation of the fetus. These rules have been variously referred to as the 10-day rule and the 28-day rules, in which radiology of potentially pregnant women is restricted to the first 10 or 28 days following menstruation. It is apparent that the advice provided by national bodies varies, as different rules apply internationally, due presumably to a lack of an international consensus on the subject. The advice from the National Radiological Protection Board, the College of Radiographers and the Royal College of Radiologists applies in the United Kingdom. In summary, the advice is that women of child bearing age are asked before a diagnostic radiology examination in which the pelvis is in, or near, the primary beam are asked if they are, or may be, pregnant. If pregnancy can be excluded then the examination can proceed. If it is likely that the patient is pregnant, then the proposed examination must undergo rigorous justification. If

  20. Non-nuclear radiological emergencies. Special plan for radiological risk of the Valencian Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Rodrigo, I.; Piles Alepuz, I.; Peiró Juan, J.; Calvet Rodríguez, D.

    2015-01-01

    After the publication of the Radiological Hazard Basic Directive, Generalitat (the regional government in Valencian Community) initiated the edition of the pertinent Special Plan, with the objective to assemble the response of all the Security and Emergency Agencies, including the Armed Forces, in a radiological emergency affecting the territory of the Valencian Community, under a single hierarchy command. Being approved and homologated the Radiological Hazard Special Plan, Generalitat has undertaken the implementation process planned to finish in June 2015. Following the same process as other Plans, implementation is organized in a first informative stage, followed of a formative and training stage, and finishing with an activation exercise of the Plan. At the end of the process, is expected that every Agency will know their functions, the structure and organization in which the intervention takes place, the resources needed, and adapt their protocols to the Plan requirements. From the beginning, it has been essential working together with the Nuclear Safety Council, as is established in the agreement signed in order to collaborate in Planning, Preparedness and Response in Radiological Emergencies. [es

  1. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  2. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  3. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  4. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiation hazard indices in different soil samples from Assiut governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, S.A.M.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Hefni, M.A.; El-Kamel, A.H; Nesreen, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazard radiological levels. So, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks and to have a baseline for future changes in the environmental radioactivity due to human activities. Determine the radioactivity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in surface and 20 cm soil samples collected beside Assiut fertilizer plant, Assiut government in south Upper Egypt, to assess their contribution to the external dose exposure. The contents of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in investigated samples by using gamma spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3”x 3”]. The total absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent, excess lifetime cancer risk and the external hazard index, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil, were calculated

  5. Referral expectations of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.L.; Altmaier, E.; Berberoglu, L.; Morris, K.

    1989-01-01

    The expectation of the referring physician are key to developing a successful practice in radiology. Structured interviews with 17 clinicians in both community care and academic practice documented that accuracy of the radiologic report was the single most important factor in clinician satisfaction. Data intercorrelation showed that accuracy of report correlated with frequency of referral (r = .49). Overall satisfaction of the referring physician with radiology correlated with accuracy (r = .69), patient satisfaction (r = .36), and efficiency in archiving (r = .42). These data may be weighted by departmental managers to allocate resources for improving referring physician satisfaction

  6. Marketing a Radiology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David C; Rao, Vijay M; Flanders, Adam E; Sundaram, Baskaran; Colarossi, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    In addition to being a profession, the practice of radiology is a business, and marketing is an important part of that business. There are many facets to marketing a radiology practice. The authors present a number of ideas on how to go about doing this. Some marketing methods can be directed to both patients and referring physicians. Others should be directed just to patients, while still others should be directed just to referring physicians. Aside from marketing, many of them provide value to both target audiences. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Guidelines for radiological interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    The German Radiological Society, in cooperation with other German professional bodies, set up draft Guidelines for Radiological Interventions and submitted them to the professional community for discussion. The Guidelines are meant to assess the potential of radiological interventions as treatment alternatives to surgery or aggressive therapy such as chemotherapy. In fact, technical practicability on its own is insufficient to warrant intervention. The Guidelines are systematically compiled notions and recommendations whose aim it is to provide support to physicians and patients in choosing suitable medical care provisions (prevention, diagnosis, therapy, aftertreatment) in specific circumstances. A complete Czech translation of the Guidelines is given. (P.A.)

  8. Interventional Radiology in Paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippington, Samantha J; Goodwin, Susie J

    2015-01-01

    As in adult practice, there is a growing role for paediatric interventional radiology expertise in the management of paediatric pathologies. This review is targeted for clinicians who may refer their patients to paediatric interventional radiology services, or who are responsible for patients who are undergoing paediatric interventional radiology procedures. The article includes a brief overview of the indications for intervention, techniques involved and the commonest complications. Although some of the procedures described are most commonly performed in a tertiary paediatric centre, many are performed in most Children's hospitals.

  9. Evolution of the system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    One of the main challenges facing radiological protection experts is how to integrate radiological protection within modern concepts of and approaches to risk governance. It is within this context that the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) decided to develop new general recommendations to replace its Publication 60 recommendations of 1990. In the process of developing these new recommendations, the views of the ICRP have evolved significantly, largely due to stakeholder involvement that has been actively solicited by the ICRP. In this regard, it was upheld during the First Asian Regional Conference organised by the NEA in October 2002 that the implementation of the new system must allow for regional, societal and cultural differences. In order to ensure appropriate consideration of these differences, the NEA organised the Second Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection. Held in Tokyo on 28-29 July 2004, the conference included presentations by the ICRP Chair as well as by radiological experts from Australia, China, Japan and Korea. Within their specific cultural and socio-political milieu, Asia-Pacific and western ways of thought on how to improve the current system of radiological protection were presented and discussed. These ways of thinking, along with a summary of the conference results, are described in these proceedings. (author)

  10. Setting the scenario - potential hazards of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.; McPhail, N.

    1989-01-01

    The range of nuclear fuel cycle services provided by the various plants belonging to BNFL throughout the UK are described. The Sellafield Reprocessing Plant as the site which has the greatest potential for radiological hazard is then considered in more detail. In particular the safety cycle designed to prevent radiological accidents at Sellafield, emergency planning, the consequences of a major accident at Sellafield and the medical arrangements in the event of an accident are all discussed. (UK)

  11. Hazard Classification for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Final hazard classification for the 300 Area N Reactor fuel storage facility resulted in the assignment of Nuclear Facility Hazard Category 3 for the uranium metal fuel and feed material storage buildings (303-A, 303-B, 303-G, 3712, and 3716). Radiological for the residual uranium and thorium oxide storage building and an empty former fuel storage building that may be used for limited radioactive material storage in the future (303-K/3707-G, and 303-E), and Industrial for the remainder of the Fuel Supply Shutdown buildings (303-F/311 Tank Farm, 303-M, 313-S, 333, 334 and Tank Farm, 334-A, and MO-052)

  12. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  13. Routine use of radiologic investigations WHO recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.

    1987-01-01

    The concern for unjustified radiological investigations started in the early fifties when medical irradiation was recognized to be the major source of population exposure to man-made ionizing radiations. This continues to be of major concern to many national and international bodies when analyzing the data on x-ray investigations and attempting to develop measures to limit their use. The Commission of European Communities (CEC) has also been motivated by the same approach - the decrease of the population dose commitment - in the studies made on radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community presented at a Technical Workshop held on 4-5 December 1985 in Luxembourg. Although such an approach seems to be appealing to a very large number of people sensitive to the potential hazards represented by ionizing radiations for exposed individuals and their offspring, a number of other factors, with more direct implications for the health authorities, have been recognized in the last 10-15 years as major reasons for limiting the use of radiologic procedures. As such factors are fully recognized and endorsed by WHO policy, and expressed in WHO Technical Reports Nos 689 and 723, this presentation will take into consideration these factors and not the problem of patient and population protection, which is directly implied when the radiologic investigations are limited only to those clinically justified

  14. Radiological error: analysis, standard setting, targeted instruction and teamworking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology does not have objective benchmarks for acceptable levels of missed diagnoses [1]. Until now, data collection of radiological discrepancies has been very time consuming. The culture within the specialty did not encourage it. However, public concern about patient safety is increasing. There have been recent innovations in compiling radiological interpretive discrepancy rates which may facilitate radiological standard setting. However standard setting alone will not optimise radiologists' performance or patient safety. We must use these new techniques in radiological discrepancy detection to stimulate greater knowledge sharing, targeted instruction and teamworking among radiologists. Not all radiological discrepancies are errors. Radiological discrepancy programmes must not be abused as an instrument for discrediting individual radiologists. Discrepancy rates must not be distorted as a weapon in turf battles. Radiological errors may be due to many causes and are often multifactorial. A systems approach to radiological error is required. Meaningful analysis of radiological discrepancies and errors is challenging. Valid standard setting will take time. Meanwhile, we need to develop top-up training, mentoring and rehabilitation programmes. (orig.)

  15. Pediatric radiology for medical-technical radiology assistants/radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppelt, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    The book on pediatric radiology includes the following chapter: differences between adults and children; psycho-social aspects concerning the patient child in radiology; relevant radiation doses in radiology; help for self-help: simple phantoms for image quality estimation in pediatric radiology; general information; immobilization of the patient; pediatric features for radiological settings; traumatology; contrast agents; biomedical radiography; computerized tomography; NMR imaging; diagnostic ultrasonography; handling of stress practical recommendations; medical displays.

  16. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  17. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  18. Observer variation in skeletal radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockshott, W.P.; Park, W.M.

    1983-08-01

    The factors that affect observer variation in bone radiology are analysed from data in the literature and on the basis of studies carried out at McMaster University on the hands and sacroiliac joints. A plea is made for presenting results in terms of Kappa statistics so that agreement due purely to chance is eliminated. In the conclusions the main variables that affect concordance are listed so that strategies can be developed to reduce observer variation. This is important in serial studies to ensure that the observer variations are smaller than the effect one wishes to measure.

  19. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately

  20. Laenderyggens degeneration og radiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper Kjaerulf; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common conditions, and at the same time one of the most complex nosological entities. The lifetime prevalence is approximately 80%, and radiological features of lumbar degeneration are almost universal in adults. The individual risk factors for LBP and signi......Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common conditions, and at the same time one of the most complex nosological entities. The lifetime prevalence is approximately 80%, and radiological features of lumbar degeneration are almost universal in adults. The individual risk factors for LBP...... and significant relationships between radiological findings and subjective symptoms have both been notoriously difficult to identify. The lack of consensus on clinical criteria and radiological definitions has hampered the undertaking of properly executed epidemiological studies. The natural history of LBP...

  1. Diagnostic radiology: I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter describes the historic development of diagnostic equipment for radiology. The problems associated with fluoroscope design are detailed and the current uses of updated technology, particularly digitization, are considered. Numerous historical photographs are included. 13 refs

  2. SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Picture yourself in L.A. Register now SIR Essentials Purchase/register Search SIR's entire catalog for educational ... Quality Improvement Clinical practice MACRA Matters Health Policy, Economics, Coding Toolkits Society of Interventional Radiology 3975 Fair ...

  5. Radiology Architecture Project Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Raymond W; Hogan, Laurie; Teshima, Satoshi; Davidson, Scott

    2017-12-19

    The rapid pace of technologic advancement and increasing expectations for patient- and family-friendly environments make it common for radiology leaders to be involved in imaging remodel and construction projects. Most radiologists and business directors lack formal training in architectural and construction processes but are expected to play significant and often leading roles in all phases of an imaging construction project. Avoidable mistakes can result in significant increased costs and scheduling delays; knowledgeable participation and communication can result in a final product that enhances staff workflow and morale and improves patient care and experience. This article presents practical guidelines for preparing for and leading a new imaging architectural and construction project. We share principles derived from the radiology and nonradiology literature and our own experience over the past decade completely remodeling a large pediatric radiology department and building a full-service outpatient imaging center. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiology and the law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 12 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Law of Medical Malpractice: An Overview; The Radiologist as Defendant; The Radiologist as an Expert Witness; The Missed Diagnosis; Legalities of the Radiograph; and Angiography and Interventional Radiology

  7. Radiological clerkships as a critical curriculum component in radiology education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourdioukova, Elena V.; Verstraete, Koenraad L.; Valcke, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to explore the perceived value of clinical clerkships in the radiology curriculum as well as the impact of radiology clerkship on students' beliefs about the profession of radiology as a whole and as a career. Methods: This study is a sequel to a previous survey in which student perceptions about radiology curriculum components were investigated. The present study focuses on a further analysis of a subsection in this study, based on 14 statements about radiology clerkship and two statements about radiology as a career. Results: Perceived usefulness of the aspects of radiology clerkship as 'radiology examination', 'skills development' and 'diagnosis focus' were awarded the highest scores. The predict value of the subscale 'radiology examination' on the level of performance was very high (adjusted R 2 = 0.19, p < .001). Conclusion: Students expressed highly favorable evaluation of clerkship as a learning environment to learn to order and to interpret imaging studies as well as an unique possibility to attend various radiological examinations and to access to specific radiology software systems, as well as to get a better view on radiology and to improve image interpretation skills. This positive attitude towards clerkship is closely tied to students' beliefs about the profession of radiology as a whole. These aspects of dedicated radiology clerkship are crucial for effective and high-quality education as well as for the choice of radiology as a career.

  8. Radiologic science for technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushong, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    This book provides in-depth coverage of physics, biology and protection for the radiologic technology student. It presents a significant portion of all of the science required of radiologic technology students under one cover. Chapter content reflects a readable and practical organization with outlines listed on the first page of each chapter and sample problems at the end. New to this edition are: new and expanded sections on radiation techniques, digital imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound

  9. Hygiene in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp-Schwoerer, A.; Daschner, F.

    1987-01-01

    A survey is given of the hygienic management in radiological departments with special regard to the handling of injections and infusions. It includes prevention of bacterial as well as viral infections. In radiological departments disinfection of X-ray tables is necessary only in exceptional cases. A special proposal for disinfection is added. A safe method of sterilisation of flexible catheders is included, which proved to prevent bacterial infection. (orig.) [de

  10. Radiological protection act, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and dissolves An Bord Fuinnimh Nuicleigh (the Board), transferring its assets and liabilities to the Institute. It sets out a range of radiation protection measures to be taken by various Ministers in the event of a radiological emergency and gives effect at national level to the Assistance Convention, the Early Notification Convention and the Physical Protection Convention. The Institute is the competent Irish authority for the three Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  11. Textbook of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, C.E.; Ravin, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    This book is presented in two volumes, standard textbook of imaging, conclusive and totally up-to-date. This provides information organized by major topics covering the state-of-the-art for all imaging procedures. The volume 1 presents radiologic physics and technology by discussing roentgenography, ultrasound, CT, nuclear medicine, MRI, and positron emission tomography. The volume 2 studies pulmonary radiology, imaging of the skeletal and central nervous systems, uroradiology, abdominal and cardiac imaging, and imaging of the pelvis

  12. Laenderyggens degeneration og radiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper Kjaerulf; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2006-01-01

    and significant relationships between radiological findings and subjective symptoms have both been notoriously difficult to identify. The lack of consensus on clinical criteria and radiological definitions has hampered the undertaking of properly executed epidemiological studies. The natural history of LBP...... is cyclic: exacerbations relieved by asymptomatic periods. New imaging modalities, including the combination of MR imaging and multiplanar 3-D CT scans, have broadened our awareness of possible pain-generating degenerative processes of the lumbar spine other than disc degeneration....

  13. 76 FR 74709 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ..., including any sludge, spill residue, ash, emission control dust, or leachate, remains a hazardous waste... water for use as a cleaning agent. The slop oil waste is thereby diluted and hazardous constituents are... separation sludges that are listed as hazardous wastes due to benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, lead and...

  14. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  15. Assessment of radiation hazards associated with tailing and sediment from an abandoned gold mine in Ilesa and an active tantalite mine in Ijero, southwest Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isinkaye, O. [Ekiti State University (Nigeria)

    2014-07-01

    The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to human health and the environment. In order to assess the potential radiological hazards pose to the environment due to mining activities in southwest Nigeria, the activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th was determined in tailing and sediment from two mines within the study area. The samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in all the measured samples ranged from 249.66-1459.25 BqKg{sup -1}, 7.62-50.31 Bqkg{sup -1} and 12.68-234.18 Bqkg{sup -1}, respectively in soil while in sediment samples, the values ranged from 241.86-1590.40 Bqkg{sup -1}, 9.86-74.8 Bqkg{sup -1} and 15.47-145.46 Bqkg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indexes have mean values which are higher than the world average values but are all within their acceptable limits. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. Radiological hazards from nuclear explosions and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockcroft, J D

    1955-01-01

    The level of radioactive contamination in the world produced by all the nuclear bomb explosions and peaceful atomic energy activities is at present so low that it should not cause any anxiety. The radiation level which gives rise to serious harmful effects is probably at least a thousand times the present level of contamination. We do not at present know this figure with any accuracy, and long-term genetic studies are required to determine this.

  17. Topographical mapping system for hazardous and radiological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E.; Pardini, A.

    1995-01-01

    This report focuses on the results of the acceptance test of the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) delivered to the Hanford site. The TMS was tested for accuracy over the specified range of 45 feet. The TMS was also tested to ensure that the unit could be deployed through multiple risers and maintain accuracy and registration of the surface mapping data. In addition, the TMS was disassembled and reassembled and redeployed to test field replacement of modules that make up the sensor head that is deployed in the vapor space of Underground Storage Tanks such as those located at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. The results from these tests along with temperature testing on the complete system and radiation testing of selected susceptible components are covered in this report. The primary purpose of the TMS is to generate reliable and accurate three-dimensional maps of the internal surfaces of storage tank. One use for these mapping systems is in creating and maintaining a current map of the tank interior as input to a robotic ''world model'' that is used to test remediation strategies or plan robot trajectories. Another use is tracking the movement of the waste surface as it responds to expanding bubbles of trapped Gas. A third use of the TMS is to perform a volumetric analysis of the amount of waste removed from the tanks during remediation

  18. Radiological hazard assessment of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, D.D.; Vermeere, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    With the recent introduction of ESWL to the clinical environment, a new health physics challenge has entered the medical consulting area. The x-ray imaging systems used in the devices are of a conventional design, but in an unusual configuration that is difficult to properly assess. The scope of this paper considers specific evaluation problems, and deals with methods developed during experience with 4 units in California. Pertinent regulations are also covered, along with a synopsis of data obtained and ALARA recommendations

  19. Evaluation of Radiological Hazard Indices and Excess Lifetime Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sowole & Ehindero

    For most individuals, this exposure exceeds that from all man- made sources ... living tissue only when the energy is absorbed in that tissue. Radionuclides can be ... some other natural or human activity generates clouds of dust containing ...

  20. Nevada National Security Site Radiological Control Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, 'Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,' Revision 1 issued in February 2010. Brief Description of Revision: A complete revision to reflect a recent change in name for the NTS; changes in name for some tenant organizations; and to update references to current DOE policies, orders, and guidance documents. Article 237.2 was deleted. Appendix 3B was updated. Article 411.2 was modified. Article 422 was re-written to reflect the wording of DOE O 458.1. Article 431.6.d was modified. The glossary was updated. This manual contains the radiological control requirements to be used for all radiological activities conducted by programs under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Compliance with these requirements will ensure compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection.' Programs covered by this manual are located at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); Nellis Air Force Base and North Las Vegas, Nevada; Santa Barbara and Livermore, California; and Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. In addition, fieldwork by NNSA/NSO at other locations is covered by this manual. Current activities at NNSS include operating low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal facilities for United States defense-generated waste, assembly and execution of subcritical experiments, assembly/disassembly of special experiments, the storage and use of special nuclear materials, performing criticality experiments, emergency responder training, surface cleanup and site characterization of contaminated land areas, environmental activity by the University system, and nonnuclear test operations, such as controlled spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center. Currently, the major potential for occupational radiation exposure is associated with the burial of

  1. Nevada National Security Site Radiological Control Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers’ Council

    2012-03-26

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, 'Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,' Revision 1 issued in February 2010. Brief Description of Revision: A complete revision to reflect a recent change in name for the NTS; changes in name for some tenant organizations; and to update references to current DOE policies, orders, and guidance documents. Article 237.2 was deleted. Appendix 3B was updated. Article 411.2 was modified. Article 422 was re-written to reflect the wording of DOE O 458.1. Article 431.6.d was modified. The glossary was updated. This manual contains the radiological control requirements to be used for all radiological activities conducted by programs under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Compliance with these requirements will ensure compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection.' Programs covered by this manual are located at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); Nellis Air Force Base and North Las Vegas, Nevada; Santa Barbara and Livermore, California; and Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. In addition, fieldwork by NNSA/NSO at other locations is covered by this manual. Current activities at NNSS include operating low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal facilities for United States defense-generated waste, assembly and execution of subcritical experiments, assembly/disassembly of special experiments, the storage and use of special nuclear materials, performing criticality experiments, emergency responder training, surface cleanup and site characterization of contaminated land areas, environmental activity by the University system, and nonnuclear test operations, such as controlled spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center. Currently, the major potential for occupational radiation exposure is associated with the burial of

  2. Final hazard classification for the 116-F-4 (Terra Stor) soil retrieval activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.J.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the final hazard classification for the remediation activities described in the Work Plan for the Retrieval of Contaminated Soil from the 116-F-4 Storage Unit. Based upon total inventories calculated from the characterization data, a preliminary hazard categorization of less than Hazard Category 3 was assigned. Based upon the material-at-risk, a final hazard classification of radiological was assigned

  3. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  4. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  5. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  6. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  7. Analysis of radiation dose rate profile in the ambient Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay environment to evaluate radiation hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas; Anoj Kumar; Meena, T.R.; Vikas Kumar; Patra, R.P.; Patil, S.S.; Murali, S.; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic radiological survey and its analysis are useful on a two way approach. First, it will be used to generate baseline dose profile that will be prominently important during any radiological emergency. Secondly, due to some unforeseen human acts if orphan/abandoned radioactive source were present across Bhabha Atomic Research Centre site, the same can be detected and retrieved from the incident location. Periodic radiation survey of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay site primarily validate/serve as an indicator of integrity of the various safety measures at the different nuclear fuel cycle facilities and on the prevailing radiological status at the vicinity of the facilities at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay site. Radiation dose profile as a quality information has been accumulated in the last five years. Analysis of data has led to the conclusion that there has been no increase in hazard over the years though the quantum of radioactivity processed at the various facilities has undergone wide increase and radiation hazard at the site continues to be very negligible. Nuclear fuel cycle activities at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre do not pose any excess radiation risk at the site

  8. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnaz, A.; Kucukomeroglu, B.; Damla, N.; Cevik, U.

    2011-01-01

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and 137 Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h -1 and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 μSv y -1 . In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 μSv y -1 from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: → →The study highlights activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil. → The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. → The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. → Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. → The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  9. Radiological assessments, environmental monitoring, and study design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.R.; Elle, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of the behavior of transuranic elements in the environment form the basic data for applied programs in radiological assessment, environmental monitoring, derivation of radiation-protection standards, and environmental impact statements. This chapter introduces some of the major information requirements of these applications of transuranic research data. Characteristics of the source terms from nuclear activities usually are needed for an analysis of environmental pathways or deployment of monitoring systems. Major inhalation and ingestion pathways are considered in assessments of hazards from transuranics and are discussed from the viewpoint of research needed

  10. The Future of Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R. Margulis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been my good fortune to live and practice radiology during a long period of momentous change – to see the transformation of the discipline from a supportive service into a mainstream, essential branch of clinical medicine. I remember wearing red goggles to adapt my vision before performing fluoroscopy; observing the horrible, now thankfully obsolete, practice of ventriculography, which was considered advanced neuroradiology; and performing other, now rarely prescribed procedures, such as double-contrast barium enemas and intravenous pyelography. Witnessing the beginnings of interventional radiology, I suggested its name in an editorial. I also had the good fortune to see the introduction of computed tomography (CT and a technology first known as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Together with fellow members of a committee of the American College of Radiology and editors of prestigious radiological journals, I took part in changing the name of the latter modality to MRI, freeing it from threatening implications. Looking back on these experiences, one lesson stands out above all: Innovation and transformation never cease. Looking forward, it is clear that radiology, along with the rest of medicine, is now undergoing further momentous changes that will affect the future of all those already practicing as well as those yet to start their careers.

  11. Computer technique for correction of nonhomogeneous distribution in radiologic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florian, Rogerio V.; Frere, Annie F.; Schiable, Homero; Marques, Paulo M.A.; Marques, Marcio A.

    1996-01-01

    An image processing technique to provide a 'Heel' effect compensation on medical images is presented. It is reported that the technique can improve the structures detection due to background homogeneity and can be used for any radiologic system

  12. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry

  13. Conventional radiology: fixed installations in medical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the different procedures, the different types of specific hazards, the analysis of risks, their assessment and the preventive methods with regard to radioprotection in the case of fixed conventional radiology equipment in medical environment. It indicates and describes the concerned personnel, the course of procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels (definition of regulated areas, personnel categories), the strategy aimed at controlling the risk (risk reduction, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention, incident), the different measures of medical monitoring, the assessment of risk control, and other risks. An appendix proposes an example of workstation assessment

  14. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  15. What Does Competence Entail in Interventional Radiology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran; Keeling, Aoife N.; Khan, Reenam S.; Ashrafian, Hutan; Arora, Sonal; Nagpal, Kamal; Burrill, Joshua; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos; Hamady, Mohamad

    2010-01-01

    Interventional radiology is a relatively new speciality and may be referred to as 'image-guided surgery without a scalpel.' Training and accreditation bodies regard interventional radiology training as being 'different' from general radiology because of the additional need for dexterity and clinical acumen. Due to the multidimensional role of an interventional radiologist, a practitioner in this discipline must have a number of the competencies of anesthetists, surgeons, and radiologists. The attributes required of an interventional radiologist are akin to those required of a surgeon. This paper gives an overview of the skills required to be a competent interventional radiologist along with a succinct introduction to methods of assessment of technical and non-technical skills.

  16. What constitutes a radiology radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.; Edmonds, K.; Hayton, A.; Tingey, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A review of the literature indicates a very small number of articles on radiology radiation accidents. This may be due to there being no agreed definition of the term 'accident' when applied to radiology incidents. As the intensity of X-ray beams and the functionality of various modalities increase there is a consequent development in procedures to which 'high dose' applications are required. We may therefore expect to see more incidents in future. How are we to manage them? Radiology radiation accidents are usually exemplified by deterministic skin burns which may take many weeks or months to become apparent and any procedure leading to a radiation induced fatality is difficult to prove. (author)

  17. Quality assurance program in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, Alejandro; Borges, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Aiming to elaborate a methodology to optimize the performance of the Radiology Service of the Military Police Hospital, in Rio dee Janeiro, some goals were established: improvement of the attendance to patients; improvement of the qualification of technicians; achievement and maintenance of high degrees of quality in each step of the radiological process; improvement of the image quality; optimization of dose per examination and cost reduction. The procedure used to detect faults in the radiological process was the analysis of causes of film losses. Results show a 70% reduction in the film rejection rate. 74% of total identified faults were due to equipment, 11% to films, 10% to patients and 5% to developing. The reduction in the cost of developed film reached 75%. A training course given to the staff of the radiological service fully reached its goals, contributing, with the staff motivation, mostly to the success of the program. This success indicates that, with a serious persistent work, it is possible to offer to patients services within their expectations, even at a public hospital. Such programs should be supported by health authorities, not only due to their technical and economic needs but, mostly, due to their social implications. (author). 10 refs., 11 figs

  18. Radiological signs of childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, F.; Menor, F.; Moreno, A.; Vallcanera, A.; Esteban, M.J.; Muro, D.; Cortina, H.

    1997-01-01

    To describe the most prominent radiological sings of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in childhood and review the general aspects of greatest interest to the general radiologist. The clinical and radiological histories of 40 children diagnosed on the basis of biopsy and/or cytology as having LCH in our center over a 16-year period were reviewed. Bone involvement was observed in 95% of patients; flat bones were affected in 95% of the cases, most frequently the cranium. Radiological changes in temporal bone were viewed in 15% of cases. There were long-bone lesions in 21% of the patients, involving, metaphyseal-diaphyseal bones in every case; multiple epiphyseal dysplasia was found in one and a purely cortical lesion in another. Vertebral involvement was detected in 18% of patients. Clinical evidence of diabetes insipidus (DI) was present in 22.5% of cases, while there were clinical or radiological signs of lung involvement in 15%. Bone involvement is the most common association reported in childhood LCH and is usually the reason for medical consultation. The flat bones, especially the cranium, are those most often affected. Diagnosis and follow-up studies are mainly based on plain radiography. DI due to hypothalamic infiltration in usually associated with normal CT scan. Lung involvement, uncommon in pediatric patients, is the major clinical and radiological difference with respect to the adult form. (Author) 33 refs

  19. Radiology of chest diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, S.; Stark, P.

    1990-01-01

    This book is divided into three parts: The first part - 'Technology and normal findings' - explains current radiological diagnostic methods. The indications for particular examinations are given, with the techniques and possible errors. The second part of the book - 'Diseases of the lung' - gives a systematic description of basic knowledge needed for diagnosis. Each chapter begins with a definition of the disease and a discussion of the diagnostic information that can be expected from the various radiological methods. This is followed by the pathological morphology and pathological physiology and the clinical symptoms. The third part of the book - 'Radiological signs and differential diagnosis' - deals with image patterns, such as segmental opacities, calcification, localized hyperlucency, etc. It begins where the diagnostician must begin - immediate confrontation with the radiograph, analysis of the details, recognition of structures and understanding the image. (orig./DGD) With 381 figs., 42 tabs

  20. Anesthesia for radiologic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestner, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Anesthetic techniques for neurodiagnostic studies and radiation therapy have been recently reviewed, but anesthetic involvement in thoracic and abdominal radiology has received little attention. Patient reactions to radiologic contrast media may be of concern to the anesthesiologist, who is often responsible for injecting these agents during diagnostic procedures, and thus is included in this discussion. Finally, the difficulties of administering anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are outlined, in an effort to help anesthesiologist to anticipate problems with this new technologic development. Although there are very few indications for the use of general anesthesia for diagnostic radiologic studies in adults, most procedures performed with children, the mentally retarded, or the combative adult require either heavy sedation or general anesthesia. In selecting an anesthetic technique for a specific procedure, both the patient's disease process and the requirements of the radiologist must be carefully balanced

  1. Organizational decentralization in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    At present, most hospitals have a department of radiology where images are captured and interpreted. Decentralization is the opposite of centralization and means 'away from the centre'. With a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and broadband communications, transmitting radiology images between sites will be far easier than before. Qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons were performed in Norway. There was a response rate of 90%. Decentralization of radiology interpretations seems less relevant than centralization, but several forms of decentralization have a role to play. The respondents mentioned several advantages, including exploitation of capacity and competence. They also mentioned several disadvantages, including splitting professional communities and reduced contact between radiologists and clinicians. With the new technology decentralization and centralization of image interpretation are important possibilities in organizational change. This will be important for the future of teleradiology.

  2. Radiology education: a radiology curriculum for all medical students?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Laura; Kok, E.M.; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic errors in radiology are frequent and can cause severe patient harm. Despite large performance differences between radiologists and non-radiology physicians, the latter often interpret medical images because electronic health records make images available throughout the hospital. Some

  3. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  4. Radiology's value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  5. Radiologic protection in pediatric radiology: ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Ramon; Khong, Pek-Lan; Ringertz, Hans

    2013-01-01

    ICRP has provided an updated overview of radiation protection principles in pediatric radiology. The authors recommend that staff, radiologists, medical physicists and vendors involved in pediatric radiology read this document. For conventional radiography, the report gives advice on patient positioning, immobilization, shielding and appropriate exposure conditions. It describes extensively the use of pulsed fluoroscopy, the importance of limiting fluoroscopy time, and how shielding and geometry must be used to avoid unnecessary radiation to the patient and operator. Furthermore, the use of fluoroscopy in interventional procedures with emphasis on dose reduction to patients and staff is discussed in light of the increasing frequency, complexity and length ofthe procedures. CT is the main reason that medical imaging in several developed countries is the highest annual per capita effective radiation dose from man-made sources. The ICRP report gives extensive descriptions of how CT protocols can be optimized to minimize radiation exposure in pediatric patients. The importance of balancing image quality with acceptable noise in pediatric imaging and the controversies regarding the use of protective shielding in CT are also discussed.

  6. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn

    2014-01-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  7. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  8. Research on photoconductor radiological sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, Francois

    1989-01-01

    Because of the evolution of medical imaging techniques to digital systems, it is necessary to replace radiological film which has many drawbacks, by a detector quite as efficient and quickly giving a digitable signal. The purpose of this thesis is to find new X-ray digital imaging processes using photoconductor materials such as amorphous selenium. After reviewing the principle of direct radiology and functions to be served by the X-ray sensor (i e. detection, memory, assignment, visualization), we explain specification. We especially show the constraints due to the object to be radio-graphed (condition of minimal exposure), and to the reading signal (electronic noise detection associated with a reading frequency). As a result of this study, a first photoconductor sensor could be designed. Its principle is based on photo carrier trapping at dielectric-photoconductor structure interface. The reading system needs the scanning of a laser beam upon the sensor surface. The dielectric-photoconductor structure enabled us to estimate the possibilities offered by the sensor and to build a complete x-ray imaging system. The originality of thermos-dielectric sensor, that was next studied, is to allow a thermal assignment reading. The chosen system consists in varying the ferroelectric polymer capacity whose dielectric permittivity is weak at room temperature. The thermo-dielectric material was studied by thermal or Joule effect stimulation. During our experiments, trapping was found in a sensor made of amorphous selenium between two electrodes. This new effect was performed and enabled us to expose a first interpretation. Eventually, the comparison of these new sensor concepts with radiological film shows the advantage of the proposed solution. (author) [fr

  9. Chernobyl - 10 years on. Proceedings of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident from an Irish perspective was the focus of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to mark the tenth anniversary of the accident. The health consequences of Chernobyl were discussed along with presentations on such issues as the hazards to the Irish population from Sellafield; the radiation hazard posed by radon gas; radiation hazards in medicine, industry and education, and Ireland's National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents

  10. Chernobyl - 10 years on. Proceedings of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident from an Irish perspective was the focus of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to mark the tenth anniversary of the accident. The health consequences of Chernobyl were discussed along with presentations on such issues as the hazards to the Irish population from Sellafield; the radiation hazard posed by radon gas; radiation hazards in medicine, industry and education, and Ireland`s National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents.

  11. Gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Scarsbrook, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fifth in the series of short reviews of internet-based radiological learning resources and will focus on gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary radiology. Below are details of a few of the higher quality resources currently available. Most of the sites cater for medical students and trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may be also be of interest to specialists, especially for use in teaching. Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (May 2006)

  12. Genitourinary and breast radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perriss, R.W.; Graham, R.N.J.; Scarsbrook, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    This is the sixth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological learning resources and will focus on genitourinary (GU) and breast radiology. Below are details of a few of the higher quality resources currently available. Most of the sites cater for medical students and trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may be also be of interest to specialists, especially for use in teaching. Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (July 2006)

  13. Practical interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, J.; Schreyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The book is intended as a practical guide and manual for interventional radiology applications. Main emphasis is placed on the performance of the various techniques, with explanations of the various steps to be taken, illustrated by drawings or pictures. Indications, contra-indications and clinical achievements are given in brief. There is one chapter each for the following techniques: angioplasty - intra-arterial fibrinolysis - vascular stents - neuroembolisation - embolisation of other vessels - biliary interventions - abscess drainage - nephrostomy and ureteral manipulations -percutaneous fine-needle biopsy - vena cava filters - interventional radiology in infants. (orig.)

  14. Dosimetry in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Buzzi, A.E

    2014-01-01

    The steady growth in the use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging requires to maintain a proper management of patient’s dose. Dosimetry in Radiology is a difficult topic to address, but vital for proper estimation of the dose the patient is receiving. The awareness that every day is perceived in our country on these issues is the appropriate response to this problem. This article describes the main dosimetric units used and easily exemplifies doses in radiology through internationally known reference values. (authors) [es

  15. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, S.B.; Brown, R.L.; Cantrell, J.R.; Wilcox, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste

  16. Synopsis of radiologic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a compact version of earlier publications that appeared in 1975 as a one- and a two-volume issue under the title 'Atlas of Radiologic Anatomy'. A chapter on computed tomography has been added as this novel technique requires a new approach to radiologic anatomy. The radiologist will find all the information on the anatomic conditions he needs for analysing radiographs and CT pictures. More than 600 radiographs and CT pictures are given that illustrate typical and rare findings. The book also is useful as a source of reference for making good radiographs and evaluating the quality of radiographs or CT pictures. With 1413 figs., 18 tabs [de

  17. Radiological worker training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  18. Radiological sciences dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Dowsett, David

    2009-01-01

    The Radiological Sciences Dictionary is a rapid reference guide for all hospital staff employed in diagnostic imaging, providing definitions of over 3000 keywords as applied to the technology of diagnostic radiology.Written in a concise and easy to digest form, the dictionary covers a wide variety of subject matter, including:· radiation legislation and measurement · computing and digital imaging terminology· nuclear medicine radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals· radiographic contrast agents (x-ray, MRI and ultrasound)· definitions used in ultrasound and MRI technology· statistical exp

  19. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, S.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilcox, D.P. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  20. Radiological worker training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance

  1. Radiology of thoracic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, P.

    1987-01-01

    This course provides an overview of the radiologic manifestations of trauma to the chest. The basic mechanisms of injury are discussed. The effect of trauma on the chest wall, the lung parenchyma, and the pleural space is described. Rib fractures, sternal fractures, lung contusion, lung hematoma, lung laceration, post-traumatic atelectasis, hemothorax, chylothorax, pneumothorax, and adult respiratory distress syndrome are discussed and illustrated. Injuries to the tracheobronchial tree, the aorta and brachiocephalic vessels, the esophagus, the diaphragm, and the heart are also presented. The purpose of the lecture is to familiarize the audience with common and unusual radiologic presentations of traumatic injury to the thorax

  2. Anesthesia for interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Sonnenberg, E.; Casola, G.; Varney, R.R.; D'Agostino, H.B.; Zornow, M.; Mazzie, W.

    1989-01-01

    We recognized that the complexity and surgical nature of many interventional radiology procedures dictate essential radiologic involvement into traditional anesthesiologic areas. They reviewed our experience with a variety of interventional procedures to document complications and problems related to anesthetic use (or misuse) and compile recommendations for rational monitoring and control for these procedures. In particular, the authors have studied complications of drug therapies and the treatment of these complications; use of complex anesthesia procedures (e.g., epidural anesthesia, succinylcholine blockage); reasons for choice of drugs (e.g., fentanyl vs meperidine vs morphine); and medico-legal aspects of radiologist performing traditional anesthesiology-type procedures

  3. Advanced Materials Laboratory hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, B.; Banda, Z.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55OO.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the AML. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets.

  4. Evaluation of radiological detriment from negative radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Suarez, I.; Jerez Vergueria, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    The individul doses of radiation due to diagnostic radiology are usually low, though their contribution to the collective dose is very important given the large numbers of people exposed to these. This paper presents an analysis of the number of negative radiologiacl examinations in a major Cuban Hospital, and their contribution to the collective dose, and radiation organ and tissue, effective (expressed as severe hereditary effect and the occurrence of fatal and non fatal cancers) are all evaluated. The negative findings constitute 41 % of all examinations. The total contribution of negative examinations to the collective dose is very important given the large numbers of people exposed to these. This papaer presents an analysis of the number of negative radiological examinations in major Cuban Hospital, and their contribution to the collective dose of radiation. The absorbed dose by irradiation organ and tissue, effective dose equivalent, collective dose, and radiation risk (expressed as severe herditary effect and the occureence of fatal and non fatal cancers) are all evaluated. The negative findings constitute 41% of all examinations. The total contribution of negative examinations. The total contribution of negative examinations to the collective dose are found to make up 52.9 %: 11.35 Sv-man in the studied population

  5. 78 FR 24439 - Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0073] Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard... Estimating Flooding Hazards due to Dam Failure.'' This draft JLD-ISG provides guidance acceptable to the NRC staff for reevaluating flooding hazards due to dam failure for the purpose of responding to enclosure 2...

  6. Sampling on radiological protection training in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.

    2001-01-01

    Radiological security aspects were evaluated in radiology departments from Mexico City. The study was carried out in two stages, the first one evaluated 40 departments just before the implementation of the new Official Mexican Standards related to Radiological Security and Quality Control in Radiology; in the second stage 33 departments were evaluated 2 years after those standards were implanted, showing a favorable impact of the training programs for the type of answers obtained [es

  7. Introduction of radiological protection; Pengenalan kepada perlindungan radiologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: basic principles of radiological protection , dose limit which was suggested, stochastic and nonstochastic effects, equivalent dose and alternative of it`s calculation, limit for the publics, ICRP (International Commission for Radiological Protection) recommendations, and the principles of radiological protection. Dangerous radiation sources also briefly summarized i.e. x-ray generators, reactor nucleus.

  8. Assessment of LANL hazardous waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Stirrup, T.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present findings from evaluating the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ''Hazardous Waste Acceptance Criteria Receipt at TA-54, Area L'' to determine if it meets applicable DOE requirements. The guidelines and requirements for the establishment of a Hazardous Waste Acceptance Criteria (HW-WAC) are found in 40 CFR 260 to 270 and DOE Order 5820.2A. Neither set of requirements specifically require a WAC for the management of hazardous waste; however, the use of such documentation is logical and is consistent with the approach required for the management of radioactive waste. The primary purpose of a HW-WAC is to provide generators and waste management with established criteria that must be met before hazardous waste can be acceptable for treatment, storage and/or disposal. An annotated outline for a generic waste acceptance criteria was developed based on the requirements of 40 CFR 260 to 270 and DOE Order 5820.2A. The outline contains only requirements for hazardous waste, it does not address the radiological components of low-level mixed waste. The outline generated from the regulations was used for comparison to the LANL WAC For Chemical and Low-level Mixed Waste Receipt at TA-54, Area L. The major elements that should be addressed by a hazardous waste WAC were determined to be as follows: Waste Package/Container Requirements, Waste Forms, Land Disposal Restrictions, and Data Package-Certification ampersand Documentation

  9. Hazards and hazard combinations relevant for the safety of nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kurt; Brinkman, Hans; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    exclusive (e.g., extremely high air temperature and surface ice). Our dataset further provides information on hazard combinations which are more likely to occur than just by random coincidence. 577 correlations between individual hazards are identified by expert opinion and shown in a cross-correlation chart. Combinations discriminate between: (1) causally connected hazards (cause-effect relation) where one hazard (e.g., costal erosion) may be caused by another hazard (e.g., storm surge); or where one hazard (e.g., high wind) is a prerequisite for a correlated hazard (e.g., storm surge). The identified causal links are not commutative. (2) Associated hazards ("contemporary" events) which are probable to occur at the same time due to a common root cause (e.g., a cold front of a meteorological low pressure area which leads to a drop of air pressure, high wind, thunderstorm, lightning, heavy rain and hail). The root cause may not necessarily be regarded as a hazard by itself. The hazard list and the hazard correlation chart may serve as a starting point for the hazard analysis process for nuclear installations in Level 1 PSA as outlined by IAEA (2010), the definition of design basis for nuclear reactors, and the assessment of design extension conditions as required by WENRA-RHWG (2014). It may further be helpful for the identification of hazard combinations and hazard cascades which threaten other critical infrastructure. References: Decker, K. & Brinkman, H., 2017. List of external hazards to be considered in extended PSA. Report No. ASAMPSA_E/WP21/D21.2/2017-41 - IRSN/ PSN-RES/SAG/2017-00011 IAEA, 2010. Development and Application of Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants. Safety Guide No. SSG-3, Vienna. http://www-pub.iaea.org/books/ WENRA-RHWG, 2014. WENRA Safety Reference Levels for Existing Reactors. Update in Relation to Lessons Learned from TEPCO Fukushima Dai-Ichi Accident. http://www.wenra.org/publications/

  10. Guidelines for a radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    This manual presents guidelines for hospitals on a radiology quality assurance and dose measurement audit program and a system of planned actions that monitor and record the performance and effectiveness of the radiological service

  11. Radiological Approach to Forefoot Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Chung Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forefoot pain is a common clinical complaint in orthopaedic practice. In this article, we discuss the anatomy of the forefoot, clinical and radiological approaches to forefoot pain, and common painful forefoot disorders and their associated radiological features.

  12. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  13. Radiological controls integrated into design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindred, G.W. [Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co., Perry, OH (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Radiological controls are required by law in the design of commercial nuclear power reactor facilities. These controls can be relatively minor or significant, relative to cost. To ensure that radiological controls are designed into a project, the health physicist (radiological engineer) must be involved from the beginning. This is especially true regarding keeping costs down. For every radiological engineer at a nuclear power plant there must be fifty engineers of other disciplines. The radiological engineer cannot be an expert on every discipline of engineering. However, he must be knowledgeable to the degree of how a design will impact the facility from a radiological perspective. This paper will address how to effectively perform radiological analyses with the goal of radiological controls integrated into the design package.

  14. Program of environmental radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirement of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01, 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', as expressed in the section 5.14, related to the Program of Environmental Radiological Monitoring (PMRA)

  15. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  16. Radiological protection issues arising during and after the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Abel J; Akashi, Makoto; Sakai, Kazuo; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Boice Jr, John D; Chino, Masamichi; Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Kai, Michiaki; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Lee, Jai-Ki; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Niwa, Ohtsura; Yamashita, Shunichi; Weiss, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) convened a task group to compile lessons learned from the nuclear reactor accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, with respect to the ICRP system of radiological protection. In this memorandum the members of the task group express their personal views on issues arising during and after the accident, without explicit endorsement of or approval by the ICRP. While the affected people were largely protected against radiation exposure and no one incurred a lethal dose of radiation (or a dose sufficiently large to cause radiation sickness), many radiological protection questions were raised. The following issues were identified: inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients); attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures; quantifying radiation exposure; assessing the importance of internal exposures; managing emergency crises; protecting rescuers and volunteers; responding with medical aid; justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions; transiting from an emergency to an existing situation; rehabilitating evacuated areas; restricting individual doses of members of the public; caring for infants and children; categorising public exposures due to an accident; considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos; monitoring public protection; dealing with ‘contamination’ of territories, rubble and residues and consumer products; recognising the importance of psychological consequences; and fostering the sharing of information. Relevant ICRP Recommendations were scrutinised, lessons were collected and suggestions were compiled. It was concluded that the radiological protection community has an ethical duty to learn from the lessons of Fukushima and resolve any identified challenges. Before another large accident occurs, it should be ensured that inter alia: radiation risk coefficients of

  17. Radiological protection issues arising during and after the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Abel J; Akashi, Makoto; Boice, John D; Chino, Masamichi; Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Kai, Michiaki; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Lee, Jai-Ki; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Niwa, Ohtsura; Sakai, Kazuo; Weiss, Wolfgang; Yamashita, Shunichi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2013-09-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) convened a task group to compile lessons learned from the nuclear reactor accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, with respect to the ICRP system of radiological protection. In this memorandum the members of the task group express their personal views on issues arising during and after the accident, without explicit endorsement of or approval by the ICRP. While the affected people were largely protected against radiation exposure and no one incurred a lethal dose of radiation (or a dose sufficiently large to cause radiation sickness), many radiological protection questions were raised. The following issues were identified: inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients); attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures; quantifying radiation exposure; assessing the importance of internal exposures; managing emergency crises; protecting rescuers and volunteers; responding with medical aid; justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions; transiting from an emergency to an existing situation; rehabilitating evacuated areas; restricting individual doses of members of the public; caring for infants and children; categorising public exposures due to an accident; considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos; monitoring public protection; dealing with 'contamination' of territories, rubble and residues and consumer products; recognising the importance of psychological consequences; and fostering the sharing of information. Relevant ICRP Recommendations were scrutinised, lessons were collected and suggestions were compiled. It was concluded that the radiological protection community has an ethical duty to learn from the lessons of Fukushima and resolve any identified challenges. Before another large accident occurs, it should be ensured that inter alia: radiation risk coefficients of potential

  18. Biloma: radiologic diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong; Woo, Yung Hoon; Woo, Seong Ku

    1990-01-01

    The localized intraabdominal bile collection or biloma has recently been diagnosed in increased frequently due to the wide spread use of US, CT, DISIDA scintigram, and radiologically guided percutaneous needle aspiration with or without subsequent catheter drainage. The underlying cause of biloma is trauma or iatrogenic injury which includes abdominal surgery, percutaneous drainage or PTC. We experience 20 patients with 22 biloma diagnostically confirmed by DISIDA scan, image-guided needle aspiration, percutaneous catheter drainage and / or operation. Of the 22 biloma, 7 were intrahepatic and 15 were extrahepatic. Of the 15 extrahepatic biloma, 7 were in partially hepatectomized bed, 3 were subhepatic, 3 were right subphrenic and 1 was subcapsular. We were able to determine the infectivity in 16 biloma and of these 12 biloma were found to be infected. Percutaneous drainage was performed on 20 biloma in 18 patients : by a needle aspiration with irrigation on 2 patient and by percutaneous catheter drainage on 18 bilomas. Overall success rate of the drainage was 90%. Cause of the two failures were CHD stone with choledochoduodenal fistula and recurrent hemobilia with acute cholecystitis. We describe the processes in reaching the diagnosis of biloma, propensity of biloma to purulent intrahepatic or perihepatic abscess formation, and the necessity of percutaneous radiologic catheter drainage as an optional management

  19. SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiology examination as a diagnostic aid in presentations with wide differential diagnoses: Case report of new Hodgkin's lymphoma on a background of poorly controlled HIV · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Rachel Hubbard, Jalpa Kotecha, Thomas ...

  20. Classification of radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A classification for departments in Danish hospitals which use radiological procedures. The classification codes consist of 4 digits, where the first 2 are the codes for the main groups. The first digit represents the procedure's topographical object and the second the techniques. The last 2 digits describe individual procedures. (CLS)

  1. Radiology of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, A.L.; Delorme, G.

    1994-01-01

    This book, written by internationally recognized experts, fully illustrates the diagnosis of both common and rarer diseases of the pancreas, the latest technical developments in relevant imaging modalities are thoroughly discussed and appraised with respect to the pancreas. The book will appeal to both clinicians and researchers in radiology and oncology. (orig.)

  2. ERC Radiological Glovebag Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.

    1997-07-01

    This document establishes the requirements and responsibilities for the standardized methods for installation, use, and dismantlement of glovebags within the Hanford Site Environmental Contractor Radiological Glovebag Program. This document addresses the following topics: Containment selection and fabrication, Glovebag fabrication, Containment installation and inspection, General glovebag containment work practices, Emergency situations, and Containment removal

  3. German radiological congress 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubitz, B.; Stender, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The publication contains the abstracts of the 261 papers read at the meeting and the 82 further papers announced, and 37 brief descriptions of the contributions to the scientific exhibition. The papers were on the subjects of radiology, nuclear medicine and to a certain extent, also radiobiology. (MG) [de

  4. Medical radiology terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Standardization achievements in the field of radiology induced the IEC to compile the terminology used in its safety and application standards and present it in publication 788 (1984 issue), entitled 'Medical radiology terminology'. The objective pursued is to foster the use of standard terminology in the radiology standards. The value of publication 788 lies in the fact that it presents definitions of terms used in the French and English versions of IEC standards in the field of radiology, and thus facilitates adequate translation of these terms into other languages. In the glossary in hand, German-language definitions have been adopted from the DIN standards in cases where the French or English versions of definitions are identical with the German wording or meaning. The numbers of DIN standards or sections are then given without brackets, ahead of the text of the definition. In cases where correspondance of the various texts is not so good, or reference should be made to a term in a DIN standard, the numbers are given in brackets. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Collaborative Radiological Response Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    DOE and EPA national laboratories .55 Additionally, the GAO conducted a survey of emergency management officials in cities, states and federal...for Biosecurity of UPMC, (2012). After fukushima: Managing the consequences of a radiological release. Retrieved from : http://issuu.com

  6. Radiological protective screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaugnatti, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    A radiological screen for placing on a patient's skin is discussed, comprising a flat jacket containing a fine particulate filler and a settable resin binder, the fine particulate filler being of a material which absorbs medical radiation, and the jacket including a window to transmit such radiation through the flat jacket. 16 claims, 4 drawing figures

  7. Radiology of spinal curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book offers the only comprehensive, concise summary of both the clinical and radiologic features of thoracic and lumbar spine deformity. Emphasis is placed on idiopathic scoliosis, which represents 85% of all patients with scoliosis, but less common areas of secondary scoliosis, kyphosis and lordosis are also covered

  8. Radiological safety by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundaker, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    Under the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1968, the Food and Drug Administration's Bureau of Radiological Health may prescribe performance standards for products that emit radiation. A description is given of the development of these standards and outlines the administrative procedures by which they are enforced. (author)

  9. Radiology in emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.; Barsan, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a discussion of radiologic modalities currently being used in emergency situations. Radiographs, echocardiographs, radionuclide scans and CT scans are systematically analyzed and evaluated to provide a step-by-step diagnostic process for emergency physicians to follow when a radiologist is not present

  10. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.I. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A symposium of eight short but complete papers giving an overview of interventional radiology is presented. Organized by Dr. William Casarella, this symposium is certainly the most current review of the subject available. This year's cardiovascular section is again heavily weighted toward interventional radiology. Abrams and Doubilet's article on the underutilization of angioplasty is important because it describes the cost effectiveness of this method. Most health planners, right or wrong, have complained about overutilization of diagnostic radiology procedures. In general, the opposite is true for interventional procedures - they are underutilized. If the authors draw the attention of their hospital administrators to these approaches and also produce the data on long-term follow-up for our medical colleagues, interventional radiology may realize its full potential. Articles on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are beginning to appear and this technique seems to have great potential. An important article, which is the first prospective study comparing lung scintigraphy and pulmonary angiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, supports the increased use of pulmonary angiography. Finally, an article on complications of percutaneous biliary drainage provokes some discussion of its value for routine preoperative use

  11. The radiological technologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Radiologists rely upon the talents of the technologists with whom they work. Indeed, a good technologist will only enhance the radiologist's performance. Radiological technologists no longer solely take radiographs, but are involved in many more detailed areas of imaging, such as computered tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear radiology, ultrasound, angiography, and special procedures. They are also required to make decisions that affect the radiological examination. Besides the degree in radiological technology (RT), advanced degrees in nuclear medicine technology (NMT) and diagnostic medical sonography (RDMS) are attainable. The liability of the technologist is not the same as the radiologist involved, but the liability is potentially real and governed by a subdivision of jurisprudence known as agency law. Since plaintiffs and attorneys are constantly searching for new frontiers of medical liability, it is wise for the radiologist and technologist to be aware of the legalities governing their working relationship and to behave accordingly. The legal principles that apply to this working relationship are discussed in this chapter, followed by a presentation of some relevant and interesting cases that have been litigated

  12. Radiology textbook for dental chair assistants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diewald, H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the goals of the X-ray Ordinance (of January 8, 1987) being to protect individuals or the population at large against the harmful effects of X-rays, every dentist using X-ray equipment in his practice has to acquire the necessary expert knowledge in radiation protection. The same applies to dental chair assistants, who under permanent supervision of the responsible dentist, carry out radiological examinations. Assistants have to give proof of the necessary training in radiation protection in connection with the methods and equipment applied in the practice. The training consists of a theoretical and practical part tailored to the assistants' practical work, and lectures on radiological hazards and the relevant radiation protection measures. The subject matters of the courses in radiation protection are defined by the X-ray Ordinance, as well as the examination. The author of this textbook has collected a list of examination questions and problems taken from the practice. They completely cover the various subject matters of dental radiology so that the required knowledge can be acquired, which will ensure in practice good image quality and optimal radiation protection. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Radiological study on newly developed composite corn advance lines in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunle Olatunji, Michael; Bemigho Uwatse, Onosohwo; Uddin Khandaker, Mayeen; Amin, Y. M.; Faruq, G.

    2014-12-01

    Owing to population growth, there has been high demand for food across the world, and hence, different agricultural activities such as use of phosphate fertilizers, recycling of organic matters, etc, have been deployed to increase crop yields. In Malaysia, a total of nine composite corn advance lines have been developed at the Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya and are being grown under different conditions with a bid to meet the average daily human need for energy and fiber intake. To this end, the knowledge of radioactivity levels in these corn advance lines are of paramount importance for the estimation of possible radiological hazards due to its consumption. Hence, the radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in the corn have been determined using HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations in the corn ranged from 0.05 to 19.18 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, from 0.10 to 3.22 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra and from 26.4 to 129 Bq kg-1 for 40K. In order to ascertain the radiological safety of the population regarding maize consumption, the daily intakes of these radionuclides as well as the annual effective dose were estimated. The total effective dose obtained due to the ingestion of radionuclides via maize consumption is 15.39 μSv y-1, which is less than the international recommendations.

  14. Radiological study on newly developed composite corn advance lines in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Uwatse, Onosohwo Bemigho; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Y M; Faruq, G

    2014-01-01

    Owing to population growth, there has been high demand for food across the world, and hence, different agricultural activities such as use of phosphate fertilizers, recycling of organic matters, etc, have been deployed to increase crop yields. In Malaysia, a total of nine composite corn advance lines have been developed at the Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya and are being grown under different conditions with a bid to meet the average daily human need for energy and fiber intake. To this end, the knowledge of radioactivity levels in these corn advance lines are of paramount importance for the estimation of possible radiological hazards due to its consumption. Hence, the radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K in the corn have been determined using HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations in the corn ranged from 0.05 to 19.18 Bq kg −1 for 226 Ra, from 0.10 to 3.22 Bq kg −1 for 228 Ra and from 26.4 to 129 Bq kg −1 for 40 K. In order to ascertain the radiological safety of the population regarding maize consumption, the daily intakes of these radionuclides as well as the annual effective dose were estimated. The total effective dose obtained due to the ingestion of radionuclides via maize consumption is 15.39 μSv y −1 , which is less than the international recommendations. (paper)

  15. Radiological dose assessment of Department of Energy Pinellas Plant waste proposed for disposal at Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolof, M.L.; Lee, D.W.

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pinellas Plant in Largo, FL is proposing to ship and dispose of hazardous sludge, listed as F006 waste, to the Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc. (Laidlaw) treatment, storage, and disposal facility in Pinewood, South Carolina. This sludge contains radioactive tritium in concentrations of about 28 pCi/g. The objective of this study is to assess the possible radiological impact to workers at the Laidlaw facility and members of the public due to the handling, processing, and burial of the DOE waste containing tritium

  16. Radiological dose assessment of Department of Energy Pinellas Plant waste proposed for disposal at Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolof, M.L.; Lee, D.W.

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pinellas Plant in Largo, FL is proposing to ship and dispose of hazardous sludge, listed as F006 waste, to the Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc. (Laidlaw) treatment, storage, and disposal facility in Pinewood, South Carolina. This sludge contains radioactive tritium in concentrations of about 28 pCi/g. The objective of this study is to assess the possible radiological impact to workers at the Laidlaw facility and members of the public due to the handling, processing, and burial of the DOE waste containing tritium.

  17. Radiologic technology educators and andragogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, M W; Simon-Galbraith, J A

    1984-01-01

    Radiologic technology educators are in constant contact with adult learners. However, the theoretical framework that radiologic educators use to guide their instruction may not be appropriate for adults. This article examines the assumptions of the standard instructional theory and the most modern approach to adult education-- andragogy . It also shows how these assumptions affect the adult learner in a radiologic education setting.

  18. Recent trend of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.Y.; Kim, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    Present status and recent trend of diagnostic radiology have been reviewed. The interrelationships and Characteristics of various fields of radiology such as computed tomography, X-ray radiology, and nuclear medicine were discussed. The mevit of computed tomography and the promising use of short lived, accelerator produced radionuclides, and radiotherapy in nuclear medicine were emphasized. (author)

  19. Ethical problems in radiology: radiological consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Bergamaschi, A

    2009-10-01

    One of the causes of the increasing request for radiological examinations occurring in all economically developed countries is the active role played by the patient-consumer. Consumerism places the radiologist in an ethical dilemma, between the principle of autonomy on the one hand and the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice on the other. The choice made by radiologists in moral dilemmas is inspired by an adherence to moral principles, which in Italy and elsewhere refer to the Judaeo-Christian tradition or to neo-Darwinian relativism. Whatever the choice, the radiologist is bound to adhere to that choice and to provide the patient with all the relevant information regarding his or her state of health.

  20. Radiological Worker Training: Radiological Worker 2 study guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Upon completion of this training course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. Radiological Worker H Training, for the worker whose job assignment involves entry into Radiological Buffer Areas and all types of Radiation Contamination and Airborne Radioactivity Areas. This course is designed to prepare the worker to work safely in and around radiological areas and present methods to use to ensure individual radiation exposure is maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable

  1. Physical hazard safety awareness among healthcare workers in Tanta university hospitals, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sallamy, Rania M; Kabbash, Ibrahim Ali; El-Fatah, Sanaa Abd; El-Feky, Asmaa

    2017-05-17

    Hospital workers are exposed to many occupational hazards that may threaten their health and safety. Physical hazards encountered in hospital working environment include temperature, illumination, noise, electrical injuries, and radiation. To assess the awareness of healthcare workers (HCWs) about physical hazards in Tanta university hospitals, this cross-sectional study included 401 HCWs (physicians, nurses, technicians, and workers) from seven departments (general surgery, orthopedics, radiology, ophthalmology, kitchen, incinerator, and laundry). Data were collected through interview questionnaire to assess six types of physical hazards (noise, electric hazards, temperature, radiation, fire, and lighting,). Most of the physicians (63.7%) were aware of the level of noise. All physicians, nurses, technicians, and majority of workers reported that hearing protective devices were not available, and all HCWs reported that periodic hearing examination was not performed. Most of the nurses (75.2%) and workers (68.5%) did not attended emergency training, and more than two thirds of all HCWs were not briefed about emergency evacuation. Most HCWs were not given appropriate radiation safety training before starting work (88% of workers, 73.7% of nurses, 65.7% of physicians, and 68.3% of technicians). The majority of physicians, nurses, and technicians (70.5, 65.4, and 53.7%) denied regular environmental monitoring for radiation level inside work place. Health education programs on health and safety issues regarding physical hazards should be mandatory to all healthcare workers to improve their awareness and protect them from undue exposures they may face due to lack of adequate awareness and knowledge. There is urgent need of expanding the occupational healthcare services in Egypt to cover all the employees as indicated by the international recommendations and the Egyptian Constitution, legislation, and community necessity.

  2. Lessons learned in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenough, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews aspects of the history of radiology with the goal of identifying lessons learned, particularly in the area of radiological protection of the patient in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. It is pointed out that since the days of Roentgen there has been a need not only to control and quantify the amount of radiation reaching the patient but also to optimize the imaging process to offer the greatest diagnostic benefit within allowable levels of patient dose. To this end, in diagnostic radiology, one finds the development of better films, X rays tubes, grids, screens and processing techniques, while in fluoroscopy, one sees the increased luminance of calcium tungstate. In interventional radiology, one finds an improvement in catheterization techniques and contrast agents. In nuclear medicine, the development of tracer techniques into modern cameras and isotopes such as technetium can be followed. In radiotherapy, one sees the early superficial X rays and radium sources gradually replaced with radon seeds, supervoltage, 60 Co and today's linear accelerators. Along with the incredible advances in imaging and therapeutic technologies comes the growing realization of the potential danger of radiation and the need to protect the patient (as well as physicians, ancillary personnel and the general population) from unnecessary radiation. The important lesson learned is that we must walk a tightrope, balancing the benefits and risks of any technology utilizing radiation to produce the greatest benefits at the lowest acceptable risk. The alternative techniques using non-ionizing radiation will have to be considered as part of the general armamentarium for medical imaging whenever radiation consequences are unacceptable. (author)

  3. The Bristol Radiology Report Assessment Tool (BRRAT): developing a workplace-based assessment tool for radiology reporting skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, A; Edey, A; Prothero, D; McCoubrie, P

    2013-11-01

    To review the development of a workplace-based assessment tool to assess the quality of written radiology reports and assess its reliability, feasibility, and validity. A comprehensive literature review and rigorous Delphi study enabled the development of the Bristol Radiology Report Assessment Tool (BRRAT), which consists of 19 questions and a global assessment score. Three assessors applied the assessment tool to 240 radiology reports provided by 24 radiology trainees. The reliability coefficient for the 19 questions was 0.79 and the equivalent coefficient for the global assessment scores was 0.67. Generalizability coefficients demonstrate that higher numbers of assessors and assessments are needed to reach acceptable levels of reliability for summative assessments due to assessor subjectivity. The study methodology gives good validity and strong foundation in best-practice. The assessment tool developed for radiology reporting is reliable and most suited to formative assessments. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Bristol Radiology Report Assessment Tool (BRRAT): Developing a workplace-based assessment tool for radiology reporting skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, A.; Edey, A.; Prothero, D.; McCoubrie, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To review the development of a workplace-based assessment tool to assess the quality of written radiology reports and assess its reliability, feasibility, and validity. Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature review and rigorous Delphi study enabled the development of the Bristol Radiology Report Assessment Tool (BRRAT), which consists of 19 questions and a global assessment score. Three assessors applied the assessment tool to 240 radiology reports provided by 24 radiology trainees. Results: The reliability coefficient for the 19 questions was 0.79 and the equivalent coefficient for the global assessment scores was 0.67. Generalizability coefficients demonstrate that higher numbers of assessors and assessments are needed to reach acceptable levels of reliability for summative assessments due to assessor subjectivity. Conclusion: The study methodology gives good validity and strong foundation in best-practice. The assessment tool developed for radiology reporting is reliable and most suited to formative assessments

  5. Hazard categorization and baseline documentation for the Sodium Storage Facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Hazard Categorization evaluation has been performed in accordance with DOE-STD-1027 for the Sodium Storage Facility at FFTF and a determination of less than Category 3 or non-nuclear has been made. Hazard Baseline Documentation has been performed in accordance with DOE-EM-STD-5502 and a determination of ''Radiological Facility'' has been made

  6. Treatment delay and radiological errors in patients with bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinohe, K.; Takahashi, M.; Tooyama, N.

    2003-01-01

    During routine investigations, we are surprised to find that therapy for bone metastases is sometimes delayed for a considerable period of time. To determine the extent of this delay and its causes, we reviewed the medical records of symptomatic patients seen at our hospital who had been recently diagnosed as having bone metastases for the last four years. The treatment delay was defined as the interval between presentation with symptoms and definitive treatment for bone metastases. The diagnostic delay was defined as the interval between presentation with symptoms and diagnosis of bone metastases. The results of diagnostic radiological examinations were also reviewed for errors. The study population included 76 males and 34 females with a median age of 66 years. Most bone metastases were diagnosed radiologically. Over 75% of patients were treated with radiotherapy. The treatment delay ranged from 2 to 307 days, with a mean of 53.3 days. In 490 radiological studies reviewed, we identified 166 (33.9%) errors concerning 62 (56.4%) patients. The diagnostic delay was significantly longer for patients with radiological errors than for patients without radiological errors (P < 0.001), and much of it was due to radiological errors. In conclusion, the treatment delay in patients with symptomatic bone metastases was much longer than expected, and much of it was caused by radiological errors. Considerable efforts should therefore be made to more carefully examine the radiological studies in order to ensure prompt treatment of bone metastases. (author)

  7. Health hazards of cement dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, Sultan A.

    2004-01-01

    ven in the 21st century, millions of people are working daily in a dusty environment. They are exposed to different types of health hazards such as fume, gases and dust, which are risk factors in developing occupational disease. Cement industry is involved in the development of structure of this advanced and modern world but generates dust during its production. Cement dust causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon. Other studies have shown that cement dust may enter into the systemic circulation and thereby reach the essentially all the organs of body and affects the different tissues including heart, liver, spleen, bone, muscles and hairs and ultimately affecting their micro-structure and physiological performance. Most of the studies have been previously attempted to evaluate the effects of cement dust exposure on the basis of spirometry or radiology, or both. However, collective effort describing the general effects of cement dust on different organ and systems in humans or animals, or both has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of cement dust and to minimize the health risks in cement mill workers by providing them with information regarding the hazards of cement dust. (author)

  8. Incidental radiological diagnosis of rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, L M; Beattie, T F; Wilkinson, A G; Crofton, P; Bath, L E

    2005-08-01

    Rickets fortunately remains rare in the United Kingdom, although its actual incidence is currently undetermined.1 Many still consider it to be a disease of poverty prevalent during the Victorian era. However, a number of recent articles have highlighted concern among British health professionals about the number of cases still being diagnosed in this country. These cases have nearly all involved non-Caucasian children who are considered to be at high risk due to skin colour, prolonged breast feeding, and low maternal vitamin D levels. Their presentations are variable ranging from failure to thrive, bone deformities, seizures, and even stridor. The diagnosis is usually made in babies and toddlers.We present a series of patients attending our accident and emergency (A&E) department, over a five month period, where the diagnosis of rickets was primarily a radiological diagnosis.

  9. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Terms such as 'risk', 'hazardous incident', and 'communication' have become major catchwords in discussions about present-day problems, and may be reduced to a common denominator: disaster. Such an association, however, is inappropriate, as the concept indicated by the term 'risk' for instance covers a wide scale of possible danger. Even the term 'hazardous incident' describes events or conditions that are very different in terms of possible danger, let alone disastrous effects. The discrepancy to be observed between the facts and the public perception usually is due to the fact that people have little insight into the complex of problems involved, and to insufficient communication between the world of experts and the general public. The contributions to this publication present information and discuss a variety of solution sets to improve the communication problems in the context of the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication'. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    The escalating number of radiodiagnostic investigations has, as a consequence, an increase in medical irradiation of patients and of cost of radiological services. Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme in this direction which has issued four technical reports which give practical recommendations on how to rationalize the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations

  11. Radiological safety aspects of the operation of neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the manual is to provide some basic guidelines to persons with a minimum of training in radiological health or health physics, on some safety aspects of the operation of sealed-tube and Cockcroft-Walton type neutron generators. The manual does not state rules or regulations but presents a description of the most likely hazards. It is relevant to those relatively compact neutron generators which usually operate at less than 150-200 kV for the purpose of producing 14-MeV neutrons. The scope is limited to basic discussions of hazards and measurement techniques. Separate chapters are devoted to the characteristics and use of neutron generators; radiation hazards and safety considerations; radiation monitoring and interpretation of measurements; and requirements for an effective safety programme. Two appendices deal with non-radiation hazards and safety considerations, and with a neutron generator laboratory, respectively. An extensive list of bibliographic references is included

  12. Kauai Test Facility hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swihart, A

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55003A requires facility-specific hazards assessment be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Kauai Test Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. The Kauai Test Facility`s chemical and radiological inventories were screened according to potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance to the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 4.2 kilometers. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency at the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} and a Site Area Emergency at the Kokole Point Launch Site. The Emergency Planning Zone for the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} is 5 kilometers. The Emergency Planning Zone for the Kokole Point Launch Site is the Pacific Missile Range Facility`s site boundary.

  13. Kauai Test Facility hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swihart, A.

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55003A requires facility-specific hazards assessment be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Kauai Test Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. The Kauai Test Facility's chemical and radiological inventories were screened according to potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance to the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 4.2 kilometers. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency at the open-quotes Main Complexclose quotes and a Site Area Emergency at the Kokole Point Launch Site. The Emergency Planning Zone for the open-quotes Main Complexclose quotes is 5 kilometers. The Emergency Planning Zone for the Kokole Point Launch Site is the Pacific Missile Range Facility's site boundary

  14. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  15. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  16. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  17. Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology for Paediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the radiation dose to children from diagnostic radiology examinations has recently been popularly expressed, particularly as related to computed tomography (CT) procedures. This involves the observation that children can receive doses far in excess of those delivered to adults, in part due to the digital nature of the image receptors that may give no warning to the operator of the dose to the patient. Concern for CT examinations should be extended to the broad range of paediatric diagnostic radiological procedures responsible for radiation doses in children, especially as factors, such as increased radiosensitivity and the longer life expectancy of children, increase the associated radiation risk. In all cases, owing to the added paediatric radiological examination factor of patient size and its associated impact on equipment selection, clinical examination protocol and dosimetric audit, the determination of paediatric dose requires a distinct approach from adult dosimetry associated with diagnostic radiological examinations. In response to this, there is a need to inform health professionals about standardized methodologies used to determine paediatric dose for all major modalities such as general radiography, fluoroscopy and CT. Methodologies for standardizing the conduct of dose audits and their use for the derivation and application of diagnostic reference levels for patient populations, that vary in size, are also required. In addition, a review is needed of the current knowledge on risks specific to non-adults from radiation, and also an analysis of the management of factors contributing to dose from paediatric radiological examinations. In 2007, the IAEA published a code of practice, Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology: An International Code of Practice, as Technical Reports Series No. 457 (TRS 457). TRS 457 recommends procedures for dosimetric measurement and calibration for the attainment of standardized dosimetry, and addresses requirements

  18. Radiologic errors, past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    During the 10-year period beginning in 1949 with publication of five articles in two radiology journals and UKs The Lancet, a California radiologist named L.H. Garland almost single-handedly shocked the entire medical and especially the radiologic community. He focused their attention on the fact now known and accepted by all, but at that time not previously recognized and acknowledged only with great reluctance, that a substantial degree of observer error was prevalent in radiologic interpretation. In the more than half-century that followed, Garland's pioneering work has been affirmed and reaffirmed by numerous researchers. Retrospective studies disclosed then and still disclose today that diagnostic errors in radiologic interpretations of plain radiographic (as well as CT, MR, ultrasound, and radionuclide) images hover in the 30% range, not too dissimilar to the error rates in clinical medicine. Seventy percent of these errors are perceptual in nature, i.e., the radiologist does not "see" the abnormality on the imaging exam, perhaps due to poor conspicuity, satisfaction of search, or simply the "inexplicable psycho-visual phenomena of human perception." The remainder are cognitive errors: the radiologist sees an abnormality but fails to render a correct diagnoses by attaching the wrong significance to what is seen, perhaps due to inadequate knowledge, or an alliterative or judgmental error. Computer-assisted detection (CAD), a technology that for the past two decades has been utilized primarily in mammographic interpretation, increases sensitivity but at the same time decreases specificity; whether it reduces errors is debatable. Efforts to reduce diagnostic radiological errors continue, but the degree to which they will be successful remains to be determined.

  19. Radiological diagnosis in traumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, R.

    2001-01-01

    This loose-leaf publication covers all radiological problems that may possibly occur in accident surgery. The focus is on conventional radiological diagnosis. The physical and technical fundamentals of diagnostic examination methods are discussed, followed by practical hints on radiation protection, technical equipment and quality assurance, as well as accurate information on the procedure of taking and interpreting standard X-ray pictures. The indications for standard X-raying, tomography, CT and MRT are presented in consideration of the radiation exposure incurred by the patient. The reader is also informed on the dynamics and varying morphology of bone fracture healing, potential disturbances of callus formation and reconstruction, as well as on possible complications. The main section of the book discusses injuries of the skull, spinal cord, pectoral girdle, upper arm, elbow and lower arm, wrist and hands, pelvis, hip joint, knee and upper and lower leg, ankle joint and foot, thorax and abdomen. (orig.)

  20. Radiology for veterinarians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempel, K.

    1983-01-01

    The author has made an attempt to comprise the extensive and heterogenic area of radiological topics in the sense of a studying support for the second part of the veterinary examination and as an introduction to the entire area. Numerous details, exact physical derivations and more extensive radiological tables and graphs had to be left out to achieve the brief and understandable form. On the other hand, in addition to the test subjects, at least a few of the particularly up-to-date problems of this branch had to be emphasized and the data necessary to assess them had to be given. This explains the extensive form of the manuscript and the frequent occurrence of numbers, especially in the chapters radioecology, radiobiology and radiotoxicology. (orig./MG) With 65 figs., 76 tabs [de

  1. Paediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric interventional radiology (PIR) is a rapidly-growing subspecialty, which offers a wide range of procedures applicable to almost all areas of hospital paediatrics. There are many important differences between paediatric and adult practice in interventional radiology, including disease processes and treatment goals, anatomical considerations, periprocedural patient management, radiation exposure optimisation and legal aspects. The use of retrievable or absorbable interventional devices such as stents will probably become more widespread in PIR practice. Recent advances in the technology of imaging equipment have been accompanied by an increase in the complexity of the work done by the radiographer. These developments present challenges and opportunities related to training and maintenance of skills, staffing arrangements, and the potential for advanced practice. It is likely that specialisation in PIR will become a more common role for radiographers in the future

  2. Computer assisted radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, H.U.; Jaffe, C.C.; Felix, R.

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the CAR'93 symposium present the 126 oral papers and the 58 posters contributed to the four Technical Sessions entitled: (1) Image Management, (2) Medical Workstations, (3) Digital Image Generation - DIG, and (4) Application Systems - AS. Topics discussed in Session (1) are: picture archiving and communication systems, teleradiology, hospital information systems and radiological information systems, technology assessment and implications, standards, and data bases. Session (2) deals with computer vision, computer graphics, design and application, man computer interaction. Session (3) goes into the details of the diagnostic examination methods such as digital radiography, MRI, CT, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, digital angiography, and multimodality imaging. Session (4) is devoted to computer-assisted techniques, as there are: computer assisted radiological diagnosis, knowledge based systems, computer assisted radiation therapy and computer assisted surgical planning. (UWA). 266 figs [de

  3. Radiology and Ethics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess medical ethics knowledge among trainees and practicing radiologists through an online survey that included questions about the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics and the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics. Most survey respondents reported that they had never read the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics or the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics (77.2% and 67.4% of respondents, respectively). With regard to ethics education during medical school and residency, 57.3% and 70.0% of respondents, respectively, found such education to be insufficient. Medical ethics training should be highlighted during residency, at specialty society meetings, and in journals and online resources for radiologists.

  4. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  5. Artificial intelligence in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Ahmed; Parmar, Chintan; Quackenbush, John; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Aerts, Hugo J W L

    2018-05-17

    Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, particularly deep learning, have demonstrated remarkable progress in image-recognition tasks. Methods ranging from convolutional neural networks to variational autoencoders have found myriad applications in the medical image analysis field, propelling it forward at a rapid pace. Historically, in radiology practice, trained physicians visually assessed medical images for the detection, characterization and monitoring of diseases. AI methods excel at automatically recognizing complex patterns in imaging data and providing quantitative, rather than qualitative, assessments of radiographic characteristics. In this Opinion article, we establish a general understanding of AI methods, particularly those pertaining to image-based tasks. We explore how these methods could impact multiple facets of radiology, with a general focus on applications in oncology, and demonstrate ways in which these methods are advancing the field. Finally, we discuss the challenges facing clinical implementation and provide our perspective on how the domain could be advanced.

  6. Radiological control implementation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamley, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A manual is being developed to explain to line managers how radiological controls are designed and implemented. The manual also fills a gap in the Health Physics literature between textbooks and on-the-floor procedures. It may be helpful to new Health Physicists with little practical experience and to those wishing to improve self-assessment, audit, and appraisal processes. Many audits, appraisals, and evaluations have indicated a need for cultural change, increased vigor and example, and more effective oversight by line management. Inadequate work controls are a frequent and recurring problem identified in occurrence reports and accident investigations. Closer study frequently indicates that many line managers are willing to change and want to achieve excellence, but no effective guidance exists that will enable them to understand and implement a modern radiological control program

  7. Digital radiology and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.

    1991-01-01

    With the access to digital methods for handling and processing images in general, many medical imaging methods are becoming more effectively handled digitally. This applies in particular to basically digital techniques such as CT and MR but also now includes Nuclear Medicine (NM), Ultrasound (US) and a variety of radiological procedures such as Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) and Fluoroscopy (DF). The access to conventional projection images by stimulatable plates (CR) or by digitization of film makes all of radiology potentially accessible, and the management of such images by a network is the basic aim of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). However, it is suggested that in order for such systems to be of greater value, that way in which such images are treated needs to change, that is, digital images can be used to derive additional clinical value by appropriate processing

  8. Data mining in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-01-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining

  9. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  10. Radiological safety and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Hee; Kim, Ki Sub

    1995-01-01

    The practical objective of radiological safety control is intended for achievement and maintenance of appropreately safe condition in environmental control for activities involving exposure from the use of radiation. In order to establish these objectives, we should be to prevent deterministic effects and to limit the occurrence stochastic effects to level deemed to be acceptable by the application of general principles of radiation protection and systems of dose limitation based on ICRP recommendations. 34 tabs., 19 figs., 11 refs. (Author) .new

  11. "Patient care in radiology"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro Brask, Kirsten; Birkelund, Regner

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to research how the staff experience care expressed during the brief encounter with the patients in a diagnostic imaging department. This was a qualitative study with a phenomenological and hermeneutical frame of reference. The data were collected using field observation...... was electronically forwarded. And, care expressed in between was perceived as care in the traditional sense and termed as “patient care in radiology.”...

  12. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.

    1978-05-01

    The basic processes of living cells which are relevant to an understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with man are described. Particular reference is made to cell death, cancer induction and genetic effects. This is the second of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the bases of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the International Commision on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Others consider basic radiation physics and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  13. Radiological containment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to be used as a reference text. It is meant to be used by the working personnel as a guide for using temporary radiological containments. The installing group and health physics group may vary among organizations but responsibilities and duties will not change. It covers installation and inspection containments; working and operating guidelines; operating requirement; emergency procedures; and removal of containments

  14. Microcephaly: a radiological review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrant, Ailbhe; Garel, Catherine; Germanaud, David; Lenoir, Marion; Pointe, Hubert Ducou le [Universite Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Radiology Department, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Villemeur, Thierry Billette de; Mignot, Cyril [Universite Paris V Rene Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Inserm, U567, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); Universite Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Paediatric Neurology Department, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France)

    2009-08-15

    Microcephaly results from inadequate brain growth during development. It may develop in utero, and therefore be present at birth, or may develop later as a result of perinatal events or postnatal conditions. The aetiology of microcephaly may be congenital (secondary to cerebral malformations or metabolic abnormalities) or acquired, most frequently following an ischaemic insult. This distinct radiological and pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology. (orig.)

  15. Training in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina G, E.

    2014-08-01

    In the Peru, according to the current regulations, people that work with ionizing radiations should have an authorization (individual license), which is granted by the Technical Office of the National Authority that is the technical body of the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) manager of the control of ionizing radiations in the country. The individual license is obtained after the applicant fulfills the requested requirements, as having safety knowledge and radiological protection. Since its founding in 1972, the Centro Superior de Estudios Nucleares (CSEN) of the IPEN has carried out diverse training courses in order to that people can work in a safe way with ionizing radiations in medicine, industry and research, until the year 2013 have been organized 2231 courses that have allowed the training of 26213 people. The courses are organized according to the specific work that is carried out with radiations (medical radio-diagnostic, dental radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, industrial radiography, nuclear meters, logging while drilling, etc.). In their majority the courses are directed to people that will make use of radiations for first time, but refresher courses are also granted in the topic. The CSEN also carries out the Master degree programs highlighting the Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection carried out from the year 2004 with the support of the National University of Engineering. To the present has been carried out 2 programs and there is other being developed. In this work is shown the historical evolution of the radiological protection courses as well as the important thing that they are to work in a safe way in the country. (Author)

  16. Radiologic findings of dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, M. S.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.; Kim, D. H. [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-06-15

    The stature of human is very important factor in human-being, especially in childhood. The stature depends on various different conditions, such as familial factor, constitutional factor, chromosomal anomalies, skeletal disorders, or endocrinopathies. The early diagnosis of dwarfism is very important problem, because if appropriate treatment is delayed, the complication or sequales are more increased. The survey of familial history or patient's past history, detail check up of physical examination, radiological evaluation, and other laboratory examinations are essentially needed for the accurate diagnosis of dwarfism. Among the patients admitted to Yonsei University college of Medicine, Severance Hospital since 1963, with chief complaint of short stature or other associated diseases, an analysis of radiological findings were made for the 72 cases of chromosomal anomalies, skeletal dysplasia, and cretinism in which radiologic evaluation was available. The conclusions are as follows; 1. The cause of short stature are chromosomal anomalies (48 cases), skeletal dysplasia (14 cases) and cretinism (10 cases). 2. in chromosomal anomalies, 43 cases of mongolism and 5 cease of Turner's syndrome are noted. In mongolism, 18 cases among the 30 cases below 1 year old are distributed below the 10 percentile of height. On radiologic findings, 11 paired ribs (22/43), congenital heart disease (14/43), decreased iliac index (8/12), and associated anomalies or diseases, such as pneumonia (14 cases), C1-C2 dislocation (1 case), imperforated anus (1 case), Morgagni's hernia (1 case) and leukemia with sepsis (1 case). In Turner's syndrome, decreased bone density (5/5), positive metacarpal sign (2/5), positive carpal sign (1/5), change of knee joint (3/5), hypoplasia of (1/3), and increased carrying angle of elbows (1/3) are noted.

  17. Radiologic findings of dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, M. S.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The stature of human is very important factor in human-being, especially in childhood. The stature depends on various different conditions, such as familial factor, constitutional factor, chromosomal anomalies, skeletal disorders, or endocrinopathies. The early diagnosis of dwarfism is very important problem, because if appropriate treatment is delayed, the complication or sequales are more increased. The survey of familial history or patient's past history, detail check up of physical examination, radiological evaluation, and other laboratory examinations are essentially needed for the accurate diagnosis of dwarfism. Among the patients admitted to Yonsei University college of Medicine, Severance Hospital since 1963, with chief complaint of short stature or other associated diseases, an analysis of radiological findings were made for the 72 cases of chromosomal anomalies, skeletal dysplasia, and cretinism in which radiologic evaluation was available. The conclusions are as follows; 1. The cause of short stature are chromosomal anomalies (48 cases), skeletal dysplasia (14 cases) and cretinism (10 cases). 2. in chromosomal anomalies, 43 cases of mongolism and 5 cease of Turner's syndrome are noted. In mongolism, 18 cases among the 30 cases below 1 year old are distributed below the 10 percentile of height. On radiologic findings, 11 paired ribs (22/43), congenital heart disease (14/43), decreased iliac index (8/12), and associated anomalies or diseases, such as pneumonia (14 cases), C1-C2 dislocation (1 case), imperforated anus (1 case), Morgagni's hernia (1 case) and leukemia with sepsis (1 case). In Turner's syndrome, decreased bone density (5/5), positive metacarpal sign (2/5), positive carpal sign (1/5), change of knee joint (3/5), hypoplasia of (1/3), and increased carrying angle of elbows (1/3) are noted

  18. Radiological safety and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sea Young; Yoo, Y S; Lee, J C; Lee, T Y; Lee, J L; Kim, B W; Lee, B J; Chung, K K; Chung, R I; Kim, J S; Lee, H S; Han, Y D; Lee, J I; Lee, K C; Yoon, J H; Sul, C W; Kim, C K; Yoon, K S; Seo, K W; Yoon, Y C [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the annual results of radiological safety and control program of 1995. This program consists of working area monitoring including HANARO, personnel radiation monitoring, education for radiation protection. As a result, the objectives of radiation protection have been achieved satisfactorily through the activities mentioned above. Also, the calibration services were provided to insure accurate radiation measurement in the radiation working places. 21 figs., 39 tabs., 5 refs. (Author) .new.

  19. Radiological physics in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstam, Rune

    1980-01-01

    Development of radiological or radiation physics as a separate discipline in Sweden is outlined. Growth in number of hospital physicists is compared with that of some other countries for the period 1950-1975. The main duties of hospital physicists are described. Undergraduate and postgraduate courses in radiation physics in Sweden are discussed. A microtron and a multi-source cobalt-60 unit are described. (M.G.B.)

  20. Computer-assisted radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, H.U.

    1988-01-01

    New digital imaging modalities and more sophisticated image processing systems will have a profound effect on those areas of medicine concerned with imaging. This mainly means computer-assisted radiology (CAR) and implies a transition from analog film systems to digital imaging systems, integration of digital imaging modalities through picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and the graduated employment of image-oriented medical work stations (MWS) for computer-assisted representation, communication, diagnosis, and therapy planning. (orig.) [de